WorldWideScience

Sample records for back

  1. Back Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    THE Wuling Mountains in Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan and Guizhou provinces are abundant and beautiful Set in isolation, the Tujia people have lived hvre generation after generation. This is my hometown. In the summer of 1994, I returned home after having left to attend college in Beijing five years before. Homesick loneliness called me back to my home in Shizhu County, Sichuan Province.

  2. Low back pain - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backache; Low back pain; Lumbar pain; Pain - back; Acute back pain; Back pain - new; Back pain - short-term; Back strain - new ... lower back supports most of your body's weight. Low back pain is the number two reason that Americans see ...

  3. Low back pain - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause ...

  4. Back Pain During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Back Pain During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Back ... During Pregnancy FAQ115, January 2016 PDF Format Back Pain During Pregnancy Pregnancy What causes back pain during ...

  5. Back pain and low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients with back pain there is only a poor correlation between clinical and radiological symptoms. Therefore the interpretation of radiological findings is only possible with respect to the natural history of the disease. Indication for radiological examination is given for early diagnosis and treatment of malinformation of the spine; diagnosis and treatment of functional disturbances of the spine with back- and low back pain and diagnosis and treatment of diseases which affect the stability of the vertebrae. (orig.)

  6. Prevent Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevent Back Pain Print This Topic En español Prevent Back Pain Browse Sections The Basics Overview Am ... at Risk? 3 of 5 sections Take Action: Prevent Injuries Focus on good posture. Good posture can ...

  7. Nephrolithiasis in "back-to-back" kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Zachary; King, Ray S; King, Sherita A; Bates, William B; Madi, Rabii

    2013-12-01

    A 57-year-old woman presented with a 1-week history of left lower quadrant pain and nausea and vomiting. Computed tomography without contrast demonstrated a left 2.3-cm calculus at the ureteropelvic junction and a 6-mm lower pole calculus. The kidneys were in the pelvis and oriented "back-to-back," with the lateral portions of the kidneys fused in the midline. To our knowledge, this is the first description of this renal fusion anomaly. The patient underwent robotic pyelolithotomy of the ureteropelvic junction calculus and subsequent flexible ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy of the lower pole calculus and ureteral stent placement through the assistant working port.

  8. Low back pain.

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrlich, George E.

    2003-01-01

    Low back pain is a leading cause of disability. It occurs in similar proportions in all cultures, interferes with quality of life and work performance, and is the most common reason for medical consultations. Few cases of back pain are due to specific causes; most cases are non-specific. Acute back pain is the most common presentation and is usually self-limiting, lasting less than three months regardless of treatment. Chronic back pain is a more difficult problem, which often has strong psyc...

  9. Low back pain (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Koes, B; Tulder, van, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Low back pain is pain, muscle tension, or stiffness, localised below the costal margin and above the inferior gluteal folds, with or without referred or radicular leg pain (sciatica), and is defined as acute when pain persists for less than 12 weeks. Low back pain affects about 70% of people in resource-rich countries at some point.Acute low back pain is usually self-limiting, although 2-7% develop chronic pain. Acute low back pain has a high recurrence rate with less-painful symptoms recu...

  10. Back pain and sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is called core strengthening. Ask your doctor or physical therapist about these strengthening exercises. If you had a ... the stress off your back include: Ask your physical therapist about the best posture and technique for your ...

  11. Medications for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may need to be watched for side effects. NARCOTIC PAIN RELIEVERS Narcotics, also called opioid pain relievers, are ... you sleep. Antidepressants most often used for back pain are: ... include dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision, weight gain, ...

  12. Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body in numerous ways, including causing muscle tension. Backpack overload in children : Low back pain unrelated to ... is unusual in pre-teen children. However, a backpack overloaded with schoolbooks and supplies can strain the ...

  13. What Is Back Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... component. Other diseases. Some types of arthritis and cancer can cause back pain. Your job. If you ... pain. Spinal stenosis. This condition causes the spinal canal to become ... or a nerve root problem called cauda equina syndrome, surgery is needed ...

  14. Come Back to Me

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    The multifaceted project, Come Back to Me, critiques the current state of image commodification to pose questions about subjectivity constituted through an ever-expanding ecosystem of fashion. As fashion theorist Anne Hollander claims, clothes “share in the perpetually idealizing vision of art,” and therefore merit the same meticulous analysis as painting. The work in Come Back to Me examines the relationship of fashion to the canon of female portraiture. I claim that the bodies of women dep...

  15. Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain What are Radiographic Assessments? When Should I get an X-ray for Low Back ... How Effective are X-rays? What are Radiographic Assessments? Radiographic assessments for low back pain involve the ...

  16. Epidural injections for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... pillow under your stomach. If this position causes pain, you either sit up or lie on your ...

  17. MRI and low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backache - MRI; Low back pain - MRI; Lumbar pain - MRI; Back strain - MRI; Lumbar radiculopathy - MRI; Herniated intervertebral disk - MRI; Prolapsed intervertebral disk - MRI; Slipped disk - MRI; Ruptured ...

  18. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup Jørgensen, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise;

    #296 Acknowledging The Back Patient. A Thematic Synthesis Of Qualitative Research. A Systematic Literature Review. Janne Brammer Damsgaard1, Lene Bastrup Jørgensen1, Annelise Norlyk2, Regner Birkelund3 1. Health, Section for Nursing, Aarhus University & Research Unit, Elective Surgery Centre......, Silkeborg Regional Hospital, Regional Hospital Central Jutland, Silkeborg, Denmark 2. Health, Section for Nursing, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark 3. University of Southern Denmark & Vejle Sygehus, Vejle, Denmark keywords:Back Patient, Narrative, Biomedical, Marginalisation, Self-Identity, Ethical...... to gain a better idea of the most ideal treatment process, it is important to first investigate what it feels like to be a back patient and what patients consider important when dealing with the healthcare system. It is the aim of this qualitative literature review based on thematic synthesis to shed more...

  19. Decontamination: back to basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Susan J; Sjorgen, Geoff

    2008-07-01

    My invitation from this Journal's Editor, Felicia Cox, to provide a paper for this themed issue, included the sentence 'I was wondering if you or a colleague would like to contribute a back to basics article on the relevant standards and guidelines for decontamination, including what is compliance?'. The reason it is so interesting to me is that the term 'back to basics' implies reverting to a simpler time in life - when by just sticking to the rules, life became easier. However, with decontamination this is not actually true.

  20. Bringing "indigenous" ownership back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related......African economies are currently experiencing an upsurge in foreign ownership of key parts of their economies. This, however, is not new, and in the wake of independence several African countries pursued indigenisation policies to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation...

  1. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise;

    and integrate findings of qualitative studies. Results: The analysis reveals that many back patients feel that their experiences and perceptions are ignored by the health professionals, who are often concerned about identifying the cause. This can result in patients feeling mistrusted, marginalised...

  2. Back to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The economic downturn hit working America particularly hard, as agricultural, automotive, manufacturing, and retail jobs in many corners of the country all but evaporated. Consumers continue to cut back, and jobless rates in many states have eclipsed levels not seen in decades. Out of work and under pressure, many Americans are turning to the…

  3. Rect-O-Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardik Garg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This document presents an approach towards developing an electronics device and a software application to maintain the correct body posture which is a mobile solution to keep our back strong and healthy. It presents the designing and functioning of equipment and software.

  4. Back to Normal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Xinjiang officials speed up the investigation of July 5 riot suspects and restore social order Life in Urumqi has gone back to normal one month after the July 5 riot that killed nearly 200 people in the capital city of China’s northwestern

  5. Backed up and gone...

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Remember how easy it is to lose your passwords for web applications (“Don’t let Chrome expose your passwords”)? This time we go bigger and discuss how easy it is to lose the passwords for every wireless access point you’ve visited. You just need to be running Android on your smartphone…   Apparently, Google was already capturing wireless access points during its Streetview campaign but was forced to stop this after complaints from data protection advocates. It was done “mistakenly”. With Google’s Android now dominating the smartphone market, they’re back to their old tricks. As a useful feature, Android (version 2.2 and higher) stores the identifiers (“SSIDs”) of wireless access points and credentials by default, so that you do not have to reissue them on every connection. The interesting part happens when the smartphone is automatically backed up to Google'...

  6. Back to School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Osmond

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Back to School of the title refers to post- school or second chance education in America. Mike Rose’s focus is on adult remedial (sic and occupational education.  However, although he writes about America, it is hard not to read this little book without a constant alternative reading of second chance learning or Technical and Further Education in the Australian context.

  7. The Poster Strikes Back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses fundamental issues in relation to placing graphic design in locations such as museums of decorative arts and living history museums. Based on my Ph.D. project on British commercial posters of the interwar years and approached from a combined perspective of museology, semiotics...... and design history, I argue that the poster during the interwar years inhabits a new active position. By exploiting and challenging the commercial and aesthetic paradox out of which it arose, the poster ‘strikes back' as a museologized, exhibited object. Rather than being absorbed into the city swirl...

  8. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  9. Back complaints in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Scheele (Jantine)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWith the aging of the Dutch population, the number of older aged back pain patients is also expected to increase. However, information on the course and prognosis of older patients with back pain in general practice is very scarce. Back pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder, also in

  10. Back from Sestriere

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Jean-Yves Le Meur during the Special Slalom at the Paralympic Winter Games on 19 March. (Photo credit: G. Place and B. Loyseau) CERN's Olympian, Jean-Yves Le Meur (IT Department), is back from Sestriere after competing in the Paralympic Winter Games in the sitting skiing competition. Ranked 14th after his first run in the Special Slalom, Jean-Yves had an excellent second run which brought him right up the field. He eventually finished ninth, 11 seconds off the gold medal place. In the Giant Slalom, he unfortunately fell in the final gates of his second run, having reached 10th position in his first run. With about 50 top athletes from all the competing nations contesting each event, the competition was stiff, and our warmest congratulations go to Jean-Yves for his participation and great performance!

  11. Back wall solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar cell is disclosed which comprises a first semiconductor material of one conductivity type with one face having the same conductivity type but more heavily doped to form a field region arranged to receive the radiant energy to be converted to electrical energy, and a layer of a second semiconductor material, preferably highly doped, of opposite conductivity type on the first semiconductor material adjacent the first semiconductor material at an interface remote from the heavily doped field region. Instead of the opposite conductivity layer, a metallic Schottky diode layer may be used, in which case no additional back contact is needed. A contact such as a gridded contact, previous to the radiant energy may be applied to the heavily doped field region of the more heavily doped, same conductivity material for its contact.

  12. Trajectories of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axén, Iben; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain is not a self-limiting problem, but rather a recurrent and sometimes persistent disorder. To understand the course over time, detailed investigation, preferably using repeated measurements over extended periods of time, is needed. New knowledge concerning short-term trajectories...... indicates that the low back pain 'episode' is short lived, at least in the primary care setting, with most patients improving. Nevertheless, in the long term, low back pain often runs a persistent course with around two-thirds of patients estimated to be in pain after 12 months. Some individuals never have...... low back pain, but most have it on and off or persistently. Thus, the low back pain 'condition' is usually a lifelong experience. However, subgroups of patients with different back pain trajectories have been identified and linked to clinical parameters. Further investigation is warranted...

  13. Approach to lower back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosajee, F; Kalla, A A

    2015-12-01

    Lower back pain is one of the most common symptoms–and the most common musculoskeletal problem–seen by general practitioners. Iti s also a common cause of disability and an expensive condition in terms of economic impact because of absenteeism. This article discusses an approach to this common symptom and how to distinguish the benign, mechanical type of back pain from the more sinister, but less frequently encountered, inflammatory back pain. PMID:26933725

  14. Myofascial low back pain treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Deepak; Rajkumar, Joshua Samuel; Mohandoss, Mathankumar; Ranganathan, Rameshkumar

    2014-09-01

    Myofascial pain is a common musculoskeletal problem, with the low back being one of the commonest affected regions. Several treatments have been used for myofascial low back pain through physical therapies, pharmacologic agents, injections, and other such therapies. This review will provide an update based on recently published literature in the field of myofascial low back pain along with a brief description of a sequenced, multidisciplinary treatment protocol called Skilled Hands-on Approach for the Release of myofascia, Articular, Neural and Soft tissue mobilization (SHARANS) protocol. A comprehensive multidisciplinary approach is recommended for the successful management of individuals with myofascial low back pain.

  15. TLC Fall-back procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the fall-back procedures planned for cases where the trilateral power market coupling cannot be run correctly or cannot produce correct results. The reasons for fall-back can occur in three situations: market coupling is subject to normal business risks but risks have been minimized, winter clock change handled differently in the different local systems, and excessive proportion of block orders leading to bids infeasibilities. The possible fall-back situations are listed and the main principles for fall-back are explained: critical deadline for results publication/participants information, explicit auctions, south border, north border. (J.S.)

  16. Physics Back in TIME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsunsky, Boris

    2014-03-01

    Recently, I came into possession of an unusual item: a collection of 1928 TIME magazines. I began flipping through the pages out of sheer curiosity—and was soon astonished by the scale and the depth of their physics coverage. Back then, TIME had a special "Science" section in almost every issue and devoted quite a bit of space to the events that would hardly be mentioned in any popular magazine these days. Some of them were fleeting and merely curious, some truly timeless. Many of the articles and notes were devoted to physics: the people, the discoveries, the inventions, the conventions. I found the reading both entertaining and enlightening and would like to offer a sampler here. I hope that these little tidbits of history will lighten up the classroom discussions and help inspire your students by reminding them that physics is a dynamic, ever-changing field to which they may well contribute one day. I have found that my own students love it when a little bit of history is brought up; it always generates interesting questions and seems to spark the students' interest in the topic.

  17. Back Pain and Neuraxial Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzon, Honorio T; Asher, Yogen G; Hartrick, Craig T

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of back pain after neuraxial anesthesia in the adult population is not different from that after general anesthesia. The pain is usually mild, localized in the low back, rarely radiates to the lower extremities, and has a duration of only a few days. The risk factors for development of back pain include the lithotomy position, multiple attempts at block placement, duration of surgery longer than 2.5 hours, body mass index ≥32 kg/m, and a history of back pain. However, there is no permanent worsening of preexisting back pain after neuraxial anesthesia. The back pain has been attributed to tears in the ligaments, fascia, or bone with localized bleeding; immobility of the spine; relaxation of the paraspinal muscles under anesthesia; flattening of the normal lumbar convexity; and stretching and straining of the lumbosacral ligaments and joint capsules. The addition of an anti-inflammatory drug to the local anesthetic used for skin infiltration may decrease the incidence and severity of back pain. The use of spinal or epidural anesthesia in the adult, non-obstetric and obstetric populations should depend on the advantages offered by the technique and not on the occurrence of back pain after the procedure. Additional studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of epidural dexamethasone, or other steroids, or the addition of an anti-inflammatory drug to the local anesthetic infiltration for the prevention of back pain after neuraxial anesthesia. Future studies should involve a physician with expertise in the evaluation of chronic low back pain to help identify the cause of the back pain and institute appropriate treatment(s). PMID:27195644

  18. Preventive aspects regarding back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, Thomas E; Crevenna, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Prevention, as the act of keeping from happening, aims to avert things that would occur if no intervention would be taken. From the epidemiology of back pain, consequences of the disease that are worth preventing can be derived. Biological, psychological, and social factors lead to back pain and chronification and ultimately to various adverse outcomes. The most important preventable consequences of back pain include loss of ability to function in daily life, loss of work productivity, sickness absence, and disability pension, excessive and inappropriate healthcare utilisation, impairments in quality of life, and disturbance of sexual life. The most important tools for prevention of back pain lie within rehabilitation after acute pain treatment and include exercise and physical training as well as health education and increasing health literacy. The bio-psycho-social nature of back pain must be taken into account in all preventive measures. PMID:26695480

  19. Going back to Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchfield, R

    1985-01-01

    decline in the death rate, especially in infant mortality, and an increase in life expectancy have meant a rise in annual overall growth back to the present 1.9-2.2%. Despite the present disappointment, Indonesia's government-sponsored family planning campaigns have shown how village culture can be harnessed to promote change. PMID:12314276

  20. Going back to Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchfield, R

    1985-01-01

    decline in the death rate, especially in infant mortality, and an increase in life expectancy have meant a rise in annual overall growth back to the present 1.9-2.2%. Despite the present disappointment, Indonesia's government-sponsored family planning campaigns have shown how village culture can be harnessed to promote change.

  1. Lumbar Disc Screening Using Back Pain Questionnaires: Oswestry Low Back Pain Score, Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale, and Acute Low Back Pain Screening Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Do Yeon; Oh, Chang Hyun; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Park, Hyung Chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the usefulness of back pain questionnaires for lumbar disc screening among Korean young males. Methods We carried out a survey for lumbar disc screening through back pain questionnaires among the volunteers with or without back pain. Three types of back pain questionnaire (Oswestry Low Back Pain Score, Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale, and Acute Low Back Pain Screeing Questionnaire) were randomly assigned to the examinees. The authors reviewed lumbar imaging studies (simple ...

  2. Prevention of occupational Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan T Al-Otaibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews scientific research on occupational back pain and focuses on prevention of this problem. It discusses some of the challenges of translating the evidence of this multi-factorial condition into policy. Medical science is currently unable to clearly distinguish between back pain caused by work and that possibly due to other causes but which affects the individual′s capacity to work. Back pain affects the vast majority of people at some point in their lives and is very costly to both the health care system and the industry. Evidence suggests that heavy lifting, driving, and vibration of the whole body are linked to occupational back pain. Once the risk factors for occupational back pain are identified, an otherwise chronic and disabling condition can be prevented in the majority of patients. As explained in this article, three levels of prevention for occupational back pain have been reported as effective. Failure to implement preventive measures may lead to a high incidence of occupational back pain.

  3. The Limits to Giving Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade S. Sasser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic section, authors consider the limitations on giving back that they faced in field research, or saw others face. For some authors, their attempts at giving back were severely limited by the scope of their projects, or their understandings of local cultures or histories. For others, very specific circumstances and historical interventions of foreigners in certain places can limit how and to what extent a researcher is able to have a reciprocal relationship with the participating community. Some authors, by virtue of their lesser positions of power relative to those that they were studying, simply decided not to give back to those communities. In each article it becomes apparent that how and in what ways people give back is unique (and limited both to their personal values and the contexts in which they do research.

  4. Back Bay Wilderness area description

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a description of the lands located within the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Within these lands, it designates which area is suitable for...

  5. Back Pain and Emotional Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have been successfully used in the management of pain and anxiety. These include stress management, relaxation training, biofeed- back, hypnosis and cognitive-behavioral therapy (a method to reduce ...

  6. Complete Localization of HVDC Back-to-Back Project Realized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xinqiang; Liang Xuming; Wang Zuli; Ye Qing

    2006-01-01

    The first completely localized DC back-to-back project for asynchronous interconnection between Northwest and Central China plays an important role in realizing national power grid interconnection, spurring indigenous manufacturing industries and promoting DC transmission equipment. Insisting on the principle of autonomous innovation, this project was based on domestic forces in every aspect, from engineering organization, system design, equipment completion, engineering design, equipment manufacturing and procurement to construction and debugging. By passing through strict quality control, intermediate supervision and acceptance test and assessment, the project has been proved up to world advanced level.

  7. Initial Back-to-Back Fission Chamber Testing in ATRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin Chase; Troy Unruh; Joy Rempe

    2014-06-01

    Development and testing of in-pile, real-time neutron sensors for use in Materials Test Reactor experiments is an ongoing project at Idaho National Laboratory. The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility has sponsored a series of projects to evaluate neutron detector options in the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC). Special hardware was designed and fabricated to enable testing of the detectors in the ATRC. Initial testing of Self-Powered Neutron Detectors and miniature fission chambers produced promising results. Follow-on testing required more experiment hardware to be developed. The follow-on testing used a Back-to-Back fission chamber with the intent to provide calibration data, and a means of measuring spectral indices. As indicated within this document, this is the first time in decades that BTB fission chambers have been used in INL facilities. Results from these fission chamber measurements provide a baseline reference for future measurements with Back-to-Back fission chambers.

  8. Gravitational Laser Back-Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Novaes, S. F.; Spehler, D.

    1993-01-01

    A possible way of producing gravitons in the laboratory is investigated. We evaluate the cross section electron + photon $\\rightarrow$ electron + graviton in the framework of linearized gravitation, and analyse this reaction considering the photon coming either from a laser beam or from a Compton back-scattering process.

  9. Back office to box office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haigh, Matthew

    sees a mounting unsecured debt where its members see practical value. Between the two, a steward who may not profit from its office delegates it to back-office agents whose fiduciary management is engendered by box office-sized bonuses. Standard theorisation has foundered. The architecture...

  10. Coping with Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindig, L. E.; Mrvos, S. R.

    Guidelines are offered for the prevention and relief of lower back pain. The structure of the spine is described, and the functions and composition of spinal disks are explained. A list is included of common causes of abnormalities of the spinal column, and injuries which may cause the fracture of the vertebrae are described. Factors causing low…

  11. Lumbar Disc Screening Using Back Pain Questionnaires: Oswestry Low Back Pain Score, Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale, and Acute Low Back Pain Screening Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Yeon; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Hyung Chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the usefulness of back pain questionnaires for lumbar disc screening among Korean young males. Methods We carried out a survey for lumbar disc screening through back pain questionnaires among the volunteers with or without back pain. Three types of back pain questionnaire (Oswestry Low Back Pain Score, Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale, and Acute Low Back Pain Screeing Questionnaire) were randomly assigned to the examinees. The authors reviewed lumbar imaging studies (simple lumbar radiographs, lumbar computed tomography, and magnetic resolutional images), and the severity of lumbar disc herniation was categorized according to the guidelines issued by the Korean military directorate. We calculated the relationship between the back pain questionnaire scores and the severity of lumbar disc herniation. Results The scores of back pain questionnaires increased according to the severity of lumbar disc herniation. But, the range of scores was very vague, so it is less predictable to detect lumbar disc herniation using only back pain questionnaires. The sensitivity between the back pain questionnaires and the presence of lumbar disc herniation was low (16-64%). Conclusion Screening of lumbar disc herniation using only back pain questionnaires has limited value. PMID:25983807

  12. LHC Report: Back in operation

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    With the machine back in their hands since Friday, 4 March, the LHC operators are now performing the powering tests on the magnets. This is a crucial step before receiving the first beams and restarting Run 2 for physics.   A Distribution Feed-Box (DFB) brings power to the LHC magnets and maintains the stability of the current in the superconducting circuits. The LHC was the last machine to be handed back to operators after the completion of maintenance work carried out during the Year-End Technical Stop (YETS) that had started on 14 December 2015. During the eleven weeks of scheduled maintenance activities, several operations took place in all the accelerators and beam lines. They included the maintenance in several points of the cryogenic system, the replacement of 18 magnets in the Super Proton Synchrotron; an extensive campaign to identify and remove thousands of obsolete cables; the replacement of the LHC beam absorbers for injection (TDIs) that are used to absorb the SPS b...

  13. [Therapeutic algorithm for low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illés, T S; Schiopu, D; Ouahes, R; Penders, W; Reynders, P F

    2015-09-01

    Low back pain (LBP) has become one of the greatest public health problems. The differentiation between specific and non-specific low back pain is mandatory. In the specific low back pain are classified all diseases whose etiology is well defined, quick and accurate diagnosis is required for specific treatment. Other types of low back pain can be considered non-specific. The management of acute low back pain is mainly based on analgesic treatment and early mobilization. Maintaining activity can prevent chronicity of LBP. Chronicity factors are multiple, mainly psycho-social and professional. The chronic low back pain treatment goals are the reduction of pain and better activity/participation to achieve the prevention of disability and maintaining work ability. Multidisciplinary treatment programs including personalized and guided physical therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and short-term training programs will help to improve, restore and maintain the function in chronic low back pain. PMID:26591318

  14. Therapy for back pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Yu Solovyeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may be used in combination with B group vitamins. A number of independent trials demonstrates that B group vitamins potentiate the analgesic effect of NSAIDs and contribute to a rapider regression of pain syndrome than their monotherapy. To reduce the risk of adverse reactions of NSAID therapy, to enhance its adherence, and to reduce its cost, it is reasonable to administer combination drugs that contain these components and allow the dose of active substances to be decreased due to their synergism. The new combination drug neurodiclovit contains slow-release enteric-coated granules and individual immediate-release granules of vitamins B 1, B 6, and B 12. Incorporation of neurodiclovit into treatment regimens for back pain syndromes will promote optimization of their therapy.

  15. Taking it all back home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reprocessing contracts stipulate that Cogema's and BNFL's foreign customers will take back their vitrified residues to ensure subsequent storage themselves. National policies have been defined by those customers for the interim storage on return. Belgium and Japan have chosen to store them in glass canisters in air-cooled pits - at Mol and at Rokkasho-mura, respectively (similar to their current stores at the reprocessing plants) -while Germany and Switzerland have opted to use storage flasks. Aware of the need for vitrified residue return, almost 10 years ago Transnucleaire began developing a new model of flask to suit the various needs of the utilities concerned. Named TN 28 V in view of its basic payload of 28 vitrified waste canisters, this flask is currently being manufactured in two versions: one for the routine transport of glass-containing canisters and another for their transport followed by a long period of interim storage. (author)

  16. DBMSs Should Talk Back Too

    CERN Document Server

    Simitsis, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    Natural language user interfaces to database systems have been studied for several decades now. They have mainly focused on parsing and interpreting natural language queries to generate them in a formal database language. We envision the reverse functionality, where the system would be able to take the internal result of that translation, say in SQL form, translate it back into natural language, and show it to the initiator of the query for verification. Likewise, information extraction has received considerable attention in the past ten years or so, identifying structured information in free text so that it may then be stored appropriately and queried. Validation of the records stored with a backward translation into text would again be very powerful. Verification and validation of query and data input of a database system correspond to just one example of the many important applications that would benefit greatly from having mature techniques for translating such database constructs into free-flowing text. ...

  17. Back to the 80s

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2010-01-01

    The fitness club is organizing a “Back to the 80s Party” in aid of the Haiti earthquake appeal on Saturday 26.06.2010 in the Pump Room.   There’s an 80s theme, so our pro DJ will be spinning 80s tunes (all tastes catered for), Morpho will be powering the visuals and the car club will be cooking-up a bbq in case you’re peckish. Fancy dress 1980s style is welcome, though not obligatory and it kicks off just after 'music on the lawn' finishes at 20.30. Its open to anyone working at CERN, friends and family. There’s a limited number of tickets and it’s entrance by ticket only, we are selling them on Thurs lunchtimes in R1 12.15 – 13.30 for 5CHF. For more information contact fitness.club@cern.ch.

  18. Laid Back Avant-Garde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    2010-01-01

    the official music video for Laid Back’s Bakerman single, where the duo and a backing group dressed up as bakers is seen performing while skydiving. Rather than approaching this video as an illustration of the song, the paper suggests that the Bakerman video should be seen as the result of a curatorial act...... parts of the atmosphere. Supposedly, the length of the standard skydiving experience (the parachute part exclusive) could be compared with that of the standard pop song and thus with that of the music video. Could sky diving constitute a critical potential of the music video? References to other...... skydiving music videos (e.g. Boards of Canada) and to von Trier’s work (e.g. Element of Crime) will be discussed by means of a perspective. The paper will draw on a collection of press material concerning von Triers life and work collected by the author until ca. the mid1990ies....

  19. Asperger's disorder will be back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Luke Y

    2013-12-01

    This review focuses on identifying up-to-date number of publications that compared DSM-IV/ICD-10 Asperger's disorder (AspD) to Autistic Disorder/High-functioning Autism (AD/HFA). One hundred and twenty-eight publications were identified through an extensive search of major electronic databases and journals. Based on more than 90 clinical variables been investigated, 94 publications concluded that there were statistically significant or near significant level of quantitative and/or qualitative differences between AspD and AD/HFA groups; 4 publications found both similarities and differences between the two groups; 30 publications concluded with no differences between the two groups. Although DSM-5 ASD will eliminate Asperger's disorder. However, it is plausible to predict that the field of ASD would run full circle during the next decade or two and that AspD will be back in the next edition of DSM. PMID:23644916

  20. Better backs by better beds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Kim; Fabricius, Rasmus N; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    using the probably most relevant "worst case" data. There were no relevant difference between the effects of the water bed and the foam bed. CONCLUSION: The Waterbed and foam mattress' did influence back symptoms, function and sleep more positively as apposed to the hard mattress, but the differences...... mattresses have a positive effect on LBP, and especially a hard mattress is commonly believed to have a positive effect. METHODS: One hundred sixty CLBP patients were randomized to 1 of 3 groups, having a mattress/bed mounted in their sleeping room for 1 month. The beds were: (1) waterbed (Akva), (2) body......-conforming foam mattress (Tempur), and (3) a hard mattress (Innovation Futon). At baseline and after 4 weeks, a blinded observer interviewed the patients on LBP levels (0-10), daily function (activities of daily living, 0-30), and on the amount of sleeping hours/night. RESULTS: Because of dropout of 19 patients...

  1. When looking back to nothing goes back to nothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantz, Andrea L; Martarelli, Corinna S; Mast, Fred W

    2016-02-01

    Previous research showed that the eyes revisit the location in which the stimulus has been encoded when visual or verbal information is retrieved from memory. A recent study showed that this behavior still occurs 1 week after encoding, suggesting that visual, spatial and linguistic information is tightly associated with the oculomotor trace and stored as an integrated memory representation. However, it is yet unclear whether looking behavior simply remains stable between encoding and recall or whether it changes over time in a more fine-tuned manner. Here, we investigate the time course of looking behavior during recall in multiple sessions across 1 week. Participants encoded visual objects presented in one of the four locations on the computer screen. In five sessions during the week after encoding, they performed on a visual memory recall task. During retrieval, participants looked back to the encoding location, but only in the recall sessions within 1 day of encoding. We discuss different explanations for the temporal dynamics of looking behavior during recall, searching for the role of eye movements in memory. PMID:26553272

  2. The Practical Realities of Giving Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashton Bree Wesner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic section, authors consider practical ways of giving back to the communities in which they conduct research. Each author discusses their evolving thoughts on how to give back in these practical ways. Some of these authors discuss giving back by giving money, food, rides, parties, and water bottles. In other cases, authors discuss giving back by creating jobs in the short or long term, grant writing, advocacy, and education. Story-telling is also a theme that many of the authors in this section discuss. For some authors, non-material forms of giving back are critical—simply maintaining social ties to the communities in which they worked, or sharing humor. The authors consider the utility of their attempts at giving back, and in some cases present their personal philosophy or guidelines on the subject.

  3. Rehabilitation of Low Back Pain in Golfers

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Context: Low back injuries are the most common injury in golf. Best practice guidelines for rehabilitation and prevention of these injuries are helpful for health care professionals and all golfers. Objective: To establish a best practice clinical model for low back pain in golfers from diagnosis through treatment and rehabilitation to return to golf. Evidence Acquisition: The PubMed database and Google Scholar were searched from 1993 to 2012 with the following keywords: golf and low back inj...

  4. A Case of acute low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Abela, Jurgen C.

    2004-01-01

    A forty-year old gentleman, walks into your clinic complaining of low back pain, which has been present for the past four days. The pain is quite severe and poorly localized, forcing the patient to abstain from work. The patient is not on any medication and has no relevant past medical history, except for an episode of back pain years back. He is annoyed by the pain and by the fact that he had to stop working. What would you do?

  5. Acute and Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Nathan; Emanski, Eric; Knaub, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is an extremely common presenting complaint that occurs in upward of 80% of persons. Treatment of an acute episode of back pain includes relative rest, activity modification, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, and physical therapy. Patient education is also imperative, as these patients are at risk for further future episodes of back pain. Chronic back pain (>6 months' duration) develops in a small percentage of patients. Clinicians' ability to diagnose the exact pathologic source of these symptoms is severely limited, making a cure unlikely. Treatment of these patients should be supportive, the goal being to improve pain and function. PMID:26614726

  6. A bad back needs help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotway MB

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Case Presentation History of Present Illness A 61-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with a 2 month complaint of atraumatic back pain, worsening over the previous two weeks. The patient described his pain as sharp, 10/10 in intensity, radiating to his ribs, right hip, and right groin, and aggravated by coughing, weight lifting, and movement. His pain was worse in the supine and prone positions, with some relief provided by sitting, and relieved with high doses of pain medications, topical lidocaine, menthol-containing skin ointments, and chiropractic adjustments. Over the 2 days prior to admission, the patient became increasingly desperate as a result of his pain, and drank several pints of vodka.Past Medical and Social HistoryThe patient is a retired machinist whose medical history includes fibromyalgia and binge drinking. He smokes three-quarters of a pack of cigarettes per day.Physical ExaminationPhysical examination showed normal vital signs and …

  7. Back to school at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The Education Group is expanding its courses for teachers: over 700 secondary school teachers will be going back to school at CERN this year. Thirty-seven teachers from various countries participated in the High School Teachers at CERN programme, with Rolf Landua, the head of the Education Group, Mick Storr, the Education Group’s programme coordinator and Robert Aymar, the CERN Director-General.From 3 to 8 July, CERN hosted the runners-up from the finals of the British Physics Olympiad, the prize for the winners being a trip to the International Physics Olympiad in Iran. The five students were invited to visit CERN to attend the summer student programme for three days. "This gives us an opportunity to study new subjects that are not necessarily part of the school curriculum. Even though I’ve heard about the various types of research, it is a real plus to be able to attend these lectures", explains Oliver Mac Farlane, a young stu...

  8. Screen printed interdigitated back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraona, C. R.; Mazaris, G. A.; Chai, A. T. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Interdigitated back contact solar cells are made by screen printing dopant materials onto the back surface of a semiconductor substrate in a pair of interdigitated patterns. These dopant materials are then diffused into the substrate to form junctions having configurations corresponding to these patterns. Contacts having configurations which match the patterns are then applied over the junctions.

  9. 33 CFR 117.523 - Back River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Back River. 117.523 Section 117.523 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maine § 117.523 Back River. The draw of the Maine Department...

  10. LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF BACK-CORONA DISCHARGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses an experimental research program to characterize back-corona generation and behavior in a range of environments and geometries common to electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A wire-parallel plate device was used to monitor the intensity and distribution of back...

  11. Drain Back, Low Flow Solar Combi Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua;

    2014-01-01

    Drain Back systems with ETC collectors are tested and analyzed in a Danish - Chinese cooperation project. Experiences from early work at DTU, with drain back, low flow systems, was used to design two systems: 1) One laboratory system at DTU and 2) One demonstration system in a single family house...

  12. Rehabilitation of Low Back Pain in Golfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Context: Low back injuries are the most common injury in golf. Best practice guidelines for rehabilitation and prevention of these injuries are helpful for health care professionals and all golfers. Objective: To establish a best practice clinical model for low back pain in golfers from diagnosis through treatment and rehabilitation to return to golf. Evidence Acquisition: The PubMed database and Google Scholar were searched from 1993 to 2012 with the following keywords: golf and low back injury, low back injury, golf and low back pain, golf injury prevention, golf modern swing, muscles in golf swing, low back rehabilitation, diaphragm, and core stability. All studies addressed in some manner the rehabilitation, prevention, or return to sport from low back injury, preferably in direct relation to golf, as well as muscle firing patterns used during the golf swing. Results: Best practice for rehabilitation and prevention of low back injury in golf appears to be through a multidisciplinary approach. Conclusion: Movement patterns, muscle imbalances, and type of swing utilized all have a direct effect on the forces applied to the spine during the golf swing and need to be assessed to prevent or rehabilitate injury. Understanding the golf swing and how the body works during the swing is necessary. PMID:24459546

  13. Taking care of your back at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it is OK: Jogging Contact sports Racquet sports Golf Dancing Weight lifting Leg lifts when lying on your stomach Sit-ups TAKING MEASURES TO PREVENT FUTURE BACK PAIN To prevent back pain, learn to lift and bend properly. Follow these tips: ...

  14. Giving Back: Nature Conservation in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kremen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research note is part of the thematic section, Practical Realities of Giving Back, in the special issue titled “Giving Back in Field Research,” published as Volume 10, Issue 2 in the Journal of Research Practice.

  15. [Treatment of chronic back pain: current standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märker-Hermann, E; Kiltz, U; Braun, J

    2014-12-01

    Back pain is a significant medical problem and one of the most common causes of medical consultations and missed work. In acute low back pain, patients with "red flags" indicating a serious underlying spinal or extraspinal disease must be identified by medical evaluation. Most cases of acute back pain are non-specific, and education, physical activity and pain medication is recommended. In addition, yellow flags (risks of developing chronic pain) should be recognized. The management of low back pain has been addressed by the German National Disease Management Guideline (NVL) low back pain published in 2010. This guideline evaluates the evidence and effectiveness of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions with a focus on nonspecific back pain. For chronic nonspecific low back pain intervention based on nondrug and drug therapy and a multiprofessional assessment is recommended. In patients with chronic inflammatory low back pain with onset before the age of 45, rheumatic spondyloarthritis should be considered. Recently, a guideline (S3-Leitlinie) for the management of axial spondyloarthritis including ankylosing spondylitis has become available. It provides evidence of physical and drug therapy including nonsteroidal antirheumatic and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy. PMID:25465277

  16. How to prevent low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burton, A.K.; Balague, F.; Cardon, G.; Eriksen, H.R.; Henrotin, Y.; Lahad, A.; Leclerc, A.; Muller, G.; Beek, van der A.J.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the European Guidelines for Prevention in Low Back Pain, which consider the evidence in respect of the general population, workers and children. There is limited scope for preventing the incidence (first-time onset) of back pain and, overall, there is limited robust evidence

  17. Put It Back in the Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A little boy and his grandfather are raking (用耙子耙) leaves in the yard.The little boy finds an earthworm (蚯蚓) trying to get back into its hole.He says,"Grandpa,I bet I can put that worm back in that hole."

  18. Cost Reduction, Competitive Balance, and the Scheduling of Back-to-Back Games in the NBA

    OpenAIRE

    Yvan J. Kelly

    2008-01-01

    The NBA league office states that the playing schedule is devised to ensure competitive balance while keeping an eye towards minimizing costs. This paper examines those claims. Three years of travel data were analyzed and the results imply that the use of back-to-back road games in the NBA schedule may assist with competitive balance and that back-to-back games indeed reduce team travel costs.

  19. Pharmacological management of low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Roger

    2010-03-01

    Low back pain is one of the most common conditions encountered in clinical practice and medications are the most commonly used type of treatment. In most patients, low back pain is nonspecific, in that the pain cannot be reliably attributed to a specific condition or abnormality in the back. Although a number of medications are available to treat nonspecific low back pain, selecting a therapy can be a challenge because each one is associated with a unique set of benefits and harms. In addition, the evidence supporting the use of different medications varies, and issues such as costs and patient preferences may also affect treatment choices. A guideline published in 2007 from the American Pain Society and the American College of Physicians on diagnosis and treatment of low back pain includes recommendations on the use of medications, based on the quality of supporting evidence and the estimated magnitude of benefits relative to harms. For most patients with low back pain, regardless of the duration of symptoms, paracetamol (acetaminophen) and NSAIDs are first-line options for pain relief. Opioids are more potent analgesics, but are not a first-line option due to their abuse potential. Skeletal muscle relaxants and benzodiazepines can be used as adjunctive medications for acute low back pain, but have a high incidence of sedation. Tricyclic antidepressants may be an option for chronic low back pain, but their effects on pain appear small or uncertain. Nonetheless, depression is common in patients with low back pain and should be treated appropriately. When choosing medications for treatment of low back pain, practice guidelines provide a useful starting point for making decisions, but clinicians should base therapeutic choices on individualized consideration and discussion with patients regarding the potential benefits and risks. PMID:20205483

  20. Investigational pharmacology for low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash K Bhandary

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Avinash K Bhandary1 , Gary P Chimes2, Gerard A Malanga3 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 3New Jersey Sports Medicine Institute; Overlook Hospital; Mountainside Hospital; Rehabilitation Medicine and Electrodiagnosis, St Michael’s Medical Center; Horizon Healthcare Worker’s Compensation Services, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Worker’s Compensation, Summit, NJ, USAStudy design: Review and reinterpretation of existing literature.Objective: This review article summarizes the anatomy and pathogenesis of disease processes that contribute to low back pain, and discusses key issues in existing therapies for chronic low back pain. The article also explains the scientific rationale for investigational pharmacology and highlights emerging compounds in late development.Results/conclusion: While the diverse and complex nature of chronic low back pain continues to challenge clinicians, a growing understanding of chronic low back pain on a cellular level has refined our approach to managing chronic low back pain with pharmacology. Many emerging therapies with improved safety profiles are currently in the research pipeline and will contribute to a multimodal therapeutic algorithm in the near future. With the heterogeneity of the patient population suffering from chronic low back pain, the clinical challenge will be accurately stratifying the optimal pharmacologic approach for each patient.Keywords: low back pain, investigational, pharmacology, drugs

  1. Low Back Pain in Young Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, Laura; Micheli, Lyle

    2009-01-01

    Context Low back pain in young athletes is a common complaint and should be taken seriously. It frequently results from a structural injury that requires a high degree of suspicion to diagnose and treat appropriately. Evidence Acquisition A Medline search was conducted from 1996 to May 2008 using the search terms “low back pain in children” and “low back pain in athletes.” Known texts on injuries in young athletes were also reviewed. References in retrieved articles were additionally searched...

  2. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagué, Federico; Pellisé, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    This broad narrative review addresses the relationship between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and back pain. AIS can be responsible for low back pain, particularly major cases. However, a linear relationship between back pain and the magnitude of the deformity cannot be expected for any individual patient. A large number of juvenile patients can remain pain-free. The long-term prognosis is rather benign for many cases and thus a tailored approach to the individual patient seems mandatory. The level of evidence available does not allow stringent recommendations for any of the disorders included in this review. PMID:27648474

  3. College backs domestic abuse awareness training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    All nurses should be trained to recognise signs of domestic abuse and provide support to victims, according to a resolution overwhelmingly backed by RCN members at congress in Glasgow last month. PMID:27384787

  4. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Master Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, located in the city of Virginia Beach, Virginia, comprises 4,608 acres of barrier beach, fresh and brackish marsh, small...

  5. Back to Sleep, Tummy to Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Sleep > Back to ...

  6. Back Bay Wilderness study : Public hearing analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an analysis of the public hearing that took place on May 15th, 1974 which discussed the Back Bay Wilderness. The analysis shows that there is...

  7. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for the administration of hunting activity and for the development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Back...

  8. Back Bay Stormwater Monitoring Project Final Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this project was to assess the influx of nutrients and solid material into Back Bay and its tributaries during and immediately following such storm...

  9. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a collection of regulations pertaining to the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Most of the regulations concern motor vehicle use on the refuge.

  10. Back Bay Wilderness study : Proposed recommendations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a list of recommendations for the proposed wilderness area on the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. The recommendations come as a result of the...

  11. Back pain: A puzzle in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahle, Imad S; Hamam, Mohamed S; Masrouha, Karim Z; Afeiche, Nadim E; Abdelnoor, Johnny

    2016-08-01

    Back pain in children is underdiagnosed and increases incidence in adolescence. A systematic approach can diagnose the most common causes: trauma, structural deformities, inflammatory diseases, infection and malignancy. PMID:27535879

  12. [Management of acute low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Marc

    2008-02-15

    Acute low back pain is evolving for less than 4 or 6 weeks. The diagnostic stake in front of an acute low back pain is not to ignore a condition requiring a specific treatment (vertebral fracture, tumours, infections, inflammatory diseases...). Signs of alerts from patient history are to be looked for to enable it. Once the diagnosis of non specific low back pain has been confirmed and in absence of neurological complications, the therapeutic stake is to avoid chronicity by a treatment adapted to every patient. Numerous scientific quality data questioned the interest of the bed rest for non specific acute low back pain and the beneficial role of the preservation of the activities to avoid chronicity. The interest to inform and to reassure the patient on his future is also an important condition of the care. PMID:18536202

  13. Back Injuries - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Back Injuries URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/backinjuries.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  14. Acne, vulgaris on the back (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acne frequently occurs on the back. Here, there are 2 to 6 millimeter wide erythematous (red) pustules ... Permanent scarring may follow a severe case of acne. Men are more often affected on their shoulders ...

  15. Interaction analysis of back-to-back mechanically stabilized earth walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadok Benmebarek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Back-to-back mechanically stabilized earth walls (BBMSEWs are encountered in bridge approaches, ramp ways, rockfall protection systems, earth dams, levees and noise barriers. However, available design guidelines for BBMSEWs are limited and not applicable to numerical modeling when back-to-back walls interact with each other. The objective of this paper is to investigate, using PLAXIS code, the effects of the reduction in the distance between BBMSEW, the reinforcement length, the quality of backfill material and the connection of reinforcements in the middle, when the back-to-back walls are close. The results indicate that each of the BBMSEWs behaves independently if the width of the embankment between mechanically stabilized earth walls is greater than that of the active zone. This is in good agreement with the result of FHWA design guideline. However, the results show that the FHWA design guideline underestimates the lateral earth pressure when back-to-back walls interact with each other. Moreover, for closer BBMSEWs, FHWA design guideline strongly overestimates the maximum tensile force in the reinforcement. The investigation of the quality of backfill material shows that the minor increase in embankment cohesion can lead to significant reductions in both the lateral earth pressure and the maximum tensile force in geosynthetic. When the distance between the two earth walls is close to zero, the connection of reinforcement between back-to-back walls significantly improves the factor of safety.

  16. Back to Back: A Focus on Reducing the Logistics Costs and Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério João Lunkes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to identify the main aspects related to the operation of Back to Back set out in international trade, which enables reduction of logistics costs and taxes. The operation of Back to Back is an excellent opportunity to increase foreign exchange gain and offer greater flexibility to commercial operations that the business requires. The methodology used in preparing this study was qualitative research according to the characteristics and nature of the problem. From the use of descriptive research study aims to demonstrate the main theoretical aspects underlying the subject in reference. This study aimed to identify the main aspects related to the operation of Back to Back set out in international trade and tax effects in an organization and logistics of industrial electronics segment of the State of Santa Catarina. The study demonstrated that the benefits of the operation of Back to Back is of paramount importance for companies having a positive impact in financial terms by reducing the need for tax payments and logistics costs which affect the processes of import and export. The results presented showed that the company studied the operation of Back to Back is essential for international negotiations.

  17. Low Back Pain≠下腰痛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秉文

    2005-01-01

    近来在医学杂志上频频出现“下腰痛(low back pain)”的字样,给读者的印象是:low back pain即等于下腰痛,仔细推敲起来,其中有不同语言文字的误解。为此笔者进行了一些考察。

  18. Back End Programming in .NET Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Sapkota, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the project was to develop a web application which provides the services for both web and mobile client. The complete application development process was carried out by the team of four members and a supervisor. According to the interest of group members the whole project was divided into four parts; that is user interface design, mobile application development, back end development for mobile services and server side back end development of application. I got the task of ser...

  19. Screen-printed back-to-back electroanalytical sensors: heavy metal ion sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruas de Souza, Ana P; Foster, Christopher W; Kolliopoulos, Athanasios V; Bertotti, Mauro; Banks, Craig E

    2015-06-21

    Screen-printed back-to-back microband electroanalytical sensors are applied to the quantification of lead(II) ions for the first time. In this configuration the electrodes are positioned back-to-back with a common electrical connection to the two working electrodes with the counter and reference electrodes for each connected in the same manner as a normal "traditional" screen-printed sensor. Proof-of-concept is demonstrated for the electroanalytical sensing of lead(II) ions utilising square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry where an increase in the electroanalytical sensitivity is observed by a factor of 5 with the back-to-back microband configuration at a fixed lead(II) ion concentration of 5 μg L(-1) utilising a deposition potential and time of -1.2 V and 30 seconds respectively, compared to a conventional (single) microband electrode. The back-to-back microband configuration allows for the sensing of lead(II) ions with a linear range from 5 to 110 μg L(-1) with a limit of detection (based on 3σ) corresponding to 3.7 μg L(-1). The back-to-back microband configuration is demonstrated to quantify the levels of lead(II) ions within drinking water corresponding to a level of 2.8 (±0.3) μg L(-1). Independent validation was performed using ICP-OES with the levels of lead(II) ions found to correspond to 2.5 (±0.1) μg L(-1); the excellent agreement between the two methods validates the electroanalytical procedure for the quantification of lead(II) ions in drinking water. This back-to-back configuration exhibits an excellent validated analytical performance for the determination of lead(II) ions within drinking water at World Health Organisation levels (limited to 10 μg L(-1) within drinking water). PMID:25902942

  20. Effect of Togu-exercise on Lumbar Back Strength of Women with Chronic Low Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Dong-Hyun; Park,

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study analyzed the effect of the Togu exercise program on the lumbar back strength of middle-aged women who did not perform regular exercise, and presents an effective exercise method for middle-aged women with chronic low back pain symptom. [Subjects] The subjects were 16 women with chronic low back pain attending N University, Chungcheong-do, Korea. [Methods] Height, weight, body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were measured using a body composition analyzer (Inbody 720...

  1. Screen-printed back-to-back electroanalytical sensors: heavy metal ion sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruas de Souza, Ana P; Foster, Christopher W; Kolliopoulos, Athanasios V; Bertotti, Mauro; Banks, Craig E

    2015-06-21

    Screen-printed back-to-back microband electroanalytical sensors are applied to the quantification of lead(II) ions for the first time. In this configuration the electrodes are positioned back-to-back with a common electrical connection to the two working electrodes with the counter and reference electrodes for each connected in the same manner as a normal "traditional" screen-printed sensor. Proof-of-concept is demonstrated for the electroanalytical sensing of lead(II) ions utilising square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry where an increase in the electroanalytical sensitivity is observed by a factor of 5 with the back-to-back microband configuration at a fixed lead(II) ion concentration of 5 μg L(-1) utilising a deposition potential and time of -1.2 V and 30 seconds respectively, compared to a conventional (single) microband electrode. The back-to-back microband configuration allows for the sensing of lead(II) ions with a linear range from 5 to 110 μg L(-1) with a limit of detection (based on 3σ) corresponding to 3.7 μg L(-1). The back-to-back microband configuration is demonstrated to quantify the levels of lead(II) ions within drinking water corresponding to a level of 2.8 (±0.3) μg L(-1). Independent validation was performed using ICP-OES with the levels of lead(II) ions found to correspond to 2.5 (±0.1) μg L(-1); the excellent agreement between the two methods validates the electroanalytical procedure for the quantification of lead(II) ions in drinking water. This back-to-back configuration exhibits an excellent validated analytical performance for the determination of lead(II) ions within drinking water at World Health Organisation levels (limited to 10 μg L(-1) within drinking water).

  2. Episodicity in back-arc tectonic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Stuart R.; Stegman, Dave; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2008-12-01

    The evolution of back-arc basins is tied to the development of the dynamics of the subduction system they are a part of. We present a study of back-arc basins and model their development by implementing 3D time-dependant computer models of subduction including an overriding plate. We define three types of episodicity: pseudo-, quasi- and hyper-episodicity, and find evidence of these in nature. Observations of back-arc basin ages, histories of spreading, quiescence and compression in the overriding plate give us an understanding of the time-development of these subduction zones and back-arc basins. Across the globe today, a number of trenches are advancing—the Izu-Bonin Trench, the Mariana Trench, the Japan Trench, the Java-Sunda Trench and the central portion of the Peru-Chile Trench (the Andes subduction zone). The Izu-Bonin, Mariana and Japan all have established back-arc basins, while the others have documented episodes of spreading, quiescence, compression or a combination of these. The combination of advancing and retreating trench motion places these subduction zones in the category of hyper-episodicity. Quasi-episodicity, in which the back-arc shifts between phases of rifting, spreading and quiescence, is the dominant form of episodic back-arc development in the present. We find this type of episodicity in models for which the system is dynamically consistent—that we have allowed the subducting plate's velocity to be determined by the sinking slabs' buoyancy. Quasi- and hyper-episodicity are only found in subduction zones with relatively high subducting plate velocities, between 6 and 9 cm/year. Finally, those subduction zones for which the subducting plate is moving slowly, such as in the Mediterranean or the Scotia Sea, experience only pseudo-episodicity, where the spreading moves linearly towards the trench but often does so in discrete ridge-jump events.

  3. Evaluating the patient with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Maliha; Östör, Andrew J K

    2015-12-01

    In the UK, low back pain is the most common cause of disability in young adults and every year 6-9% of adults consult their GP about back pain. A thorough history and examination is required to exclude an alternative diagnosis, such as pain arising from the hip or trochanteric bursa and to categorise patients as having: serious spinal pathology, nerve root/radicular pain or non-specific back pain. Inflammatory back pain is often missed, particularly in the early stages when examination may be normal. The primary features are pain arising in patients under 40, thoracolumbar or sacroiliac pain and alternating buttock pain. Stiffness in the early morning and after rest is a hallmark of inflammatory back pain. There may also be peripheral joint involvement with evidence of inflammatory arthritis as well as extra-articular manifestations such as iritis, psoriasis and colitis. Sphincter disturbance leading to loss of bladder or bowel control should also be explored as it is a sign of spinal cord compression or cauda equina syndrome. Both of these are neurosurgical emergencies and need urgent referral for further investigation and possible intervention. The majority of patients with low back pain can be managed in primary care as the pain will usually be self-limiting. Patients with suspected inflammatory back pain should be referred to rheumatology as soon as possible in order to institute early management and prevent long-term deformity and disability. Patients with suspected serious spinal pathology should be referred urgently for further investigation. Red flag symptoms should raise concerns regarding a possible sinister cause such as malignancy and more than one red flag mandates urgent further investigation. PMID:26882775

  4. BackSPAD - developments: Latest results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durini, Daniel; Weyers, Sascha; Stuehlmeyer, Martin; Goehlich, Andreas; Brockherde, Werner; Paschen, Uwe; Vogt, Holger [Fraunhofer IMS, Duisburg (Germany); Tisa, Simone; Tosi, Alberto; Zappa, Franco [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    In the recent years, a large amount of effort has been put into the development of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) as a viable technology to replace the conventional photo multiplier tubes (PMT)in many low-light level applications. In parallel, a concept has been pursued where the Geiger avalanche diodes are integrated in the same substrate with the pixel-electronics, forming arrays of Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD) smart pixels exploiting in this way the advantages of the CMOS technology combined with single-photon counting possibilities. One of the huge problems accompanying the increase of the in-pixel circuit complexity is the unavoidable diminishing of the SPAD pixel fill-factors, which tend to descend to below 4%. Aiming at improving the SPAD front-end performance, we pursue the development of Back-Side Illuminated SPAD (BackSPAD) smart-pixel structures in the frame of the EU-FP7-ICT-5 project *MiSPiA* (grant agreement No. 257646). BackSPAD array and the smart-pixel electronics are placed one over the other in close mechanical and electrical contact. The BackSPAD detectors are isolated from each other by deep trenches. The recent measurement results of the BackSPAD structures are reported.

  5. Use of aceclofenac (aertal in back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Leonidovna Korsakova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Back pain is a generalized type of locomotor lesion that is caused by soft tissue pathology and degenerative changes in the vertebral column in most cases and by intervertebral disk herniation, spinal stenosis, compression fractures in osteoporosis, by injuries, congenital anomalies, vertebral displacement less frequently, as well as by infections, tumors, inflammatory processes in the vertebral column, and related pain. A number of rheumatic diseases, including seronegative spondylarthritis, Scheuermann-Mau' disease, Forestier's disease, osteoarthrosis, etc., are accompanied by back pain. The cause of back pain syndrome cannot be frequently identified. This abnormality is treated by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, among which aceclofenac (Aertal has acquired a reputation as an agent having a good tolerability.

  6. Use of aceclofenac (aertal in back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Leonidovna Korsakova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Back pain is a generalized type of locomotor lesion that is caused by soft tissue pathology and degenerative changes in the vertebral column in most cases and by intervertebral disk herniation, spinal stenosis, compression fractures in osteoporosis, by injuries, congenital anomalies, vertebral displacement less frequently, as well as by infections, tumors, inflammatory processes in the vertebral column, and related pain. A number of rheumatic diseases, including seronegative spondylarthritis, Scheuermann-Mau' disease, Forestier's disease, osteoarthrosis, etc., are accompanied by back pain. The cause of back pain syndrome cannot be frequently identified. This abnormality is treated by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, among which aceclofenac (Aertal has acquired a reputation as an agent having a good tolerability.

  7. Epidemiology of occupational low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelerud, Randy A

    2006-01-01

    There have been significant advances in our understanding of occupational low back pain over the last decade largely because of a noteworthy improvement in the number and quality of prospective trials. More recent work confirms that genetic factors may drive a large portion of thr risk factors. The importance of physical fitness and spine support muscle fitness is believed to protect against future occurrences. Psychosocial factors can play a role in increasing the risk of future low back pain and acute pain in becoming chronic. Some of the psychological influence may be through a muscular pain component. It is arguable that an emphasis should be placed on resources, education, and support to allow workers to be productive whether suffering from back pain or not. PMID:16963373

  8. Nordic walking and chronic low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsø, Lars; Hartvigsen, Jan; Puggaard, Lis;

    2006-01-01

    activity provide similar benefits. Nordic Walking is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe. Initial studies have demonstrated that persons performing Nordic Walking are able to exercise longer and harder compared to normal walking thereby increasing their cardiovascular metabolism......Low Back Pain is a major public health problem all over the western world. Active approaches including exercise in the treatment of low back pain results in better outcomes for patients, but it is not known exactly which types of back exercises are most beneficial or whether general physical...... when compared to unsupervised Nordic Walking and advice to stay active. In addition we investigate whether there is an increase in the cardiovascular metabolism in persons performing supervised Nordic Walking compared to persons who are advised to stay active. Finally, we investigate whether...

  9. Council Approves Scanning All Back Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    At its last meeting, the 2002-2004 Council, which oversaw the first 2 years of electronic publishing by the Union, authorized funds to scan all back issues of journals, books, and the archival material from Eos and Transactions. In accepting the proposal of the Publications Committee, Council noted that providing the means to deliver all back issues is a fitting conclusion to the transition to electronic publishing. Expenditures of up to $1.1 million were authorized for the scanning project, and for creating searchable abstracts of all back material, and for several other smaller projects. The money comes from the Electronic Publishing Development Fund, which had been built in the 1990s specifically to assure the financial underpinning for the electronic publishing transition. Members should start seeing the fruits of this work in 2006.

  10. Short-term outcomes of a back school program for chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodselmans, AP; Jaegers, SM; Goeken, LN; Göeken, L.N.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the short-term outcome of a back school program for patients suffering from chronic, nonspecific low back pain (LBP). Design: Quasi-experimental cohort study with a waiting list control group. Setting: Dutch rehabilitation department. Participants: Experimental group (n = 14) pa

  11. Back care instructions in physical therapy: a trend analysis of individualized back care programs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssens, J.J.; Sluijs, E.M.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Knibbe, H.J.J.; Hermans, I.M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The treatment of people with low back pain often includes giving a variety of instructions about back care. The objective of our study was to explore the content and sequence of these instructions. Subjects: Our database contained information on 1,151 therapy sessions for 132

  12. [Current approach to low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, E; Vischer, T L

    1997-11-15

    Despite advances in medical knowledge and available methods of treating spinal problems, the costs these problems generate are growing in a constant and exponential manner in western countries. Back pain is not different, commoner or more severe than in the past. This raises the question whether present-day management, which often runs counter to current scientific evidence, is appropriate. Practically speaking, so-called specific back pain is to be distinguished from nonspecific or common back pain. The former arises from a precise lesion (infectious, tumoral, inflammatory or traumatic), while the latter has no obvious underlying cause. Fortunately this preliminary differentiation is usually possible on the basis of the history and clinical workup alone. In this paper we deal solely with common back pain, as being by far the most frequent in everyday practice. Once a specific origin has been ruled out, the chief aim should be earliest possible resumption of the patient's normal activities. Various methods, embracing drug treatment, physiotherapy, and in appropriate cases ergotherapy, are available for this purpose. If this fails, the physician must react as rapidly as possible to prevent the condition becoming chronic. Regard should be had for the various psychosocial factors which interfere with the healing process, and a method should be adopted which is no longer based on the classic biomedical model but on a bio-psycho-social approach as proposed by Waddell. If necessary the patient should be referred to a specialist (rheumatologist, rehabilitation, orthopedist etc). Back pain is extremely widespread in the population at large and is a frequent reason why people consult a physician. On these grounds the primary care physician has a key role to play in the initial workup and also in the acute, subacute or chronic stage of the evolution. This review of the principles which should guide the practical approach to the back-pain patient is intended to aid the

  13. Quantum Back Reaction on a Classical Field

    CERN Document Server

    Brout, R; Popescu, S; Parentani, R; Spindel, P; Spindel, Ph.

    1995-01-01

    We show how to apply post selection in the context of weak measurement of Aharonov and collaborators to construct the quantum back reaction on a classical field. The particular case which we study in this paper is pair creation in an external electric field and the back reaction is the counter field produced by the pair \\underline {as} it is made. The construction leads to a complex electric field obtained from non diagonal matrix elements of the current operator, the interpretation of which is clear in terms of weak measurement. The analogous construction applied to black hole physics (thereby leading to a complex metric) is relegated to a future paper.

  14. MRI in patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Krüger; Manniche, Claus; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    MRI in LBP patients: good or bad? Background: The routine use of radiology is presently discouraged in patients with low back pain (LBP). MRI provides clinicians and patients with detailed knowledge of the spinal structures and has no known physical side effects. It is possible that detailed......" groups. Their inclusion criteria were: 1) LBP of at least 3 on an 11-point scale, 2) back pain ≥ leg pain, 3) duration of present symptoms 2-12 months, and 4) age between 18 and 60. A comparison was made between the "new" and "old" approach in relation to duration of treatment and use of resources...

  15. Why and how back pain interventions work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansell, Gemma; Kamper, Steven J; Kent, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a useful research method that potentially allows identification of the mechanisms through which treatments affect patient outcomes. This chapter reviews the theoretical framework, research designs and statistical approaches used in mediation analysis. It describes what can b...... be a step forward in understanding treatment effects in back pain and improving patient management....... be learnt from previous mediation research, much of which has investigated mediating factors of psychosocial interventions in other health conditions. It also summarises the few treatment-mediation studies of psychosocial interventions conducted in back pain. This chapter shows that there is emerging...

  16. Acknowledging the patient with back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Norlyk, Annelise;

    2015-01-01

    and translates into a certain way of perceiving and explaining illnesses and symptoms. Results: The thematic analysis shows that it is through experiences and memories that we create our identity and consciousness. Ignoring the illness experiences can therefore be seen as disregarding, the patient as a human...... being. With this in mind, it is easier to understand why back patients often feel marginalised and mistrusted in their interactions with the healthcare system. Respectfully including the patients’ experiences is fundamentally about acknowledging the back patient as a human being. Conclusion: A synthesis...

  17. Emotional Disturbance and Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, Charles P.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Patients high in alientation and distrust may be poor compliers. Because only the somatic concern dimension predicted outcome, a single scale that measures this characteristic may be sufficient for effective identification of the potential good v poor responders to conservative treatment of low back pain. (Author)

  18. Managing low back pain second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 26 chapters. Some of the titles are: Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine; Diagnostic techniques; The site and nature of the lesion; The anatomy of the lumbosacral spine; The perception of pain; Differential diagnosis of low back pain; and A comprehensive outline of treatment

  19. Imaging studies in chronic low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging brings to difficult problems in chronic low back pain incomplete data showing that it will need a lot of time to find therapeutic solutions. Some comparisons are made between tomodensitometry, nuclear magnetic imaging, the disco-scanner, these technologies allow to find small lesions but the problem is complete when it is not possible to find anything with persistent pains. 125 refs

  20. Pregnancy-related low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katonis, P; Kampouroglou, A; Aggelopoulos, A; Kakavelakis, K; Lykoudis, S; Makrigiannakis, A; Alpantaki, K

    2011-07-01

    Pregnancy related low back pain is a common complaint among pregnant women. It can potentially have a negative impact on their quality of life. The aim of this article is to present a current review of the literature concerning this issue.By using PubMed database and low back pain, pelvic girdle pain, pregnancy as keywords, abstracts and original articles in English investigating the diagnosis treatment of back pain during pregnancy were searched and analyzedLow back pain could present as either a pelvic girdle pain between the posterior iliac crest and the gluteal fold or as a lumbar pain over and around the lumbar spine. The source of the pain should be diagnosed and differentiated early.The appropriate treatment aims to reduce the discomfort and the impact on the pregnant womans quality of life. This article reveals the most common risk factors, as well as treatment methods, which may help to alleviate the pain. Some suggestions for additional research are also discussed.

  1. Back to the Basics: Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Lockwood, Catherine M.; Handley, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    "Back to the Basics" is an innovation of the WETMAAP Program (Wetland Education Through Maps and Aerial Photography) which offers a series of workshops that provide training in basics ecological concepts, technological skills, and methods of interpretation necessary for assessing geography and earth science topics. The precept of the series is to…

  2. Teaching Communication: Back to the 60s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    This piece, a preface to a reprinted 1971 article on communication practice, focuses on the need for real communication in the language classroom. In this article, the author drifts back to inspiring times in the 1960s and reflects on some events that prompted him to write the article in the first place.

  3. Neuropathic pain, back to the patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Seventer (Robert)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Pain can be classified in several ways. The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) recommends describing pain according to five categories or axes, namely its anatomical location (neck, lower back, etc.), the body system involved (gastrointestinal, nervo

  4. Low back pain across the life course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Kate M; Hestbæk, Lise; Cassidy, J David

    2013-01-01

    stages. There are also factors present at particular life stages, such as childhood or adolescence, which predict back pain in adulthood. However, there are little published data on long-term pain patterns or predictors over the life course. Such studies could improve our understanding of the development...

  5. The natural course of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemeunier, Nadège; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Gagey, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Most patients in the secondary care sector consulting for low back pain (LBP) seem to have a more or less constant course of pain during the ensuing year. Fewer patients with LBP in the primary care sector report continual pain over a one-year period. However, not much is known about the long...

  6. Low Back Pain in a Tennis Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracker, Mark; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A group of physicians meet to discuss a case in which a middle-aged tennis player suffers from low back pain. The diagnosis, treatment and management of the case are discussed. The article is one in an occasional series. (JL)

  7. Solar cell with back side contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  8. Being back home after intermediate care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bente; Harder, Ingegerd; Norlyk, Annelise

    2015-01-01

    to their home before they have sufficiently recovered, but knowledge within this area is sparse. In particular the experience of older people is yet to be explored. The aim of this study was to explore older people’s experiences of being back home after a stay in an IC unit. Data were drawn from 12 interviews...

  9. Winning Students Back from McDonald's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hean, Lim Lee; Tin, Low Guat

    1996-01-01

    Describes a Singapore principal's turnaround strategy to improve his secondary students' academic performance and study habits. Principal Tong Pak Goh won students back from McDonald's and other distractions by creating an atmosphere of care and casual comfort, holding afterschool tutoring sessions for problem and latchkey kids, and counseling…

  10. Computer Programming Goes Back to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafai, Yasmin B.; Burke, Quinn

    2013-01-01

    We are witnessing a remarkable comeback of programming. Current initiatives to promote computational thinking and to broaden participation in computing signal a renewed interest to bring programming back into K-12 schools and help develop children as producers and not simply consumers of digital media. This essay explores the re-emergence of…

  11. Welcoming Grammar Back into the Writing Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devet, Bonnie

    2002-01-01

    Describes three approaches with which grammar may be welcomed back into the composition classroom. Considers how the teaching of grammar is making a comeback, with scholars acknowledging that the objections raised by process theories were valid but also investigating how to use grammar in writing classrooms, how to answer old process objections,…

  12. Ginzburg deserved Nobel prize 50 years back

    CERN Multimedia

    Golovchansky, V

    2003-01-01

    "Vitali Ginzburg deserved a Nobel prize fifty years back, Leonid Keldysh, academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, who was Ginzburg's disciple, told Tass. "The Ginzburg-Landau phenomenal theory of superconductivity deserved a Nobel prize right upon being produced. It was a work of intransient importance" (1/2 page).

  13. Acute low back pain: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della-Giustina, D; Kilcline, B A

    2000-01-01

    Low back pain is commonly seen in the primary care setting. Although the majority of patients have a benign etiology for their symptoms, one must approach these patients in a systematic fashion, looking for "red flags" of serious disease. PMID:10984818

  14. Some Efforts on Merit Pay Scaled Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Nora

    2011-01-01

    Two competing pressures--downsized budgets and rising policy interest--have left the future of performance-based teacher compensation uncertain. A dicey fiscal climate and research that has shown limited impact have led some states and districts to scale back, abandon, or change their fledgling merit-pay programs, causing observers to wonder what…

  15. Chronic low back pain in housewives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bulut

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate low back pain of housewives and to deteremine relationships between psychological status, education and physical health in housewives.Materials and methods: Thirty premenopausal housewives aged 33-45 years with chronic low back pain were included and the control group consisted of 30 healthy premenopausal housewives. Physical examinations were performed. Age, height, weight, educational level, number of children, consumption of cigarettes and alcohol were recorded. The body mass index (BDI was measured. The severity of back pain was measured by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, psychological status was evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and muscle strength by manual technique.Results: There was no difference between demographic data of patients and controls. BDI scores of patients were significantly higher than the controls (p<0,01. Abdominal and dorsal muscle strength were higher in the control group but different was not significant. OBAS values in the patient group, were positively correlated with BDI and BMI (p= 0.011; p= 0.001, respectively, and negatively correlated with abdominal and dorsal muscle strength (p= 0.006 and p= 0.001. Significant correlations were found between abdominal and dorsal muscle strength and the BMI, ODI and BDI scores and high educational level positively affected the ODI and the BDI scores in patients.Conclusion: The housewives with chronic back pain and do not exercise regularly limit activities of daily living. Because of higher BDI scores of patients with chronic low back pain, these patients should also undergo psychiatric examination. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (3: 295-298.

  16. Challenges of the pregnant athlete and low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, Megan L; Hoch, Anne Z

    2012-01-01

    Low back pain during pregnancy is a common problem with a high prevalence among pregnant athletes. The etiology of pregnancy-related low back pain remains unclear, although more evidence is supporting a biomechanical/musculoskeletal origin. This article will review the causes of low back pain in athletes and pregnant women, differentiate low back from pelvic girdle pain, and discuss the treatment and prevention of pregnancy-related low back and pelvic girdle pain.

  17. Prevalence of chronic low back pain: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Dalke Meucci; Anaclaudia Gastal Fassa; Neice Muller Xavier Faria

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate worldwide prevalence of chronic low back pain according to age and sex. METHODS We consulted Medline (PubMed), LILACS and EMBASE electronic databases. The search strategy used the following descriptors and combinations: back pain, prevalence, musculoskeletal diseases, chronic musculoskeletal pain, rheumatic, low back pain, musculoskeletal disorders and chronic low back pain. We selected cross-sectional population-based or cohort studies that assessed chronic low back pai...

  18. Low Back Pain in Port Machinery Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOVENZI, M.; PINTO, I.; STACCHINI, N.

    2002-05-01

    The occurrence of several types of low back pain (LBP) was investigated by a standardized questionnaire in a group of 219 port machinery operators exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) and postural load and in a control group of 85 maintenance workers employed at the same transport company. The group of port machinery operators included 85 straddle carrier drivers, 88 fork-lift truck drivers, and 46 crane operators. The vector sum of the frequency-weighted r.m.s. acceleration of vibration measured on the seatpan of port vehicles and machines averaged 0·90 m/s2 for fork-lift trucks, 0·48 m/s2 for straddle carriers, 0·53 m/s2 for mobile cranes, and 0·22 m/s2 for overhead cranes. The 12-month prevalence of low back symptoms (LBP, sciatic pain, treated LBP, sick leave due to LBP) was significantly greater in the fork-lift truck drivers than in the controls and the other two groups of port machinery operators. After adjusting for potential confounders, the prevalence of low back symptoms was found to increase with the increase of WBV exposure expressed as duration of exposure (driving years), equivalent vibration magnitude (m/s2), or cumulative vibration exposure (yr m2/s4). An excess risk for lumbar disc herniation was observed in the port machinery operators with prolonged driving experience. In both the controls and the port machinery operators, low back complaints were strongly associated with perceived postural load assessed in terms of frequency and/or duration of awkward postures at work. Multivariate analysis showed that vibration exposure and postural load were independent predictors of LBP. Even though the cross-sectional design of the present study does not permit firm conclusions on the relationship between WBV exposure and low back disorders, the findings of this investigation provide additional epidemiological evidence that seated WBV exposure combined with non-neutral trunk postures, as while driving, is associated with an increased risk of long

  19. Power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad; Prasai, Anish

    2016-03-08

    A power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back (BTB) converter is provided. The power flow controller provide dynamic control of both active and reactive power of a power system. The power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources at the same frequency; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between the two AC sources. A transformer may be augmented with a fractionally rated bi-directional Back to Back (BTB) converter. The fractionally rated BTB converter comprises a transformer side converter (TSC), a direct-current (DC) link, and a line side converter (LSC). By controlling the switches of the BTB converter, the effective phase angle between the two AC source voltages may be regulated, and the amplitude of the voltage inserted by the power flow controller may be adjusted with respect to the AC source voltages.

  20. Back Facts: A Training Workbook to Prevent Back Injuries in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A training workbook to prevent back injuries in nursing homes SEIU Education and Support Fund 1313 L ... short and to the point. Activity 1 - Can nursing home work be hazardous to your health? Purpose: ...

  1. Discussion on back-to-back two-stage centrifugal compressor compact design techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Lei; Liu, Huoxing

    2013-12-01

    Design a small flow back-to-back two-stage centrifugal compressor in the aviation turbocharger, the compressor is compact structure, small axial length, light weighted. Stationary parts have a great influence on their overall performance decline. Therefore, the stationary part of the back-to-back two-stage centrifugal compressor should pay full attention to the diffuser, bend, return vane and volute design. Volute also impact downstream return vane, making the flow in circumferential direction is not uniformed, and several blade angle of attack is drastically changed in downstream of the volute with the airflow can not be rotated to required angle. Loading of high-pressure rotor blades change due to non-uniformed of flow in circumferential direction, which makes individual blade load distribution changed, and affected blade passage load decreased to reduce the capability of work, the tip low speed range increases.

  2. Interventions to prevent back pain and back injury in nurses: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Anna P; McLennan, Skye N.; Schiller, Stefan D; Jull, Gwendolen A.; Hodges, Paul W.; Stewart, Simon

    2007-01-01

    A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of interventions that aim to prevent back pain and back injury in nurses. Ten relevant databases were searched; these were examined and reference lists checked. Two reviewers applied selection criteria, assessed methodological quality and extracted data from trials. A qualitative synthesis of evidence was undertaken and sensitivity analyses performed. Eight randomised controlled trials and eight non‐randomised controlle...

  3. Looking back at 'looking back': operationalising referential gaze for dingoes in an unsolvable task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bradley Philip; Litchfield, Carla Anita

    2013-11-01

    This paper examined the performance of dingoes (Canis dingo) on the rope-pulling task, previously used by Miklósi et al. (Curr Biol 13:763-766, 2003) to highlight a key distinction in the problem-solving behaviour of wolves compared to dogs when in the company of humans. That is, when dogs were confronted with an unsolvable task, following a solvable version of the task they looked back or gazed at the human, whereas, wolves did not. We replicated the rope-pulling task using 12 sanctuary-housed dingoes and used the Miklósi et al. (Curr Biol 13:763-766, 2003) definition of looking back behaviour to analyse the data. However, at least three different types of look backs were observed in our study. We, then developed a more accurate operational definition of looking back behaviour that was task specific and reanalysed the data. We found that the operational definition employed greatly influences the results, with vague definitions potentially overestimating the prevalence of looking back behaviour. Thus, caution must be taken when interpreting the results of studies utilising looking back as behaviour linked to assistance seeking during problem solving. We present a more stringent definition and make suggestions for future research.

  4. Metal gate etch-back planarization technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Lingkuan; Yin Huaxiang; Chen Dapeng; Ye Tianchun

    2012-01-01

    Planarization used in a gate-last CMOS device was successfully developed by particular technologies of SOG two-step plasma etch-back plus one special etch-back step for SOG/SiO2 interface trimming.The within-thewafer ILD thickness non-uniformity can reach 4.19% with a wafer edge exclusion of 5 mm.SEM results indicated that there was little “dish effect” on the 0.4 μm gate-stack structure and finally achieved a good planarization profile on the whole substrate.The technology provided a CMP-less process basis for sub-100 nm high-k/metal gate-last CMOS integration.

  5. Management of patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debarle, Michel; Aigron, Rémi; Depernet, Laure;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the level of consensus within the French chiropractic profession regarding management of clinical issues. A previous Swedish study showed that chiropractors agreed relatively well on the management strategy for nine low back pain scenarios. We wished to investiga...... in line with "best practice". The differences in response between the French and Swedish chiropractors suggest that cultural and/or educational differences influence the conceptual framework within which chiropractors practice....... whether those findings could be reproduced among French chiropractors.Objectives: 1. To assess the level of consensus among French chiropractors regarding management strategies for nine different scenarios of low back pain. 2. To assess whether the management choices of the French chiropractors appeared...

  6. Taxation and Venture Capital Backed Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, venture capital has increasingly become a factor in the financing of new firms. We examine how the value of mature firms determines the incentives of entrepreneurs to start up new firms and of venture capitalists to finance and advise them. We examine how capital gains taxes as well as subsidies to start-up costs of new firms affect venture capital-backed entrepreneurship. We also argue that dividend and capital gains taxes on mature firms have important con...

  7. Sri Lanka's Trade Policies: Back to Protectionism

    OpenAIRE

    Garry Pursell; F.M. Ziaul Ahsan

    2011-01-01

    In 1977 Sri Lanka was the first of the South Asian countries to decisively move away from the protectionist import-substitution trade policies that for many years had damaged their economic efficiency and hobbled their economic growth. Albeit with back-tracking episodes, Sri Lanka's liberalising trade policy reforms-especially reductions in the average level of import tariffs- were broadened and extended during the following 23 years. Together with other economic reforms this supported the ra...

  8. Use of aceclofenac (aertal) in back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Yuliya Leonidovna Korsakova; Yulia Leonidovna Korsakova

    2011-01-01

    Back pain is a generalized type of locomotor lesion that is caused by soft tissue pathology and degenerative changes in the vertebral column in most cases and by intervertebral disk herniation, spinal stenosis, compression fractures in osteoporosis, by injuries, congenital anomalies, vertebral displacement less frequently, as well as by infections, tumors, inflammatory processes in the vertebral column, and related pain. A number of rheumatic diseases, including seronegative spondylarthritis,...

  9. Back to Kinship: A General Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Read, Dwight W; El Guindi, Fadwa

    2013-01-01

    In this collection, we retrace some of the historical development of the anthropological study of kinship and go back to the concepts and ideas that we, as anthropologists, had previously been circulating about kinship knowledge.  We address issues that have been raised about the study of kinship, the place of kinship in anthropological knowledge and what constitutes kinship on the basis of local knowledge.

  10. Low back pain and degenerative disc disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jandrić Slavica; Antić Branislav

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Various clinical conditions can cause low back pain, and in most cases it is of a degenerative origin. Degenerative disc disease is a common condition which affects young to middle-aged men and women equally. Changes in the mechanical properties of the disc lead to degenerative arthritis in the intervertebral joints, osteophytes, and narrowing the intervertebral foramen or the spinal canal. Pathophysiology. Degenerative cascade, described by Kirkaldy-Willis, is the widely accept...

  11. SINOPEC TO BUY BACK FOUR LISTED SUBSIDIARIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Sinopec will buy back its four listed subsidiaries - Sinopec Qilu Petrochemical Co, Sinopec Yangzi Petrochemical Co, Sinopec Zhongyuan Petroleum Co, and Sinopec Shengli Oilfield Dynamic Group Co - at a cash offer of 14.3 billion yuan (US$1.78 billion), the company announced in mid-February. This transaction is a move made by Sinopec to deliver their promises at IPO in 2000 which include restructuring its assets in order to strengthen the competence of its core business.

  12. Looking Back on the Stock Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Looking back at the ups and downs of China's stock market in 2007,it is clear that it has developed far beyond people's expectation. While the stock index constantly reaches new highs and the size of the market becomes larger and larger, the Chinese financial market has also reintegrated. A multi-level revolution occurred in 2007, involving changes in stock structure, the variety of core composition, chip cost of the capital market, investor makeup, as well as trade rules and operational methods.

  13. Therapeutic exercise in chronic low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OJOGA, Florina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of patients with low back pain is very important because the incidence of this symptom is very high among all ages, but especially after forty years. The rehabilitation team must perform a detailed clinical exam and an assessment of the functional limitations and functional goals to achieve at the end of the treatment for every patient. The goals of the therapy are normalization of impairments in flexibility, strength and endurance, and of course, reducing of pain.

  14. Back to work for the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On 22 June, the PS's rotating machine started turning again for the first time since its enforced shutdown one month ago (see Bulletin No. 23-24/2006) - and the PS was back in operation the very next day! A team from Siemens worked their socks off, 6 days a week for one month (including public holidays), to repair the electrical power supply in collaboration with the AB/PO Group's Main Power Converters (MPC) Section. The generator's faulty rotor was dismantled and replaced by the renovated spare rotor. The multitude of electrical and mechanical connections together with the sheer weight of the rotor (80 tonnes) made this an extremely complex job. The AB/PO Group used the shutdown to test a back-up solution for the PS power supply. The accelerator was directly wired up to the 18 kV electrical network via a 13 MVA transformer, installed at the end of the 1970s but never used. This solution succeeded in bringing the PS back into operation but at limited energy and frequency. Just 14 GeV could be achieved, whic...

  15. PROTOCOL OF TREATMENT IN LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Guimbala dos Santos Araujo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain can be considered as one of the main factors that lead to decreased functional capacity of the human being. Being a frequent dysfunction in people, causing a decrease in quality of life, productivity and functional disability and is associated with important social and economic impact. Therefore the objective of the research was to assess the treatment protocols in low back pain. The study is characterized by being a literature of scientific articles, based on data published in PubMed, SciELO, BIREME and Cochrane from 2000 to 2012. We found eight scientific articles that addressed physical therapy methods in the treatment of low back pain, including a literature review. Related Articles show variation from one to 55 patients in groups, with a total of 185 patients studied. It was concluded then that it hasn’t met a specific treatment that is placed as the most effective for this pathology, although all include electrotherapy, manual therapy, exercise and RPG they show significant results in pain relief, quality of life thereby increasing functionality.

  16. Lombalgia ocupacional Occupational low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Helfenstein Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A lombalgia ocupacional apresenta etiologia multifatorial, elevada prevalência e incidência. Caracterizada por quadro de dor de variada duração e intensidade, a dor lombar pode levar à incapacidade laborativa e à invalidez. A lombalgia acarreta sofrimento aos trabalhadores, custos às empresas, aos sistemas previdenciário e assistencial de saúde. Os autores, pela relevância do tema, elaboraram este artigo de revisão bibliográfica dando ênfase ao embasamento teorico-conceitual e à experiência de especialistas.The occupational low back pain presents multifactorial aetiology, important prevalence and incidence. Characterized by pain of varying duration and intensity, low back pain may lead to disability. Low back pain causes suffering to workers, implies costs to companies, to the social security and health assistance system. Because of the theme's relevance, the authors have elaborated this review of literature with emphasis on a theoretical and conceptual basis, as well as experience of experts.

  17. BACK PAIN SYNDROME: MODERN APPROACHES TO THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shostak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe management tactics in patients with back pain syndrome and to give recommendations for the choice of non-drug and drug treatments (with main drug groups and the duration of a treatment cycle. Materials and methods. The paper considers the basic mechanisms and causes of back pain syndromes (dorsalgias. It introduces the concept “dorsopathy” that characterizes the appearance of nonvisceral pain syndrome in the extremities and trunk, which is caused by degenerative processes in the vertebral motion segment. The authors provide a description of spondyloarthrosis, one of the main degenerative diseases of the spine, and give current principles of treatment for the major symptoms of the disease. Results. The main goal of treatment in patients with back pain is to relieve pain syndrome. Selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the medicaments of choice. Conclusion. This paper covers current approaches to managing patients with spondyloarthrosis and gives recommendations regarding the treatment of the major disease manifestation – pain syndrome. 

  18. Back Bay: Report on Salinity and Water Clarity in 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Salinity, turbidity and various other water quality parameters were monitored monthly in 1986 at 24 stations on Back Bay. Results show Back Bay to be brackish (mean...

  19. Fishery Management Program Progress Report: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum containing summary of fishery biologist's visit to Back Bay to remove carp from impoundments at Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge.

  20. Work-related risk factors for low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogendoorn, W.E.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis work-related risk factors for low back pain are investigated. Low back pain is one of the most common work-related health problems. It has a considerable impact on sickness absence and work disability. Originally, the focus of most occupational research on low back pain was directed towards physical factors. Recently, however, the study of psychosocial work characteristics has also become an important aspect of epidemiological studies on low back pain in occupational settings. ...

  1. THE CURRENT PROBLEMS OF NONSPECIFIC BACK PAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznova, S; Zabara, A; Mamuladze, D

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with various aspects of pain in degenerative diseases of the spine and with the actual problems of non-specific back pain. The data on the mechanisms of pain and analgesic treatment algorithms of the patients with radicular syndrome, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies is provided. The effect of structural-modifying drugs in relief of nonspecific back pain was investigated and compared with a traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy in combination with B vitamins, without chondroprotectors. The study population was composed of 85 patients (42 men and 43 women) aged 38 to 68 years (mean age - (46,3±2,6) years) with chronic vertebral pain syndromes (VPS). For objectification assessment of pain, severity of pain, and evaluate the effectiveness of therapy we used the visual analog scale (VAS).The majority (88%) of the patients included in the study, complained of a moderately severe pain (from 40 to 70 mm on the VAS). Patients were divided into two groups. The first (primary) group consisted of 55 patients (30 men and 25 women). The following treatment was applied: all patients of the first group, in addition to the NSAID administered with hondroprotektror arbitrarily - Struktum 1000 mg twice a day or 300 mg Piaskledin once a day for 40-60 days.The second (control) group consisted of 30 patients (14 men, 16 women). Patients in the control group administered with a traditional NSAID therapy in combination with B vitamins, without chondroprotectors. The results of the study on the influence of drugs Piaskledin 300, Struktum for the relief of nonspecific back pain revealed that in the treatment of vertebral pain, a combination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with structure-modifying agents could achieve rapid rehabilitation of patients with locomotor activity and improve quality of life in general. PMID:26870977

  2. Work-related back pain in nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hignett, S

    1996-06-01

    This summary draws together the findings form over 80 studies published over three decades. The studies reviewed are categorized into three groups: (a) epidemiological; (b) 'testing out'; and (c) exploratory. There has been agreement on a number of points, in particular that nursing is among the high risk occupations with respect to low back problems, with a point prevalence of approximately 17%, an annual (period) prevalence of 40-50% and a lifetime prevalence of 35-80%. When considering the contributory factors there is some divergence, but one of the popular notions is generally proven, that more frequent patient handling appears to correlate with increased incidence of low back pain. However, the traditional approach of training in lifting and handling techniques alone has been shown to be of little, or no, long-term benefit and the value of ergonomics remains to be seen. Much work has also been done by taking aspects of nursing work into the laboratory, using experimental studies which have mostly focused on specific sub-tasks (of the generic task of patient handling), looking at specific transfers and procedures (e.g. bed to chair) or transfer techniques ('stoop versus squat'). Although a level of quantification can be made about the different techniques, it is questionable whether this is of any practical use, especially when considering the wide variation of loads encountered during manual handling of patients. The limitations of using quantitative methodologies is revealed in the very small number of exploratory studies. All of the studies cited in this review used methodologies based in the positivist paradigm. There does not appear to be any published work using participative or interview methods to obtain qualitative data which might identify contributory factors in the onset of occupational low back pain in nursing staff. PMID:8796474

  3. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  4. Einstein wrote back my life in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Moffat, John W

    2012-01-01

    John W. Moffat was a poor student of math and science. That is, until he read Einstein's famous paper on general relativity. Realizing instantly that he had an unusual and unexplained aptitude for understanding the complex physics described in the paper, Moffat wrote a letter to Einstein that would change the course of his life. Einstein Wrote Back tells the story of Moffat's unusual entry into the world of academia and documents his career at the frontlines of twentieth-century physics as he worked and associated with some of the greatest minds in scientific history, including Niels Bohr,

  5. Research methods for subgrouping low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Keating, Jennifer L; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    important distinctions in their treatment needs or prognoses. Due to a proliferation of research methods and variability in how subgrouping results are interpreted, it is timely to open discussion regarding a conceptual framework for the research designs and statistical methods available for subgrouping...... studies (a method framework). The aims of this debate article are: (1) to present a method framework to inform the design and evaluation of subgrouping research in low back pain, (2) to describe method options when investigating prognostic effects or subgroup treatment effects, and (3) to discuss...... the strengths and limitations of research methods suitable for the hypothesis-setting phase of subgroup studies....

  6. Low Back Pain: Current Surgical Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Baliga, Santosh; Treon, Katrina; Craig, Niall John Angus

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a worldwide phenomenon. The UK studies place LBP as the largest single cause of absence from work; up to 80% of the population will experience LBP at least once in their lifetime. Most individuals do not seek medical care and are not disabled by their pain once it is managed by nonoperative measures. However, around 10% of patients go on to develop chronic pain. This review outlines the basics of the traditional approach to spinal surgery for chronic LBP secondary to os...

  7. 26 CFR 1.460-6 - Look-back method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) for the redetermination year, as adjusted for past applications of the look-back method and taking... the year in question with respect to other contracts. Notwithstanding the look-back method, the...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-6 Look-back method. (a)...

  8. Low back pain history and postural sway in unstable sitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieën, J.H. van; Koppes, L.L.J.; Twisk, J.W.R.

    2010-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN.: A cross-sectional study comparing subjects with self-reported low back pain, recent low back, and no low back pain. OBJECTIVE.: To determine differences in trunk postural control between groups. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Poor postural control has been demonstrated in patients with

  9. The discriminative value of inflammatory back pain in patients with persistent low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbak, Bodil Al-Mashhadi; Hendricks, Oliver; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of inflammatory back pain (IBP) characteristics and analyse the discriminative value of IBP relative to axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) according to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) criteria. METHOD: Patients who had low back pain...... value was low, as IBP could not differentiate patients with SpA according to ASAS criteria from patients with other causes of back pain....... the pain characteristics included in the Calin, Berlin, and ASAS IBP definitions. RESULTS: Of the 759 included patients, 99% [95% confidence interval (CI) 98-100] had at least one IBP characteristic. The prevalence of the single IBP characteristics ranged from 10% (95% CI 7-12) for 'pain worst...

  10. A new fabrication technique for back-to-back varactor diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Peter; Choudhury, Debabani; Martin, Suzanne; Frerking, Margaret A.; Liu, John K.; Grunthaner, Frank A.

    1992-01-01

    A new varactor diode process has been developed in which much of the processing is done from the back of an extremely thin semiconductor wafer laminated to a low-dielectric substrate. Back-to-back BNN diodes were fabricated with this technique; excellent DC and low-frequency capacitance measurements were obtained. Advantages of the new technique relative to other techniques include greatly reduced frontside wafer damage from exposure to process chemicals, improved capability to integrate devices (e.g. for antenna patterns, transmission lines, or wafer-scale grids), and higher line yield. BNN diodes fabricated with this technique exhibit approximately the expected capacitance-voltage characteristics while showing leakage currents under 10 mA at voltages three times that needed to deplete the varactor. This leakage is many orders of magnitude better than comparable Schottky diodes.

  11. Potential Risk Factors of Persistent Low Back Pain Developing from Mild Low Back Pain in Urban Japanese Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ko Matsudaira; Hiroaki Konishi; Kota Miyoshi; Tatsuya Isomura; Kyoko Inuzuka

    2014-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Two-year, prospective cohort data from the Japan epidemiological research of occupation-related back pain study in urban settings were used for this analysis. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between aggravated low back pain and psychosocial factors among Japanese workers with mild low back pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although psychosocial factors are strongly indicated as yellow flags of low back pain (LBP) leading to disability, the association between aggravated LB...

  12. Low back pain and degenerative disc disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandrić Slavica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Various clinical conditions can cause low back pain, and in most cases it is of a degenerative origin. Degenerative disc disease is a common condition which affects young to middle-aged men and women equally. Changes in the mechanical properties of the disc lead to degenerative arthritis in the intervertebral joints, osteophytes, and narrowing the intervertebral foramen or the spinal canal. Pathophysiology. Degenerative cascade, described by Kirkaldy-Willis, is the widely accepted pathophysiologic model describing the degenerative process as it affects the lumbar spine in 3 phases. Diagnosis. There are two forms of low back pain secondary to degenerative disc disease: a lumbalgia and b lumbar radiculopathy. Limitation of movement, problems with balance, pain, loss of reflexes in the extremities, muscle weakness, loss of sensation or other signs of neurological damage can be found on physical examination. For accurate diagnosis, it is often necessary to combine clinical examination and sophisticated technology. Treatment. Coservative treatment consists of rest, physical therapy, pharmacological therapy and injection therapy. Physical rehabilitation with active patient participation is a key approach to treatment of patients with discogenic pain. Physical therapy, occupational therapy and kinesitherapy are important for improving muscle strength, endurance, and flexibility. Disc surgery is performed if surgical intervention is required. .

  13. [Low back pain in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzycki, Marian; Mrozikiewicz, Przemysław M; Kocur, Piotr; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Hoffmann, Marcin; Stryła, Wanda; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2010-11-01

    Pain of lumbosacral segment of the vertebral column and the pelvis concerns about 45% of all pregnant women. The change of the body posture during pregnancy is the result of gravity centre relocation, which affects the musculosceletal system. Development of the joint, ligament and myofascial dysfunctions, as well as the pain in the lumbosacral segment and the pelvis, are the most common reasons of spine pain. The aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge about lumbar spine pain in pregnant women with special focus on the pain connected with muscular, joint and ligament disorders. Pregnancy is a serious burden for the female osteo-skeletal system. Lumbar pain with different location and intensification is the negative consequence of the position changes during pregnancy. Pharmacotherapy could be useful only in cases of intensive low back pain, with possible application of small spectrum of drugs that are safe during pregnancy. Physical therapy including manual therapy exercises, massage and techniques of local anesthesia are alternative methods in case of low back pain in pregnant women.

  14. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0 deg. to 50 deg. because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture

  15. Expectation of recovery from low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Vach, Werner; Axø, Marie;

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. A prospective cohort study conducted in general practice (GP) and chiropractic practice (CP).Objectives. To explore which patient characteristics were associated with recovery expectations in low back pain (LBP) patients, whether expectations predicted 3-month outcome, and to what e...... to an empirically predicted prognosis. Expectations were significantly associated with outcome, and may, at least for some outcomes, be a relevant proxy for more complex models. Future studies should explore the effect of addressing negative recovery expectations.......Study Design. A prospective cohort study conducted in general practice (GP) and chiropractic practice (CP).Objectives. To explore which patient characteristics were associated with recovery expectations in low back pain (LBP) patients, whether expectations predicted 3-month outcome, and to what...... participants completed questionnaires at their first consultation due to LBP and 78% were followed for 3 months. At baseline, recovery expectations were measured on a 0-10 scale. Outcome measures were LBP intensity and Global Perceived Effect (GPE). Associations were tested in regression models...

  16. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braidot, A. A.; Brusa, M. H.; Lestussi, F. E.; Parera, G. P.

    2007-11-01

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0° to 50° because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture.

  17. LS1 Report: PS beams are back!

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony & Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    For the first time in over 15 months, there are beams back in the PS. Making their first tour of the accelerator today, 20 June, their injection marks the end of weeks of cold checkouts and hardware commissioning in the PS.   The CERN Control Centre (CCC) is back in business: people gather to restart the LHC injectors, today the PS. Since hardware commissioning was wrapped up on 23 May, the Operations Group (BE-OP) has been conducting cold checkouts on the PS. This involves switching on all of the machine's systems, verifying that they respond to commands by OP and ensuring they are calibrated to beam timings. "These verifications were done, in part, during the hardware commissioning dry runs," says Rende Steerenberg, PS section leader. "But the cold checkouts are on a much larger scale, as we act as if there is beam in the whole machine. We placed a full load on the controls system, cooling, networks, etc. in order to setup the accelerator in the most realis...

  18. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braidot, A A [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Brusa, M H [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Lestussi, F E [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Parera, G P [Licenciatura en KinesiologIa y FisiatrIa Universidad Abierta Interamericana. Sede Regional Rosario (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0 deg. to 50 deg. because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture.

  19. Study on the Back Rest System of Looms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈革; 毛立民; 周亚勤; 袁立新

    2004-01-01

    Periodic variations of warp tension during a weaving cycle result in corresponding change of back rest position, and the oscillation of back rest affects the fluctuation of warp yarn in return. A mechanical model of back rest system of looms is presented on basis of auto control theory, and the factors affecting the dynamic performance of the back rest are analyzed. In the model, warp yarn is regarded as a viscoelastic medium, and the adjustable parameters and the adjusting range of the back rest system are increased, so the ioom's applicability for the fabric's variety is enlanced.Finally, the methods of designing and adjusting the back rest are discussed, and a trend of back rest system development is given.

  20. The course of low back pain from adolescence to adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm;

    2006-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study with 8-year follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To describe the evolution of low back pain from adolescence into adulthood. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: High prevalence rates of low back pain among children and adolescents have been demonstrated in several studies, and it has been...... theorized that low back pain in childhood may have important consequences for future low back pain. It is important to understand the nature of such a link if effective preventive programs are to be established. METHODS: Almost 10,000 Danish twins born between 1972 and 1982 were surveyed by means of postal...... questionnaires in 1994 and again in 2002. The questionnaires dealt with various aspects of general health, including the prevalence of low back pain, classified according to number of days affected (0, 1-7, 8-30, >30). RESULTS: Low back pain in adolescence was found to be a significant risk factor for low back...

  1. Back-to-back tunable ferroelectric resonator filters on flexible organic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courrèges, Stanis; Lacroix, Benjamin; Amadjikpe, Arnaud; Phillips, Stan; Zhao, Zhiyong; Choi, Kwang; Hunt, Andrew; Papapolymerou, John

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents the design and the fabrication of two low-loss X-band back-to-back tunable ferroelectric resonator filters on flexible liquid crystal polymer substrates using wire-bonded BST capacitors as analog tuning elements. The back-to-back topology consists of three resonators on both sides of the substrate coupled by apertures in their common ground plane, allowing the overall size of the filter to be reduced. BST varactors made on a sapphire substrate are easily diced and mounted on the polymer substrates to achieve the desired tuning. Both 3-pole tunable filters show a 1-dB bandwidth of 8 to 10%, low insertion loss (3.6 to 1.95 dB for the best one) with bias voltages from 0 to 35 V, a better compactness compared with classical tunable structures (reduced footprint area by 30% for the best filter) and a frequency tuning of about 11 to 13% at 8 GHz. The demonstrated feasibility opens interesting prospects for the fabrication of compact tunable filters with more resonators.

  2. Low back pain and everyday activities : the influence of axial rotation on low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.L.J.M. van Deursen (Leo)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractLow back pain (LBP) is a major problem in the industrialized world. The aetiology of LBP is multicausal: heavy physical workload, sedentary work, whole body vibration, smoking, as well as minimal influence over work conditions, poor social relations and psychological factors all play a d

  3. Who's Not Going Back to School? How Sequestration Is Scaling Back Early Childhood Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, in many communities across the country, some children will not be showing up for school this year (2013). Classrooms will shut down and teachers will look for other employment opportunities. This school year, approximately 57,000 of our youngest children in the Head Start program will not be going back to school. The cuts are the…

  4. From nature to computing and back

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke TANG; Xin YAO

    2009-01-01

    @@ Nature has been the source of inspiration for many computational algorithms and promoted the emergence of an interdisciplinary research field called nature inspired computation, which studies computational systems and methodologies that are inspired by and/or borrow ideas from natural systems. In the past decades, scientific research in nature inspired computation has evolved substantially and diverse field of research topics have arisen.On one hand, a variety of novel computational techniques haven been developed via mimicking the behaviors of natural systems, e.g., evolutionary computation, neural computation, swarm intelligence, etc. On the other hand,the developments of these computational techniques result in powerful tools for understanding the nature, and thus benefit the advance of related fields, such as biology, chemistry and material science. This special section aims at bringing together some of the latest results that have been obtained in both directions, i.e., from nature to computing and back.

  5. [Low back pain during pregnancy. Multidisciplinary approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Padilla, D; Gallo-Padilla, C; Gallo-Vallejo, F J; Gallo-Vallejo, J L

    2016-09-01

    After explaining that low back pain is considered the most common pregnancy complication, its pathogenesis, risk factors and the clinical characteristics of the very painful symptoms of this condition are described. As for its approach, it is stressed that it must be multidisciplinary, introducing very important preventive measures, including proper postural hygiene. For its treatment, the methods may be based on non-surgical or pharmacological interventions of a conservative non-invasive nature. Thus, physiotherapy, osteopathic manipulation, multimodal intervention (exercise and education), exercises performed in water environment, acupuncture, etc., have proven to be effective. Finally, it is emphasised that given the significant impact on their quality of life, different health professionals must be proactive and treat the lumbar disease in pregnant women. PMID:26239672

  6. Turned Back: Mad Men as Intermedial Melodrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Rooney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay draws on definitions of gesture (Giorgio Agamben and Peter Brooks and catachresis (Peter Brooks, Jacques Derrida to examine the primacy of non-verbal signifiers as communicators of meaning in AMC’s Mad Men. Beginning with an analysis of Mad Men’s credit sequence, it draws attention to Mad Men’s use of gesture and catachresis in relation to melodrama’s privileging of non-verbal and naturalistic expression and its persistence as an intermedial mode that has moved back and forth between various media (theatre, novel, cinema, television and now digital formats. It argues that Mad Men’s melodramatic aesthetic is one that obliquely, and via a gestural and rhetorical ‘turned back’, communicates its relation to the past and the present.

  7. Low back pain following a fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael J

    2013-08-01

    The patient was a 29-year-old man who presented to an emergency department with a chief complaint of low back pain. Symptom onset occurred 3 weeks earlier, following a fall off a roof. The physician ordered radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spines, which were interpreted as normal. After receiving the results of the radiographs, the physician referred the patient to a physical therapist working in the emergency department. Because of the strong suspicion for a fracture and because radiographs are not considered to be sensitive to some of the bony changes associated with fractures,1 computed tomography imaging of the thoracic and lumbar spines was ordered. The computed tomography imaging revealed multilevel, small end-plate compression defects, most marked at T12-L1, with mild anterior wedging and retropulsion of a small bone fragment at L1. PMID:23902792

  8. Putting 'Local' Back into Public Wifi Hotspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2012-01-01

    Public Wifi hotspots in cafes and public places are based on wireless local area network technology (WLAN). In contrast to the common understanding of connecting directly to the internet when connecting to a Wifi hotspot, we are proposing to bring the original notion of connecting to a local...... network back to the fore. By hooking into the act of a user connecting to a local network, we see a design space emerge that allows us to spur various (off- and on-line) activities in a hyperlocal context. We propose to (re-)explore this notion of the locality of networks in the age of the ubiquitous Wifi...... hotspot in cafes, bars, community centers, and other (semi-)public places in order to facilitate co-located activities for such varied purposes as fostering local community, civic participation, sociality in general, and entertainment. We propose a network locality that builds on local infrastructure...

  9. [Low back pain during pregnancy. Multidisciplinary approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Padilla, D; Gallo-Padilla, C; Gallo-Vallejo, F J; Gallo-Vallejo, J L

    2016-09-01

    After explaining that low back pain is considered the most common pregnancy complication, its pathogenesis, risk factors and the clinical characteristics of the very painful symptoms of this condition are described. As for its approach, it is stressed that it must be multidisciplinary, introducing very important preventive measures, including proper postural hygiene. For its treatment, the methods may be based on non-surgical or pharmacological interventions of a conservative non-invasive nature. Thus, physiotherapy, osteopathic manipulation, multimodal intervention (exercise and education), exercises performed in water environment, acupuncture, etc., have proven to be effective. Finally, it is emphasised that given the significant impact on their quality of life, different health professionals must be proactive and treat the lumbar disease in pregnant women.

  10. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Jensen, Lone Donbæk;

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Altered postural control has been observed in low back pain (LBP) patients. They seem to be more dependent on vision when standing. The objective of the study was to determine concurrent and predictive validity of measures of postural stability in LBP patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS....... CONCLUSION: This first study of concurrent and predictive validity of postural balance in LBP patients revealed no association between CoP measures and pain, fear of pain, and physical function.......: Centre of Pressure (CoP) measurements were tested against pain, fear of pain, and physical function. Velocity, anterior-posterior displacement, and the Romberg Ratio obtained on a portable force platform were used as measures of postural stability. RESULTS: Baseline and 12-week follow-up results of 97...

  11. Recommended protocol for failed back surgery syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhr Tabatabaei SA

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS is many a times an intractable problem confronted in patients with surgical disease of lumbar spine and at the same time is a pressing problem for the physicians as well. This clinical entity is defined as continuation of pain in the lumbar region and lower extremities following surgery of the lumbar spine. Knowledge of the etiological factors and their prevention is the best line of treatment to overcome the evolution of this syndrome. During this study, which was conducted in Imam Khomeini hospital Tehran from the year 1989 till 1990, 43 out of 114 patients developed "FBSS". 23 cases responded to conservative treatment and psychotherapy whereas medical treatment failed to achieve fruitful results in the rest. The latter underwent extensive radiological investigations and repeat surgery. According to this study, we recommend that in the initial management of these patients. The surgeon should observe the dictum of "5-mis" to overcome and minimize the "FBSS" entity

  12. CERN firefighters have got your back covered

    CERN Multimedia

    The Fire Brigade

    2011-01-01

    There’s not much room in the centre of a detector. Ensuring the safety of technicians who have to work on components close to the collision point is an absolute priority. With this firmly in mind, the Fire Brigade has recently acquired a back immobilisation device known as a spine splint.   CERN firefighters show off their new spine splint. Conscious of the potential safety hazards for personnel working on ALICE’s inner detectors, the collaboration’s GLIMOS, Fernando Pedrosa, asked the Fire Brigade to organise an exercise in March to simulate the emergency evacuation of a person from the centre of the detector. Despite the exceptionally limited space available in the centre of ALICE, the Fire Brigade successfully met the challenge. However, although specially designed for emergency evacuations, the cumbersome dimensions of the stretcher used in this first exercise caused many problems.   Following the exercise, the Fire Brigade therefore inves...

  13. Hypnosis treatment for chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Gabriel; Fukui, Tenley; Jensen, Mark P; Thornby, John; Waldman, Karen L

    2010-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a significant healthcare problem, and many individuals with CLBP remain unresponsive to available interventions. Previous research suggests that hypnosis is effective for many chronic pain conditions; however, data to support its efficacy for CLBP are outdated and have been limited primarily to case studies. This pilot study indicated that a brief, 4-session standardized self-hypnosis protocol, combined with psycho-education, significantly and substantially reduced pain intensity and pain interference. Significant session-to-session improvements were also noted on pain ratings and mood states; however, follow-up data suggest that these benefits may not have been maintained across time in this sample. These findings need to be replicated and confirmed in a larger clinical trial, which could also assess the long-term effects of this treatment. PMID:20183738

  14. Psychological Distress in Acute Low Back Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, William S; Hartvigsen, Jan; Woiszwillo, Mary J;

    2016-01-01

    comparison groups, and established clinical cutoff scores. DATA SYNTHESIS: Of 10,876 unique records, 23 articles (17 studies) were included. The most common measures were the Beck Depression Inventory, the modified version of the Zung Self-Rated Depression Scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies......-Depression Scale, and the Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Pooled results for these scales showed consistent elevations in depression, but not anxiety, and reduced mental health status in comparison with the general population......OBJECTIVE: To characterize the measurement scales and levels of psychological distress reported among published studies of acute low back pain (LBP) in the scientific literature. DATA SOURCES: Peer-reviewed scientific literature found in 8 citation index search engines (CINAHL, Embase, MANTIS, Psyc...

  15. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Jensen, Lone Donbæk;

    2011-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) patients have poorer postural control compared to healthy controls, and the importance of assessing and addressing balance is a matter of debate. In the clinic, balance is often tested by means of the one leg stand test (OLST) while research often employs center of pressure (Co......P) on a force platform. Portable force platforms might be of clinical relevance, but their reliability for LBP patients in a clinical setting has not been demonstrated. As LBP patients are more dependent on vision compared to healthy controls, the ratio of tests performed with eyes open and eyes closed (Romberg...... Ratio) might be of clinical interest. This study aimed to assess postural balance in LBP patients by analyzing intra-session reliability of CoP parameters on a portable force platform, the Romberg Ratio, and the OLST. Furthermore, we aimed to determine whether CoP parameters and OLST measure identical...

  16. Topical tar: Back to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A. [University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

  17. Low Back Pain in Primary Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbæk, Lise; Munck, Anders; Hartvigsen, Lisbeth;

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. Baseline description of a multicenter cohort study. Objective. To describe patients with low back pain (LBP) in both chiropractic and general practice in Denmark. Background. To optimize standards of care in the primary healthcare sector, detailed knowledge of the patient populations...... in different settings is needed. In Denmark, most LBP-patients access primary healthcare through chiropractic or general practice. Methods. Chiropractors and general practitioners recruited adult patients seeking care for LBP. Extensive baseline questionnaires were obtained and descriptive analyses presented...... separately for general and chiropractic practice patients, Mann-Whitney rank sum test and Pearson's chi-square test, were used to test for differences between the two populations. Results. Questionnaires were returned from 934 patients in chiropractic practice and 319 patients from general practice. Four out...

  18. Low back pain and lumbar angles in Turkish coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarikaya, S.; Ozdolap, S.; Gumustas, S.; Koc, U. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Medicine

    2007-02-15

    This study was designed to assess the incidence of low back pain among Turkish coal miners and to investigate the relationship between angles of the lumbar spine and low back pain in coal miners. Fifty underground workers (Group I) and 38 age-matched surface workers (Group II) were included in the study. All the subjects were asked about low back pain in the past 5 years. The prevalence of low back pain was higher in Group I than in Group II (78.0%, 32.4%, respectively, P {lt} 0.001). The results of the study showed that low back pain occurred in 78.0% of Turkish coal miners. Although the nature of the occupation may have influenced coal miners' lumbar spinal curvature, lumbar angles are not a determinant for low back pain in this population. Further extensive studies involving ergonomic measurements are needed to validate our results for Turkish coal mining industry.

  19. Implementation Decision-making of WEEE Take-Back Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Ji

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, based on the objective of social welfare maximization, the issues of take-back network, recycling targets setting, recovery catalogs sorting, supervision and stimulation of take-back models are discussed. Conclusion demonstrates that: manufacturers, recyclers and consumers do not always share the same preference over three patterns, but the mode of manufacture-leading take-back can reach maximum social welfare; the most efficient network system should be around the manufacturer individual take-back responsibility to build; the take-back level and the recovery catalogs must synthesize the factors involve environmental impact of product, take-back cost/benefit and recycling and manufacturing industries' market structure etc., the supervision and stimulation decision matrix associated with the PROs is as an effective tool to balance the environmental benefits and social welfare.

  20. Advanced Control Strategy of Back-to-Back PWM Converters in PMSG Wind Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Luong Van

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a control scheme of back-to-back PWM converters for the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG wind turbine system. The DC-link voltage can be controlled at the machine-side converter (MSC, while the grid-side converter (GSC controls the grid active power for a maximum power point tracking (MPPT. At the grid fault condition, the DC-link voltage controller is designed using a feedback linearization (FL theory. For the MPPT, a proportional control loop is added to the torque control to reduce the influence of the inertia moment in the wind turbines, which can improve its dynamic performance. The validity of this control algorithm has been verified by the simulation of the 2-MW PMSG wind turbine system.

  1. Studies of the nucleon structure in back-to-back SIDIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong interactions, which was a major focus in last decades. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS), with detection of an additional hadron allowed first studies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides access to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the Electron Ion Collider, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back in the current and target fragmentation regions, combined with clear separation of two regions, would provide a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions.

  2. Back-to-back correlations of boson-antiboson pairs for anisotropic expanding sources

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Wei-Ning

    2015-01-01

    In the hot and dense hadronic sources formed in high energy heavy ion collisions, the particle interactions in medium might lead to a measurable back-to-back correlation (BBC) of boson-antiboson pairs. We calculate the BBC functions of $\\phi\\,\\phi$ and $K^+K^-$ for anisotropic expanding sources. The dependences of the BBC on the particle momentum and source expanding velocity are investigated. The results indicate that the BBC functions increase with the magnitude of particle momentum and exhibit an obvious dependence on the direction of the momentum for the anisotropic sources. As the source expanding velocity decreases, the BBC function decreases when the particle momentum is approximately perpendicular to the source velocity, and the BBC function increases when the particle momentum is approximately parallel to the source velocity.

  3. BREATHING PATTERNS IN PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka P. Ostwal; Wani S K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low Back pain is common clinical condition encountered in a day to day Physiotherapy practice. Very few authors has so far documented changes in breathing patterns in low back pain while performing certain motor control tests. Purpose: The aim of the study was to observe the breathing pattern in individuals with low back pain (LBP) both at rest and during motor control tasks. Material and Method: 150 patients with LBP participated in this study and they were subcategorized ...

  4. Correlations Between Biopsychosocial Variables and Low Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Feldt, Kimberly A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the correlations between biopsychosocial variables and low back pain. 160 German females and 110 German males (N = 270) completed a battery of questionnaires assessing their pain experience (chronicity and intensity), comorbidities, and causal attributions about disease onset. Significant relationships were found beween chronic back pain and higher age, lower education, and higher depression scale scores. Higher intensity back pain was significantly associated with being f...

  5. "Low back pain"--下腰痛?腰痛?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗军; 夏群

    2005-01-01

    @@ "Low back pain"一词在国内绝大多数译文或译著中被译为"下腰痛",也有作者将其译为"下背痛".笔者认为这些译法不妥,曲解了"low back pain"的原意.此词翻译的关键在于对"low back"一词解剖部位的理解上.

  6. Evaluation of the Back College for nursing staff

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Peter; Pietsch, Aki; Harling, Melanie; Behl-Schön, Susanne; Nienhaus, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Background Work-related musculoskeletal pain- particularly back pain - is an important individual and socioeconomic problem. The Back College for the insurance holders of the Institution for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention in the Health and Welfare Services (BGW) is based on a multimodal concept and has been evaluated with respect to pain relief and continuing in the nursing profession. Methods In a retrospective cohort study, the participants in the Back College from 2009 to 2011...

  7. Prevalence of chronic low back pain: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Dalke Meucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To estimate worldwide prevalence of chronic low back pain according to age and sex.METHODS We consulted Medline (PubMed, LILACS and EMBASE electronic databases. The search strategy used the following descriptors and combinations: back pain, prevalence, musculoskeletal diseases, chronic musculoskeletal pain, rheumatic, low back pain, musculoskeletal disorders and chronic low back pain. We selected cross-sectional population-based or cohort studies that assessed chronic low back pain as an outcome. We also assessed the quality of the selected studies as well as the chronic low back pain prevalence according to age and sex.RESULTS The review included 28 studies. Based on our qualitative evaluation, around one third of the studies had low scores, mainly due to high non-response rates. Chronic low back pain prevalence was 4.2% in individuals aged between 24 and 39 years old and 19.6% in those aged between 20 and 59. Of nine studies with individuals aged 18 and above, six reported chronic low back pain between 3.9% and 10.2% and three, prevalence between 13.1% and 20.3%. In the Brazilian older population, chronic low back pain prevalence was 25.4%.CONCLUSIONS Chronic low back pain prevalence increases linearly from the third decade of life on, until the 60 years of age, being more prevalent in women. Methodological approaches aiming to reduce high heterogeneity in case definitions of chronic low back pain are essential to consistency and comparative analysis between studies. A standard chronic low back pain definition should include the precise description of the anatomical area, pain duration and limitation level.

  8. The Areva Group back-end division - challenges and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the Areva Group back-end division challenges and prospects. Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, analyzes in this document, the high-profile mix of complementary activities of the nuclear energy industry, concerning the back-end division the full range of services for the end of the fuel cycle, the fuel cycle back-end markets, the economic and financial associated considerations. (A.L.B.)

  9. Psychological Evaluation of Acute Low Back Pain in Hospital Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Lamontagne, Yves; Bousquet, Pierre; Elie, Robert; Courtois, Monique

    1983-01-01

    Personality, anxiety and depression were assessed in 62 hospital workers divided in three experimental groups: those with acute organic low back pain, those with acute functional low back pain, and asymptomatic control subjects. Results showed no statistical differences between groups in the evaluation of personality. Asymptomatic subjects had significantly lower scores for trait anxiety and depression than did patients suffering from low back pain. Patients with pain of organic origin were a...

  10. Discogenic pain in acute nonspecific low-back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Hyodo, Hironori; Sato, Tetsuro; Sasaki, Hirotoshi; Tanaka, Yasuhisa

    2005-01-01

    Acute nonspecific low-back pain is characterized by the sudden onset and severe unendurable low-back pain without radicular pain or neurological deficit in the lower extremities. The study was carried out using 55 patients who visited our hospital for acute nonspecific low-back pain, who exhibited degeneration on T2-weighted MR images, and underwent intradiscal injection of local anesthetics,steroid and contrast medium. Intervertebral disc sites with an obvious enhanced region in the posterio...

  11. Low back load in airport baggage handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblauch, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    Low back pain (LBP) constitutes a major economic problem in many countries. The causes of LBP are still largely unknown and several risk factors have been suggested including heavy lifting, which causes high compression forces of the tissues in the low back. Micro-fractures in the endplates of the vertebrae caused by compression forces have been suggested as a source of unspecific pain. Although airport baggage handlers exhibit a high prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints the amount of biomechanical research within this and similar areas is limited. The aims of this thesis were to perform a general description of the lumbar loading in baggage handlers (Paper I), to develop a generically useful tool to examine specific lumbar compression in a valid manner (Paper II & III), and to investigate the spinal loading in common work tasks for baggage handlers. (Paper III). We recorded electromyography during baggage handling in the baggage hall, by a conveyor, and inside the aircraft baggage compartment. Electromyography was analyzed using amplitude probability distribution functions (APDF) on both tasks and full day recordings and root mean square (RMS) values on tasks. Furthermore, we estimated L4/L5 compression and moment along with shoulder flexor moment with a Watbak model based on more specific subtasks. In addition, we built an inverse dynamics-based musculoskeletal computer model using the AnyBody Modeling System (AMS). Motion capture recorded the movements in 3D during a stooped and a kneeling lifting task simulating airport baggage handler work. Marker trajectories were used to drive the model. The AMS-models computed estimated compression forces, shear forces and the moments around the L4/L5 joint. The compression forces were used for comparison with the vertebral compression tolerances reported in the literature. The RMS muscle activity was high in all tasks. The average peak RMS muscle activity was up to 120% EMGmax in the erector spinae during the baggage

  12. Disaster: would your community bounce back?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, Benjamin H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-12

    What makes some communities or organizations able to quickly bounce back from a disaster, while others take a long time to recover? This question has become very important for emergency planners in federal, state, and local government - particularly since the 9/11 attacks and Hurricane Katrina, which nearly destroyed New Orleans five years ago. These events have made people aware that we can't always prevent disasters, but might be able to improve the ability of communities and regions to respond to and bounce back from major disruptions. Social scientists have found that most communities are, in fact, quite resilient to most disasters. People tend to work together, overcome divisions, identify problems, and develop improvised solutions. This often leads to a greater sense of community and a sense of personal accomplishment. Long-term recovery can be harder, but rebuilding can create jobs and stimulate economies. Communities may even end up better than they were before. But there are some disturbing exceptions to this trend, including Hurricane Katrina. The hurricane killed many people, the federal and local emergency response was not effective, people who could not evacuate were housed in the Superdome and Convention Center in terrible conditions, crime was prevalent, and local government did not appear to have control over the situation. A significant portion of the population was eventually evacuated to other cities. Even five years later, many people have not returned, and large parts of the city have not been rebuilt. Clearly, New Orleans lacked sufficient resilience to overcome a disaster of the magnitude of Katrina. There are four factors that social scientists are beginning to agree are important for community resilience: (1) A strong, diverse economy - Stable jobs, good incomes, diversity of industries, personal savings; (2) Robust social networks - Community members know each other, help each other, and have connections outside the community; (3

  13. Is it all about a pain in the back?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Jan; Natvig, Bard; Ferreira, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    and treatment of low back pain and other musculoskeletal disorders such as neck pain and lower limb osteoarthritis are very similar. In this chapter, we discuss the prevalence, consequences, and implications of commonalities between low back pain, pain in other sites and co-occurring pain. In addition, we......Multisite musculoskeletal pain is common among people suffering from low back pain. Although the mechanisms behind co-occurrence of multiple somatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain are still unknown, patients with co-morbidities and co-occurring musculoskeletal symptoms tend to have worse...... propose a conceptual framework for a common stepwise approach to the diagnosis and management of back and musculoskeletal pain....

  14. Psychological aspects of acute low back pain in general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Iain C.

    1983-01-01

    A prospective controlled study of acute low back pain in general practice was carried out. The presence of psychiatric illness was measured by use of the general health questionnaire (GHQ), by clinical assessment, and personality factors by use of the Eysenck personality inventory (EPI). It was found that overall the amount of psychiatric illness did not differ between patients with back pain and their controls at the time of presentation, although there was a higher prevalence of previous psychiatric illness in the back-pain group. The only difference in the personality factors measured was a higher degree of extraversion in the back-pain patients. PMID:6224930

  15. Back end of an enduring fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An enduring nuclear fuel cycle is an essential part of sustainable consumption, the process whereby world's riches are consumed in a responsible manner so that future generations can continue to enjoy at least some of them. In many countries, the goal of sustainable development has focused attention on the benefits of nuclear technologies. However, sustenance of the nuclear fuel cycle is dependent on sensible management of all the resources of the fuel cycle, including energy, spent fuels, and all of its side streams. The nuclear fuel cycle for energy production has suffered many traumas since the mid seventies. The common basis of technologies producing nuclear explosives and consumable nuclear energy has been a preoccupation for some, predicament for others, and a perception problem for many. It is essential to reestablish a reliable back end of the nuclear fuel cycle that can sustain the resource requirements of an enduring full cycle. This paper identifies some pragmatic steps necessary to reverse the trend and to maintain a necessary fuel cycle option for the future

  16. Looking Back at International Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Gwyn

    2012-03-01

    With the 11th International Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation coming up in July 2012 in Lyons, France, we thought it might be of interest to our readers to review all the past meetings in this series. We thank Denny Mills of the APS, Argonne for putting the list together. Prior to these larger meetings, and in the early days, facilities held their own meetings similar to the user meetings of today. However, the meeting held at ACO in Orsay, France in 1977 was the first such meeting with an international flavor and so it is on the list. However it is not counted as number 1 since it was agreed way back to start the numbering with the 1982 DESY meeting. The 2005 USA National Meeting scheduled at CAMD in Baton Rouge had to be canceled due to Hurricane Katrina. It was ultimately held in 2007, with the CLS hosted meeting the following year. And a personal note from the magazine - Synchrotron Radiation News was born at the 1987 meeting in Madison, Wisconsin with a proposal that was put to a special session of the meeting organized by Susan Lord. Initial proposals were to model it after the CERN Courier, but it soon adopted its own distinct flavor.

  17. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of a back stability CPD course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, C M

    2008-10-01

    A two-day CPD (continuous professional development) course teaching integrated back stability (IBS) to post-graduate physiotherapists, sports therapists, and massage therapists was evaluated using a descriptive (mixed methods) design. An eight-question, 5-point Likert scale questionnaire and six person focus group were used. The course was evaluated over a five-year period and questionnaires were returned from 80 therapists, representing 65% of course attendees. Scores ranged from mean values of 2.81-3.81, and all questions scored above the mid-point of the 5-point Likert scale (2.5) and were therefore positive. The focus group addressed the three themes covered by the Likert scale and group consensus was that (i) the course had changed professional practice and had been incorporated into treatment protocols currently in use; (ii) the course did provide some novel techniques, but most effectively incorporated techniques from several sources and made them easier to apply; and (iii) the educational standard of the course was high. The course format may act as a model for other CPD programmes. PMID:19083688

  19. Stress and back pain: who can escape?

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On 28 April each year, the International Labour Organization and the World Health Organization organise a World Day for Safety and Health at Work.   For the third consecutive year, CERN will be celebrating the World Day through events and initiatives coordinated by the BE Safety Unit, the HSE Unit, the CERN Medical Service and finally the Fire Brigade. Two main themes that will be highlighted this year are: work stress and musculoskeletal disorders. These two frightening items actually refer to situations that we may all be experiencing. On the day of the event, you will be given information and tips on how to reduce daily stress. You will also be invited to follow a “back pain” course that will bring to light all the activities you can try out in order to fight this affliction and reduce its consequences. The Fire Brigade will also be present to show you how to use the “portoire” chair. Don’t know what a “portoire” chair ...

  20. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  1. Back end of an enduring fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1998-03-01

    An enduring nuclear fuel cycle is an essential part of sustainable consumption, the process whereby world`s riches are consumed in a responsible manner so that future generations can continue to enjoy at least some of them. In many countries, the goal of sustainable development has focused attention on the benefits of nuclear technologies. However, sustenance of the nuclear fuel cycle is dependent on sensible management of all the resources of the fuel cycle, including energy, spent fuels, and all of its side streams. The nuclear fuel cycle for energy production has suffered many traumas since the mid seventies. The common basis of technologies producing nuclear explosives and consumable nuclear energy has been a preoccupation for some, predicament for others, and a perception problem for many. It is essential to reestablish a reliable back end of the nuclear fuel cycle that can sustain the resource requirements of an enduring full cycle. This paper identifies some pragmatic steps necessary to reverse the trend and to maintain a necessary fuel cycle option for the future.

  2. LHC Report: Back to record performance

    CERN Multimedia

    Jan Uythoven for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    The technical issues that caused a rocky re-start after the technical stop and a relatively low performance of the machine have been tackled and resolved in the past days. The LHC is back to record collision rates and matching the 2011 data set now seems within reach for the summer conferences.   The technical stop at the end of April was followed by a period in which increased beam losses were observed before the beams were brought into collision, causing reduced peak luminosities. This issue was tackled by optimising the beams in the injector chain, making a fine adjustment of the orbit during the energy ramp-up and ensuring precise bunch collisions in ATLAS and CMS. These measures brought the peak luminosity at the beginning of a fill up to record levels of 6 x1033 cm-2s-1, but the fills were short as there were still sudden losses of some bunches that triggered the beam dump. The lost bunches were identified as bunches that only collide in LHCb. These bunches see fewer collisions, so the &am...

  3. HANDWRITTEN TEXT IMAGE AUTHENTICATION USING BACK PROPAGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S N Chakravarthy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Authentication is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a datum or entity. This might involveconfirming the identity of a person, tracing the origins of an artefact, ensuring that a product is whatit’s packaging and labelling claims to be, or assuring that a computer program is a trusted one. Theauthentication of information can pose special problems (especially man-in-the-middle attacks, and isoften wrapped up with authenticating identity. Literary can involve imitating the style of a famous author.If an original manuscript, typewritten text, or recording is available, then the medium itself (or itspackaging - anything from a box to e-mail headers can help prove or disprove the authenticity of thedocument. The use of digital images of handwritten historical documents has become more popular inrecent years. Volunteers around the world now read thousands of these images as part of theirindexing process. Handwritten text images of old documents are sometimes difficult to read or noisy dueto the preservation of the document and quality of the image [1]. Handwritten text offers challenges thatare rarely encountered in machine-printed text. In addition, most problems faced in reading machineprintedtext (e.g., character recognition, word segmentation, letter segmentation, etc. are more severe, inhandwritten text. In this paper we Here in this paper we proposed a method for authenticating handwritten text images using back propagation algorithm..

  4. Scan of the back of human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    ProVision Technologies, a NASA commercial space center at Sternis Space Center in Mississippi, has developed a new hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system that is much smaller than the original large units used aboard remote sensing aircraft and satellites. The new apparatus is about the size of a breadbox. HSI may be useful to ophthalmologists to study and diagnose eye health, both on Earth and in space, by examining the back of the eye to determine oxygen and blood flow quickly and without any invasion. ProVision's hyperspectral imaging system can scan the human eye and produce a graph showing optical density or light absorption, which can then be compared to a graph from a normal eye. Scans of the macula, optic disk or optic nerve head, and blood vessels can be used to detect anomalies and identify diseases in this delicate and important organ. ProVision has already developed a relationship with the University of Alabama at Birmingham, but is still on the lookout for a commercial partner in this application.

  5. Oil and resource-backed aggression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, Jeff, E-mail: colgan@american.ed [International Relations, American University (United States)

    2011-03-15

    A common misperception about oil politics is that it has a uniform, monolithic effect on policy development. This paper argues that in fact the net political effect of oil varies dramatically depending on the nature of the petrostate. It shows that oil income, when combined with revolutionary governments in petrostates, generates strong incentives for foreign policy aggression and international conflict. The aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states is shown to have consequences in both military and economic spheres of international relations. Militarily, the aggressiveness of this type of state leads to a high rate of armed conflicts. Economically, the aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states shapes global oil markets and international economic relations. The argument is tested using statistical analysis of international conflicts and economic sanctions. The policy implications are then considered, focusing on the negative global impacts of dependence on oil consumption. - Research highlights: {yields} A radical reconsideration of the link between oil and international conflict is needed. {yields} Resource-backed aggression, not resource-competition, is the major source of conflict. {yields} Petro-revolutionary states instigate 250% more military conflicts than typical states. {yields} Petro-revolutionary states are also more frequently targeted for economic sanctions.

  6. Low back pain during labor and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Su, Tsann-Juu

    2008-09-01

    A substantial proportion of women in labor suffer from low back pain, yet this issue has only been specifically evaluated in a few Western studies. The purpose of this research was to (1) describe the following characteristics of low back pain during labor: prevalence, anatomic region(s) affected, type, pattern, intensity trend, effective interventions, and exacerbating factors; (2) identify the factors relating to intrapartum low back pain in Taiwan women. A correlational design with repeated measures was used to conduct this investigation. Ninety-three low-risk women in labor were recruited from a medical center in central Taiwan. Low back pain was repeatedly measured during the latent phase (cervix dilated 2-4 cm), early active phase (cervix dilated 5-7 cm), and late active phase (cervix dilated 8-10 cm) of labor. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, repeated measurement ANOVA, and logistic regression. The results showed as many as 75.3% of the participants suffered episodes of low back pain during labor. The mean pain scores were 36.66-76.20 in the various stages of labor. Pain intensified as labor progressed. The location of the pain also changed with the progression of labor. The type of low back pain in 54.29% of women in labor was "muscle soreness and pain"; The pattern of pain in 45.71% women was continuous. Massage was chosen as the most effective intervention to alleviate low back pain by 65.3% of women. The women in labor who suffered from low back pain during pregnancy (OR = 3.23; p low back pain group. In conclusion, our study demonstrates low back pain intensified with the progression of labor, suggesting early prevention is necessary, especially in the case of women who had low back pain during pregnancy and heavier body weight when hospitalized.

  7. Back school programs. The young patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, J P; Drye, C D

    1992-01-01

    CC's treatment goals were all met with the exception of eliminating the AMNT sign. Slump-sit right knee extension (-15 degrees), right SLR (80 degrees coupled with dorsiflexion), and lumbar flexion (85% coupled with neck flexion) all continued to reproduce right buttock cramping and pain. Currently he is playing basketball without restriction, performing an individualized exercise program that emphasizes lower extremity muscle stretching, AMNT stretching, and advanced truncal stabilization exercises. He has a very good understanding of body mechanics and an awareness of safe SFP during activities of daily living and on the basketball court. His motivation, along with the motivation of parents, coaches, athletic trainer, and physical therapist, greatly assisted CC in returning to competitive basketball. CC is intermittently evaluated to monitor the AMNT sign and the effectiveness of the home exercise program. Currently CC's AMNT appears to regress if he is not monitored on a monthly basis; thus he warrants intermittent treatment. Monitoring of the patient is an integral aspect of long-term management of chronic discogenic disease that is often neglected. It can be hypothesized that monitoring may prevent serious complications in the future for many patients. CC is a patient who needed specific therapeutic intervention beyond rest, general instructions about body mechanics and exercise, modalities, and traditional back school. The history of this patient's problem revealed that rest and general exercises had failed, thus necessitating specific therapeutic treatment. This patient is an excellent example of how physical therapy in the form of manual therapy, specific therapeutic exercise, education through repetition of functional tasks, and the team approach to patient care can lead to a successful treatment outcome. PMID:1531894

  8. [The come-back of hypofractionation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosset, Jean-Marc

    2005-11-01

    Hypofractionation (i.e. the use of fewer higher fractional doses than usual) is not a new concept. It had actually been proposed in the early year of Radiotherapy by the German and Austrian specialists. In the seventy's, supported by the - wrong - hypotheses which gave birth to the NSD (Nominal Standard Dose), hypofractionation reappears. The consequential increase of late complications which was observed led the radiation oncologists to give up again using large doses per fraction, except for a few specific situations, such as palliative treatments. We are recently facing a new "come-back" of hypofractionation, in particular for breast and prostate cancers. In the case of breast cancer, the aim is clearly to look for more "convenience" for both the patients and the physicians, proposing shorter irradiation schedules including a lesser number of fractions. Some "modestly" hypofractionated schemes have been proposed and used, without apparently altering the efficacy/toxicity ratio, but these results have been seriously questioned. As for prostate cancer, the situation is different, since in that case new radiobiological data are at the origin of the newly proposed hypofractionation schedules. A number of papers actually strongly suggested that the fractionation sensitivity of prostate cancer could be higher than the one of the tissues responsible for late toxicity (i.e the exact opposite of the classical dogma). Based on those data, several hypofractionated schemes have been proposed, with a few preliminary results looking similar to the ones obtained by the classical schedules. However, no randomised study is available so far, and a few recent radiobiological data are now questioning the new dogma of the high fractionation sensitivity of prostate cancer. For those two - frequent - cancers, it seems therefore that prudence should prevail before altering classical irradiation schedules which have proven their efficacy, while staying open to new concepts and proposing

  9. Lumbar CT findings of patients with low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Kyun Sang [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-04-15

    Low back pain is probably the second most common disease entity to upper respiratory infection in developed country. We were missing at least 50% of the pathologic conditions by using conventional diagnostic modalities in low back pain. They did tell us nothing or little about facet abnormalities, lateral recesses, vertebral canal and soft tissue surrounding lumbar spines. High resolutional CT has been the biggest turning point in the diagnosis and management of low back pain. CT make a contribution to reducing the morbidity and probably the cost of evaluating patients with low back pain, and to increasing diagnostic accuracy. We observed 100 cases of lumbar CT using TCT 80A scanner for the evaluation of low back pain during the period from Apr. 1985 to Sept. 1985 at Chung-Ang University Hospital. Lumbar CT scan reveals high-positive findings (98%) in low back pain patients. Common low back disorders in CT are disc bulging (53%), herniated nucleus pulposus (32%), degenerative arthritis in posterior facet joints (27%), spinal stenosis (20%) and postoperative spines (15%). Uncommon low back disorders in CT are compression fracture of vertebral bodies, spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis, tropism, transitional vertebra, Scheueman's disease, limbic fracture, transverse process or articular process fracture, sacroiliac joint subluxation, conjoined nerve root and meningocele.

  10. Lumbar CT findings of patients with low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low back pain is probably the second most common disease entity to upper respiratory infection in developed country. We were missing at least 50% of the pathologic conditions by using conventional diagnostic modalities in low back pain. They did tell us nothing or little about facet abnormalities, lateral recesses, vertebral canal and soft tissue surrounding lumbar spines. High resolutional CT has been the biggest turning point in the diagnosis and management of low back pain. CT make a contribution to reducing the morbidity and probably the cost of evaluating patients with low back pain, and to increasing diagnostic accuracy. We observed 100 cases of lumbar CT using TCT 80A scanner for the evaluation of low back pain during the period from Apr. 1985 to Sept. 1985 at Chung-Ang University Hospital. Lumbar CT scan reveals high-positive findings (98%) in low back pain patients. Common low back disorders in CT are disc bulging (53%), herniated nucleus pulposus (32%), degenerative arthritis in posterior facet joints (27%), spinal stenosis (20%) and postoperative spines (15%). Uncommon low back disorders in CT are compression fracture of vertebral bodies, spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis, tropism, transitional vertebra, Scheueman's disease, limbic fracture, transverse process or articular process fracture, sacroiliac joint subluxation, conjoined nerve root and meningocele.

  11. 13 CFR 120.612 - Loans eligible to back Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans eligible to back Certificates. 120.612 Section 120.612 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS... necessary for the successful operation of the Secondary Market program. (b) The loans that back a Pool...

  12. Students' Use of "Look Back" Strategies in Multiple Solution Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shin-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between both 9th-grade and 1st-year undergraduate students' use of "look back" strategies and problem solving performance in multiple solution methods, the difference in their use of look back strategies and problem solving performance in multiple solution methods, and the…

  13. Jump Back in Time: A Living History Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Gather students and jump back in time to experience what life was like "back then." Through this book, during each day of immersion, students rotate through 14-18 stations of math and vocabulary activities, games, crafts, costumes, and food. Explore legends, songs, maps, and historical events along the way to understand specific times and places…

  14. Back-analysis for Determining the Rheological Parameter of Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Wenhuan; Zhu Dayong

    1994-01-01

    In this paper,a new method of back analysis for determmning the parameters of rheological surrounding rock is proposed. This method is based on the elasticviscoelastic correspondence principle, and the theological parameters are back analyzed from the measured displacemenrs during construction of the tunnel.A numerical exampie proves that the proposed method is applicanle to engineering practice.

  15. 40 CFR 63.493 - Back-end process provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 63.500 do not apply to the back-end operations dedicated to the production of one or more latex products or to the back-end operations during the production of a latex product. Section 63.494 contains... produce styrene butadiene rubber using an emulsion process. Table 8 to this subpart contains a summary...

  16. Gratitude, Guilt, Goodwill, and Giving Back: Lessons from Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Golden

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research note is part of the thematic section, Practical Realities of Giving Back, in the special issue titled “Giving Back in Field Research,” published as Volume 10, Issue 2 in the Journal of Research Practice.

  17. Identifying intrinsic and reflexive contributions to low-back stabilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Drunen, P.; Maaswinkel, E.; Van der Helm, F.C.T.; Van Dieën, J.H.; Happee, R.

    2013-01-01

    Motor control deficits have been suggested as potential cause and/or effect of a-specific chronic low-back pain and its recurrent behavior. Therefore, the goal of this study is to identify motor control in low-back stabilization by simultaneously quantifying the intrinsic and reflexive contributions

  18. UBC researcher's back-pain studies focus on space travel.

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, M.

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the University of British Columbia have been studying back pain that develops in astronauts in space. Their findings not only may help astronauts cope with future space travel, but also lead to new treatments for Earth-bound patients who experience back pain.

  19. Territorial Entanglements: Ambiguities of Giving Back in Northwestern Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Benjamin Dwyer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research note is part of the thematic section, Limits to Giving Back, in the special issue titled “Giving Back in Field Research,” published as Volume 10, Issue 2 in the Journal of Research Practice.

  20. Back pain and backpacks in children : Biomedical or biopsychosocial model?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneman, M.F.; Poels, B.J.J.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Dijkstra, P.U.

    2006-01-01

    Public press, professional organisations and journals have been sending alarming messages about the rising prevalence of back pain in school age children. Carrying backpacks has been suggested as one of the key factors contributing to back pain in children. The basic assumption based on the biomedic

  1. Frequency Selective Surfaces for Extended Bandwidth Backing Reflector Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasian, M; Monni, S.; Neto, A.; Ettorre, M.; Gerini, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of frequency selective surfaces (FSS) to increase the efficiency bandwidth product in wideband antenna arrays, whose efficiency is limited by the front-to-back ratio. If the backing reflector for the antenna is realized through a single metal plane solution, its locatio

  2. To the Elderly: Keep Your Backs Warm in Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    It Is very important for the aged to keep their backs warm in order topass a safe and comfortable winter Chinese traditional medicine believes that the back is the center of Yangenergy, it is the circulation center of the Governing Vessel and the Greater

  3. Drain Back Systems in Laboratory and in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua;

    2015-01-01

    with less components and that the performance can be enhanced. Also problems with long term degradation of glycol collector loops are totally avoided. A combination of the drain back and system expansion vessel was tested successfully. It is very important to achieve a continuous slope for the pipes...... step to have success with drain back systems. Practices used in glycol systems may give serious failures. Key-words: Drain Back, Low Flow, Solar Combi System, ETC collectors.......Drain Back systems with ETC collectors are tested and analyzed in a Danish - Chinese cooperation project. Experiences from early work at DTU, with drain back, low flow systems, was used to design two systems: 1) One laboratory system at DTU. 2) One demonstration system in a single family house...

  4. Psychological Evaluation of Acute Low Back Pain in Hospital Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Yves; Bousquet, Pierre; Elie, Robert; Courtois, Monique

    1983-01-01

    Personality, anxiety and depression were assessed in 62 hospital workers divided in three experimental groups: those with acute organic low back pain, those with acute functional low back pain, and asymptomatic control subjects. Results showed no statistical differences between groups in the evaluation of personality. Asymptomatic subjects had significantly lower scores for trait anxiety and depression than did patients suffering from low back pain. Patients with pain of organic origin were also more depressed than were patients with pain of functional origin. Anxiety and depression are two psychological variables which must be examined in acute back pain problems. Further studies should be conducted to develop more accurate psychological instruments to evaluate the large population of patients suffering from low back pain. PMID:21283394

  5. Movement control tests of the low back; evaluation of the difference between patients with low back pain and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kool Jan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether there is a difference between patients with low back pain and healthy controls in a test battery score for movement control of the lumbar spine. Methods This was a case control study, carried out in five outpatient physiotherapy practices in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Twelve physiotherapists tested the ability of 210 subjects (108 patients with non-specific low back pain and 102 control subjects without back pain to control their movements in the lumbar spine using a set of six tests. We observed the number of positive tests out of six (mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence interval of the mean. The significance of the differences between the groups was calculated with Mann-Whitney U test and p was set on 0.8 was considered a large difference. Results On average, patients with low back pain had 2.21(95%CI 1.94–2.48 positive tests and the healthy controls 0.75 (95%CI 0.55–0.95. The effect size was d = 1.18 (p 0.7. Conclusion This is the first study demonstrating a significant difference between patients with low back pain and subjects without back pain regarding their ability to actively control the movements of the low back. The effect size between patients with low back pain and healthy controls in movement control is large.

  6. Influence of low back pain and prognostic value of MRI in sciatica patients in relation to back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. el Barzouhi (Abdelilah); C.L.A.M. Vleggeert-Lankamp (Carmen); G.J.L.A. Nijeholt (Geert J. Lycklama A); B.F.W. van der Kallen (Bas); W.B. van den Hout (Wilbert); B.W. Koes (Bart); W.C. Peul (Wilco)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Patients with sciatica frequently complain about associated back pain. It is not known whether there are prognostic relevant differences in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings between sciatica patients with and without disabling back pain. Methods: The study population

  7. Open-Switch Fault Detection Method of a Back-to-Back Converter Using NPC Topology for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, June-Seok; Lee, Kyo_Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    In wind turbine generation (WTG) systems, a back-to-back converter with a neutral-point-clamped (NPC) topology is widely used because this topology has more advantages than a conventional two-level topology, particularly when operating at high power. There are 12 switches in the NPC topology. An...

  8. Capacitance Estimation for DC-link Capacitors in a Back-to-Back Converter Based on Artificial Neural Network Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Hammam Abdelaal Hammam; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    of the aforementioned challenges and shortcomings. In this paper, a pure software condition monitoring method based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm is proposed. The implemented ANN estimates the capacitance of the dc-link capacitor in a back-to-back converter. The error analysis of the estimated results...

  9. Do illness perceptions of people with chronic low back pain differ from people without chronic low back pain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C. Paul; van Ittersum, Miriam W.; Kaptein, Ad A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine why some people develop chronic low back pain, and whether illness perceptions are an important risk factor in the transition from acute to chronic low back pain. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants Four hundred and two members of the general Dutch population, with and

  10. Loss analysis of back-contact back-junction thin-film monocrystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, F.; Eidelloth, S.; Horbelt, R.; Bothe, K.; Garralaga Rojas, E.; Brendel, R.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate power losses in back-contact back-junction monocrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells fabricated using the porous silicon layer transfer process. Our loss analysis combines two-dimensional finite element modeling and resistance network simulations. The input parameters of the finite element modeling are determined experimentally by measuring saturation current densities and sheet resistances on test samples prepared identically to the solar cells. Characteristic solar cell parameters such as short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and efficiency of measured and network simulated current voltage characteristics investigated in this study match within an uncertainty of 5%. Free energy loss analysis serves as comparison of all losses in units of power per area at the maximum power point. The largest loss is bulk recombination due to a carrier lifetime of 2 μs in the epitaxial Si layer. Further significant losses result from recombination at the base contacts characterized by a diode saturation current density of 50 000 fA cm-2 as well as resistive losses due to lateral majority carrier current flows within the solar cell base and contact resistance losses.

  11. Co-diffused back-contact back-junction silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The driving force in photovoltaics is the reduction of the ratio between device costs and conversion efficiency. The present research study introduces a highly innovative diffusion process, called co-diffusion, which allows for a drastic decrease in process costs, on the one hand, and the assembly of a highly efficient solar cell device, the back-contact back-junction (BC-BJ) silicon solar cell, on the other. The co-diffusion approach is based on pre-patterned layers, which contain dopants, deposited by means of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and diffusion in a tube furnace, which contains dopant gases in the process atmosphere. The solar cells are built on n-type silicon which features a high potential in achieving a high silicon life time, which is a necessary requirement of highly efficient BC-BJ solar cells. Fundamental knowledge in terms of co-diffusion processes can be gained from this research study. The processes allow for the fabrication of BC-BJ solar cell devices with a conversion efficiency exceeding 21 %.

  12. Miniaturization Design for 8 × 8 Butler Matrix Based on Back-to-Back Bilayer Microstrip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost, compact 8 × 8 Butler matrix based on a novel bilayer microstrip configuration is presented and implemented for 4.3 GHz telecommunication application. A back-to-back placed bilayer microstrip structure has been proposed to avoid using crossover. To expand operational bandwidth of the Butler matrix, a three-branch line directional coupler has been employed as 3 dB/90° bridge, and a kind of improved two-order Schiffman phase shifter has been adopted as fixed phase shifter. For application of indoor wireless communication, a compact broadband 8 × 8 Butler matrix has been designed and fabricated. The measured results show that the return loss of the matrix is lower than −10 dB, the isolation is better than 17 dB, the power distribution error is less than ±2.0 dB, the phase error is less than ±15°, and the relative bandwidth is more than 23%.

  13. Studies of the nucleon structure in back-to-back SIDIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avakian H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong interactions, which was a major focus in last decades. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS, with detection of an additional hadron allowed first studies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides access to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the Electron Ion Collider, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back in the current and target fragmentation regions, combined with clear separation of two regions, would provide a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions.

  14. High efficiency back-contact back-junction thin-film monocrystalline silicon solar cells from the porous silicon process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, F.; Kajari-Schröder, S.; Brendel, R.

    2013-11-01

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of a 45 μm thick back-contact back-junction thin-film monocrystalline silicon solar cell from the porous silicon process with an energy conversion efficiency of 18.9%. We demonstrate an efficiency improvement of 5.4% absolute compared to our prior record of 13.5% for back-contact back-junction thin-film monocrystalline silicon solar cells. This increase in efficiency is achieved by reducing the recombination at the base contact using a back surface field and by increasing the generation with a front texture. We investigate the loss mechanisms in the cell using finite element simulations. A free energy loss analysis based on experiments and simulations determines the dominating loss mechanisms. The efficiency loss by base recombination is 0.8% absolute and the loss by base contact recombination is 0.5% absolute in the 18.9% efficiency cell.

  15. Effect of back school protocol on the referral rate of patients with low back pain to an industrial physiotherapy clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Odebiyi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Back schools are educational programmes originally developed in a work place (Volvo factory in Sweden for patients with back pain, to enable them to manage their own back problems better. ‘Back school’ was originally aimed at modifying the behaviours of patients with low back pain (LBP, with the view to prevent relapses. In an effort to encourage and stimulate the use of ‘back school’ among health workers in Nigeria, this study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a back school protocol in a Soap Making Industry in Lagos, Nigeria. One hundred and ten (110 workers of a Soap Making Industry in Lagos, Nigeria,  participated in this study. A pre-test, post-test experimental design was employed. The participants were divided into two groups - office workers and factory workers for the purpose of the training in the content of the back school protocol. The ‘back school’ consisted of classroom teaching and the use of two videotapes titled “lifting technique” and “back pain”. Data on demographic information, knowledge of back structures and back care were collected using a questionnaire with closed ended questions, which was completed before, immediately after and 8 weeks after the administrations of the contents of the back school protocol (Akinpelu and Odebiyi, 2004. The records of the factory’s clinic were also reviewed for the 12-months before and 12 months after the study. The mean values of the participants’ age, height, weight and body mass index (BMI were 36.60 ± 9.10 years, 1.65 ± 0.10 m,69.13 ± 7.70 kg and 25.40 ± 3.30 kg/m2 respectively. The results showed that the 12-months prevalence of low back pain (LBP among the workers was 71%. The result also showed that over 50% of the participants never had any  information or lesson on back care, and those that had some form of information obtained it by chance. There was 23% reduction in referral for care of back pain 12 months after the administration of the back

  16. Non-Linear Back-propagation: Doing Back-Propagation withoutDerivatives of the Activation Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, John; Krogh, Anders Stærmose; Lautrup, Benny;

    1997-01-01

    The conventional linear back-propagation algorithm is replaced by a non-linear version, which avoids the necessity for calculating the derivative of the activation function. This may be exploited in hardware realizations of neural processors. In this paper we derive the non-linear back-propagatio......-propagation algorithms in the framework of recurrent back-propagation and present some numerical simulations of feed-forward networks on the NetTalk problem. A discussion of implementation in analog VLSI electronics concludes the paper.......The conventional linear back-propagation algorithm is replaced by a non-linear version, which avoids the necessity for calculating the derivative of the activation function. This may be exploited in hardware realizations of neural processors. In this paper we derive the non-linear back...

  17. Looking Forwards and Looking Back (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brettle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the seventh volume of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice. This is my first issue in my new role of Editor-in-Chief, and I’m honoured and delighted to take over the position. As many of you may know, I’ve been involved with the journal almost since its inception, primarily as Associate Editor (Articles. During that time, I’ve sincerely enjoyed working with the supportive EBLIP team, as well as many authors throughout the world, and I’m looking forward to continuing that work in my new role.Spring is traditionally a time of new growth and change, and the EBLIP journal is no different. In the last issue, Denise Koufogiannakis reflected on how the journal had grown and developed during its first 6 years, and I look forward to contributing to its continued success. There have been a number of changes in the editorial team. I welcome Wayne Jones from Carleton University, Canada, who has taken over as Associate Editor (Articles and brings a wealth of editorial experience. Heather Pretty has taken over as lead copyeditor and is joining our editorial meetings to help ensure the continued quality and consistency of the journal. As part of quality assurance and development, the editorial team is examining and revising our journal guidelines, so look for those in forthcoming months. Our former Editor-in-Chief, Denise Koufogiannakis, is developing a new role as Associate Editor (Reviews. As a keen advocate of reviews for providing evidence, developing skills for research and evidence based practice, and documenting and establishing an evidence base for our profession, I’m looking forward to the first review which is likely to be published in the next issue. Too much change can be disruptive, so I’m pleased that both Lorie Kloda and Jonathan Eldredge are maintaining their positions as Associate Editors for Evidence Summaries and Classics, respectively.When starting something new, it is often useful to look back (to build on

  18. Text mining a self-report back-translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Angel; Aluja, Anton

    2016-06-01

    There are several recommendations about the routine to undertake when back translating self-report instruments in cross-cultural research. However, text mining methods have been generally ignored within this field. This work describes a text mining innovative application useful to adapt a personality questionnaire to 12 different languages. The method is divided in 3 different stages, a descriptive analysis of the available back-translated instrument versions, a dissimilarity assessment between the source language instrument and the 12 back-translations, and an item assessment of item meaning equivalence. The suggested method contributes to improve the back-translation process of self-report instruments for cross-cultural research in 2 significant intertwined ways. First, it defines a systematic approach to the back translation issue, allowing for a more orderly and informed evaluation concerning the equivalence of different versions of the same instrument in different languages. Second, it provides more accurate instrument back-translations, which has direct implications for the reliability and validity of the instrument's test scores when used in different cultures/languages. In addition, this procedure can be extended to the back-translation of self-reports measuring psychological constructs in clinical assessment. Future research works could refine the suggested methodology and use additional available text mining tools. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26302100

  19. Text mining a self-report back-translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Angel; Aluja, Anton

    2016-06-01

    There are several recommendations about the routine to undertake when back translating self-report instruments in cross-cultural research. However, text mining methods have been generally ignored within this field. This work describes a text mining innovative application useful to adapt a personality questionnaire to 12 different languages. The method is divided in 3 different stages, a descriptive analysis of the available back-translated instrument versions, a dissimilarity assessment between the source language instrument and the 12 back-translations, and an item assessment of item meaning equivalence. The suggested method contributes to improve the back-translation process of self-report instruments for cross-cultural research in 2 significant intertwined ways. First, it defines a systematic approach to the back translation issue, allowing for a more orderly and informed evaluation concerning the equivalence of different versions of the same instrument in different languages. Second, it provides more accurate instrument back-translations, which has direct implications for the reliability and validity of the instrument's test scores when used in different cultures/languages. In addition, this procedure can be extended to the back-translation of self-reports measuring psychological constructs in clinical assessment. Future research works could refine the suggested methodology and use additional available text mining tools. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Persian Back Channel Responses in Formal versus Informal Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Sharifi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Utterances like /xob/ (okay, /doroste/ (right, /hmm/, /ee/, /?re/ (yeah, occur frequently in Persian conversations, but have thus far escaped from the systematic studies. Good listeners generally produce these short utterances, called "back channel responses", in appropriate times to show their participation in the conversation, but the rules governing back channeling vary from one context to another. The usage of back channel responses is different in various contexts, due to politeness or formality. This paper studies the types and functions of the back channel responses in both formal and informal settings and provides a comparison of the usage of these responses in these two kinds of contexts. The results show /bale/ (yes and /doroste/ (right are used with formal or polite verbal form, while /xob/ (okay is used with the informal style of speech and less polite verbal form. With respect to the function of back channels, signaling the understanding is the main function of back channels in informal contexts. Also, back channels signaling agreement are more frequent in formal contexts, where emotional function is less likely.

  1. Pediatric injuries in the back of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agran, P F; Winn, D G; Castillo, D N

    1990-08-01

    Travel in the back of pickup trucks has not been adequately addressed as an occupant protection issue. This study compares injuries sustained by children riding in the back of pickup trucks with those of children riding in the cab. Data were obtained from a multihospital monitoring system and the coroner in a single urban county. The series of injured children consisted of 290 children 0 through 14 years of age, 201 of whom had been riding in the cab and 89 in the back. Age distribution of the children demonstrated that it is most frequently the 10- to 14-year-olds who travel in the back. Children riding in the back were more frequently injured in noncrash events (absence of a collision), had more ejections, had more injuries, and sustained more severe injuries as measured by the Maximum Injury Score. With increased restraint use in the cab, it is likely that even greater differentials in injury severity and patterns would be realized. Education regarding the hazards of travel in the back of pickups and stronger legislation limiting the transport of children in the back of trucks are recommended. PMID:2374274

  2. Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells with PEDOT:PSS Back Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Michael; Duarte, Fernanda; Paudel, Naba; Yan, Yanfa; Wang, Weining

    Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) solar cell is one of the most promising thin film solar cells and its highest efficiency has reached 21%. To keep improving the efficiency of CdTe solar cells, a few issues need to be addressed, one of which is the back contact. The back contact of CdTe solar cells are mostly Cu-base, and the problem with Cu-based back contact is that Cu diffuses into the grain boundary and into the CdS/CdTe junction, causing degradation problem at high temperature and under illumination. To continue improving the efficiency of CdTe/CdS solar cells, a good ohmic back contact with high work function and long term stability is needed. In this work, we report our studies on the potential of conducting polymer being used as the back contact of CdTe/CdS solar cells. Conducting polymers are good candidates because they have high work functions and high conductivities, are easy to process, and cost less, meeting all the requirements of a good ohmic back contact for CdTe. In our studies, we used poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) with different conductivities and compared them with traditional Cu-based back contact. It was observed that the CdTe solar cell performance improves as the conductivity of the PEDOT:PSS increase, and the efficiency (9.1%) is approaching those with traditional Cu/Au back contact (12.5%). Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells with PEDOT:PSS Back Contact.

  3. Experience with the chondroprotector Arthra in patients with back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Vyacheslavovich Chebykin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors presents his experience in managing 1430 patients (858 men and 572 women aged 22 to 65 years, mean age 61.3 years with back pain who used Arthra as a chondroprotector in addition to standard therapy (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, myorelaxants, manual therapy, reflex therapy, therapeutic exercises. A comparison group consisted of 118 patients with back pain who received only standard therapy. It is noted that the incorporation of the chondroprotector Arthra into combination therapy can improve quality of life in patients with back pain.

  4. Prevalence and tracking of back pain from childhood to adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Per; Wedderkopp, Niels; Korsholm, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that back pain (BP) is a common condition already in childhood. However, the development until early adulthood is not well understood and, in particular, not the individual tracking pattern. The objectives of this paper are to show the prevalence estimates of BP, low ...... back pain (LBP), mid back pain (MBP), neck pain (NP), and care-seeking because of BP at three different ages (9, 13 and 15 years) and how the BP reporting tracks over these age groups over three consecutive surveys....

  5. Patterns of Low Back Pain in children/adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Per; Wedderkopp, Niels; Korsholm, Lars;

    as having had reported pain in the lower back within the past month. The prevalence estimates and the various patterns of LBP reporting over time are presented as percentages. Results: Of the 771 children sampled, 62%, 57%, and 58% participated in the three back surveys. The three prevalence estimates......Background: It is generally acknowledged that low back pain (LBP) is a common condition already in childhood. However, not many studies have looked at the way LBP tracks over age and how common it is until early adulthood. Purposes: The purposes of this presentation are to show the prevalence...

  6. Review of Low Profile Substrate Integrated Waveguide Cavity Backed Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Qing Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low profile cavity backed antennas (CBA based on substrate integrated waveguide (SIW technology presented in published papers have been reviewed in this paper. Their operating mechanisms have been discussed and methods for improving the performance, such as bandwidth enhancement, size reduction, and gain improvement, have been presented. These novel antennas retain the advantage of conventional metallic cavity backed antenna, including high gain, high front-to-back ratio, and low cross polarization level, and also keep the advantages of planar antenna including low profile, light weight, low fabrication cost, and easy integration with planar circuit.

  7. Limitations associated with managing chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Paul

    2016-04-20

    Non-specific chronic low back pain is an occupational hazard for nurses. It may result in persistent and disabling pain for some people. There are many techniques for investigating, assessing and treating chronic low back pain. However, research to support some of these interventions and the assumptions that underlie them is limited. Interventions that may be beneficial are not always available to those who need them. Changes to service provision are required to rectify this situation and provide effective treatment for patients with non-specific chronic low back pain. PMID:27097211

  8. Effects of Acute Low Back Pain on Postural Control

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn, Min Kyun; Lee, Sang Sook; Song, Hyun Tak

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the changes in static and dynamic postural control after the development of acute low back pain. Methods Thirty healthy right-handed volunteers were divided into three groups; the right back pain group, the left back pain group, and the control group. 0.5 mL of 5% hypertonic saline was injected into L4-5 paraspinal muscle for 5 seconds to cause muscle pain. The movement of the center of gravity (COG) during their static and dynamic postural control was measured with thei...

  9. Perform kicking with or without jumping: joint coordination and kinetic differences between Taekwondo back kicks and jumping back kicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kuangyou B; Wang, Ying-Hsun; Kuo, Shih-Yu; Wang, Kuan-Mao; Huang, Yi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    We investigated joint coordination differences between Taekwondo back kicks and jumping back kicks, and how jumping (in performing the latter) would alter engaging ground reaction forces (GRF) in executing kicking. Ten skilful athletes volunteered to perform both kinds of kicking within the shortest time for three successful trials. Three high-speed cameras and two force platforms were used for data collection, and the trial with the shortest execution time was selected for analysis. Movements were divided into the rotation and attack phases. With comparable execution time and maximum joint linear/angular speeds, back kicks and jumping back kicks differ mainly in larger GRF in the latter, and in greater target acceleration in the former probably because the support leg prevented athletes' rebounding after impact. In addition, more prominent antiphase and in-phase coordination between the shoulder segment and knee joint, and elongated rotation phase were found in jumping back kicks. Larger GRF values in jumping back kicks were generated for jump take-off rather than for a more powerful attack. In back kicks although the support leg remained ground contact, greatly decreased GRF in the attack phase suggested that the support leg mainly served as a rotation axis. PMID:25599144

  10. Water permeation and electrical properties of pottants, backings, and pottant/backing composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orehotsky, J.

    1986-01-01

    It is reported that the interface between plastic film back covers and ethylene vinyl acetates (EVA) or polyvinyl butyral (PVB) in photovoltaic modules can influence water permeation, and electrial properties of the composites such as leakage current and dielectric constant. The interface can either be one of two dissimilar materials in physical contact with no intermixing, or the interface can constitute a thin zone which is an interphase of the two materials having a gradient composition from one material to the other. The former condition is described as a discrete interface. A discrete interface model was developed to predict water permeation, dielectric strength, and leakage current for EVA, ethylene methyl acrylate (EMA), and PVB coupled to Tedlar and mylar films. Experimental data was compared with predicted data.

  11. Influence of low back pain and prognostic value of MRI in sciatica patients in relation to back pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelilah el Barzouhi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with sciatica frequently complain about associated back pain. It is not known whether there are prognostic relevant differences in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI findings between sciatica patients with and without disabling back pain. METHODS: The study population contained patients with sciatica who underwent a baseline MRI to assess eligibility for a randomized trial designed to compare the efficacy of early surgery with prolonged conservative care for sciatica. Two neuroradiologists and one neurosurgeon independently evaluated all MR images. The MRI readers were blinded to symptom status. The MRI findings were compared between sciatica patients with and without disabling back pain. The presence of disabling back pain at baseline was correlated with perceived recovery at one year. RESULTS: Of 379 included sciatica patients, 158 (42% had disabling back pain. Of the patients with both sciatica and disabling back pain 68% did reveal a herniated disc with nerve root compression on MRI, compared to 88% of patients with predominantly sciatica (P<0.001. The existence of disabling back pain in sciatica at baseline was negatively associated with perceived recovery at one year (Odds ratio [OR] 0.32, 95% Confidence Interval 0.18-0.56, P<0.001. Sciatica patients with disabling back pain in absence of nerve root compression on MRI at baseline reported less perceived recovery at one year compared to those with predominantly sciatica and nerve root compression on MRI (50% vs 91%, P<0.001. CONCLUSION: Sciatica patients with disabling low back pain reported an unfavorable outcome at one-year follow-up compared to those with predominantly sciatica. If additionally a clear herniated disc with nerve root compression on MRI was absent, the results were even worse.

  12. Meningoradiculitis due to borreliosis presenting as low back pain only

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a child with Borrelia burgdorferi meningoradiculitis. This entity, also known as Bannwarth syndrome, is rare and its presentation with low back pain only is even more unusual. The MRI findings can suggest the diagnosis. (orig.)

  13. Inkjet Printing of Back Electrodes for Inverted Polymer Solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Sweelssen, Jorgen; Andriessen, Ronn;

    2013-01-01

    Evaporation is the most commonly used deposition method in the processing of back electrodes in polymer solar cells used in scientifi c studies. However, vacuum-based methods such as evaporation are uneconomical in the upscaling of polymer solar cells as they are throughput limiting steps...... in an otherwise fast roll-to-roll production line. In this paper, the applicability of inkjet printing in the ambient processing of back electrodes in inverted polymer solar cells with the structure ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/ Ag is investigated. Furthermore, the limitation of screen printing, the commonly...... employed method in the ambient processing of back electrode, is demonstrated and discussed. Both inkjet printing and screen printing of back electrodes are studied for their impact on the photovoltaic properties of the polymer solar cells measured under 1000 Wm−2 AM1.5. Each ambient processing technique...

  14. Evaluation and Diagnosis of Back Pain in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Suken A; Saller, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Although traditionally it has been accepted that back pain in young children and adolescents most often has an organic etiology, nonorganic back pain in this population is becoming more common. The most common identifiable clinical entities responsible for such pain are spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, Scheuermann kyphosis, overuse syndromes, disk herniation, apophyseal ring fracture, spondylodiscitis, vertebral osteomyelitis, and neoplasm. Appropriate clinical workup leads to earlier diagnosis and management of back pain and avoids unnecessary cost. Knowledge of the most common diagnoses associated with back pain in children and adolescents and the use of a systematic method to select the appropriate diagnostic tests can help the clinician to minimize costs and maximize the likelihood of making the correct diagnosis and providing appropriate treatment. PMID:26589458

  15. [Aiming at the chest, but hitting the back].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Axmann, Stefan; Siegenthaler, Lea; Kneubühl, Beat; Thali, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Gunshot injuries in the back may suggest the unjustified use of firearms. A wound in the back inflicted by a firearm should not automatically imply that the shooter aimed at the back. A previous study demonstrated that it is possible for men to turn their trunk faster than it takes for a shooter to fire or throw a hand-operated weapon. With a high speed motion camera the authors were able to demonstrate that it is also possible for women to turn their trunk fast enough, so that a shot in the back could have been aimed at the front of the body. This conclusion is also likely to apply to hand-operated or thrown weapons, since the velocity of their projectiles is considerably lower than that of firearms. PMID:22039696

  16. Species List for Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a species list of fish, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles that are either common to the Back Bay area or have ranges that extend into this region. This list...

  17. St Marks Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back-end data file for the St Marks Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use.The Wilderness Act of 1964...

  18. West Sister Island Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back-end data file for the West Sister Island Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use.The Wilderness...

  19. Crab Orchard Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back-end data file for the Crab Orchard Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use.The Wilderness Act of...

  20. Wisconsin Islands Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back-end data file for the Wisconsin Islands Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use.The Wilderness...

  1. Michigan Islands Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back-end data file for the Michgan Islands Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use.The Wilderness Act...

  2. Cape Romain Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back-end data file for the Cape Romain Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use.The Wilderness Act of...

  3. Cedar Keys Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back-end data file for the Cedar Keys Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use.The Wilderness Act of...

  4. Island Bay Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back-end data file for the Island Bay Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use.The Wilderness Act of...

  5. Mingo Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back-end data file for the Mingo Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use.The Wilderness Act of 1964...

  6. Proposed Assateague Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back-end data file for the Propose Assateague Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use.The Wilderness...

  7. Huron Islands Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back-end data file for the Huron Islands (at Seney National Wildlife Refuge) Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for...

  8. Pelican Island Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back-end data file for the Pelican Island Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use.The Wilderness Act...

  9. Back-to-School Health Tips: Breakfast & Lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Back-to-School Health Tips: Breakfast & Lunch Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents ... have shown that children who eat healthful, balanced breakfasts and lunches are more alert throughout the school ...

  10. Migratory Bird Disease Contingency Plan: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1938 to provide habitat and protection for migratory birds. Management objectives have since been expanded to...

  11. Getting Back in Action: Participation Is Key to Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recovery is participation, says Karen Lohmann Siegel, a physical therapist at NIH’s Clinical Center. “Many medical procedures and ... want you right back on your feet. A physical therapist will plan exercises to help you retrain your ...

  12. Results of Back Bay Nutrient Sampling, April 1986 - March 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To determine nutrient levels in Back Bay, water samples were collected monthly from April, 1986 through March, 1987. Surface water samples were collected at six...

  13. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Fur Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Fur Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The furbearer management program directly supports the...

  14. Final wilderness proposal : Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a memorandum announcing completion of the wilderness study for Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. It details the results of the study and...

  15. Vehicular regulations announced for Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an announcement pertaining to regulations published in the Federal Register concerning the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. The regulations all...

  16. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Anuran Data Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Species richness, average call index, and total number of calls recorded for each anuran species detected at Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge from 2000-2004.

  17. Letter to President [Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Assistant Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Back Bay Wilderness area. The letter...

  18. The Trail Inventory of Back Bay NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  19. Trapping Management Plan: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge trapping plan outlines trapping areas, species, regulations, equipment, and seasons. This plan will allow harvest of a...

  20. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Back Bay NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  1. Environmental Assessment: Impoundment Rehabilitation on Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to rehabilitate the wetland impoundments of Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. The environmental assessment describes...

  2. Fact sheet : Wilderness proposal [Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a fact sheet of information about the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Pertinent information such as the area of the refuge, information on the...

  3. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Fire Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan considers fire on Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge as a tool for management and as a potential problem to be dealt with. This document discusses...

  4. Marsh and Water Management Plan: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Marsh and Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of...

  5. The Trail Inventory of Back Bay NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  6. Study of Back Contacts for CdTe Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    ZnTe/ZnTe∶Cu layer is used as a complex back contact. The parameters of CdTe solar cells with and without the complex back contacts are compared. The effects of un-doped layer thickness, doped concentration and post-deposition annealing temperature of the complex layer on solar cells performance are investigated.The results show that ZnTe/ZnTe∶Cu layer can improve back contacts and largely increase the conversion efficiency of CdTe solar cells. Un-doped layer and post-deposition annealing of high temperature can increase open voltage. Using the complex back contact, a small CdTe cell with fill factor of 73.14% and conversion efficiency of 12.93% is obtained.

  7. Moda opjat vernulas v Tallinn - Fashion Is Back In Tallinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Moeüritus Fashion is Back in Tallinn (FIBIT) Viru Keskuses Tallinnas. Gala-etendusel "Sinine, Must ja Valge" esitletud Anu Samarüütel-Longi, Tanel Veenre ja Arne Niidu moekollektsioonidest. Lisaks värvilised fotod

  8. Rubbia proposes a speedier voyage to Mars and back

    CERN Multimedia

    Abbott, A

    1999-01-01

    Carlo Rubbia has designed a propulsion engine that uses fission fragments of americium to directly heat a propulsion gas. He estimates it would allow a manned trip to Mars and back in around a year (8 paragraphs).

  9. Prediction of tides using back-propagation neural networks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.

    Prediction of tides is very much essential for human activities and to reduce the construction cost in marine environment. This paper presents an application of the artificial neural network with back-propagation procedures for accurate prediction...

  10. Alkaptonuria, a rare cause for low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Muralidhar Haridas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alkaptonuria is a very rare disease that can cause premature degenerative arthritis of the spine and peripheral large joints. I present here a case of middle-aged woman who developed low back pain secondary to alkaptonuria.

  11. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Croplands Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Cropland Management Plan focuses on the production of supplemental grain and browse foods to maintain wildlife populations at...

  12. Studies of corona and back discharges in carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Tadeusz; Sobczyk, Arkadiusz Tomasz; Jaworek, Anatol; Krupa, Andrzej; Rajch, Eryk

    2013-01-01

    Results of spectroscopic investigations and current-voltage characteristics of corona and back discharges generated in point-plane electrode geometry in CO2 at atmospheric pressure for positive and negative polarity of the discharge electrode are presented in the paper. Three forms of back discharge, for both polarities, were investigated: glow, streamer and low-current back-arc. To generate the back-discharges for the conditions similar to electrostatic precipitator, the plate electrode was covered with fly ash layer. In order to characterize back discharge processes, the emission spectra were measured and compared with those obtained for normal discharge, generated in the same electrode configuration but without the fly ash layer on the plate electrode. The measurements have shown that optical emission spectral lines of atoms and molecules, excited or ionised in back discharge, depend on the forms of the discharge, the discharge current, and are different in the zones close to needle electrode and fly ash layer. From the comparison of spectral lines of back and normal discharges, an effect of fly ash layer on discharge characteristics and morphology has been determined. In normal corona, the emission spectra are mainly predetermined by the working gas components, but in the case of back discharge, the atomic and molecular lines, resulting from chemical composition of fly ash, are also identified. Differences in the spectra of back discharge for positive and negative polarities of the needle electrode have been explained by considering the kind of ions generated in the crater in fly ash layer. For back arc, the emission of spectral lines of atoms and molecules from fly ash layer can be recorded in the crater zone, but in the needle zone, only the emission lines of CO2 and its decomposition products (CO and C2) can be noticed. The studies of back discharge in CO2, as one of the main components of flue gases, were undertaken because this type of discharge, after

  13. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF BACK PAIN IN YOUNG POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiral

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low back pain in young patients represents an area of particular challenge and importance to referring physicians. Although plain radiography remains initial imaging tool, MRI due to its inherent high quality soft tissue contrast resolution, lack of ionizing radiation and rare requirement of contrast media remains invaluable modality to evaluate back pain in young patients. AIMS: The role of MRI in evaluation of various lesions of spine, inter vertebral discs and spinal canal in young patients (3–17 years of age. MATERIALS & METHODS: This was a prospective study done from on young patients (total 35 patients who presented with back pain are evaluated with MRI. Patients advised MRI spine for complaints other than back pain and uncooperative patients were excluded from the study. The study was performed using GE 1.5T and Siemen’s 3.0T MRI machines. RESULTS: Although significant number of children and adolescents who presented with back pain did not show any significant abnormality on MRI, the most common etiology in this study was disc disease and herniation. This was immediately followed by second most common cause as sacroilitis and spondylolysis with or without listhesis. Scoliosis, spinal trauma and infective etiologies were third most common cause of back pain in this study. Neoplastic conditions and congenital anomalies were found among the rare causes of back pain in children and adolescents in our study. CONCLUSION: Back pain is common in children and adolescents and its incidence increases with age. MRI remains main stay of spinal imaging to evaluate various pathologies of vertebrae, bone marrow, discs, ligaments, spinal cord and sacroiliac joints.

  14. Picosecond supercontinuum generation with back seeding of different spectral parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moselund, Peter Morten; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Thomsen, C.L.;

    2008-01-01

    We study supercontinuum generation with picosecond pumping and the spectrum obtained when coupling back the part of the output around 1200-1700 nanometres or the part around 700-900 nanometres with a variable time delay.......We study supercontinuum generation with picosecond pumping and the spectrum obtained when coupling back the part of the output around 1200-1700 nanometres or the part around 700-900 nanometres with a variable time delay....

  15. Rehabilitation of the athlete with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standaert, Christopher J; Herring, Stanley A; Pratt, Todd W

    2004-02-01

    The rehabilitation of athletes with low back pain should be considered an essential component of their care. Comprehensive rehabilitation begins at the time of acute injury and encompasses the period of acute care through sport-specific training and return to competition. Rehabilitation of athletes with spinal pain should include a thorough psychosocial evaluation to identify potential barriers to clinical improvement. For athletes with low back pain, establishing effective core stability is central to optimizing the functional performance of the athlete. PMID:14728912

  16. Analog Delta-Back-Propagation Neural-Network Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Silvio

    1990-01-01

    Changes in synapse weights due to circuit drifts suppressed. Proposed fully parallel analog version of electronic neural-network processor based on delta-back-propagation algorithm. Processor able to "learn" when provided with suitable combinations of inputs and enforced outputs. Includes programmable resistive memory elements (corresponding to synapses), conductances (synapse weights) adjusted during learning. Buffer amplifiers, summing circuits, and sample-and-hold circuits arranged in layers of electronic neurons in accordance with delta-back-propagation algorithm.

  17. Developmental trajectories in primary schoolchildren using n-back task

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica eLópez-Vicente; Joan eForns; Elisabeth eSuades-González; Mikel eEsnaola; Raquel eGarcía-Esteban; Mar eÁlvarez-Pedrerol; Jordi eJúlvez; Miguel eBurgaleta; Nuria eSebastian-Galles; Jordi eSunyer

    2016-01-01

    Background: Neuropsychological instruments to assess cognitive trajectories during childhood in epidemiological studies are needed. This would improve neurodevelopment characterization in order to identify its potential determinants. We aimed to study whether repeated measures of n-back, a working memory task, detect developmental trajectories in schoolchildren during a one-year follow-up.Methods: We administered the n-back task to 2,897 healthy children aged 7-11 years old from 39 schools in...

  18. Spinal manipulative therapy for acute low-back pain (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinstein, S.M.; Terwee, C.B.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Boer, M.R.M. de; van Tulder, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many therapies exist for the treatment of low-back pain including spinal manipulative therapy (SMT), which is a worldwide, extensively practised intervention. This report is an update of the earlier Cochrane review, first published in January 2004 with the last search for studies up to January 2000. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of SMT for acute low-back pain, which is defined as pain of less than six weeks duration. SEARCH METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted on 31 ...

  19. Trunk fatigue profile and low back pain in tennis players

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, José Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Mestrado em Ciências da Fisioterapia Introduction The trunk plays an important role in tennis strokes. Its asymmetric muscle activation, coupled with the high repeatability of the sport, places tennis players at risk for injuries such as low back pain. Objectives This study aimed to present a trunk fatigue profile in tennis players and verify its association with low back pain (LBP). Material and Methods 35 tennis players completed an isometric trunk endurance protocol co...

  20. Individual patient education for low back pain (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Engers, A.; Jellema, P.; Wensing, M.J.P.; van der Windt, D.A.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; van Tulder, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While many different types of patient education are widely used, the effect of individual patient education for low-back pain (LBP) has not yet been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether individual patient education is effective in the treatment of non-specific low-back pain and which type is most effective. SEARCH STRATEGY: A computerized literature search of MEDLINE (1966 to July 2006), EMBASE (1988 to July 2006), CINAHL (1982 to July 2006), PsycINFO (1984 to...

  1. Who carries passengers in the back of pickup trucks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agran, P F; Winn, D G; Anderson, C L

    1995-02-01

    This study was designed to compare pickup truck drivers who carried passengers in the back with those who did not, with respect to driving behaviors, sociodemographic features, and issues related to use of the pickup truck. A computerized assisted telephone survey was conducted in Riverside County, California. One thousand ten motor vehicle drivers were interviewed with respect to demographics, restraint use, driving behaviors, and variables related to vehicle use. Thirty-six percent (364) of the households had a pickup truck driver. Pickup drivers were grouped into those who stated that they had carried occupants in the back (n = 119) and those who had not (n = 245). A higher proportion of 16- to 24-year-old and 35- to 44-year-old pickup truck drivers carried passengers in the back of pickup trucks. Those who carried occupants in the back were significantly more likely to be Hispanic, to be students, and to live in a household that included teenagers. They also had a larger mean household size. They were less likely to own the pickup and less likely to be the principal wage earners. They were more likely to report four high-risk driving behaviors. They also used the pickup truck for multiple purposes, i.e. recreation, work, school transportation, and daily transportation. In the multivariate analysis, the presence of teenagers in the household, three high-risk driving behaviors, and three indicators of pickup truck use were independently related to carrying passengers in the back of a pickup. Those who allowed passengers in the back were significantly less likely to agree with statements suggesting restriction of travel in the back. Finally, only 9% of the respondents who carried passengers in the back of a pickup reported that the pickup truck was the only vehicle available in the household. PMID:7718073

  2. Comet Tempel 1 Went Back to Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Astronomers Having Used ESO Telescopes Start Analysing Unique Dataset on the Comet Following the Deep Impact Mission Ten days after part of the Deep Impact spacecraft plunged onto Comet Tempel 1 with the aim to create a crater and expose pristine material from beneath the surface, astronomers are back in the ESO Offices in Santiago, after more than a week of observing at the ESO La Silla Paranal Observatory. In this unprecedented observing campaign - among the most ambitious ever conducted by a single observatory - the astronomers have collected a large amount of invaluable data on this comet. The astronomers have now started the lengthy process of data reduction and analysis. Being all together in a single place, and in close contacts with the space mission' scientific team, they will try to assemble a clear picture of the comet and of the impact. The ESO observations were part of a worldwide campaign to observe this unique experiment. During the campaign, ESO was connected by phone, email, and videoconference with colleagues in all major observatories worldwide, and data were freely exchanged between the different groups. This unique collaborative spirit provides astronomers with data taken almost around the clock during several days and this, with the largest variety of instruments, making the Deep Impact observing campaign one of the most successful of its kind, and thereby, ensuring the greatest scientific outcome. From the current analysis, it appears most likely that the impactor did not create a large new zone of activity and may have failed to liberate a large quantity of pristine material from beneath the surface. ESO PR Photo 22/05 ESO PR Photo 22/05 Evolution of Comet Tempel 1 (FORS2/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 701 pix - 128k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1401 pix - 357k] ESO PR Photo 22/05 Animated Gif Caption: ESO PR Photo 22/05 shows the evolution of Comet Tempel 1 as observed with the FORS2 instrument on Antu (VLT). The images obtained at the VLT show that

  3. [Low back pain: when and what to do].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illés, S Tamás

    2015-08-16

    The low back pain has become one of the greatest public health problems worldwide. The author based on the current international standards summarizes the knowledge necessary for every day treatment of low back pain. In acute low back pain the author underlines the necessity of the rapid, accurate diagnosis and separation for specific and non-specific low back pain. In specific acute low back pain the treatment should focus on to eliminate the root causes. In non-specific cases pain killing treatment and early active mobilization is the choice for the therapeutic process. Beside analgesia, the primary goal of the treatment is to prevent becoming chronic the symptomatology. Objectives of the management of chronic low back pain are effective pain reduction, continuous maintainance of physical activity, prevention of permanent disability, and restoration of working ability. Analgesics, non steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, and muscle relaxants reduce pain, while multidisciplinary management programs, personalized and guided physiotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, as well as short training programs will help to restore function. Surgical treatment is only indicated in degenerative cases and only after the failure of conservative therapy. PMID:26256495

  4. Mediators of Yoga and Stretching for Chronic Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Sherman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although yoga is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for its benefits. In a trial comparing yoga to intensive stretching and self-care, we explored whether physical (hours of back exercise/week, cognitive (fear avoidance, body awareness, and self-efficacy, affective (psychological distress, perceived stress, positive states of mind, and sleep, and physiological factors (cortisol, DHEA mediated the effects of yoga or stretching on back-related dysfunction (Roland-Morris Disability Scale (RDQ. For yoga, 36% of the effect on 12-week RDQ was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 18% by sleep disturbance, 9% by hours of back exercise, and 61% by the best combination of all possible mediators (6 mediators. For stretching, 23% of the effect was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 14% by days of back exercise, and 50% by the best combination of all possible mediators (7 mediators. In open-ended questions, ≥20% of participants noted the following treatment benefits: learning new exercises (both groups, relaxation, increased awareness, and the benefits of breathing (yoga, benefits of regular practice (stretching. Although both self-efficacy and hours of back exercise were the strongest mediators for each intervention, compared to self-care, qualitative data suggest that they may exert their benefits through partially distinct mechanisms.

  5. Reporting back environmental exposure data and free choice learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Brody, Julia Green; Lothrop, Nathan; Loh, Miranda; Beamer, Paloma I; Brown, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Reporting data back to study participants is increasingly being integrated into exposure and biomonitoring studies. Informal science learning opportunities are valuable in environmental health literacy efforts and report back efforts are filling an important gap in these efforts. Using the University of Arizona's Metals Exposure Study in Homes, this commentary reflects on how community-engaged exposure assessment studies, partnered with data report back efforts are providing a new informal education setting and stimulating free-choice learning. Participants are capitalizing on participating in research and leveraging their research experience to meet personal and community environmental health literacy goals. Observations from report back activities conducted in a mining community support the idea that reporting back biomonitoring data reinforces free-choice learning and this activity can lead to improvements in environmental health literacy. By linking the field of informal science education to the environmental health literacy concepts, this commentary demonstrates how reporting data back to participants is tapping into what an individual is intrinsically motivated to learn and how these efforts are successfully responding to community-identified education and research needs. PMID:26748908

  6. Harmonic models of a back-to-back converter in large offshore wind farms compared with measurement data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2009-01-01

    The offshore wind farm with installed back-to-back power converter in wind turbines is studied. As an example the Burbo Bank offshore wind farm with Siemens Wind Power wind turbines is taken into consideration. The wind farm is simulated in DIgSILENT Power Factory software in order to determine a...... results are compared with measurement data from the Burbo Bank offshore wind farm. The delimitations of both power converter models with referent to harmonic analysis are shown in this paper.......The offshore wind farm with installed back-to-back power converter in wind turbines is studied. As an example the Burbo Bank offshore wind farm with Siemens Wind Power wind turbines is taken into consideration. The wind farm is simulated in DIgSILENT Power Factory software in order to determine...

  7. Control and simulation of fault and change effect in a back to back system of high voltage direct current network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : The primary knowledge of human being from electrical energy was in the form of statistic electricity and the first transmission line was DC. But because of primary problems in transmitting electrical power in DC form with average and low voltage levels and because of the higher efficiency of AC machines in comparison with DC machines and presence of AC transistors in different capacitance, have caused the electrical power to be transmitted in AC form. But with the avancement of electrical engineering technology in the 20th century, the transition systems were used in HVDC form, and from that time the HDVC technology passed its improvement process so fast. In this paper in addition to discussing the advantage of HDVC systems and back to back instruction, the fault and change effect in a back to back system is discussed

  8. Physical characteristics of the back are not predictive of low back pain in healthy workers: A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Masschelein Raphael; Verbeke Geert; Burdorf Alex; Crombez Geert; Van Nieuwenhuyse An; Moens Guido; Mairiaux Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In the working population, back disorders are an important reason for sick leave and permanent work inability. In the context of fitting the job to the worker, one of the primary tasks of the occupational health physician is to evaluate the balance between work-related and individual variables. Since this evaluation of work capacity often consists of a physical examination of the back, the objective of this study was to investigate whether a physical examination of the low...

  9. Harmonic models of a back-to-back converter in large offshore wind farms compared with measurement data

    OpenAIRE

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2009-01-01

    The offshore wind farm with installed back-to-back power converter in wind turbines is studied. As an example the Burbo Bank offshore wind farm with Siemens Wind Power wind turbines is taken into consideration. The wind farm is simulated in DIgSILENT Power Factory software in order to determine and assess harmonic emission in the point of common coupling. Different modelling methods of power electronic devices installed in wind turbines are presented. Harmonic load flow analysis and impedance...

  10. Long-term experience with implanted intrathecal drug administration systems for failed back syndrome and chronic mechanical low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treharne GJ

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous intrathecal drug delivery has been shown in open studies to improve pain and quality of life in those with intractable back pain who have had spinal surgery. There is limited data on long term effects and and even less for patients with mechanical back pain without prior spinal surgery. Methods We have investigated spinal drug administration systems for patients with failed back syndrome and chronic mechanical low back pain by patient questionnaire study of the efficacy of this therapy and a case notes review. Results 36 patients (97% of 37 approached completed questionnaires, 24 with failed back syndrome and 12 with chronic mechanical low back pain. Recalled pre-treatment levels with current post-treatment levels of pain and a range of quality of life measures (recorded on 11-point numerical rating scales were compared. Pain improved significantly in both groups (Wilcoxan signed ranks test, p 0.005, Wilcoxan signed ranks test with Bonferroni correction. Diamorphine was used in all 37 patients, bupivacaine in 32, clonidine in 27 and baclofen in 3. The mean dose of diamorphine increased for the first 2 years but did not change 2–6 years post implant, averaging 4.5 mg/day. Revision surgery was required in 24% of cases, but reduced to 12% in the later years of our experience. Conclusions We conclude that spinal drug administration systems appear to be of benefit in alleviating pain in the failed back syndrome and chronic mechanical low back pain but need to be examined prospectively.

  11. A systematic review of the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain, back and low back pain in people with spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Michailidou, C; Marston, L; Desouza, LH; Sutherland, I

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To review and summarise the prevalence of chronic back pain (CBP), chronic low back pain (CLBP) and chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMSKP) in people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and evaluate how pain is assessed. Method: A systematic literature review between 1990 and 2012 in English language journals. Twelve databases were searched including CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase, PubMed and Science direct. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: ...

  12. Element nodes of sports equipment double back flip factions and double back flip hunched performed gymnast in floor exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potop V.A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the node elements of sports equipment double back somersault tuck and double back flip bent. To compare the two types of nodes for double somersault. Material : the study involved eight gymnasts (age 12 - 14 years. All finalists in the competition floor exercise - reserve team Romania. The method of video - computer research and method of postural orientation movements. Results : identified nodal elements of sports equipment double back somersault tuck and double back flip bent. In the preparatory phase of motor actions - launcher body posture for reaching is repulsive to flip. In the phase of basic motor action - animation body postures (double back somersault tuck and bent (bent double back flip. Exercises are performed on the ascending and descending parts of the flight path of the demonstration of individual maximum lift height common center of mass. In the final phase of motor actions - final body posture - steady landing. Conclusions : indicators of key elements of sports equipment acrobatic exercises contain new scientific facts kinematic and dynamic structures of motor actions. They are necessary for the development of modern training programs acrobatic exercises in step specialized base preparation.

  13. Exercise therapy for chronic nonspecific low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Middelkoop, Marienke; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Verhagen, Arianne P; Ostelo, Raymond W; Koes, Bart W; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2010-04-01

    Exercise therapy is the most widely used type of conservative treatment for low back pain. Systematic reviews have shown that exercise therapy is effective for chronic but not for acute low back pain. During the past 5 years, many additional trials have been published on chronic low back pain. This articles aims to give an overview on the effectiveness of exercise therapy in patients with low back pain. For this overview, existing Cochrane reviews for the individual interventions were screened for studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria, and the search strategy outlined by the Cochrane Back Review Group (CBRG) was followed. Studies were included if they fulfilled the following criteria: (1) randomised controlled trials,(2) adult (> or =18 years) population with chronic (> or =12 weeks) nonspecific low back pain and (3) evaluation of at least one of the main clinically relevant outcome measures (pain, functional status, perceived recovery or return to work). Two reviewers independently selected studies and extracted data on study characteristics, risk of bias and outcomes at short-term, intermediate and long-term follow-up. The GRADE approach (GRADE, Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) was used to determine the quality of evidence. In total, 37 randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria and were included in this overview. Compared to usual care, exercise therapy improved post-treatment pain intensity and disability, and long-term function. The authors conclude that evidence from randomised controlled trials demonstrated that exercise therapy is effective at reducing pain and function in the treatment of chronic low back pain. There is no evidence that one particular type of exercise therapy is clearly more effective than others. However, effects are small and it remains unclear which subgroups of patients benefit most from a specific type of treatment. PMID:20227641

  14. Flexible distribution systems through the application of multi back-to-back converters. Concept, implementation and experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Graaff, R.A.A.

    2010-05-26

    The objective of the research project is to investigate the use of a multi back-to-back converter to support the transition to active distribution networks. The investigation must explicitly not focus on finding the optimal power electronics topology, but rather on defining the role that such a device can play in a power distribution system and on the proof of principle. The possible tasks of this device are to actively control power flow and to maintain power quality and stability, both during normal operation and during fault conditions in medium voltage networks with distributed generation. The combination of this versatile converter system and the control and protection systems that define its functionality are in this thesis denoted as the Intelligent Node (IN). Research questions are: (1) Which are the main benefits of multi back-to-back converter devices in distribution systems?; (2) How and under which conditions can these benefits be achieved? What controls should be adopted?; (3) Which are the specific aspects that distinguish the application of the multi back-to-back devices in distribution systems from similar applications in transmission systems?; (4) Can this be demonstrated on a laboratory-scale set-up?Chapter 2 Distribution systems The relevant aspects of distribution systems are discussed. This includes power quality considerations, redundancy aspects, and voltage control methods. Chapter 3 (FACTS in distribution systems) describes power flow control principles. Also an overview is given of the state-of-the-art of power electronic applications for power flow control in electrical power systems. Chapter 4 (Functional concept of the Intelligent Node) gives the proposed functional concept for the application of a multi back-to-back converter device as IN (Intelligent Node). The applications are developed on a functional level, with the device at a black-box level. To satisfy the resulting requirements several technology options are analyzed, ending

  15. Myofascial Pain Syndrome in Chronic Back Pain Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, Abd Jalil

    2011-01-01

    Background Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional musculoskeletal pain disorder that is caused by myofascial trigger points. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MPS among chronic back pain patients, as well as to identify risk factors and the outcome of this disorder. Methods This was a prospective observational study involving 126 patients who attended the Pain Management Unit for chronic back pain between 1st January 2009 and 31st December 2009. Data examined included demographic features of patients, duration of back pain, muscle(s) involved, primary diagnosis, treatment modality and response to treatment. Results The prevalence of MPS among chronic back pain patients was 63.5% (n = 80). Secondary MPS was more common than primary MPS, making up 81.3% of the total MPS. There was an association between female gender and risk of developing MPS (χ2 = 5.38, P = 0.02, O.R. = 2.4). Occupation, body mass index and duration of back pain were not significantly associated with MPS occurrence. Repeated measures analysis showed significant changes (P pain patients was significantly high, with female gender being a significant risk factor. With proper diagnosis and expert management, MPS has a favourable outcome. PMID:21716607

  16. Titanium Alloy Strong Back for IXO Mirror Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Glenn P.; Kai-Wang, Chan

    2011-01-01

    A titanium-alloy mirror-holding fixture called a strong back allows the temporary and permanent bonding of a 50 degree D263 glass x-ray mirror (IXO here stands for International X-ray Observatory). The strong back is used to hold and position a mirror segment so that mounting tabs may be bonded to the mirror with ultra-low distortion of the optical surface. Ti-15%Mo alloy was the material of choice for the strong back and tabs because the coefficient of thermal expansion closely matches that of the D263 glass and the material is relatively easy to machine. This invention has the ability to transfer bonded mounting points from a temporary location on the strong back to a permanent location on the strong back with minimal distortion. Secondly, it converts a single mirror segment into a rigid body with an acceptable amount of distortion of the mirror, and then maneuvers that rigid body into optical alignment such that the mirror segment can be bonded into a housing simulator or mirror module. Key problems are that the mirrors are 0.4-mm thick and have a very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because the mirrors are so thin, they are very flexible and are easily distorted. When permanently bonding the mirror, the goal is to achieve a less than 1-micron distortion. Temperature deviations in the lab, which have been measured to be around 1 C, have caused significant distortions in the mirror segment.

  17. Prevalence and causes of back pain syndromes in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Smirnova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of literature devoted to epidemiology, and the nosological and syndromal structure of back pain in children. The data of our own study of school-aged children with back pain are presented. The structure of back pain syndromes in 105 children has been analyzed using the medical aid appealability data. The results of a comprehensive clinical and instrumental study demonstrated that the children mostly had lumbosacral pain (52.4% of cases; neck pain was observed in 29.5% of cases; while thoracic pain syndromes were observed in 18.1% of cases. Congenital defect of the connective tissue was diagnosed in 16.19% of children; congenital abnormalities of the spine, in 15.2%; scoliosis (idiopathic and secondary, in 8.6%; and Scheuermann-Mau's disease, in 5.71%. The conclusion has been made about the high prevalence of back pain in schoolchildren. Muscular tonic syndromes were prevailing in the clinical structure in children; radicular syndromes were less frequent. Musculoskeletal disorders were the main causes of back pain. Congenital defect of the connective tissue was often observed, which was revealed as functional instability of the vertebral motor segment, spondylolisthesis due to weak ligaments, and disc protrusions. Congenital abnormalities of the spine, scoliosis, and Scheuermann-Mau' disease were observed less often. 

  18. Behavior of interdigitated back-contact solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L. J.; Leung, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents experimental data concerning operation mechanisms of two versions of interdigitated back-contact solar cells: the tandem junction cell and the front-surface field cell. It is shown that a photogenerated forward bias at the front junction of a tandem junction cell is a critical parameter for cell performance which not only causes photogenerated carriers to migrate to the back junction, but also eliminates the reduction in photoresponse over back p(+) metallization regions. However, no similar light effects are observed in the performance of front-surface field cells. Finally, a discussion on mechanisms concerning the performance of front-surface field and tandem junction cells along with their merits is given.

  19. Gravitational back reaction on piecewise linear cosmic string loops

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the metric and affine connection due to a piecewise linear cosmic string loop, and the effect of gravitational back reaction for the Garfinkle-Vachaspati loop with four straight segments. As expected, back reaction reduces the size of the loop, in accord with the energy going into gravitational waves. The "square" loop whose generators lie at right angles evaporates without changing shape, but in all other cases, the kinks become less sharp and segments between kinks become curved. If the loop is close to the square case, the loop will evaporate before its kinks are significantly changed; if it is far from square, the opening out of the kinks is much faster than evaporation of the loop. In more realistic loops, the curvature of the straight segments due to gravitational back reaction may lead to cusps which did not exist in the original shape with the bending of the string concentrated at kinks.

  20. Recurrent acute low back pain secondary to lumbar epidural calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidural calcification is a rare cause of back pain, and spontaneous epidural calcification has not been reported previously. We describe a patient with acute low back pain and signs of lumbar nerve root compression due to epidural calcification, as demonstrated by CT-scan and MRI. Radiological signs of spondylodiscitis led to a search for an infectious cause, which was negative, and her symptoms responded rapidly to NSAID treatment alone. Her symptoms recurred 18 months later, and further imaging studies again revealed epidural calcification, but with a changed distribution. Her symptoms were relieved once more by NSAID treatment alone. We propose that epidural calcification secondary to aseptic spondylodiscitis is the main cause of acute back pain in this patient. A possible mechanism may be the pro-inflammatory effects of calcium pyrophosphate or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition within the epidural space. (orig.)

  1. Back seeding of picosecond supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moselund, Peter M.; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Thomsen, Carsten;

    2008-01-01

    Supercontinuum generation (SCG) has been the subject of intense investigation during the last few years and its main mechanisms are now well understood. Focus has shifted towards tailoring the spectrum of the supercontinuum for specific applications. We experimentally investigate SCG with...... picosecond pumping in photonic crystal fibers with two closely spaced zero dispersion wavelengths. We couple parts of the output spectrum of the supercontinuum source back to the input in order to produce a gain of over 15 dB at some wavelengths. We use a variable time delay to optimize the overlap between...... the pump and the back seeded pulses and investigate how the delay and spectrum of the back seeded pulse affects the resulting supercontinuum spectrum....

  2. [Low Back Pain in Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Treatment Options and Outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlemann, Daniel; Mühlemann, Malin B

    2015-05-20

    Low back pain in pregnancy is a common occurrence and is mainly caused by hormonal and biomechanical changes. Patients with pregnancy-induced low back pain (PILBP) frequently complain of moderate to severe and disabling pain often restricting their daily activities. In these cases, a “watch and wait” approach cannot be the best solution. On the basis of anamnesis and examination PILBP can be divided into three subgroups: pregnancy-related low back pain (PLBP), pelvic girdle pain (PGP) and the combination of PLBP and PGP. The three entities ask for different diagnostic workups and therapeutic modalities. There are many possible treatments for PLBP, however, only a few are based on sound evidence. Information and advice, exercise and training programs, acupuncture, stabilizing belts and analgesic medication can have a positive impact on pain and disability. PGP und PLBP respond well to chiropractic interventions.

  3. Non-thermal plasma reactor with back corona discharge electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czapka, T; Kacprzyk, R, E-mail: tomasz.czapka@pwr.wroc.pl [Institute of electrical Engineering Fundamentals, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, 50370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2011-06-23

    The new design of plasma reactor with back discharge electrode is presented and characterized. The laboratory scale plasma reactor was constructed in a plane parallel geometry with a gas permeable low-field electrode system. The low-field electrode was covered with a dielectric layer enabling the appearance of back corona discharges. The total volume of the reactor is equal to 2 dm{sup 3}.The discharge properties of the reactor operating at dc voltage in air under normal conditions are given. The results of optimizing the electrical properties are also presented. The influence of back discharges on the discharge current is discussed. The maximum discharge current density obtained during the experiment was equal to about 25 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}.

  4. Non-thermal plasma reactor with back corona discharge electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new design of plasma reactor with back discharge electrode is presented and characterized. The laboratory scale plasma reactor was constructed in a plane parallel geometry with a gas permeable low-field electrode system. The low-field electrode was covered with a dielectric layer enabling the appearance of back corona discharges. The total volume of the reactor is equal to 2 dm3.The discharge properties of the reactor operating at dc voltage in air under normal conditions are given. The results of optimizing the electrical properties are also presented. The influence of back discharges on the discharge current is discussed. The maximum discharge current density obtained during the experiment was equal to about 25 μA/cm2.

  5. Frobenius Pull Backs of Vector Bundles in Higher Dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Trivedi

    2012-11-01

    We prove that for a smooth projective variety of arbitrary dimension and for a vector bundle over , the Harder–Narasimhan filtration of a Frobenius pull back of is a refinement of the Frobenius pull back of the Harder–Narasimhan filtration of , provided there is a lower bound on the characteristic (in terms of rank of and the slope of the destabilizing sheaf of the cotangent bundle of ). We also recall some examples, due to Raynaud and Monsky, to show that some lower bound on is necessary. We also give a bound on the instability degree of the Frobenius pull back of in terms of the instability degree of and well defined invariants of .

  6. Hartford's gun buy-back program: are we on target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Laura W; Thaker, Shefali; Borrup, Kevin; Shapiro, David S; Bentley, George C; Saleheen, Hassan; Lapidus, Garry; Campbell, Brendan T

    2013-09-01

    Gunbuy-backprograms have been proposed as away to remove unwanted firearms from circulation, but remain controversial because their ability to prevent firearm injuries remains unproven. The purpose of this study is to describe the demographics of individuals participating in Connecticut's gun buy-backprogram in the context of annual gun sales and the epidemiology of firearm violence in the state. Over four years the buy-back program collected 464 firearms, including 232 handguns. In contrast, 91,602 firearms were sold in Connecticut during 2009 alone. The incidence of gun-related deaths was unchanged in the two years following the inception of the buy-back program. Suicide was associated with older age (mean = 51 +/- 18years) and Caucasian race (n = 539, 90%). Homicide was associated with younger age (mean = 30 +/- 12 years) and minority race (n = 425, 81%). A gun buy-back program alone is not likely to produce a measurable decrease in firearm injuries and deaths.

  7. Low back pain post partum - A case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-23

    Sacral stress fracture is an unusual source of low back pain and can be easily confused with a number of other clinical conditions seen in physiotherapy clinics. The purpose of this case report is to describe the case of a patient presenting with low back pain post partum illustrating pertinent aspects of differential diagnosis and issues of management. A 31 year old female presented complaining of low back pain since the birth of her second child 11 months earlier. Subjective and objective examination led the Therapist to consider a diagnosis of sacral stress fracture. This diagnosis was confirmed by MRI. Three months after presenting to physiotherapy the patient was pain free and had returned to all aspects of her daily life without any difficulties. Clinicians must be aware of the less common pathologies in any hypotheses development. A careful history and physical examination and broad hypotheses generation will ensure that patients are accurately diagnosed and receive appropriate and effective treatments.

  8. Individual development in Low Back Pain during Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Lars; Kjær, Per; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte;

    LBP. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study was carried out between 1997 and 2005, collecting interview data from children at age 10, 13, and 16. The children were sampled to be representative of Danish school children. LBP was defined as having had reported pain in the lower back within the past month......Background: It is generally acknowledged that low back pain (LBP) is a common condition already in childhood. However, not many studies have looked at the way LBP tracks over age and how common it is until early adulthood. The purposes of this presentation is to show how early LBP predicts later....... The prevalence estimates are presented as percentages and the trend over time is tested by logistic regression. The risks from various patterns of LBP reporting over time are presented with odds ratios (ORs). Results: Of the 771 children sampled, 62%, 57%, and 58% participated in the three back surveys...

  9. Stochastic back analysis of permeability coefficient using generalized Bayesian method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Guilan; Wang Yuan; Wang Fei; Yang Jian

    2008-01-01

    Owing to the fact that the conventional deterministic back analysis of the permeability coefficient cannot reflect the uncertainties of parameters, including the hydraulic head at the boundary, the permeability coefficient and measured hydraulic head, a stochastic back analysis taking consideration of uncertainties of parameters was performed using the generalized Bayesian method. Based on the stochastic finite element method (SFEM) for a seepage field, the variable metric algorithm and the generalized Bayesian method, formulas for stochastic back analysis of the permeability coefficient were derived. A case study of seepage analysis of a sluice foundation was performed to illustrate the proposed method. The results indicate that, with the generalized Bayesian method that considers the uncertainties of measured hydraulic head, the permeability coefficient and the hydraulic head at the boundary, both the mean and standard deviation of the permeability coefficient can be obtained and the standard deviation is less than that obtained by the conventional Bayesian method. Therefore, the present method is valid and applicable.

  10. Low Back Pain - Management Perspective Of A commonly Encountered Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parharaj S S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Back pain is a very common symptom affecting the general population, incurring a huge annual societal cost. In spite of this, it remains very commonly misdiagnosed and maltreated. The majority of benign chronic low back pain patients suffer from a combination of myofascial frozen back syndrome with or without an overly of psychosocioeconomic factors. Neural compression causes are less frequent. A though evaluation of the patient to select the most rational therapeutic approach is necessary. In majority of the patients, a well planned out rehabilitation programme is useful. Surgery is indicated in a minority with neural compression or spinal instability, motivation is essential as rehabilitation and surgery have a high failure rate in inadequately motivated patients with psychosocioeconomic dysfunction.

  11. Patients' interpretations of a counselling intervention for low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Sanne; Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Gonge, Birgitte Krøis;

    2012-01-01

    and for enhancing physical activity. These plans were developed and agreed upon by the participants and the counsellor. A sample (n=20) of these interviews was analysed in the present study using the three steps in Ricoeur's method for text analysis. Bury's concept of chronic illness as a biographical disruption......BACKGROUND: Low back pain often becomes a chronic condition and causes physical, psychological, social, and occupational impairment. Despite huge allocations of resources into the healthcare system and the labour market for treating and preventing low back pain, problems related to low back pain...... a deeper understanding of how the patients interpreted the explanatory resources that were made available to them during the intervention, and how they integrated these resources into their personal biographies. DESIGN: The present study was a qualitative analysis of a purposive sample of transcripts...

  12. Recurrent acute low back pain secondary to lumbar epidural calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziade, M.; Zufferey, P.; So, A.K.L. [Centre Hospitalier Vaudois, Service de Rhumatologie, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    Epidural calcification is a rare cause of back pain, and spontaneous epidural calcification has not been reported previously. We describe a patient with acute low back pain and signs of lumbar nerve root compression due to epidural calcification, as demonstrated by CT-scan and MRI. Radiological signs of spondylodiscitis led to a search for an infectious cause, which was negative, and her symptoms responded rapidly to NSAID treatment alone. Her symptoms recurred 18 months later, and further imaging studies again revealed epidural calcification, but with a changed distribution. Her symptoms were relieved once more by NSAID treatment alone. We propose that epidural calcification secondary to aseptic spondylodiscitis is the main cause of acute back pain in this patient. A possible mechanism may be the pro-inflammatory effects of calcium pyrophosphate or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition within the epidural space. (orig.)

  13. [Imaging indication for low back pain in the adult population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola Eusébio, O; Motamed, S

    2013-09-25

    Low back pain is a frequent symptom-related reason for visits to a general physician. In case of acute low back pain, the only situation that requires a radiologic exam is when are present. This article specifies which anamnestic symptoms and past medical events are to be considered as such, and suggests what kind of radiologic exam should be done depending on the situation. It also mentions the psycho-social factors that favour a chronicisation of the problem and that should be identified in order to be taken care of. When low back pain becomes a chronic condition, there is a lack of scientific evidences/evidence based medicine and the actual recommendations whether or not to ask for imaging studies are based upon experts opinions. Medical follow-up is essential. PMID:24163881

  14. Low back trouble among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of low back trouble and possible connection with psychosocial conditions among urban bus drivers were studied using a questionnaire and subsequent registration of hospital discharges. 2,045 (83%) full-time male bus drivers in the three largest cities in Denmark answered a questionn......The occurrence of low back trouble and possible connection with psychosocial conditions among urban bus drivers were studied using a questionnaire and subsequent registration of hospital discharges. 2,045 (83%) full-time male bus drivers in the three largest cities in Denmark answered...... a questionnaire in 1978 regarding psychosocial factors and health. The prevalence of frequent low back pain was 57%. In a control group of 195 motormen the prevalence was 40%. Standardized Morbidity Ratio for bus drivers discharged from hospital during the period 1978-1984 with the diagnosis lumbar disc...

  15. Prevalence of back pain among fulltime United States workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Leigh, J. P.; Sheetz, R M

    1989-01-01

    A source of data on the health and working conditions of a probability sample of United States workers, the Quality of Employment Survey for 1972-3 (QES73), is investigated for the first time to determine which groups of workers are more or are less likely to report back pain. Estimated coefficients from a logistic regression are used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals for various groups. Few previous studies on back pain among United States workers control for as many potentia...

  16. Back-gate effects and mobility characterization in junctionless transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Mukta Singh; Liu, Fanyu; Navarro, Carlos; Barraud, Sylvain; Bawedin, Maryline; Ionica, Irina; Kranti, Abhinav; Cristoloveanu, Sorin

    2016-11-01

    This work addresses the effect of inter-gate coupling on back-channel characteristics of planar accumulation-mode junctionless (JL) MOSFETs, fabricated with advanced Fully Depleted Silicon-on-Insulator (FDSOI) technology. A systematic methodology to extract and distinguish the contributions of bulk and accumulation-mode mobility has been developed. Front-gate voltage strongly controls the transport properties of back channel in ultra-thin heavily doped JL devices. It is demonstrated that both volume and accumulation-layer mobility values increase when the front interface is in accumulation.

  17. Imaging-guided hyperstimulation analgesia in low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenberg, Miguel; Schwartz, Kobi

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain in patients with myofascial pain syndrome is characterized by painful active myofascial trigger points (ATPs) in muscles. This article reviews a novel, noninvasive modality that combines simultaneous imaging and treatment, thus taking advantage of the electrodermal information available from imaged ATPs to deliver localized neurostimulation, to stimulate peripheral nerve endings (Aδ fibers) and in turn, to release endogenous endorphins. "Hyperstimulation analgesia" with localized, intense, low-rate electrical pulses applied to painful ATPs was found to be effective in 95% patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain, in a clinical validation study.

  18. Prediction of outcome in patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Andersen, Cathrine Hedegaard; Hansen, Martin Mørk;

    2016-01-01

    The clinical course of low back pain (LBP) cannot be accurately predicted by existing prediction tools. Therefore clinicians rely largely on their experience and clinical judgement. The objectives of this study were to investigate 1) which patient characteristics were associated with chiropractors......' expectations of outcome from a LBP episode, 2) if clinicians' expectations related to outcome, 3) how accurate clinical predictions were as compared to those of the STarT Back Screening Tool (SBT), and 4) if accuracy was improved by combining clinicians' expectations and the SBT. Outcomes were measured as LBP...... investigating if more accurate tools can be developed to assist clinicians in prediction of outcome....

  19. [Update on Current Care Guideline: Low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjolainen, Timo; Leinonen, Ville; Frantén, Janek; Haanpää, Maija; Jousimaa, Jukkapekka; Karppinen, Jaro; Kuukkanen, Tiina; Luoma, Katariina; Salmenkivi, Jyrki; Osterman, Heikki; Malmivaara, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Classification to severe diseases, sciatic symptoms or non-specific back pain is recommended. Radiography in acute or subacute non-specific back pain is not recommended in the primary health care. In specialized care magnetic resonance imaging is the main imaging modality. Importance of patient information is emphasized. In acute non-specific pain avoidance of bed rest, advice and paracetamol are recommended. Indications for an emergency referral should be considered. In disabling pain for 6 weeks, multidisciplinary measures are needed. Pain over 3 months indicates intensive multidisciplinary rehabilitation, and also surgery may be considered. PMID:26245063

  20. Lock-In Agreements in Venture Capital Backed UK IPOs

    OpenAIRE

    Espenlaub, S.; Goergen, M.; Khurshed, A.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of venture-capital backing of UK companies issuing shares at flotation on the characteristics of the lock-in agreements entered into by the existing shareholders, and on the abnormal returns realised around the expiry of the directors' lock-in agreements.The study examines the lock-in agreements of a sample of 186 UK IPOs issued during 1992-98. 103 of these companies had venture-capital backing at the IPO.The sample is also broken down into firms classified by i...

  1. Study on the all position automatic pipeline backing weld machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Deyu; Feng Biao; Li Chunrun; Niu Huli; Zhang Yongsheng; Zhang Jianhu

    2008-01-01

    As a result of the lower backing weld efficiency, the applying of automatic welding is seriously limited. So a kind of special automatic welder is designed and manufactured for backing weld. This paper introduces the character of the assembled pulse CO2 arc welding machine which has strong penetrability. It specifies the technology of controlling the parameters of all position automatic welding by computer and multi-axis controller. Moreover typical welding proce-dure parameters are provided. It is proved by examination that the economical and practical equipment and technology are suitable for the long-distance transmission pipeline, and it has a good foreground of spreading and applying.

  2. Demystifying back scatter interferometry: a sensitive refractive index detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Søren Terpager; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Trydal, Torleif;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Back Scatter Interferometry (BSI) is a sensitive method for detecting changes of the refractive index (RI) in small capillaries. The method was originally developed as an off-axial column detector for use in Liquid Chromatography or Capillary Electrophoresis systems, but it has been...... a common-path interferometer. The sensitivity of the BSI system is given by twice the inner diameter of the capillary times the wavenumber of the light source. Our results suggest that Back Scatter Interferometry does not provide a unique measurement principle for sensing biochemical bindings compared...

  3. Mortgage backed securities and implications for overreliance on ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabozzi, F.; Vink, D.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigate the pricing of U.K. residential mortgage-backed securities primary issues in the years prior to the credit crisis. They find that investors did not rely excessively on credit ratings but that the investors’ interpretations of their proprietary research were sometimes amiss.

  4. The Ergonomic Analysis and Back Injuries in Flexible Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Castillo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Back injuries identification and diagnoses in the transition of the Taylor model to the flexiblemodelof production organization, demands a parallel intervention of prevention actorsat work. This study uses simultaneously three intervention models (structured action analysis, muscle skeletal symptoms questionnaires and muscle skeletal assessment for work activitiesin a packaging plant. In this study seventy and two (72 operative workers participated (28 workers with muscle skeletal evaluation. In an intervention period of 10 months, the physical, cognitive, organizational components and productiveprocess dynamics were evaluated from the muscle skeletal demands issues. The differencesestablished between objective exposure at risk, back injury risk perception, appreciation and a vertebral spine evaluation, in prior and post intervention, determines the structure for a muscle skeletal risk management system. This study explains that back injury symptoms can be more efficiently reduced among operative workers combining measures registered and the adjustment between dynamics, the changes at work and efficient gestures development.Relevance: the results of this study can be used to prevent back injuries in workers of flexibleproduction processes.

  5. Chronic Low Back Pain: Toward an Integrated Psychosocial Assessment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Jenny; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Integrated six dimensions of chronic low back pain (pain intensity, functional disability, attitudes toward pain, pain coping strategies, depression, illness behavior) to provide multidimensional patient profile. Data from 100 patients revealed presence of three distinct patient groups: patients who were in control, patients who were depressed and…

  6. Coplanar back contacts for thin silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storti, G.; Scheinine, A.; Whitehouse, D.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Wrigley, C.; Giuliano, M.

    1981-01-01

    The type of coplanar back contact solar cell described was constructed with interdigitated n(+) and p(+) type regions on the back of the cell, such that both contacts are made on the back with no metallization grid on the front. This cell construction has several potential advantages over conventional cells for space use namely, convenience of interconnects, lower operating temperatures and higher efficiency due to the elimination of grid shadowing. However, the processing is more complex, and the cell is inherently more radiation sensitive. The latter problem can be reduced substantially by making the cells very thin (approximately 50 micrometers). Two types of interdigitated back contact cells are possible, the types being dependent on the character of the front surface. The front surface field cell has a front surface region that is of the same conductivity type as the bulk but is more heavily doped. This creates an electric field at the surface which repels the minority carriers. The tandem junction cell has a front surface region of a conductivity type that is opposite to that of the bulk. The junction thus created floats to open circuit voltage on illumination and injects carriers into the bulk which then can be collected at the rear junction. For space use, the front surface field cell is potentially more radiation resistant than the tandem junction cell because the flow of minority carriers (electrons) into the bulk will be less sensitive to the production of recombination centers, particularly in the space charge region at the front surface.

  7. Thin foil silicon solar cells with coplanar back contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, F.; Iles, P. A.; Baraona, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    To fabricate 50 microns thick, coplanar back contact (CBC) silicon solar cells, wraparound junction design was selected and proved to be effective. The process sequence used, the cell design, and the cell performance are described. CBC cells with low solar absorptance have shown AMO efficiencies to 13%, high cells up to 14%; further improvements are projected with predictable optimization.

  8. Epidemiology, etiology, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, D G

    1999-03-01

    Low back pain continues to affect a significant proportion of the younger, working population between 35 and 45 years of age. An important study has correlated macroscopic and microscopic intervertebral disc alterations starting in the second decade of life with oxidative stress manifested by the presence of N-(carboxylmethyl)lysine. Job satisfaction remains a strong predictive factor for the identification of individuals with acute back pain who will develop chronic pain. Patients with pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis may have an increase in their erythrocyte sedimentation rate during the first 2 weeks of antibiotic therapy without requiring surgical intervention. Magnetic resonance imaging enhancement of migrated disc fragments identifies individuals who are likely to resolve sciatica without surgical intervention. As many as 25% of individuals with low back pain are symptomatic at 12 months, in contradistinction to the dictum of resolution of pain in 2 months. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle relaxants are a very effective combination for the effective treatment of acute low back pain. A majority of chiropractic manipulations are performed for inappropriate indications. PMID:10319220

  9. BREATHING PATTERNS IN PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka P. Ostwal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Back pain is common clinical condition encountered in a day to day Physiotherapy practice. Very few authors has so far documented changes in breathing patterns in low back pain while performing certain motor control tests. Purpose: The aim of the study was to observe the breathing pattern in individuals with low back pain (LBP both at rest and during motor control tasks. Material and Method: 150 patients with LBP participated in this study and they were subcategorized further in acute, sub-acute and chronic low back pain patients. The breathing pattern was evaluated at rest (standing and supine position during both relaxed breathing and deep breathing and while performing clinical motor control tasks, i.e. bent knee fall out, knee lift abdominal test and active straight leg raise. Breathing patterns in patients with LBP were assessed by therapist both visually and via palpation and observational findings were noted. Costo-diaphragmatic breathing was considered as normal breathing pattern. Result: Observational findings of this study demonstrates altered breathing pattern in patients with LBP during motor control tasks. Conclusion: At rest, no significant differences were observed in breathing patterns of LBP patients, whereas around 71% patients revealed abnormal breathing pattern during motor control tests.

  10. Validity of the semiclassical approximation and back-reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, S; Peleg, Y; Bose, Sukanta; Parker, Leonard; Peleg, Yoav

    1996-01-01

    Studying two-dimensional evaporating dilatonic black holes, we show that the semiclassical approximation, based on the background field approach, is valid everywhere in regions of weak curvature (including the horizon), as long as one takes into account the effects of back-reaction of the Hawking radiation on the background geometry.

  11. Pregnancy Related Low Back and Pelvic Pain: a surgical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M.A. Zwienen

    2005-01-01

    textabstractMore than half of all pregnant women experience low back and/or pelvic pain of whom one-third has severe complaints. In most cases the pelvic pain disap­pears within a few months after delivery, either spontaneously or after con­servative treatment. In a minority of patients the pain per

  12. Objective Measures for Pregnancy Related Low Back and Pelvic Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Groot (Mirthe)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractPain in the lumbar spine and pelvic region is a frequent complication of pregnancy and delivery. The prevalence of pregnancy related low back and pelvic pain (PLBP) varies between 14.2 and 56%. In 6 to 15% the pain is so severe that it impedes daily life activities. The symptoms of PL

  13. Reporting outcomes of back pain trials: A modified Delphi study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froud, Robert; Eldridge, Sandra; Kovacs, Francisco;

    2011-01-01

    important change thresholds, and the number needed to treat; all with 95% confidence intervals. Outcomes may additionally be reported using alternative approaches (e.g. relative risks, odds ratios, or standardized mean difference) according to the needs of a particular trial. CONCLUSIONS: A group of back...

  14. Psychosocial Factors and Low Back Pain among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Catherine; Kassab, Osama; Gilkey, David; Linnel, Sheri; Morris, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors evaluated psychosocial factors of stress and their effects on the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among a population of college students in a major university in Colorado. Methods: This was a nested cross-sectional study of 973 respondents who completed the National College Health Assessment survey. The…

  15. Individual patient education for low back pain (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engers, A.; Jellema, P.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Windt, D.A. van der; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Tulder, M.W. van

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While many different types of patient education are widely used, the effect of individual patient education for low-back pain (LBP) has not yet been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether individual patient education is effective in the treatment of non-specific low-ba

  16. Traction for low-back pain with or without sciatica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Wegner; I.S. Widyahehening; M.W. van Tulder; S.E.I. Blomberg; H.C.W. de Vet; G. Brønfort; L.M. Bouter; G.J. van der Heijden

    2013-01-01

    Background Traction has been used to treat low-back pain (LBP), often in combination with other treatments. We included both manual and machine-delivered traction in this review. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1995, and previously updated in 2006. Objectives To assess the

  17. Individual patient education for low back pain (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engers, A.; Jellema, P.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Windt, D.A. van der; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Tulder, M.W. van

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While many different types of patient education are widely used, the effect of individual patient education for low-back pain (LBP) has not yet been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether individual patient education is effective in the treatment of non-specific low-ba

  18. Low Back Pain in Microgravity and Bed Rest Studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Belavy, D.L.; Hides, J.A; Richardson, C.A.; Snijders, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: The prevalence of low back pain (LBP) for astronauts in space (68%) is higher than the 1-mo prevalence for the general population on Earth (39%). It is unclear whether differences occur between healthy subjects and astronauts with a history of LBP. Knowledge of this issue is imp

  19. Meningoradiculitis due to borreliosis presenting as low back pain only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Crevits, I.; Baert, A.L. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Casteels-Van Daele, M. [Department of Paediatrics, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    1998-02-01

    We report a child with Borrelia burgdorferi meningoradiculitis. This entity, also known as Bannwarth syndrome, is rare and its presentation with low back pain only is even more unusual. The MRI findings can suggest the diagnosis. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 refs.

  20. Trekking Back to Mainstream for Inclusive Education, Is It There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenga, Rosemary Chimbala; Fourie, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the ecosystemic management strategies for inclusive schools due to challenges faced by the schools in the mainstream school where learners from the specialised institutions are referred back to mainstream for inclusive education. Ecosystemic perspective on inclusive education, ecological theories and systems theories underpin…

  1. Lock-In Agreements in Venture Capital Backed UK IPOs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espenlaub, S.; Goergen, M.; Khurshed, A.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of venture-capital backing of UK companies issuing shares at flotation on the characteristics of the lock-in agreements entered into by the existing shareholders, and on the abnormal returns realised around the expiry of the directors' lock-in agreements.The study exam

  2. Does magnetic resonance imaging predict future low back pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffens, D; Hancock, M J; Maher, C G;

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to identify pathology responsible for low back pain (LBP). However, the importance of findings on MRI remains controversial. We aimed to systematically review whether MRI findings of the lumbar spine predict future LBP in different samples with and...

  3. Back-Off Time Calculation Algorithms in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al-Humairi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In a Mobile Wireless Sensor Mesh Network (MWSMN, based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, low power consumption is vitally important since the network devices are mostly battery driven. This is especially true for devices dependent on small form factors, such as those used in wireless sensor network. This paper proposes four new approaches to reduce the Back-Off Time in ZigBee standard in order to minimize the collisions caused by transmission between neighbouring nodes within the mesh network. The four alternate algorithms for the Back-Off Time calculation are compared to the ZigBee standard Back-Off Time algorithm regarding their energy needs using the simulation suite OPNET Modeler. To study the behaviour of the parameters of all algorithms in all scenarios, the statistical Analysis of Variance (ANOVA has been used and it shows that the null hypotheses are rejected except for one case. The results show that the two passive algorithms Tabu Search and Simulated Annealing search techniques are suitable for battery-driven, energy-sensible networks. The Ant Colony Optimization (ACO approaches increase throughput and reduce the packet loss but cost more in terms of energy due to the implementation of additional control packets. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first approach for MWSMN that uses the Swarm Intelligence technique and the search solution algorithm for the Back-Off Time optimization.

  4. Minimally invasive spine surgery in chronic low back pain patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, A. B.; Oner, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 85%. The pathophysiology of LBP can be various depending on the underlying problem. Only in about 10% of the patients specific underlying disease processes can be identified. Patients with scoliosis, spondylolisthesis, herniated

  5. Gauge Field Back-reaction on a Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Hochberg, D; Hochberg, David; Kephart, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    The order $\\hbar$ fluctuations of gauge fields in the vicinity of a blackhole can create a repulsive antigravity region extending out beyond the renormalized Schwarzschild horizon. If the strength of this repulsive force increases as higher orders in the back-reaction are included, the formation of a wormhole-like object could occur.

  6. Gauge field back reaction on a black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, D.; Kephart, T.W. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States))

    1993-02-15

    The order-[h bar] fluctuations of gauge fields in the vicinity of a black hole can create a repulsive antigravity region extending out beyond the renormalized Schwarzschild horizon. If the strength of this repulsive force increases as higher orders in the back reaction are included, the formation of a wormholelike object could occur.

  7. Using Back-Scattering to Enhance Efficiency in Neutron Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kittelmann, Thomas; Cai, Xiao Xiao; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P; Hall-Wilton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The principle of using strongly scattering materials to recover efficiency in neutron detectors, via back-scattering of unconverted thermal neutrons, is discussed in general. Feasibility of the method is illustrated through Geant4-based simulations of a specific setup involving a moderator-like material placed behind a single layered boron-10 thin film gaseous detector.

  8. Social Relations of Fieldwork: Giving Back in a Research Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Gupta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The project of this special issue emerged from the guest editors' experiences as field researchers in sub-Saharan Africa. During this time both researchers faced the difficult question of "giving back" to the communities in which, and with whom, they worked—communities that were often far less privileged than the researchers were in terms of wealth, mobility, education, and access to health care. Returning from their field sites, both researchers felt a combination of guilt and frustration that they had not done enough or had not done things right. Thus emerged the idea of bringing together a group of researchers, from a range of disciplines, to discuss the topic of giving back in field research. This editorial describes the idea and process that led to the present collection of articles. The guest editors situate the project in the literature on feminist studies and briefly summarize each of the four thematic sections in this special issue. They conclude by emphasizing that their collection is not a guide to giving back. Rather than lay out hard and fast rules about what, how much, and to whom field researchers should give, their collection offers a series of examples and considerations for giving back in fieldwork.

  9. Back scattering interferometry revisited – A theoretical and experimental investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Jepsen, S. T.; Sørensen, Henrik Schiøtt;

    2015-01-01

    A refractive index based detector based on so called back scattering interferometry (BSI) has been described in the literature as a unique optical method for measuring biomolecular binding interactions in solution. In this paper, we take a detailed look at the optical principle underlying...

  10. Spinal manipulative therapy for acute low-back pain (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinstein, S.M.; Terwee, C.B.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Boer, M.R.M. de; Tulder, M.W. van

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many therapies exist for the treatment of low-back pain including spinal manipulative therapy (SMT), which is a worldwide, extensively practised intervention. This report is an update of the earlier Cochrane review, first published in January 2004 with the last search for studies up to J

  11. Compacted cancellous bone has a spring-back effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kold, S; Bechtold, JE; Ding, Ming;

    2003-01-01

    model whether implant cavities prepared with compaction had spring back. Before killing the animals, we used one of two surgical techniques to make implant cavities of identical dimensions in both lateral femoral condyles of 7 dogs. One side had the implant cavity prepared with compaction, the other...

  12. An empirical analysis of asset-backed securitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, D.; Thibeault, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this study we provide empirical evidence demonstrating a relationship between the nature of the assets and the primary market spread. The model also provides predictions on how other pricing characteristics affect spread, since little is known about how and why spreads of asset-backed securities

  13. Back-reaction effect in power-law inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Bellini, M

    2004-01-01

    I consider a power-law inflationary model taking into account back-reaction effects. The interesting result is that the spectrum for the scalar field fluctuations does not depends on the expansion rate of the universe $p$ and that it result to be scale invariant for cosmological scales. However, the amplitude for these fluctuations depends on $p$.

  14. Exercise and nonspecific low back pain: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchoz, Yves; Kai-Lik So, Alexander

    2008-10-01

    We reviewed the literature to clarify the effects of exercise in preventing and treating nonspecific low back pain. We evaluated several characteristics of exercise programs including specificity, individual tailoring, supervision, motivation enhancement, volume, and intensity. The results show that exercise is effective in the primary and secondary prevention of low back pain. When used for curative treatment, exercise diminishes disability and pain severity while improving fitness and occupational status in patients who have subacute, recurrent, or chronic low back pain. Patients with acute low back pain are usually advised to continue their everyday activities to the greatest extent possible rather than to start an exercise program. Supervision is crucial to the efficacy of exercise programs. Whether general or specific exercises are preferable is unclear, and neither is there clear evidence that one-on-one sessions are superior to group sessions. Further studies are needed to determine which patient subsets respond to specific characteristics of exercise programs and which exercise volumes and intensities are optimal. PMID:18801686

  15. Alteration of Brain Oxygenation During "Piggy Back" Liver Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzera, Piercarmine; Greco, Luigi; Carravetta, Giuseppe; Gentile, Antonella; Catalano, Giorgio; Cicco, Giuseppe; Memeo, Vincenzo

    Relevant changes in cerebral circulation occur during "Piggy Back" liver transplantation. Particularly at the washout-reperfusion time the cerebral perfusion suddenly changes from its lowest to its highest values. Further investigation is required to evaluate whether patients with the greatest change in cerebral oxygenation at this time point will suffer neurological complications after transplantation.

  16. Venture-backed Firms Valuation:a Real Option Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenyuZhang; LingLiu; JinlinLi

    2004-01-01

    Venture capital financing decisions are usually made based on the valuation of the venture-backed firms, for which a compound real options valuation model with two stochastic parameters is built in this paper. A numerical example is then used to illustrate that the model gives a more accurate and reliable result than the traditional discount cash flow valuation model.

  17. Pulsar formation and the fall back mass fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The picture of the explosion of 1987A following collapse to a neutron star and neutrino emission is difficult to reconcile with the subsequent behavior of the ejected mass. It is shown that the inner solar mass of ejected matter should progressively fall back onto the neutron star after it collides with the outer 10--15 M circle and after an initial phase of explosion driven by a hot bubble for t approx-gt 2 x 103 s. This fall back is augmented due to heating by the radioactive decay of 56Ni. The matter accreted onto the neutron star rapidly cools due to neutrino emission and merges with the neutron star, thus resulting in zero back pressure to the free falling matter. The predicted fall back mass approx-gt 1 M circle is far larger than is consistent with observations. The author discusses how the most likely explanation is that the hot radiation dominated bubble is continuously heated by neutrino emission from continuing accretion. This accretion continues until the presumed pulsar magnetic field exceeds the bubble pressure

  18. Regional Venting in the Manus Basin, New Britain Back Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoth, G. J.; Puzic, J.; Crowhurst, P.; White, M.; Nakamura, K.; Walker, S. L.; Baker, E. T.

    2008-12-01

    During June 2008 we conducted a systematic reconnaissance for hydrothermal venting along 1540 km of back-arc features located throughout the Manus back-arc basin. Our search was guided by high-resolution bathymetric and side scan back scatter data obtained during historical and immediately preceding geophysical surveys. Using real-time plume mapping protocols to discern anomalies in light scattering, temperature, and oxidation-reduction potential, we detected ~45 venting sites, ~34 of which are believed new. On average, the venting site density was about 3 sites per 100 km of back-arc feature, comparable to that for surveyed fast-spreading MORs in the eastern Pacific (3.2, Baker and German, AGU Geophysical Monograph 148, 2004) and about twice the global mean for MORs (1.6, Baker et al., JGR 2008). By virtue of being basin-scale, our assessment of venting into the Bismarck Sea revealed several mid-depth plumes that are widespread within the region. In the eastern Manus basin (Southeast Ridges, Djaul Transform, Southern Rifts, and Manus Spreading Center regions) the mean plume depth was 1825 m (range: 1080-2625 m), compared to generally more shallow discharge (mean plume depth 1155 m, range: 725-2080 m) in the western basin (Manus Extensional Transform and the Willaumez Transform and Ridge regions). While extreme anomaly intensities were observed in both the eastern and western portions of the Manus basin, most plumes were more characteristic of MOR and back arc plumes displaying a range of weak-to-moderate plume signals. Subsequent seafloor reconnaissance by ROV has located massive sulfides coincident to several plumes.

  19. OSTEOPAThic Health outcomes In Chronic low back pain: The OSTEOPATHIC Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Licciardone, John C; King, Hollis H.; Hensel, Kendi L.; Williams, Daniel G.

    2008-01-01

    Background Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) and ultrasound physical therapy (UPT) are commonly used for chronic low back pain. Although there is evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis that OMT generally reduces low back pain, there are no large clinical trials that specifically assess OMT efficacy in chronic low back pain. Similarly, there is a lack of evidence involving UPT for chronic low back pain. Methods The OSTEOPAThic Health outcomes In Chronic low back pain (OSTEO...

  20. Physical characteristics of the back are not predictive of low back pain in healthy workers: A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Nieuwenhuyse (An); G. Crombez (Geert); A. Burdorf (Alex); G. Verbeke (Geert); R. Masschelein (Raphael); G. Moens (Guido); P. Mairiaux (Philippe)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground. In the working population, back disorders are an important reason for sick leave and permanent work inability. In the context of fitting the job to the worker, one of the primary tasks of the occupational health physician is to evaluate the balance between work-related and in

  1. Low Back Pain in 17 Countries, a Rasch Analysis of the ICF Core Set for Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Cecilie; Bautz-Holter, Erik; Cieza, Alarcos

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that a worldwide measurement tool may be developed based on the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for chronic conditions. The aim of the present study was to explore the possibility of constructing a cross-cultural measurement of functioning for patients with low back pain…

  2. Option-based valuation of mortgage-backed securities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manola Ana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure econometric approaches to pricing mortgage-backed securities (MBSs - principal pricing vehicles used by financial practitioners - fail to capture their true risks. This point was powerfully driven home by the global financial crisis. Since prior to the crisis default rates of MBSs were quite modest, econometric pricing models systematically underestimated the possibility of default. As a result, MBSs were severely overvalued. It is widely believed that the global crisis was largely triggered by incorrect valuation of mortgage-backed securities. In the aftermath, it is important to revisit the foundations for pricing MBSs and to pay much closer attention to default risk. This paper introduces a comprehensive model for valuation of fixed-rate pass-through mortgagebacked securities in a simple option-based framework. In the model, we use bivariate binomial tree approach to simultaneously model prepayment and default options. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed model has sufficient flexibility to capture the two principal risks.

  3. [What helps in back pain? Guideline for symptomatic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongratz, D; Späth, M

    2001-05-01

    Both in acute and chronic, unspecific back pain, the myofascial pain syndrome resulting in muscular dysbalance is a major factor. For the differential diagnosis, however, consideration must always be given to concomitant symptoms (neurological deficits, general symptoms, signs of osteopathy). Pathophysiologically, the active trigger point corresponds to a contraction in the muscle fibers that forms in the region of the a neuromuscular endplate, and leads, via biochemical processes, to the stimulation of mesochymal nociceptors. Symptomatic treatment of acute and chronic back pain may be broken down into a) physical measures, b) local therapeutic regimens, c) systemic pharmacotherapy. As medication, non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, non-opioid analgesics, opioid analgesics, muscle relaxants and antidepressives are available, and are dose-matched to the severity and stage of the condition. The spectrum of therapeutic options is outlined. PMID:11387701

  4. Non-relativistic metrics from back-reacting fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has recently been pointed out that under certain circumstances the back-reaction of charged, massive Dirac fermions causes important modifications to AdS2 spacetimes arising as the near-horizon geometry of extremal black holes. In a WKB approximation, the modified geometry becomes a non-relativistic Lifshitz spacetime. In three dimensions, it is known that integrating out charged, massive fermions gives rise to gravitational and Maxwell Chern-Simons terms. We show that Schroedinger (warped AdS3) spacetimes exist as solutions to a gravitational and Maxwell Chern-Simons theory with a cosmological constant. Motivated by this, we look for warped AdS3 or Schroedinger metrics as exact solutions to a fully back-reacted theory containing Dirac fermions in three and four dimensions. We work out the dynamical exponent in terms of the fermion mass and generalize this result to arbitrary dimensions.

  5. Interventional radiological therapy of benign low back pain syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal affections belong to the most widespread sources of back pain. Beside medical history and clinical examination, the radiological investigation plays an important rote in the clinical workup especially with the modern Cross sectional imaging methods such as computed and magnetic resonance tomography. After exclusion of a malignant disease usually a conservative therapeutic approach is the first line treatment option. If the conservative treatment approach falls a minimalinvasive image guided diagnostic or therapeutic infiltration may be considered. Thereby the interventional radiologist should be a member of the team which decides the clinical strategy. This article describes epidemiology and pathophysiology, common pre-interventional diagnostic strategies, drugs, indications, possible complications and the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic minimally invasive image guided techniques in low back pain. In this context facet joint blockade, periradicular and peridural therapy as well as sacroiliac joint blockades are discussed

  6. Multiple Fractional Dual Solutions in PEMC Backed Chiral Nihility Slab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwer Aftab

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inside a chiral nihility slab which is backed by perfect electromagnetic conductor, all valid fractional dual solutions are determined using the fractional curl operator. Fractional dual solutions may be regarded as intermediate step between the original and dual to the original solution. Corresponding fields outside the nihility slab for each case are also determined and analyzed. It is noted that only for one out of three cases the corresponding field outside chiral nihility slab is also fractional dual, while for other two cases, corresponding fields are not fractional dual. It is noted that time average power density vanishes inside the PEC-backed chiral nihility slab, while it exists outside the nihility slab.

  7. Low Back Pain and Pelvic Girdle Pain in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Danielle; Gugala, Zbigniew; Clark, Shannon M; Lindsey, Ronald W

    2015-09-01

    Pregnancy has a profound effect on the human body, particularly the musculoskeletal system. Hormonal changes cause ligamentous joint laxity, weight gain, and a shift in the center of gravity that leads to lumbar spine hyperlordosis and anterior tilting of the pelvis. In addition, vascular changes may lead to compromised metabolic supply in the low back. The most common musculoskeletal complaints in pregnancy are low back pain and/or pelvic girdle pain. They can be diagnosed and differentiated from each other by history taking, clinical examination, provocative test maneuvers, and imaging. Management ranges from conservative and pharmacologic measures to surgical treatment. Depending on the situation, and given the unique challenges pregnancy places on the human body and the special consideration that must be given to the fetus, an orthopaedic surgeon and the obstetrician may have to develop a plan of care together regarding labor and delivery or when surgical interventions are indicated.

  8. THE REFERRAL BACK TO COURT IN CASE OF EXTRADITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA TACHE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Article 522 ind.1 Criminal procedure code, governing the referral back to court in case of extradition, refers to article 405-408 provisions review applicable to appeal, but this reference is limited to retrial procedure and solutions that can be pronounced by the court.The review procedure and the retrial procedure after extradition have a distinct finality: if the review involves removal of essential errors to the facts withheld in a final decision, the purpose of referral back to court in case of extradition is to guarantee the right of of extradited person, who was tried and convicted in the absence, to have a fair trial and, mainly, to exercise the right to defence in a new procedural cycle, which implies the possibility for the person to be heard, to question the witnesses or other parts of the process and to administer favorable evidence, both on the facts, as well as circumstantial.

  9. Salvage surgery for a giant melanoma on the back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijff, Schelto; Vink, Robert; Klaase, Joost

    2011-07-11

    We report a case of a giant melanoma on the back with a very extreme Breslow thickness. On physical examination a large odorous and ulcerating tumour was seen adjacent to two large crusted lesions, probably in transit metastases. In the right and left axilla enlarged lymph nodes were palpated. The patient underwent salvage surgery consisting of a complete wide excision of the tumors on the back as well as axillary lymph node dissection on both sides. Histopathology showed a malignant melanoma with a Breslow thickness of 48 mm. Four of fifteen nodes in the right axilla and one of nine nodes in the left axilla, were positive for metastatic disease. Also various in transit and subcutaneous metastases were found in the wide excision specimen. The interest of our observation relies in the rarity of a melanoma with such an extreme Breslow thickness and the difficulty in performing adequate palliative therapy that offers quality of life by means of tumor control. PMID:22066035

  10. Back-dropout Transfer Learning for Action Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Kanhabua, Nattiya; Møgelmose, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    Transfer learning aims at adapting a model learned from source dataset to target dataset. It is a beneficial approach especially when annotating on the target dataset is expensive or infeasible. Transfer learning has demonstrated its powerful learning capabilities in various vision tasks. Despite...... transfer learning being a promising approach, it is still an open question how to adapt the model learned from the source dataset to the target dataset. One big challenge is to prevent the impact of category bias on classification performance. Dataset bias exists when two images from the same category......, but from different datasets, are not classified as the same. To address this problem, we propose a transfer learning algorithm which takes advantage of misclassified images and applies back-dropout strategy to punish errors. We call this Negative Back-dropout Transfer Learning (NB-TL). Experimental results...

  11. Prediction of low back pain with two expert systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Murat; Gulbandilar, Eyyup; Cimbiz, Ali

    2012-06-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the common problems encountered in medical applications. This paper proposes two expert systems (artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system) for the assessment of the LBP level objectively. The skin resistance and visual analog scale (VAS) values have been accepted as the input variables for the developed systems. The results showed that the expert systems behave very similar to real data and that use of the expert systems can be used to successfully diagnose the back pain intensity. The suggested systems were found to be advantageous approaches in addition to existing unbiased approaches. So far as the authors are aware, this is the first attempt of using the two expert systems achieving very good performance in a real application. In light of some of the limitations of this study, we also identify and discuss several areas that need continued investigation.

  12. Linguistic phylogenies support back-migration from Beringia to Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Sicoli

    Full Text Available Recent arguments connecting Na-Dene languages of North America with Yeniseian languages of Siberia have been used to assert proof for the origin of Native Americans in central or western Asia. We apply phylogenetic methods to test support for this hypothesis against an alternative hypothesis that Yeniseian represents a back-migration to Asia from a Beringian ancestral population. We coded a linguistic dataset of typological features and used neighbor-joining network algorithms and Bayesian model comparison based on Bayes factors to test the fit between the data and the linguistic phylogenies modeling two dispersal hypotheses. Our results support that a Dene-Yeniseian connection more likely represents radiation out of Beringia with back-migration into central Asia than a migration from central or western Asia to North America.

  13. Baastrup's Disease: An Often Missed Etiology for Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Lucas R; Baum, Griffin R; Grossberg, Jonathan A; Ahmad, Faiz U

    2016-01-01

    Baastrup's disease is a relatively common disorder of the vertebral column, characterized by low back pain arising from the close approximation of adjacent posterior spinous processes and resultant degenerative changes, most commonly at L4-L5. Though fairly common, Baastrup's disease is overwhelmingly underdiagnosed and often missed due to a lack of knowledge and/or improper diagnostic techniques, leading to frequent mistreatment. We present a case of a 56-year-old man who presented with chronic, ongoing low back pain of several years duration. His pain was relieved by flexion of the spine, and aggravated by extension. Imaging studies revealed "kissing" posterior spinous processes, consistent with a diagnosis of Baastrup's Disease. He was treated with subcutaneous steroid injections and showed considerable clinical improvement. PMID:26929892

  14. Imaging-guided hyperstimulation analgesia in low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorenberg M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Miguel Gorenberg,1,2 Kobi Schwartz31Department of Nuclear Medicine, B'nai Zion Medical Center, Haifa, Israel; 2The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel; 3Department of Physical Therapy, B'nai Zion Medical Center, Haifa, IsraelAbstract: Low back pain in patients with myofascial pain syndrome is characterized by painful active myofascial trigger points (ATPs in muscles. This article reviews a novel, noninvasive modality that combines simultaneous imaging and treatment, thus taking advantage of the electrodermal information available from imaged ATPs to deliver localized neurostimulation, to stimulate peripheral nerve endings (Aδ fibers and in turn, to release endogenous endorphins. "Hyperstimulation analgesia" with localized, intense, low-rate electrical pulses applied to painful ATPs was found to be effective in 95% patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain, in a clinical validation study.Keywords: myofascial, noninvasive, electrical, impedance

  15. Salvage surgery for a giant melanoma on the back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Klaase

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a giant melanoma on the back with a very extreme Breslow thickness. On physical examination a large odorous and ulcerating tumour was seen adjacent to two large crusted lesions, probably in transit metastases. In the right and left axilla enlarged lymph nodes were palpated. The patient underwent salvage surgery consisting of a complete wide excision of the tumors on the back as well as axillary lymph node dissection on both sides. Histopathology showed a malignant melanoma with a Breslow thickness of 48 mm. Four of fifteen nodes in the right axilla and one of nine nodes in the left axilla, were positive for metastatic disease. Also various in transit and subcutaneous metastases were found in the wide excision specimen. The interest of our observation relies in the rarity of a melanoma with such an extreme Breslow thickness and the difficulty in performing adequate palliative therapy that offers quality of life by means of tumor control.

  16. Camera calibration based on the back projection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camera calibration plays a crucial role in 3D measurement tasks of machine vision. In typical calibration processes, camera parameters are iteratively optimized in the forward imaging process (FIP). However, the results can only guarantee the minimum of 2D projection errors on the image plane, but not the minimum of 3D reconstruction errors. In this paper, we propose a universal method for camera calibration, which uses the back projection process (BPP). In our method, a forward projection model is used to obtain initial intrinsic and extrinsic parameters with a popular planar checkerboard pattern. Then, the extracted image points are projected back into 3D space and compared with the ideal point coordinates. Finally, the estimation of the camera parameters is refined by a non-linear function minimization process. The proposed method can obtain a more accurate calibration result, which is more physically useful. Simulation and practical data are given to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method. (paper)

  17. Initial approach to patients with acute lower back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joaquim, Andrei Fernandes

    2016-04-01

    Low back pain is in one of the most common reasons for seeking medical care in emergency care units, and also the second most common cause of work absenteeism. The recognition of red flags for serious diseases such as tumors and fractures, through proper history-taking and clinical examination, is essential for proper treatment and to rule out differential diagnoses. In the absence of suspected severe underlying disease, subsidiary radiological examinations are unnecessary. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs are the treatment of choice and can be cautiously associated with muscle relaxants and opioids in more severe cases. Most patients will have complete improvement of symptoms after a few months, but a minority can develop chronic low back pain or present with recurrent episodes. The proper understanding of all of the above can optimize results and avoid diagnostic and therapeutic errors. PMID:27167551

  18. Acute low back pain: systematic review of its prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengel, Liset H M; Herbert, Robert D; Maher, Chris G; Refshauge, Kathryn M

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To describe the course of acute low back pain and sciatica and to identify clinically important prognostic factors for these conditions. Design Systematic review. Data sources Searches of Medline, Embase, Cinahl, and Science Citation Index and iterative searches of bibliographies. Main outcome measures Pain, disability, and return to work. Results 15 studies of variable methodological quality were included. Rapid improvements in pain (mean reduction 58% of initial scores), disability (58%), and return to work (82% of those initially off work) occurred in one month. Further improvement was apparent until about three months. Thereafter levels for pain, disability, and return to work remained almost constant. 73% of patients had at least one recurrence within 12 months. Conclusions People with acute low back pain and associated disability usually improve rapidly within weeks. None the less, pain and disability are typically ongoing, and recurrences are common. PMID:12907487

  19. [Therapeutic exercise for patients with chronic low-back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazio, Simeon; Grgurević, Lovorka; Vlak, Tonko; Perić, Porin; Nemčić, Tomislav; Vrbanić, Tea Schurrer Luke; Kadojić, Mira; Gnjidić, Zoja; Grubišić, Frane; Balen, Diana; Vuga, Katarina Lohman; Ćurković, Boždiar

    2014-01-01

    Low Back Pain (LBP) is a major medical and socio-economical problem in the industrialized countries. Exercise therapy is the keystone of conservative treatment for chronic low back pain (CLBP). Numerous randomized trials and clinical practice guidelines have supported that exercise diminishes disability and pain severity while improving fitness and occupational status in patients with CLBP, as well as decrease its recurrence rate. However, there is no significant evidence that one particular type of exercise is clearly more effective than others. Here we present a descriptive review of different types of exercise for therapeutic or prevention purposes in patients with CLBP. Studies suggest that individually tailored, supervised exercise programs are associated with the best outcomes. High quality clinical trials are needed to determine the effectiveness of specific interventions (type, time, intensity and other characteristics) aimed at individuals and/or specific target groups.

  20. Novel Back Propagation Optimization by Cuckoo Search Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao-hong Yi; Wei-hong Xu; Yuan-tao Chen

    2014-01-01

    The traditional Back Propagation (BP) has some significant disadvantages, such as training too slowly, easiness to fall into local minima, and sensitivity of the initial weights and bias. In order to overcome these shortcomings, an improved BP network that is optimized by Cuckoo Search (CS), called CSBP, is proposed in this paper. In CSBP, CS is used to simultaneously optimize the initial weights and bias of BP network. Wine data is adopted to study the prediction performance of CSBP, and the...

  1. Deployment-related risk factors of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn;

    2014-01-01

    Where much is known about the consequences of spinal and low back pain (LBP) during military deployments, there is lesser knowledge of risk factors for LBP among the deployed forces. The objective of this study was to identify deployment-related exposures associated with LBP. The study was a ques...... their subordinates and involve medical personnel, especially deployed physiotherapists, by giving advice to soldiers of different military occupational specialties on how to optimize ergonomics at work....

  2. Multiple Fractional Dual Solutions in PEMC Backed Chiral Nihility Slab

    OpenAIRE

    Kanwer Aftab; Naveed, M.; Syed, Aqeel A.; Shakeel Ahmed; Naqvi, Q.A.

    2011-01-01

    Inside a chiral nihility slab which is backed by perfect electromagnetic conductor, all valid fractional dual solutions are determined using the fractional curl operator. Fractional dual solutions may be regarded as intermediate step between the original and dual to the original solution. Corresponding fields outside the nihility slab for each case are also determined and analyzed. It is noted that only for one out of three cases the corresponding field outside chiral nihility slab is also fr...

  3. Lexan Linear Shaped Charge Holder with Magnets and Backing Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, Matthew W.; Dutton, Maureen L.; Hacker, Scott C.; Dean, Richard J.; Kidd, Nicholas; Long, Chris; Hicks, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    A method was developed for cutting a fabric structural member in an inflatable module, without damaging the internal structure of the module, using linear shaped charge. Lexan and magnets are used in a charge holder to precisely position the linear shaped charge over the desired cut area. Two types of charge holders have been designed, each with its own backing plate. One holder cuts fabric straps in the vertical configuration, and the other charge holder cuts fabric straps in the horizontal configuration.

  4. Maintaining back fitness with core exercises: Multimedia CD-ROM

    OpenAIRE

    Laurila, Antti

    2011-01-01

    High level evidence has been presented from effectiveness of therapeutic exercise as a treatment to low back disorders. Studies have also shown that video material moti-vates patients and increases the learning outcome more than static illustration. This leads to better end results in therapy. The purpose of this thesis was to produce a web browser based multimedia CD-ROM for the use of health care professionals, patients and athletic trainers Information was gathered from recent professi...

  5. Money-Back Guarantees: Helping the Low-Quality Retailer

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce McWilliams

    2012-01-01

    Existing literature, based on signaling theory, suggests that money-back guarantees (MBGs) will be utilized by high-quality firms, where high quality is defined as a low likelihood of product return. However, in today's world, MBGs are ubiquitous among major retailers, even when the likelihood of product return varies greatly between them. To understand this phenomenon, we explore a competitive environment between high- and low-quality retailers where consumers are fully informed and risk neu...

  6. A Spiral Antenna Backed by a Conducting Plane Reflector

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Hisamatsu; Nogami, Kazuo; Arai, Satoshi; Mimaki, Hiroaki; Yamauchi, Junji

    1986-01-01

    An Archimedean planar spiral antenna is numerically analyzed in the presence of a conducting plane reflector. The analysis shows that the spiral antenna backed by the plane reflector has two distinct regions in the current distribution, which explain the radiation of a circularly polarized wave for the outer circumferenceCranging over about1.3 lambda 2.9 lambda, wherelambdais a free-space wavelength. Further consideration is given to a truncated spiral antenna whose out...

  7. Acupuncture for Low Back Pain: An Overview of Systematic Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Lizhou Liu; Margot Skinner; Suzanne McDonough; Leon Mabire; George David Baxter

    2015-01-01

    Objective. As evidence of the effectiveness of acupuncture for low back pain (LBP) is inconsistent, we aimed to critically appraise the evidence from relevant systematic reviews. Methods. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning acupuncture and LBP were searched in seven databases. Internal validity and external validity of systematic reviews were assessed. Systematic reviews were categorized and high quality reviews assigned greater weightings. Conclusions were ge...

  8. Physiotherapy in early phase of low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Markku Paatelma

    2011-01-01

    Markku PaatelmaDepartment of Education, Auron – OMT Center, Helsinki, FinlandAbstract: Low back pain (LBP) is a substantial health problem and has subsequently attracted a considerable amount of research both in the early and chronic phases. Chronic, nonspecific LBP indicates limited effectiveness from most commonly applied interventions and approaches, but it seems to be opposite in the early phase. Intervention is more effective than advice on staying active in acute LBP, leading ...

  9. Propulsion Systems Definition for a Liquid Fly-back Booster

    OpenAIRE

    Sippel, Martin; Herbertz, Armin

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the final design status of a partially reusable space transportation system which has been under study for more than five years within the German future launcher technology research program ASTRA. It consists of dual booster stages, which are attached to an advanced expendable core. The design of the reference liquid fly-back boosters (LFBB) is based on LOX/LH2 propellant and a future advanced gas-generator cycle rocket motor. In focus are the four different p...

  10. Trekking back to mainstream for inclusive education, is it there?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemary Chimbala Kalenga; Elsa Fourie

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the ecosystemic management strategies for inclusive schools due to challenges faced by the schools in the mainstream school where learners from the specialised institutions are referred back to mainstream for inclusive education. Ecosystemic perspective on inclusive education, ecological theories and systems theories underpin this paper. The study was done through interviews, field notes and observations of 120 participants comprising the SMTs, educators and parents. The f...

  11. Subclassification of low back pain: a cross-country comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Billis, Evdokia V.; McCarthy, Christopher J.; Oldham, Jacqueline A

    2007-01-01

    Various health professionals have attempted to classify low back pain (LBP) subgroups and have developed several LBP classification systems. Knowing that culture has an effect on LBP symptomatology, assessment findings and clinical decision making, the aim of this review is to perform a cross-country comparative review amongst the published classification systems, addressing each country’s similarities and differences as well as exploring whether cultural factors have been incorporated into t...

  12. Core strength training for patients with chronic low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Through core strength training, patients with chronic low back pain can strengthen their deep trunk muscles. However, independent training remains challenging, despite the existence of numerous core strength training strategies. Currently, no standardized system has been established analyzing and comparing the results of core strength training and typical resistance training. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the results of previous studies to explore the effectiveness ...

  13. Using a CBT approach to manage low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Helen

    Low back pain is not only commonplace the world over, but also costly to treat. A training programme was developed so health professionals from many different specialties, from nursing to occupational health, can have a positive impact on patients with the condition, easing their disability and consequently also, the financial burden on healthcare institutions and systems. This article describes the programme and outlines how NHS nurses can train to use the programme no matter where they are based. PMID:27344895

  14. Chronic Low Back Pain due to Retroperitoneal Cystic Lymphangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieh Sadat Fattahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available   Abdominal cystic lymphangioma is a rare benign neoplasm. Less than 1% of lymphangiomas is in the retroperitoneum. Lymphangioma is mostly asymptomatic. Chronic symptoms were reported in retroperitoneal type more than others. Acute symptoms due to complications like infection, cyst rupture or hemorrhage may occur. We report an 18-years-old girl with low back pain from 6 months ago with huge pelvic mass and diagnosis of retroperitoneal cystic lymphangioma.

  15. Chronic Low Back Pain due to Retroperitoneal Cystic Lymphangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieh Sadat Fattahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal cystic lymphangioma is a rare benign neoplasm. Less than 1% of lymphangiomas is in the retroperitoneum. Lymphangioma is mostly asymptomatic. Chronic symptoms were reported in retroperitoneal type more than others. Acute symptoms due to complications like infection, cyst rupture or hemorrhage may occur. We report an 18-years-old girl with low back pain from 6 months ago with huge pelvic mass and diagnosis of retroperitoneal cystic lymphangioma.

  16. Returning disability pensioners with back pain to work

    OpenAIRE

    Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis was to investigate whether a group of disability pensioners with back pain would have a potential for a successful return to work. Perceived barriers against work, physical and mental functioning and the effect of a vocational- oriented intervention were evaluated. The thesis consists of three papers. The first paper deals with the pensioners’ perceived barriers against work and perceptions of their own health. This was considered likely to have an impact on th...

  17. Neuromodulation for Refractory Failed Back Surgery Syndrome Patients

    OpenAIRE

    I.N. Morozov; А.I. Ushakov

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to assess the capabilities of spinal cord stimulation, and compare it with conventional nonsurgical treatment in failed back syndrome. Materials and Methods. The study involved the patients with at least one anatomically successful lumber disc hernia excision, post-traumatic spinal deformity in their past history, the patients keeping suffering from neuropathic pain. Group 1 patients (n=45) in addition to traditional therapy underwent spinal cord stimu...

  18. ATLAS experiment - Episode 2 - The Particles Strike Back

    CERN Multimedia

    Michael Barnett - Erik Johansson

    2006-01-01

    ATLAS, The Particles Strike Back is the second episode in a three part series that uncovers the mysteries of the ATLAS experiment. Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is shown the inner, middle and outer sections of the ATLAS detector. The narrator describes how different parts of the detector are able to detect 6 different types of particles: electrons, photons, protons, neutrons, muons and neutrinos.

  19. End-Loaded, Cavity-Backed, Cross-Slot Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshadi, Farzin

    1991-01-01

    End-loaded, cavity-backed, cross-slot antennas developed for use in mobile/satellite service and other similar commercial services. Intended to transmit and receive in circular polarization at frequencies between 1 and 2 GHz. Fabricated and tuned to operating frequencies easily. Made without end loading or with end loading tailored to obtain various desirable electrical characteristics. Advantages include lower losses, lighter weights, smaller sizes, and greater bandwidths.

  20. Predicting Outcome in Acute Low-Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Singer, Joel; Gilbert, J. R.; Hutton, Tim; Taylor, D W

    1987-01-01

    Patients presenting to their family physician with acute low-back pain were studied prospectively. Demographic factors and patient history at the initial visit were assessed to determine important predictors of selected clinical outcomes, including time to resumption of normal activities and time to relief from pain. While several predictors were significantly correlated with each of the outcomes assessed, the most consistent predictor of outcome proved to be the reported pain intensity at th...

  1. Back analysis of fault-slip in burst prone environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainoki, Atsushi; Mitri, Hani S.

    2016-11-01

    In deep underground mines, stress re-distribution induced by mining activities could cause fault-slip. Seismic waves arising from fault-slip occasionally induce rock ejection when hitting the boundary of mine openings, and as a result, severe damage could be inflicted. In general, it is difficult to estimate fault-slip-induced ground motion in the vicinity of mine openings because of the complexity of the dynamic response of faults and the presence of geological structures. In this paper, a case study is conducted for a Canadian underground mine, herein called "Mine-A", which is known for its seismic activities. Using a microseismic database collected from the mine, a back analysis of fault-slip is carried out with mine-wide 3-dimensional numerical modeling. A back analysis is conducted to estimate the physical and mechanical properties of the causative fracture or shear zones. One large seismic event has been selected for the back analysis to detect a fault-slip related seismic event. In the back analysis, the shear zone properties are estimated with respect to moment magnitude of the seismic event and peak particle velocity (PPV) recorded by a strong ground motion sensor. The estimated properties are then validated through comparison with peak ground acceleration recorded by accelerometers. Lastly, ground motion in active mining areas is estimated by conducting dynamic analysis with the estimated values. The present study implies that it would be possible to estimate the magnitude of seismic events that might occur in the near future by applying the estimated properties to the numerical model. Although the case study is conducted for a specific mine, the developed methodology can be equally applied to other mines suffering from fault-slip related seismic events.

  2. Low back pain among female nurses in Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Ghilan; Abdulla Al-Taiar; Nuha Al Yousfi; Rania Al Zubaidi; Iman Awadh; Zaher Al-Obeyed

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Low Back Pain (LBP) among female nursing staff and explore the potential risk factors associated with LBP. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected female nurses using payroll as a sampling frame in all public hospitals in Sana'a City, Yemen. Data was collected through face-to-face interview using a structured, pre-coded questionnaire that was available in Arabic and English. Weight and height...

  3. Chronic Low Back Pain due to Retroperitoneal Cystic Lymphangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Asieh Sadat; Maddah, Godratollah; Motamedolshariati, Mohammad; Ghiasi-Moghadam, Taghi

    2014-03-01

    Abdominal cystic lymphangioma is a rare benign neoplasm. Less than 1% of lymphangiomas is in the retroperitoneum. Lymphangioma is mostly asymptomatic. Chronic symptoms were reported in retroperitoneal type more than others. Acute symptoms due to complications like infection, cyst rupture or hemorrhage may occur. We report an 18-years-old girl with low back pain from 6 months ago with huge pelvic mass and diagnosis of retroperitoneal cystic lymphangioma.

  4. All-back-Schottky-contact thin-film photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Marco

    2016-02-01

    The concept of All-Back-Schottky-Contact (ABSC) thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) devices is introduced and evaluated using 2D numerical simulation. Reach-through Schottky junctions due to two metals of different work functions in an alternating, side-by-side pattern along the non-illuminated side generate the requisite built-in field. It is shown that our simulation method quantitatively describes existing data for a recently demonstrated heterojunction thin-film cell with interdigitated back contacts (IBCs) of one metal type. That model is extended to investigate the performance of ABSC devices with bimetallic IBCs within a pertinent parameter space. Our calculations indicate that 20% efficiency is achievable with micron-scale features and sufficient surface passivation. Bimetallic, micron-scale IBCs are readily fabricated using photo-lithographic techniques and the ABSC design allows for optically transparent surface passivation layers that need not be electrically conductive. The key advantages of the ABSC-TFPV architecture are that window layers, buffer layers, heterojunctions, and module scribing are not required because both contacts are located on the back of the device.

  5. [Episacral lipoma: a treatable cause of low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Hatice Rana; Nacır, Barış; Özeri, Zuhal; Karagöz, Aynur

    2013-01-01

    Episacral lipoma is a small, tender subcutaneous nodule primarily occurring over the posterior iliac crest. Episacral lipoma is a significant and treatable cause of acute and chronic low back pain. Episacral lipoma occurs as a result of tears in the thoracodorsal fascia and subsequent herniation of a portion of the underlying dorsal fat pad through the tear. This clinical entity is common, and recognition is simple. The presence of a painful nodule with disappearance of pain after injection with anaesthetic, is diagnostic. Medication and physical therapy may not be effective. Local injection of the nodule with a solution of anaesthetic and steroid is effective in treating the episacral lipoma. Here we describe 2 patients with painful nodules over the posterior iliac crest. One patient complained of severe lower back pain radiating to the left lower extremity and this patient subsequently underwent disc operation. The other patient had been treated for greater trochanteric pain syndrome. In both patients, symptoms appeared to be relieved by local injection of anaesthetic and steroid. Episacral lipoma should be considered during diagnostic workup and in differential diagnosis of acute and chronic low back pain. PMID:23720083

  6. On the Feed-back Mechanism of Chinese Stock Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shu Quan; Ito, Takao; Zhang, Jianbo

    Feed-back models in the stock markets research imply an adjustment process toward investors' expectation for current information and past experiences. Error-correction and cointegration are often used to evaluate the long-run relation. The Efficient Capital Market Hypothesis, which had ignored the effect of the accumulation of information, cannot explain some anomalies such as bubbles and partial predictability in the stock markets. In order to investigate the feed-back mechanism and to determine an effective model, we use daily data of the stock index of two Chinese stock markets with the expectational model, which is one kind of geometric lag models. Tests and estimations of error-correction show that long-run equilibrium seems to be seldom achieved in Chinese stock markets. Our result clearly shows the common coefficient of expectations and fourth-order autoregressive disturbance exist in the two Chinese stock markets. Furthermore, we find the same coefficient of expectations has an autoregressive effect on disturbances in the two Chinese stock markets. Therefore the presence of such feed-back is also supported in Chinese stock markets.

  7. Questionnaire for low back pain in the garment industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindra, Supreet; Sinha, A G K; Benjamin, A I

    2013-05-01

    Low back pain affects up to 90% of the world's population at some point in their lives. Until date no questionnaire has been designed for back pain in the garment industry workers. Therefore, the objective of this study is to design a questionnaire to determine the prevalence, risk factors, impact, health care service utilization and back pain features in the garment industry workers and gain preliminary experience of its use. The content validity and reliability of the questionnaire was established. Items showing acceptable internal consistency and moderate to high test re-test reliability were retained in the questionnaire. Items showing unacceptable internal consistency, low test re-test reliability or poor differentiation were reworded, redrafted and re-tested on the workers. It took 20 min to complete one interview schedule. Environmental factors such as the absence of the garment industry owner/supervisor or co-workers at the time of the interview and interview during leisure hours need to be standardized. Thus, final questionnaire is ready for use after necessary amendments and will be used on the larger sample size in the main study.

  8. Questionnaire for low back pain in the garment industry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreet Bindra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain affects up to 90% of the world′s population at some point in their lives. Until date no questionnaire has been designed for back pain in the garment industry workers. Therefore, the objective of this study is to design a questionnaire to determine the prevalence, risk factors, impact, health care service utilization and back pain features in the garment industry workers and gain preliminary experience of its use. The content validity and reliability of the questionnaire was established. Items showing acceptable internal consistency and moderate to high test re-test reliability were retained in the questionnaire. Items showing unacceptable internal consistency, low test re-test reliability or poor differentiation were reworded, redrafted and re-tested on the workers. It took 20 min to complete one interview schedule. Environmental factors such as the absence of the garment industry owner/supervisor or co-workers at the time of the interview and interview during leisure hours need to be standardized. Thus, final questionnaire is ready for use after necessary amendments and will be used on the larger sample size in the main study.

  9. The impact of drywall handling tools on the low back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jennifer A; Kincl, Laurel D; Davis, Kermit

    2010-03-01

    Carpenters and other construction workers who install drywall have high rates of strains and sprains to the low back and shoulder. Drywall is heavy and awkward to handle resulting in increased risk of injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate several low-cost coupling tools that have the potential to reduce awkward postures in drywall installers. Five coupling tools were evaluated using the Lumbar Motion Monitor that measures trunk kinematics and predicts probability of low back disorder group membership risk (LBD risk). Workers answered surveys about their comfort while using each tool. The results indicate that use of the 2-person manual lift and the J-handle provide the best reduction in awkward postures, motions, low back sagittal moment, and LBD risk. The two-person manual lift appears to be the safest method of lifting and moving drywall, though using the two-person J-handle also significantly reduces injury risk. Given that carpenters are skeptical about using equipment that can get in the way or get lost, a practical recommendation is promotion of two-person manual lifting. For single-person lifts, the Old Man tool is a viable option to decrease risk of MSDs.

  10. Stress and back pain: we’re all concerned!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    Yesterday (18 April), CERN celebrated the World Day for Safety and Health at Work. This event was organised by the Safety Unit of the BE Department, the HSE Unit, the Medical Service and the Fire Brigade for the third year running.     The yellow mannequin demonstrates how different positions require different effort to carry the same load: the first by curving the back (which places more strain on the spine), and the other by bending the knees (a good technique to reduce strain). Information stands on the themes of stress and back pain were set up in each of CERN’s three restaurants and attracted more than 260 people, including CERN’s Director-General. Stress self-evaluation, anti-stress techniques, tips for avoiding and managing back pain… all aspects of these everyday afflictions were addressed. The participants, most of whom were directly affected by these problems, had their many questions answered at the stands....

  11. Reconstruction of CT images by the Bayes- back projection method

    CERN Document Server

    Haruyama, M; Takase, M; Tobita, H

    2002-01-01

    In the course of research on quantitative assay of non-destructive measurement of radioactive waste, the have developed a unique program based on the Bayesian theory for reconstruction of transmission computed tomography (TCT) image. The reconstruction of cross-section images in the CT technology usually employs the Filtered Back Projection method. The new imaging reconstruction program reported here is based on the Bayesian Back Projection method, and it has a function of iterative improvement images by every step of measurement. Namely, this method has the capability of prompt display of a cross-section image corresponding to each angled projection data from every measurement. Hence, it is possible to observe an improved cross-section view by reflecting each projection data in almost real time. From the basic theory of Baysian Back Projection method, it can be not only applied to CT types of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd generation. This reported deals with a reconstruction program of cross-section images in the CT of ...

  12. Effects of red-backed salamanders on ecosystem functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Hocking

    Full Text Available Ecosystems provide a vast array of services for human societies, but understanding how various organisms contribute to the functions that maintain these services remains an important ecological challenge. Predators can affect ecosystem functions through a combination of top-down trophic cascades and bottom-up effects on nutrient dynamics. As the most abundant vertebrate predator in many eastern US forests, woodland salamanders (Plethodon spp. likely affect ecosystems functions. We examined the effects of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus on a variety of forest ecosystem functions using a combined approach of large-scale salamander removals (314-m(2 plots and small-scale enclosures (2 m(2 where we explicitly manipulated salamander density (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 m(-2. In these experiments, we measured the rates of litter and wood decomposition, potential nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates, acorn germination, and foliar insect damage on red oak seedlings. Across both experimental venues, we found no significant effect of red-backed salamanders on any of the ecosystem functions. We also found no effect of salamanders on intraguild predator abundance (carabid beetles, centipedes, spiders. Our study adds to the already conflicting evidence on effects of red-backed salamander and other amphibians on terrestrial ecosystem functions. It appears likely that the impact of terrestrial amphibians on ecosystem functions is context dependent. Future research would benefit from explicitly examining terrestrial amphibian effects on ecosystem functions under a variety of environmental conditions and in different forest types.

  13. GnRH-Analoga und Add-back-Verfahren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinstein J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available GnRH-Analoga haben eine große Bedeutung in der medikamentösen Therapie der Endometriose erlangt. Sie sind in der Lage, Endometrioseassoziierte Schmerzen zu beseitigen und sind Bestandteil der Therapie der endometriosebedingten Infertilität. Aufgrund der Chronizität der Endometriose bedarf es in vielen Fällen der Prolongation der GnRH-A-Therapie über den Zeitraum von 6 Monaten hinaus. Für diese Fälle eignet sich eine Add-back- Therapie nach dem Format von Hormonersatztherapien, um vasomotorischen Nebeneffekten und dem Knochensubstanzverlust entgegenwirken zu können. Dabei wird der Estrogenanteil niedrig dosiert eingesetzt, um innerhalb eines "therapeutischen Fensters" den Hypoestrogenismus auszugleichen, ohne das Endometriosewachstum zu fördern. Prinzipiell kann dazu das Estrogen oral, aber auch transdermal appliziert werden. Die Effektivität der Kombination aus GnRH-A plus Add-back bezüglich der Knochenprotektion konnte bereits für einen Zeitraum von bis zu 10 Jahren bestätigt werden, sodass damit eine Langzeitkonzeption für Frauen mit rezidivierender Endometriose und wiederholten operativen Eingriffen existiert. Alternativen zur klassischen Add-back mit Sexualsteroiden existieren vielfältig, aber ihr Einsatz ist durch Partialwirkungen und eigene Nebenwirkungen limitiert.

  14. Baastrup's Disease: a poorly recognised cause of back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinha, F; Raínho, C; Cunha, I; Barcelos, A

    2015-01-01

    A 56-year-old male complained about progressive mechanical back pain for more than 10 years, which worsened with prolonged orthostatism and spine extension and improved in fetal position. His lumbar spine radiography revealed enlargement and sclerosis of the spinous processes which was confirmed by computed tomography, suggesting Baastrup's disease. This condition is characterized by enlargement, close approximation and impingement of one spinous process on another ("kissing spines"). There are few studies on Baastrup´s disease epidemiology and their results are inconsistent. Patients often complain of back pain, typically increased with extension and relieved by flexion. Radiographically, spinous process impingement leads to reactive sclerosis, enlargement, flattening, and remodeling of the involved vertebral spines. Physicians frequently miss it on radiographs due to lack of knowledge and overexposure of spinous processes in most X rays. Both conservative and surgical options are available for treatment. Baastrup's disease should be considered in differential diagnosis of back pain, although one must be aware the typical radiographic changes appear to be common with aging and may not be the cause of patient's symptoms. PMID:25782695

  15. Physiotherapy in early phase of low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Paatelma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Markku PaatelmaDepartment of Education, Auron – OMT Center, Helsinki, FinlandAbstract: Low back pain (LBP is a substantial health problem and has subsequently attracted a considerable amount of research both in the early and chronic phases. Chronic, nonspecific LBP indicates limited effectiveness from most commonly applied interventions and approaches, but it seems to be opposite in the early phase. Intervention is more effective than advice on staying active in acute LBP, leading to more rapid improvement in function, mood, quality of life, and general health. We compared physiotherapy (PT that involved 3–7 treatment sessions based on subclassification in early phase LBP (acute and subacute LBP lasting <3 months to one session of PT that advised staying active, in 134 LBP patients. Low back and leg pain, disability, and days of sick-leave were evaluated. After 12 months, all groups had only minimal pain and disability. In the advice-only group, those patients who had radiating pain had less improvement compared with other groups, and increasing days of sick-leave because of LBP after 12 months. Compared with the advice-only group, orthopedic manual therapy and McKenzie methods seemed to be slightly more effective than one session of assessment in pain and disability.Keywords: OMT, advice, low back pain 

  16. Evaluation and treatment of acute low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkade, Scott

    2007-04-15

    Acute low back pain with or without sciatica usually is self-limited and has no serious underlying pathology. For most patients, reassurance, pain medications, and advice to stay active are sufficient. A more thorough evaluation is required in selected patients with "red flag" findings associated with an increased risk of cauda equina syndrome, cancer, infection, or fracture. These patients also require closer follow-up and, in some cases, urgent referral to a surgeon. In patients with nonspecific mechanical low back pain, imaging can be delayed for at least four to six weeks, which usually allows the pain to improve. There is good evidence for the effectiveness of acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, skeletal muscle relaxants, heat therapy, physical therapy, and advice to stay active. Spinal manipulative therapy may provide short-term benefits compared with sham therapy but not when compared with conventional treatments. Evidence for the benefit of acupuncture is conflicting, with higher-quality trials showing no benefit. Patient education should focus on the natural history of the back pain, its overall good prognosis, and recommendations for effective treatments. PMID:17477101

  17. An overview of evaluation of low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    Results: Acute low backache was found to be more common in upper middle class and Lower class. Medium and heavy manual workers were found to be more predisposed to acute low backache and among specific occupation porters carrying heavy weights were most commonly involved. Prolapsed intervertebral disc was found be commonest cause of acute lumbosciatic syndrome. By conservative treatment in a year there was 76% of patients showed improvement in back pain, 73% showed improvement in paresthesias, 79% showed improvement in numbness and 69% showed improvement in neurological claudication. Education in proper posture and body mechanics is helpful in returning the patient to the usual level of activity after the acute exacerbation has been relieved. Conclusions: Every patient of low back pain should be thoroughly examined on all parameters before reaching to final diagnosis and treatment of low back pain by conservative treatment should be aimed on the prevention rather than treatment by multiple drugs. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2777-2782

  18. Hysteresis and Back Transitions in Internal Transport Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. S.; Jhang, Hogun; Terzolo, L.; Kim, J. Y.; Kwon, J. M.; Diamond, P. H.; Malkov, M.; Hahm, T. S.

    2010-11-01

    Understanding and control of the transport barrier formation and back transition are essential to achieve the optimized plasma operation and performance in tokamak plasmas. Back transition dynamics, in particular, is complicated due to the phenomenon of hysteresis, whereby the barrier state persists when the driving power is lowered below the initial threshold value. Here we report new results from theoretical and computational studies of hysteresis in internal transport barrier (ITB) with reversed magnetic shear. A revised version of the global gyrofluid TRB code has been used to study ITG turbulence. ITB formation, back transition, and hysteresis are manifested during slow ramp-ups/downs of the central heating power. Comparisons are made of the similarity/difference in the characteristics of hysteresis when the control parameter is lowered dynamically. The strength of hysteresis is quantified as functions of ion Nusselt number, q-profile shape and lower order rational q surface. In addition to the computational study, an analytical study of a two-field model of pressure and density dynamics is presented for a reversed shear ITB plasma by extending a previous theory that is applied to the edge pedestal.

  19. Independently accessed back-to-back HgCdTe photodiodes: A new dual-band infrared detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reine, M. B.; Norton, P. W.; Starr, R.; Weiler, M. H.; Kestigian, M.; Musicant, B. L.; Mitra, P.; Schimert, T.; Case, F. C.; Bhat, Lb.; Ehsani, H.; Rao, V.

    1995-05-01

    We report the first data for a new two-color HgCdTe infrared detector for use in large dual-band infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs). Referred to as the independently accessed back-to-back photodiode structure, this novel dual-band HgCdTe detector provides independent electrical access to each of two spatially collocated back-to-back HgCdTe photodiodes so that true simultaneous and independent detection of medium wavelength (MW, 3-5 μm) and long wavelength (LW, 8-12 μm) infrared radiation can be accomplished. This new dual-band detector is directly compatible with standard backside-illuminated bump-interconnected hybrid HgCdTe IRFPA technology. It is capable of high fill factor, and allows high quantum efficiency and BLIP sensitivity to be realized in both the MW and LW photodiodes. We report data that demonstrate experimentally the key features of this new dual-band detector. These arrays have a unit cell size of 100 x 100 μm2, and were fabricated from a four-layer p-n-N-P HgCdTe film grown in situ by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on a CdZnTe substrate. At 80K, the MW detector cutoff wavelength is 4.5 μm and the LW detector cutoff wavelength is 8.0 μm. Spectral crosstalk is less than 3%. Data confirm that the MW and LW photodiodes are electrically and radiometrically independent.

  20. High-temperature stability of molybdenum (Mo) back contacts for CIGS solar cells: a route towards more robust back contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ju-Heon; Yoon, Kwan-Hee; Jeong, Jeung-hyun [Solar Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Mok; Park, Jong-Keuk; Baik, Young-Joon [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Tae-Yeon, E-mail: jhjeong@kist.re.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-26

    The thermal stability of Mo thin films is indispensable to Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells: CIGS films are deposited above 500 deg. C. The thermal stabilities of Mo thin films with dense to porous Mo microstructures, which are varied by controlling the sputtering pressure, are investigated. Interface failures are found to occur in buckling mode in denser Mo films, whereas cracking arises in less dense films. The failure modes are apparently dependent on the sign of the residual stress: the former is due to compressive stress, whereas the latter is due to tensile stress. Interestingly, the softening of soda-lime glass at high temperatures reconfigures the film stresses to be more compressive after annealing, which in turn triggers buckling even in films that are tensile-stressed in the as-deposited states. We conclude that the appropriate processing conditions for thermally stable back contacts cannot be obtained with the simple single layer approach. On the basis of this relationship between microstructure, residual stress and the failure modes, it is shown that improvements in film adhesion can widen the processing window for the preparation of robust back contacts, i.e. with a conventional bilayer approach and substrate roughening. Since the bilayer approach employed more compliant porous structures in the bottom layer, back contacts that are better suited to higher stress and temperature can be produced. Furthermore, substrate roughening might make the back contact more conductive as well as more stable because adhesion can be enhanced without the use of an electrically resistive buffer layer.

  1. The effect of low back exercise on the pain condition of sedentary women who Suffering from low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Arıkan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available 15 sedentary women were taken to study with the aim of to determine the effect of four week exercise at the middle aged women suffering from low back pain (age 27,933±3,104, height 163,266±5,573, body weight 59,466±9,905, BMI 21,933±3,127. Participants was informed about low back health and given exercise program. Exercises were put in to practice twice a day for four weeks. Exercise were started five times repeat in first week, ten times in second and it continued fifteen times in third and fourth weeks. Before and the after the exercise program Oswestry Each scale was applied to participants. First and the last tests were compared repeated t test, and the results were evaluated at the level of p<0,05. Decreasing the pain was determined after exercise program of ache, personal caring, heaving, walking, sitting, sleeping, wandering, sexual and social life. In conclusion the exercise program which was applied by the participants, were reduced their low back pain.

  2. Low back pain in military recruits in relation to social background and previous low back pain. A cross-sectional and prospective observational survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbæk, L.; Larsen, K.; Weidich, F.;

    2005-01-01

    to 1,711 recruits before and after this three-month period. RESULTS: Sedentary occupation was negatively associated with long-lasting low back pain (>30 days during the past year) at baseline with an odds ratios of 0.55 (95% CI: 0.33-0.90). This effect vanished during service. Having parents...... in the group with highest IQ). Long-lasting low back pain prior to service increased the risk of long-lasting low back pain (OR: 4.8;2.1-10.8), leg pain (OR: 3.3;1.3-8.3) and exemption from duty during service (OR: 5.9;2.4-14.8). CONCLUSION: Sedentary occupation is negatively associated with low back pain...... at baseline. This protective effect disappears, when the person becomes physically active. For predicting trouble related to the low back during service, the duration of low back pain prior to service and IQ-level are the most important factors....

  3. Homework for Parents -- Your Child's Back-To-School Health Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Share this! Home » Health Tips » Child Emergencies Homework for Parents — Your Child's Back-To-School Health ... advise parents and guardians to do a little homework of their own and go through a back- ...

  4. Back Pain in Poland and Germany: A Survey of Prevalence and Association with Demographic Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Henn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Back pain is the most common form of pain and leads to high costs in all medical care systems. Objective. The present study examines the prevalence of back pain and its associations with some basic demographics. Methods. Two samples from Poland and Germany (about n=500 each were examined via Internet regarding back pain, gender, age, and body mass index (BMI. Results. Back pain is more common in women than in men (risk ratio about 1.7, and a high BMI constitutes an additional risk factor. Age was not related to back pain prevalence. Conclusion. Congruent results in two countries based on the same measure of back pain lead to the assumption that much of the variety found in estimates of back pain are due to inconsistent assessment. For future research, a definition of common criteria on how to assess back pain would be an asset.

  5. Back Bay, Virginia: A literature review and synthesis of natural resource status and trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Several trends have been observed over time in Back Bay. The salinity of Back Bay has fluctuated up and down between saline, slightly brackish, and a nearly...

  6. Is back pain during childhood or adolescence associated with muscle strength, muscle endurance or aerobic capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lardon, Arnaud; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Le Scanff, Christine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Back pain is a common condition during childhood and adolescence. The causes of back pain are largely unknown but it seems plausible that some physical factors such as back muscle strength, back muscle endurance and aerobic capacity may play a role in its development, in particular...... in the early years. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review were to investigate in childhood and adolescence 1) if muscular strength in trunk extension is associated with back pain, 2) if muscular endurance in trunk extension is associated with back pain and 3) if aerobic capacity is associated with back...... pain. DESIGN: Three systematic critical literature reviews with one meta-analysis. METHODS: Systematic searches were made in June 2014 in PubMed, Embase and SportDiscus including longitudinal, retrospective or cross-sectional studies on back pain for subjects

  7. Super-virtual Interferometric Separation and Enhancement of Back-scattered Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen

    2015-08-19

    Back-scattered surface waves can be migrated to detect near-surface reflectors with steep dips. A robust surface-wave migration requires the prior separation of the back-scattered surface-wave events from the data. This separation is often difficult to implement because the back-scattered surface waves are masked by the incident surface waves. We mitigate this problem by using a super-virtual interferometric method to enhance and separate the back-scattered surface waves. The key idea is to calculate the virtual back-scattered surface waves by stacking the resulting virtual correlated and convolved traces associated with the incident and back-scattered waves. Stacking the virtual back-scattered surface waves improves their signal-to-noise ratio and separates the back-scattered surface-waves from the incident field. Both synthetic and field data results validate the robustness of this method.

  8. Normative data on the n-back task for children and young adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago ePelegrina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The n-back task is a frequently used measure of working memory (WM in cognitive neuroscience research contexts, and it has become widely adopted in other areas over the last decade. This study aimed to obtain normative data for the n-back task from a large sample of children and adolescents. To this end, a computerized verbal n-back task with three levels of WM load (1-back, 2-back and 3-back was administered to 3722 Spanish school children aged 7–13 years. Results showed an overall age-related increase in performance for the different levels of difficulty. This trend was less pronounced at 1-back than at 2-back when hits were considered. Gender differences were also observed, with girls outperforming boys although taking more time to respond. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed. Normative data stratified by age and gender for the three WM load levels are provided.

  9. Living with Pain or Living in Pain : Narrative Journeys with Low Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Alison

    2011-01-01

    This study used a qualitative method to focus on the perspectives, beliefs and expectations of low back pain sufferers. The research was undertaken within a hospital based pain clinic. In recent years low back pain research has proliferated, and the epidemiological evidence suggests that back pain is an increasing problem. Much attention has been paid to the impact of low back pain on the population, and to the increasing cost in economic and health terms. Biomedical and psychological evi...

  10. Classification of patients with low back-related leg pain: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Stynes, S; Konstantinou, K; Dunn, KM

    2016-01-01

    Background The identification of clinically relevant subgroups of low back pain (LBP) is considered the number one LBP research priority in primary care. One subgroup of LBP patients are those with back related leg pain. Leg pain frequently accompanies LBP and is associated with increased levels of disability and higher health costs than simple low back pain. Distinguishing between different types of low back-related leg pain (LBLP) is important for clinical management and research applicatio...

  11. The association between physical activity and neck and low back pain: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Sitthipornvorakul, E.; Janwantanakul, P.; Purepong, N.; Pensri, P.; Beek, van de, A.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of physical activity on neck and low back pain is still controversial. No systematic review has been conducted on the association between daily physical activity and neck and low back pain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between physical activity and the incidence/prevalence of neck and low back pain. Publications were systematically searched from 1980 to June 2009 in several databases. The following key words were used: neck pain, back pain, physical a...

  12. Improving clinical examination in acute tibial fractures by enhancing visual cues: the case for always 'cutting back' a tibial back-slab and marking the dorsalis pedis pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alasdair; Kimber, Cheryl; Bramwell, Donald; Jaarsma, Ruurd

    2016-08-01

    Look, feel, move is a simple and widely taught sequence to be followed when undertaking a clinical examination in orthopaedics (Maher et al., 1994; McRae, 1999; Solomon et al., 2010). The splinting of an acute tibial fracture with a posterior back-slab is also common practice; with the most commonly taught design involving covering the dorsum of the foot with bandaging (Charnley, 1950; Maher et al., 1994; McRae, 1989). We investigated the effect of the visual cues provided by exposing the dorsum of the foot and marking the dorsalis pedis pulse. We used a clinical simulation in which we compared the quality of the recorded clinical examination undertaken by 30 nurses. The nurses were randomly assigned to assess a patient with either a traditional back-slab or one in which the dorsal bandaging had been cut back and the dorsalis pedis pulse marked. We found that the quality of the recorded clinical examination was significantly better in the cut-back group. Previous studies have shown that the cut-back would not alter the effectiveness of the back-slab as a splint (Zagorski et al., 1993). We conclude that all tibial back-slabs should have the bandaging on the dorsum of the foot cut back and the location of the dorsalis pedis pulse marked. This simple adaptation will improve the subsequent clinical examinations undertaken and recorded without reducing the back-slab's effectiveness as a splint. PMID:27236718

  13. Decreased task duration and unchanged trunk muscle activity in low-back pain patients during stair climbing after back extensor muscle fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Østergaard, Gert Værge; Brogner, Heidi Marie;

    2014-01-01

    recording during 10 concurrent stair steps pre / post lumbar extensor muscle exhaustion. Duration of gait tasks were shorter in LBP patients generally and longer during load and shorter during transfer in descend stepping after back extensor fatigue. Back extensor fatigue resulted in higher back......- and abdominal muscle activity in healthy than in patients in most phases, but during descend transfer patients activity decreased. In LBP patients back extensor fatigue resulted in decreased muscular activity in the trunk muscles during stair stepping compared to healthy. Decreased duration of the motor tasks...

  14. Improving clinical examination in acute tibial fractures by enhancing visual cues: the case for always 'cutting back' a tibial back-slab and marking the dorsalis pedis pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alasdair; Kimber, Cheryl; Bramwell, Donald; Jaarsma, Ruurd

    2016-08-01

    Look, feel, move is a simple and widely taught sequence to be followed when undertaking a clinical examination in orthopaedics (Maher et al., 1994; McRae, 1999; Solomon et al., 2010). The splinting of an acute tibial fracture with a posterior back-slab is also common practice; with the most commonly taught design involving covering the dorsum of the foot with bandaging (Charnley, 1950; Maher et al., 1994; McRae, 1989). We investigated the effect of the visual cues provided by exposing the dorsum of the foot and marking the dorsalis pedis pulse. We used a clinical simulation in which we compared the quality of the recorded clinical examination undertaken by 30 nurses. The nurses were randomly assigned to assess a patient with either a traditional back-slab or one in which the dorsal bandaging had been cut back and the dorsalis pedis pulse marked. We found that the quality of the recorded clinical examination was significantly better in the cut-back group. Previous studies have shown that the cut-back would not alter the effectiveness of the back-slab as a splint (Zagorski et al., 1993). We conclude that all tibial back-slabs should have the bandaging on the dorsum of the foot cut back and the location of the dorsalis pedis pulse marked. This simple adaptation will improve the subsequent clinical examinations undertaken and recorded without reducing the back-slab's effectiveness as a splint.

  15. Space Vector Modulation for DC-Link Current Ripple Reduction in Back-To-Back Current Source Converters for Microgrid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Xu, David; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2015-01-01

    instability. Conventionally, with a given switching frequency and rated voltage, the current ripple can be reduced by increasing the dc-link inductor, but it leads to bulky size, high cost and slow dynamic response. In order to solve this problem, this paper reveals that the current ripple can......Back-to-back converters have been typically used to interconnect the microgrids. For a back-to-back current source converter, the dc-link current ripple is one of the important parameters. A large ripple will cause the electromagnetic interference, undesirable high-frequency losses, and system...

  16. Low back pain prevention for nursing students: a kettlebell intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Peltoniemi, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to educate and provide information to promote nursing students to take action in Low Back Pain (LBP) prevention. LBP is a high risk in nursing and prevention measures are recommended prior to starting the work. LBP is a debilitating musculoskeletal condition which affects all parts of the world. Prevention measures are many and this thesis aims to promote the Kettlebell training as one of them. The Kettlebell is a cast-iron ball with a handle. It has become incre...

  17. Materials challenges at the back end of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper an attempt has been made to bring out the materials challenges in the back end activities of the fuel, and various issues related to problems associated with the use of current materials, development of newer alloys, future challenges associated with materials testing and inspection. For the implementation of several advanced materials and techniques a comprehensive programme for improving the reliability and integrity of the plant components needs to be established. As being proceeded in this path of development success will be seen in the continuous operation of the reprocessing plants with zero failure concept

  18. Image reconstruction of simulated specimens using convolution back projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Farhan Manzoor

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports about the reconstruction of cross-sections of composite structures. The convolution back projection (CBP algorithm has been used to capture the attenuation field over the specimen. Five different test cases have been taken up for evaluation. These cases represent varying degrees of complexity. In addition, the role of filters on the nature of the reconstruction errors has also been discussed. Numerical results obtained in the study reveal that CBP algorithm is a useful tool for qualitative as well as quantitative assessment of composite regions encountered in engineering applications.

  19. Looking back in time beyond the big bang

    OpenAIRE

    Gasperini, M.

    1999-01-01

    String theory can (in principle) describe gravity at all curvature scales, and can be applied to cosmology to look back in time beyond the Planck epoch. The duality symmetries of string theory suggest a cosmological picture in which the imprint of a primordial, pre-big bang phase could still be accessible to present observations. The predictive power of such a scenario relies, however, on our ability to connect in a smooth way the pre-big bang to the present cosmological regime. Classical rad...

  20. From Christianity to African Religion and back again

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Meiring

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article passes from Christianity to African Religion and back again, in order to gain new insight on reconciliation. Traditional Christian reconciliation models are valuable but also contextual and limited; thus new models should be sought. African myths of community, acceptance and rebellion offer alternative ways of understanding reconciliation. When evaluated according to the principles of integration and transcendence, these myths meet the criteria of better religion and emphasise Christian notions that are often ignored in tradition Christianity. These new African-inspired insights can be used in Christian liturgy as a number of examples prove.

  1. Concentration of solar radiation by white backed photovoltaic panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smestad, G; Hamill, P

    1984-12-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the concentration achieved by white backed photovoltaic panels. Concentration is due to the trapping by light scattered in the refractive plate to which the solar cell is bonded. Using the reciprocity relation and assuming the ideal case of a Lambertian distribution, a detailed model is formulated that includes the effects of the thickness and walls of the concentrator. This model converges to the thermodynamic limit and is found to be consistent with experimental results for a wide range of cell sizes. Finally, the model is generalized to multiple-cell photovoltaic panels.

  2. Radiation Characteristics of the Cavity Backed Antenna in Conducting Cone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A technique using finite element and boundary integral method (FE-BI) and reciprocity theorem is presented to analyze the radiation characteristics of cavity backed antenna mounted on a conducting cone. The electric fields inside the cavity and on the aperture are obtained using finite element and boundary integral method. The far-field characteristic of the antenna is computed using reciprocity theorem. The paper begins with a general description of the method. An application of this method is given and the numerical result is compared with the experimental result.

  3. Cavity-Backed Dipole Antenna for Intelligent Lock Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a 20*40 mm2 planar folded L-shaped dipole antenna operated under surroundings of an iron cavity for intelligent lock communication. The height of the slot antenna is shortened and the bandwidth for 2.4 GHz band has been widened. This antenna provides a solution for antenna surrounded by metal background. Good performances on return loss, radiation pattern are obtained over 2.4 GHz operating bands. The operation distance in front and back sides for the antenna has been calculated by Friis transmission equation.

  4. Bringing indigenous ownership back to the private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    Driven by across-the-board liberalizations and the commodity price boom, Zambia has recently experienced an upsurge in foreign ownership over key parts of its economy. Albeit investors from all over the world have sought to make the most of the current situation in Zambia, Chinese investors have...... been particularly present in all sectors of the Zambian economy. Foreign ownership, however, is not new to African societies and several African countries pursued indigenisation policies in the wake of independence to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation policies thrive again...

  5. Filtered back-projection algorithm for Compton telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Donald L.

    2008-03-18

    A method for the conversion of Compton camera data into a 2D image of the incident-radiation flux on the celestial sphere includes detecting coincident gamma radiation flux arriving from various directions of a 2-sphere. These events are mapped by back-projection onto the 2-sphere to produce a convolution integral that is subsequently stereographically projected onto a 2-plane to produce a second convolution integral which is deconvolved by the Fourier method to produce an image that is then projected onto the 2-sphere.

  6. Generic Preference-based Measures for Low Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Finch, Aureliano Paolo; Melina DRITSAKI; Jommi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Study Design. Systematic review. Objective. This systematic review examines validity and responsiveness of three generic preference-based measures in patients with low back pain (LBP). Summary of Background Data. LBP is a very common incapacitating disease with a significant impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Health state utility values can be derived from various preference-based HRQoL instruments, and among them the most widely ones are EuroQol 5 dimensions (EQ-5D), Short For...

  7. Pseudo Random Number Generator Based on Back Propagation Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bang-ju; WANG Yu-hua; NIU Li-ping; ZHANG Huan-guo

    2007-01-01

    Random numbers play an increasingly important role in secure wire and wireless communication.Thus the design quality of random number generator(RNG) is significant in information security.A novel pseudo RNG is proposed for improving the security of network communication.The back propagation neural network(BPNN) is nonlinear,which can be used to improve the traditional RNG.The novel pseudo RNG is based on BPNN techniques.The result of test suites standardized by the U.S shows that the RNG can satisfy the security of communication.

  8. Marginal North Sea fields developed by subsea tie backs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-27

    The use of subsea completions tied back to existing platforms has allowed the development of marginal fields in the U.K. sector of the North Sea. Contractual agreements between various operators permit production from the Staffa field and the Lyell field to flow to the Ninian Southern platform. The lower capital expenditure provided an economic incentive to develop these small fields. The Alwyn field in the North Sea will continue its development through the Alwyn North Extension project with a three-well cluster of subsea completions. This paper reports that with drilling and completion operations batched on the three wells, the operator has cut the development risk, difficult, and cost.

  9. Combination treatment for acute non-specific low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Barulin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal pain syndromes come to the forefront in the structure of referral rates for medical advice and considerably reduce quality of life in this category of patients. The paper considers the role of an edematous component in the development and chronization of pain. Occurring edema gives rise to local hemo- and lymphodynamic disorders, dysregulated vascular tone, activated thrombogenesis, and increased vascular permeability, eventually leading to the excessive irritation of nociceptors, the enhancement of a pain component, and the progression of tissue swelling.Objective: to study the efficacy of L-lysine escinate in the combination treatment of acute non-specific low back pain.Patients and methods. Sixty-two patients aged 21 to 53 patients (mean age 36.4±0.9 years with acute low back pain were examined. L-lysine escinate having venotonic and anti-inflammatory activities was chosen as an agent to correct edema syndrome. The results of clinical, neurological, and manual muscular testing and assessment of the biomechanics of the vertebral column, obtained using the original soft package “Visual optic analysis” developed by the authors, were analyzed. All the patients were found to have acute non-specific low back pain or radiculopathy (entrapment syndrome and considerable changes in the biomechanics of the vertebral column. The patients were treated in accordance with the standards of medical care for spinal pain. L-lysine escinate was additionally incorporated as an antiedema drug into the therapeuticcomplex of the patients in the study group.Results and discussion. The study patient group demonstrated a more pronounced trend towards reductions in pain syndrome and local muscle edema. It was noted that L-lysine escinate was effective in treating both acute pain syndromes and exacerbations of chronic low back pain and that additional non-drug programs should be included in order to correct an impaired motor stereotype.

  10. Back contact buffer layer for thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Plotnikov, Victor V.

    2014-09-09

    A photovoltaic cell structure is disclosed that includes a buffer/passivation layer at a CdTe/Back contact interface. The buffer/passivation layer is formed from the same material that forms the n-type semiconductor active layer. In one embodiment, the buffer layer and the n-type semiconductor active layer are formed from cadmium sulfide (CdS). A method of forming a photovoltaic cell includes the step of forming the semiconductor active layers and the buffer/passivation layer within the same deposition chamber and using the same material source.

  11. The Back-end of User Centred Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2015-01-01

    User Centred Innovation (UCI) has during the past decade developed into a widely acknowledged approach to innovation. Yet, in spite of plethora of methods and tools for conducting UCI, companies continue to struggle in relation to creating the desired effect UCI. In this paper, it is proposed...... that a lack of focus on the back-end of UCI is what is hampering the effect of the approach. Through a single case study it is demonstrated how opposing logics, different foci, and dissimilar working processes creates serious challenges in relation to implementation of UCI. The clarification...

  12. Light propagation on quantum curved spacetime and back reaction effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozameh, Carlos; Parisi, Florencia [FaMAF, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2007-09-07

    We study the electromagnetic field equations on an arbitrary quantum curved background in the semiclassical approximation of loop quantum gravity. The effective interaction Hamiltonian for the Maxwell and gravitational fields is obtained and the corresponding field equations, which can be expressed as a modified wave equation for the Maxwell potential, are derived. We use these results to analyze electromagnetic wave propagation on a quantum Robertson-Walker spacetime and show that Lorentz invariance is not preserved. The formalism developed can be applied to the case where back reaction effects on the metric due to the electromagnetic field are taken into account, leading to non-covariant field equations.

  13. EFECTS OF PILATES ON LOW BACK PAIN AND URINE CATECHOLAMINE

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMED AMIN ZEADA

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose. The popularity of the Pilates method created by Joseph H. Pilates in the early 1920s has increased worldwide in the last decade, confirming the fact that Pilates is much more than a fitness fad. According to a survey conducted by American Sports Data Inc, more than 10.5 million Americans participated in a Pilate's class in 2004. The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of Pilate's protocol in decreasing of low back pain and urine catecholamine levels. Methods. T...

  14. Management of patients with acute nonspecific low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Isaikin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an observation of a female patient with acute non-specific low back pain (LBP. It gives current recommendations for the treatment of acute LBP and evaluates the clinical efficiency of these methods. The management of patients with acute nonspecific LBP encompasses: 1 correct information about the nature and prognosis of the disease; 2 recommendations for daily activities; 3 a short-term rational therapy with paracetamol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, and/or myorelaxants. The role of NSAIDs, ketorol in particular, in treating patients with acute nonspecific LBP is discussed.

  15. Molecules after 20 Years—Looking Back and Looking Forward

    OpenAIRE

    McPhee, Derek J.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years—a long time—so what happens after 20 years? Well if you live in New Zealand, according to [1], if you are adopted you can apply to Births, Deaths and Marriages for a copy of your birth certificate to find the names of your birth parents, you can apply to adopt a child who is related to you and you can gamble or work in a casino [1], but more seriously, our 20th anniversary is an appropriate time to look back at the history of Molecules and perhaps offer some speculations about it...

  16. Imaging Tests for Lower Back Pain: When You Need Them -- and When You Don't

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2012 ADVICE FROM CONSUMER REPORTS How to treat lower-back pain Many people get over lower-back pain in a few weeks by following these self- ... active . Walking is a good way to ease lower-back pain. If you stay in bed, it can take ...

  17. 49 CFR 220.49 - Radio communication used in shoving, backing or pushing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio communication used in shoving, backing or... Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.49 Radio communication used in shoving, backing or pushing movements. When radio communication is used in connection with the shoving, backing or pushing of a...

  18. Discriminative ability of reflex receptive fields to distinguish patients with acute and chronic low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monika, Müller; Biurrun Manresa, José; Fabienne, Treichel;

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain has a life time prevalence of 70-85%. 10-20% of all patients experience recurrent episodes or develop chronic low back pain. Socio-demographic, clinical and psychological characteristics explain the transition from acute to chronic low back pain only to a limited extent. Altered cen...

  19. Lumbar supports to prevent recurrent low back pain among home care workers - A randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Pepijn D. D. M.; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M. A.; van Poppel, Mireille N. M.; Jellema, Petra; Willemsen, Sten P.; van Tulder, Maurits W.; van Mechelen, Willem; Koes, Bart W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: People use lumbar supports to prevent low back pain. Secondary analyses from primary preventive studies suggest benefit among workers with previous low back pain, but definitive studies on the effectiveness of supports for the secondary prevention of low back pain are lacking. Objective:

  20. Research on the Asset-Backed Securitization Financing of Large Stadium

    OpenAIRE

    Hongquan Li; Houzhong Jin; Dan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Along with the maturity and standardization of market, the asset-backed securitization financing is penetrating into the construction and operation of stadium, especially for the large stadium. In this paper, authors analyze the procedures of asset-backed securitization financing for stadium and the current situations, and put forward policy suggestions for the asset-backed securitization financing of large stadium in China.