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Sample records for bacillus pumilus cbs

  1. Probing the crucial role of Leu31 and Thr33 of the Bacillus pumilus CBS alkaline protease in substrate recognition and enzymatic depilation of animal hide.

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    Nadia Zaraî Jaouadi

    Full Text Available The sapB gene, encoding Bacillus pumilus CBS protease, and seven mutated genes (sapB-L31I, sapB-T33S, sapB-N99Y, sapB-L31I/T33S, sapB-L31I/N99Y, sapB-T33S/N99Y, and sapB-L31I/T33S/N99Y were overexpressed in protease-deficient Bacillus subtilis DB430 and purified to homogeneity. SAPB-N99Y and rSAPB displayed the highest levels of keratinolytic activity, hydrolysis efficiency, and enzymatic depilation. Interestingly, and at the semi-industrial scale, rSAPB efficiently removed the hair of goat hides within a short time interval of 8 h, thus offering a promising opportunity for the attainment of a lime and sulphide-free depilation process. The efficacy of the process was supported by submitting depilated pelts and dyed crusts to scanning electron microscopic analysis, and the results showed well opened fibre bundles and no apparent damage to the collagen layer. The findings also revealed better physico-chemical properties and less effluent loads, which further confirmed the potential candidacy of the rSAPB enzyme for application in the leather industry to attain an ecofriendly process of animal hide depilation. More interestingly, the findings on the substrate specificity and kinetic properties of the enzyme using the synthetic peptide para-nitroanilide revealed strong preferences for an aliphatic amino-acid (valine at position P1 for keratinases and an aromatic amino-acid (phenylalanine at positions P1/P4 for subtilisins. Molecular modeling suggested the potential involvement of a Leu31 residue in a network of hydrophobic interactions, which could have shaped the S4 substrate binding site. The latter could be enlarged by mutating L31I, fitting more easily in position P4 than a phenylalanine residue. The molecular modeling of SAPB-T33S showed a potential S2 subside widening by a T33S mutation, thus suggesting its importance in substrate specificity.

  2. Protection of Bacillus pumilus Spores by Catalases

    OpenAIRE

    Checinska, Aleksandra; Burbank, Malcolm; Paszczynski, Andrzej J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, isolated at spacecraft assembly facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is difficult to kill by the sterilization method of choice, which uses liquid or vapor hydrogen peroxide. We identified two manganese catalases, YjqC and BPUM_1305, in spore protein extracts of several B. pumilus strains by using PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses. While the BPUM_1305 catalase was present in six of the B. pumilus strains teste...

  3. Protection of Bacillus pumilus spores by catalases.

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    Checinska, Aleksandra; Burbank, Malcolm; Paszczynski, Andrzej J

    2012-09-01

    Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, isolated at spacecraft assembly facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is difficult to kill by the sterilization method of choice, which uses liquid or vapor hydrogen peroxide. We identified two manganese catalases, YjqC and BPUM_1305, in spore protein extracts of several B. pumilus strains by using PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses. While the BPUM_1305 catalase was present in six of the B. pumilus strains tested, YjqC was not detected in ATCC 7061 and BG-B79. Furthermore, both catalases were localized in the spore coat layer along with laccase and superoxide dismutase. Although the initial catalase activity in ATCC 7061 spores was higher, it was less stable over time than the SAFR-032 enzyme. We propose that synergistic activity of YjqC and BPUM_1305, along with other coat oxidoreductases, contributes to the enhanced resistance of B. pumilus spores to hydrogen peroxide. We observed that the product of the catalase reaction, gaseous oxygen, forms expanding vesicles on the spore surface, affecting the mechanical integrity of the coat layer, resulting in aggregation of the spores. The accumulation of oxygen gas and aggregations may play a crucial role in limiting further exposure of Bacilli spore surfaces to hydrogen peroxide or other toxic chemicals when water is present.

  4. Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus S-1, an Efficient Isoeugenol-Utilizing Producer for Natural Vanillin

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    Su, Fei; Hua, Dongliang; Zhang, Zhaobin; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tang, Hongzhi; Tao, Fei; Tai, Cui; Wu, Qiulin; Wu, Geng; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus S-1 is an efficient isoeugenol-utilizing producer of natural vanillin. The genome of B. pumilus S-1 contains the epoxide hydrolase and six candidate monooxygenases that make it possible to explore the mechanism involved in conversion of isoenguenol to vanillin in the B. pumilus strain. PMID:22038964

  5. 77 FR 19109 - Bacillus Pumilus Strain GHA 180; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... information were submitted to support Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180 pesticide products. The Draft... component of fermented fish sauce and cocoa bean fermentations (Ref. 4). Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180 is... described in Unit III. B. Other Non-Occupational Exposure Pesticide products with the active ingredient...

  6. Investigation of biosurfactant production by Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI

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    shila khajavi shojaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biosurfactants are unique amphipathic molecules with extensive application in removing organic and metal contaminants. The purpose of this study was to investigate production of biosurfactant and determine optimal conditions to produce biosurfactant by Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI. Materials and methods: In this study, effect of carbon source, temperature and incubation time on biosurfactant production was evaluated. Hemolytic activity, emulsification activity, oil spreading, drop collapse, cell hydrophobicity and measurement of surface tension were used to detect biosurfactant production. Then, according to the results, the optimal conditions for biosurfactant production by and Bacillus subtilis WPI was determined. Results: In this study, both bacteria were able to produce biosurfactant at an acceptable level. Glucose, kerosene, sugarcane molasses and phenanthrene used as a sole carbon source and energy for the mentioned bacteria. Bacillus subtilis WPI produced maximum biosurfactant in the medium containing kerosene and reduced surface tension of the medium to 33.1 mN/m after 156 hours of the cultivation at 37°C. Also, the highest surface tension reduction by Bacillus pumilus 1529 occurred in the medium containing sugarcane molasses and reduce the surface tension of culture medium after 156 hours at 37°C from 50.4 to 28.83 mN/m. Discussion and conclusion: Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI had high potential in production of biosurfactant and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons and Phenanthrene. Therefore, it could be said that these bacteria had a great potential for applications in bioremediation and other environmental process.

  7. Construction of novel shuttle expression vectors for gene expression in Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus.

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    Shao, Huanhuan; Cao, Qinghua; Zhao, Hongyan; Tan, Xuemei; Feng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    A native plasmid (pSU01) was detected by genome sequencing of Bacillus subtilis strain S1-4. Two pSU01-based shuttle expression vectors pSU02-AP and pSU03-AP were constructed enabling stable replication in B. subtilis WB600. These vectors contained the reporter gene aprE, encoding an alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus BA06. The expression vector pSU03-AP only possessed the minimal replication elements (rep, SSO, DSO) and exhibited more stability on structure, suggesting that the rest of the genes in pSU01 (ORF1, ORF2, mob, hsp) were unessential for the structural stability of plasmid in B. subtilis. In addition, recombinant production of the alkaline protease was achieved more efficiently with pSU03-AP whose copy number was estimated to be more than 100 per chromosome. Furthermore, pSU03-AP could also be used to transform and replicate in B. pumilus BA06 under selective pressure. In conclusion, pSU03-AP is expected to be a useful tool for gene expression in Bacillus subtilis and B. pumilus.

  8. Paradoxical DNA repair and peroxide resistance gene conservation in Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032.

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    Jason Gioia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacillus spores are notoriously resistant to unfavorable conditions such as UV radiation, gamma-radiation, H2O2, desiccation, chemical disinfection, or starvation. Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 survives standard decontamination procedures of the Jet Propulsion Lab spacecraft assembly facility, and both spores and vegetative cells of this strain exhibit elevated resistance to UV radiation and H2O2 compared to other Bacillus species. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The genome of B. pumilus SAFR-032 was sequenced and annotated. Lists of genes relevant to DNA repair and the oxidative stress response were generated and compared to B. subtilis and B. licheniformis. Differences in conservation of genes, gene order, and protein sequences are highlighted because they potentially explain the extreme resistance phenotype of B. pumilus. The B. pumilus genome includes genes not found in B. subtilis or B. licheniformis and conserved genes with sequence divergence, but paradoxically lacks several genes that function in UV or H2O2 resistance in other Bacillus species. SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies several candidate genes for further research into UV and H2O2 resistance. These findings will help explain the resistance of B. pumilus and are applicable to understanding sterilization survival strategies of microbes.

  9. Bacillus pumilus BpCRI 6, a promising candidate for cellulase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cellulose degrading organisms have been used for the conversion of cellulolytic materials into soluble sugars or solvents in several biotechnological and industrial applications. In this report, a mutant of Bacillus pumilus was obtained after chemical mutagenesis and screened for cellulase production. This mutant named ...

  10. Resistance and recovery studies on ultraviolet-irradiated spores of Bacillus pumilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abshire, R.L.; Bain, B.; Williams, T.

    1980-01-01

    A spore suspension model and a procedure for recovering ultraviolet (uv)-irradiated spores of Bacillus pumilus were investigated. A most-probable-number tube dilution method using double-strength Trypticase soy broth was found to be superior to the agar plate method for recovering optimal numbers of spores irradiated with sublethal doses of uv energy. Aqueous suspensions of B. pumilus survived uv doses up to 108,000 ergs/mm 2 as determined by a most-probable-number recovery and estimation procedure. Resistance and stability data were consistent and reproducible, indicating the dependability of this method for recovering uv-damaged spores. The procedures used to collect information concerning resistance characteristics for two strains of B. pumilus are discussed

  11. Molecular characterization of a proteolysis-resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2

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    R. Sangeetha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteolysis-resistant lipases can be well exploited by industrial processes which employ both lipase and protease as biocatalysts. A proteolysis resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2 was isolated, purified and characterized earlier. The lipase was resistant to native and commercial proteases. In the present work, we have characterized the lip gene which encodes the proteolysis-resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2. The parameters and structural details of lipase were analysed. The lip gene consisted of 650 bp. The experimental molecular weight of SG2 lipase was nearly double that of its theoretical molecular weight, thus suggesting the existence of the functional lipase as a covalent dimer. The proteolytic cleavage sites of the lipase would have been made inaccessible by dimerisation, thus rendering the lipase resistant to protease.

  12. Colony form variation of Bacillus pumilus E601 after cultured and neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoming; Wei Baoli; Zhang Jianguo

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of two colony forms of Bacillus pumilus E601 and the effect of neutron irradiation on the colony form were reported. The translucent and opaque colonies were cultured several generations to observe the proportion of two form colonies. The spores of opaque colony were irradiated at 80, 800 and 2000 Gy of fast neutron from CFBR-II pulse pile, and the survivors of opaque colony were irradiated again at the same doses. The results showed that: (1) Bacillus pumilus E601 observed two types of colony form: translucent and opaque colony; (2) the translucent colony could produce both translucent and opaque colonies in equal, while the opaque colony couldn't produce translucent colony generally; (3) neutron irradiation could affect the colony form distribution. The ratio of survival translucent colony was increased with the increase of the first neutron irradiation doses, and the second neutron irradiation also increased the ratio of translucent colony. It was concluded that the instability of translucent colony was the main reason to produce two colony forms of Bacillus pumilus E601. The strain of translucent colony had a stronger ability to resist neutron irradiation than the opaque colony. (authors)

  13. Study of the radiation effect of "9"9Mo/"9"9"mTc generator on Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Endo, Erica M.M.; Felgueiras, Carlos F.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.; Osso Junior, João A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, molybdenum-99 loaded columns were challenged with Bacillus subtilis vegetative cells and Bacillus pumilus spores inside and outside the alumina column, and microbial recovery and radiation effect were assessed. Alumina was a barrier for the passage of microorganisms regardless the species, whilst spores were more retained than vegetative cells with a lower microbial recovery, without significant differences between 9.25 and 74 GBq generators. Bacillus pumilus biological indicator showed lower recoveries, suggesting a radiation inactivating effect on microorganisms. - Highlights: • Microorganisms in radionuclide generator may impair the quality of the product. • Killing of Bacillus pumilus was not complete even after 20 days of exposition. • Alumina column was a physical barrier for the microbial recovery. • An alternative biological indicator based on B. pumilus spores is proposed.

  14. Biochemical and molecular characterization of Bacillus pumilus isolated from coastal environment in Cochin, India Caracterização bioquímica e molecular de Bacillus pumilus isolado do ambiente costeiro de Cochin, Índia

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    Ammini Parvathi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus species constitute a diverse group of bacteria widely distributed in soil and the aquatic environment. In this study, Bacillus strains isolated from the coastal environment of Cochin, India were identified by detailed conventional biochemical methods, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME analysis and partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Analysis of the data revealed that Bacillus pumilus was the most predominant species in the region under study followed by B. cereus and B. sphaericus. The B. pumilus isolates were further characterized by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR, antibiotic sensitivity profiling and PCR screening for known toxin genes associated with Bacillus spp. All B. pumilus isolates were biochemically identical, exhibited high protease and lipase activity and uniformly sensitive to antibiotics tested in this study. One strain of B. pumilus harboured cereulide synthetase gene cesB of B. cereus which was indistinguishable from rest of the isolates biochemically and by AP-PCR. This study reports, for the first time, the presence of the emetic toxin gene cesB in B. pumilus.As espécies de Bacillus constituem um grupo diversificado de bactérias amplamente distribuídas no solo e no ambiente aquático. Neste estudo, cepas de Bacillus isoladas do ambiente costeiro de Cochin, Índia, foram identificadas através de métodos bioquímicos convencionais, análise de ésteres metílicos de ácidos graxos (FAME e sequenciamento de 16S rDNA. A análise dos dados revelou que Bacillus pumilus foi a espécie predominante na região estudada, seguido de B. cereus e B. sphaericus. Os isolados de B. pumilus foram caracterizados através da reação em cadeia da polimerase com primers arbitrários (AP-PCR, perfil de sensibilidade a antibióticos e triagem por PCR de genes de toxinas associadas com Bacillus spp. Todos os isolados de B. pumilus foram bioquimicamente idênticos, apresentaram elevada atividade de protease e lipase e foram uniformemente sens

  15. Developing a new production host from a blueprint: Bacillus pumilus as an industrial enzyme producer.

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    Küppers, Tobias; Steffen, Victoria; Hellmuth, Hendrik; O'Connell, Timothy; Bongaerts, Johannes; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Wiechert, Wolfgang

    2014-03-24

    Since volatile and rising cost factors such as energy, raw materials and market competitiveness have a significant impact on the economic efficiency of biotechnological bulk productions, industrial processes need to be steadily improved and optimized. Thereby the current production hosts can undergo various limitations. To overcome those limitations and in addition increase the diversity of available production hosts for future applications, we suggest a Production Strain Blueprinting (PSB) strategy to develop new production systems in a reduced time lapse in contrast to a development from scratch.To demonstrate this approach, Bacillus pumilus has been developed as an alternative expression platform for the production of alkaline enzymes in reference to the established industrial production host Bacillus licheniformis. To develop the selected B. pumilus as an alternative production host the suggested PSB strategy was applied proceeding in the following steps (dedicated product titers are scaled to the protease titer of Henkel's industrial production strain B. licheniformis at lab scale): Introduction of a protease production plasmid, adaptation of a protease production process (44%), process optimization (92%) and expression optimization (114%). To further evaluate the production capability of the developed B. pumilus platform, the target protease was substituted by an α-amylase. The expression performance was tested under the previously optimized protease process conditions and under subsequently adapted process conditions resulting in a maximum product titer of 65% in reference to B. licheniformis protease titer. In this contribution the applied PSB strategy performed very well for the development of B. pumilus as an alternative production strain. Thereby the engineered B. pumilus expression platform even exceeded the protease titer of the industrial production host B. licheniformis by 14%. This result exhibits a remarkable potential of B. pumilus to be the

  16. Purification and Partial characterization of manganese peroxidase from Bacillus pumilus AND Paenibacillus sp.

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    Patrícia Lopes de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of manganese peroxidase (MnP from Bacillus pumilus and Paenibacillus sp. was studied under absence and presence of the inducers indulin AT, guayacol, veratryl alcohol, lignosulfonic acid and lignosulfonic acid desulfonated. Indulin AT increased the activity of B. pumilus MnP up to 31.66 U/L after 8 h, but no improve was observed for Paenibacillus sp., which reached maximum activity (12.22 U/L after 20 h. Both MnPs produced by these microorganisms were purified in phenyl sepharose resin and the proteins from crude extracts were eluted in two fractions. However, only the first fraction of each extract exhibited MnP activities. Tests in different pH and temperature values, from pH 5.0 to pH 10.0 and 30 ºC to 60 ºC, respectively, were carried out with the purified MnP. The maximum activity reached for B. pumilus and Paenibacillus sp. MnPs were 4.3 U/L at pH 8.0 and 25 ºC and 11.74 U/L at pH 9.0 and 35 ºC, respectively. The molar masses determined by SDS-PAGE gel eletrophoresis were 25 kDa and 40 kDa, respectively, for the purified enzyme from B. pumilus and Paenibacillus sp.

  17. Effect of Bacillus pumilus CCIBP-C5 on Musa-Pseudocercospora fijiensis interaction.

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    Cruz-Martín, Mileidy; Acosta-Suárez, Mayra; Mena, Eilyn; Roque, Berkis; Pichardo, Tatiana; Alvarado-Capó, Yelenys

    2018-02-01

    The effect of antifungal activity of culture filtrate (CF) of Bacillus pumilus strain CCIBP-C5, an isolate from a phyllosphere of banana ( Musa ) leaves, was determined on Pseudocercospora fijiensis challenged banana plants. The CF was shown to decrease the fungal biomass and induce changes in banana plant. In this sense, at 70 days post inoculation (dpi), a lower infection index as well as a decrease in fungal biomass after 6 dpi was obtained in treated plants with respect to control ones. At the same time, changes in the activities of several enzymes related to plant defense responses, such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chitinases, β-1,3-glucanases and peroxidases were observed. These results indicate that B. pumilus CCIBP-C5 has a potential role for biological control of P. fijiensis possibly due to the production of antifungal metabolites.

  18. Biochemical Characterization of a Thiol-Activated, Oxidation Stable Keratinase from Bacillus pumilus KS12

    OpenAIRE

    Rajput, Rinky; Sharma, Richa; Gupta, Rani

    2010-01-01

    An extracellular keratinase from Bacillus pumilus KS12 was purified by DEAE ion exchange chromatography. It was a 45?kDa monomer as determined by SDS PAGE analysis. It was found to be an alkaline, serine protease with pH and temperature optima of 10 and 60?C, respectively. It was thiol activated with two- and eight-fold enhancement in presence of 10 mM DTT and ?-mercaptoethanol, respectively. In addition, its activity was stimulated in the presence of various surfactants, detergents, and oxid...

  19. [A sepsis case caused by a rare opportunistic pathogen: Bacillus pumilus].

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    Borsa, Barış Ata; Aldağ, Mehmet Ersoy; Tunalı, Birsen; Dinç, Uğur; Güngördü Dalar, Zeynep; Özalp, Veli Cengiz

    2016-07-01

    The high prevalence of Bacillus species in nature and the detection of these bacteria as contaminant in cultures may lead diagnostic dilemma, however they should still be considered as a pathogen particularly in case of repeated positive cultures from patients with risk factors. Bacillus pumilus is a bacteria, though rarely, been reported as the causative agent of various infections such as sepsis, endocarditis, skin infections and food poisoning in human. In this report, a sepsis case in an immunocompetent patient caused by B.pumilus was presented. A 38-year-old female patient was admitted to emergency service of our hospital with the complaints of headache, dizziness and diarrhea. She had not any risk factors except a history of heart valve replacement operation two years ago. In physical examination, she had abdominal retention, high fever and hypotension, together with the high levels of sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The patient was hospitalized with the preliminary diagnosis of sepsis. Three sets of blood samples at two different periods were taken for the culture. All blood culture vials had a positive signal at the second day of incubation in BD BACTEC™ 9050 system, therefore subcultures were performed in sheep blood agar, chocolate agar and MacConkey agar, and incubated in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Beta-haemolytic, gray-colored large colonies were isolated from anaerobic culture at the end of 18-24 hours incubation, and Gram staining from colonies showed gram-positive rods. The isolate was identified as B.pumilus with 99% accuracy rate by using BD Phoenix™ 100 identification system. This result was also confirmed by MALDI-TOF based VITEK® MS system and 16S rRNA sequencing by Illumina MiSeq® platform. Antibiotic susceptibility test performed by BD Phoenix™ 100 system and the isolate was found to be resistant against penicillin, while it was susceptible to vancomycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, levofloxacin, and

  20. Proteomics study of extracellular fibrinolytic proteases from Bacillus licheniformis RO3 and Bacillus pumilus 2.g isolated from Indonesian fermented food

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    Nur Afifah, Diana; Rustanti, Ninik; Anjani, Gemala; Syah, Dahrul; Yanti; Suhartono, Maggy T.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the proteomics study which includes separation, identification and characterization of proteins. The experiment on Indonesian fermented food such as extracellular fibrinolytic protease from Bacillus licheniformis RO3 and Bacillus pumilus 2.g isolated from red oncom and tempeh gembus was conducted. The experimental works comprise the following steps: (1) a combination of one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis, (2) mass spectrometry analysis using MALDI-TOF-MS and (3) investigation using protein database. The result suggested that there were new two protein fractions of B. licheniformis RO3 and three protein fractions of B. pumilus 2.g. These result has not been previously reported.

  1. ABILITY OF BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM: Bacillus coagulans, Bacilus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Nitrosomonas sp. and Pseudomonas putida IN BIOREMEDIATION OF WASTE WATER IN CISIRUNG WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT

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    Ratu SAFITRI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine the ability of bacterial consortium: Bacillus coagulans, Bacilus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Nitrosomonas sp., and Pseudomonas putida in bioremediation of wastewater origin Cisirung WWTP. This study uses an experimental method completely randomized design (CRD, which consists of two treatment factors (8x8 factorial design. The first factor is a consortium of bacteria (K, consisting of 8 level factors (k1, k2, k3, k4, k5, k6, k7, and k8. The second factor is the time (T, consisting of a 7 level factors (t0, t1, t2, t3, t4, t5, t6, and t7. Test parameters consist of BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand, TSS (Total Suspended Solid, Ammonia and Population of Microbes during bioremediation. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, followed by Duncan test. The results of this study showed that the consortium of Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Nitrosomonas sp., and Pseudomonas putida with inoculum concentration of 5% (k6 is a consortium of the most effective in reducing BOD 71.93%, 64.30% COD, TSS 94.85%, and 88.58% of ammonia.

  2. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model.

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    Haldar, Lopamudra; Gandhi, D N

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1) was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2) and (T3) groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4) was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat) were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed. The rats those (T2 and T3) received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (pBacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4) and the group fed only skim milk (T1). In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats.

  3. Structural analysis of Bacillus pumilus phenolic acid decarboxylase, a lipocalin-fold enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matte, Allan; Grosse, Stephan; Bergeron, Hélène; Abokitse, Kofi; Lau, Peter C. K.

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of phenolic acid decarboxylase from B. pumilus strain UI-670 has been determined and refined at 1.69 Å resolution. The enzyme is a dimer, with each subunit adopting a β-barrel structure belonging to the lipocalin fold. The decarboxylation of phenolic acids, including ferulic and p-coumaric acids, to their corresponding vinyl derivatives is of importance in the flavouring and polymer industries. Here, the crystal structure of phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) from Bacillus pumilus strain UI-670 is reported. The enzyme is a 161-residue polypeptide that forms dimers both in the crystal and in solution. The structure of PAD as determined by X-ray crystallography revealed a β-barrel structure and two α-helices, with a cleft formed at one edge of the barrel. The PAD structure resembles those of the lipocalin-fold proteins, which often bind hydrophobic ligands. Superposition of structurally related proteins bound to their cognate ligands shows that they and PAD bind their ligands in a conserved location within the β-barrel. Analysis of the residue-conservation pattern for PAD-related sequences mapped onto the PAD structure reveals that the conservation mainly includes residues found within the hydrophobic core of the protein, defining a common lipocalin-like fold for this enzyme family. A narrow cleft containing several conserved amino acids was observed as a structural feature and a potential ligand-binding site

  4. Degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) in Contaminated Soil Using Bacillus pumilus MVSV3.

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    Varma, Surendra Sheeba; Lakshmi, Mahalingam Brinda; Rajagopal, Perumalsam; Velan, Manickam

    2017-01-01

     A study on bioremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum sludge was performed using Bacillus pumilus/MVSV3 (Accession number JN089707). In this study, 5 kg of agricultural soil was mixed well with 5% oil sludge and fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (N:P:K). The treatment resulted in 97% removal of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in 122 d in bacteria mixed contaminated soil when compared to 12% removal of TPH in uninoculated contaminated soil. The population of the microorganism remained stable after introduced into the oil environment. The physical and chemical parameters of the soil mixed with sludge showed variation indicating improvement and the pH level decreased during the experiment period. Elemental analysis and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis revealed the bacterial ability to degrade oil sludge components. Growth experiments with Trigonellafoenumgraecum (Fenugreek) showed the applicability of bioremediated soil for the production.

  5. Activation and inactivation of Bacillus pumilus spores by kiloelectron volt X-ray irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Mai Hoa Ha

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the inactivation efficacy of endospore-forming bacteria, Bacillus pumilus, irradiated by low-energy X-rays of different beam qualities. The different low-energy X-rays studied had cut-off energies of 50, 100 and 150 keV. Bacillus pumilus spores (in biological indicator strips were irradiated at step doses between 6.5 to 390 Gy. The resulting bacteria populations were then quantified by a pour plate method. Results showed that X-rays of lower energies were more effective in inactivating bacterial spores. In addition, an increment in bacterial population was observed at doses below 13Gy. We attributed this increase to a radiation-induced activation of bacterial spores. Four kinetic models were then evaluated for their prediction of bacterial spore behavior under irradiation. This included: (i first-order kinetics model; (ii Shull model; (iii Sapru model; and (iv probabilistic model. From R2 and AIC analyses, we noted that the probabilistic model performed the best, followed by the Sapru model. We highlighted that for simplicity in curve fitting the Sapru model should be used instead of the probabilistic model. A 12-log reduction in bacterial population (corresponding to a sterility assurance level of 10-6 as required in the sterilization of medical devices was computed to be achievable at doses of 1000, 1600 and 2300 Gy for the three different X-ray cut-off energies respectively. These doses are an order in magnitude lesser than that required in gamma irradiation. This highlights the applicability of cheaper and safer table-top X-ray sources for sterilization application.

  6. Applicability of UV resistant Bacillus pumilus spore as a human adenovirus surrogate for evaluating the effectiveness of virus inactivation in low-pressure UV treatment systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data set includes UV dose, and Bacillus pumilus spore plate counts in colony forming units. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Boczek , L.,...

  7. Bacillus pumilus KatX2 confers enhanced hydrogen peroxide resistance to a Bacillus subtilis PkatA::katX2 mutant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handtke, Stefan; Albrecht, Dirk; Zühlke, Daniela; Otto, Andreas; Becher, Dörte; Schweder, Thomas; Riedel, Kathrin; Hecker, Michael; Voigt, Birgit

    2017-04-26

    Bacillus pumilus cells exhibit a significantly higher resistance to hydrogen peroxide compared to closely related Bacilli like Bacillus subtilis. In this study we analyzed features of the catalase KatX2 of B. pumilus as one of the most important parts of the cellular response to hydrogen peroxide. KatX2, the vegetative catalase expressed in B. pumilus, was compared to the vegetative catalase KatA of B. subtilis. Data of our study demonstrate that B. pumilus can degrade toxic concentrations of hydrogen peroxide faster than B. subtilis. By replacing B. subtilis katA gene by katX2 we could significantly enhance its resistance to H 2 O 2 and its potential to eliminate this toxic compound. Mutant cells showed a 1.5- to 2-fold higher survival to toxic concentrations of hydrogen peroxide compared to wild type cells. Furthermore, we found reversible but also irreversible oxidations of the KatX2 protein which, in contrast to KatA, contains several cysteine residues. Our study indicates that the catalase KatX2 plays a major role in the increased resistance of B. pumilus to oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide. Resistance to hydrogen peroxide of other Bacilli can be enhanced by exchanging the native catalase in the cells with katX2.

  8. Antifungal compound produced by the cassava endophyte Bacillus pumilus MAIIIM4a Composto antifúngico produzido pelo endófito de mandioca Bacillus pumilus MAIIIM4a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Mandolesi Pereira de Melo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the search for new organisms and new secondary metabolites, a study was conducted to evaluate the diversity of endophytic bacteria from ethnovarieties of cassava cultivated by Brazilian Amazon Indian tribes and also to study the secondary metabolites produced by a Bacillus pumilus strain. Sixty seven cassava endophytic bacteria were subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing and FAME analysis. The bacterial profile revealed that 25% of all endophytic isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus. The isolate B. pumilus MAIIIM4a showed a strong inhibitory activity against the fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium aphanidermatum and Sclerotium rolfsii. Secondary metabolites of this strain were extracted using hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate. Extracts were subjected to bioautography and LC/MS analysis, which allowed the identification of pumilacidin, an antifungal compound produced by B. pumilus MAIIIM4a. The bacterial endophytic localization was confirmed by cassava cell tissue examination using scanning electron microscopy.Na busca de novos organismos e novos metabólitos secundários, um estudo foi conduzido visando avaliar a diversidade de bactérias endofíticas de etnovariedades de mandioca cultivadas por tribos indígenas da Amazônia brasileira e também para estudar metabólitos secundários produzidos por Bacillus pumilus. Sessenta e sete bactérias endofíticas de mandioca foram identificadas através do seqüenciamento do gene 16S rRNA e por meio da análise de ácidos graxos (FAME. Essas análises revelaram que 25% de todos os endofíticos pertenciam ao gênero Bacillus. O isolado Bacillus pumilus MAIIIM4a apresentou forte ação inibitória contra os fitopatógenos Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium aphanidermatum e Sclerotium rolfsii. Os metabólitos secundários deste isolado foram extraídos do sobrenadante usando-se hexano, diclorometano e acetato de etila. Esses extratos foram utilizados nas análises de bioautografia e LC-MS, as quais

  9. Matrix Production, Pigment Synthesis, and Sporulation in a Marine Isolated Strain of Bacillus pumilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luccia, Blanda; Riccio, Antonio; Vanacore, Adele; Baccigalupi, Loredana; Molinaro, Antonio; Ricca, Ezio

    2015-10-21

    The ability to produce an extracellular matrix and form multicellular communities is an adaptive behavior shared by many bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis, the model system for spore-forming bacteria, matrix production is one of the possible differentiation pathways that a cell can follow when vegetative growth is no longer feasible. While in B. subtilis the genetic system controlling matrix production has been studied in detail, it is still unclear whether other spore formers utilize similar mechanisms. We report that SF214, a pigmented strain of Bacillus pumilus isolated from the marine environment, can produce an extracellular matrix relying on orthologs of many of the genes known to be important for matrix synthesis in B. subtilis. We also report a characterization of the carbohydrates forming the extracellular matrix of strain SF214. The isolation and characterization of mutants altered in matrix synthesis, pigmentation, and spore formation suggest that in strain SF214 the three processes are strictly interconnected and regulated by a common molecular mechanism.

  10. Effect of essential oil of Satureja hortensis against Bacillus pumilus, which cause of soft rot on some plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaşoǧlu, Fatih

    2017-04-01

    In this study, it is aimmed to be determined the antimicrobial effects of the essential oil in vitro conditions, extracted from wild forms of plant which is known as Satureja hortensis around the world and grows naturally at Erzurum province of Turkey against Bacillus pumilus isolates, which are the agent of Soft Rot for some fruits and vegetables. For this purpose, 18 isolates of B. pumilus which have been determined as the agent of Soft Rot in previous studies performed in plants such as potatos, onions, strawberries, melons and watermelons. As the positive control, Streptomycin antibiotics sold as ready produce were used. According to the obtained results, the essential oil have the antibactericidal effect of 19-29 mm against 18 isolates of B. pumilus. It has been observed that the antibiotics used as the positive control has the antibacterial effect of 16-22 mm. In conclusion, the essential oil has the lethal effect against 18 B. pumilus isolates which are agents of Soft Rot. It is assesed that these essential oil extracted from Satureja hortensis can be used against these Soft Rot pathogens.

  11. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopamudra Haldar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. Materials and Methods: An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1 was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2 and (T3 groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4 was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed. Results: The rats those (T2 and T3 received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (p<0.01 in fecal coliform counts and increase (p<0.05 in both fecal lactobacilli and Bacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4 and the group fed only skim milk (T1. In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. Conclusions: This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats.

  12. Acetoin catabolism and acetylbutanediol formation by Bacillus pumilus in a chemically defined medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijun Xiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most low molecular diols are highly water-soluble, hygroscopic, and reactive with many organic compounds. In the past decades, microbial research to produce diols, e.g. 1,3-propanediol and 2,3-butanediol, were considerably expanded due to their versatile usages especially in polymer synthesis and as possible alternatives to fossil based feedstocks from the bioconversion of renewable natural resources. This study aimed to provide a new way for bacterial production of an acetylated diol, i.e. acetylbutanediol (ABD, 3,4-dihydroxy-3-methylpentan-2-one, by acetoin metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: When Bacillus pumilus ATCC 14884 was aerobically cultured in a chemically defined medium with acetoin as the sole carbon and energy source, ABD was produced and identified by gas chromatography--chemical ionization mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the key enzyme leading to ABD from acetoin has not been identified yet at this stage, this study proposed a new metabolic pathawy to produce ABD in vivo from using renewable resources--in this case acetoin, which could be reproduced from glucose in this study--making it the first facility in the world to prepare this new bio-based diol product.

  13. Biochemical Characterization of a Thiol-Activated, Oxidation Stable Keratinase from Bacillus pumilus KS12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinky Rajput

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An extracellular keratinase from Bacillus pumilus KS12 was purified by DEAE ion exchange chromatography. It was a 45 kDa monomer as determined by SDS PAGE analysis. It was found to be an alkaline, serine protease with pH and temperature optima of 10 and 60C, respectively. It was thiol activated with two- and eight-fold enhancement in presence of 10 mM DTT and β-mercaptoethanol, respectively. In addition, its activity was stimulated in the presence of various surfactants, detergents, and oxidizing agents where a nearly 2- to 3-fold enhancement was observed in presence of H2O2 and NaHClO3. It hydrolyzed broad range of complex substrates including feather keratin, haemoglobin, fibrin, casein,and α-keratin. Analysis of amidolytic activity revealed that it efficiently cleaved phenylalanine → leucine → alanine- p-nitroanilides. It also cleaved insulin B chain between Val2- Asn3, Leu6-Cys7 and His10-Leu11 residues.

  14. Antibiofilm activity of Bacillus pumilus SW9 against initial biofouling on microfiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yu, Xin; Gong, Song; Ye, Chengsong; Fan, Zihong; Lin, Huirong

    2014-02-01

    Membrane biofouling, resulting from biofilm formation on the membrane, has become the main obstacle hindering wider application of membrane technology. Initial biofouling proves to be crucial which involves early stages of microbial adhesion and biofilm formation. Biological control of microbial attachment seems to be a promising strategy due to its high efficiency and eco-friendliness. The present study investigated the effects of a bacterium Bacillus pumilus SW9 on controlling the initial fouling formed by four target bacterial strains which were pioneer species responsible for biofouling in membrane bioreactors, using microfiltration membranes as the abiotic surfaces. The results suggested that strain SW9 exhibited excellent antibiofilm activity by decreasing the attached biomass of target strains. The production of extracellular polysaccharides and proteins by four target strains was also reduced. A distinct improvement of permeate flux in dead-end filtration systems was achieved when introducing strain SW9 to microfiltration experiments. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were performed to further ascertain significant changes of the biofouling layers. A link between biofilm inhibition and initial biofouling mitigation was thus provided, suggesting an alternatively potential way to control membrane biofouling through bacterial interactions.

  15. Bacillus pumilus ES4: candidate plant growth-promoting bacterium to enhance establishment of plants in mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Bashan, Luz E.; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav; Maier, Raina

    2014-01-01

    Three plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB; Bacillus pumilus ES4, B. pumilus RIZO1, and Azospirillum brasilense Cd) were tested for their ability to enhance plant growth and development of the native Sonoran Desert shrub quailbush (Atriplex lentiformis) and for their effect on the native bacterial community in moderately acidic, high-metal content (AHMT) and in neutral, low metal content natural tailings (NLMT) in controlled greenhouse experiments. Inoculation of quailbush with all three PGPB significantly enhanced plant growth parameters, such as germination, root length, dry weight of shoots and roots, and root/shoot ratio in both types of tailings. The effect of inoculation on the indigenous bacterial community by the most successful PGPB Bacillus pumilus ES4 was evaluated by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting and root colonization was followed by specific fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Inoculation with this strain significantly changed the bacterial community over a period of 60 days. FISH analysis showed that the preferred site of colonization was the root tips and root elongation area. This study shows that inoculation of native perennial plants with PGPB can be used for developing technologies for phytostabilizing mine tailings. PMID:25009362

  16. Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Guerra de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45 mN/m and the maximum production of crude biosurfactant was 27.7 and 5.7 g/l for vinasse and waste frying oil, respectively, in concentration of 5%. The critical micelle concentration (CMC results of 1.5 and 0.2 g/l showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant produced on both the substrates. The results showed that the alternative substrates could be used for the production of an efficient biosurfactant by B. pumilus. These properties have potential for industrial and environmental applications.

  17. Paddy Husk as Support for Solid State Fermentation to Produce Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganathan KAPILAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To optimize culture conditions for xylanase production by solid state fermentation (SSF using Bacillus pumilus, with paddy husk as support, solid medium contained 200 g of paddy husk with 800 mL of liquid fermentation medium [xylan, 20.0 g/L; peptone, 2.0 g/L; yeast extract, 2.5 g/L; K2HPO4, 2.5 g/L; KH2PO4, 1.0 g/L; NaCl, 0.1 g/L; (NH42SO4, 2.0 g/L, CaCl2·2H2O, 0.005 g/L; MgCl2·6H2O, 0.005 g/L; and FeCl3, 0.005 g/L] at pH 9.0 was applied. The highest xylanase activity (142.0 ±0.47 U/g DM] was obtained on the 6th day at 30°C. The optimized paddy husk to liquid fermentation medium ratio was 2:9, and the optimized culture temperature was 40°C. When commercial Birchwood xylan was replaced with different concentrations of corncob, xylanase production was maximized (224.2 U/g DM in the medium with 150 g/L corncob. Xylanase production was increased by sucrose, fructose and arabinose, whereas reduced by glucose, galactose, lactose and amylose. When organic nitrogen sources were replaced with locally available nitrogen sources such as groundnut powder or sesame seedcake powder or coconut seedcake powder or soy meal powder, the highest xylanase production (290.7 U/g DM was obtained in the medium with soy meal powder and 16.0 g/L of soy meal powder was the optimum (326.5±0.34 U/g DM. Based on the optimization studies, B. pumilus produced 2.3 times higher xylanase activity. The medium cost was reduced from 2 458.3 to 178.3 SLR/kg and the total activity which could be obtained from 1 kg of the medium was increased from 48 624 to 220 253 Units.

  18. Immobilized WO3 nanoparticles on graphene oxide as a photo-induced antibacterial agent against UV-resistant Bacillus pumilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Farshad; Rasuli, Reza; Jafarian, Vahab

    2018-04-01

    We present the antibacterial and photo-catalytic activity of immobilized WO3 nanoparticles on graphene oxide sheets. WO3 nanoparticles were immobilized on graphene oxide using the arc discharge method in arc currents of 5, 20, 40 and 60 A. Tauc plots of the UV-visible spectra show that the band gap of the prepared samples decreases (to ~2.7 eV) with respect to the WO3 nanoparticles. Photo-catalytic activity was examined by the degradation of rhodamine B under ultra-violet irradiation and the results show that the photo-catalytic activity of WO3 nanoparticles is increased by immobilizing them on graphene oxide sheets. In addition, the photo-degradation yield of the samples prepared by the 5 A arc current is 84% in 120 min, which is more than that of the other samples. The antibacterial activity of the prepared samples was studied against Bacillus pumilus (B. pumilus) bacteria, showing high resistance to ultra-violet exposure. Our results show that the bare and immobilized WO3 nanoparticles become more active under UV irradiation and their antibacterial properties are comparable with Ag nanoparticles. Besides this, the results show that although the photo-catalytic activity of the post-annealed samples at 500 °C is less than the as-prepared samples, it is, however, more active against B. pumilus bacteria under UV irradiation.

  19. Candidate genes that may be responsible for the unusual resistances exhibited by Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores.

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    Madhan R Tirumalai

    Full Text Available The spores of several Bacillus species, including Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 and B. safensis FO-36b, which were isolated from the spacecraft assembly facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, are unusually resistant to UV radiation and hydrogen peroxide. In order to identify candidate genes that might be associated with these resistances, the whole genome of B. pumilus SAFR-032, and the draft genome of B. safensis FO-36b were compared in detail with the very closely related type strain B. pumilus ATCC7061(T. 170 genes are considered characteristic of SAFR-032, because they are absent from both FO-36b and ATCC7061(T. Forty of these SAFR-032 characteristic genes are entirely unique open reading frames. In addition, four genes are unique to the genomes of the resistant SAFR-032 and FO-36b. Fifty three genes involved in spore coat formation, regulation and germination, DNA repair, and peroxide resistance, are missing from all three genomes. The vast majority of these are cleanly deleted from their usual genomic context without any obvious replacement. Several DNA repair and peroxide resistance genes earlier reported to be unique to SAFR-032 are in fact shared with ATCC7061(T and no longer considered to be promising candidates for association with the elevated resistances. Instead, several SAFR-032 characteristic genes were identified, which along with one or more of the unique SAFR-032 genes may be responsible for the elevated resistances. These new candidates include five genes associated with DNA repair, namely, BPUM_0608 a helicase, BPUM_0652 an ATP binding protein, BPUM_0653 an endonuclease, BPUM_0656 a DNA cytosine-5- methyltransferase, and BPUM_3674 a DNA helicase. Three of these candidate genes are in immediate proximity of two conserved hypothetical proteins, BPUM_0654 and BPUM_0655 that are also absent from both FO-36b and ATCC7061(T. This cluster of five genes is considered to be an especially promising target for future experimental

  20. Effective feather degradation and keratinase production by Bacillus pumilus GRK for its application as bio-detergent additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna Reddy, M; Sathi Reddy, K; Ranjita Chouhan, Y; Bee, Hameeda; Reddy, Gopal

    2017-11-01

    An effecient feather-degrading bacterium was isolated from poultry dumping yard and identified as Bacillus pumilus GRK based on 16S rRNA sequencing. Complete feather degradation (98.3±1.52%) with high keratinase production (373±4 U/ml) was observed in 24h under optimized conditions (substrate 1% (w/w); inoculum size 4% (v/v); pH 10; 200rpm at 37°C) with feathers as sole carbon and nitrogen source in tap water. The fermented broth was enriched with amino acids like tryptophan (221.44µg/ml), isoleucine (15.0µg/ml), lysine (10.81µg/ml) and methionine (7.24µg/ml) suggesting its potential use as feed supplement. The keratinase produced was a detergent stable serine protease and its activity was further enhanced by Ca +2 and Mg +2 . Bacillus pumilus GRK keratinase was successfully utilised as bioadditive in detergent formulations for removing the blood stains from cloth without affecting its fiber and texture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Degradation of proteins during the fermentation of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) by strains of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus for production of Soumbala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouoba, L.I.I.; Rechinger, K.B.; Barkholt, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To examine isolates of Bacillus subtilis and B. pumilus predominant in Soumbala for their ability to degrade African locust bean proteins (ALBP).Methods and Results: Agar diffusion test in casein and ALBP agar was used for screening of isolates. The profiles of water-soluble proteins and free...... amino acids (FAA) during the fermentation of ALBP by the Bacillus isolates were studied by SDS-PAGE and cation exchange chromatography. The profile of soluble proteins changed with the fermentation time and varied depending on the isolate. The quantity of total FAA and essential FAA such as lysine...... was increased sharply between 24 and 48 h of fermentation and differed among the isolates. Simultaneously, a pH increase was observed. Cysteine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine and phenylalaline appeared during fermentation.Conclusion: The Bacillus isolates studied degraded ALBP leading to a profile...

  2. Applicability of UV resistant Bacillus pumilus endospores as a human adenovirus surrogate for evaluating the effectiveness of virus inactivation in low-pressure UV treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have demonstrated the potential to use Bacillus pumilus endospores as a surrogate of human adenovirus (HAdV) in UV disinfection studies. The use of endospores has been limited by observations of batch-to-batch variation in UV sensitivity. This study reports on a pr...

  3. Purification and molecular characterization of subtilisin-like alkaline protease BPP-A from Bacillus pumilus strain MS-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, T; Otta, Y; Nakagawa, T; Watanabe, T; Niimura, Y; Tomizuka, N

    2006-03-01

    The present study was conducted by screening zein-degrading bacteria in an attempt to obtain zein-degrading protease. Soil bacteria were screened by formation of a clear zone on zein plates. Characterization of a zein-degrading bacterium indicated a taxonomic affiliation to Bacillus pumilus, and was named MS-1 strain. The strain produced two different types of extracellular proteases, BPP-A and BPP-B. In this study, we purified and characterized BPP-A because it exhibited a higher ability to hydrolyze zein than BPP-B. When casein was used as the substrate, the optimal pH for BPP-A was 11.0. In BPP-A, zein was better substrate than casein at pH 13.0, whereas casein was better one than zein at pH 11.0. The bppA gene encoded a 383-amino acid pre-pro form of BPP-A, and mature BPP-A contained 275 amino acid residues. It was concluded that BPP-A belonged to the subtilisin family. A zein-degrading bacterium assigned to B. pumilus produced two different types of extracellular proteases, BPP-A and BPP-B. BPP-A exhibited an ability to hydrolyze zein in an extreme alkaline condition. This is a first report on screening for zein-degrading micro-organisms. The subtilisin-like protease BPP-A is possible to utilize as an industrial enzyme for the production of zein hydrolysates.

  4. Molecular cloning, sequence and structural analysis of dehairing Mn(2+) dependent alkaline serine protease (MASPT) of Bacillus pumilus TMS55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Kalibulla Syed; Muniyandi, Jeyaraj; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2011-10-01

    Leather industries release a large amount of pollution-causing chemicals which creates one of the major industrial pollutions. The development of enzyme based processes as a potent alternative to pollution-causing chemicals is useful to overcome this issue. Proteases are enzymes which have extensive applications in leather processing and in several bioremediation processes due to their high alkaline protease activity and dehairing efficacy. In the present study, we report cloning, characterization of a Mn2+ dependent alkaline serine protease gene (MASPT) of Bacillus pumilus TMS55. The gene encoding the protease from B. pumilus TMS55 was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. This gene has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,149 bp that encodes a polypeptide of 383 amino acid residues. Our analysis showed that this polypeptide is composed of 29 residues N-terminal signal peptide, a propeptide of 79 residues and a mature protein of 275 amino acids. We performed bioinformatics analysis to compare MASPT enzyme with other proteases. Homology modeling was employed to model three dimensional structure for MASPT. Structural analysis showed that MASPT structure is composed of nine α-helices and nine β-strands. It has 3 catalytic residues and 14 metal binding residues. Docking analysis showed that residues S223, A260, N263, T328 and S329 interact with Mn2+. This study allows initial inferences about the structure of the protease and will allow the rational design of its derivatives for structure-function studies and also for further improvement of the enzyme.

  5. Effect of coexisting organic substances on radiation resistance of Bacillus pumilus spores suspended in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kigawa, Akiko; Tateishi, Tsuneo; Iso, Katsuaki; Kimura, Toshio; Mamuro, Tetsuo

    1987-01-01

    D values of B. pumilus spores suspended in water have been shown to increase in the presence of some coexisting organic substances. For elucidation of a mechanism or mechanisms involved in such a phenomenon, D-values of B.p. spores were examined by suspending them in aqueous solutions containing various concentrations of ethanol, glycerin, inulin and PVA. All these substances showed abrupt changes in D value at a narrow concentration range of 1 - 10 weight ppm. Solutions containing these substances at their lower limit concentrations and upper limit were prepared, sealed in incubator bottles leaving no air layer and irradiated at 0.7 Mrad with γ-rays. Winkler's method was used for the determination of oxygen concentrations in these solutions. The initial concentration of dissolved oxygen was 8.2 ppm. After irradiation, 3 - 5 ppm of oxygen remained in those solutions containing the lower limit (1 ppm), whereas only less than 0.5 ppm in those containing the upper limits, 2.5 ppm of ethanol, 5 ppm of PVA and 10 ppm each of glycerin and inulin. Therefore, the observed effect of coexisting organic substances on radiation resistance of B. pumilus can be explained by the so-called ''oxygen effect''. (author)

  6. Structural Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of a Biosurfactant Obtained From Bacillus pumilus DSVP18 Grown on Potato Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Gupta, Sonam; Al Ghamdi, Ahmad; Pruthi, Parul; Pruthi, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biosurfactants constitute a structurally diverse group of surface-active compounds derived from microorganisms. They are widely used industrially in various industrial applications such as pharmaceutical and environmental sectors. Major limiting factor in biosurfactant production is their production cost. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate biosurfactant production under laboratory conditions with potato peels as the sole source of carbon source. Materials and Methods: A biosurfactant-producing bacterial strain (Bacillus pumilus DSVP18, NCBI GenBank accession no. GQ865643) was isolated from motor oil contaminated soil samples. Biochemical characteristics of the purified biosurfactant were determined and its chemical structure was analyzed. Stability studies were performed and biological activity of the biosurfactant was also evaluated. Results: The strain, when grown on modified minimal salt media supplemented with 2% potato peels as the sole carbon source, showed the ability to reduce Surface Tension (ST) value of the medium from 72 to 28.7 mN/m. The isolated biosurfactant (3.2 ± 0.32 g/L) was stable over a wide range of temperatures (20 - 120 ºC), pH (2-12) and salt concentrations (2 - 12%). When characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, it was found to be a lipopeptide in nature, which was further confirmed by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (mass peak 1044.60) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies. Data showed that the isolated biosurfactant at the concentration range of 30 - 35 µg/ml had strong antimicrobial activity when tested against standard strains of Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Paenibacillus larvae. Conclusions: Potato peels were proved to be potentially useful substrates for biosurfactant production by B. pumilus DSVP18. The strain possessed a

  7. A functional endonuclease Q exists in the bacterial domain: identification and characterization of endonuclease Q from Bacillus pumilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Miyako; Ishino, Sonoko; Cann, Isaac; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2017-05-01

    DNA base deamination occurs spontaneously under physiological conditions and is promoted by high temperature. Therefore, hyperthermophiles are expected to have efficient repair systems of the deaminated bases in their genomes. Endonuclease Q (EndoQ) was originally identified from the hyperthermophlic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, as a hypoxanthine-specific endonuclease recently. Further biochemical analyses revealed that EndoQ also recognizes uracil, xanthine, and the AP site in DNA, and is probably involved in a specific repair process for damaged bases. Initial phylogenetic analysis showed that an EndoQ homolog is found only in the Thermococcales and some of the methanogens in Archaea, and is not present in most members of the domains Bacteria and Eukarya. A better understanding of the distribution of the EndoQ-mediated repair system is, therefore, of evolutionary interest. We showed here that an EndoQ-like polypeptide from Bacillus pumilus, belonging to the bacterial domain, is functional and has similar properties with the archaeal EndoQs.

  8. Histochemical response of `Grande naine' plants inoculated with M. fijiensis and Bacillus pumilus CCIBP-C5 cell free filtrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilyn Mena

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, interest has won biocontrol Mycosphaerella fijiensis with the use of microorganisms or their products. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the biochemical events involved in Musa- M. fijiensis-microorganism interaction, is still limited. The objective was to determine the histochemical response of `Grande naine' (Musa AAA plants inoculated or not with the pathogen in the presence of culture filtrate of Bacillus pumilus CCIBP-C5. For this, techniques that allow visualization of callose, superoxide anion, lignin and phenolic compounds in the early days post inoculation (dpi were used. As a result, at 6 dpi callose deposition were observed within the stomata in plants where the culture filtrate was applied regardless of the presence or absence of the pathogen. Furthermore, a blue halo was observed around stomas, indicative of the presence of superoxide anion. It was not possible to detect accumulation of lignin or phenolic compounds with the technique used. It was demonstrated the accumulation of biochemical compounds related to defense response of `Grande naine' plants to pathogen infection. Furthermore, it was shown that the plant responds in early infection with the use of bacterial culture filtrates. These results demonstrate the possible mechanism of induction of defense response in plants of Musa sp. in the presence of bacterial culture filtrate. Key words: Black Sigatoka, callose, lignin, phenols, superoxide anion

  9. An Alkaline Protease from Bacillus pumilus MP 27: Functional Analysis of its Binding Model towards its Applications as Detergent Additive

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    Mehak Baweja

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A proteolytic strain of Bacillus pumilus MP 27 was isolated from water samples of Southern ocean produced alkaline protease. Since protease production need expensive ingredients, an economically viable process was developed by using low cost carbon source, wheat straw, supplemented with peptone. This protease was active within temperature ranges 10˚C -70˚C at pH 9. This process was optimized by response surface methodology using a Box Bekhman design by Design Expert 7.0 software that increased the protease activity to 776.5 U/ml. Moreover, the enzyme was extremely stable at a broad range of temperature and pH retaining 69% of its activity at 50 ºC and 70% at pH 11. The enzyme exhibited excellent compatibility with surfactants and commercial detergents, showing 87% stability with triton X-100 and ̴ 100% stability with Tide commercial detergent. The results of the wash performance analysis demonstrated considerably good de-staining at 50ºC and 4ºC with low supplementation (109 U/ml. Molecular modeling of the protease revealed the presence of serine proteases, subtilase family and serine active site and further docking supported the association of catalytic site with the various substrates. Certainly, such protease can be considered as a good detergent additive in detergent industry with a possibility to remove the stains effectively even in a cold wash.

  10. An Alkaline Protease from Bacillus pumilus MP 27: Functional Analysis of Its Binding Model toward Its Applications As Detergent Additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baweja, Mehak; Tiwari, Rameshwar; Singh, Puneet K; Nain, Lata; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-01-01

    A proteolytic strain of Bacillus pumilus MP 27 was isolated from water samples of Southern ocean produced alkaline protease. Since protease production need expensive ingredients, an economically viable process was developed by using low cost carbon source, wheat straw, supplemented with peptone. This protease was active within temperature ranges 10-70°C at pH 9. This process was optimized by response surface methodology using a Box Bekhman design by Design Expert 7.0 software that increased the protease activity to 776.5 U/ml. Moreover, the enzyme was extremely stable at a broad range of temperature and pH retaining 69% of its activity at 50°C and 70% at pH 11. The enzyme exhibited excellent compatibility with surfactants and commercial detergents, showing 87% stability with triton X-100 and 100% stability with Tide commercial detergent. The results of the wash performance analysis demonstrated considerably good de-staining at 50 and 4°C with low supplementation (109 U/ml). Molecular modeling of the protease revealed the presence of serine proteases, subtilase family and serine active site and further docking supported the association of catalytic site with the various substrates. Certainly, such protease can be considered as a good detergent additive in detergent industry with a possibility to remove the stains effectively even in a cold wash.

  11. Use of Bacillus pumilus CBMAI 0008 and Paenibacillus sp. CBMAI 868 for colour removal from paper mill effluent Emprego de Bacillus pumilus CBMAI 0008 e Paenibacillus sp. CBMAI 868 para remoção da cor do efluente da indústria papeleira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Lopes de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus pumilus and Paenibacillus sp. were applied on the paper mill effluent to investigate the colour remotion. Inocula were individually applied in effluent at pH 7.0, 9.0 and 11.0. The real colour and COD remotion after 48h at pH 9.0 were, respectively, 41.87% and 22.08% for B. pumilus treatment and 42.30% and 22.89% for Paenibacillus sp. Gel permeation chromatography was used to verify the molar masses of compounds in the non-treated and treated effluent, showing a decrease in the compounds responsible for the paper mill effluent colour.Bacillus pumilus e Paenibacillus sp. foram aplicados separadamente no efluente da indústria papeleira a pH 7,0, 9,0 e 11,0, para verificação da remoção da cor e da DQO. As remoções da cor real e DQO após 48h a pH 9,0 foram, respectivamente, de 41,87% e 22,08% após o tratamento com B. pumilus e 42,30% e 22,89% após tratamento com Paenibacillus sp. As massas molares dos compostos presentes no efluente não tratado e tratado foram determinadas por cromatografia de permeação em gel. O emprego dos microrganismos reduziu os compostos responsáveis pela cor do efluente da indústria papeleira.

  12. Evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles derived from fungi against endo-perio pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacillus pumilus, and Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkai, Kiran Rahul; Mudda, Jayashree A.; Shivanna, Vasundhara; Rathod, Vandana; Halkai, Rahul S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Even after rapid progress in contemporary dental practice, we encounter the failures due to endodontic, periodontal, or combined lesions. Complex anatomy of tooth and resistant microbes demands the development of new treatment strategies. Aim: The aim of this study is to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using fungi and determine the antibacterial efficacy against Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacillus pumilus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Fungi isolated from healthy leaves of Withania somnifera were used to biosynthesize AgNPs. The biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by different methods, and antibacterial efficacy was evaluated by agar well diffusion method measuring the zone of inhibition. Test microorganisms were divided as Group 1: B. pumilus 27142 (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC]), Group 2: E. faecalis 29212 (ATCC), and Group 3: P. gingivalis 33277 (ATCC). Agents used for antibacterial efficacy were grouped as: AgNPs: A (20 μl), B (40 μl), C (60 μl), D (80 μl), E (100 μl), F (0.2% chlorhexidine [CHX]), G (2% CHX), H (Ampicillin), and I (sterile distilled water). Results: Characterization studies showed the color change from colorless to reddish brown color; ultraviolet spectrum showed peak at 420 nm, transmission electron microscope revealed the particles spherical in shape and 10–20 nm size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of functional groups. Data collected for antibacterial efficacy were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's multiple shows no significant difference among three groups (P lesions. PMID:29430090

  13. Scale-up of an alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus MTCC 7514 utilizing fish meal as a sole source of nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rishikesh Kumar; Prasad, Dinesh; Sathesh, Jaykumar; Naidu, Ramachandra Boopathy; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu; Palanivel, Saravanan; Gowthaman, Marichetti Kuppuswami

    2012-09-01

    Fish meal grades SL1 and SL2 from Sardine (Sardinella longiceps) and NJ from Pink Perch (Nemipterus japonicas) were evaluated as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen in the medium for alkaline protease production by Bacillus pumilus MTCC 7514. The analysis of the fish meal suggests that the carbon and nitrogen contents in fish meal are sufficient to justify its choice as replacement for other nutrients. Protease production increased significantly (4,914 U/ml) in medium containing only fish meal, compared with the basal medium (2,646 U/ml). However, the elimination of inorganic salts from media reduced the protease productivity. In addition, all the three grades of fish meal yielded almost the same amounts of protease when employed as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Nevertheless, the best results were observed in fish meal SL1 medium. Furthermore, protease production was enhanced to 6,966 U/ml and 7,047 U/ml on scaling up from flask (4,914 U/ml) to 3.7 and 20 L fermenters, respectively, using fish meal (10 g/l). Similarly, the corresponding improvement in productivities over flask (102.38 U/ml/h) was 193.5 and 195.75 U/ml/h in 3.7 and 20 L fermenters, respectively. The crude protease was found to have dehairing ability in leather processing, which is bound to have great environmental benefits.

  14. Aqueous extracts of a Mars analogue regolith that mimics the Phoenix landing site do not inhibit spore germination or growth of model spacecraft contaminants Bacillus subtilis 168 and Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Wayne L.; McCoy, Lashelle E.; Kerney, Krystal R.; Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2012-08-01

    Because Mars is a primary target for life detection and habitability assessment missions, its exploration is also by necessity a Planetary Protection issue. The recent finding of significant levels of perchlorate (ClO4-) in regolith sampled from the Phoenix landing site raises the question of its potential biotoxicity to putative indigenous martian life, microbial forward contaminants from Earth, or future human visitors. To address this issue, an analogue regolith was constructed based on regolith chemistry data from the Phoenix landing site. A Mars Aqueous Regolith Extract (MARE) was prepared from the Phoenix analogue regolith and analyzed by ion chromatography. The MARE contained (mg/L) the cations Na+ (1411 ± 181), Mg2+ (1051 ± 160), Ca2+ (832 ± 125), and K+ (261 ± 29), and the anions SO42-(5911±993), ClO4-(5316±1767), Cl(171±25) and F- (2.0 ± 0.4). Nitrogen-containing species NO3-(773±113) and NO2-(6.9±2.3) were also present as a result of regolith preparation procedures, but their relevance to Mars is at present unknown. The MARE was tested for potential toxic effects on two model spacecraft contaminants, the spore-forming bacteria Bacillus subtilis strain 168 and Bacillus pumilus strain SAFR-032. In B. subtilis, spore germination and initial vegetative growth (up to ˜5 h) was not inhibited in a rich complex medium prepared with the MARE, but growth after 5 h was significantly suppressed in medium prepared using the MARE. Both B. subtilis and B. pumilus exhibited significantly higher rates of spore germination and growth in the MARE vs. DW with no additions (likely due to endogenous spore nutrients), but germination and growth was further stimulated by addition of glucose and a combination of buffered inorganic salts (K2HPO4, KH2PO4, (NH4)2SO4, and MgSO4). The data indicate that the aqueous environment in the regolith from the Phoenix landing site containing high levels of perchlorate does not pose a significant barrier to growth of putative

  15. Sugarcane bagasse as support for immobilization of Bacillus pumilus HZ-2 and its use in bioremediation of mesotrione-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Chen, Shaohua; Ding, Jie; Xiao, Ying; Han, Haitao; Zhong, Guohua

    2015-12-01

    The degrading microorganisms isolated from environment usually fail to degrade pollutants when used for bioremediation of contaminated soils; thus, additional treatments are needed to enhance biodegradation. In the present study, the potential of sugarcane bagasse as bacteria-immobilizing support was investigated in mesotrione biodegradation. A novel isolate Bacillus pumilus HZ-2 was applied in bacterial immobilization, which was capable of degrading over 95 % of mesotrione at initial concentrations ranging from 25 to 200 mg L(-1) within 4 days in flask-shaking tests. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that the bacterial cells were strongly absorbed and fully dispersed on bagasse surface after immobilization. Specially, 86.5 and 82.9 % of mesotrione was eliminated by bacteria immobilized on bagasse of 100 and 60 mesh, respectively, which indicated that this immobilization was able to maintain a high degrading activity of the bacteria. Analysis of the degradation products determined 2-amino-4-methylsulfonylbenzoic acid (AMBA) and 4-methylsulfonyl-2-nitrobenzoic acid (MNBA) as the main metabolites in the biodegradation pathway of mesotrione. In the sterile soil, approximately 90 % of mesotrione was degraded after supplementing 5.0 % of molasses in bacteria-bagasse composite, which greatly enhanced microbial adaptability and growth in the soil environment. In the field tests, over 75 % of mesotrione in soil was degraded within 14 days. The immobilized preparation demonstrated that mesotrione could be degraded at a wide range of pH values (5.0-8.0) and temperatures (25-35 °C), especially at low concentrations of mesotrione (5 to 20 mg kg(-1)). These results showed that sugarcane bagasse might be a good candidate as bacteria-immobilizing support to enhance mesotrione degradation by Bacillus p. HZ-2 in contaminated soils.

  16. BpuAmI: a novel SacI neoschizomer from Bacillus pumilus discovered in an isolate from Amazon Basin, recognizing 5'-GAG¯CTC-3' BpuAmI: um novo neoesquisomero de SacI de Bacillus pumilus descoberta em um isolado oriundo da Bacia Amazônica, reconhecendo 5'-GAG¯CTC-3'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelei M. Chies

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Bacillus pumilus was isolated and identified from water samples collected from a small affluent of the Amazon River. Type II restriction endonuclease activity was detected in these bacteria. The enzyme was purified and the molecular weight of the native protein estimated by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH, temperature and salt requirements were determined. Quality control assays showed the complete absence of "nonspecific nucleases." Restriction cleavage analysis and DNA sequencing of restriction fragments allowed the unequivocal demonstration of 5´GAG¯CTC3´ as the recognition sequence. This enzyme was named BpuAmI and is apparently a neoschizomer of the prototype restriction endonuclease SacI. This is the first report of an isoschizomer and/or neoschizomer of the prototype SacI identified in the genus Bacillus.Uma linhagem de Bacillus pumilus foi isolada e identificada de amostras de águas coletadas em um pequeno Igarapé do Rio Amazonas. Foi detectada atividade de restrição do tipo II nesta bactéria. A enzima foi purificada e o peso molecular da proteína nativa foi estimado por gel filtração e por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida. Foram determinados, o pH e temperatura ótimos e as necessidades de sais. Os ensaios do controle de qualidade mostraram uma ausência completa de "nucleases não específicas". As analises das clivagens e o seqüenciamento do DNA dos fragmentos de restrição permitiram uma demonstração inequívoca de que 5´GAG¯CTC 3´ é a seqüência de reconhecimento da enzima. Esta enzima foi denominada de BpuAmI e aparentemente é um neoesquisômero da enzima protótipo SacI. Este é o primeiro relato de um isoesquisômero e/ou neoesquisômero da enzima protótipo SacI identificada no gênero Bacillus.

  17. Preservation of Bacillus pumilus PU4-2 xylanases by immobilization technique into pollard and cation addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Haryati

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of by-product from agriculture as alternative source of feedstuff has been widely practiced. However their usage is limited due to high fiber content and low nutrient digestibility. The use of specific hydrolizing enzymes, xylanases are gaining importance because of their wide application in various industrial sectors especially in bioconversion of hemicellulosic material. This experiment was done to evaluate the effect of cation addition and immobilization of enzyme into pollard on stability of B. pumilus xylanase. The enzyme extract was purified by precipitation with 75% ammonium sulphate. Four kinds of cation (Ca2+, Fe3+, Mg2+, Zn2+ were added to the purified enzyme, at concentration of 1m M and stored at 4 and 27˚C. For immobilization process, the optimum enzyme concentration that will be added to pollard has been evaluated by analysis of xylanase activity and their recovery. The specific activity of enzyme after precipitation increased 1.8 times, from 420.3 to 765.2 U/mg protein. All cations act as activator which relative activity become 130.6; 139.0; 103.8 and 163.5% respectively. Concentration of 0.5mM Ca2+ and Fe3+ were most able to keep xylanases activity stable at 4˚C. The optimum composition of enzymes and pollard was 1.5 ml for 5 gram of pollard with recovery of xylanases activity of 82.2%. In immobilized enzyme, the activity of enzyme without cation addition is higher than that with addition of Ca2+ and Fe3+. Activity of enzyme stored at 4˚C is more stable than that at 27˚C. Immobilized enzyme is more stable for storage, which lasted for 7 weeks at 27˚C and 12 weeks at 4˚C compared to liquid enzyme which lasted for only 7 days at 27˚C and 13 days at 4˚C.

  18. Catalytic versatility of Bacillus pumilus β-xylosidase: glycosyl transfer and hydrolysis promoted with α- and β-D-xylosyl fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasumi, T.; Tsumuraya, Y.; Brewer, C.F.; Kersters-Hilderson, H.; Claeyssens, M.; Hehre, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus β-xylosidase, an enzyme considered restricted to hydrolyzing a narrow range of β-D-xylosidic substrates with inversion of configuration, was found to catalyze different stereochemical, essentially irreversible, glycosylation reactions with α- and β-D-xylopyranosyl fluoride. The enzyme promoted the hydrolysis of β-D-xylopyranosyl fluoride at a high rate, V = 6.25 μmol min -1 mg -1 at 0 0 C, in a reaction that obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. In contrast, its action upon α-D-xylopyranosyl fluoride was slow and characterized by an unusual relation between the rate of fluoride release and the substrate concentration, suggesting the possible need for two substrate molecules to be bound at the active center in order for reaction to occur. Moreover, 1 H NMR spectra of a digest of α-D-xylosyl fluoride showed the substrate to be specifically converted to α-D-xylose by the enzyme. The observed retention of configuration is not consistent with direct hydrolysis by this inverting enzyme but is strongly indicative of the occurrence of two successive inverting reactions: xylosyl transfer from α-D-xylosyl fluoride to form a β-D-xylosidic product, followed by hydrolysis of the latter to produce α-D-xylose. The transient intermediate product formed enzymically from α-D-xylosyl fluoride in the presence of [ 14 C]xylose was isolated and shown by its specific radioactivity and 1 H NMR spectrum as well as by methylatino and enzymic analyses to be 4-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-D-xylopyranose containing one [ 14 C]xylose residue

  19. The combined effect of pasteurization intensity, water activity, pH and incubation temperature on the survival and outgrowth of spores of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus in artificial media and food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samapundo, S; Heyndrickx, M; Xhaferi, R; de Baenst, I; Devlieghere, F

    2014-07-02

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the combined effects of pasteurization intensity (no heat treatment and 10 min at 70, 80 and 90 °C), water activity (aw) (0.960-0.990), pH (5.5-7.0) and storage temperature (7 and 10 °C) on the survival and outgrowth of psychrotolerant spores of Bacillus cereus FF119b and Bacillus pumilus FF128a. The experiments were performed in both artificial media and a validation was performed on real food products (cream, béchamel sauce and mixed vegetable soup). It was determined that in general, heat treatments of 10 min at 70 °C or 80 °C activated the spores of both B. cereus FF119b and B. pumilus FF128a, resulting in faster outgrowth compared to native (non-heat treated) spores. A pasteurization treatment of 10 min at 90 °C generally resulted in the longest lag periods before outgrowth of both isolates. Some of the spores were inactivated by this heat treatment, with more inactivation being observed the lower the pH value of the heating medium. Despite this, it was also observed that under some conditions the remaining (surviving) spores were actually activated as their outgrowth took place after a shorter period of time compared to native non-heated spores. While the response of B. cereus FF119b to the pasteurization intensity in cream and béchamel sauce was similar to the trends observed in the artificial media at 10 °C, in difference, outgrowth was only observed at 7 °C in both products when the spores had been heated for 10 min at 80 °C. Moreover, no inactivation was observed in cream or béchamel sauce when the spores were heated for 10 min at 90 °C in these two products. This was attributed to the protective effect of fat in the cream and the ingredients in the béchamel sauce. The study provides some insight into the potential microbial (stability and safety) consequences of the current trend towards milder heat treatments which is being pursued in the food industry. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. A novel Bacillus pumilus-related strain from tropical landfarm soil is capable of rapid dibenzothiophene degradation and biodesulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzanello, Elizandra Bruschi; Rezende, Rachel Passos; Sousa, Fernanda Maria Oliveira; Marques, Eric de Lima Silva; Loguercio, Leandro Lopes

    2014-10-08

    The presence of organic sulfur-containing compounds in the environment is harmful to animals and human health. The combustion of these compounds in fossil fuels tends to release sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere, which leads to acid rain, corrosion, damage to crops, and an array of other problems. The process of biodesulfurization rationally exploits the ability of certain microorganisms in the removal of sulfur prior to fuel burning, without loss of calorific value. In this sense, we hypothesized that bacterial isolates from tropical landfarm soils can demonstrate the ability to degrade dibenzothiophene (DBT), the major sulfur-containing compound present in fuels. Nine bacterial isolates previously obtained from a tropical landfarm soil were tested for their ability to degrade dibenzothiophene (DBT). An isolate labeled as RR-3 has shown the best performance and was further characterized in the present study. Based on physiological aspects and 16 s rDNA sequencing, this isolate was found to be very closely related to the Bacillus pumillus species. During its growth, high levels of DBT were removed in the first 24 hours, and a rapid DBT degradation within the first hour of incubation was observed when resting cells were used. Detection of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (HBP), a marker for the 4S pathway, suggests this strain has metabolical capability for DBT desulfurization. The presence of MgSO4 in growth medium as an additional sulfur source has interfered with DBT degradation. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that a Bacillus strain can metabolize DBT via the 4S pathway. However, further evidences suggest RR-3 can also use DBT (and/or its derivative metabolites) as carbon/sulfur source through another type of metabolism. Compared to other reported DBT-degrading strains, the RR-3 isolate showed the highest capacity for DBT degradation ever described in quantitative terms. The potential application of this isolate for the biodesulfurization of this sulfur

  1. Growth and (137)Cs uptake of four Brassica species influenced by inoculation with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus in three contaminated farmlands in Fukushima prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Han Phyo; Djedidi, Salem; Oo, Aung Zaw; Aye, Yi Swe; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

    2015-07-15

    The effectiveness of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus regarding growth promotion and radiocesium ((137)Cs) uptake was evaluated in four Brassica species grown on different (137)Cs contaminated farmlands at Fukushima prefecture in Japan from June to August 2012. B. pumilus inoculation did not enhance growth in any of the plants, although it resulted in a significant increase of (137)Cs concentration and higher (137)Cs transfer from the soil to plants. The Brassica species exhibited different (137)Cs uptake abilities in the order Komatsuna>turnip>mustard>radish. TF values of (137)Cs ranged from 0.018 to 0.069 for all vegetables. Komatsuna possessed the largest root surface area and root volume, and showed a higher (137)Cs concentration in plant tissue and higher (137)Cs TF values (0.060) than the other vegetables. Higher (137)Cs transfer to plants was prominent in soil with a high amount of organic matter and an Al-vermiculite clay mineral type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Growth and {sup 137}Cs uptake of four Brassica species influenced by inoculation with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus in three contaminated farmlands in Fukushima prefecture, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aung, Han Phyo [United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Djedidi, Salem; Oo, Aung Zaw [Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Aye, Yi Swe [Department of International Environmental and Agricultural Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh [Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Sekimoto, Hitoshi [Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University, 321-8505 (Japan); Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea, E-mail: skimura@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    The effectiveness of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus regarding growth promotion and radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) uptake was evaluated in four Brassica species grown on different {sup 137}Cs contaminated farmlands at Fukushima prefecture in Japan from June to August 2012. B. pumilus inoculation did not enhance growth in any of the plants, although it resulted in a significant increase of {sup 137}Cs concentration and higher {sup 137}Cs transfer from the soil to plants. The Brassica species exhibited different {sup 137}Cs uptake abilities in the order Komatsuna > turnip > mustard > radish. TF values of {sup 137}Cs ranged from 0.018 to 0.069 for all vegetables. Komatsuna possessed the largest root surface area and root volume, and showed a higher {sup 137}Cs concentration in plant tissue and higher {sup 137}Cs TF values (0.060) than the other vegetables. Higher {sup 137}Cs transfer to plants was prominent in soil with a high amount of organic matter and an Al-vermiculite clay mineral type. - Highlights: • PGPR inoculation did not enhance plant biomass of tested plants. • PGPR inoculation resulted in higher {sup 137}Cs concentration in plants. • Komatsuna that had larger root volume showed higher {sup 137}Cs TF from soil to plants. • Soil with high SOM and Al-vermiculite caused larger {sup 137}Cs transfer to plants.

  3. REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF CHAMAELEO PUMILUS PUMILUS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was concluded that several features of the reproductive biology of C. pumilus can be .... One group of each sex acted as a control and received daily injections of ...... placed great stress on the mother, and if she was not able to abort these ...

  4. The radiation-induced inactivation of microorganisms in non-aqueous suspension: The effect of selective alcohols and paraffins on the radiation sensitivity of aerated Bacillus pumilus spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.P.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of model compounds comprising alcohols and paraffins on the radiation sensitivity of B. pumilus spores has been studied with the aim of understanding the radiation-induced inactivation of microorganisms when suspended in non-aqueous medium. This study is a prerequisite to the undertaking of radiation sterilization of non-aqueous pharmaceuticals. Spores of B. pumilus E601 mounted on kaolin powder were suspended in the appropriate organic agent and gamma irradiated under oxic conditions. Spores suspended in paraffins displayed increased radiation response over that for aerated buffered suspensions. Values of inactivation constant ranged between 2 x and 5 x that for buffer. Less pronounced modification of response was obtained for the alcohols. The results reveal a marked tendency for response to increase with decreasing polarity of the supending fluid. The partial miscibility of the alcohols in water enabled the examining of the transition from the response characteristic of aerated buffered suspensions to those of the spores in pure organic liquids. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Growth and "1"3"7Cs uptake and accumulation among 56 Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica napus grown in a contaminated field in Fukushima: Effect of inoculation with a Bacillus pumilus strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djedidi, Salem; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Fifty six local Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa (40 cultivars), Brassica juncea (10 cultivars) and Brassica napus (6 cultivars) were assessed for variability in growth and "1"3"7Cs uptake and accumulation in association with a Bacillus pumilus strain. Field trial was conducted at a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, in Fukushima prefecture. Inoculation resulted in different responses of the cultivars in terms of growth and radiocesium uptake and accumulation. B. pumilus induced a significant increase in shoot dry weight in 12 cultivars that reached up to 40% in one B. rapa and three B. juncea cultivars. Differences in radiocesium uptake were observed between the cultivars of each Brassica species. Generally, inoculation resulted in a significant increase in "1"3"7Cs uptake in 22 cultivars, while in seven cultivars it was significantly decreased. Regardless of plant cultivar and bacterial inoculation, the transfer of "1"3"7Cs to the plant shoots (TF) varied by a factor of up to 5 and it ranged from to 0.011 to 0.054. Five inoculated cultivars, showed enhanced shoot dry weights and decreased "1"3"7Cs accumulations, among which two B. rapa cultivars named Bitamina and Nozawana had a significantly decreased "1"3"7Cs accumulation in their shoots. Such cultivars could be utilized to minimize the entry of radiocesium into the food chain; however, verifying the consistency of their radiocesium accumulation in other soils is strongly required. Moreover, the variations in growth and radiocesium accumulation, as influenced by Bacillus inoculation, could help selecting well grown inoculated Brassica cultivars with low radiocesium accumulation in their shoots. - Highlights: • Out of 56 Brassica cultivars, inoculation significantly increased shoot dry weight in 12 cultivars. • Inoculation triggered a significant increase and decrease in "1"3"7Cs uptake, respectively in 22 and 7 cultivars. • Five cultivars had an enhanced shoot dry weight and decreased "1"3"7Cs

  6. Biotechnological Potential of Agro Residues for Economical Production of Thermoalkali-Stable Pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 by Solid-State Fermentation and Its Efficacy in the Treatment of Ramie Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Chand Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of a thermostable and highly alkaline pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 was optimized in solid-state fermentation (SSF and the impact of various treatments (chemical, enzymatic, and in combination on the quality of ramie fibres was investigated. Maximum enzyme titer (348.0±11.8 Ug−1 DBB in SSF was attained, when a mixture of agro-residues (sesame oilseed cake, wheat bran, and citrus pectin, 1 : 1 : 0.01 was moistened with mineral salt solution ( 0.92, pH 9.0 at a substrate-to-moistening agent ratio of 1 : 2.5 and inoculated with 25% of 24 h old inoculum, in 144 h at 40°C. Parametric optimization in SSF resulted in 1.7-fold enhancement in the enzyme production as compared to that recorded in unoptimized conditions. A 14.2-fold higher enzyme production was attained in SSF as compared to that in submerged fermentation (SmF. The treatment with the enzyme significantly improved tensile strength and Young’s modulus, reduction in brittleness, redness and yellowness, and increase in the strength and brightness of ramie fibres.

  7. Efforts to identify spore forming bacillus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuleiha, M.S.; Hilmy, N. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

    1982-04-01

    Efforts to identify 47 species of radioresistant spore forming bacillus sp. isolated from locally produced medical devices have been carried out. The identifications was conducted using 19 kinds of biochemical tests and compared to species to bacillus subtilis W. T.; bacillus pumilus E 601 and bacillus sphaericus Csub(I)A. The results showed that bacillus sp. examined could be divided into 6 groups, i.e. bacillus cereus; bacillus subtilis; bacillus stearothermophylus; bacillus coagulans; bacillus sphaericus and bacillus circulans.

  8. Efforts to identify spore forming bacillus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuleiha, M.S.; Hilmy, Nazly

    1982-01-01

    Efforts to identify 47 species of radioresistant spore forming bacillus sp. isolated from locally produced medical devices have been carried out. The identifications was conducted using 19 kinds of biochemical tests and compared to species to bacillus subtilis W. T.; bacillus pumilus E 601 and bacillus sphaericus Csub(I)A. The results showed that bacillus sp. examined could be divided into 6 groups, i.e. bacillus cereus; bacillus subtilis; bacillus stearothermophylus; bacillus coagulans; bacillus sphaericus and bacillus circulans. (author)

  9. Enhanced performance of the microalga Chlorella sorokiniana remotely induced by the plant growth-promoting bacteria Azospirillum brasilense and Bacillus pumilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amavizca, Edgar; Bashan, Yoav; Ryu, Choong-Min; Farag, Mohamed A.; Bebout, Brad M.; de-Bashan, Luz E.

    2017-01-01

    Remote effects (occurring without physical contact) of two plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) Azospirillum brasilense Cd and Bacilus pumilus ES4 on growth of the green microalga Chlorella sorokiniana UTEX 2714 were studied. The two PGPB remotely enhanced the growth of the microalga, up to six-fold, and its cell volume by about three-fold. In addition to phenotypic changes, both bacteria remotely induced increases in the amounts of total lipids, total carbohydrates, and chlorophyll a in the cells of the microalga, indicating an alteration of the microalga’s physiology. The two bacteria produced large amounts of volatile compounds, including CO2, and the known plant growth-promoting volatile 2,3-butanediol and acetoin. Several other volatiles having biological functions in other organisms, as well as numerous volatile compounds with undefined biological roles, were detected. Together, these bacteria-derived volatiles can positively affect growth and metabolic parameters in green microalgae without physical attachment of the bacteria to the microalgae. This is a new paradigm on how PGPB promote growth of microalgae which may serve to improve performance of Chlorella spp. for biotechnological applications. PMID:28145473

  10. Unprecedented access of phenolic substrates to the heme active site of a catalase: substrate binding and peroxidase-like reactivity of Bacillus pumilus catalase monitored by X-ray crystallography and EPR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Peter C; Villanueva, Jacylyn; Switala, Jacek; Donald, Lynda J; Ivancich, Anabella

    2015-05-01

    Heme-containing catalases and catalase-peroxidases catalyze the dismutation of hydrogen peroxide as their predominant catalytic activity, but in addition, individual enzymes support low levels of peroxidase and oxidase activities, produce superoxide, and activate isoniazid as an antitubercular drug. The recent report of a heme enzyme with catalase, peroxidase and penicillin oxidase activities in Bacillus pumilus and its categorization as an unusual catalase-peroxidase led us to investigate the enzyme for comparison with other catalase-peroxidases, catalases, and peroxidases. Characterization revealed a typical homotetrameric catalase with one pentacoordinated heme b per subunit (Tyr340 being the axial ligand), albeit in two orientations, and a very fast catalatic turnover rate (kcat  = 339,000 s(-1) ). In addition, the enzyme supported a much slower (kcat  = 20 s(-1) ) peroxidatic activity utilizing substrates as diverse as ABTS and polyphenols, but no oxidase activity. Two binding sites, one in the main access channel and the other on the protein surface, accommodating pyrogallol, catechol, resorcinol, guaiacol, hydroquinone, and 2-chlorophenol were identified in crystal structures at 1.65-1.95 Å. A third site, in the heme distal side, accommodating only pyrogallol and catechol, interacting with the heme iron and the catalytic His and Arg residues, was also identified. This site was confirmed in solution by EPR spectroscopy characterization, which also showed that the phenolic oxygen was not directly coordinated to the heme iron (no low-spin conversion of the Fe(III) high-spin EPR signal upon substrate binding). This is the first demonstration of phenolic substrates directly accessing the heme distal side of a catalase. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. En vision for CBS?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Kommentar. CBS’ ry for at være et moderne Business University med forskere fra hele verden og forskningsmæssig dynamik faldt på gulvet. Udfordringen er nu at få samlet CBS forskere om en fælles vision.......Kommentar. CBS’ ry for at være et moderne Business University med forskere fra hele verden og forskningsmæssig dynamik faldt på gulvet. Udfordringen er nu at få samlet CBS forskere om en fælles vision....

  12. L-Glutamic acid production by Bacillus spp. isolated from vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogiri” (fermented vegetable proteins) in Nigeria. The isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis (6), (27.3%), Bacillus pumilus (5), (22.7%), Bacillus licheniformis (5), (27.3%) and Bacillus polymyxa (6), (22.7%). Four species of the Bacillus isolates ...

  13. Growth of Bacillus cereus isolated from some traditional condiments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth of Bacillus cereus isolated from some traditional condiments under different regimens. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... (fermented Prosopis africana seeds) and identified as B. cereus, B. subtilis, B. pumilus and B. lichenifomis.

  14. Inactivation of B. Pumilus spores by combination hydrostatic pressure-radiation treatment of parenteral solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.A.

    1975-01-01

    Bacterial spores are inactivated by moderate hydrostatic pressures. The radiation dose required to sterilize radiation sensitive pharmaceuticals can be considerably reduced using a combination hydrostatic pressure-radiation treatment. This paper describes a combination pressure-radiation sterilization process using Bacillus pumilus spores suspended in water, 0.9% saline, and 5% dextrose solutions. The optimum temperatures for spore inactivation at 35 MPa and the degree of inactivation at 35, 70 and 105 MPa applied for times up to 100 min have been determined. Inactivation was greatest in saline and least in dextrose. Spores in dextrose were only slightly less radiation resistant than in saline or water. It was calculated that the radiation dose required for sterilization could be halved with appropriate compression treatment. Examples of combinations of pressure-radiation suitable for sterilization are given. One combination is compression at 105 MPa for 18 min for a dose of 1.25 Mrad. (author)

  15. Induced resistance to hydrogen peroxide, UV and gamma radiation in bacillus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashandy, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    The catalase activity produced in four bacillus spp.(bacillus cereus, B. laterosporus, B. pumilus and B. subtilis (Escherichia coli was used for comparison) was measured and the sensitivity of these bacteria to hydrogen peroxide was tested. Bacillus spp. had higher resistance to hydrogen peroxide than E. coil. cultures of bacillus spp . When pretreated with sublethal level of hydrogen peroxide, became relatively resistant to the lethal effects of hydrogen than untreated control cultures. These pretreated cells were also resistant to lethality mediated by UV light and gamma radiation. The obtained results suggest that bacillus spp. Possess inducible defense mechanism (s) against the deleterious effects of oxidants and /or ionizing radiation

  16. Effect of Bacillus spp. on seed germination of selected species of the genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hadizadeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Cuscuta are annual angiospermic rootless and leafless (achlorophyllous parasitic plants. Bacillus is an example of PGPR bacteria exhibiting plant growth promoting activity. In this study the effects of bacterial suspension on germination of dodder’s seed has been determinated. Seeds of three Cuscuta species were collected from field for evaluating effects of three different Bacillus on its germination. Results show that seed germination of the C. monogyna and C. campestris is inhibited by all three bacterial species. Based on Tukey analysis, the highest inhibitory activity on seed germination of C. monogyna was shown with B. pumilus (68.88%; as well as C. campestris with B. megaterium (95.76% and B. pumilus (91.53%, whilst seed germination of C. europaea was almost identically inhibited by all three bacterial species. This paper reports the variable effects of Bacillus species on the seed germination of selected Cuscuta species.

  17. User's manual for CBS3DS, version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C. J.; Deshpande, M. D.

    1995-10-01

    CBS3DS is a computer code written in FORTRAN 77 to compute the backscattering radar cross section of cavity backed apertures in infinite ground plane and slots in thick infinite ground plane. CBS3DS implements the hybrid Finite Element Method (FEM) and Method of Moments (MoM) techniques. This code uses the tetrahedral elements, with vector edge basis functions for FEM in the volume of the cavity/slot and the triangular elements with the basis functions for MoM at the apertures. By virtue of FEM, this code can handle any arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional cavities filled with inhomogeneous lossy materials; due to MoM, the apertures can be of any arbitrary shape. The User's Manual is written to make the user acquainted with the operation of the code. The user is assumed to be familiar with the FORTRAN 77 language and the operating environment of the computer the code is intended to run.

  18. The use of biological indicators in radiosterilisation: I. Bacillus pumilus E 601

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbord, J.C.; Becel, D.

    1981-01-01

    The effective use of biological indicators in radiosterilisation designed by the French Pharmacopeia has been proved in several installations using accelerated electrons or γ-rays. No difference in efficacy has been noted in relation with the delivery of doses applied. The different possibilities opened up by these techniques, as well as the interpretation of the results obtained, are detailed, taking into account a four years experiment by the Hospitals' Central Pharmacy and its recent appointment as National Reference Laboratory [fr

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation on Bacillus pumilus E601, a biological indicator for irradiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, A.N.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental studies frequently rely on the use of substerilization treatment doses of irradiation to produce irradiated survivors. Eighteen substrains produced by single substerilization process treatments, visibly altered (nonmotile, no pellicle) at the time of isolation, were characterized. Of these, eight regained normal pellicle forming and motility ability. Three strains were asporogenous. Minimal alterations in enzymic functions were noted. Radiation resistance of sporulating strains varied in D 10 values of 0.30 +- 0.06 Mrad. Sporogenous and asporogenous strains needed amino acids not required by the parent. Of eight cultures isolated from production 60 Co sterilization (2.5 Mrad) biological indicator sterility tests, five showed no variation from the parent and three were non-motile and had altered colonial morphology and an increase in nutritional requirements from complete competence to synthesize all its amino acids (parent) to requiring six amino acids. Radiation resistance was not transferred from vegetative cells to their spores.(U.S.)

  20. Biochemical and molecular characterizaion of Bacillus pumilus isolated from coastal environment in Cochin, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvathi, A.; Krishna, K.; Jose, J.; Joseph, N.; Nair, S.

    products were separated on a 2% agarose gel, stained with ethidium bromide and photographed. Amplification profiles obtained were analyzed and a dendrogram was generated using BioNumerics version 4.6 software (Applied Maths, Belgium) 7 PCR...

  1. 78 FR 35147 - Bacillus pumilus Strain BU F-33; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ...'s e-CFR site at http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?&c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title40/40tab_02.tpl.... The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has exempted these types of actions from review under... processors, food handlers, and food retailers, not States or tribes. As a result, this action does not alter...

  2. Diversity of Protease-Producing Bacillus spp. From Fresh Indonesian Tempeh Based on 16S rRNA Gene Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tati Barus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tempeh is a type of traditional fermented food in Indonesia. The fermentation can be performed by Rhizopus microsporus as a main microorganism. However, Bacillus spp. is found in abundance in tempeh production. Nevertheless, information regarding the diversity of Bacillus spp. in tempeh production has not been reported yet. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to study the genetic diversity of Bacillus spp. in tempeh production based on the 16S ribosomal RNA sequence. In this study, about 22 of 24 fresh tempeh from Jakarta, Bogor, and Tangerang were used. A total of 52 protease-producing Bacillus spp. isolates were obtained. Based on 16S ribosomal RNA results, all 52 isolates were identified to be similar to B. pumilus, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. licheniformis, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. amyloliquefaciens, Brevibacillus brevis, and Bacillus sp. All the identified isolates were divided into two large clusters: 1 a cluster of B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, Bacillus sp., and B. brevis and 2 a cluster of B. pumilus, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. licheniformis, and B. amyloliquefaciens. Information about the Bacillus spp. role in determining the quality of tempeh has not been reported and this is a preliminary study of Bacillus spp. from tempeh.

  3. A Phosphate Starvation-Inducible Ribonuclease of Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Trung; Nguyen, Minh Hung; Nguyen, Huy Thuan; Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Le, Thi Hoi; Schweder, Thomas; Jürgen, Britta

    2016-08-28

    The BLi03719 protein of Bacillus licheniformis DSM13 belongs to the most abundant extracellular proteins under phosphate starvation conditions. In this study, the function of this phosphate starvation inducible protein was determined. An amino-acid sequence analysis of the BLi03719-encoding gene showed a high similarity with genes encoding the barnase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and binase-like RNase of Bacillus pumilus SARF-032. The comparison of the control strain and a BLi03719-deficient strain revealed a strongly reduced extracellular ribonuclease activity of the mutant. Furthermore, this knockout mutant exhibited delayed growth with yeast RNA as an alternative phosphate and carbon source. These results suggest that BLi03719 is an extracellular ribonuclease expressed in B. licheniformis under phosphate starvation conditions. Finally, a BLi03719 mutant showed an advantageous effect on the overexpression of the heterologous amyE gene under phosphate-limited growth conditions.

  4. Bacillus Coagulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus coagulans is a type of bacteria. It is used similarly to lactobacillus and other probiotics as "beneficial" bacteria. People take Bacillus coagulans for diarrhea, including infectious types such as rotaviral ...

  5. Antifungal activity of indigenous Bacillus spp. isolated from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić Dragana Đ.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol using plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR represents an alternative approach to disease management, since PGPR are known to promote growth and reduce diseases in various crops. Among the different PGPR, members of the genus Bacillus are prefered for most biotechnological uses due to their capability to form extremely resistant spores and produce a wide variety of metabolites with antimicrobial activity. The objective of this research was to identify antagonistic bacteria for management of the plant diseases. Eleven isolates of Bacillus spp. were obtained from the soil samples collected from different localities in the Province of Vojvodina. The antifungal activity of bacterial isolates against five fungal species was examined using a dual plate assay. Bacillus isolates exhibited the highest antifungal activity against Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae and Alternaria padwickii, while they had the least antagonistic effect on Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium graminearum. Molecular identification showed that effective bacterial isolates were identified as Bacillus safensis (B2, Bacillus pumilus (B3, B11, Bacillus subtilis (B5, B7 and Bacillus megaterium (B8, B9. The highest antagonistic activity was exhibited by isolates B5 (from 39% to 62% reduction in fungal growth and B7 (from 40% to 71% reduction in fungal growth. These isolates of B. subtilis could be used as potential biocontrol agents of plant diseases. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-31073

  6. Energy Balance of the Netherlands. CBS versus IEA, Eurostat and UNFCCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segers, R.

    2010-03-01

    The physical energy system of the Netherlands is described in the so-called Energy balance of CBS (Statistics Netherlands). The statistical office of Europe (Eurostat) and the International Energy Agency (IEA) also publish an energy balance of the Netherlands. They use data provided to these organizations by CBS. The main lines of these balances are the same as the CBS balance. Nevertheless, there are quite a number of differences, despite the use of the same basic data. [nl

  7. A 31 bp VNTR in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene is associated with reduced CBS activity and elevated post-load homocysteine levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lievers, K.J.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Heil, S.G.; Boers, G.H.J.; Verhoef, P.; Oppenraaij-Emmerzaal, D. van; Heijer, M. den; Trijbels, J.M.F.; Blom, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular defects in genes encoding enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism may account for mild hyperhomocysteinaemia, an independent and graded risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although heterozygosity for cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency has been excluded as a major

  8. A 31 bp VNTR in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene is associated with reduced CBS activity and elevated post-load homocysteine levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lievers, K.J.; Kluijtmans, L.A.; Heil, S.G.; Boers, G.H.J.; Verhoef, P.; Oppenraay-Emmerzaal, van D.; Heijer, den M.; Trijbels, F.J.M.; Blom, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular defects in genes encoding enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism may account for mild hyperhomocysteinaemia, an independent and graded risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although heterozygosity for cystathionine -synthase (CBS) deficiency has been excluded as a major

  9. Sterilization of Bacillus spores by converted X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ohki, Yumi; Watanabe, Yuhei; Sunaga, Hiromi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1991-01-01

    Relative sensitivities of endospores of Bacillus pumilus E601, B. subtilis IAM1069, B. megaterium S31 and B. brevis S5 to gamma-rays, converted X-rays (Bremsstrahlung), and electron beams were examined in order to estimate the conditions in which converted X-rays kill Bacillus spores. The radiation sensitivities to gamma-rays, X-rays and electron beams of each strain dried on glass fiber filter without additives were found to be almost equivalent, and D 10 values were obtained as follows: 1.5-1.6 kGy for B. pumilus, 1.4-1.5 kGy for B. subtilis, 1.9-2.0 kGy for B. megaterium, and 1.6-2.0 kGy for B. brevis. The radiation sensitivities of endospores of each strain to electron beams were slightly lower than those to gamma-rays in the dry condition with additives of 2% peptone + 1% glycerin on glass fiber filter. The increase of radiation resistance in the presence of additives was also observed with X-rays, and it was on an intermediate level between those with gamma-rays and electron beams. In the dry condition using cellulose filter paper, only the radiation resistances of B. megaterium and B. brevis in the presence of additives were increased. (author)

  10. Cbs (Contrastrain Based Schedulling Adalah Faktor Penentu Keberhasilan Perusahanan Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Achmadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In a highly competitive industry faces today ranging from small or home-based printing to using machine that can print offset a hundred thousand copies per hour. But, the increasing competition resulted in requiring a faster production time from order entry, print proff until the production process to delivery to customers. Often times in case of orders which will result in the concurrent PPIC will experience vertigo in the setting of production schedules which have concurrent delivery time. Often will end up with no receipt of orders due to difficulties in the production schedule, especially if the orders require the same offset machine and cylinder wear the same length, while the number of cylinders is limited. Therefore, the printing company should be able to do so in the conduct of a penetration timing of production can easily be simulated and implemented on the ground. CBS (Base Constraint scheduling is a technique to do the scheduling of production so that production can be carried out smoothly and quickly that fulfill the promise made to customers. In scheduling, there are several techniques that can be used are: FCFS (First Came First Serve, EDD (Earliest Date, and LCLS (Last Came Last Serve. So, it is required to be able to do way better scheduling to get results quickly in this fast changing schedules.

  11. Isolation and Identification of Bacillus Species From Soil and Evaluation of Their Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Bacillus species are the predominant soil bacteria because of their resistant-endospore formation and production of essential antibiotics such as bacitracin. Objectives The aim of this study was to isolate Bacillus spp. from riverside soil and investigate their antimicrobial characteristics against some pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods Fifty soil samples were collected from different sites of Bahmanshir riverside in Abadan city, Iran, and analyzed for the presence of Bacillus species. The media used in this research were nutrient broth and agar. Bacillus species were identified by their phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. The antimicrobial effects of Bacillus extract against the target bacteria including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae and Corynebacterium diphtheriae were examined. Results The identified Bacillus species included B. cereus (86.6%, B. subtilis (6.6%, B. thuringiensis (3.3%, and B. pumilus (3.3%. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the extracted compounds was carried out against five different bacteria. Antibiotic production tests indicated that two Bacillus strains belong to B. cereus, which showed antimicrobial properties. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of these compounds ranged between 8.34-33.34 mg/mL for the target bacteria. Conclusions This study indicated that some Bacillus species have the potential to produce antimicrobial compounds which can be used to control microbial infections.

  12. Analysis of MTHFR, CBS, Glutathione, Taurine, and Hydrogen Sulfide Levels in Retinas of Hyperhomocysteinemic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xuezhi; Navneet, Soumya; Wang, Jing; Roon, Penny; Chen, Wei; Xian, Ming; Smith, Sylvia B

    2017-04-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) is implicated in certain retinal neurovascular diseases, although whether it is causative remains uncertain. In isolated ganglion cells (GCs), mild Hhcy induces profound death, whereas retinal phenotypes in Hhcy mice caused by mutations in remethylation (methylene tetrahydrofolatereductase [Mthfr+/-]) or transsulfuration pathways (cystathionine β-synthase [Cbs+/-]) demonstrate mild GC loss and mild vasculopathy. The current work investigated compensation in vivo of one pathway for the other, and, because the transsulfuration pathway yields cysteine necessary for formation of glutathione (GSH), taurine, and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), they were analyzed also. Retinas isolated from wild-type (WT), Mthfr+/-, and Cbs+/- mice (12 and 22 weeks) were analyzed for methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), and cystathionase (CTH) RNA/protein levels. Retinas were evaluated for levels of reduced:oxidized GSH (GSH:GSSG), Slc7a11 (xCT), taurine, taurine transporter (TAUT), and H2S. Aside from decreased CBS RNA/protein levels in Cbs+/- retinas, there were minimal alterations in remethylation/transsulfuration pathways in the two mutant mice strains. Glutathione and taurine levels in Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- retinas were similar to WT, which may be due to robust levels of xCT and TAUT in mutant retinas. Interestingly, levels of H2S were markedly increased in retinas of Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- mice compared with WT. Ganglion cell loss and vasculopathy observed in Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- mouse retinas may be milder than expected, not because of compensatory increases of enzymes in remethylation/transsulfuration pathways, but because downstream transsulfuration pathway products GSH, taurine, and H2S are maintained at robust levels. Elevation of H2S is particularly intriguing owing to neuroprotective properties reported for this gasotransmitter.

  13. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a marine-derived Bacillus strain for use as an in-feed probiotic for newly weaned pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luz Prieto

    Full Text Available Forty eight individual pigs (8.7±0.26 kg weaned at 28±1 d of age were used in a 22-d study to evaluate the effect of oral administration of a Bacillus pumilus spore suspension on growth performance and health indicators. Treatments (n = 16 were: (1 non-medicated diet; (2 medicated diet with apramycin (200 mg/kg and pharmacological levels of zinc oxide (2,500 mg zinc/kg and (3 B. pumilus diet (non-medicated diet + 10(10 spores/day B. pumilus. Final body weight and average daily gain tended to be lower (P = 0.07 and feed conversion ratio was worsened (P<0.05 for the medicated treatment compared to the B. pumilus treatment. Ileal E. coli counts were lower for the B. pumilus and medicated treatments compared to the non-medicated treatment (P<0.05, perhaps as a result of increased ileal propionic acid concentrations (P<0.001. However, the medicated treatment reduced fecal (P<0.001 and cecal (P<0.05 Lactobacillus counts and tended to reduce the total cecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA concentration (P = 0.10. Liver weights were lighter and concentrations of liver enzymes higher (P<0.05 in pigs on the medicated treatment compared to those on the non-medicated or B. pumilus treatments. Pigs on the B. pumilus treatment had lower overall lymphocyte and higher granulocyte percentages (P<0.001 and higher numbers of jejunal goblet cells (P<0.01 than pigs on either of the other two treatments or the non-medicated treatment, respectively. However, histopathological examination of the small intestine, kidneys and liver revealed no abnormalities. Overall, the B. pumilus treatment decreased ileal E. coli counts in a manner similar to the medicated treatment but without the adverse effects on growth performance, Lactobacillus counts, cecal SCFA concentration and possible liver toxicity experienced with the medicated treatment.

  14. Identification and Pathogenic Potential of Clinical Bacillus and Paenibacillus Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Celandroni

    Full Text Available The soil-related Bacillus and Paenibacillus species have increasingly been implicated in various human diseases. Nevertheless, their identification still poses problems in the clinical microbiology laboratory and, with the exception of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, little is known on their pathogenicity for humans. In this study, we evaluated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS in the identification of clinical isolates of these genera and conducted genotypic and phenotypic analyses to highlight specific virulence properties. Seventy-five clinical isolates were subjected to biochemical and MALDI-TOF MS identification. 16S rDNA sequencing and supplemental tests were used to solve any discrepancies or failures in the identification results. MALDI-TOF MS significantly outperformed classical biochemical testing for correct species identification and no misidentification was obtained. One third of the collected strains belonged to the B. cereus species, but also Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated at high rate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that all the B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. simplex, B. mycoides, Paenibacillus glucanolyticus and Paenibacillus lautus isolates are resistant to penicillin. The evaluation of toxin/enzyme secretion, toxin-encoding genes, motility, and biofilm formation revealed that B. cereus displays the highest virulence potential. However, although generally considered nonpathogenic, most of the other species were shown to swim, swarm, produce biofilms, and secrete proteases that can have a role in bacterial virulence. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS appears useful for fast and accurate identification of Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains whose virulence properties make them of increasing clinical relevance.

  15. Growth and proximate composition of the Chaetoceros calcitrans f. pumilus under different temperature, salinity and carbon dioxide levels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghavan, G.; Haridevi, C; Gopinathan, C

    The marine diatom Chaetoceros calcitrans f. pumilus has been examined for its potential source as live feed in aquaculture. The present study investigated eíects of temperature (20,25 and 30 degrees C), salinity (25 and 35) and carbon dioxide...

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the Yeast Pachysolen tannophilus CBS 4044/NRRL Y-2460

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Kaas, Rolf Sommer; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2012-01-01

    A draft genome sequence of the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus CBS 4044/NRRL Y-2460 is presented. The organism has the potential to be developed as a cell factory for biorefineries due to its ability to utilize waste feedstocks. The sequenced genome size was 12,238,196 bp, consisting of 34 scaffolds...

  17. Genome sequencing and analysis of the versatile cell factory Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pel, Herman J.; de Winde, Johannes H.; Archer, David B.

    2007-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is widely exploited by the fermentation industry for the production of enzymes and organic acids, particularly citric acid. We sequenced the 33.9-megabase genome of A. niger CBS 513.88, the ancestor of currently used enzyme production strains. A high level...... clusters for fumonisin and ochratoxin A synthesis....

  18. Genome sequencing and analysis of the versatile cell factory Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, Herman J.; de Winde, Johannes H.; Archer, David B.; Dyer, Paul S.; Hofmann, Gerald; Schaap, Peter J.; Turner, Geoffrey; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Andersen, Mikael R.; Bendtsen, Jannick D.; Benen, Jacques A. E.; van den Berg, Marco; Breestraat, Stefaan; Caddick, Mark X.; Contreras, Roland; Cornell, Michael; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Danchin, Etienne G. J.; Debets, Alfons J. M.; Dekker, Peter; van Dijck, Piet W. M.; van Dijk, Alard; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; d'Enfert, Christophe; Geysens, Steven; Groot, Gert S. P.; de Groot, Piet W. J.; Guillemette, Thomas; Henrissat, Bernard; Herweijer, Marga; van den Hombergh, Johannes P. T. W.; van den Hondel, Cees A. M. J. J.; van der Heijden, Rene T. J. M.; van der Kaaij, Rachel M.; Klis, Frans M.; Kools, Harrie J.; Kubicek, Christian P.; van Kuyk, Patricia A.; Lauber, Juergen; Lu, Xin; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Meulenberg, Rogier; Menke, Hildegard; Mortimer, Martin A.; Nielsen, Jens; Oliver, Stephen G.; Olsthoorn, Maurien; Pal, Karoly; van Peij, Noel N. M. E.; Ram, Arthur F. J.; Rinas, Ursula; Roubos, Johannes A.; Sagt, Cees M. J.; Schmoll, Monika; Sun, Jibin; Ussery, David; Varga, Janos; Vervecken, Wouter; de Vondervoort, Peter J. J. van; Wedler, Holger; Wosten, Han A. B.; Zeng, An-Ping; van Ooyen, Albert J. J.; Visser, Jaap; Stam, Hein; Enfert, Christophe d’; Lauber, Jürgen; Goosen, Coenie; de Vries, Ronald P.

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is widely exploited by the fermentation industry for the production of enzymes and organic acids, particularly citric acid. We sequenced the 33.9-megabase genome of A. niger CBS 513.88, the ancestor of currently used enzyme production strains. A high level of

  19. CBS mutations and MTFHR SNPs causative of hyperhomocysteinemia in Pakistani children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shahnaz; Maqbool, Saadia; Azam, Maleeha; Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz; Qamar, Raheel

    2018-03-29

    Three index patients with hyperhomocysteinemia and ocular anomalies were screened for cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms. Genotyping of hyperhomocysteinemia associated MTHFR polymorphisms C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) was done by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Sanger sequencing was performed for CBS exonic sequences along with consensus splice sites. In the case of MTHFR polymorphisms, all the patients were heterozygous CT for the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C677T and were therefore carriers of the risk allele (T), while the patients were homozygous CC for the risk genotype of the SNP A1298C. CBS sequencing resulted in the identification of two novel mutations, a missense change (c.467T>C; p.Leu156Pro) in exon 7 and an in-frame deletion (c.808_810del; p.Glu270del) in exon 10. In addition, a recurrent missense mutation (c.770C>T; p.Thr257Met) in exon 10 of the gene was also identified. The mutations were present homozygously in the patients and were inherited from the carrier parents. This is the first report from Pakistan where novel as well as recurrent CBS mutations causing hyperhomocysteinemia and lens dislocation in three patients from different families are being reported with the predicted effect of the risk allele of the MTHFR SNP in causing hyperhomocysteinemia.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Animal and Human Pathogen Malassezia pachydermatis Strain CBS 1879

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, Sergio; González, Andrés; Ohm, Robin A.; Wösten, Han A. B.; de Cock, Hans; Restrepo, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis is a basidiomycetous yeast that causes infections in humans and animals. Here, we report the genome sequence of Malassezia pachydermatis strain CBS 1879, which will facilitate the study of mechanisms underlying pathogenicity of the only non-lipid-dependent Malasezzia species. PMID:26472839

  1. Heterologous expression and characterization of a new heme-catalase in Bacillus subtilis 168.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philibert, Tuyishime; Rao, Zhiming; Yang, Taowei; Zhou, Junping; Huang, Genshu; Irene, Komera; Samuel, Niyomukiza

    2016-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an inherent consequence to all aerobically living organisms that might lead to the cells being lethal and susceptible to oxidative stress. Bacillus pumilus is characterized by high-resistance oxidative stress that stimulated our interest to investigate the heterologous expression and characterization of heme-catalase as potential biocatalyst. Results indicated that recombinant enzyme significantly exhibited the high catalytic activity of 55,784 U/mg expressed in Bacillus subtilis 168 and 98.097 µmol/min/mg peroxidatic activity, the apparent K m of catalytic activity was 59.6 ± 13 mM with higher turnover rate (K cat = 322.651 × 10(3) s(-1)). The pH dependence of catalatic and peroxidatic activity was pH 7.0 and pH 4.5 respectively with temperature dependence of 40 °C and the recombinant heme-catalase exhibited a strong Fe(2+) preference. It was further revealed that catalase KatX2 improved the resistance oxidative stress of B. subtilis. These findings suggest that this B. pumilus heme-catalase can be considered among the industrially relevant biocatalysts due to its exceptional catalytic rate and high stability and it can be a potential candidate for the improvement of oxidative resistance of industrially produced strains.

  2. Improvement of the nutritional value and growth of rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis by different enrichment period with Bacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutia Budi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachionus plicatilis is a widely used as natural feed in hatchery. Characteristics of rotifers as biocapsule can improve the quality of rotifers in a practical way. Bacillus sp. is capable of improving the nutrition rotifers to produce vitamins, food detoxication or through enzymatic activity such as protease, lipase, and amylase. This research aimed at observing the influence of the enrichment length of Bacillus sp. on the quality of nutrition and growth of rotifers. The research container was a polyearbonate vessel of one ton volume which contained Nannochloropsis sp. with the density of 105 cell/mL, it was then scattered with rotifer with the density of 1,000 ind./mL. The types of bacteria used were Bacillus subtilis, B. pumilus and B. licheformis with the density of 2x1010 cfu/g. The experiments tried with different enrichment length were A = 0 hour, B = 5 hours, C = 10 hours and D = 10 hours with triplicate. As the comparing data, rotifer culture experiment was carried out with Nannochlorophsis sp.as the control. The number of containers were 24 which consists of 12 for threatment and 12 pieces as control. Variables measured were proximate to each treatment and the growth of rotifers. The result of the research revealed the enrichment length of rotifers with Bacillus sp. has significantly (P Key words: rotifers, Bacillus, enrichment period, proximate   ABSTRAK Brachionus plicatilis merupakan pakan alami yang banyak digunakan dalam pembenihan. Karakteristik rotifer sebagai biokapsul secara praktis dapat meningkatkan kualitas rotifer. Bacillus sp. mampu memperbaiki nutrisi rotifer dengan memproduksi vitamin, detoksikasi pangan maupun melalui aktivitas enzimatis seperti protease, lipase, dan amilase. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh pengkayaan Bacillus sp. terhadap kualitas nutrisi dan pertumbuhan rotifer. Wadah penelitian menggunakan bak fiber volume 1 ton yang berisikan Nannochloropsis sp. dengan kepadatan 105 cell

  3. Methodology for breakdown of the CBS statistics for domestic natural gas and electricity consumption and historical trends; Methodiek voor opsplitsing CBS-statistiek huishoudelijk gas- en elektriciteitsverbruik en historisch trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tigchelaar, C. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    From 2014 on Statistics Netherlands (CBS) is obliged to provide more detailed data on domestic energy consumption to the European statistical office Eurostat. It concerns a breakdown of the use of specific energy sources for space heating, water heating, cooking, cooling, lighting and other appliances [Dutch] Het CBS moet vanaf 2014 meer detailgegevens over het huishoudelijk energiegebruik aanleveren aan het Europees statistisch bureau Eurostat. Het gaat om een opsplitsing van het gebruik van specifieke energiedragers voor ruimteverwarming, warm tapwater, koken, koelen, verlichting en overige apparaten. ECN heeft het CBS ondersteund bij het ontwikkelen van een methode om deze opsplitsing te maken.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Sordariomycete Lecythophora (Coniochaeta) hoffmannii CBS 245.38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sabrina; Büttner, Enrico; Gebauer, Anna Maria; Hofrichter, Martin; Kellner, Harald

    2018-02-15

    Lecythophora ( Coniochaeta ) hoffmannii , a soil- and lignocellulose-inhabiting sordariomycete (Ascomycota) that can also live as a facultative tree pathogen causing soft rot, belongs to the family Coniochaetaceae. The strain CBS 245.38 sequenced here was assembled into 869 contigs, has a size of 30.8 Mb, and comprises 10,596 predicted protein-coding genes. Copyright © 2018 Leonhardt et al.

  5. ANALISIS PENGARUH KESUKSESAN IMPLEMENTASI CORE BANKING SYSTEM (CBS DENGAN BERBASIS MODEL DELONE DAN MCLEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiana Andarwati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCore Banking System (CBS is banking application system implementation to improve service customers, but whether the bank knew that CBS was categorized applied successfully or not.The purpose of theseresearch are determine the successful implementation of CBS using models DeLone and Mclean IS Success consisting of six variables are system quality , information quality, usage , user satisfaction , individual impact , and impact organizations. Test the hypothesis using the Partial Least Suare (PLS.The results of this study are the quality of the system on the intensity of use and user satisfaction are positive and significant,the quality of information on the intensity of use is positive and significant and then user satisfaction isnegative and not significant, the influence of the intensity of use of the employment impacts of individual positive and significant, user satisfaction to the impact of individual positivel and significant, the intensity of use of the user satisfaction the positive and significant, and the impact individual on the impact of the organizationis positive and significant. So, as to impact individual the best relationship of the impact organization 

  6. Improving cyanobacterail O2-tolerance using CBS hydrogenase for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maness, Pin-Ching [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eckert, Carrie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wawrousek, Karen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Noble, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennington, Grant [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Jianping [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-11

    Cyanobacterial H2 production is a viable path to renewable H2 with water serving as the electron donor and sunlight the energy source. A grand challenge is the sensitivity of the underlying hydrogenase to O2, the latter an inherent byproduct of oxygenic photosynthesis. This challenge has been identified as a technical barrier in the Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) Multi-year Research, Development and Deployment Plan. One solution is to express in cyanobacterium an O2-tolerant hydrogenase to circumvent this barrier. We have uncovered an O2-tolerant hydrogenase from a photosynthetic bacterium Rubrivivax gelatinosus CBS (Casa Bonita Strain; hereafter “CBS”) with a half-life near 21 h when exposed to ambient O2. We sequenced the CBS genome and identified two sets of maturation machineries hyp1 and hyp2. Transcripts expression analysis and mutagenesis revealed that hyp1 is responsible for the assembly of the O2-tolerant CO-oxidation (Coo) hydrogenase and hyp2 is involved in the maturation of a H2-uptake hydrogenase. The structural genes encoding the O2-tolerant hydrogenase (cooLXUH) and maturation genes hyp1FABCDE were therefore cloned and expressed in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. We obtained several recombinants displaying hydrogenase activity in a Synechocystis host lacking background activity, suggesting that the CBS hydrogenase is active in Synechocystis. Yet the activity is extremely low. To ensure balanced protein expression, we systematically optimized heterologous expression of 10 CBS genes by using stronger promoters and better ribosome binding site. Moreover we attempted the expression of cooM and cooK genes, verified to be important in CBS to afford activity. CooM is a very large protein and both CooM and CooK are membrane-associated. These properties limited our success in expressing both genes in Synechocystis, although they

  7. Characteristics of bacillus strains with antifungal activity against phytopathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Keun; Senthilkumar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Four bacterial isolates that showed antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata and other phytopathogens were isolates from bean rhizosphere. 16S rDNA analysis and phylogenetic relationship indicated that these isolates belong to Genus Bacillus. Isolate A1 clustered with Bacillus licheniformis while other isolates A2, A3 and A4 clustered together with B.pumilus. n-Butanol extract of these isolates strongly inhibited the growth of A. alternata while, chloroform extract of isolate A2 and ethyl acetate extract of A1,A3, and A4 inhibited the test fungus partially. All the isolates except A4 produced chitinase enzyme. None of the isolates solubilized mineral phosphate. Radiation sensitivity of isolates A1, A2, A3 and A4 were assessed and the LD 99 values are determined as 0.50, 6.69, 11,60, 1.53 kGy, respectively. Mutant libraries of each isolate were prepared by exposing them to gamma radiation at their respective LD 99 dose. Crude metabolite caused drastic changes on A. alternata hyphal morphology. Appearance of shrunken and collapsed hyphae could be due to the leak of cell wall or changes in membrane permeability

  8. Characteristics of bacillus strains with antifungal activity against phytopathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Keun; Senthilkumar, M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Four bacterial isolates that showed antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata and other phytopathogens were isolates from bean rhizosphere. 16S rDNA analysis and phylogenetic relationship indicated that these isolates belong to Genus Bacillus. Isolate A1 clustered with Bacillus licheniformis while other isolates A2, A3 and A4 clustered together with B.pumilus. n-Butanol extract of these isolates strongly inhibited the growth of A. alternata while, chloroform extract of isolate A2 and ethyl acetate extract of A1,A3, and A4 inhibited the test fungus partially. All the isolates except A4 produced chitinase enzyme. None of the isolates solubilized mineral phosphate. Radiation sensitivity of isolates A1, A2, A3 and A4 were assessed and the LD{sub 99} values are determined as 0.50, 6.69, 11,60, 1.53 kGy, respectively. Mutant libraries of each isolate were prepared by exposing them to gamma radiation at their respective LD{sub 99} dose. Crude metabolite caused drastic changes on A. alternata hyphal morphology. Appearance of shrunken and collapsed hyphae could be due to the leak of cell wall or changes in membrane permeability.

  9. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Bacillus Strains Isolated from Various Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Golnari Maranni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Prevalence extension of antibiotic resistant bacteria has raised concerns about control of infections especially nosocomial infections. Many attempts have been done to replace antibiotics or limit their use. The use of antimicrobial agents produced by bacteria as antibiotic replacement has been promising in recent years. The goal of this study was to isolate Bacillus strains and evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some standard pathogens and clinical antibiotic resistant strains. Materials and Methods: In the present study, Bacillus strains were isolated from various resources and identified by 16S rDNA PCR method. Then, the phylogenetic tree of the isolates was constructed and antimicrobial activity of the isolates was investigated against some standard pathogens and clinical antibiotic resistant strains using spotting and well diffusion methods. Results: Eight Bacillus strains were isolated from 15 different samples. Based on the molecular identification, the isolates were identified as B.pumilus, B.coagulans, B.licheniformis, B.endophitycus and B.amiloliquefaciens. The results showed that isolates have antimicrobial activity against meticilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin resistant enterococci, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria, Streptococcus and Escherichia coli. Conclusion: In this study, isolated Bacillus strains produced antimicrobial agents against pathogens and antibiotic resistant strains and inhibited their growth.

  10. Bacillus effect on the germination and growth of tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cabra Cendales

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to solubilize phosphate and to produce indole compounds Indole Acetic Acid type, was evaluated in 15 strains isolated from castor bean lignocellulosic residues (Ricinus communis. To determine the solubilizing activity of phosphates a qualitative test by using Pikovskaya culture medium was employed and for the evaluation of the production of indole compounds (IAA a Salkowsky colorimetric analysis technique was applied. Among the microorganisms tested, the Bacillus pumilus GIBI 206 demonstrated capacity to solubilize phosphates and Bacillus subtilis GIBI 200 showed of capacity to solubilize phosphates and to produce Indoleacetic Acid (IAA. To determine the effect of the Bacillus subtilis strain on germination and growth promotion, tomato seeds (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Santa Clara’ were inoculated; the inoculation of the seeds along with the microorganism revealed statistically significant differences, during the germination stage compared to the control treatment. Nevertheless, it revealed a positive influence on the development of tomato plants, originating a significant increase on the mass and length of its stem and root. The results of this research offer the possibility of using the Bacillus subtilis as a growth promoter in tomato seedlings and in the formulation of bio-products.

  11. Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS deficiency in Russia: Molecular and clinical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Voskoboeva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the 45-year clinical observation of 27 Russian homocystinuria patients. We made a mutation analysis of the CBS gene for thirteen patients from eleven unrelated genealogies. All patients except for the two were compound heterozygotes for the mutations detected. The most frequent mutation in the cohort investigated was splice mutation IVS11-2a->c. We detected one new nonsense mutation, one new missense-mutation and three novel small deletions. We also report the clinical case of the B6-responsive patient genotyped as Ile278Thr/Cys109Arg.

  12. Determination of cystathionine beta-synthase activity in human plasma by LC-MS/MS: potential use in diagnosis of CBS deficiency.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Krijt, Jakub

    2011-02-01

    Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency is usually confirmed by assaying the enzyme activity in cultured skin fibroblasts. We investigated whether CBS is present in human plasma and whether determination of its activity in plasma could be used for diagnostic purposes. We developed an assay to measure CBS activity in 20 μL of plasma using a stable isotope substrate - 2,3,3-(2)H serine. The activity was determined by measurement of the product of enzyme reaction, 3,3-(2)H-cystathionine, using LC-MS\\/MS. The median enzyme activity in control plasma samples was 404 nmol\\/h\\/L (range 66-1,066; n = 57). In pyridoxine nonresponsive CBS deficient patients, the median plasma activity was 0 nmol\\/ho\\/L (range 0-9; n = 26), while in pyridoxine responsive patients the median activity was 16 nmol\\/hour\\/L (range 0-358; n = 28); this overlapped with the enzyme activity from control subject. The presence of CBS in human plasma was confirmed by an in silico search of the proteome database, and was further evidenced by the activation of CBS by S-adenosyl-L-methionine and pyridoxal 5\\'-phosphate, and by configuration of the detected reaction product, 3,3-(2)H-cystathionine, which was in agreement with the previously observed CBS reaction mechanism. We hypothesize that the CBS enzyme in plasma originates from liver cells, as the plasma CBS activities in patients with elevated liver aminotransferase activities were more than 30-fold increased. In this study, we have demonstrated that CBS is present in human plasma and that its catalytic activity is detectable by LC-MS\\/MS. CBS assay in human plasma brings new possibilities in the diagnosis of pyridoxine nonresponsive CBS deficiency.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of merohedrally twinned crystals of MJ0729, a CBS-domain protein from Methanococcus jannaschii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Millán, Pablo; Kortazar, Danel; Lucas, María; Martínez-Chantar, María Luz; Astigarraga, Egoitz; Fernández, José Andrés; Sabas, Olatz; Albert, Armando; Mato, Jose M.; Martínez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Trigonal crystals of MJ0729 showing different degrees of merohedral twinning that may vary from perfect hemihedral twinning to perfect tetartohedral twinning were obtained upon slight variation of the pH. CBS domains are small protein motifs, usually associated in tandem, that are implicated in binding to adenosyl groups. Several genetic diseases in humans have been associated with mutations in CBS sequences, which has made them very promising targets for rational drug design. Trigonal crystals of the CBS-domain protein MJ0729 from Methanococcus jannaschii were grown by the vapour-diffusion method at acidic pH. Preliminary analysis of nine X-ray diffraction data sets using Yeates statistics and Britton plots showed that slight variation in the pH as well as in the buffer used in the crystallization experiments led to crystals with different degrees of merohedral twinning that may vary from perfect hemihedral twinning to perfect tetartohedral twinning

  14. Endurance and failure characteristics of modified Vasco X-2, CBS 600 and AISI 9310 spur gears. [aircraft construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1980-01-01

    Gear endurance tests and rolling-element fatigue tests were conducted to compare the performance of spur gears made from AISI 9310, CBS 600 and modified Vasco X-2 and to compare the pitting fatigue lives of these three materials. Gears manufactured from CBS 600 exhibited lives longer than those manufactured from AISI 9310. However, rolling-element fatigue tests resulted in statistically equivalent lives. Modified Vasco X-2 exhibited statistically equivalent lives to AISI 9310. CBS 600 and modified Vasco X-2 gears exhibited the potential of tooth fracture occurring at a tooth surface fatigue pit. Case carburization of all gear surfaces for the modified Vasco X-2 gears results in fracture at the tips of the gears.

  15. SECURITYTHREATS OF COMPUTERIZED BANKING SYSTEMS(CBS: THE MANAGERS’ PERCEPTION IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Malami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal control system is an important pillar in an organisation.Considering theevidence from major accounting fraud cases that occurred consequence to weakinternal control, such as Enron, it could also occur ina financial institution.Hence, the objective of this study is to investigate the bank managers’ opinion onthe likelihood of security threats in the computerised banking systems (CBS inMalaysia. Since most major financial institutions operate in the capital city ofKuala Lumpur, questionnaires were sent toselectedbank branches in KualaLumpur. The findings are expected to provide a platform for bank managers toshare their threats’ experience. Secondly, to assist them in designing andformulating a sound and effective internal control system that will providereasonable assurance for achieving the bank’s mission. Findings are also expectedto provide general insights of internal control system, as most information is veryremote and confidential, thus generate a platform for promoting an efficient andeffective internal control practice in financial institutions.

  16. Thermomyces lanuginosus CBS 395.62/b Strain as Rich Source of α-Galactosidase Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang D. Nguyen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen Thermomyces lanuginosus strains, cultivated on raffinose and sucrose, were ranked on the basis of α-galactosidase activities. T. lanuginosus CBS 395.62/b strain showed the highest α-galactosidase activity on both investigated carbohydrates. Several carbon sources were tested as potential inducers for the α-galactosidase synthesis. On melibiose substrate α-galactosidase activity was higher in the intracellular fraction than in the filtrate of the fermentation broth, although both values were very low and did not reach the value of 1 U/mL. Raffinose, sucrose and Lactosucrose® proved to be inducers for α-galactosidase production. The highest titer (about 30 U/mL was achieved on 1 % sucrose and 0.45 % ammonium acetate. The optimum sucrose and ammonium acetate concentrations, at which about 90 U/mL α-galactosidase activity was reached during an 8-day fermentation, were 3 and 0.9 %, respectively.

  17. CBS Genome Atlas Database: a dynamic storage for bioinformatic results and sequence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Peter Fischer; Ussery, David

    2004-01-01

    , these results counts to more than 220 pieces of information. The backbone of this solution consists of a program package written in Perl, which enables administrators to synchronize and update the database content. The MySQL database has been connected to the CBS web-server via PHP4, to present a dynamic web...... and frequent addition of new models are factors that require a dynamic database layout. Using basic tools like the GNU Make system, csh, Perl and MySQL, we have created a flexible database environment for storing and maintaining such results for a collection of complete microbial genomes. Currently...... content for users outside the center. This solution is tightly fitted to existing server infrastructure and the solutions proposed here can perhaps serve as a template for other research groups to solve database issues....

  18. BacillusRegNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misirli, Goksel; Hallinan, Jennifer; Röttger, Richard

    2014-01-01

    As high-throughput technologies become cheaper and easier to use, raw sequence data and corresponding annotations for many organisms are becoming available. However, sequence data alone is not sufficient to explain the biological behaviour of organisms, which arises largely from complex molecular...... the associated BacillusRegNet website (http://bacillus.ncl.ac.uk)....

  19. Host organisms: Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hohman, Hans-Peter; van Dijl, Jan; Krishnappa, Laxmi; Pragai, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis and its close Bacillus relatives are important bacterial platforms for industrial production of enzymes and fine chemicals such as vitamin B2 and nucleotides. B. subtilis is an attractive bacterial organism for industrial use mainly because of its straightforward genetic

  20. Long-term performance of thermoplastic composite material with cotton burr and stem (CBS) as a partial filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Cotton burr and stem (CBS) fraction of cotton gin byproducts has shown promise as a fiber filler in thermoplastic composites, with physical and mechanical properties comparable to that made with wood fiber fillers. However, the long-term performance of this composite material is not known...

  1. Association of a 31 bp VNTR in the CBS gene with postload homocysteine concentrations in the Framingham Offspring Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lievers, K.J.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Blom, H.J.; Wilson, P.W.; Selhub, J.; Ordovas, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Elevated total plasma homocysteine concentrations (tHcy), both fasting and post-methionine load, have been established as risk factors for vascular disease. Recently, we described the association of a 31 bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene with

  2. Serotonin and dopamine protect from hypothermia/rewarming damage through the CBS/H2S pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talaei, Fatemeh; Bouma, Hjalmar; Van der Graaf, Adrianus; Strijkstra, Arjen; Schmidt, Martina; Henning, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines have been demonstrated to protect cells from apoptotic cell death. Herein we show for the first time that serotonin and dopamine increase H2S production by the endogenous enzyme cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) and protect cells against hypothermia/rewarming induced reactive oxygen

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the CBS pair of the human metal transporter CNNM4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez García, Inmaculada; Oyenarte, Iker; Martínez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the CBS-pair regulatory domain of the human ancient domain protein 4 (ACDP4), also known as CNNM4. This work describes the purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the CBS-pair regulatory domain of the human ancient domain protein 4 (ACDP4), also known as CNNM4. ACDP proteins represent the least-studied members of the eight different types of magnesium transporters that have been identified in mammals to date. In humans the ACDP family includes four members: CNNM1–4. CNNM1 acts as a cytosolic copper chaperone and has been associated with urofacial syndrome, whereas CNNM2 and CNNM4 have been identified as magnesium transporters. Interestingly, mutations in the CNNM4 gene have clinical consequences that are limited to retinal function and biomineralization and are considered to be the cause of Jalili syndrome, which consists of autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy and amelogenesis imperfecta. The truncated protein was overexpressed, purified and crystallized in the orthorhombic space group C222. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 3.6 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. Matthews volume calculations suggested the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit, which were likely to correspond to a CBS module of the CBS pair of CNNM4

  4. Characterization and Extracellular Enzyme Activity of Predominant Marine Bacillus spp. Isolated From Sea Water of Orissa Coast, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal, S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus species are ubiquitous and diverse both in the terrestrial and marine ecosystems. In this investigation, predominant Bacillus species from sea water of three different sites of Orissa Coast were isolated and identified. In total, 16 Bacillus species were identified using morpho-physiological and biochemical characterisation. These identified bacterial strains include B. fastidiosus (CMB1, B. alvei (CMB2, B. coagulans (CMB3, B. marinus (CMB5, B. mycoides (CMB8, B. coagulans (PMB1, B. circulans (PMB2, B. cereus (PMB3, B. subtilis (PMB4, B. alcalophilus (GMB1, B. licheniformics (GMB2, B. polymyxa (GMB3 and B. pumilus (GMB4. The isolates CMB4, CMB6 and CMB7 were identified only up to genus level. These isolates were further screened for their salt tolerance and growth under varied temperature and pH conditions. Ability of these strains to produce extracellular enzymes such as protease, amylase, lipase, gelatinase, casein hydrolase, lecithinase, chitinase and pectinase were also screened and found that most of the Bacillus spp. possess extracellular enzymes.

  5. Assessment of the Bacteriocinogenic Potential of Marine Bacteria Reveals Lichenicidin Production by Seaweed-Derived Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian E. Gardiner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were (1 to assess the bacteriocinogenic potential of bacteria derived mainly from seaweed, but also sand and seawater, (2 to identify at least some of the bacteriocins produced, if any and (3 to determine if they are unique to the marine environment and/or novel. Fifteen Bacillus licheniformis or pumilus isolates with antimicrobial activity against at least one of the indicator bacteria used were recovered. Some, at least, of the antimicrobials produced were bacteriocins, as they were proteinaceous and the producers displayed immunity. Screening with PCR primers for known Bacillus bacteriocins revealed that three seaweed-derived Bacillus licheniformis harbored the bli04127 gene which encodes one of the peptides of the two-peptide lantibiotic lichenicidin. Production of both lichenicidin peptides was then confirmed by mass spectrometry. This is the first definitive proof of bacteriocin production by seaweed-derived bacteria. The authors acknowledge that the bacteriocin produced has previously been discovered and is not unique to the marine environment. However, the other marine isolates likely produce novel bacteriocins, as none harboured genes for known Bacillus bacteriocins.

  6. Expression of cbsA encoding the collagen-binding S-protein of Lactobacillus crispatus JCM5810 in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez, B.; Sillanpää, J.; Smit, E.; Korhonen, T.K.; Pouwels, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    The cbsA gene encoding the collagen-binding S-layer protein of Lactobacillus crispatus JCM5810 was expressed in L. casei ATCC 393T. The S-protein was not retained on the surface of the recombinant bacteria but was secreted into the medium. By translational fusion of CbsA to the cell wall sorting

  7. Phylogeny of marine Bacillus isolates from the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, J. L.; Larios-Sanz, M.; Nakamura, L. K.; Slepecky, R. A.; Paul, J. H.; Moore, E. R.; Fox, G. E.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr

    2000-01-01

    The phylogeny of 11 pigmented, aerobic, spore-forming isolates from marine sources was studied. Forty-two biochemical characteristics were examined, and a 16S rDNA sequence was obtained for each isolate. In a phylogenetic tree based on 16S sequencing, four isolates (NRRL B-14850, NRRL B-14904, NRRL B-14907, and NRRL B-14908) clustered with B. subtilis and related organisms; NRRL B-14907 was closely related to B. amyloliquefaciens. NRRL B-14907 and NRRL B-14908 were phenotypically similar to B. amyloliquefaciens and B. pumilus, respectively. Three strains (NRRL B-14906, NRRL B-14910, and NRRL B-14911) clustered in a clade that included B. firmus, B. lentus, and B. megaterium. NRRL B-14910 was closely related phenotypically and phylogenetically to B. megaterium. NRRL B-14905 clustered with the mesophilic round spore-producing species, B. fusiformis and B. sphaericus; the isolate was more closely related to B. fusiformis. NRRL B-14905 displayed characteristics typical of the B. sphaericus-like organisms. NRRL B-14909 and NRRL B-14912 clustered with the Paenibacillus species and displayed characteristics typical of the genus. Only NRRL B-14851, an unusually thin rod that forms very small spores, may represent a new Bacillus species.

  8. Ethanol production using whole plant biomass of Jerusalem artichoke by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS1555.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonghun; Park, Jang Min; Kim, Chul Ho

    2013-03-01

    Jerusalem artichoke is a low-requirement sugar crop containing cellulose and hemicellulose in the stalk and a high content of inulin in the tuber. However, the lignocellulosic component in Jerusalem artichoke stalk reduces the fermentability of the whole plant for efficient bioethanol production. In this study, Jerusalem artichoke stalk was pretreated sequentially with dilute acid and alkali, and then hydrolyzed enzymatically. During enzymatic hydrolysis, approximately 88 % of the glucan and xylan were converted to glucose and xylose, respectively. Batch and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of both pretreated stalk and tuber by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS1555 were effectively performed, yielding 29.1 and 70.2 g/L ethanol, respectively. In fed-batch fermentation, ethanol productivity was 0.255 g ethanol per gram of dry Jerusalem artichoke biomass, or 0.361 g ethanol per gram of glucose, with a 0.924 g/L/h ethanol productivity. These results show that combining the tuber and the stalk hydrolysate is a useful strategy for whole biomass utilization in effective bioethanol fermentation from Jerusalem artichoke.

  9. PSP-CBS with Dopamine Deficiency in a Female with a FMR1 Premutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paucar, Martin; Beniaminov, Stanislav; Paslawski, Wojciech; Svenningsson, Per

    2016-10-01

    Premutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene cause fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and FMR1-related primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). Female FMR1 premutation carriers rarely develop motor features. Dual pathology is an emerging phenomenon among FMR1 premutation carriers. Here, we describe a family affected by FMR1-related disorders in which the female index case has developed a rapidly progressive and disabling syndrome of atypical parkinsonism. This syndrome consists of early onset postural instability, echolalia, dystonia, and varying types of apraxia like early onset orobuccal apraxia and oculomotor apraxia. She has also developed supranuclear gaze palsy, increased latency of saccade initiation, and slow saccades. These features are compatible with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) of a corticobasal syndrome (CBS) variant. Imaging displays a marked reduction of presynaptic dopaminergic uptake and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed reduced dopamine metabolism; however, the patient is unresponsive to levodopa. Midbrain atrophy ("hummingbird sign") and mild cerebellar atrophy were found on brain MRI. Her father was affected by a typical FXTAS presentation but also displayed dopamine deficiency along with the hummingbird sign. The mechanisms by which FMR1 premutations predispose to atypical parkinsonism and dopamine deficiency await further elucidation.

  10. Phosphorescence In Bacillus Spores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reinisch, Lou; Swartz, Barry A; Bronk, Burt V

    2003-01-01

    .... Our present work attempts to build on this approach for environmental applications. We have measured a change in the fluorescence spectra of suspensions of Bacillus bacteria between the vegetative bacteria and their spores at room temperature...

  11. Uniform estimate of the constant in the strengthened CBS inequality for anisotropic non-conforming FEM systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blaheta, Radim; Margenov, S.; Neytcheva, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2004), s. 309-326 ISSN 1070-5325 Grant - others:Bulgarian NSF(BG) I-1001/2000; Center of Excellence BIS-21(XE) ICA1-2000-70016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : multilevel preconditioners * hierarchical basis * CBS constant Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.727, year: 2004

  12. Geographical variation in echolocation call and body size of the Okinawan least horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus pumilus (Mammalia: Rhinolophidae), on Okinawa-jima Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Hajime; Matsumura, Sumiko; Kinjo, Kazumitsu; Tamura, Hisao; Ota, Hidetoshi; Izawa, Masako

    2006-08-01

    The Okinawan least horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus pumilus, is a cave-dwelling species endemic to the central and southern Ryukyus, Japan. We analyzed variation in the constant frequency (CF) of the echolocation call and in forearm length (FAL) of this species on Okinawa-jima Island on the basis of data for 479 individuals from 11 caves scattered over the island. CF values in samples from six caves, all located in the southwestern half of Okinawa-jima, were significantly higher than those in samples from five caves in the northeastern half of the island. Also, FAL was significantly greater in the latter group than in the former group, although the ranges of variation in this character substantially overlapped between the two groups. These results suggest substantial differentiation between R. pumilus populations on Okinawa-jima. The implications of our findings for the conservation of this endangered bat species are briefly discussed.

  13. Structural basis for substrate activation and regulation by cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) domains in cystathionine [beta]-synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutmos, Markos; Kabil, Omer; Smith, Janet L.; Banerjee, Ruma (Michigan-Med)

    2011-08-17

    The catalytic potential for H{sub 2}S biogenesis and homocysteine clearance converge at the active site of cystathionine {beta}-synthase (CBS), a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme. CBS catalyzes {beta}-replacement reactions of either serine or cysteine by homocysteine to give cystathionine and water or H{sub 2}S, respectively. In this study, high-resolution structures of the full-length enzyme from Drosophila in which a carbanion (1.70 {angstrom}) and an aminoacrylate intermediate (1.55 {angstrom}) have been captured are reported. Electrostatic stabilization of the zwitterionic carbanion intermediate is afforded by the close positioning of an active site lysine residue that is initially used for Schiff base formation in the internal aldimine and later as a general base. Additional stabilizing interactions between active site residues and the catalytic intermediates are observed. Furthermore, the structure of the regulatory 'energy-sensing' CBS domains, named after this protein, suggests a mechanism for allosteric activation by S-adenosylmethionine.

  14. Effect of pre-irradiation on thermal inactivation of B. pumilus E 601 dry spores irradiated with EB and. gamma. -rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yuhei; Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1989-11-01

    The survival fraction of B. pumilus spores irradiated with {gamma} -rays and electron beams in vacuum were increased when the spores were heated or allowed to stand in vacuum for a long time at room temperature. The survival curves of the spores thus treated after irradiation might give apparent radiation sensitivities which were lower than true ones obtained just after irradiation. On the contrary, the radiation sensitivities of the spores irradiated in dry air and then heated or allowed to stand in dry air became high. To elucidate the characteristics of th spores, the effect of heating on the radiation sensitivity of the B. pumilus spores has been studied. By heating the pre-irradiated spores in vacuum, its survival fraction was increased, in other words, the spores inactivated with radiation were recovered. However, the thermal sensitivity of the recovered spores was found to be high compared with that of the original spores. On the other hand, when B. pumilus spores were irradiated in dry air and then heated in dry air, the survival curves of the spores were found to be composed of two exponential curves, suggesting that two kinds of thermal inactivation mechanism existed. From Arrhenius plots of unirradiated B. pumilus spores, the activation energies of the thermal inactivation in the range of 90degC to 120degC in vacuum and in air were found to be about 38 kcal/mol and 29 kcal/mol, respectively. The activation energy of the spores at a temperature of higher than 120degC, however increased to give the same value (about 38 kcal/mol) as found in vacuum. This fact suggests the main mechanism of the thermal inactivation of the spores varies near 120degC. Arrhenius plots of irradiated spores in vacuum was similar to that of unirradiated ones. Thermal inactivation rates of the irradiated spores in the presence of air will also be discussed as compared with those of unirradiated ones. (author).

  15. Disruption of microbial biofilms by an extracellular protein isolated from epibiotic tropical marine strain of Bacillus licheniformis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra H Dusane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marine epibiotic bacteria produce bioactive compounds effective against microbial biofilms. The study examines antibiofilm ability of a protein obtained from a tropical marine strain of Bacillus licheniformis D1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: B. licheniformis strain D1 isolated from the surface of green mussel, Perna viridis showed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Candida albicans BH, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and biofouling Bacillus pumilus TiO1 cultures. The antimicrobial activity was lost after treatment with trypsin and proteinase K. The protein was purified by ultrafiltration and size-exclusion chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF analysis revealed the antimicrobial agent to be a 14 kDa protein designated as BL-DZ1. The protein was stable at 75°C for 30 min and over a pH range of 3.0 to 11.0. The sequence alignment of the MALDI-fingerprint showed homology with the NCBI entry for a hypothetical protein (BL00275 derived from B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 with the accession number gi52082584. The protein showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value of 1.6 µg/ml against C. albicans. Against both P. aeruginosa and B. pumilus the MIC was 3.12 µg/ml. The protein inhibited microbial growth, decreased biofilm formation and dispersed pre-formed biofilms of the representative cultures in polystyrene microtiter plates and on glass surfaces. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We isolated a protein from a tropical marine strain of B. licheniformis, assigned a function to the hypothetical protein entry in the NCBI database and described its application as a potential antibiofilm agent.

  16. Disruption of Microbial Biofilms by an Extracellular Protein Isolated from Epibiotic Tropical Marine Strain of Bacillus licheniformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusane, Devendra H.; Damare, Samir R.; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V.; Ramaiah, N.; Venugopalan, Vayalam P.; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Marine epibiotic bacteria produce bioactive compounds effective against microbial biofilms. The study examines antibiofilm ability of a protein obtained from a tropical marine strain of Bacillus licheniformis D1. Methodology/Principal Findings B. licheniformis strain D1 isolated from the surface of green mussel, Perna viridis showed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Candida albicans BH, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and biofouling Bacillus pumilus TiO1 cultures. The antimicrobial activity was lost after treatment with trypsin and proteinase K. The protein was purified by ultrafiltration and size-exclusion chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis revealed the antimicrobial agent to be a 14 kDa protein designated as BL-DZ1. The protein was stable at 75°C for 30 min and over a pH range of 3.0 to 11.0. The sequence alignment of the MALDI-fingerprint showed homology with the NCBI entry for a hypothetical protein (BL00275) derived from B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 with the accession number gi52082584. The protein showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 1.6 µg/ml against C. albicans. Against both P. aeruginosa and B. pumilus the MIC was 3.12 µg/ml. The protein inhibited microbial growth, decreased biofilm formation and dispersed pre-formed biofilms of the representative cultures in polystyrene microtiter plates and on glass surfaces. Conclusion/Significance We isolated a protein from a tropical marine strain of B. licheniformis, assigned a function to the hypothetical protein entry in the NCBI database and described its application as a potential antibiofilm agent. PMID:23691235

  17. Inhibition of the growth of Ascosphaera apis by Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains isolated from honey Inhibición del crecimiento de Ascosphaera apis mediante cepas de Bacillus y Paenibacillus aisladas de miel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Reynaldi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Ascosphaera apis, the causative agent of chalkbrood disease in honeybee larvae, occurs throughout the world and is found in many beekeeping areas of Argentina. The potential as biocontrol agents of 249 aerobic spore-forming bacterial antagonists isolated from honey samples was evaluated. Each isolate was screened against A. apis by a central disk test assay. Ten bacterial strains that showed the best antagonistic effect to A. apis were selected for further study and identified as Bacillus cereus (m363, mv86, mv81, mv75, Bacillus circulans (Fr231, m448b, Bacillus megaterium (m435, Bacillus pumilus (m354, Bacillus subtilis (m329, and Paenibacillus alvei (m321. For testing the efficiency of the selected strains, a paired culture test was used with 5 replicates of each combination bacterial antagonist / A. apis strain, and 5 replications for each control on 4 different culture media. The analysis of variance and posterior comparison of means according to LSD method showed that the best antagonists when using YGPSA medium were B. subtilis (m329 and B. megaterium (m435, and in the case of MYPGP medium the most efficient were B. circulans strains Fr 231 and m448b.La cría yesificada es una micosis invasiva ocasionada por el hongo heterotálico Ascosphaera apis que afecta exclusivamente a las larvas de las abejas. La enfermedad tiene difusión mundial y en la Argentina se halla diseminada en todas las áreas donde se realiza apicultura. Se estudió la potencialidad de 249 cepas de bacterias esporuladas aeróbicas aisladas de miel como agentes biocontroladores del hongo mediante un ensayo en disco central en condiciones de laboratorio. Se seleccionaron como mejores antagonistas 10 cepas bacterianas identificadas como Bacillus cereus (m363, mv86, mv81, mv75, Bacillus circulans (Fr231, m448b, Bacillus megaterium (m435, Bacillus pumilus (m354, Bacillus subtilis (m329, y Paenibacillus alvei (m321. Para probar la eficiencia de las cepas

  18. Bacillus subtilis Protects Public Goods by Extending Kin Discrimination to Closely Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Lyons

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kin discrimination systems are found in numerous communal contexts like multicellularity and are theorized to prevent exploitation of cooperative behaviors. The kin discrimination system in Bacillus subtilis differs from most other such systems because it excludes nonkin cells rather than including kin cells. Because nonkin are the target of the system, B. subtilis can potentially distinguish degrees of nonkin relatedness, not just kin versus nonkin. We examined this by testing a large strain collection of diverse Bacillus species against B. subtilis in different multicellular contexts. The effects of kin discrimination extend to nearby species, as the other subtilis clade species were treated with the same antagonism as nonkin. Species in the less-related pumilus clade started to display varied phenotypes but were mostly still discriminated against, while cereus clade members and beyond were no longer subject to kin discrimination. Seeking a reason why other species are perceived as antagonistic nonkin, we tested the ability of B. subtilis to steal communally produced surfactant from these species. We found that the species treated as nonkin were the only ones that made a surfactant that B. subtilis could utilize and that nonkin antagonism prevented such stealing when the two strains were mixed. The nonkin exclusion kin discrimination method thus allows effective protection of the cooperative behaviors prevalent in multicellularity while still permitting interactions with more distant species that are not a threat.

  19. Identification of Bacillus Probiotics Isolated from Soil Rhizosphere Using 16S rRNA, recA, rpoB Gene Sequencing and RAPD-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohkam, Milad; Nezafat, Navid; Berenjian, Aydin; Mobasher, Mohammad Ali; Ghasemi, Younes

    2016-03-01

    Some Bacillus species, especially Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus groups, have highly similar 16S rRNA gene sequences, which are hard to identify based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. To conquer this drawback, rpoB, recA sequence analysis along with randomly amplified polymorphic (RAPD) fingerprinting was examined as an alternative method for differentiating Bacillus species. The 16S rRNA, rpoB and recA genes were amplified via a polymerase chain reaction using their specific primers. The resulted PCR amplicons were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was employed by MEGA 6 software. Identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing was underpinned by rpoB and recA gene sequencing as well as RAPD-PCR technique. Subsequently, concatenation and phylogenetic analysis showed that extent of diversity and similarity were better obtained by rpoB and recA primers, which are also reinforced by RAPD-PCR methods. However, in one case, these approaches failed to identify one isolate, which in combination with the phenotypical method offsets this issue. Overall, RAPD fingerprinting, rpoB and recA along with concatenated genes sequence analysis discriminated closely related Bacillus species, which highlights the significance of the multigenic method in more precisely distinguishing Bacillus strains. This research emphasizes the benefit of RAPD fingerprinting, rpoB and recA sequence analysis superior to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for suitable and effective identification of Bacillus species as recommended for probiotic products.

  20. Structural characterization of Bacillus licheniformis Dahb1 exopolysaccharide-antimicrobial potential and larvicidal activity on malaria and Zika virus mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abinaya, Muthukumar; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Divya, Mani; Vijayakumar, Sekar; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Khaled, Jamal M; Al-Anbr, Mohammed N; Benelli, Giovanni

    2018-04-27

    Microbial polysaccharides produced by marine species play a key role in food and cosmetic industry, as they are nontoxic and biodegradable polymers. This investigation reports the isolation of exopolysaccharide from Bacillus licheniformis Dahb1 and its biomedical applications. Bacillus licheniformis Dahb1 exopolysaccharide (Bl-EPS) was extracted using the ethanol precipitation method and structurally characterized. FTIR and 1 H-NMR pointed out the presence of various functional groups and primary aromatic compounds, respectively. Bl-EPS exhibited strong antioxidant potential confirmed via DPPH radical, reducing power and superoxide anion scavenging assays. Microscopic analysis revealed that the antibiofilm activity of Bl-EPS (75 μg/ml) was higher against Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris) bacteria over Gram-positive species (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus). Bl-EPS led to biofilm inhibition against Candida albicans when tested at 75 μg/ml. The hemolytic assay showed low cytotoxicity of Bl-EPS at 5 mg/ml. Besides, Bl-EPS achieved LC 50 values < 80 μg/ml against larvae of mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. Overall, our findings pointed out the multipurpose bioactivity of Bl-EPS, which deserves further consideration for pharmaceutical, environmental and entomological applications.

  1. Marine Bacillus spp. associated with the egg capsule of Concholepas concholepas (common name "loco") have an inhibitory activity toward the pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyton, Yanett; Riquelme, Carlos

    2010-10-01

    The pandemic bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus, isolated from seawater, sediment, and marine organisms, is responsible for gastroenteric illnesses in humans and also cause diseases in aquaculture industry in Chile and other countries around the world. In this study, bacterial flora with inhibitory activity against pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus were collected from egg capsules of Concholepas concholepas and evaluated. The 16S rRNA fragment was sequenced from each isolated strain to determine its identity using the GenBank database. A phylogenetic analysis was made, and tests for the productions of antibacterial substance were performed using the double-layer method. Forty-five morphotypes of bacterial colonies were isolated, 8 of which presented an inhibitory effect on the growth of V. parahaemolyticus. 16S rRNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis show that these strains constitute taxa that are phylogenetically related to the Bacillus genus and are probably sister species or strains of the species Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus licheniform, or Bacillus sp. It is important to determine the nature of the antibacterial substance to evaluate their potential for use against the pathogen species V. parahaemolyticus.

  2. Recovery of fermented inulin fiber by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from inulin hydrolysate using fungi inulinase enzymes of Scopulariopsis sp.-CBS1 and class of Deuteromycetes-CBS4 as cholesterol binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, Agustine; Melanie, Hakiki; Maryati, Yati; Aspiyanto

    2017-01-01

    Fermentation of Lactobacillus Acid Bacteria (LAB) which are mixtures of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteriumbifidum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus on hydrolysate as a result of inulin hydrolysis using inulinase enzymes obtained from endophytic fungi ofScopulariopsis sp.-CBS1 (inulin hydrolysate of S) and Class of Deuteromycetes-CBS4 (inulin hydrolysate of D) generate potential fermented inulin fiber as cholesterol binder. Fermentation process was conducted under concentrations of inulin hydrolysate 50% (w/v), LAB 15% (v/v) and skim milk 12.5% (w/v) at room temperature and 40°C for 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours, respectively. Result of experimental work showed that longer time of LAB fermentation increased total acids, TPC and CBC at pH 2, but decreased total sugar, reducing, IDF, SDF, CBC pH 2 and CBC pH 7. Based on Cholesterol Binding Capacity (CBC), optimization of fermentation process on inulin hydrolysate of S was achieved by combining treatment at 40°C for 24 hours resulted in CBC pH 2 of 19.11 mg/g TDF and inulin hydrolysate of D was achieved by fermentation at 40 °C for 48 hours resulted in CBC pH 2 of 24.28 mg/g TDF. Inulin hydrolysate of class of Deutrymecetes CBS4 fermented by LAB had better functional property as cholesterol binder than that inulin hydrolysate of S fermented by LAB. This is due to cholesterol binder and cholesterol derivatives as a result of degradation of LAB on digestive system (stomach) when compared to higher colon under optimal process condition.

  3. Bacillus velezensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus methylotrophicus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp plantarum and ‘Bacillus oryzicola’ are later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rhizosphere isolated bacteria belonging to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus clades are an important group of strains that are used as plant growth promoters and antagonists of plant pathogens. These properties have made these strains the focus of comm...

  4. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita; Schaap, Peter; van de Vondervoort, Peter; Culley, David E.; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy; Braus, Gerhard; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis; Dai, Ziyu; van Dijck, Piet; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Menke, Hildegard; Meijer, Martin; Meijer, Susan; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; van Ooyen, Albert; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob; Stam, Hein; Tsang, Adrian; van den Brink, Johannes M.; ATkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; van Peij, Noel; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens B.; Baker, Scott E.

    2011-06-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up regulation of genes associated with biosynthesis of amino acids that are abundant in glucoamylase A, tRNA-synthases and protein transporters.

  5. Comparative genomics of citric-acid-producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita P.; Schaap, Peter J.; van de Vondervoort, Peter J.I.; Culley, David; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy M.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Dai, Ziyu; van Dijck, Piet W.M.; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Menke, Hildegard; Meijer, Martin; Meijer, Susan L.; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; van Ooyen, Albert J.J.; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob A.; Stam, Hein; Tsang, Adrian; van den Brink, Johannes M.; Atkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; van Peij, Noël N.M.E.; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens; Baker, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compel additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole-genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild-type strain (ATCC 1015) and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence, and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was used to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 Mb of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis supported up-regulation of genes associated with biosynthesis of amino acids that are abundant in glucoamylase A, tRNA-synthases, and protein transporters in the protein producing CBS 513.88 strain. Our results and data sets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi. PMID:21543515

  6. Production of Extra-Cellular Proteases from Marine Bacillus Sp. Cultured in Media Containing Ammonium Sulfate as the Sole Nitrogen Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seri Intan, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Useful bacterial strains can be used to increase mineralize activity of an aquatic system. These bacteria can specifically degrade targeted compound by producing extra-cellular enzymes. Three species of Bacillus i.e. B. subtilis, B. pumilus and B. licheniformis acquired from shrimp ponds were tested for their ability to utilize ammonia and produce extracellular enzymes. These bacteria were grown in artificial seawater (30 ppt salinity and pH 7.6 supplemented with decreasing yeast extract concentration but increasing ammonium sulfate concentration. All three bacteria grew in artificial seawater containing only 0.01% yeast extract and 1% ammonium sulfate. However, only B. pumilus and B. licheniformis were able to grow in the medium containing only 1% ammonium sulfate as a sole energy source. Bacterialgrowth reduced when alkaline proteases activities was maximum from culture filtrates of all three bacterial cultures during 24 hour culturing in artificial seawater containing 0.01% yeast extract and 1% ammonium sulfate at 30 C when assayed at pH 9. Bacterial growth increased when acid proteases activities was maximum from culture filtrates of all three bacterial cultures during 48 hour culturing in artificial seawater containing 0.01% yeast extract and 1% ammoniumsulfate at 30 C when assayed at pH 5.

  7. Comparative genomics of citric-acid-producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Salazar, Margarita Pena; Schaap, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme......-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compel additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole-genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild-type strain (ATCC 1015) and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15...

  8. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Vondervoot, Peter J.I. van de; Culley, David; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristen F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy M.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Dai, Ziyu; Dijck, Piet W.M. van; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnusson, Jon K.; Meijer, Susan L.; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; Ooyen, Albert J.J. van; Panther, Kathyrn S.; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob A.; Stam, Hen; Tsang, Adrian; Brink, Johannes M. van den; Atkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; Peij, Noel N.M.E. van; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-04-28

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up-regulation of genes relevant to glucoamylase A production, such as tRNA-synthases and protein transporters. Our results and datasets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi.[Supplemental materials (10 figures, three text documents and 16 tables) have been made available

  9. Determination of Tinopal CBS-X in rice papers and rice noodles using HPLC with fluorescence detection and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyung Yuk; Lee, Chae A; Choi, Jae Chon; Kim, Meehye

    2014-01-01

    To date there have been no reports of methods to determine Tinopal CBS-X. We developed a rapid and simple method to determine the Tinopal CBS-X content in rice noodles and rice papers using HPLC equipped with fluorescence detection. Heating the rice noodles and rice papers to 80°C after adding 75% methanol solution induced the release of Tinopal CBS-X from processed rice products. Tinopal CBS-X was separated using an isocratic mobile phase comprising 50% acetonitrile/water containing 0.4% tetrabutyl ammonium hydrogen sulphate at pH 8.0. The samples suspected to be positive by HPLC analysis were then confirmed by LC-MS/MS analysis. This study also investigated the Tinopal CBS-X content of three rice noodle products and two rice papers. The limits of quantification for rice papers and rice noodles were 1.58 and 1.51 µg kg(-1), respectively, and their correlation curves showed good linearity with r(2) ≥ 0.9997 and ≥ 0.9998, respectively. Moreover, rice papers had recoveries of 70.3-83.3% with precision ranging from 5.0% to 7.9%, whereas rice noodles had slightly lower recoveries of 63.4-78.7% and precisions of 8.5-11.5%. Only one rice noodle product contained Tinopal CBS-X, at around 2.1 mg kg(-1), whereas it was not detected in four other samples. Consequently, Tinopal CBS-X from rice noodles and rice papers can be successfully detected using the developed pre-treatment and ion-pairing HPLC system coupled with fluorescence detection.

  10. Maintenance metabolism and carbon fluxes in Bacillus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decasper Seraina

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection of an appropriate host organism is crucial for the economic success of biotechnological processes. A generally important selection criterion is a low maintenance energy metabolism to reduce non-productive consumption of substrate. We here investigated, whether various bacilli that are closely related to Bacillus subtilis are potential riboflavin production hosts with low maintenance metabolism. Results While B. subtilis exhibited indeed the highest maintenance energy coefficient, B. licheniformis and B. amyloliquefaciens exhibited only statistically insignificantly reduced maintenance metabolism. Both B. pumilus and B. subtilis (natto exhibited irregular growth patterns under glucose limitation such that the maintenance metabolism could not be determined. The sole exception with significantly reduced maintenance energy requirements was the B. licheniformis strain T380B. The frequently used spo0A mutation significantly increased the maintenance metabolism of B. subtilis. At the level of 13C-detected intracellular fluxes, all investigated bacilli exhibited a significant flux through the pentose phosphate pathway, a prerequisite for efficient riboflavin production. Different from all other species, B. subtilis featured high respiratory tricarboxylic acid cycle fluxes in batch and chemostat cultures. In particular under glucose-limited conditions, this led to significant excess formation of NADPH of B. subtilis, while anabolic consumption was rather balanced with catabolic NADPH formation in the other bacilli. Conclusion Despite its successful commercial production of riboflavin, B. subtilis does not seem to be the optimal cell factory from a bioenergetic point of view. The best choice of the investigated strains is the sporulation-deficient B. licheniformis T380B strain. Beside a low maintenance energy coefficient, this strain grows robustly under different conditions and exhibits only moderate acetate overflow, hence

  11. [Homocysteine levels and polymorphisms of MTHFR and CBS genes in Colombian patients with superficial and deep venous thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Claudia; García, Reggie; Cruz, Edith; Prieto, Karol; Bermúdez, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Thrombosis develops when the hemostatic system is incorrectly activated due to the unbalance between procoagulant, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic mechanisms allowing the formation of a clot within a blood vessel. The risk factors of this pathology can be acquired or can be genetic. To analyze in a Colombian population with diagnosis of venous thrombosis, lipid profile, glucose and homocystein levels, to calculate the alleles and genotypic frequencies of polymorphisms c.699 C>T, c.1080 C>T, c.844ins68 of the cystathionine ß synthase and the c.677 C>T of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genes. Thirty three patients and their controls were studied. The biochemical test was carried out by colorimetric methods and immunoassay. In this survey we used the restriction fragments longitude polymorphism (RLFP) technique to identify the polymorphisms mentioned. The association study was performed through the chi square test. We confirmed that gene alterations increase risk for pathology; we found statistically significant differences in the group with hypercholesterolemia in presence of the polymorphism c.699 C>T in the CBS gene, showing a protective effect in the individuals carrying this genetic variation. Likewise, we found a statistical trend for an eventual protective effect of the CBS c.844ins68 polymorphism to venous thrombotic disease. There were not any statistically significant differences in homocystein levels between cases and controls; nevertheless, the variability in the plasma concentrations was greater in the group of cases.

  12. CBS, GPS VE GOOGLE EARTH TEKNOLOJİLERİNİN COĞRAFYA DERSLERİNDE KULLANIMI

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRCİ, ALİ; KARABURUN, AHMET

    2013-01-01

    ÖZETBu çalışma CBS, GPS ve Google Earth teknolojilerinin birlikte kullanıldığı bir etkinliğin ortaöğretim coğrafya derslerindeki uygulanabilirliğinin test edilmesi amacı ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışma İstanbul İl Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü ve Fatih Üniversitesi işbirliği ile İstanbul’da görev yapan coğrafya öğretmenlerine verilen CBS kursu sırasında gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışmaya İstanbul’daki 19 ilçede yer alan 25 farklı ortaöğretim kurumunda çalışan 25 coğrafya öğretmeni katılmıştır. Çalışm...

  13. Conversion of C6 and C5 sugars in undetoxified wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, rich in both glucan and xylan. This stresses the importance of utilizing both C6 and C5 sugars for conversion into ethanol in order to improve the process economics. During processing of the hydrolysate degradation...... products such as acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural are formed, which are known to inhibit microbial growth at higher concentrations. In the current study, conversion of both glucose and xylose sugars into ethanol in wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates was investigated without detoxification...... using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054, a native xylose utilizing yeast strain. The sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield (Yp/s) ranged from 88-100% and 0.33-0.41 ± 0.02 g/g, respectively, in all the hydrolysates tested. Hydrolysate after wet explosion at 185°C and 6 bar O2, composed...

  14. Bacillus subtilis genome diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Ashlee M; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2007-02-01

    Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (M-CGH) is a powerful method for rapidly identifying regions of genome diversity among closely related organisms. We used M-CGH to examine the genome diversity of 17 strains belonging to the nonpathogenic species Bacillus subtilis. Our M-CGH results indicate that there is considerable genetic heterogeneity among members of this species; nearly one-third of Bsu168-specific genes exhibited variability, as measured by the microarray hybridization intensities. The variable loci include those encoding proteins involved in antibiotic production, cell wall synthesis, sporulation, and germination. The diversity in these genes may reflect this organism's ability to survive in diverse natural settings.

  15. Heat activation and stability of amylases from Bacillus species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-16

    May 16, 2007 ... as Bacillus macerans, Bacillus coagulans Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus polymyxa and Bacillus subtilis. Heat treatment at 70oC denatured the β-amylase component of the amylase source while α-amylase retained its potency at this temperature. Calcium.

  16. opraktan izole edilen Bacillus türlerinin tanımlanması ve biyolojik özelliklerinin araştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Katı

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Giresun adasından toplanan toprak örneklerinden Bacillus izolasyonu yapılmıştır. Bu izolatlar morfolojik, biyokimyasal ve moleküler olarak tanımlanmıştır. Tanımlanan Bacillus’larda bazı ekstrasellüler enzimlerinin varlığı kalitatif olarak incelenmiştir. Ayrıca Bacillus izolatlarının bazı bakterilere karşı antibakteriyal aktiviteleri agar difüzyon metoduna göre araştırılmıştır. Sonuç olarak 38 izolat B. cereus grubu üyesi, 7 izolat B. thuringiensis, 10 izolat B. megaterium, 6 izolat B. pumilus ve 12 izolat Bacillus sp. olarak tanımlanmıştır. Bacillus izolatlarının ekstrasellüler enzim aktivite sonuçları değerlendirildiğinde 38 izolatın amilaz, 53 izolatın lipaz/esteraz, 16 izolatın kitinaz, 7 izolatın ksilanaz, 2 izolatın pektinaz, 73 izolatın proteaz ve 35 izolatın selülaz enzim aktivitesi pozitif olarak bulunmuştur. Çalışmada kullanılan Bacillus izolatları test edilen mikroorganizmaların gelişmelerini değişik oranlarda engellemiştir. Dokuz izolat yüksek antibakteriyal aktivite göstermiştir.

  17. Bacillus spp. from rainforest soil promote plant growth under limited nitrogen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X-F; Zhou, D; Guo, J; Manter, D K; Reardon, K F; Vivanco, J M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of PGPR (plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria) isolated from rainforest soil on different plants under limited nitrogen conditions. Bacterial isolates from a Peruvian rainforest soil were screened for plant growth-promoting effects on Arabidopsis (Col-0). Four selected isolates including one Bacillus subtilis, two B. atrophaeus and one B. pumilus significantly promoted growth of Zea mays L. and Solanum lycopersicum under greenhouse conditions. Moreover, the PGPRs significantly promoted growth of S. lycopersicum in both low and nitrogen-amended soil conditions. These PGPR strains were further studied to obtain insights into possible mechanisms of plant growth promotion. Volatile chemicals from those isolates promoted Arabidopsis growth, and the expression of genes related to IAA production was induced in the Arabidopsis plants treated with PGPRs. Further, selected PGPR strains triggered induced systemic resistance (ISR) against Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 in Arabidopsis. PGPR strains isolated from the rainforest soil promoted the plant growth of Arabidopsis, corn and tomato. New PGPR that have wider adaptability to different crops, soils and environmental conditions are needed to decrease our reliance on agricultural amendments derived from fossil-based fuels. The PGPRs isolated from a nonagricultural site constitute new plant growth-promoting strains that could be developed for agricultural uses. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Deciphering the hybridisation history leading to the Lager lineage based on the mosaic genomes of Saccharomyces bayanus strains NBRC1948 and CBS380.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huu-Vang Nguyen

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces bayanus is a yeast species described as one of the two parents of the hybrid brewing yeast S. pastorianus. Strains CBS380(T and NBRC1948 have been retained successively as pure-line representatives of S. bayanus. In the present study, sequence analyses confirmed and upgraded our previous finding: S. bayanus type strain CBS380(T harbours a mosaic genome. The genome of strain NBRC1948 was also revealed to be mosaic. Both genomes were characterized by amplification and sequencing of different markers, including genes involved in maltotriose utilization or genes detected by array-CGH mapping. Sequence comparisons with public Saccharomyces spp. nucleotide sequences revealed that the CBS380(T and NBRC1948 genomes are composed of: a predominant non-cerevisiae genetic background belonging to S. uvarum, a second unidentified species provisionally named S. lagerae, and several introgressed S. cerevisiae fragments. The largest cerevisiae-introgressed DNA common to both genomes totals 70kb in length and is distributed in three contigs, cA, cB and cC. These vary in terms of length and presence of MAL31 or MTY1 (maltotriose-transporter gene. In NBRC1948, two additional cerevisiae-contigs, cD and cE, totaling 12kb in length, as well as several smaller cerevisiae fragments were identified. All of these contigs were partially detected in the genomes of S. pastorianus lager strains CBS1503 (S. monacensis and CBS1513 (S. carlsbergensis explaining the noticeable common ability of S. bayanus and S. pastorianus to metabolize maltotriose. NBRC1948 was shown to be inter-fertile with S. uvarum CBS7001. The cross involving these two strains produced F1 segregants resembling the strains CBS380(T or NRRLY-1551. This demonstrates that these S. bayanus strains were the offspring of a cross between S. uvarum and a strain similar to NBRC1948. Phylogenies established with selected cerevisiae and non-cerevisiae genes allowed us to decipher the complex hybridisation

  19. Bacillus subtilis Protects Public Goods by Extending Kin Discrimination to Closely Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Nicholas A; Kolter, Roberto

    2017-07-05

    Kin discrimination systems are found in numerous communal contexts like multicellularity and are theorized to prevent exploitation of cooperative behaviors. The kin discrimination system in Bacillus subtilis differs from most other such systems because it excludes nonkin cells rather than including kin cells. Because nonkin are the target of the system, B. subtilis can potentially distinguish degrees of nonkin relatedness, not just kin versus nonkin. We examined this by testing a large strain collection of diverse Bacillus species against B. subtilis in different multicellular contexts. The effects of kin discrimination extend to nearby species, as the other subtilis clade species were treated with the same antagonism as nonkin. Species in the less-related pumilus clade started to display varied phenotypes but were mostly still discriminated against, while cereus clade members and beyond were no longer subject to kin discrimination. Seeking a reason why other species are perceived as antagonistic nonkin, we tested the ability of B. subtilis to steal communally produced surfactant from these species. We found that the species treated as nonkin were the only ones that made a surfactant that B. subtilis could utilize and that nonkin antagonism prevented such stealing when the two strains were mixed. The nonkin exclusion kin discrimination method thus allows effective protection of the cooperative behaviors prevalent in multicellularity while still permitting interactions with more distant species that are not a threat. IMPORTANCE Multicellular systems like bacterial biofilms and swarms rely on cooperative behaviors that could be undermined by exploitative invaders. Discriminating kin from nonkin is one way to help guard against such exploitation but has thus far been examined only intraspecifically, so the phylogenetic range of this important trait is unknown. We tested whether Bacillus subtilis treats other species as nonkin by testing a single strain against a

  20. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S.D.; Albertini, A.

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximate to4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were...... predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related...... to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from...

  1. Enhancement of the immune response and protection against Vibrio parahaemolyticus by indigenous probiotic Bacillus strains in mud crab (Scylla paramamosain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui-Juan; Sun, Ling-Bin; Li, Chuan-Biao; Li, Zhong-Zhen; Zhang, Zhao; Wen, Xiao-Bo; Hu, Zhong; Zhang, Yue-Ling; Li, Sheng-Kang

    2014-12-01

    In a previous study, bacterial communities of the intestine in three populations of crabs (wild crabs, pond-raised healthy crabs and diseased crabs) were probed by culture-independent methods. In this study, we examined the intestinal communities of the crabs by bacterial cultivation with a variety of media. A total of 135 bacterial strains were isolated from three populations of mud crabs. The strains were screened for antagonistic activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus using an agar spot assay. Antagonistic strains were then identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Three strains (Bacillus subtilis DCU, Bacillus pumilus BP, Bacillus cereus HL7) with the strongest antagonistic activity were further evaluated for their probiotic characteristics. The results showed that two (BP and DCU) of them were able to survive low pH and high bile concentrations, showed good adherence characteristics and a broad spectrum of antibiotic resistance. The probiotic effects were then tested by feeding juvenile mud crabs (Scylla paramamosain) with foods supplemented with 10(5) CFU/g of BP or DCU for 30 days before being subjected to an immersion challenge with V. parahaemolyticus for 48 h. The treated crabs showed significantly higher expression levels of immune related genes (CAT, proPO and SOD) and activities of respiratory burst than that in controlled groups. Crabs treated with BP and DCU supplemented diets exhibited survival rates of 76.67% and 78.33%, respectively, whereas survival rate was 54.88% in crabs not treated with the probiotics. The data showed that indigenous mud-associated microbiota, such as DCU and BP, have potential application in controlling pathogenic Vibriosis in mud crab aquaculture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fluorene biodegradation potentials of Bacillus strains isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fluorene biodegradation potentials of Bacillus strains isolated from tropical ... Bacillus strains, putatively identified as Bacillus subtilis BM1 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BR1 were ... African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(14), 1554-1559 ...

  3. Cold exposure affects carbohydrates and lipid metabolism, and induces Hog1p phosphorylation in Dekkera bruxellensis strain CBS 2499.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galafassi, Silvia; Toscano, Marco; Vigentini, Ileana; Zambelli, Paolo; Simonetti, Paolo; Foschino, Roberto; Compagno, Concetta

    2015-05-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is a yeast known to affect the quality of wine and beer. This species, due to its high ethanol and acid tolerance, has been reported also to compete with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in distilleries producing fuel ethanol. In order to understand how this species responds when exposed to low temperatures, some mechanisms like synthesis and accumulation of intracellular metabolites, changes in lipid composition and activation of the HOG-MAPK pathway were investigated in the genome sequenced strain CBS 2499. We show that cold stress caused intracellular accumulation of glycogen, but did not induce accumulation of trehalose and glycerol. The cellular fatty acid composition changed after the temperature downshift, and a significant increase of palmitoleic acid was observed. RT-PCR analysis revealed that OLE1 encoding for Δ9-fatty acid desaturase was up-regulated, whereas TPS1 and INO1 didn't show changes in their expression. In D. bruxellensis Hog1p was activated by phosphorylation, as described in S. cerevisiae, highlighting a conserved role of the HOG-MAP kinase signaling pathway in cold stress response.

  4. The CBS-The Most Cost Effective and High Performance Carbon Beam Source Dedicated for a New Generation Cancer Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Kumada, Masayuki; Leivichev, E B; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Podgorny, Fedor; Rastigeev, Sergey; Reva, Vladimir B; Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich; Vostrikov, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    A Carbon ion beam is a superior tool to x-rays or a proton beam in both physical and biological doses in treating a cancer. A Carbon beam has an advantage in treating radiation resistant and deep-seated tumors. Its radiological effect is of a mitotic independent nature. These features improve hypofractionation, typically reducing the number of irradiations per patient from 35 to a few. It has been shown that a superior QOL(Quality Of Life) therapy is possible by a carbon beam.The only drawback is its high cost. Nevertheless, tens of Prefectures and organizations are eagerly considering the possibility of having a carbon ion therapy facility in Japan. Germany, Austria, Italy, China, Taiwan and Korea also desire to have one.A carbon beam accelerator of moderate cost is about 100 Million USD. With the "CBS" design philosophy, which will be described in this paper, the cost could be factor of 2 or 3 less, while improving its performance more than standard designs. Novel extraction techniques, a new approach to a ...

  5. Comparative evaluation of the bacteria isolated from decomposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six (6) bacterial species Bacillus circulans, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Streptococcus faecalis and Streptococcus lactis were isolated from decomposing cow milk, while four (4) bacterial species namely Bacillus brevis, Bacillus licheniformis, Lactobacillus casei and Staphylococcus epidermidis ...

  6. N-terminal amino acid sequence of Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase: comparison with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis Enzymes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, H; Fietzek, P P; Lampen, J O

    1982-01-01

    The thermostable, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis was immunologically cross-reactive with the thermolabile, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Their N-terminal amino acid sequences showed extensive homology with each other, but not with the saccharifying alpha-amylases of Bacillus subtilis.

  7. Comparative Proteome Analysis between High Lipid-Producing Strain Mucor circinelloides WJ11 and Low Lipid-Producing Strain CBS 277.49.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Chen, Haiqin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Song, Yuanda; Chen, Wei

    2017-06-21

    Mucor circinelloides is one of few oleaginous fungi that produces a useful oil rich in γ-linolenic acid, but it usually only produces <25% total lipid. Nevertheless, we isolated a new strain WJ11 that can produce up to 36% lipid of cell dry weight. In this study, we have systematically analyzed the global changes in protein levels between the high lipid-producing strain WJ11 and the low lipid-producing strain CBS 277.49 (15%, lipid/cell dry weight) at lipid accumulation phase through comparative proteome analysis. Proteome analysis demonstrated that the branched-chain amino acid and lysine metabolism, glycolytic pathway, and pentose phosphate pathway in WJ11 were up-regulated, while the activities of tricarboxylic acid cycle and branch point enzyme for synthesis of isoprenoids were retarded compared with CBS 277.49. The coordinated regulation at proteome level indicate that more acetyl-CoA and NADPH are provided for fatty acid biosynthesis in WJ11 compared with CBS 277.49.

  8. Head Space Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS - SPME of volatile organic compounds produced by Sporidiobolus salmonicolor (CBS 2636

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Valduga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the assessment of volatile organic compounds produced by Sporidiobolus salmonicolor (CBS 2636 using methyl and ethyl ricinoleate, ricinoleic acid and castor oil as precursors. The analysis of the volatile organic compounds was carried out using Head Space Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS - SPME. Factorial experimental design was used for investigating extraction conditions, verifying stirring rate (0-400 rpm, temperature (25-60 ºC, extraction time (10-30 minutes, and sample volume (2-3 mL. The identification of volatile organic compounds was carried out by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrum Detector (GC/MSD. The conditions that resulted in maximum extraction were: 60 ºC, 10 minutes extraction, no stirring, sample volume of 2.0 mL, and addition of saturated KCl (1:10 v/v. In the bio-production of volatile organic compounds the effect of stirring rate (120-200 rpm, temperature (23-33 ºC, pH (4.0-8.0, precursor concentration (0.02-0.1%, mannitol (0-6%, and asparagine concentration (0-0.2% was investigated. The bio-production at 28 ºC, 160 rpm, pH 6,0 and with the addition of 0.02% ricinoleic acid to the medium yielded the highest production of VOCs, identified as 1,4-butanediol, 1,2,2-trimethylciclopropilamine, beta-ionone; 2,3-butanodione, pentanal, tetradecane, 2-isononenal, 4-octen-3-one, propanoic acid, and octadecane.

  9. Bacillus velezensis is a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ting; Lee, Fwu-Ling; Tai, Chun-Ju; Kuo, Hsiao-Ping

    2008-03-01

    Strain BCRC 14193, isolated from soil, shared more than 99 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BCRC 11601(T) and Bacillus velezensis BCRC 17467(T). This strain was previously identified as B. amyloliquefaciens, based on DNA-DNA hybridization, but its DNA relatedness value with B. velezensis BCRC 17467(T) was 89 %. To investigate the relatedness of strain BCRC 14193, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. velezensis, the partial sequence of the gene encoding the subunit B protein of DNA gyrase (gyrB) was determined. B. velezensis BCRC 17467(T) shared high gyrB gene sequence similarity with B. amyloliquefaciens BCRC 14193 (98.4 %) and all of the B. amyloliquefaciens strains available (95.5-95.6 %). DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed high relatedness values between B. velezensis BCRC 17467(T) and B. amyloliquefaciens BCRC 11601(T) (74 %) and the B. amyloliquefaciens reference strains (74-89 %). Based on these data and the lack of phenotypic distinctive characteristics, we propose Bacillus velezensis as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

  10. Impacts of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the impact of bio-larvicides- Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) on anopheline mosquito larval densities in four selected areas of Lusaka urban district. Larval densities were determined using a standard WHO protocol at each study area prior to and after larviciding.

  11. Extracellular Ribonuclease from Bacillus licheniformis (Balifase, a New Member of the N1/T1 RNase Superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Sokurenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The N1/T1 RNase superfamily comprises enzymes with well-established antitumor effects, such as ribotoxins secreted by fungi, primarily by Aspergillus and Penicillium species, and bacterial RNase secreted by B. pumilus (binase and B. amyloliquefaciens (barnase. RNase is regarded as an alternative to classical chemotherapeutic agents due to its selective cytotoxicity towards tumor cells. New RNase with a high degree of structural similarity with binase (73% and barnase (74% was isolated and purified from Bacillus licheniformis (balifase, calculated molecular weight 12421.9 Da, pI 8.91. The protein sample with enzymatic activity of 1.5 × 106 units/A280 was obtained. The physicochemical properties of balifase are similar to those of barnase. However, in terms of its gene organization and promoter activity, balifase is closer to binase. The unique feature of balifase gene organization consists in the fact that genes of RNase and its inhibitor are located in one operon. Similarly to biosynthesis of binase, balifase synthesis is induced under phosphate starvation; however, in contrast to binase, balifase does not form dimers under natural conditions. We propose that the highest stability of balifase among analyzed RNase types allows the protein to retain its structure without oligomerization.

  12. Isolation and identification of Bacillus spp. from compost material, compost and mushroom casing soil active against Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Olja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of bacteria was carried out from samples of straw and chicken manure, compost at various stages of the composting process and casing soil used for growing button mushrooms. A preliminary screening of 108 bacterial isolates for antagonistic activity against Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum showed that 23 tested isolates inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogenic fungus. Further screening with four indicator isolates of fungi revealed that all 23 bacterial isolates inhibited the growth of T. aggressivum f. europaeum, T. harzianum and T. koningii, while only 13 isolates inhibited the growth of T. atroviride. T. aggressivum f. europaeum proved to be the most sensitive, with many bacterial isolates generating a high percentage of growth inhibition. Only two bacterial isolates (B-129 and B-268 were successful in inhibiting the growth of all 4 tested pathogens. All 23 bacterial isolates were characterized as Gram-positive and catalase-positive and were subjected to molecular identification based on the partial sequence, the hypervariant region of the 16S rDNA. It was shown that the obtained bacterial strains belong to Bacillus subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis and B. pumilus species. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31043 i br. 173026

  13. Omics Analyses of Trichoderma reesei CBS999.97 and QM6a Indicate the Relevance of Female Fertility to Carbohydrate-Active Enzyme and Transporter Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisch, Doris; Pomraning, Kyle R; Collett, James R; Freitag, Michael; Baker, Scott E; Chen, Chia-Ling; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Chuang, Yu Chien; Schuster, Andre; Dattenböck, Christoph; Stappler, Eva; Sulyok, Michael; Böhmdorfer, Stefan; Oberlerchner, Josua; Wang, Ting-Fang; Schmoll, Monika

    2017-11-15

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is found predominantly in the tropics but also in more temperate regions, such as Europe, and is widely known as a producer of large amounts of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. We sequenced the genome of the sexually competent isolate CBS999.97, which is phenotypically different from the female sterile strain QM6a but can cross sexually with QM6a. Transcriptome data for growth on cellulose showed that entire carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) families are consistently differentially regulated between these strains. We evaluated backcrossed strains of both mating types, which acquired female fertility from CBS999.97 but maintained a mostly QM6a genetic background, and we could thereby distinguish between the effects of strain background and female fertility or mating type. We found clear regulatory differences associated with female fertility and female sterility, including regulation of CAZyme and transporter genes. Analysis of carbon source utilization, transcriptomes, and secondary metabolites in these strains revealed that only a few changes in gene regulation are consistently correlated with different mating types. Different strain backgrounds (QM6a versus CBS999.97) resulted in the most significant alterations in the transcriptomes and in carbon source utilization, with decreased growth of CBS999.97 on several amino acids (for example proline or alanine), which further correlated with the downregulation of genes involved in the respective pathways. In combination, our findings support a role of fertility-associated processes in physiology and gene regulation and are of high relevance for the use of sexual crossing in combining the characteristics of two compatible strains or quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. IMPORTANCE Trichoderma reesei is a filamentous fungus with a high potential for secretion of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. We sequenced the genome of the fully fertile field isolate CBS999.97 and

  14. The p.T191M mutation of the CBS gene is highly prevalent among homocystinuric patients from Spain, Portugal and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urreizti, Roser; Asteggiano, Carla; Bermudez, Marta; Córdoba, Alfonso; Szlago, Marina; Szlago, Mariana; Grosso, Carola; de Kremer, Raquel Dodelson; Vilarinho, Laura; D'Almeida, Vania; Martínez-Pardo, Mercedes; Peña-Quintana, Luís; Dalmau, Jaime; Bernal, Jaime; Briceño, Ignacio; Couce, María Luz; Rodés, Marga; Vilaseca, Maria Antonia; Balcells, Susana; Grinberg, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Classical homocystinuria is due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency. More than 130 mutations, which differ in prevalence and severity, have been described at the CBS gene. Mutation p.I278T is very prevalent, has been found in all European countries where it has been looked for with the exception of the Iberian peninsula, and is known to respond to vitamin B6. On the other hand, mutation p.T191M is prevalent in Spain and Portugal and does not respond to B6. We analysed 30 pedigrees from Spain, Portugal, Colombia and Argentina, segregating for homocystinuria. The p.T191M mutation was detected in patients from all four countries and was particularly prevalent in Colombia. The number of p.T191M alleles described in this study, together with those previously published, is 71. The prevalence of p.T191M among CBS mutant alleles in the different countries was: 0.75 in Colombia, 0.52 in Spain, 0.33 in Portugal, 0.25 in Venezuela, 0.20 in Argentina and 0.14 in Brazil. Haplotype analyses suggested a double origin for this mutation. No genotype-phenotype correlation other than the B6-nonresponsiveness could be established for the p.T191M mutation. Additionally, three new mutations, p.M173V, p.I429del and c.69_70+8del10, were found. The p.M173V was associated with a mild, B6-responsive, phenotype.

  15. A Bacillus sp. isolated from sediments of the Sarno River mouth, Gulf of Naples (Italy) produces a biofilm biosorbing Pb(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepi, Milva; Borra, Marco [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Napoli (Italy); Tamburrino, Stella [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per l' Ambiente Marino Costiero UOS Capo Granitola, Palermo (Italy); Saggiomo, Maria [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Napoli (Italy); Viola, Alfio [Università di Catania, Corso Italia 57, I-95129 Catania (Italy); Biffali, Elio; Balestra, Cecilia [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Napoli (Italy); Sprovieri, Mario [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per l' Ambiente Marino Costiero UOS Capo Granitola, Palermo (Italy); Casotti, Raffaella, E-mail: raffaella.casotti@szn.it [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Napoli (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    A Pb-resistant bacterial strain (named hereinafter Pb15) has been isolated from highly polluted marine sediments at the Sarno River mouth, Italy, using an enrichment culture to which Pb(II) 0.48 mmol l{sup −1} were added. 16S rRNA gene sequencing (Sanger) allowed assignment of the isolate to the genus Bacillus, with Bacillus pumilus as the closest species. The isolate is resistant to Pb(II) with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4.8 mmol l{sup −1} and is also resistant to Cd(II) and Mn(II) with MIC of 2.22 mmol l{sup −1} and 18.20 mmol l{sup −1}, respectively. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) showed that Pb inoculated in the growth medium is absorbed by the bacterial cells at removal efficiencies of 31.02% and 28.21% in the presence of 0.48 mmol l{sup −1} or 1.20 mmol l{sup −1} Pb(II), respectively. Strain Pb15 forms a brown and compact biofilm when grown in presence of Pb(II). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) confirm that the biofilm contains Pb, suggesting an active biosorption of this metal by the bacterial cells, sequestering 14% of inoculated Pb as evidenced by microscopic analyses. Altogether, these observations support evidence that strain Pb15 has potentials for being used in bioremediation of its native polluted sediments, with engineering solutions to be found in order to eliminate the adsorbed Pb before replacement of sediments in situ. - Highlights: • The strain is able to sequester Pb by biosorption in a biofilm. • A Pb-resistant Bacillus sp. isolated from marine polluted sediments. • The strain is proposed as a tool for bioremediation of Pb-polluted marine sediments.

  16. A Bacillus sp. isolated from sediments of the Sarno River mouth, Gulf of Naples (Italy) produces a biofilm biosorbing Pb(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepi, Milva; Borra, Marco; Tamburrino, Stella; Saggiomo, Maria; Viola, Alfio; Biffali, Elio; Balestra, Cecilia; Sprovieri, Mario; Casotti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    A Pb-resistant bacterial strain (named hereinafter Pb15) has been isolated from highly polluted marine sediments at the Sarno River mouth, Italy, using an enrichment culture to which Pb(II) 0.48 mmol l −1 were added. 16S rRNA gene sequencing (Sanger) allowed assignment of the isolate to the genus Bacillus, with Bacillus pumilus as the closest species. The isolate is resistant to Pb(II) with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4.8 mmol l −1 and is also resistant to Cd(II) and Mn(II) with MIC of 2.22 mmol l −1 and 18.20 mmol l −1 , respectively. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) showed that Pb inoculated in the growth medium is absorbed by the bacterial cells at removal efficiencies of 31.02% and 28.21% in the presence of 0.48 mmol l −1 or 1.20 mmol l −1 Pb(II), respectively. Strain Pb15 forms a brown and compact biofilm when grown in presence of Pb(II). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) confirm that the biofilm contains Pb, suggesting an active biosorption of this metal by the bacterial cells, sequestering 14% of inoculated Pb as evidenced by microscopic analyses. Altogether, these observations support evidence that strain Pb15 has potentials for being used in bioremediation of its native polluted sediments, with engineering solutions to be found in order to eliminate the adsorbed Pb before replacement of sediments in situ. - Highlights: • The strain is able to sequester Pb by biosorption in a biofilm. • A Pb-resistant Bacillus sp. isolated from marine polluted sediments. • The strain is proposed as a tool for bioremediation of Pb-polluted marine sediments.

  17. Effects of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and sintering temperature on crystallization and microstructure of CBS glass–ceramic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Pengyang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, Shubin, E-mail: shubinwang@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials and Engneering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Jianggao; Feng, Mengjie; Yang, Xinwang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: (a) TEM photogram of CG3 sintered at 800 °C, crystals are obvious; (b) the XRD patterns of CG3 glass samples sintered at various temperatures; (c) SEM photogram of CG3 sintered at 800 °C; (d) Kissinger, Augis–Bennett and Ozawa kinetics plots of CG3 glass samples. - Highlights: • Combining sol–gel method with direct sintering method to reduce the temperature of coatings formation. • Characterizing CaO–SiO{sub 2}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass–ceramic coatings on porous substrates. • Surface crystallization of CBS glass–ceramic coatings: nucleation and kinetics. • Activation energies for crystal growth in CBS glass–ceramics with different contents of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. - Abstract: Borosilicate glass–ceramics precursors with varying compositional ratios in the CaO–SiO{sub 2}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (CBS) system were synthesized by sol–gel method. The precursors were calcined at 1200 °C for 2 h to form glass powders. The glass–ceramics were prepared by overlaying glass slurries on the substrates before sintering at different temperatures. The as-prepared glasses and glass–ceramics were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The crystallization activation energies (E{sub c}) were calculated using the Kissinger method from DSC results. The morphology and crystallization behavior of the glass–ceramics were monitored by scanning electron microscopy. Both glass transition and crystallization temperatures decreased, however, the metastable zone increased. The E{sub c} values of CBS glasses and glass–ceramics were 254.1, 173.2 and 164.4 kJ/mol with increasing B{sub 2}O{sub 3} content, whereas that of the calcined G3 glass was 104.9 kJ/mol. Finally, the coatings were prepared at a low temperature (700 °C). The crystals that grew on the surface of multilayer coatings demonstrated heterogeneous surface nucleation and crystallization after heat-treatment from 700 °C to 850 °C for 4 h.

  18. FORMALDEHYDE GAS INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACE MATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research evaluated the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface material using formaldehyde gas. Spores were dried on seven types of indoor surfaces and exposed to 1100 ppm formaldehyde gas for 10 hr. Fo...

  19. Bacillus cereus and related species.

    OpenAIRE

    Drobniewski, F A

    1993-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod. It is a cause of food poisoning, which is frequently associated with the consumption of rice-based dishes. The organism produces an emetic or diarrheal syndrome induced by an emetic toxin and enterotoxin, respectively. Other toxins are produced during growth, including phospholipases, proteases, and hemolysins, one of which, cereolysin, is a thiol-activated hemolysin. These toxins may contribute to the pa...

  20. Carbohydrate metabolism in Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, K.

    1980-01-01

    The glucose metabolism via the glycolytic pathway as well as via the oxidative and inoxidative hexose monophosphate pathways in Bacillus subtilis was studied applying 1- 14 C- and 6- 14 C-glucose, respectively, and determining labelled CO 2 and RNA. A method for calculating the catabolic pathways was developed. In nonproliferating cultures glucose is catabolized to 62% via the glycolytic pathway, to 20% via the oxidative, and to 18% via the inoxidative pathway

  1. Controle biológico da mancha-aquosa do melão por compostos bioativos produzidos por Bacillus spp. Biocontrol of bacterial fruit blotch of melon by bioactive compounds produced by Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizama Roza Santos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A mancha-aquosa, causada por Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac causa grandes prejuízos à cultura do melão. O controle dessa doença foi estudado in vivo, com microbiolização de sementes de melão Amarelo infectadas, com líquidos fermentados de Bacillus subtilis R14, B. megaterium pv. cerealis RAB7, B. pumilus C116 e Bacillus sp. MEN2, com e sem células bacterianas. O mecanismo de ação dos isolados foi estudado in vitro pelo método de difusão em ágar e os compostos bioativos parcialmente caracterizados por testes de hemólise e atividade surfactante. Nos testes in vivo, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos com e sem células, indicando que o controle ocorreu devido à presença de compostos bioativos produzidos durante as fermentações. Todos os tratamentos diferiram da testemunha sem diferir entre si (P=0,05%. B. megaterium pv. cerealis RAB7 proporcionou redução da incidência (89,1% e do índice de doença (92,7%, elevou o período de incubação da mancha-aquosa de 9,8 para 11,9 dias e reduziu a AACPD de 3,36 para 0,17. In vitro, todos isolados apresentaram antibiose contra Aac e os compostos bioativos foram parcialmente caracterizados como lipopeptídeos.The bacterial fruit blotch, caused by the bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac, is responsible for great losses in melon production. The control of this disease was investigated in vivo by treating infected yellow melon seeds with fermented broths of B. subtilis R14, B. megaterium pv. cerealis RAB7, B. pumilus C116 and Bacillus sp. MEN2, with and without bacterial cells. The mechanism of action of the strains was studied in vitro by the agar diffusion technique. The bioactive compounds produced were partially characterized by hemolysis test and surfactant activity. Regarding the tests conducted in vivo there was no statistical difference between the treatments with and without bacterial cells, which indicated that the control was due to the

  2. Theoretical Calculation of Jet Fuel Thermochemistry. 1; Tetrahydrodicylopentadiene (JP10) Thermochemistry Using the CBS-QB3 and G3(MP2)//B3LYP Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehe, Michael J.; Jaffe, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    High-level ab initio calculations have been performed on the exo and endo isomers of gas-phase tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene (THDCPD), a principal component of the jet fuel JP10, using the Gaussian Gx and Gx(MPx) composite methods, as well as the CBS-QB3 method, and using a variety of isodesmic and homodesmotic reaction schemes. The impetus for this work is to help resolve large discrepancies existing between literature measurements of the formation enthalpy Delta (sub f)H deg (298) for exo-THDCPD. We find that use of the isodesmic bond separation reaction C10H16 + 14CH4 yields 12C2H6 yields results for the exo isomer (JP10) in between the two experimentally accepted values, for the composite methods G3(MP2), G3(MP2)//B3LYP, and CBS-QB3. Application of this same isodesmic bond separation scheme to gas-phase adamantane yields a value for Delta (sub f)H deg (298) within 5 kJ/mol of experiment. Isodesmic bond separation calculations for the endo isomer give a heat of formation in excellent agreement with the experimental measurement. Combining our calculated values for the gas-phase heat of formation with recent measurements of the heat of vaporization yields recommended values for Delta (sub f)H deg (298)liq of -126.4 and -114.7 kJ/mol for the exo and endo isomers, respectively.

  3. Characterization of microsatellite loci in the stick insects Bacillus rossius rossius, Bacillus rossius redtenbacheri and Bacillus whitei (Insecta : Phasmatodea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, DH; Pertoldi, C; Loeschcke, V

    2005-01-01

    Five microsatellite markers were obtained from a dinucleotide enriched genomic library of the stick insect Bacillus rossius rossius. The markers were tested in three species of Bacillus. All loci were polymorphic when tested across species. The number of alleles at each locus was low (maximum four...

  4. Geographical Variation in Echolocation Call and Body Size of the Okinawan Least Horseshoe Bat, Rhinolophus pumilus(Mammalia: Rhinolophidae), on Okinawa-jima Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan(Animal Diversity and Evolution)

    OpenAIRE

    Hajime, Yoshino; Sumiko, Matsumura; Kazumitsu, Kinjo; Hisao, Tamura; Hidetoshi, Ota; Masako, Izawa; Laboratory of Evolution and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus; Faculty of Science, Yamaguchi University; Department of Law, Okinawa International University; Asian Bat Research Institute; Tropical Biosphere Research Center, University of the Ryukyus; Laboratory of Evolution and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus

    2006-01-01

    The Okinawan least horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus pumilus, is a cave-dwelling species endemic to the central and southern Ryukyus, Japan. We analyzed variation in the constant frequency (CF) of the echolocation call and in forearm length (FAL) of this species on Okinawa-jima Island on the basis of data for 479 individuals from 11 caves scattered over the island. CF values in samples from six caves, all located in the southwestern half of Okinawa-jima, were significantly higher than those in sampl...

  5. Isolation and characterization of cellulolytic Bacillus licheniformis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight cellulose degrading bacteria were isolated from compost and were identified as Bacillus licheniformis by 16S rRNA sequencing. Among the eight isolates, Bacillus licheniformis B4, B7 and B8 showed the highest cellulase activity. B. licheniformis B4 and B8 showed the maximum cellulase activity during the stationary ...

  6. Efficacy and gastrointestinal tolerability of ML3403, a selective inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase and CBS-3595, a dual inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase and phosphodiesterase 4 in CFA-induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Diana A; Silva, Rodrigo B M; de Souza, Alessandra H; Leite, Carlos E; Nicoletti, Natália F; Campos, Maria M; Laufer, Stefan; Morrone, Fernanda B

    2014-03-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 inhibitors have entered the clinical phase, although many of them have failed due to high toxicity and lack of efficacy. In the present study we compared the effects of the selective p38 inhibitor ML3403 and the dual p38-PDE4 inhibitor CBS-3595, on inflammatory and nociceptive parameters in a model of polyarthritis in rats. Male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were used for the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis model and they were evaluated at 14-21 days. We also analysed the effects of these pharmacological tools on liver and gastrointestinal toxicity and on cytokine levels. Repeated CBS-3595 (3 mg/kg) or ML3403 (10 mg/kg) administration produced significant anti-inflammatory actions in the chronic arthritis model induced by CFA. CBS-3595 and ML3403 treatment also markedly reduced the production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 in the paw tissue, whereas it widely increased the levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Moreover, CBS-3595 produced partial anti-allodynic effects in the CFA model at 4 and 8 days after treatment. Notably, ML3403 and CBS-3595 did not show marked signs of hepatoxicity, as supported by unaltered histological observations in the liver sections. Finally, both compounds were safe in the gastrointestinal tract, according to evaluation of intestinal biopsies. CBS-3595 displayed a superior profile regarding its anti-inflammatory effects. Thus p38 MAPK/PDE4 blocking might well constitute a relevant strategy for the treatment of RA.

  7. [Characteristics of Bacillus cereus dissociants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshenko, E V; Loĭko, N G; Il'inskaia, O N; Kolpakov, A I; Gornova, I B; Klimanova, E V; El'-Registan, G I

    2001-01-01

    The autoregulation of the phenotypic (populational) variability of the Bacillus cereus strain 504 was studied. The isolated colonial morphotypes of this bacterium were found to differ in their growth characteristics and the synthesis of extracellular proteases. The phenotypic variabilities of vegetative proliferating cells and those germinated from endospores and cystlike refractory cells were different. Bacterial variants also differed in the production of the d1 and d2 factors (the autoinducers of dormancy and autolysis, respectively) and sensitivity to them. The possible role of these factors in the dissociation of microorganisms is discussed.

  8. Real-Time PCR Assay for a Unique Chromosomal Sequence of Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    13061 Neisseria lactamica .............................................................. 23970 Bacillus coagulans ...NEG Bacillus coagulane 7050 NEG NEG Bacillus cereus 13472 NEG NEG Bacillus licheniforms 12759 NEG NEG Bacillus cereus 13824 NEG NEG Bacillus ...Assay for a Unique Chromosomal Sequence of Bacillus anthracis Elizabeth Bode,1 William Hurtle,2† and David Norwood1* United States Army Medical

  9. Germination of Bacillus cereus spores : the role of germination receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group forms a highly homogeneous subdivision of the genus Bacillus and comprises several species that are relevant for humans. Notorious is Bacillus anthracis, the cause of the often-lethal disease anthrax, while the insect pathogen Bacillus

  10. Draft genome sequences of the oomycete Pythium insidiosum strain CBS 573.85 from a horse with pythiosis and strain CR02 from the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preecha Patumcharoenpol

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete microorganism that causes the fatal infectious disease, pythiosis, in humans and animals. The organism has been successfully isolated from the environment worldwide. Diagnosis and treatment of pythiosis is difficult and challenging. Genome sequences of P. insidiosum, isolated from humans, are available and accessible in public databases. To further facilitate biology-, pathogenicity-, and evolution-related genomic and genetic studies of P. insidiosum, we report two additional draft genome sequences of the P. insidiosum strain CBS 573.85 (35.6 Mb in size; accession number, BCFO00000000.1 isolated from a horse with pythiosis, and strain CR02 (37.7 Mb in size; accession number, BCFR00000000.1 isolated from the environment. Keywords: Pythium insidiosum, Pythiosis, Draft genome sequence

  11. Bacillus cereus and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobniewski, F A

    1993-10-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod. It is a cause of food poisoning, which is frequently associated with the consumption of rice-based dishes. The organism produces an emetic or diarrheal syndrome induced by an emetic toxin and enterotoxin, respectively. Other toxins are produced during growth, including phospholipases, proteases, and hemolysins, one of which, cereolysin, is a thiol-activated hemolysin. These toxins may contribute to the pathogenicity of B. cereus in nongastrointestinal disease. B. cereus isolated from clinical material other than feces or vomitus was commonly dismissed as a contaminant, but increasingly it is being recognized as a species with pathogenic potential. It is now recognized as an infrequent cause of serious nongastrointestinal infection, particularly in drug addicts, the immunosuppressed, neonates, and postsurgical patients, especially when prosthetic implants such as ventricular shunts are inserted. Ocular infections are the commonest types of severe infection, including endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis, and keratitis, usually with the characteristic formation of corneal ring abscesses. Even with prompt surgical and antimicrobial agent treatment, enucleation of the eye and blindness are common sequelae. Septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections are other manifestations of severe disease. B. cereus produces beta-lactamases, unlike Bacillus anthracis, and so is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics; it is usually susceptible to treatment with clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Simultaneous therapy via multiple routes may be required.

  12. Effect of Ultrasonic Waves on the Heat Resistance of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, J.; Ordóñez, J. A.; Sala, F.

    1972-01-01

    Heat resistance of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis spores in quarter-strength Ringer solution decreases markedly after ultrasonic treatments which are unable to kill a significant proportion of the spore population. This effect does not seem to be caused by a loss of Ca2+ or dipicolinic acid. The use of ultrasonics to eliminate vegetative cells or to break aggregates in Bacillus spore suspensions to be used subsequently in heat resistance experiments appears to be unadvisable. PMID:4627969

  13. The genetic diversity of genus Bacillus and the related genera revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequences and ardra analyses isolated from geothermal regions of turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Coleri Cihan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previously isolated 115 endospore-forming bacilli were basically grouped according to their temperature requirements for growth: the thermophiles (74%, the facultative thermophiles (14% and the mesophiles (12%. These isolates were taken into 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, and they were clustered among the 7 genera: Anoxybacillus, Aeribacillus, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Geobacillus, Paenibacillus, and Thermoactinomycetes. Of these bacilli, only the thirty two isolates belonging to genera Bacillus (16, Brevibacillus (13, Paenibacillus (1 and Thermoactinomycetes (2 were selected and presented in this paper. The comparative sequence analyses revealed that the similarity values were ranged as 91.4-100 %, 91.8- 99.2 %, 92.6- 99.8 % and 90.7 - 99.8 % between the isolates and the related type strains from these four genera, respectively. Twenty nine of them were found to be related with the validly published type strains. The most abundant species was B. thermoruber with 9 isolates followed by B. pumilus (6, B. lichenformis (3, B. subtilis (3, B. agri (3, B. smithii (2, T. vulgaris (2 and finally P. barengoltzii (1. In addition, isolates of A391a, B51a and D295 were proposed as novel species as their 16S rRNA gene sequences displayed similarities ≤ 97% to their closely related type strains. The AluI-, HaeIII- and TaqI-ARDRA results were in congruence with the 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The ARDRA results allowed us to differentiate these isolates, and their discriminative restriction fragments were able to be determined. Some of their phenotypic characters and their amylase, chitinase and protease production were also studied and biotechnologically valuable enzyme producing isolates were introduced in order to use in further studies.

  14. Current research efforts with Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand R. Dubois

    1991-01-01

    The bioassay of 260 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and 70 commercial preparations show that regression coefficient estimates may be as critical as LC5O estimates when evaluating them for future consideration.

  15. Antimicrobial effect of lactobacillus and bacillus derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the screening, production, extraction of biosurfactants from Lactobacillus and Bacillus bacteria and their antimicrobial properties against causal microorganisms of food borne infections (food borne pathogens). The biosurfactants were investigated for potential antimicrobial activity using disk diffusion.

  16. Bacillus and biopolymer: Prospects and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Mohapatra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbially derived polyhydroxyalkanoates biopolymers could impact the global climate scenario by replacing the conventional non-degradable, petrochemical-based polymer. The biogenesis, characterization and properties of PHAs by Bacillus species using renewable substrates have been elaborated by many for their wide applications. On the other hand Bacillus species are advantageous over other bacteria due to their abundance even in extreme ecological conditions, higher growth rates even on cheap substrates, higher PHAs production ability, and the ease of extracting the PHAs. Bacillus species possess hydrolytic enzymes that can be exploited for economical PHAs production. This review summarizes the recent trends in both non-growth and growth associated PHAs production by Bacillus species which may provide direction leading to future research towards this growing quest for biodegradable plastics, one more critical step ahead towards sustainable development.

  17. Characterization of 21 Strains of Bacillus Anthracis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kournikakis, B

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-one strains of Bacillus anthracis currently held in the culture collection at DRES were characterized by colonial morphology, antibiotic sensitivity and BiologTM metabolic identification profiles...

  18. Molecular detection of TasA gene in endophytic Bacillus species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular detection of TasA gene in endophytic Bacillus species and characterization of the gene in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PEBA20 and 7 strains of Bacillus subtilis, ...

  19. Isolamento, seleção de bactérias e efeito de Bacillus spp. na produção de mudas orgânicas de alface Isolation, selection of bacteria, and effect of Bacillus spp. in the production of organic lettuce seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa M.A. Gomes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolados bacterianos epifíticos e endofíticos, obtidos de plantas sadias de alface, foram avaliados para promoção de crescimento de mudas e plantas, respectivamente em estufa e campo de cultivo orgânico (Chã Grande-PE. Nos experimentos em estufa, foi utilizada a cultivar Verônica e em campo, as cultivares Verdinha e Verônica. Os isolados foram aplicados por bacterização simultânea nas sementes e substrato. Em campo, foram utilizados os isolados mais eficientes, C25 (Bacillus thuringiensis subvar. kenyae e C116 (Bacillus pumilus, separadamente e em mistura, após teste de compatibilidade. Em estufa, foram avaliadas a matéria fresca de raízes (MFR, da parte aérea (MFPA e total (MFT, 21 dias após a bacterização. Em campo, foi determinado o peso da matéria fresca total de plantas comercializáveis 21 e 28 dias após o transplante, respectivamente para as cultivares Verdinha e Verônica. Os mecanismos de ação de BPCP analisados foram produção de ácido indol acético, ácido cianídrico, solubilização de fosfatos e alterações dos teores foliares dos macronutrientes, N, P, K, Ca e Mg. Em estufa, as mudas apresentaram aumento significativo em relação à testemunha para MFR, MFPA e MFT quando foi utilizado o isolado C116 e para MFR e MFT utilizando-se o C25. No campo, não houve promoção significativa no crescimento nas plantas das cultivares Verdinha e Verônica, tratadas com C25 e C116 separadamente ou em mistura. Dos mecanismos de ação analisados verificou-se apenas elevação significativa (P=0,05 do teor foliar de N pelo isolado C25.Epiphytic and endophytic bacterial strains isolated from healthy lettuce plants were evaluated for growth promotion of seedlings and plants respectively under greenhouse and field conditions of organic production of lettuce, in Brazil. The cultivar Verônica was utilized in the greenhouse experiments and cvs. Verônica and Verdinha were evaluated in the field. The strains were applied by

  20. Cell Physiology and Protein Secretion of Bacillus licheniformis Compared to Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voigt, Birgit; Antelmann, Haike; Albrecht, Dirk; Ehrenreich, Armin; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Evers, Stefan; Gottschalk, Gerhard; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Schweder, Thomas; Hecker, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis was published in 1997 and since then many other bacterial genomes have been sequenced, among them Bacillus licheniformis in 2004. B. subtilis and B. licheniformis are closely related and feature similar saprophytic lifestyles in the soil. Both species can

  1. Investigation of the effect of glucose syrup and brown sugar as low-cost substrate for lipid production by Mortierella alpine CBS 754.68

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saed Montazeri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arachidonic acid is an important essential fatty acid in human nutrition. The filamentous fungus Mortierella alpina has been identified as a promising producer of arachidonic acid. Mortierella alpine can accumulate up to 40% (w/w lipid, of which up to 40% can be arachidonic acid. Materials and methods: Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68 was cultivated in low cost substrate such as glucose syrup, brown sugar and starch for lipid and arachidonic acid production. The reduced sugar, total lipids and content of ARA were determined by dinitrosalicylic acid method, soxhlet and Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS respectively. Results: The carbon sources were applied at 70 g/l and nitrogen source (soybean powder at 10 g/lit. The results showed that lipid in dry biomass in glucose syrup, starch and brown sugar media were obtained 32, 25 and 13 % w/w respectively. The arachidonic acid contents of lipid in the glucose syrup, starch and brown sugar media were 41, 33 and 31 % w/w respectively. Discussion and conclusion: Lipid fatty acid compositions are affected by the growth of microorganism. Cell membrane fatty acids such as stearic acid and oleic acid increased substantially concomitant with increases in the amount of biomass. Biomass and oil production efficiency fell due to inappropriate brown sugar medium.

  2. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in the long-lived naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziegelewska, Maja; Holtze, Susanne; Vole, Christiane; Wachter, Ulrich; Menzel, Uwe; Morhart, Michaela; Groth, Marco; Szafranski, Karol; Sahm, Arne; Sponholz, Christoph; Dammann, Philip; Huse, Klaus; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Platzer, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM in the long-lived naked mole-rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Dziegelewska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS, an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration.

  4. Bacillus velezensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus methylotrophicus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and 'Bacillus oryzicola' are later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus velezensis based on phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Kim, Soo-Jin; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-03-01

    Bacillus velezensis was previously reported to be a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens , based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced a draft genome of B. velezensis NRRL B-41580 T . Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations show that it is not a synonym of B. amyloliquefaciens. It was instead synonymous with Bacillus methylotrophicus. ' Bacillus oryzicola ' is a recently described species that was isolated as an endophyte of rice ( Oryza sativa ). The strain was demonstrated to have plant-pathogen antagonist activity in greenhouse assays, and the 16S rRNA gene was reported to have 99.7 % sequence similarity with Bacillus siamensis and B. methylotrophicus , which are both known for their plant pathogen antagonism. To better understand the phylogenetics of these closely related strains, we sequenced the genome of ' B . oryzicola ' KACC 18228. Comparative genomic analysis showed only minor differences between this strain and the genomes of B. velezensis NRRL B-41580 T , B. methylotrophicus KACC 13015 T and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42 T . The pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the strains were all greater than 84 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. The results of morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the strains share phenotype and genotype coherence. Therefore, we propose that B. methylotrophicus KACC 13015 T , B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42 T , and ' B. oryzicola' KACC 18228 should be reclassified as later heterotypic synonyms of B. velezensis NRRL B-41580 T , since the valid publication date of B. velezensis precedes the other three strains.

  5. Feather wastes digestion by new isolated strains Bacillus sp. in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feather wastes digestion by new isolated strains Bacillus sp. in Morocco. ... The most efficient isolated strain selected was compared with Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. Results showed ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(1) 2004: 67-70 ...

  6. Production of amylolytic enzymes by bacillus spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawood, Elham Shareif [Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1997-12-01

    Sixty six bacteria and twenty fungi were isolated from various sources. These varied from rotten fruites to local drinks and soil samples from different parts of Sudan. On the basis of index of amylolytic activity, forty one bacteria and twelve fungi were found to hydrolyse strach. The best ten strach hydrolysing isolates were identified all as bacilli (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K{sub 1}, SUD-K{sub 2}, SUD-K{sub 4}, SUD-O, SUD-SRW, SUD-BRW, SUD-By, Bacillus subtilis SUD-K{sub 3}, and Bacillus circulans SUD-D and SUD-K{sub 7}). Their amylase productivity was studied with respect to temperature and time. Amylolytic activity was measured by spectrophotometer, the highest activity was produced in around 24 hours of growth in all; six of which gave the highest amylase activity at 50 deg C and the rest at 45C. Based on the thermal production six isolates were chosen for further investigation. These were Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K{sub 1}, SUD-K{sub 2}, SUD-K{sub 4}, SUD-O, Bacillus subtilis SUD-K{sub 3} and Bacillus circulans SUD-K{sub 7}. The inclusion of strach and Mg{sup ++} ions in the culture medium gave the highest enzyme yield. The Ph 9.0 was found to be the optimum for amylase production for all isolates except Bacillus subtilis SUD-K{sub 3} which had an optimum at pH 7.0. Three isolates (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K{sub 1}, SUD-K{sub 4} and SUD-O recorded highestamylase production in a medium supplemented with peptone while the rest (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K{sub 2}, Bacillus subtilis SUD-K{sub 3} and Bacillus circulans SUD-K{sub 7}) gave highest amylase productivity in a medium supplemented with malt extract. Four isolates (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K{sub 1} and Bacillus subtilis SUD-K{sub 3} gave maximum amylase production in a medium containing 0.5% soluble strach while the rest (gave maximum amylase production at 2%. Soluble strach was found to be best substrate among the different carbon sources tested. The maximum temperature for amylase activity

  7. Production of amylolytic enzymes by bacillus spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawood, Elham Shareif

    1997-12-01

    Sixty six bacteria and twenty fungi were isolated from various sources. These varied from rotten fruites to local drinks and soil samples from different parts of Sudan. On the basis of index of amylolytic activity, forty one bacteria and twelve fungi were found to hydrolyse strach. The best ten strach hydrolysing isolates were identified all as bacilli (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K 1 , SUD-K 2 , SUD-K 4 , SUD-O, SUD-SRW, SUD-BRW, SUD-By, Bacillus subtilis SUD-K 3 , and Bacillus circulans SUD-D and SUD-K 7 ). Their amylase productivity was studied with respect to temperature and time. Amylolytic activity was measured by spectrophotometer, the highest activity was produced in around 24 hours of growth in all; six of which gave the highest amylase activity at 50 deg C and the rest at 45C. Based on the thermal production six isolates were chosen for further investigation. These were Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K 1 , SUD-K 2 , SUD-K 4 , SUD-O, Bacillus subtilis SUD-K 3 and Bacillus circulans SUD-K 7 . The inclusion of strach and Mg ++ ions in the culture medium gave the highest enzyme yield. The Ph 9.0 was found to be the optimum for amylase production for all isolates except Bacillus subtilis SUD-K 3 which had an optimum at pH 7.0. Three isolates (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K 1 , SUD-K 4 and SUD-O recorded highestamylase production in a medium supplemented with peptone while the rest (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K 2 , Bacillus subtilis SUD-K 3 and Bacillus circulans SUD-K 7 ) gave highest amylase productivity in a medium supplemented with malt extract. Four isolates (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K 1 and Bacillus subtilis SUD-K 3 gave maximum amylase production in a medium containing 0.5% soluble strach while the rest (gave maximum amylase production at 2%. Soluble strach was found to be best substrate among the different carbon sources tested. The maximum temperature for amylase activity ranged from 60-70 deg C and 1% strach concentration was optimum for all isolates

  8. DECONTAMINATION ASSESSMENT OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS, AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACTS USING A HYDROGEN PERIOXIDE GAS GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To evaluate the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface materials using hydrogen peroxide gas. Methods and Results: B. anthracis, B. subtilis, and G. Stearothermophilus spores were dried on seven...

  9. Heat activation and stability of amylases from Bacillus species | Ajayi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leitch and Collier sporulating Bacillus medium was used to isolate some strains of Bacillus species from soil, wastewater and food sources in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, by heat activation method. Heat treatment at 80oC allowed the growth of sporulating Bacillus species, in the culture sample source without other bacteria ...

  10. Study The Effect of 4 weeks of Special Aerobic Training on CBS and SAM Levels in Hippocampus of Rats with Alzheimer-induced Disease with Aβ1-42 Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Azimi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: H2S plays a key role in the pathogenesis of the Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 4 weeks of the special aerobic training after induction of Alzheimer’s disease by Aβ1-42 injection on CBS and SAM levels in hippocampus of Wistar male rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats (8 weeks old and weight 195 ± 20 g were divided into four groups including: healthy control, Alzheimer’s control, Alzheimer’s + training and sham. To induce Alzheimer’s disease, Aβ1-42 was infused into the hippocampus of rats. Training group trained for 4-week. For data analysis, one-way ANOVA was used and Eta and Omega squared tests were used to determine the effect size (p<0.05. Results: Findings revealed that 4 weeks of special aerobic training increased significantly the CBS and SAM levels in hippocampus of Alzheimer’s rats compared to the control Alzheimer’s rats ( ES=53; p= 0.007, ES= 92.22; p= 0.001. Also, we showed 4 weeks of special aerobic training increased CBS level in hippocampus of Alzheimer’s rats compared to the healthy cotrol group (ES= 44.07; p= 0.014. Conclusion: It seems that the special aerobic training can be used as a useful non-pharmacologically effective therapeutic treatment for Alzheimer's patients through positive regulation of hydrogen sulfide via CBS and SAM enzymes.

  11. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus velezensis, and Bacillus siamensis Form an "Operational Group B. amyloliquefaciens" within the B. subtilis Species Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ben; Blom, Jochen; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Borriss, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The plant growth promoting model bacterium FZB42 T was proposed as the type strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum (Borriss et al., 2011), but has been recently recognized as being synonymous to Bacillus velezensis due to phylogenomic analysis (Dunlap C. et al., 2016). However, until now, majority of publications consider plant-associated close relatives of FZB42 still as " B. amyloliquefaciens ." Here, we reinvestigated the taxonomic status of FZB42 and related strains in its context to the free-living soil bacterium DSM7 T , the type strain of B. amyloliquefaciens . We identified 66 bacterial genomes from the NCBI data bank with high similarity to DSM7 T . Dendrograms based on complete rpoB nucleotide sequences and on core genome sequences, respectively, clustered into a clade consisting of three tightly linked branches: (1) B. amyloliquefaciens , (2) Bacillus siamensis , and (3) a conspecific group containing the type strains of B. velezensis, Bacillus methylotrophicus , and B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum . The three monophyletic clades shared a common mutation rate of 0.01 substitutions per nucleotide position, but were distantly related to Bacillus subtilis (0.1 substitutions per nucleotide position). The tight relatedness of the three clusters was corroborated by TETRA, dDDH, ANI, and AAI analysis of the core genomes, but dDDH and ANI values were found slightly below species level thresholds when B. amyloliquefaciens DSM7 T genome sequence was used as query sequence. Due to these results, we propose that the B. amyloliquefaciens clade should be considered as a taxonomic unit above of species level, designated here as "operational group B. amyloliquefaciens " consisting of the soil borne B. amyloliquefaciens , and plant associated B. siamensis and B. velezensis , whose members are closely related and allow identifying changes on the genomic level due to developing the plant-associated life-style.

  12. Production of Cellulases, Xylanase, Pectinase, alpha-amylase and Protease Enzymes Cocktail by Bacillus spp. and Their Mixed Cultures with Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula glutinis under Solid State Fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Batal, A.I.; Abo-State, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    A group of twelve locally isolated Bacillus species, B.megaterium (MAI and MA II), B.licheniformis (MLI and ML II); B. circulans, B. stearothermophilis, B.cereus, B.sphaericus, B. pumilus, B. laterosporus, B. coagulans and B. pantothenticus, were examined for the production of cellulases, xylanase, pectinase, alpha-amylase and protease enzymes cocktail on wheat bran under solid state fermentation (SSF). All species were found to be potent hydrolyzing enzymes producers and the superior producing species were B. megaterium MAI and B. licheniformis. On the other hand, both of them still produced highest enzyme titres when mixed with Candida tropicalis or Rhodotorula glutinis, yeast strains. The two superior bacterial strains produced the highest enzymatic activities when coculturing with C. tropicalis compared with coculturing with R. glutinis only or with both C. tropicalis and R. glutinis in combination. The inferior activities of cocultures (B. megaterinm MAI and R. glutinis) were enhanced in carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), filter paper cellulase (FPase), avecilase, xylanase, pectinase, -amylase and protease by gamma irradiation at dose 1.0 kGy with percent increase 8 %, 20 %, 10 %, 4 %, 31 %, 22 % and 34 %, respectively as compared with un-irradiated cocultures

  13. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes withBacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia; Burd, Henry; Joukov, Victor; Kaznadzey, Denis; Walunas, Theresa; D' Souza, Mark; Larsen, Niels; Pusch,Gordon; Liolios, Konstantinos; Grechkin, Yuri; Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman,Eugene; Chu, Lien; Fonstein, Michael; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Overbeek, Ross; Kyrpides, Nikos; Ivanova, Natalia

    2005-09-14

    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-layer proteins suggesting differences in their phenotype were identified. The B. cereus group has signal transduction systems including a tyrosine kinase related to two-component system histidine kinases from B. subtilis. A model for regulation of the stress responsive sigma factor sigmaB in the B. cereus group different from the well studied regulation in B. subtilis has been proposed. Despite a high degree of chromosomal synteny among these genomes, significant differences in cell wall and spore coat proteins that contribute to the survival and adaptation in specific hosts has been identified.

  14. Primary and secondary oxidative stress in Bacillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, Maarten; Abee, Tjakko

    Coping with oxidative stress originating from oxidizing compounds or reactive oxygen species (ROS), associated with the exposure to agents that cause environmental stresses, is one of the prerequisites for an aerobic lifestyle of Bacillus spp. such as B. subtilis, B. cereus and B. anthracis. This

  15. Primary and secondary oxidative stress in Bacillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.M.; Abee, T.

    2011-01-01

    Coping with oxidative stress originating from oxidizing compounds or reactive oxygen species (ROS), associated with the exposure to agents that cause environmental stresses, is one of the prerequisites for an aerobic lifestyle of Bacillus spp. such as B. subtilis, B. cereus and B. anthracis. This

  16. Antibacterial potential components of Bacillus species and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honey is a sweet viscous liquid produced by honey bee, Apis mellifera from the nectar of plants. Honey is a natural product that has been used from ancient times till now as food and for medicinal purpose. This study was carried out to determine the mode of action of Bacillus species and antibiotics residues in branded and ...

  17. Preliminary investigations reveal that Bacillus thuringiensis δ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The imminent introduction of transgenic crops into Kenya requires a rigorous assessment of the potential risks involved. This study focused on the possible effect of Bacillus thuringiensisδ-endotoxin [CryIA(c)] on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with sorghum. In green house experiments, sorghum seedlings ...

  18. Antimicrobials of Bacillus species: mining and engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus sp. have been successfully used to suppress various bacterial and fungal pathogens. Due to the wide availability of whole genome sequence data and the development of genome mining tools, novel antimicrobials are being discovered and updated,;not only bacteriocins, but also NRPs and PKs. A

  19. Molecular characterization of Lepidopteran specific Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guest

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains pathogenic to Lepidopteran insects and native to hilly zone soils of. Karnataka (India) were explored. 19 strains were isolated from the soils and identified by morphological and microscopic characters. Toxicity level of the Bt isolates was tested by treating third Instar larvae ...

  20. The Regulatory RNAs of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mars, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    In vrijwel alle organismen wordt RNA aangemaakt dat niet codeert voor eiwit, maar een regulerende functie heeft. Dit proefschrift beschrijft de identificatie van ~1600 nieuwe potentiële regulatie-RNAs in de bodembacterie Bacillus subtilis die veel voor biotechnologische toepassingen ingezet wordt.

  1. Bacillus thuringiensis and its application in agriculture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... Key words: Bacillus thuringiensis, endotoxins, crop plants. INTRODUCTION ..... of resistance in the pest and unfavorable interactions with beneficial .... with slower resistance evolution in North Carolina compared to .... level of 0.18% cross pollination in the experimental rice lines. .... Ecology and Safety.

  2. The Cell Wall of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffers, Dirk-Jan; Graumann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The cell wall of Bacillus subtilis is a rigid structure on the outside of the cell that forms the first barrier between the bacterium and the environment, and at the same time maintains cell shape and withstands the pressure generated by the cell’s turgor. In this chapter, the chemical composition

  3. Type I signal peptidases of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjalsma, Harold; Bolhuis, Albert; Bron, Sierd; Jongbloed, Jan; Meijer, Wilfried J.J.; Noback, Michiel; van Roosmalen, Maarten; Venema, Gerhardus; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Hopsu Havu, VK; Jarvinen, M; Kirschke, H

    1997-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis contains at least three chromosomally-encoded type I signal peptidases (SPases; SipS, SipT, and SipU), which remove signal peptides from secretory proteins. In addition, certain B. subtilis (natto) strains contain plasmid-encoded type I SPases (SipP). The known type I SPases from

  4. Utilization of corn starch as sustrate for ß-Amylase by Bacillus SPP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn starch was used as substrate for ß -amylase production from ten(10) amylolytic species of the genus Bacillus isolated locally from soil, waste water and food sources. Ten bacillus strains was made up of two strains each of Bacillus macerans, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus circulans. Also included are B. coagulans, ...

  5. Bacillus caldolyticus prs gene encoding phosphoribosyldiphosphate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta N.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1996-01-01

    The prs gene, encoding phosphoribosyl-diphosphate (PRPP) synthase, as well as the flanking DNA sequences were cloned and sequenced from the Gram-positive thermophile, Bacillus caldolyticus. Comparison with the homologous sequences from the mesophile, Bacillus subtilis, revealed a gene (gca......D) encoding N-acetylglucosamine-l-phosphate uridyltransferase upstream of prs, and a gene homologous to ctc downstream of prs. cDNA synthesis with a B. caldolyticus gcaD-prs-ctc-specified mRNA as template, followed by amplification utilising the polymerase chain reaction indicated that the three genes are co......-transcribed. Comparison of amino acid sequences revealed a high similarity among PRPP synthases across a wide phylogenetic range. An E. coli strain harbouring the B. caldolyticus prs gene in a multicopy plasmid produced PRPP synthase activity 33-fold over the activity of a haploid B. caldolyticus strain. B. caldolyticus...

  6. Relationship of the MTHFD1 (rs2236225, eNOS (rs1799983, CBS (rs2850144 and ACE (rs4343 gene polymorphisms in a population of Iranian pediatric patients with congenital heart defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Khatami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart defects are structural cardiovascular malformations that arise from abnormal formation of the heart or major blood vessels during the fetal period. To investigate the association of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the MTHFD1, eNOS, CBS and ACE genes, we evaluated their relationship with CHD in Iranian patients. In this case–control study, a total of 102 children with CHD and 98 control children were enrolled. Four SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T, CBS C-4673G and ACE A2350G were genotyped by PCR-SSCP, Multiplex ARMS PCR and PCR-RFLP methods and confirmed by direct sequencing. We genotyped 102 patients and 98 controls for four polymorphisms by statistically analysis. There were three SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G which might increase the risk of CHD, but CBS C-4673G was not significantly different between patients and controls. (P = 0.017, P = 0.048, P = 0.025 and P = 0.081 respectively. The allele frequencies of three SNPs for MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G in CHD are higher than that in control. Our results show that there is a significant relationship between MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G polymorphisms with CHD. Therefore, The AA and GA genotypes of MTHFD1 G1958A, TT and GT genotypes of eNOS G894T and the AA and GA genotypes of ACE A2350G are susceptible factors for CHD and may increase the risk of CHD.

  7. Relationship of the MTHFD1 (rs2236225), eNOS (rs1799983), CBS (rs2850144) and ACE (rs4343) gene polymorphisms in a population of Iranian pediatric patients with congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Mehri; Ratki, Farzaneh Morteza; Tajfar, Saba; Akrami, Fatemeh

    2017-09-01

    Congenital heart defects are structural cardiovascular malformations that arise from abnormal formation of the heart or major blood vessels during the fetal period. To investigate the association of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MTHFD1, eNOS, CBS and ACE genes, we evaluated their relationship with CHD in Iranian patients. In this case-control study, a total of 102 children with CHD and 98 control children were enrolled. Four SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T, CBS C-4673G and ACE A2350G were genotyped by PCR-SSCP, Multiplex ARMS PCR and PCR-RFLP methods and confirmed by direct sequencing. We genotyped 102 patients and 98 controls for four polymorphisms by statistically analysis. There were three SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G which might increase the risk of CHD, but CBS C-4673G was not significantly different between patients and controls. (P = 0.017, P = 0.048, P = 0.025 and P = 0.081 respectively). The allele frequencies of three SNPs for MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G in CHD are higher than that in control. Our results show that there is a significant relationship between MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G polymorphisms with CHD. Therefore, The AA and GA genotypes of MTHFD1 G1958A, TT and GT genotypes of eNOS G894T and the AA and GA genotypes of ACE A2350G are susceptible factors for CHD and may increase the risk of CHD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  8. Therapeutic effects of L-Cysteine in newborn mice subjected to hypoxia-ischemia brain injury via the CBS/H2S system: Role of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Song; Xin, Danqing; Wang, Lingxiao; Zhang, Tiantian; Bai, Xuemei; Li, Tong; Xie, Yunkai; Xue, Hao; Bo, Shishi; Liu, Dexiang; Wang, Zhen

    2017-10-01

    Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury is a major cause of neonatal death and neurological dysfunction. H 2 S has been shown to protect against hypoxia-induced injury and apoptosis of neurons. L-Cysteine is catalyzed by cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) in the brain and sequentially produces endogenous H 2 S. The present study was designed to investigate whether L-Cysteine could attenuate the acute brain injury and improve neurobehavioral outcomes following HI brain injury in neonatal mice by releasing endogenous H 2 S. L-Cysteine treatment significantly attenuated brain edema and decreased infarct volume and neuronal cell death, as shown by a decrease in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, suppression of caspase-3 activation, and reduced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK at 72h after HI. Additionally, L-Cysteine substantially up-regulated NF-E2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase-1 expression. L-Cysteine also decreased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated pro-apoptotic protein expression. Furthermore, L-Cysteine had long-term effects by protecting against the loss of ipsilateral brain tissue and improving neurobehavioral outcomes. Importantly, pre-treatment with a CBS inhibitor significantly attenuated the neuroprotection of L-Cysteine on HI insult. Thus, L-Cysteine exerts neuroprotection against HI-induced injury in neonates via the CBS/H 2 S pathway, mediated in part by anti-apoptotic effects and reduced oxidative stress and ER stress. Thus, L-Cysteine may be a promising treatment for HI. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. PRODUCTION OF FIBRINOLYTIC ENZYME (NATTOKINASE) FROM BACILLUS SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Padma Singh, Rekha Negi*, Vani Sharma, Alka Rani, Pallavi and Richa Prasad

    2018-01-01

    During present study Nattokinase which is a novel fibrinolytic enzyme was produced by Bacillus sp. To screen and extract nattokinase enzyme from Bacillus sp. were isolated from soil of different agricultural field by serial dilution method. Out of 10 isolate, one strain i.e. B3 produced nattokinase on screening medium. B3 was identified by biochemical characterization. The caseinolytic activity of Nattokinase was 0.526 U/ml and the selected isolate Bacillus sp. could produce active nattokinas...

  10. Bioaccumulation of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead by Bacillus sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus subtilis Bioacumulação de cobre, zinco, cádmio e chumbo por Bacillus sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus e Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Augusto da Costa

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents some results on the use of microbes from the genus Bacillus for uptake of cadmium, zinc, copper and lead ions. Maximum copper bioaccumulations were 5.6 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 5.9 mol/g biomass for B. cereus and B. subtilis, and 6.4 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. Maximum zinc bioaccumulations were 4.3 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 4.6 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 4.8 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 5.0 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis. Maximum cadmium bioaccumulations were 8.0 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 9.5 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis, 10.8 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 11.8 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus. Maximum lead biomaccumulations were 0.7 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 1.1 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 1.4 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 1.8 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis. The different Bacillus strains tested presented distinct uptake capacities, and the best results were obtained for B. subtilis and B. cereus.Este trabalho apresenta resultados de acumulação dos íons metálicos cádmio, zinco, cobre e chumbo por bactérias do gênero Bacillus. A bioacumulação máxima de cobre foi 5,6 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 5,9 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus e B. subtilis, e 6,4 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp.. A bioacumulação máxima de zinco foi 4,3 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 4,6 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 4,8 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 5,0 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis. A bioacumulação máxima de cádmio foi 8,0 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 9,5 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis, 10,8 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 11,8 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus. A bioacumulação máxima de chumbo foi 0,7 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 1,1 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 1,4 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 1,8 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis. As distintas linhagens de Bacillus testadas apresentaram variáveis capacidades de carregamento de íons metálicos, sendo os

  11. Isolation of bacillus thuringiensis from different samples from Mansehra District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, F.; Lodhi, A.F.; Raza, G.

    2009-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis has made it very interesting for the control of a variety of agricultural pests and human disease vectors. The present study is an attempt to explore the potential and diversity. of Bacillus thuringiensis. from the local environment for the control of cotton spotted bollworm (Earias sp.), a major pest of cotton. Two hundred and ninety eight samples of soil, grain dust, wild animal dung, birds dropping, decaying leaves and dead insects were collected from different ecological environments of Mansehra District yielding 438 Bacillus thuringiensis isolates that produce parasporal crystalline inclusions. In this study the soil samples were found to be the richest source for Bacillus thuringiensis. (author)

  12. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, T. N. C.; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions. PMID:27258038

  13. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Khatri

    Full Text Available Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions.

  14. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Indu; Sharma, Shailza; Ramya, T N C; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions.

  15. Genetic transformation of Bacillus strains close to bacillus subtilis and isolated from the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van, C.K.; Kuzin, Yu.Yu.; Kozlovskii, Yu.E.; Prozorov, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Chromosomal and plasmid transformation was found in five out of 118 Bacillus strains, close or identical to Bacillus subtilis, and isolated from soil in Moscow or in the Moscow district. The efficiency of transformation in these strains was lower than that in derivatives of Bac. subtilis strain 168. In these strains the ability to undergo transformation was dependent on the rate of sporulation and the presence of restrictases. As in the case of Bac. subtilis 168 the strains isolated may be used as models in genetic transformation studies on Bac. subtilis

  16. Isolation and characterization of a novel analyte from Bacillus subtilis SC-8 antagonistic to Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam Keun; Yeo, In-Cheol; Park, Joung Whan; Kang, Byung-Sun; Hahm, Young Tae

    2010-09-01

    In this study, an effective substance was isolated from Bacillus subtilis SC-8, which was obtained from traditionally fermented soybean paste, cheonggukjang. The substance was purified by HPLC, and its properties were analyzed. It had an adequate antagonistic effect on Bacilluscereus, and its spectrum of activity was narrow. When tested on several gram-negative and gram-positive foodborne pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella enterica, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes, no antagonistic effect was observed. Applying the derivative from B. subtilis SC-8 within the same genus did not inhibit the growth of major soybean-fermenting bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloquefaciens. The range of pH stability of the purified antagonistic substance was wide (from 4.0 to >10.0), and the substance was thermally stable up to 60 degrees C. In the various enzyme treatments, the antagonistic activity of the purified substance was reduced with proteinase K, protease, and lipase; its activity was partially destroyed with esterase. Spores of B. cereus did not grow at all in the presence of 5mug/mL of the purified antagonistic substance. The isolated antagonistic substance was thought to be an antibiotic-like lipopeptidal compound and was tentatively named BSAP-254 because it absorbed to UV radiation at 254nm. Copyright 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enzyme activities and antibiotic susceptibility of colonial variants of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlisle, G E; Falkinham, J O

    1989-01-01

    A nonmucoid colonial variant of a mucoid Bacillus subtilis strain produced less amylase activity and a transparent colonial variant of a B. licheniformis strain produced less protease activity compared with their parents. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the colonial variants differed, and increased resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics was correlated with increased production of extracellular beta-lactamase.

  18. Micro-Etched Platforms for Thermal Inactivation of Bacillus Anthracis and Bacillus Thuringiensis Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    slips was first coated with a detergent wash. Commercially available Ivory soap shavings were diluted with sterile Millipore® water in a...environments. This removed controllable variability between the Bacillus species and increased the confidence in continued use of such surrogacy

  19. Biodegradation of naphthalene and phenanthren by Bacillus subtilis 3KP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni'matuzahroh, Trikurniadewi, N.; Pramadita, A. R. A.; Pratiwi, I. A.; Salamun, Fatimah, Sumarsih, Sri

    2017-06-01

    The purposes of this research were to know growth response, degradation ability, and uptake mechanism of naphthalene and phenanthrene by Bacillus subtilis 3KP. Bacillus subtilis 3KP was grown on Mineral Synthetic (MS) medium with addition of 1% yeast extract and naphthalene and phenanthrene respectively 200 ppm in different cultures. Bacillus subtilis 3KP growth response was monitored by Total Plate Count (TPC) method, the degradation ability was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and the uptake mechanism of hydrocarbon was monitored by emulsification activity, decrease of surface tension, and activity of Bacterial Adherence to Hydrocarbon (BATH). Bacillus subtilis 3KP was able to grow and show biphasic growth pattern on both of substrates. Naphthalene and phenanthrene were used as a carbon source for Bacillus subtilis 3KP growth that indicated by the reduction of substrate concomitant with the growth. At room temperature conditions (± 30°C) and 90 rpm of agitation for 7 days, Bacillus subtilis 3KP could degrade naphthalene in the amount of 70.5% and phenanthrene in the amount of 24.8%. Based on the analysis of UV-Vis spectrophotometer, three metabolites, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, salicylic acid, and pyrocatechol were found in both cultures. The metabolite identification became basis of propose degradation pathway of naphthalene and phenanthrene by Bacillus subtilis 3KP. The results of hydrocarbon uptake mechanism test show that Bacillus subtilis 3KP used all of the mechanism to degrade naphthalene and phenanthrene.

  20. Role of fatty acids in Bacillus environmental adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Esther Diomande

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The large bacterial genus genus Bacillus is widely distributed in the environment and is able to colonize highly diverse niches. Some Bacillus species harbour pathogenic characteristics. The fatty acid (FA composition is among the essential criteria used to define Bacillus species. Some elements of the FA pattern composition are common to Bacillus species, whereas others are specific and can be categorized in relation to the ecological niches of the species. Bacillus species are able to modify their FA patterns to adapt to a wide range of environmental changes, including changes in the growth medium, temperature, food processing conditions, and pH. Like many other Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus strains display a well-defined FA synthesis II system that is equilibrated with a FA degradation pathway and regulated to efficiently respond to the needs of the cell. Like endogenous FAs, exogenous FAs may positively or negatively affect the survival of Bacillus vegetative cells and the spore germination ability in a given environment. Some of these exogenous FAs may provide a powerful strategy for preserving food against contamination by the Bacillus pathogenic strains responsible for foodborne illness.

  1. Evaluation of antifungal activity from Bacillus strains against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, 30 bacterial strains isolated from marine biofilms were screened for their antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani by dual culture assay. Two bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, showed a clear antagonism against R. solani on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. The antagonistic activity ...

  2. Increasing the alkaline protease activity of Bacillus cereus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... cereus and Bacillus polymyxa simultaneously with the start of sporulation phase as a ... microbial forms to inactivation by chemical or physical agents. .... alkaline pH, 9, 10 and 11 and the pH of the culture media was optimized with .... incubation temperature for alkaline protease production by Bacillus ...

  3. Optimizing Bacillus circulans Xue-113168 for biofertilizer production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-12-28

    Dec 28, 2016 ... In this study, Bacillus circulans Xue-113168 biofertilizer was produced through solid state fermentation ... organic matter, NPK content from 8.83 to 16.16 kg hm2, and reduced chemical ... dependent on the nutritional components. ...... shell fish chitin wastes for the production of Bacillus subtilis W-118.

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-1409 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-1409 ref|YP_001487520.1| competence protein EC [Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032] gb|ABV62960.1| compe...tence protein EC [Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032] YP_001487520.1 0.038 28% ...

  5. Effect of Bacillus subtilis on Granite Weathering: A Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Ogawa, N.; Oguchi, C. T.; Hatta, T.; Matsukura, Y.

    2006-12-01

    We performed a comparative experiment to investigate how the ubiquitous soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis weathers granite and which granite-forming minerals weather more rapidly via biological processes. Batch type experiments (granite specimen in a 500 ml solution including NaCl, glucose, yeast extract and bacteria Bacillus subtilis at 27°E C) were carried out for 30 days. Granite surfaces were observed by SEM before and after the experiment. Bacillus subtilis had a strong influence on granite weathering by forming pits. There were 2.4 times as many pits and micropores were 2.3 times wider in granite exposed to Bacillus subtilis when compared with bacteria-free samples. Bacillus subtilis appear to preferentially select an optimum place to adhere to the mineral and dissolve essential elements from the mineral to live. Plagioclase was more vulnerable to bacterial weathering than biotite among the granite composing minerals.

  6. Ecology and genomics of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Ashlee M; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2008-06-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a remarkably diverse bacterial species that is capable of growth within many environments. Recent microarray-based comparative genomic analyses have revealed that members of this species also exhibit considerable genomic diversity. The identification of strain-specific genes might explain how B. subtilis has become so broadly adapted. The goal of identifying ecologically adaptive genes could soon be realized with the imminent release of several new B. subtilis genome sequences. As we embark upon this exciting new era of B. subtilis comparative genomics we review what is currently known about the ecology and evolution of this species.

  7. Protein-Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Petranovic, Dina; Bottini, N.

    2005-01-01

    phosphorylation, indicating that this post-translational modifi cation could regulate physiological processes ranging from stress response and exopolysaccharide synthesis to DNA metabolism. Some interesting work in this fi eld was done in Bacillus subtilis , and we here present the current state of knowledge...... on protein-tyrosine phosphorylation in this gram-positive model organism. With its two kinases, two kinase modulators, three phosphatases and at least four different tyrosine-phosphorylated substrates, B. subtilis is the bacterium with the highest number of presently known participants in the global network...

  8. Effect of garlic solution to Bacillus sp. removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainol, N.; Rahim, S. R.

    2018-04-01

    Biofilm is a microbial derived sessile community characterized by cells that are irreversibly attached to a substratum or interface to each other, embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances that they have produced. Bacillus sp. was used as biofilm model in this study. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Garlic solution in term of ratio of water and Garlic solution (W/G) and ratio of Garlic solution to Bacillus sp. (GS/B) on Bacillus sp removal. Garlic solution was used to remove Bacillus sp. In this study, Garlic solution was prepared by crushing the garlic and mixed it with water. the Garlic solution was added into Bacillus sp. mixture and mixed well. The mixture then was spread on nutrient agar. The Bacillus sp. weight on agar plate was measured by using dry weight measurement method. In this study, initially Garlic solution volume and Garlic solution concentration were studied using one factor at time (OFAT). Later two-level-factorial analysis was done to determine the most contributing factor in Bacillus sp. removal. Design Expert software (Version 7) was used to construct experimental table where all the factors were randomized. Bacilus sp removal was ranging between 42.13% to 99.6%. The analysis of the results showed that at W/G of 1:1, Bacillus sp. removal increased when more Garlic solution was added to Bacillus sp. Effect of Garlic solution to Bacillus sp. will be understood which in turn may be beneficial for the industrial purpose.

  9. Potential of Bacillus spp produces siderophores insuppressing thewilt disease of banana plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesaulya, H.; Hasinu, J. V.; Tuhumury, G. NC

    2018-01-01

    In nature, different types of siderophore such as hydroxymate, catecholets and carboxylate, are produced by different bacteria. Bacillus spp were isolated from potato rhizospheric soil can produce siderophore of both catecholets and salicylate type with different concentrations. Various strains of Bacillus spp were tested for pathogen inhibition capability in a dual culture manner. The test results showed the ability of inhibition of pathogen isolated from banana wilt disease. From the result tested were found Bacillus niabensis Strain PT-32-1, Bacillus subtilis Strain SWI16b, Bacillus subtilis Strain HPC21, Bacillus mojavensis Strain JCEN3, and Bacillus subtilis Strain HPC24 showed different capabilities in suppressing pathogen.

  10. Fast Neutron Radiation Effects on Bacillus Subtili

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoming; Zhang Jianguo; Chu Shijin; Ren Zhenglong; Zheng Chun; Yang Chengde; Tan Bisheng

    2009-01-01

    To examine the sterilizing effect and mechanism of neutron radiation, Bacillus subtilis var. niger. strain (ATCC 9372) spores were irradiated with the fast neutron from the Chinese fast burst reactor II(CFBR-II). The plate-count results indicated that the D 10 value was 384.6 Gy with a neutron radiation dose rate of 7.4 Gy/min. The rudimental catalase activity of the spores declined obviously with the increase in the radiation dose. Meanwhile, under the scanning electron microscope, no visible influence of the neutron radiation on the spore configuration was detected even if the dose was increased to 4 kGy. The content and distribution of DNA double-strand breaks induced by neutron radiation at different doses were measured and quantified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Further analysis of the DNA release percentage (PR), the DNA breakage level (L), and the average molecular weight, indicated that DNA fragments were obviously distributed around the 5 kb regions at different radiation doses, which suggests that some points in the DNA molecule were sensitive to neutron radiation. Both PR and L varied regularly to some extent with the increase in radiation dose. Thus neutron radiation has a high sterilization power, and can induce falling enzyme activity and DNA breakage in Bacillus subtilis spores

  11. Bacillus beijingensis sp. nov. and Bacillus ginsengi sp. nov., isolated from ginseng root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Fubin; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Lin; Sun, Lei; Schumann, Peter; Song, Wei

    2009-04-01

    Four alkaligenous, moderately halotolerant strains, designated ge09, ge10(T), ge14(T) and ge15, were isolated from the internal tissue of ginseng root and their taxonomic positions were investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of the four strains were Gram-positive-staining, non-motile, short rods. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains ge09 and ge10(T) formed one cluster and strains ge14(T) and ge15 formed another separate cluster within the genus Bacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with type strains of other Bacillus species were less than 97 %. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness among the four strains showed that strains ge09 and ge10(T) and strains ge14(T) and ge15 belonged to two separate species; the mean level of DNA-DNA relatedness between ge10(T) and ge14(T) was only 28.7 %. Their phenotypic and physiological properties supported the view that the two strains represent two different novel species of the genus Bacillus. The DNA G+C contents of strains ge10(T) and ge14(T) were 49.9 and 49.6 mol%, respectively. Strains ge10(T) and ge14(T) showed the peptidoglycan type A4alpha l-Lys-d-Glu. The lipids present in strains ge10(T) and ge14(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, a minor amount of phosphatidylcholine and two unknown phospholipids. Their predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The fatty acid profiles of the four novel strains contained large quantities of branched and saturated fatty acids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) (42.5 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (22.2 %), anteiso-C(17 : 0) (7.3 %) and C(16 : 1)omega7c alcohol (5.7 %) in ge10(T) and iso-C(15 : 0) (50.7 %) and anteiso-C(15 : 0) (20.1 %) in ge14(T). On the basis of their phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, two novel species of the genus Bacillus are proposed, Bacillus beijingensis sp. nov. (type strain ge10(T) =DSM 19037(T) =CGMCC 1.6762(T)) and Bacillus ginsengi sp. nov. (type strain ge14

  12. Heavy metals and their radionuclides uptake by Bacillus Licheniformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.A.; Ahmed, M.M.; Abo-state, M.A.M.; Sarhan, M.; Faroqe, M.

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis is a gram positive spore forming bacterium. Different concentrations of cobalt affected the ability of Co uptake and growth of Bacillus licheniformis. As the concentration increased, both the uptake and growth were decreased. Maximum Co uptake was found at ph 7.0, while for growth was ph 8.0. The optimum temperature for uptake and growth was 40 degree C and 20% inoculum size represents the maximum cobalt uptake by Bacillus licheniformis. Also, maximum uptake was recorded after 72 hours, incubation period. As the concentration of cesium was increased till 400 mg/l, the uptake was also increased. The optimum cesium uptake and growth was at ph 8.0. The optimum growth was at 45 degree C while Cs uptake was found at 35 degree C and 15% inoculum size represented the maximum Cs uptake. After 72 hour incubation period, maximum Cs uptake was recorded. Generally, Bacillus licheniformis removed more than 80% of Co and 50% of Cs from the broth medium. Addition of clay to Bacillus licheniformis increased both Co or Cs uptake. Bacillus licheniformis was gamma resistant and 10 KGy reduced the viability by 5.3 log cycles. The irradiated and non-irradiated cultures can grow on 500 or 700 mg Co or Cs. Bacillus licheniformis removed 99.32% of the Co radionuclides and 99.28% of Cs radionuclides

  13. Identification of Bacillus anthracis by Using Monoclonal Antibody to Cell Wall Galactose-N-Acetylglucosamine Polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    Bacillus circulans ATCC 4513 b - - NR NT NT NT NT Bacillus coagulans ATCC 7050 b - - NR NT NT NT NT Bacillus eugilitis B-61 f - - NR NT NT NT NT...American Society for Microbiology W Identification of Bacillus anthracis by-U-sing Monoclonal Antibody CC to Cell Wall Galactose-N-Acetylglucosamine...Received 22 June 1989/Accepted 31 October 1989 ’ Guanidine extracts of crude Bacillus anthracis cell wall were used to vaccinate BALB/c mice and to

  14. Screening of Bacillus Species with Potentials of Antibiotics Production

    OpenAIRE

    Faruk Adamu KUTA; Lohya NIMZING; Priscilla Yahemba ORKA’A

    2009-01-01

    Sixteen soil samples were collected from different refuse dump sites in Minna, the capital Niger State, and analysed for the presence of Bacillus species. Physical-chemical analysis of the soil samples revealed the followings: PH value 6.89-8.47; moisture content 1.58 – 21.21% and temperature 27-28ºC. Using both pour plate and streak method of inoculation, total bacterial count in the soil samples ranged from 3.8×104 cfu/g 16.0×104 cfu/g. The identified Bacillus species included: Bacillus cer...

  15. Reparation and Immunomodulating Properties of Bacillus sp. Metabolites from Permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenova, L F; Melnikov, V P; Besedin, I M; Bazhin, A S; Gabdulin, M A; Kolyvanova, S S

    2017-09-01

    An ointment containing metabolites of Bacillus sp. microorganisms isolated from permafrost samples was applied onto the skin wound of BALB/c mice. Metabolites isolated during culturing of Bacillus sp. at 37°C produced a potent therapeutic effect and promoted wound epithelialization by 30% in comparison with the control (ointment base) and by 20% in comparison with Solcoseryl. Treatment with Bacillus sp. metabolites stimulated predominantly humoral immunity, reduced the time of wound contraction and the volume of scar tissue, and promoted complete hair recovery. These metabolites can be considered as modulators of the wound process with predominance of regeneration mechanisms.

  16. Characteristics and Application of a Novel Species of Bacillus: Bacillus velezensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Miao; Tang, Xiangfang; Yang, Ru; Zhang, Hongfu; Li, Fangshu; Tao, Fangzheng; Li, Fei; Wang, Zaigui

    2018-03-16

    Bacillus velezensis has been investigated and applied more and more widely recently because it can inhibit fungi and bacteria and become a potential biocontrol agent. In order to provide more clear and comprehensive understanding of B. velezensis for researchers, we collected the recent relevant articles systematically and reviewed the discovery and taxonomy, secondary metabolites, characteristics and application, gene function, and molecular research of B. velezensis. This review will give some direction to the research and application of this strain for the future.

  17. Occurrence and significance of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in ready-to-eat food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Ørum-Smidt, Lasse; Andersen, Sigrid R

    2005-01-01

    Among 48,901 samples of ready-to-eat food products at the Danish retail market, 0.5% had counts of Bacillus cereus-like bacteria above 10(4) cfu g(-1). The high counts were most frequently found in starchy, cooked products, but also in fresh cucumbers and tomatoes. Forty randomly selected strains....../or content of cry genes. Thus, a large proportion of the B. cereus-like organisms present in food may belong to B. thuringiensis....

  18. [New antibiotics produced by Bacillus subtilis strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanicheva, I A; Kozlov, D G; Efimenko, T A; Zenkova, V A; Kastrukha, G S; Reznikova, M I; Korolev, A M; Borshchevskaia, L N; Tarasova, O D; Sineokiĭ, S P; Efremenkova, O V

    2014-01-01

    Two Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from the fruiting body of a basidiomycete fungus Pholiota squarrosa exhibited a broad range of antibacterial activity, including those against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus INA 00761 (MRSA) and Leuconostoc mes6nteroides VKPM B-4177 resistant to glycopep-> tide antibiotics, as well as antifungal activity. The strains were identified as belonging to the "B. subtilis" com- plex based on their morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene fragments. Both strains (INA 01085 and INA 01086) produced insignificant amounts of polyene antibiotics (hexaen and pentaen, respectively). Strain INA 01086 produced also a cyclic polypeptide antibiotic containing Asp, Gly, Leu, Pro, Tyr, Thr, Trp, and Phe, while the antibiotic of strain INA 01085 contained, apart from these, two unidentified nonproteinaceous amino acids. Both polypeptide antibiotics were new compounds efficient against gram-positive bacteria and able to override the natural bacterial antibiotic resistance.

  19. Extracellular signaling and multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Elizabeth Anne; Kolter, Roberto

    2011-12-01

    Bacillus subtilis regulates its ability to differentiate into distinct, co-existing cell types in response to extracellular signaling molecules produced either by itself, or present in its environment. The production of molecules by B. subtilis cells, as well as their response to these signals, is not uniform across the population. There is specificity and heterogeneity both within genetically identical populations as well as at the strain-level and species-level. This review will discuss how extracellular signaling compounds influence B. subtilis multicellularity with regard to matrix-producing cannibal differentiation, germination, and swarming behavior, as well as the specificity of the quorum-sensing peptides ComX and CSF. It will also highlight how imaging mass spectrometry can aid in identifying signaling compounds and contribute to our understanding of the functional relationship between such compounds and multicellular behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A singular enzymatic megacomplex from Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Paul D; Fischbach, Michael A; Walsh, Christopher T; Rudner, David Z; Kolter, Roberto

    2007-01-02

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), polyketide synthases (PKS), and hybrid NRPS/PKS are of particular interest, because they produce numerous therapeutic agents, have great potential for engineering novel compounds, and are the largest enzymes known. The predicted masses of known enzymatic assembly lines can reach almost 5 megadaltons, dwarfing even the ribosome (approximately 2.6 megadaltons). Despite their uniqueness and importance, little is known about the organization of these enzymes within the native producer cells. Here we report that an 80-kb gene cluster, which occupies approximately 2% of the Bacillus subtilis genome, encodes the subunits of approximately 2.5 megadalton active hybrid NRPS/PKS. Many copies of the NRPS/PKS assemble into a single organelle-like membrane-associated complex of tens to hundreds of megadaltons. Such an enzymatic megacomplex is unprecedented in bacterial subcellular organization and has important implications for engineering novel NRPS/PKSs.

  1. Studies on DNA repair in Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tadashi; Kada, Tsuneo

    1977-01-01

    An enzyme which enhances the priming activity of γ-irradiated DNA for type I DNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.7) was identified and partially purified from extracts of Bacillus subtilis cells. The enzyme preferentially degraded γ-irradiated DNA into acid-soluble materials. DNA preparations treated with heat, ultraviolet light, pancreatic DNAase (EC 3.1.4.5) or micrococcal DNAase (EC 3.1.4.7) were not susceptible to the enzyme. However, sonication rendered DNA susceptible to the enzyme to some extent. From these results, it is supposed that this enzyme may function by 'cleaning' damaged terminals produced by γ-irradiation to serve as effective primer of sites for repair synthesis by the type I DNA polymerase

  2. A love affair with Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losick, Richard

    2015-01-30

    My career in science was launched when I was an undergraduate at Princeton University and reinforced by graduate training at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. However, it was only after I moved to Harvard University as a junior fellow that my affections were captured by a seemingly mundane soil bacterium. What Bacillus subtilis offered was endless fascinating biological problems (alternative sigma factors, sporulation, swarming, biofilm formation, stochastic cell fate switching) embedded in a uniquely powerful genetic system. Along the way, my career in science became inseparably interwoven with teaching and mentoring, which proved to be as rewarding as the thrill of discovery. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Bacillus subtilis as potential producer for polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Sanjay KS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are biodegradable polymers produced by microbes to overcome environmental stress. Commercial production of PHAs is limited by the high cost of production compared to conventional plastics. Another hindrance is the brittle nature and low strength of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB, the most widely studied PHA. The needs are to produce PHAs, which have better elastomeric properties suitable for biomedical applications, preferably from inexpensive renewable sources to reduce cost. Certain unique properties of Bacillus subtilis such as lack of the toxic lipo-polysaccharides, expression of self-lysing genes on completion of PHA biosynthetic process – for easy and timely recovery, usage of biowastes as feed enable it to compete as potential candidate for commercial production of PHA.

  4. Bacillus subtilis as potential producer for polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mamtesh; Patel, Sanjay Ks; Kalia, Vipin C

    2009-07-20

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable polymers produced by microbes to overcome environmental stress. Commercial production of PHAs is limited by the high cost of production compared to conventional plastics. Another hindrance is the brittle nature and low strength of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), the most widely studied PHA. The needs are to produce PHAs, which have better elastomeric properties suitable for biomedical applications, preferably from inexpensive renewable sources to reduce cost. Certain unique properties of Bacillus subtilis such as lack of the toxic lipo-polysaccharides, expression of self-lysing genes on completion of PHA biosynthetic process - for easy and timely recovery, usage of biowastes as feed enable it to compete as potential candidate for commercial production of PHA.

  5. Cleaning and Disinfection of Bacillus cereus Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Amanda; Klein, Dan; Lopolito, Paul; Schwarz, John Spencer

    2016-01-01

    Methodology has been evolving for the testing of disinfectants against bacterial single-species biofilms, as the difficulty of biofilm remediation continues to gain much-needed attention. Bacterial single-species biofilm contamination presents a real risk to good manufacturing practice-regulated industries. However, mixed-species biofilms and biofilms containing bacterial spores remain an even greater challenge for cleaning and disinfection. Among spore-forming microorganisms frequently encountered in pharmaceutical manufacturing areas, the spores of Bacillus cereus are often determined to be the hardest to disinfect and eradicate. One of the reasons for the low degree of susceptibility to disinfection is the ability of these spores to be encapsulated within an exopolysachharide biofilm matrix. In this series of experiments, we evaluated the disinfectant susceptibility of B. cereus biofilms relative to disassociated B. cereus spores and biofilm from a non-spore-forming species. Further, we assessed the impact that pre-cleaning has on increasing that susceptibility. Methodology has been evolving for the testing of disinfectants against bacterial single-species biofilms, as the difficulty of biofilm remediation continues to gain much-needed attention. Bacterial single-species biofilm contamination presents a real risk to good manufacturing practice-regulated industries. However, mixed-species biofilms and biofilms containing bacterial spores remain an even greater challenge for cleaning and disinfection. Among spore-forming microorganisms frequently encountered in pharmaceutical manufacturing areas, the spores of Bacillus cereus are often determined to be the hardest to disinfect and eradicate. One of the reasons for the low degree of susceptibility to disinfection is the ability of these spores to be encapsulated within an exopolysachharide biofilm matrix. In this series of experiments, we evaluated the disinfectant susceptibility of B. cereus biofilms relative to

  6. Structural Characterization of Lipopeptides Isolated from Bacillus Globigii Spores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    .... Bacillus globigil spores, grown in new sporulation media (NSM), were suspended and then analyzed using a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer to screen for biomarkers with 4-methoxycinnamic acid as matrix...

  7. Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 and SH 26) and P. aeruginosa SH 29 isolated from the rhizosphere soil of an Egyptian salt marsh plant for the cleaning of oil - contaminataed vessels and enhancing the biodegradat.

  8. Studies on carbohydrate metabolism in Bacillus sphaericus 1593

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-02

    Oct 2, 2006 ... Key words: Bacillus sphaericus, carbohydrate metabolism, glycolytic enzymes. ... available in soil close to decaying plant materials. So when a medium .... citrate, isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate, malate and acetate. The unit of.

  9. Analysis of Bacillus Globigii Spores Using the BioDetector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, William

    1999-01-01

    .... An automated immunoassay instrument capable of providing rapid identification of biological agents was used to analyses laboratory and field trial samples containing the field trial simulants Bacillus globigii (BG) spores...

  10. Global network reorganization during dynamic adaptations of Bacillus subtilis metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buescher, Joerg Martin; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Jules, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation of cells to environmental changes requires dynamic interactions between metabolic and regulatory networks, but studies typically address only one or a few layers of regulation. For nutritional shifts between two preferred carbon sources of Bacillus subtilis, we combined statistical...

  11. Two Genes Encoding Uracil Phosphoribosyltransferase Are Present in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Glaser, Philippe; Andersen, Paal S.

    1995-01-01

    Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase) catalyzes the key reaction in the salvage of uracil in many microorganisms. Surprisingly, two genes encoding UPRTase activity were cloned from Bacillus subtilis by complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant. The genes were sequenced, and the putative...

  12. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis from soils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioassays were used to test the insecticidal activity of B. thuringiensis strains ... of crystal protein genes, 7 tested positive for cry 4, cry 11, and cyt toxin genes. ... mosquitocidal cry and cyt genes in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.

  13. Bacillus Spp. isolated from the conjunctiva and their potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Introduction. Application of antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial ... Keywords: Bacillus spp, antibacterial activity, eyes pathogens, conjunctiva. African Health ... ml of respective test organism and allowed to dry. In the agar ...

  14. A parasporin from Bacillus thuringiensis native to Peninsular India ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thomas Chubicka

    2018-05-03

    May 3, 2018 ... Apoptosis; Bacillus thuringiensis; crystal protein; cytotoxicity; ... It acts by creating pores in the intestinal duct ... however diverse types of mechanisms of action have been ... parasporins that can be utilized in the cancer drug.

  15. Cloning and expression of an amylase gene from Bacillus sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-06

    Aug 6, 2014 ... Bacillus sp. isolated from an agricultural field in West. Bengal, India ... plants, even though, the competition is incipient (Sen,. 2007), and therefore ..... proteins: Engineering mesophilic–like activity and stability in a cold adapted ...

  16. Production of alkaline proteases by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-11-23

    Nov 23, 2016 ... Key words: Production, alkaline protease, Bacillus subtilis, animal wastes, enzyme activity. ... Generally, alkaline proteases are produced using submerged fermentation .... biopolymer concentrations were reported to have an influence ... adding nitrogenous compounds stimulate microorganism growth and ...

  17. Dendritic Cells Endocytose Bacillus Anthracis Spores: Implications for Anthrax Pathogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brittingham, Katherine C; Ruthel, Gordon; Panchal, Rekha G; Fuller, Claudette L; Ribot, Wilson J

    2005-01-01

    Phagocytosis of inhaled Bacillus anthracis spores and subsequent trafficking to lymph nodes are decisive events in the progression of inhaled anthrax because they initiate germination and dissemination of spores...

  18. Enhanced biomass production study on probiotic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-11-22

    Nov 22, 2010 ... INTRODUCTION. Probiotic organisms find their potential use in food and ..... complex nutrients, temperature and pH on bacteriocin production by. Bacillus subtilis ... B, Gupta R (2004). Application of statistical experimental.

  19. Systematic Evaluation of Aggressive Air Sampling for Bacillus ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report The primary objectives of this project were to evaluate the Aggressive Air Sampling (AAS) method compared to currently used surface sampling methods and to determine if AAS is a viable option for sampling Bacillus anthracis spores.

  20. The promotive effect of N 2 fixers, Bacillus circulans and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The promotive effect of N 2 fixers, Bacillus circulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the viability of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the impact on the productivity of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa l.)

  1. antagonistic effect of native bacillus isolates against black root rot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    A number of fungi and bacteria are known to be very effective .... Round. Convex. Smooth. Wrinkled. Slow. BS024. Irregular and spreading. Flat. Wavy .... Antibiotic effect of bacterial antagonist ..... antagonistic Bacillus and Trichoderma isolates ...

  2. effluent by bacillus cereus and clostridium butyricum using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Double-chambered MFCs was used for the study and operated ..... The third one is wire electron transfer, which uses ... phase indicates that the Bacillus cereus and Clostridium butyricum ..... Improving Start Up Performance With Carbon Mesh.

  3. Diversity and enzymatic characterization of Bacillus species isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation plays an important role in the production of cassava-based foods in West Africa. In Côte ... microorganisms (lactic acid bacteria, yeast and moulds ..... Bacillus species isolated from solid substrate fermentation of cassava for.

  4. Growth of Bacillus cereus isolated from some traditional condiments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... (Kalogridou-vassiliodou, 1992) and food poisoning (Ynte et al., 2004). ... public health concern. B. cereus ... Effect of temperature on growth of Bacillus cereus. 5 ml sterile ..... Olutiola PO, Famurewa O, Sonntang HG (1991).

  5. Bacillus As Potential Probiotics: Status, Concerns, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad M. F. Elshaghabee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spore-forming bacilli are being explored for the production and preservation of food for many centuries. The inherent ability of production of large number of secretory proteins, enzymes, antimicrobial compounds, vitamins, and carotenoids specifies the importance of bacilli in food chain. Additionally, Bacillus spp. are gaining interest in human health related functional food research coupled with their enhanced tolerance and survivability under hostile environment of gastrointestinal tract. Besides, bacilli are more stable during processing and storage of food and pharmaceutical preparations, making them more suitable candidate for health promoting formulations. Further, Bacillus strains also possess biotherapeutic potential which is connected with their ability to interact with the internal milieu of the host by producing variety of antimicrobial peptides and small extracellular effector molecules. Nonetheless, with proposed scientific evidences, commercial probiotic supplements, and functional foods comprising of Bacillus spp. had not gained much credential in general population, since the debate over probiotic vs pathogen tag of Bacillus in the research and production terrains is confusing consumers. Hence, it’s important to clearly understand the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of selective beneficial Bacillus spp. and their substantiation with those having GRAS status, to reach a consensus over the same. This review highlights the probiotic candidature of spore forming Bacillus spp. and presents an overview of the proposed health benefits, including application in food and pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, the growing need to evaluate the safety of individual Bacillus strains as well as species on a case by case basis and necessity of more profound analysis for the selection and identification of Bacillus probiotic candidates are also taken into consideration.

  6. Resistance of Bacillus Endospores to Extreme Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Wayne L.; Munakata, Nobuo; Horneck, Gerda; Melosh, Henry J.; Setlow, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Endospores of Bacillus spp., especially Bacillus subtilis, have served as experimental models for exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of spores and their resistance to environmental insults. In this review we summarize the molecular laboratory model of spore resistance mechanisms and attempt to use the model as a basis for exploration of the resistance of spores to environmental extremes both on Earth and during postulated interplanetary transfer through space as a result of natural impact processes. PMID:10974126

  7. Potensi Bacillus Coagulans Dari Serasah Hutan Sebagai Probiotik Ayam Broiler

    OpenAIRE

    Wizna, Wizna; Abbas, H; Dharma, A; Kompiang, P

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are living microorganisms which controls the balance of pathogenic microbes in the digestive tract of cattle through competitive exclusion mechanism which lately has been widely used as a feed aditive both ruminants and poultry . One type of microbes used in probiotics in poultry livestock is a bacterium of the genus Bacillus . Bacillus coagulans (Lactobacillus sporogenes) had the same function as Lactobacillus sp known as probiotics were able to live in the digestive tract and pro...

  8. Laser-induced speckle scatter patterns in Bacillus colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huisung eKim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Label-free bacterial colony phenotyping technology called BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology provided successful classification of several different bacteria at the genus, species, and serovar level. Recent experiments with colonies of Bacillus species provided strikingly different characteristics of elastic light scatter (ELS patterns, which were comprised of random speckles compared to other bacteria, which are dominated by concentric rings and spokes. Since this laser-based optical sensor interrogates the whole volume of the colony, 3-D information of micro- and macro-structures are all encoded in the far-field scatter patterns. Here, we present a theoretical model explaining the underlying mechanism of the speckle formation by the colonies from Bacillus species. Except for Bacillus polymyxa, all Bacillus spp. produced random bright spots on the imaging plane, which presumably dependent on the cellular and molecular organization and content within the colony. Our scatter model-based analysis revealed that colony spread resulting in variable surface roughness can modify the wavefront of the scatter field. As the center diameter of the Bacillus spp. colony grew from 500 μm to 900 μm, average speckles area decreased 2-fold and the number of small speckles increased 7-fold. In conclusion, as Bacillus colony grows, the average speckle size in the scatter pattern decreases and the number of smaller speckle increases due to the swarming growth characteristics of bacteria within the colony.

  9. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Bacillus stearothermophilus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Bacillus stearothermophilus 名詞 一般 * * * * Bacillus stea...rothermophilus ... MeSH D001411 200906079736943583 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Bacillus stearothermophilus

  10. Determining the source of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis isolated from raw milk, pasteurized milk and yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banykó, J; Vyletelová, M

    2009-03-01

    Strain-specific detection of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis in raw and pasteurized milk, and yoghurt during processing. Randomly selected isolates of Bacillus spp. were subjected to PCR analysis, where single primer targeting to the repetitive sequence Box elements was used to fingerprint the species. The isolates were separated into six different fingerprint patterns. The results show that isolates clustered together at about the 57% similarity level with two main groups at the 82% and 83% similarity levels, respectively. Contamination with identical strains both of B. cereus and B. licheniformis in raw and pasteurized milk was found as well as contaminated with different strains (in the case of raw milk and yoghurt/pasteurized milk and yoghurt). Several BOX types traced in processed milk samples were not discovered in the original raw milk. BOX-PCR fingerprinting is useful for characterizing Bacillus populations in a dairy environment. It can be used to confirm environmental contamination, eventually clonal transfer of Bacillus strains during the technological processing of milk. Despite the limited number of strains analysed, the two Bacillus species yielded adequately detectable banding profiles, permitting differentiation of bacteria at the strain level and showing their diversity throughout dairy processing.

  11. Systematic characterization of Bacillus Genetic Stock Center Bacillus thuringiensis strains using Multi-Locus Sequence Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Shu, Changlong; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra; Zhang, Jie

    2018-04-30

    The goal of this work was to perform a systematic characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains from the Bacillus Genetic Stock Center (BGSC) collection using Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Different genetic markers of 158 Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains from 73 different serovars stored in the BGSC, that represented 92% of the different Bt serovars of the BGSC were analyzed, the 8% that were not analyzed were not available. In addition, we analyzed 72 Bt strains from 18 serovars available at the pubMLST bcereus database, and Bt strains G03, HBF18 and Bt185, with no H serovars provided by our laboratory. We performed a systematic MLST analysis using seven housekeeping genes (glpF, gmK, ilvD, pta, pur, pycA and tpi) and analyzed correlation of the results of this analysis with strain serovars. The 233 Bt strains analyzed were assigned to 119 STs from which 19 STs were new. Genetic relationships were established by phylogenetic analysis and showed that STs could be grouped in two major Clusters containing 21 sub-groups. We found that a significant number of STs (101 in total) correlated with specific serovars, such as ST13 that corresponded to nine Bt isolates from B. thuringiensis serovar kenyae. However, other serovars showed high genetic variability and correlated with multiple STs; for example, B. thuringiensis serovar morrisoni correlated with 11 different STs. In addition, we found that 16 different STs correlated with multiple serovars (2-4 different serovars); for example, ST12 correlated with B. thuringiensis serovar alesti, dakota, palmanyolensis and sotto/dendrolimus. These data indicated that only partial correspondence between MLST and serotyping can be established. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. TRANSDUCTION OF BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS AND BACILLUS SUBTILIS BY EACH OF TWO PHAGES1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Martha J.; Thorne, Curtis B.

    1963-01-01

    Taylor, Martha J. (U.S. Army Biological Laboratories, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.) and Curtis B. Thorne. Transduction of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis by each of two phages. J. Bacteriol. 86:452–461. 1963.—A second transducing bacteriophage, designated SP-15, was isolated from the same soil-sample culture filtrate that supplied the Bacillus subtilis transducing phage, SP-10, reported earlier from this laboratory. SP-10 and SP-15 differ serologically and in several other respects, but share the ability to propagate on B. subtilis W-23-Sr (streptomycin-resistant) and B. licheniformis ATCC 9945a, and to mediate general transduction in either species when propagated homologously. Attempts to transduce between the species have failed. SP-10 forms plaques readily on both W-23-Sr and 9945a; SP-15 forms minute plaques on W-23-Sr and has shown no evidence of any lytic activity on 9945a. Maximal recoveries of prototrophic colonies from mixtures of SP-10 with auxotrophs of either W-23-Sr or 9945a were obtained only when excess phage was neutralized by post-transduction treatment with specific phage antiserum. Such treatment was not necessary for maximal recovery of transductants effected by SP-15. Unlike SP-10, SP-15 propagated on W-23-Sr did not transduce B. subtilis 168 (indole−). SP-15 transduced B. licheniformis more efficiently than did SP-10. Neither phage was able to transduce B. licheniformis as efficiently as it transduced B. subtilis. The differing influences of multiplicity of infection were compared for the two phages in both species. PMID:14066421

  13. Complete genome sequence of the industrial bacterium Bacillus licheniformis and comparisons with closely related Bacillus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Michael W; Ramaiya, Preethi; Nelson, Beth A; Brody-Karpin, Shari D; Zaretsky, Elizabeth J; Tang, Maria; de Leon, Alfredo Lopez; Xiang, Henry; Gusti, Veronica; Clausen, Ib Groth; Olsen, Peter B; Rasmussen, Michael D; Andersen, Jens T; Jørgensen, Per L; Larsen, Thomas S; Sorokin, Alexei; Bolotin, Alexander; Lapidus, Alla; Galleron, Nathalie; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Berka, Randy M

    2004-01-01

    Background Bacillus licheniformis is a Gram-positive, spore-forming soil bacterium that is used in the biotechnology industry to manufacture enzymes, antibiotics, biochemicals and consumer products. This species is closely related to the well studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, and produces an assortment of extracellular enzymes that may contribute to nutrient cycling in nature. Results We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 genome which comprises a circular chromosome of 4,222,336 base-pairs (bp) containing 4,208 predicted protein-coding genes with an average size of 873 bp, seven rRNA operons, and 72 tRNA genes. The B. licheniformis chromosome contains large regions that are colinear with the genomes of B. subtilis and Bacillus halodurans, and approximately 80% of the predicted B. licheniformis coding sequences have B. subtilis orthologs. Conclusions Despite the unmistakable organizational similarities between the B. licheniformis and B. subtilis genomes, there are notable differences in the numbers and locations of prophages, transposable elements and a number of extracellular enzymes and secondary metabolic pathway operons that distinguish these species. Differences include a region of more than 80 kilobases (kb) that comprises a cluster of polyketide synthase genes and a second operon of 38 kb encoding plipastatin synthase enzymes that are absent in the B. licheniformis genome. The availability of a completed genome sequence for B. licheniformis should facilitate the design and construction of improved industrial strains and allow for comparative genomics and evolutionary studies within this group of Bacillaceae. PMID:15461803

  14. Pirated Siderophores Promote Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandchamp, Gabrielle M; Caro, Lews; Shank, Elizabeth A

    2017-05-15

    In microbial communities, bacteria chemically and physically interact with one another. Some of these interactions are mediated by secreted specialized metabolites that act as either intraspecies or interspecies signals to alter gene expression and to change cell physiology. Bacillus subtilis is a well-characterized soil microbe that can differentiate into multiple cell types, including metabolically dormant endospores. We were interested in identifying microbial interactions that affected sporulation in B. subtilis Using a fluorescent transcriptional reporter, we observed that coculturing B. subtilis with Escherichia coli promoted sporulation gene expression via a secreted metabolite. To identify the active compound, we screened the E. coli Keio Collection and identified the sporulation-accelerating cue as the siderophore enterobactin. B. subtilis has multiple iron acquisition systems that are used to take up the B. subtilis- produced siderophore bacillibactin, as well as to pirate exogenous siderophores such as enterobactin. While B. subtilis uses a single substrate binding protein (FeuA) to take up both bacillibactin and enterobactin, we discovered that it requires two distinct genes to sporulate in response to these siderophores (the esterase gene besA for bacillibactin and a putative esterase gene, ybbA , for enterobactin). In addition, we found that siderophores from a variety of other microbial species also promote sporulation in B. subtilis Our results thus demonstrate that siderophores can act not only as bacterial iron acquisition systems but also as interspecies cues that alter cellular development and accelerate sporulation in B. subtilis IMPORTANCE While much is known about the genetic regulation of Bacillus subtilis sporulation, little is understood about how other bacteria influence this process. This work describes an interaction between Escherichia coli and B. subtilis that accelerates sporulation in B. subtilis The interaction is mediated by the E

  15. Comparative sequence analyses on the 16S rRNA (rDNA) of Bacillus acidocaldarius, Bacillus acidoterrestris, and Bacillus cycloheptanicus and proposal for creation of a new genus, Alicyclobacillus gen. nov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisotzkey, J. D.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr; Fox, G. E.; Deinhard, G.; Poralla, K.

    1992-01-01

    Comparative 16S rRNA (rDNA) sequence analyses performed on the thermophilic Bacillus species Bacillus acidocaldarius, Bacillus acidoterrestris, and Bacillus cycloheptanicus revealed that these organisms are sufficiently different from the traditional Bacillus species to warrant reclassification in a new genus, Alicyclobacillus gen. nov. An analysis of 16S rRNA sequences established that these three thermoacidophiles cluster in a group that differs markedly from both the obligately thermophilic organisms Bacillus stearothermophilus and the facultatively thermophilic organism Bacillus coagulans, as well as many other common mesophilic and thermophilic Bacillus species. The thermoacidophilic Bacillus species B. acidocaldarius, B. acidoterrestris, and B. cycloheptanicus also are unique in that they possess omega-alicylic fatty acid as the major natural membranous lipid component, which is a rare phenotype that has not been found in any other Bacillus species characterized to date. This phenotype, along with the 16S rRNA sequence data, suggests that these thermoacidophiles are biochemically and genetically unique and supports the proposal that they should be reclassified in the new genus Alicyclobacillus.

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Bacillus anthracis ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal Article Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived from computed tomography (CT) or µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation-exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. Four different exposure scenarios were modeled in the rabbit based upon experimental inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulations were conducted at the highest exposure concentration used during the rabbit experimental exposures. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Despite the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the upper conducting airways of the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. This greater deposition of spores in the upper airways in the human resulted in lower penetration and deposition in the tracheobronchial airways and the deep lung than that predict

  17. Bacillus subtilis biofilm induction by plant polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, Pascale B; Chai, Yunrong; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2013-04-23

    Bacillus subtilis is a plant-beneficial Gram-positive bacterium widely used as a biofertilizer. However, relatively little is known regarding the molecular processes underlying this bacterium's ability to colonize roots. In contrast, much is known about how this bacterium forms matrix-enclosed multicellular communities (biofilms) in vitro. Here, we show that, when B. subtilis colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots it forms biofilms that depend on the same matrix genes required in vitro. B. subtilis biofilm formation was triggered by certain plant polysaccharides. These polysaccharides served as a signal for biofilm formation transduced via the kinases controlling the phosphorylation state of the master regulator Spo0A. In addition, plant polysaccharides are used as a source of sugars for the synthesis of the matrix exopolysaccharide. The bacterium's response to plant polysaccharides was observed across several different strains of the species, some of which are known to have beneficial effects on plants. These observations provide evidence that biofilm genes are crucial for Arabidopsis root colonization by B. subtilis and provide insights into how matrix synthesis may be triggered by this plant.

  18. Potassium sensing histidine kinase in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel; Gontang, Erin A; Kolter, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The soil-dwelling organism Bacillus subtilis is able to form multicellular aggregates known as biofilms. It was recently reported that the process of biofilm formation is activated in response to the presence of various, structurally diverse small-molecule natural products. All of these small-molecule natural products made pores in the membrane of the bacterium, causing the leakage of potassium cations from the cytoplasm of the cell. The potassium cation leakage was sensed by the membrane histidine kinase KinC, triggering the genetic pathway to the production of the extracellular matrix that holds cells within the biofilm. This chapter presents the methodology used to characterize the leakage of cytoplasmic potassium as the signal that induces biofilm formation in B. subtilis via activation of KinC. Development of novel techniques to monitor activation of gene expression in microbial populations led us to discover the differentiation of a subpopulation of cells specialized to produce the matrix that holds all cells together within the biofilm. This phenomenon of cell differentiation was previously missed by conventional techniques used to monitor transcriptional gene expression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cannibalism enhances biofilm development in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2009-11-01

    Cannibalism is a mechanism to delay sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Cannibal cells express the skf and sdp toxin systems to lyse a fraction of their sensitive siblings. The lysed cells release nutrients that serve to feed the community, effectively delaying spore formation. Here we provide evidence that the subpopulation of cells that differentiates into cannibals is the same subpopulation that produces the extracellular matrix that holds cells together in biofilms. Cannibalism and matrix formation are both triggered in response to the signalling molecule surfactin. Nutrients released by the cannibalized cells are preferentially used by matrix-producing cells, as they are the only cells expressing resistance to the Skf and Sdp toxins. As a result this subpopulation increases in number and matrix production is enhanced when cannibalism toxins are produced. The cannibal/matrix-producing subpopulation is also generated in response to antimicrobials produced by other microorganisms and may thus constitute a defense mechanism to protect B. subtilis from the action of antibiotics in natural settings.

  20. Bistability and Biofilm Formation in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yunrong; Chu, Frances; Kolter, Roberto; Losick, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Summary Biofilms of Bacillus subtilis consist of long chains of cells that are held together in bundles by an extracellular matrix of exopolysaccharide and the protein TasA. The exopolysaccharide is produced by enzymes encoded by the epsA-O operon and the gene encoding TasA is located in the yqxM-sipW-tasA operon. Both operons are under the control of the repressor SinR. Derepression is mediated by the antirepressor SinI, which binds to SinR with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Paradoxically, in medium promoting derepression of the matrix operons, the overall concentration of SinR in the culture greatly exceeded that of SinI. We show that under biofilm-promoting conditions sinI, which is under the control of the response regulator Spo0A, was expressed only in a small subpopulation of cells, whereas sinR was expressed in almost all cells. Activation of Spo0A is known to be subject to a bistable switch, and we infer that SinI reaches levels sufficient to trigger matrix production only in the subpopulation of cells in which Spo0A is active. Additionally, evidence suggests that sinI is expressed at intermediate, but not low or high, levels of Spo0A activity, which may explain why certain nutritional conditions are more effective in promoting biofilm formation than others. PMID:18047568

  1. The methionine salvage pathway in Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danchin Antoine

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyamine synthesis produces methylthioadenosine, which has to be disposed of. The cell recycles it into methionine through methylthioribose (MTR. Very little was known about MTR recycling for methionine salvage in Bacillus subtilis. Results Using in silico genome analysis and transposon mutagenesis in B. subtilis we have experimentally uncovered the major steps of the dioxygen-dependent methionine salvage pathway, which, although similar to that found in Klebsiella pneumoniae, recruited for its implementation some entirely different proteins. The promoters of the genes have been identified by primer extension, and gene expression was analyzed by Northern blotting and lacZ reporter gene expression. Among the most remarkable discoveries in this pathway is the role of an analog of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco, the plant enzyme used in the Calvin cycle which recovers carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as a major step in MTR recycling. Conclusions A complete methionine salvage pathway exists in B. subtilis. This pathway is chemically similar to that in K. pneumoniae, but recruited different proteins to this purpose. In particular, a paralogue or Rubisco, MtnW, is used at one of the steps in the pathway. A major observation is that in the absence of MtnW, MTR becomes extremely toxic to the cell, opening an unexpected target for new antimicrobial drugs. In addition to methionine salvage, this pathway protects B. subtilis against dioxygen produced by its natural biotope, the surface of leaves (phylloplane.

  2. Association of RNAs with Bacillus subtilis Hfq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dambach

    Full Text Available The prevalence and characteristics of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs have not been well characterized for Bacillus subtilis, an important model system for Gram-positive bacteria. However, B. subtilis was recently found to synthesize many candidate sRNAs during stationary phase. In the current study, we performed deep sequencing on Hfq-associated RNAs and found that a small subset of sRNAs associates with Hfq, an enigmatic RNA-binding protein that stabilizes sRNAs in Gram-negatives, but whose role is largely unknown in Gram-positive bacteria. We also found that Hfq associated with antisense RNAs, antitoxin transcripts, and many mRNA leaders. Several new candidate sRNAs and mRNA leader regions were also discovered by this analysis. Additionally, mRNA fragments overlapping with start or stop codons associated with Hfq, while, in contrast, relatively few full-length mRNAs were recovered. Deletion of hfq reduced the intracellular abundance of several representative sRNAs, suggesting that B. subtilis Hfq-sRNA interactions may be functionally significant in vivo. In general, we anticipate this catalog of Hfq-associated RNAs to serve as a resource in the functional characterization of Hfq in B. subtilis.

  3. Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus Strain Consortium.

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    Nan Jia

    Full Text Available Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B. endophyticus Hbe603 industrial companion strain and speculate its possible advantage in the consortium. The circular chromosome of B. endophyticus Hbe603 has a size of 4.87 Mb with GC content of 36.64% and has the highest similarity with that of Bacillus megaterium among all the bacteria with complete genomes. By comparing the distribution of COGs with that of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and B. megaterium, B. endophyticus has less genes related to cell envelope biogenesis and signal transduction mechanisms, and more genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, as well as lipid transport and metabolism. Genome-based functional studies revealed the specific capability of B. endophyticus in sporulation, transcription regulation, environmental resistance, membrane transportation, extracellular proteins and nutrients synthesis, which would be beneficial for K. vulgare. In particular, B. endophyticus lacks the Rap-Phr signal cascade system and, in part, spore coat related proteins. In addition, it has specific pathways for vitamin B12 synthesis and sorbitol metabolism. The genome analysis of the industrial B. endophyticus will help us understand its cooperative mechanism in the K. vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium to improve the fermentation of vitamin C.

  4. Chitinase production by Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus licheniformis: their potential in antifungal biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Eman Zakaria

    2012-02-01

    Thirty bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of plants collected from Egypt and screened for production of chitinase enzymes. Bacillus thuringiensis NM101-19 and Bacillus licheniformis NM120-17 had the highest chitinolytic activities amongst those investigated. The production of chitinase by B. thuringiensis and B. licheniformis was optimized using colloidal chitin medium amended with 1.5% colloidal chitin, with casein as a nitrogen source, at 30°C after five days of incubation. An enhancement of chitinase production by the two species was observed by addition of sugar substances and dried fungal mats to the colloidal chitin media. The optimal conditions for chitinase activity by B. thuringiensis and B. licheniformis were at 40°C, pH 7.0 and pH 8.0, respectively. Na(+), Mg(2+), Cu(2+), and Ca(2+) caused enhancement of enzyme activities whereas they were markedly inhibited by Zn(2+), Hg(2+), and Ag(+). In vitro, B. thuringiensis and B. licheniformis chitinases had potential for cell wall lysis of many phytopathogenic fungi tested. The addition of B. thuringiensis chitinase was more effective than that of B. licheniformis in increasing the germination of soybean seeds infected with various phytopathogenic fungi.

  5. Extended genetic analysis of Brazilian isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Zahner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple locus sequence typing (MLST was undertaken to extend the genetic characterization of 29 isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis previously characterized in terms of presence/absence of sequences encoding virulence factors and via variable number tandem repeat (VNTR. Additional analysis involved polymerase chain reaction for the presence of sequences (be, cytK, inA, pag, lef, cya and cap, encoding putative virulence factors, not investigated in the earlier study. MLST analysis ascribed novel and unique sequence types to each of the isolates. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from a single sequence of 2,838 bp of concatenated loci sequences. The strains were not monophyletic by analysis of any specific housekeeping gene or virulence characteristic. No clear association in relation to source of isolation or to genotypic profile based on the presence or absence of putative virulence genes could be identified. Comparison of VNTR profiling with MLST data suggested a correlation between these two methods of genetic analysis. In common with the majority of previous studies, MLST was unable to provide clarification of the basis for pathogenicity among members of the B. cereus complex. Nevertheless, our application of MLST served to reinforce the notion that B. cereus and B. thuringiensis should be considered as the same species.

  6. Production of Alpha Amylase by Bacillus cereus in Submerged Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen H. Raplong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have the ability to secrete enzymes when they are grown in the presence of certain substrates. Amylases are among the most important industrial enzymes and are of great significance in biotechnological studies. Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus were isolated using mannitol egg yolk polymyxin B (MYP agar a highly selective media for Bacillus cereus isolation. The isolates were tested for α-amylase production on nutrient agar supplemented with starch and in submerged fermentation. The bacteria isolated and identified (using the Microgen Bacillus identification kit were all Bacillus cereus and SB2 had the largest zone of hydrolysis of 12mm on nutrient agar supplemented with starch as well as the highest enzyme activity of 1.62U/ml. Amylase activity of 2.56U/ml was obtained after 24 hours incubation in submerged fermentation. When amylase enzyme production parameters where optimized, maximum amylase activity was obtained at a pH of 6.5, temperature of 350C, incubation time of 24 hours and 4% inoculums concentration. Bacillus cereus SB2 is a potential isolate for alpha-amylase production with soluble starch as the sole carbon source in submerged fermentation.

  7. In vitro antimicrobial effect of Satureja wiedemanniana against Bacillus species isolated from raw meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Nihal; Aslim, Belma; Ozdoğan, Hakan

    2009-08-01

    In this study a total of 30 raw meat samples obtained from Ankara, Turkey were screened for the presence of Bacillus species. Among the meat samples analyzed, the predominant species isolated was Bacillus circulans; other Bacillus species were identified as Bacillus firmus, Bacillus lentus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus sphaericus, and Bacillus cereus. Minced meat samples were more contaminated with Bacillus species than sliced beef sample. From these samples, 242 Bacillus species isolates were obtained, which were investigated for proteolytic and lipolytic activity, associated with meat spoilage. Interestingly, some Bacillus strains produced the highest values of proteolytic/lipolytic activities. Nineteen Bacillus strains were selected among the 242 isolates according to their proteolytic/lipolytic activity with a clear zone diameter of > or =6 mm. The essential oil of Satureja wiedemanniana (Lalem) Velen was also tested against these 19 Bacillus species that had proteolytic and lipolytic activity. The essential oil yield obtained from the aerial parts of the plant was 0.35% (vol/wt). The inhibition zones of the essential oil obtained against all the Bacillus species were in the range of 5.0-12.0 mm. The oil showed high antimicrobial activities against B. licheniformis M 6(26), M 11(16), and M 12(1) strains. B. licheniformis 12(1) showed high lipolytic activity (18.0 mm). Also, B. licheniformis M 6(26) and M 11(16) showed high proteolytic activity (16.0 and 14.0 mm). These results may suggest that an essential oil of S. wiedemanniana can be used as a natural preservative in meat against spoilage bacteria.

  8. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus velezensis, and Bacillus siamensis Form an “Operational Group B. amyloliquefaciens” within the B. subtilis Species Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ben; Blom, Jochen; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Borriss, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The plant growth promoting model bacterium FZB42T was proposed as the type strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum (Borriss et al., 2011), but has been recently recognized as being synonymous to Bacillus velezensis due to phylogenomic analysis (Dunlap C. et al., 2016). However, until now, majority of publications consider plant-associated close relatives of FZB42 still as “B. amyloliquefaciens.” Here, we reinvestigated the taxonomic status of FZB42 and related strains in its context to the free-living soil bacterium DSM7T, the type strain of B. amyloliquefaciens. We identified 66 bacterial genomes from the NCBI data bank with high similarity to DSM7T. Dendrograms based on complete rpoB nucleotide sequences and on core genome sequences, respectively, clustered into a clade consisting of three tightly linked branches: (1) B. amyloliquefaciens, (2) Bacillus siamensis, and (3) a conspecific group containing the type strains of B. velezensis, Bacillus methylotrophicus, and B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum. The three monophyletic clades shared a common mutation rate of 0.01 substitutions per nucleotide position, but were distantly related to Bacillus subtilis (0.1 substitutions per nucleotide position). The tight relatedness of the three clusters was corroborated by TETRA, dDDH, ANI, and AAI analysis of the core genomes, but dDDH and ANI values were found slightly below species level thresholds when B. amyloliquefaciens DSM7T genome sequence was used as query sequence. Due to these results, we propose that the B. amyloliquefaciens clade should be considered as a taxonomic unit above of species level, designated here as “operational group B. amyloliquefaciens” consisting of the soil borne B. amyloliquefaciens, and plant associated B. siamensis and B. velezensis, whose members are closely related and allow identifying changes on the genomic level due to developing the plant-associated life-style. PMID:28163698

  9. Application of a statistical design to the optimization of parameters and culture medium for alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae CBS 819.72 grown on gruel (wheat grinding by-product).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammoun, Radhouane; Naili, Belgacem; Bejar, Samir

    2008-09-01

    The production optimization of alpha-amylase (E.C.3.2.1.1) from Aspergillus oryzae CBS 819.72 fungus, using a by-product of wheat grinding (gruel) as sole carbon source, was performed with statistical methodology based on three experimental designs. The optimisation of temperature, agitation and inoculum size was attempted using a Box-Behnken design under the response surface methodology. The screening of nineteen nutrients for their influence on alpha-amylase production was achieved using a Plackett-Burman design. KH(2)PO(4), urea, glycerol, (NH(4))(2)SO(4), CoCl(2), casein hydrolysate, soybean meal hydrolysate, MgSO(4) were selected based on their positive influence on enzyme formation. The optimized nutrients concentration was obtained using a Taguchi experimental design and the analysis of the data predicts a theoretical increase in the alpha-amylase expression of 73.2% (from 40.1 to 151.1 U/ml). These conditions were validated experimentally and revealed an enhanced alpha-amylase yield of 72.7%.

  10. 40 CFR 180.1111 - Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1111 Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biofungicide Bacillus subtilis GB03 is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1128 - Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1128 Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of... biofungicide Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 in or on all food commodities, including residues resulting from post...

  12. Effect of vitamins and bivalent metals on lysine yield in Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of vitamins and bivalent metals on lysine accumulation in Bacillus strains were investigated. Biotin enhanced lysine production in all the Bacillus strains, while folic acid and riboflavin stimulated lysine yields in Bacillus megaterium SP 86 only. All bivalent metals stimulated lysine accumulation in B. megaterium ...

  13. Genome sequence of the thermophile Bacillus coagulans Hammer, the type strain of the species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2012-11-01

    Here we announce a 3.0-Mb assembly of the Bacillus coagulans Hammer strain, which is the type strain of the species within the genus Bacillus. Genomic analyses based on the sequence may provide insights into the phylogeny of the species and help to elucidate characteristics of the poorly studied strains of Bacillus coagulans.

  14. Genome Sequence of the Thermophile Bacillus coagulans Hammer, the Type Strain of the Species

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Fei; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Here we announce a 3.0-Mb assembly of the Bacillus coagulans Hammer strain, which is the type strain of the species within the genus Bacillus. Genomic analyses based on the sequence may provide insights into the phylogeny of the species and help to elucidate characteristics of the poorly studied strains of Bacillus coagulans.

  15. Bacillus Strains Most Closely Related to Bacillus nealsonii Are Not Effectively Circumscribed within the Taxonomic Species Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kealy Peak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus strains with >99.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were characterized with DNA:DNA hybridization, cellular fatty acid (CFA analysis, and testing of 100 phenotypic traits. When paired with the most closely related type strain, percent DNA:DNA similarities (% S for six Bacillus strains were all far below the recommended 70% threshold value for species circumscription with Bacillus nealsonii. An apparent genomic group of four Bacillus strain pairings with 94%–70% S was contradicted by the failure of the strains to cluster in CFA- and phenotype-based dendrograms as well as by their differentiation with 9–13 species level discriminators such as nitrate reduction, temperature range, and acid production from carbohydrates. The novel Bacillus strains were monophyletic and very closely related based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. Coherent genomic groups were not however supported by similarly organized phenotypic clusters. Therefore, the strains were not effectively circumscribed within the taxonomic species definition.

  16. Reclassification of Bacillus marismortui as Salibacillus marismortui comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arahal, D R; Márquez, M C; Volcani, B E; Schleifer, K H; Ventosa, A

    2000-07-01

    Recently, the features of a group of strains isolated from Dead Sea enrichments obtained in 1936 by one of us (B. E. Volcani) were described. They were gram-positive, moderately halophilic, spore-forming rods, and were placed in a new species, Bacillus marismortui. At the same time, the new genus Salibacillus was proposed for the halophilic species Bacillus salexigens. B. marismortui and Salibacillus salexigens have similar phenotypic characteristics and the same peptidoglycan type. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequence comparisons showed that they are sufficiently closely related (96.6% similarity) as to warrant placement in the same genus. However, DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed that they constitute two separate species (41% DNA similarity). Therefore the reclassification of Bacillus marismortui as Salibacillus marismortui comb. nov. is proposed.

  17. Fast neutron radiation inactivation of Bacillus subtilis: Absorbed dose determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Lingli; Zheng Chun; Ai Zihui; Li Junjie; Dai Shaofeng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, fast neutron inactivation effects of Bacillus subtilis were investigated with fission fast neutrons from CFBR-II reactor of INPC (Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry) and mono-energetic neutrons from the Van de Graaff accelerator at Peking University. The method for determining the absorbed dose in the Bacillus subtilis suspension contained in test tubes is introduced. The absorbed dose, on account of its dependence on the volume and the form of confined state, was determined by combined experiments and Monte Carlo method. Using the calculation results of absorbed dose, the fast neutron inactivation effects on Bacillus subtilis were studied. The survival rates and absorbed dose curve was constructed. (authors)

  18. Construction of acetoin high-producing Bacillus subtilis strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Tian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the construction and selection of a high-producing mutant, Bacillus subtilis HB-32, with enhanced acetoin yield and productivity. The mutant was obtained by the protoplast fusion of a Bacillus subtilis mutant TH-49 (Val− producing acetoin and Bacillus licheniformis AD-30 producing α-acetolactate decarboxylase, with the fusogen polyethylene glycol and after the regeneration and selection, etc. of the fusant. The acetoin production reached 49.64 g/L, which is an increase of 61.8% compared to that of B. subtilis strain TH-49. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis was performed to determine the mutagenic and protoplast fusion effects and the genomic changes in the acetoin high-producing strain compared to the parent strains at the molecular level. The constructed strain was shown to be promising for large-scale acetoin production. Future studies should focus on the application of the mutant strain in practice.

  19. Ultrasensitivity of the Bacillus subtilis sporulation decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Jatin; Devi, Seram N; Fujita, Masaya; Igoshin, Oleg A

    2012-12-11

    Starving Bacillus subtilis cells execute a gene expression program resulting in the formation of stress-resistant spores. Sporulation master regulator, Spo0A, is activated by a phosphorelay and controls the expression of a multitude of genes, including the forespore-specific sigma factor σ(F) and the mother cell-specific sigma factor σ(E). Identification of the system-level mechanism of the sporulation decision is hindered by a lack of direct control over Spo0A activity. This limitation can be overcome by using a synthetic system in which Spo0A activation is controlled by inducing expression of phosphorelay kinase KinA. This induction results in a switch-like increase in the number of sporulating cells at a threshold of KinA. Using a combination of mathematical modeling and single-cell microscopy, we investigate the origin and physiological significance of this ultrasensitive threshold. The results indicate that the phosphorelay is unable to achieve a sufficiently fast and ultrasensitive response via its positive feedback architecture, suggesting that the sporulation decision is made downstream. In contrast, activation of σ(F) in the forespore and of σ(E) in the mother cell compartments occurs via a cascade of coherent feed-forward loops, and thereby can produce fast and ultrasensitive responses as a result of KinA induction. Unlike σ(F) activation, σ(E) activation in the mother cell compartment only occurs above the KinA threshold, resulting in completion of sporulation. Thus, ultrasensitive σ(E) activation explains the KinA threshold for sporulation induction. We therefore infer that under uncertain conditions, cells initiate sporulation but postpone making the sporulation decision to average stochastic fluctuations and to achieve a robust population response.

  20. Recombination-deficient mutants of Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaie, Y.; Kada, T.

    1976-01-01

    Two mutant strains of Bacillus subtilis Marburg, NIG43 and NIG45, were isolated. They showed high sensitivities to gamma rays, ultraviolet light (uv), and chemicals. Deficiencies in genetic recombination of these two mutants were shown by the experiments on their capacity in transformation, SPO2 transfection, and PBS1 phage transduction, as well as on their radiation and drug sensitivities and their Hcr + capacity for uv-exposed phage M2. Some of these characteristics were compared with those of the known strains possessing the recA1 or recB2 alleles. Mapping studies revealed that the mutation rec-43 of strain NIG43 lies in the region of chromosome replication origin. The order was purA dna-8132 rec-43. Another mutation, rec-45, of strain NIG45 was found to be tightly linked to recA1. The mutation rec-43 reduced mainly the frequency of PBS1 transduction. On the other hand, the mutation rec-45 reduced the frequency of recombination involved both in transformation and PBS1 tranduction. The mutation rec-43 of strain NIG43 is conditional, but rec-45 of strain NIG45 is not. The uv impairment in cellular survival of strain NIG43 was gradually reverted at higher salt or sucrose concentrations, suggesting cellular possession of a mutated gene product whose function is conditional. In contrast to several other recombination-deficient strains, SPO2 lysogens of strains NIG43 and NIG45 were not inducible, indicating involvement of rec-43 + or rec-45 + gene product in the development of SPO2 prophage to a vegetative form. The uv-induced deoxyribonucleic acid degradation in vegetative cells was higher in rec-43 and rec-45 strains

  1. Production and Characterization of Bacillus firmus pectinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Roosdiana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pectinase is enzyme which functions to hydrolyze pectin become D-galacturonic acid unit. This enzyme is potential in various industries, especially in fruit juice industry.  Pectinase can be derived from various microorganisms resulting in different pectinase character. The aims of this research were to determine the optimum condition of pectinase production and to characterize the resulted pectinase including optimum condition of pectinase activity and the influence of metal ion.  The optimum condition of pectinase production was carried out by growing Bacillus firmus on basal media containing pectin as inducer at various  pH (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, temperature (30, 35, 40, 45, 50 oC and fermentation time (6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 hours. while the optimum pectinase activity was done at various pH ( 4, 6, 7, 8, 10 , temperature (30, 35, 40, 45, 50 oC and reaction time (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 minutes. The influence of Zn2+, Mg2+, K+ at 2-10 mM to pectinase activity were also investigated. The result showed that optimum condition of pectinase production occurred at pH7-8, temperature 40-50 oC and fermentation time 18hours, while the optimum condition of pectinase activity was pH 7, temperature 50 oC and reaction time 30 minutes. The existence of Zn2+, Mg2+, K+ ions  affected significantly to pectinase activity.  Mg2+ acted as non competitive inhibitor; however K+ and Zn2+ acted as un competitive inhibitor.

  2. Logarithmic sensing in Bacillus subtilis aerotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menolascina, Filippo; Rusconi, Roberto; Fernandez, Vicente I; Smriga, Steven; Aminzare, Zahra; Sontag, Eduardo D; Stocker, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Aerotaxis, the directed migration along oxygen gradients, allows many microorganisms to locate favorable oxygen concentrations. Despite oxygen's fundamental role for life, even key aspects of aerotaxis remain poorly understood. In Bacillus subtilis, for example, there is conflicting evidence of whether migration occurs to the maximal oxygen concentration available or to an optimal intermediate one, and how aerotaxis can be maintained over a broad range of conditions. Using precisely controlled oxygen gradients in a microfluidic device, spanning the full spectrum of conditions from quasi-anoxic to oxic (60 n mol/l-1 m mol/l), we resolved B. subtilis' 'oxygen preference conundrum' by demonstrating consistent migration towards maximum oxygen concentrations ('monotonic aerotaxis'). Surprisingly, the strength of aerotaxis was largely unchanged over three decades in oxygen concentration (131 n mol/l-196 μ mol/l). We discovered that in this range B. subtilis responds to the logarithm of the oxygen concentration gradient, a rescaling strategy called 'log-sensing' that affords organisms high sensitivity over a wide range of conditions. In these experiments, high-throughput single-cell imaging yielded the best signal-to-noise ratio of any microbial taxis study to date, enabling the robust identification of the first mathematical model for aerotaxis among a broad class of alternative models. The model passed the stringent test of predicting the transient aerotactic response despite being developed on steady-state data, and quantitatively captures both monotonic aerotaxis and log-sensing. Taken together, these results shed new light on the oxygen-seeking capabilities of B. subtilis and provide a blueprint for the quantitative investigation of the many other forms of microbial taxis.

  3. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ELASTASES WITH INSECTICIDE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Matseliukh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was a screening of proteases with elastase activity among Bacillus thuringiensis strains, their isolation, partially purification, study of physicochemical properties and insecticide activity in relation to the larvae of the Colorado beetle. The objects of the investigation were 18 strains of B. thuringiensis, isolated from different sources: sea water, dry biological product "Bitoksibatsillin" and also from natural populations of Colorado beetles of the Crimea, Kherson, Odesa, Mykolaiv and Zaporizhiia regions of Ukraine. Purification of enzymes with elastase activity isolated from above mentioned strains was performed by gel-chromatography and insecticide activity was studied on the 3–4 larvae instar of Colorado beetle. The ability of a number of B. thuringiensis strains to synthesize the proteases with elastase activity has been established. The most active were enzymes obtained from strains IMV B-7465, IMV B-7324 isolated from sea water, and strains 9, 902, Bt-H and 0-239 isolated from Colorado beetles. The study of the physicochemical properties of the partially purified proteases of these strains showed that they belonged to enzymes of the serine type. Peptidases of a number of B. thuringiensis strains (IMV B-7324, IMV B-7465, 902, 0-239, 9 are metal-dependent enzymes. Optimal conditions of action of all tested enzymes are the neutral and alkaline рН values and the temperatures of 30–40 °С. The studies of influence of the complex enzyme preparations and partially purified ones of B. thuringiensis strains on the larvae instar of Colorado beetles indicated that enzymes with elastase activity could be responsible for insecticide action of the tested strains.

  4. Detection of biosurfactants in Bacillus species: genes and products identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaza, G; Chojniak, J; Rudnicka, K; Paraszkiewicz, K; Bernat, P

    2015-10-01

    To screen environmental Bacillus strains for detection of genes encoding the enzymes involved in biosurfactant synthesis and to evaluate their products e.g. surfactin, iturin and fengycin. The taxonomic identification of isolated from the environment Bacillus strains was performed by Microgene ID Bacillus panel and GEN III Biolog system. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategy for screening of genes in Bacillus strains was set up. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was used for the identification of lipopeptides (LPs). All studied strains exhibited the presence of srfAA gene and produced surfactin mostly as four homologues (C13 to C16). Moreover, in 2 strains (KP7, T'-1) simultaneous co-production of 3 biosurfactants: surfactin, iturin and fengycin was observed. Additionally, it was found out that isolate identified as Bacillus subtilis ssp. subtilis (KP7), beside LPs co-production, synthesizes surfactin with the efficiency much higher than other studied strains (40·2 mg l(-1) ) and with the yield ranging from 0·8 to 8·3 mg l(-1) . We showed that the combined methodology based on PCR and LC-MS/MS technique is an optimal tool for the detection of genes encoding enzymes involved in biosurfactant synthesis as well as their products, e.g. surfactin, iturin and fengycin. This approach improves the screening and the identification of environmental Bacillus co-producing biosurfactants-stimulating and facilitating the development of this area of science. The findings of this work will help to improve screening of biosurfactant producers. Discovery of novel biosurfactants and biosurfactants co-production ability has shed light on their new application fields and for the understanding of their interactions and properties. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Enhancement of Cellulase Production by Cellulomonas Fimi and Bacillus Subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omer, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Two bacterial strains identified as Cellulomonas fimi and Baciliius subtilus are cosidered as highly active cellulytic bacteria. Trials for maximizing the cellulolytic activites of the two strains were conducted. A maximum cellulase production was achieved at 1 and 1.5%carboxy methyl cellulose as carbon source, sodium nitrate and yeast as nitrogen source for Cellulomonas fimi and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Incubation temprature at 30 and 45 degree C, ph at 6 and 7 achieved the highest activity of cellulase for Cellulomonas fimi and bacillus subtilis, respectively

  6. Analysis of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate hydrolysis by Bacillus phytase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerovuo, J.; Rouvinen, J.; Hatzack, Frank-Andreas

    2000-01-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP(6)) hydrolysis by Bacillus phytase (PhyC) was studied. The enzyme hydrolyses only three phosphates from phytic acid. Moreover, the enzyme seems to prefer the hydrolysis of every second phosphate over that of adjacent ones. Furthermore, it is very...... a reaction mechanism different from that of other phytases. By combining the data presented in this study with (1) structural information obtained from the crystal structure of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens phytase [Ha, Oh, Shin, Kim, Oh, Kim, Choi and Oh (2000) Nat. Struct. Biol. 7, 147-153], and (2) computer...

  7. Production of Cold Active Lipase from Bacillus sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Yasemin, Sara; Arabacı, Nihan; Korkmaz Güvenmez, Hatice

    2018-01-01

    A cold active lipase producing Bacillus sp. strains were isolated from sewage of oil. Bacillus sp. strain SY-7 was determined as the best lipase producing isolate. The highest enzyme production was found at 20°C and pH 8.0 on tributyrin media. Analyses of molecular mass of the partial purified lipase was carried out by SDS-PAGE which revealed a single band as 110.5 kDa. The enzyme activity and stability were determined by spectrophotometric and titrimetric methods. The enzyme was active betwe...

  8. 77 FR 73934 - Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 Variant Soil; Amendment to an Exemption From the Requirement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 To Include Residues of Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 Variant Soil... existing exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 in or on all food commodities by including residues of Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 variant soil...

  9. Ecological aspects of Bacillus thuringiensis in an Oxisol Ecologia do Bacillus thuringiensis num Latossolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessandra Heck Paes Leme Ferreira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram positive, sporangial bacterium, known for its insecticidal habilities. Survival and conjugation ability of B. thuringiensis strains were investigated; vegetative cells were evaluated in non-sterile soil. Vegetative cells decreased rapidly in number, and after 48 hours the population was predominantly spores. No plasmid transfer was observed in non-sterile soil, probably because the cells died and the remaining cells sporulated quickly. Soil is not a favorable environment for B. thuringiensis multiplication and conjugation. The fate of purified B. thuringiensis toxin was analyzed by extractable toxin quantification using ELISA. The extractable toxin probably declined due to binding on surface-active particles in the soil.O comportamento de células vegetativas do Bacillus thuringiensis foi estudado em solo não esterilizado. Após o inóculo grande parte das células morrem e o restante esporula em 24 horas. Não foi observada conjugação provavelmente porque poucas células sobrevivem no solo e rapidamente esporulam, mostrando que este não é o ambiente propício para a multiplicação e conjugação desta bactéria. A toxina purificada, portanto livre de células, diminui rapidamente sua quantidade em solo não esterilizado. Provavelmente a ligação da toxina na fração argilosa do solo é a principal responsável por este fenômeno.

  10. Bacillus cereus in free-stall bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, M; Svensson, B; Kolstrup, C; Christiansson, A

    2007-12-01

    To increase the understanding of how different factors affect the bacterial growth in deep sawdust beds for dairy cattle, the microbiological status of Bacillus cereus and coliforms in deep sawdust-bedded free stalls was investigated over two 14-d periods on one farm. High counts of B. cereus and coliforms were found in the entire beds. On average, 4.1 log(10) B. cereus spores, 5.5 log(10) B. cereus, and 6.7 log(10) coliforms per gram of bedding could be found in the upper layers of the sawdust likely to be in contact with the cows' udders. The highest counts of B. cereus spores, B. cereus, and coliforms were found in the bedding before fresh bedding was added, and the lowest immediately afterwards. Different factors of importance for the growth of B. cereus in the bedding material were explored in laboratory tests. These were found to be the type of bedding, pH, and the type and availability of nutrients. Alternative bedding material such as peat and mixtures of peat and sawdust inhibited the bacterial growth of B. cereus. The extent of growth of B. cereus in the sawdust was increased in a dose-dependent manner by the availability of feces. Urine added to different bedding material raised the pH and also led to bacterial growth of B. cereus in the peat. In sawdust, a dry matter content greater than 70% was needed to lower the water activity to 0.95, which is needed to inhibit the growth of B. cereus. In an attempt to reduce the bacterial growth of B. cereus and coliforms in deep sawdust beds on the farm, the effect of giving bedding daily or a full replacement of the beds was studied. The spore count of B. cereus in the back part of the free stalls before fresh bedding was added was 0.9 log units lower in stalls given daily bedding than in stalls given bedding twice weekly. No effect on coliform counts was found. Replacement of the entire sawdust bedding had an effect for a short period, but by 1 to 2 mo after replacement, the counts of B. cereus spores in the

  11. Assessment of larvicidal activities of bacillus species isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of larvicidal activities of bacillus species isolated from soil against the mosquito aedes aegyptia (diptera: culicidae) in Sokoto, northwestern Nigeria. S.B. Manga, A.H. Kawo, A.B. Rabah, A.A. Usman, A.I. Dabai, J.A. Bala ...

  12. Characterization of germination receptors of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.; Vries, de Y.P.; Wells-Bennik, M.H.J.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2006-01-01

    Specific amino acids, purine ribonucleosides, or a combination of the two is required for efficient germination of endospores of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. A survey including 20 different amino acids showed that L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-threonine, and L-glutamine are capable of initiating the

  13. Live-imaging of Bacillus subtilis spore germination and outgrowth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandey, R.

    2014-01-01

    Spores of Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus and Clostridium cause huge economic losses to the food industry. In food products, spores survive under food preservation conditions and subsequent germination and outgrowth eventually causes food spoilage. Therefore efforts are being made to

  14. Manipulating the autolytic pathway of a Bacillus protease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandenBurg, B; Eijsink, VGH; Vriend, G; Veltman, OR; Venema, G; HopsuHavu, VK; Jarvinen, M; Kirschke, H

    1997-01-01

    Autolytic degradation of Bacillus subtilis thermolysin-like proteinase (TLP-sub) is responsible for the irreversible inactivation of the enzyme at elevated temperatures. Previously, we reported five autolysis sites in B. subtilis neutral protease (Van den Burg et al., 1990, Biochem. J. 272:93-97).

  15. Crude oil degradation by Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microorganisms capable of degrading crude oil were isolated from soil compost in Kano, northwestern Nigeria. The work was carried out with the aim of determining crude-oil biodegradation potentials of Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated from the soil compost as well as the assessment of the applicability of ...

  16. The impact of manganese on biofilm development of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mhatre, Eisha; Troszok, Agnieszka; Gallegos-Monterrosa, Ramses; Lindstädt, Stefanie; Hölscher, Theresa; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kovács, Ákos T.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are dynamic and structurally complex communities, involving cell-to-cell interactions. In recent years, various environmental signals were identified that induce the complex biofilm development of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. These signaling molecules are often

  17. Biodestruction and deferritization of quartz sands by Bacillus species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štyriaková, I.; Štyriak, I.; Kraus, I.; Hradil, David; Grygar, Tomáš; Bezdička, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 8 (2003), s. 709-713 ISSN 0892-6875 Grant - others:Slovak Academy of Sciences(SK) VEGA 2/2107/22 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : bacteria * Bacillus spp. * bioleaching Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.438, year: 2003

  18. Enhanced biomass production study on probiotic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The culture conditions of lactose fermenting, spore forming probiotic Bacillus subtilis SK09 isolated from dairy effluent were optimized by response surface methodology to maximize the biomass production. The student's t-test of the Placket-Burman screening design revealed that the effects of pH, ammonium citrate and ...

  19. Characterization of a thermostable Bacillus subtilis β-amylase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 70 0C respectively, and the thermal stability curve gave a maximum activity of 9.75 U at 70oC for 60 min of incubation. Bacillus subtilis â-amylase is valuable for maltose production, which can be hydrolyzed further by other groups of amylase for the production of high cassava glucose syrup used as sweeteners in the food ...

  20. The colonization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains in bryophytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lin, Q.; Zhu, P.; Carballar-Lejarazú, R.; Gelbič, Ivan; Guan, X.; Xu, L.; Zhang, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2017), s. 41-48 ISSN 1300-0152 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis * GFP * plant colonization Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.038, year: 2016 http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/biology/issues/biy-17-41-1/biy-41-1-5-1510-16.pdf

  1. Characterization of Bacillus spp. from some spices and assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred twenty five samples from five different Ethiopian sauce spices were examined for the incidence and level of contamination of Bacillus species. The spices consisted of fenugreek (Trigenella foenum-graecum), black cumin (Nigella sativa), Ethiopian caraway (Trachyspermum ammi), ginger (Zingiber officinale) ...

  2. Bacillus thuringiensis and its application in agriculture | Ali | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presently, a number of approaches to pest control via genetic engineering have been developed and genetically engineered crops expressing insecticidal characteristics are under cultivation for the last 15 years. Use of Bacillus thuringiensis genes encoding o̅ endotoxins with insecticidal characteristics is the major ...

  3. Effects of the Consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Micrococcus spp on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil was carried out using standard microbiological methods. Spectrophotometer, gas chromatography and viable count which determined the optical density, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ...

  4. Prevalence of enterotoxigenic Bacillus Cereus and Its enterotoxins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) and enterotoxins in milk and milk products. Design: A random sampling of milk products was carried out. Setting: Market milk and milk products were collected from retail shops in Nairobi and analysed for contamination with ...

  5. Control of Bean Rust using Antibiotics Produced by Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic culture filtrates produced by Bacillus (CA5) and Streptomyces spp. were tested for translocation and persistence when applied on snap beans inoculated with rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) in greenhouse pot experiments. The antibiotics were applied on the first trifoliate leaves and translocation was assessed as ...

  6. The transcriptionally active regions in the genome of Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard

    2009-01-01

    The majority of all genes have so far been identified and annotated systematically through in silico gene finding. Here we report the finding of 3662 strand-specific transcriptionally active regions (TARs) in the genome of Bacillus subtilis by the use of tiling arrays. We have measured the genome...

  7. Fungicidal effect of bacteriocins harvested from Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji, V. O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study investigated the ability of bacteriocins isolated from Bacillus spp. (Bacillus species to inhibit fourdifferent yeast isolates obtained from common food products (nono, yoghurt, ogi and cheese commonly consumed byNigerians with minimal heat treatment.Methodology and results: Forty-five Bacillus spp. was isolated and identified from common food products usingcultural, morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. These isolates were tested for antimicrobialactivity against Salmonella enteritidis (3, Micrococcus luteus (1 and Staphylococcus aureus (2. Eight bacteriocinproducing strains were identified from an over- night broth culture centrifugated at 3500 revolutions for five minutes.Fungicidal effects of these bacteriocins were tested against four yeast strains using the Agar Well Diffusion method. Thebacteriocins produced wide zones of inhibition ranging from 5.9±0.000 to 24.00±0.000 mm against the 4 yeast strainstested. There was a significant difference (at p<0.05 between the yeast organisms and the bacteriocins from theBacillus spp.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The study reveals the antifungal property of bacteriocins from Bacillusspp. and serves therefore as a base for further studies in its use in the control of diseases and extension of shelf-life ofproducts prone to fungi contamination.

  8. Transformation of undomesticated strains of Bacillus subtilis by protoplast electroporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, Diego; Perez-Garcia, Alejandro; Veening, Jan-Willem; de Vicente, Antonio; Kuipers, Oscar P.; de, Vicente A.

    A rapid method combining the use of protoplasts and electroporation was developed to transform recalcitrant wild strains of Bacillus subtilis. The method described here allows transformation with both replicative and integrative plasmids, as well as with chromosomal DNA, and provides a valuable tool

  9. Enhancing the Production of a Novel Exopolysaccharide by Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To improve the production of a novel exopolysaccharide (EPS) by Bacillus mucilaginosus CGMCC5766. Methods: The culture medium for production of EPS was optimized using statistical experiment design. Sucrose, CaCO3 and K2HPO4 were found to be the key factors based on the results obtained from ...

  10. Extracellular protease produced by Bacillus subtilis isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a study to evaluate the microbiological safety of some paracetamol oral solutions sold in some Nigerian drug stores, 40.0% of the samples examined was contaminated with protease-producing Bacillus subtilis. The production of extracellular protease was induced by casein in the minimal medium and was found to be the ...

  11. Comparison of gene expression profiles in Bacillus megaterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The MP agent, prepared from Bacillus megaterium isolated from the soil near tobacco fields, can improve metabolic products, and hence the aroma, of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaf. To explore genes regulating metabolic responses in tobacco leaf, we used microarrays to analyze differentially expressed genes ...

  12. Factors affecting the solubility of Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Cornelius; Hobley, Timothy John; Mollerup, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    A detailed study of the solubility of recombinant Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase has been conducted. A semi-purified preparation from a bulk crystallisation was chos en that contained six isoforms with pI-values of between 5.5 and 6.1. The solubility was strongly affected by pH and could...

  13. Isolation and characterization of lipase-producing Bacillus strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus strains (B1 - B5) producing extra cellular lipase were isolated from the soil sample of coconut oil industry. The strains were identified by morphological and biochemical characters. Growth of the organisms and lipase production were measured with varying pH (4 - 9) temperature (27, 37 and 47ºC) and various ...

  14. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains from Jordan and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight serotypes with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis being the most common. Out of the twenty-six isolated strains, five strains (serotype: kenyae, kurstaki, kurstaki HD1 and thuringiensis) that produced bipyramid crystal proteins were toxic to the lepidoptera larvae of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. The SDS-PAGE protein ...

  15. Isolation of protease producing novel Bacillus cereus and detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... Key words: Protease, production, optimization, Bacillus sp. INTRODUCTION ... Nutrient broth (5 g peptone and 3 g meat extract, pH 7.0, Merck) was used as the common growth ... nitrate through nitrite. It was determined that ...

  16. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J.; Jong, de Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with

  17. An oxidant, detergent and salt stable alkaline protease from Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel soil bacterium, Bacillus cereus SIU1 was earlier isolated from non-saline, slightly alkaline soil of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The isolate B. cereus SIU1 was grown in modified glucose yeast extract (modified GYE) medium at pH 9.0 and 45°C. It produced maximum protease at 20 h incubation. The enzyme was ...

  18. Purification and characterization of protease from Bacillus cereus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chitti

    2013-09-16

    Sep 16, 2013 ... Purification and characterization of protease from. Bacillus cereus SU12 isolated from oyster. Saccostrea cucullata. S. Umayaparvathi*, S. Meenakshi, M. Arumugam and T. Balasubramanian. Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai - 608.

  19. Fatal sepsis by Bacillus circulans in an immunocompromised patient

    OpenAIRE

    Alebouyeh, M; Gooran Orimi, P; Azimi-rad, M; Tajbakhsh, M; Tajeddin, E; Jahani Sherafat, S; Nazemalhosseini mojarad, E; Zali, MR

    2011-01-01

    An immunosuppressed man was admitted to hospital with diarrhea and a history of urinary tract infection. He was subjected to treatment with antibiotics. The patient died of putative severe sepsis. The etiological agent was a carbapenemase producing isolate of Bacillus circulans with resistance to all prescribed antimicrobial agents.

  20. bmr3, a third multidrug transporter gene of Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohki, R; Murata, M

    1997-01-01

    A third multidrug transporter gene named bmr3 was cloned from Bacillus subtilis. Although Bmr3 shows relatively low homology to Bmr and Blt, the substrate specificities of these three transporters overlap. Northern hybridization analysis showed that expression of the bmr3 gene was dependent on the growth phase.

  1. Improved keratinase production for feather degradation by Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal medium was used to improve the production of keratinase by Bacillus licheniformis ZJUEL31410, which has a promising application in the transformation of feather into soluble protein. The results of single factor design revealed that the concentration of feather at 20 g/l and the initial pH at value 8 was the best for ...

  2. Identification of Bacitracin Produced by Local Isolate of Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from soil of different house gardens. Diagnosis was performed according to Gram stain, motility, shape forming, aerobic condition and other tests. Bacitracin was primary identified after its activity was tested against some species of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Identification ...

  3. Evaluation of the Larvicidal Activities of Bacillus Sphaericus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the larvicidal activities of Bacillus sphaericus, against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes found in this area (Sokoto), was carried out. The B. sphaericus (SPH 88) was obtained from Paseur Institute in Paris (France) in the form of a water dispersible powder. About 50mg of the powder was dissolved in 10ml ...

  4. Isolation and characterization of lactobacillus and bacillus producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on the screening, production, extraction of biosurfactants from Lactobacillus and Bacillus, and its antimicrobial properties against causal microorganisms of food borne infection (food borne pathogens). The biosurfactants were investigated for potential antimicrobial activity using disk diffusion method ...

  5. Ecology and diversity of Bacillus thuringiensis in soil environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus thuringiensis populations ranged between 4.23 x 105, 6.52 x 105 cfu/g soil and consist of 11 types of isolates with 3 polymorphic, 7 spherical and 1 bipyramidal type of crystals. Polymorphic crystal containing isolates were further characterized. B. thuringiensis isolates were circular, white, flat and undulate or entire.

  6. Characterisation of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki strains by toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... Southern analysis of restricted plasmid combined with cryIA profile can provide an ... Abbreviations: ICP, Insecticidal Crystal Protein; H.a., .... 70 kDa ICP component were purified as per protocol of Harlow and .... They are in principal .... on the interaction of Bacillus thuriengensis subsp. kurstaki with the.

  7. Novel giant siphovirus from Bacillus anthracis features unusual genome characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly H Ganz

    Full Text Available Here we present vB_BanS-Tsamsa, a novel temperate phage isolated from Bacillus anthracis, the agent responsible for anthrax infections in wildlife, livestock and humans. Tsamsa phage is a giant siphovirus (order Caudovirales, featuring a long, flexible and non-contractile tail of 440 nm (not including baseplate structure and an isometric head of 82 nm in diameter. We induced Tsamsa phage in samples from two different carcass sites in Etosha National Park, Namibia. The Tsamsa phage genome is the largest sequenced Bacillus siphovirus, containing 168,876 bp and 272 ORFs. The genome features an integrase/recombinase enzyme, indicative of a temperate lifestyle. Among bacterial strains tested, the phage infected only certain members of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group (B. anthracis, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis and exhibited moderate specificity for B. anthracis. Tsamsa lysed seven out of 25 B. cereus strains, two out of five B. thuringiensis strains and six out of seven B. anthracis strains tested. It did not lyse B. anthracis PAK-1, an atypical strain that is also resistant to both gamma phage and cherry phage. The Tsamsa endolysin features a broader lytic spectrum than the phage host range, indicating possible use of the enzyme in Bacillus biocontrol.

  8. Detection of Bacillus thuringiensis genes in transgenic maize by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We optimized the PCR method to detect genetically engineered Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize in open quarantine fields in Kenya. Many factors affect the extraction of the DNA from plants, such as the amount of tissue available, the condition of the plant material, the numbers of steps involved in the extraction procedure, ...

  9. Occurrence of Bacillus thuringiensis in faeces of herbivorous farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner), the insect pathogen has been isolated from a variety of habitat. It is understood that the habitat of B. thuringiensis has always been associated with their biological activity. In the present study, B. thuringiensis was isolated from faeces of cows and goats. The phenotypic characterization ...

  10. DNA fingerprinting of spore-forming bacterial isolates, using Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bc-repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (Bc-Rep PCR) analysis was conducted on seven Bacillus thuringiensis isolates accessed from the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSMZ) culture collection and on five local isolates of entomopathogenic spore-forming bacteria.

  11. Screening of Local Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates for Toxicity to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem borers are a major source of pre-harvest maize crop losses in Kenya and many Sub- Saharan African countries. This menace needs to be addressed if food security is to be realized in this region. Seven local isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains were isolated from soils collected from Kakamega and Machakos ...

  12. Profile of cry from native Bacillus thuringiensis isolates and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The characterization of 255 Bacillus thuringiensis isolates of Coorg, Sharavatti and BR hills, containing genes known to be active against coleopteran and lepidopteran insect species was done through PCR amplification using the specific and degenerate primers. The isolates were also tested for their insecticidal activity ...

  13. The Impact of Bacillus Thuringiensis Israelensis (Bti) on Adult and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the year 2007, the Ministry of Health (MoH) initiated a larviciding program using Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) to mitigate the effects of black fly bites. This study was aimed at assessing the impact of Bti on adult and larvae black fly populations. Baseline data was collected prior to Bti application and after ...

  14. Antibiotic and surfactant effects on lysine accumulation by Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of antibiotics and surfactants on lysine accumulation in the culture broth of three strains of Bacillus megaterium (B. megaterium SP 86, B. megaterium SP 76 and B. megaterium SP 14) were investigated. Lincomycin, neomycin and tetracycline stimulated lysine increase in B. megaterium SP 76 and B. megaterium ...

  15. Optimizing Bacillus circulans Xue-113168 for biofertilizer production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Bacillus circulans Xue-113168 biofertilizer was produced through solid state fermentation processes using food waste and feldspar. Results confirmed that solid state fermentation has considerable advantages compared to complex process (solid-state and bio-bleach). The control of pH, temperature, and ...

  16. Degradation of extracytoplasmic catalysts for protein folding in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnappa, Laxmi; Monteferrante, Carmine G; Neef, Jolanda; Dreisbach, Annette; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    The general protein secretion pathway of Bacillus subtilis has a high capacity for protein export from the cytoplasm, which is exploited in the biotechnological production of a wide range of enzymes. These exported proteins pass the membrane in an unfolded state, and accordingly, they have to fold

  17. Larvicidal efficacy of stock Bacillus sphaericus on local species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Time of exposure to larvicide also had insignificant influence (p>0.05) on rate of larval mortality. It was concluded that employed larvicide had limited activity against local breed of mosquito with risk of early resistance against this biological agent. Keywords: larvicide, Bacillus, mosquito. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol.

  18. Performance of Microbial Concrete Developed Using Bacillus Subtilus JC3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. V. Seshagiri; Reddy, V. Srinivasa; Sasikala, Ch.

    2017-12-01

    Concrete is vulnerable to deterioration, corrosion, and cracks, and the consequent damage and loss of strength requires immensely expensive remediation and repair. So need for special concrete that they would respond to crack formation with an autonomous self-healing action lead to research and development of microbial concrete. The microbial concrete works on the principle of calcite mineral precipitation by a specific group of alkali-resistant spore-forming bacteria related to the genus Bacillus called Bacillus subtilis JC3, this phenomenon is called biomineralization or Microbiologically Induced Calcite Crystal Precipitation. Bacillus subtilis JC3, a common soil bacterium, has inherent ability to precipitate calcite crystals continuously which enhances the strength and durability performance of concrete enormously. This microbial concrete can be called as a "Self healing Bacterial Concrete" because it can remediate its cracks by itself without any human intervention and would make the concrete more durable and sustainable. This paper discuss the incorporation of microorganism Bacillus subtilis JC3 (developed at JNTU, India) into concrete and presents the results of experimental investigations carried out to study the improved durability and sustainability characteristics of microbial concrete.

  19. Production of alkaline proteases by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-11-23

    Nov 23, 2016 ... A new strain of Bacillus sp. was isolated from alkaline soil, which was able to produce extracellular alkaline ... rice and dates (Khosravi-Darani et al., 2008), protein by- products from lather ..... Pigeon pea waste as a novel ...

  20. Isolation and characterization of lipase-producing Bacillus strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... many industrial processes leading to the development of ... streaked on tributyrin (Hi media 071) agar plates and the formation .... 3d. At pH 7.0. 3e. At pH 8.0. 3f. At pH 9.0. Figure 3. Effect of olive oil on lipase activity of Bacillus ...

  1. Interactions of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crops with spiders (Araneae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically modified crops expressing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have dramatically increased in acreage since their introduction in the mid-1990’s. Although the insecticidal mechanisms of Bt target specific pests, concerns persist regarding direct and indirect effects on...

  2. Antagonistic Effect of Native Bacillus Isolates against Black Root Rot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the most important pulse crops grown in eastern Africa. Black root rot (Fusarium solani) is known to cause great yield losses in faba bean, especially in the highlands of Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological control ability of native Bacillus species on the basis of ...

  3. Isolation of protease producing novel Bacillus cereus and detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... The highest protease activity was determined at 30°C temperature and 6.4 pH conditions and after the 18th hour, it decreased evidently. Key words: Protease, production, optimization, Bacillus sp. INTRODUCTION. Enzymes have been produced in large industrial scale for several decades (Falch, 1991).

  4. Protein export in bacillus subtilis and escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijl, Jan Maarten van

    1990-01-01

    The export of heterologous proteins in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli is often inefficient. Frequently observed problems are: 1) accumulation of the precursor form of the exported protein in the cytoplasm or in the membrane; 2), inefficient or incorrect processing of the precursor; 3),

  5. Reclassification of Bacillus axarquiensis Ruiz-Garcia et al. 2005 and Bacillus malacitensis Ruiz-Garcia et al. 2005 as later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis Roberts et al. 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ting; Lee, Fwu-Ling; Tai, Chun-Ju; Yokota, Akira; Kuo, Hsiao-Ping

    2007-07-01

    The Bacillus subtilis group encompasses the taxa Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. atrophaeus, B. mojavensis, B. vallismortis, B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii, B. sonorensis, B. velezensis, B. axarquiensis and B. malacitensis. In this study, the taxonomic relatedness between the species B. axarquiensis, B. malacitensis and B. mojavensis was investigated. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the gene for DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB) confirmed the very high similarities between these three type strains and a reference strain of B. mojavensis (>99 and >97 %, respectively). DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed high relatedness values between the type strains of B. axarquiensis, B. malacitensis and B. mojavensis and between these strains and a reference strain of B. mojavensis (83-98 %). Based on these molecular taxonomic data and the lack of phenotypic distinctive characteristics, Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis should be reclassified as later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis.

  6. Genome Sequencing of Bacillus subtilis SC-8, Antagonistic to the Bacillus cereus Group, Isolated from Traditional Korean Fermented-Soybean Food

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, In-Cheol; Lee, Nam Keun; Hahm, Young Tae

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis SC-8 is a Gram-positive bacterium displaying narrow antagonistic activity for the Bacillus cereus group. B. subtilis SC-8 was isolated from Korean traditional fermented-soybean food. Here we report the draft genome sequence of B. subtilis SC-8, including biosynthetic genes for antibiotics that may have beneficial effects for control of food-borne pathogens.

  7. Expression of the neutral protease gene from a thermophilic Bacillus sp BT1 strain in Bacillus subtilis and its natural host : Identification of a functional promoter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecerek, B; Venema, G

    The expression of the neutral protease gene (npr) from the thermophilic Bacillus sp. BT1 strain was studied in its natural host and in mesophilic Bacillus subtilis. In the thermophilic BT1 strain, the transcription of the protease gene is initiated from its own promoter, just 5' to the gene. In

  8. Sporulation of Bacillus spp. within biofilms: a potential source of contamination in food processing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faille, C; Bénézech, T; Midelet-Bourdin, G; Lequette, Y; Clarisse, M; Ronse, G; Ronse, A; Slomianny, C

    2014-06-01

    Bacillus strains are often isolated from biofilms in the food industries. Previous works have demonstrated that sporulation could occur in biofilms, suggesting that biofilms would be a significant source of food contamination with spores. In this study, we investigated the properties of mono-species and mixed Bacillus biofilms and the ability of Bacillus strains to sporulate inside biofilms. Bacillus strains were able to form mono-species biofilms on stainless steel coupons, with up to 90% spores after a 48 h-incubation. These spores were highly resistant to cleaning but were easily transferred to agar, mimicking the cross-contamination of food, thereby suggesting that biofilms would be of particular concern due to a potential for Bacillus spore food contamination. This hypothesis was strengthened by the fact that Bacillus strains were able to form mixed biofilms with resident strains and that sporulation still occurred easily in these complex structures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Naphthalene degradation and biosurfactant activity by Bacillus cereus 28BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuleva, B.; Christova, N. [Inst. of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Jordanov, B.; Nikolova-Damyanova, B. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria); Petrov, P. [National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2005-08-01

    Biosurfactant activity and naphthalene degradation by a new strain identified as Bacillus cereus 28BN were studied. The strain grew well and produced effective biosurfactants in the presence of n-alkanes, naphthalene, crude oil and vegetable oils. The biosurfactants were detected by the surface tension lowering of the medium, thin layer chromatography and infrared spectra analysis. With (2%) naphthalene as the sole carbon source, high levels of rhamnolipids at a concentration of 2.3 g l{sup -1} were determined in the stationary growth. After 20 d of incubation 72 {+-} 4% of the initial naphthalene was degraded. This is the first report for a Bacillus cereus rhamnolipid producing strain that utilized naphthalene under aerobic conditions. The strain looks promising for application in environmental technologies. (orig.)

  10. Growth measurement of some amylolytic bacillus species in three media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, A.O.

    2009-01-01

    Study of the growth pattern of some Bacillus species on starchy substrates showed that the metabolic activity affected the enzymatic activity. B. subtilis (WBS), B. licheniformis (WBL) and B. coagulans (MBC) generally had higher growth rate. B. circulans (SBC) and B. coagulans (WBC) had higher growth on cornstarch medium with corresponding higher beta-amylase production as compared to other strains such as B. polymyxa. Ten of the 13 Bacillus species studied had better performance on cornstarch than on soluble starch except B. macerans (MBM), B. macerans (SMB2) and B. subtilis (WBS). The enzyme production ranged from 0.022 unit/cfu x 102 to 0.912 unit/cfu x 102 on cornstarch and 0.01 unit/cfu x 102 to 0.693 unit/cfu x 102 on soluble starch. Relatively higher a-amylase activity was observed in B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. macerans and B. circulans (WBC1). (author)

  11. Biodegradation of furfural by Bacillus subtilis strain DS3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dan; Bao, Jianguo; Lu, Jueming; Lv, Quanxi

    2015-07-01

    An aerobic bacterial strain DS3, capable of growing on furfural as sole carbon source, was isolated from actived sludge of wastewater treatment plant in a diosgenin factory after enrichment. Based on morphological physiological tests as well as 16SrDNA sequence and Biolog analyses it was identified as Bacillus subtilis. The study revealed that strain DS3 utilized furfural, as analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Under following conditions: pH 8.0, temperature 35 degrees C, 150 rpm and 10% inoculum, strain DS3 showed 31.2% furfural degradation. Furthermore, DS3 strain was found to tolerate furfural concentration as high as 6000 mg(-1). The ability of Bacillus subtilis strain DS3 to degrade furfural has been demonstrated for the first time in the present study.

  12. Novel routes for improving biocontrol activity of Bacillus based bioinoculants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming eWu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol formulations prepared from plant-growth-promoting bacteria are increasingly applied in sustainable agriculture. Especially inoculants prepared from endospore-forming Bacillus strains have been proven as efficient and environmental-friendly alternative to chemical pesticides due to their long shelf life, which is comparable with that of agrochemicals. However, these formulations of the first generation are sometimes hampered in their action and do not fulfill in each case the expectations of the appliers. In this review we use the well-known plant-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens type strain FZB42 as example for the successful application of different techniques offered today by comparative, evolutionary and functional genomics, site-directed mutagenesis and strain construction including marker removal, for paving the way for preparing a novel generation of biocontrol agents.

  13. Effects of gamma-rays on an indigenous Bacillus isolate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Bor Chyan; Liew Pauline Woan Ying; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Siti Khadijah Abu Hadin; Nabilahuda Mohd Tumirin

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary study was carried out with the aim to obtain strong cellulolytic bacteria by ionizing radiation using a 60 Co source. An indigenous cellulolytic Bacillus sp. NMBCC 10023 originally isolated from soil origin was used in the study. The harvested bacterial pellets from overnight growth cultures were exposed to gamma-irradiation with doses ranging from 1 kGy to 40 kGy. The numbers of surviving bacteria on agar plate decreased as the gamma irradiation dose increased. No isolates were recovered after exposure to doses greater than 10 kGy. Based on the cell count using plate count method, the 90 % lethal dose (LD90) of gamma radiation of Bacillus sp. NMBCC 10023 was between 2-4 kGy. (author)

  14. Solid Culturing of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for α-Amylase Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Gangadharan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen different agroresidues were screened for alpha amylase production using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ATCC 23842. Among them, wheat bran (WB and groundnut oil cake (GOC in mass ratio of 1:1 was proved as the best substrate source. Supplementation with 0.01 M KH2PO4 and 1 % soluble starch enhanced the enzyme yield considerably. Maximum enzyme recovery from the solid mass was obtained when extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer, pH=5.0. Maximum enzyme titer expressed as units per mass of dry substrate obtained was 62 470 U/g after 72 hours of fermentation at 37 °C by using the above solid substrate mixture (5 g with the initial moisture of 85 % and inoculated with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens of 2·109 CFU/mL.

  15. Effect of Bacillus subtilis microecological probiotics on livestock breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui ZHOU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of green and healthy microecologics, Bacillus subtilis could balance the intestinal flora, promote the nutrient absorption and enhance immunity. Microecologics is one of the ideal antibiotics alternative, which are effective in preventing and treating animal disease and promoting the growth and development of the animal. Because of its advantages, such as no toxin side effect and no residual or drug-resistant, microecologics has been used in livestock breeding widely. Here, we concluded the characteristics and mechanism of Bacillus subtilis,elaborated application of microecologics on livestock breeding, discussed its problems and suggested its solved methods. In the end, the future of microecologics was expected in order to provide a reference for subsequent livestock breeding.

  16. Enhanced hydrocarbon biodegradation by a newly isolated bacillus subtilis strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christova, N.; Tuleva, B.; Nikolova-Damyanova, B.

    2004-01-01

    The relation between hydrocarbon degradation and biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by a new bacillus subtilis 22BN strain was investigated. The strain was isolated for its capacity to utilize n-hexadecane and naphthalene and at the same time to produce surface-active compound at high concentrations (1.5 - 2.0 g l -1 ). Biosurfactant production was detected by surface tension lowering and emulsifying activity. The strain is a good degrader of both hydrocarbons used with degradability of 98.3 ± 1% and 75 ± 2% for n-hexadecane and naphthalene, respectively. Measurement of cell hydrophobicity showed that the combination of slightly soluble substrate and rhamnolipid developed higher hydrophobicity correlated with increased utilization of both hydrocarbon substrates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bacillus subtilis strain that degrades hydrophobic compounds and at the same time produces rhamnolipid biosurfactant. (orig.)

  17. Proteins that interact with GTP during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.; Vary, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    During sporulation of Bacillus subtilis, several proteins were shown to interact with GTP in specific ways. UV light was used to cross-link [α- 32 P]GTP to proteins in cell extracts at different stages of growth. After electrophoresis, 11 bands of radioactivity were found in vegetative cells, 4 more appeared during sporulation, and only 9 remained in mature spores. Based on the labeling pattern with or without UV light to cross-link either [α- 32 P]GTP or [γ- 32 P]GTP, 11 bands of radioactivity were apparent guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, and 5 bands appeared to be phosphorylated and/or guanylated. Similar results were found with Bacillus megaterium. Assuming the GTP might be a type of signal for sporulation, it could interact with and regulate proteins by at least three mechanisms

  18. Genetic Characterization of Bacillus anthracis 17 JB strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-Mohamadi, Sakineh; Moradi Bidhendi, Soheila; Tadayon, Keyvan; Ghaderi, Rainak

    2015-06-01

    Bacillus anthracis is one of the most homogenous bacteria ever described. Some level of diversity. Bacillus anthracis 17JB is a laboratory strain It is broadly used as a challenge strain in guinea pigs for potency test of anthrax vaccine. This work describes genetic characterization of B. anthracis 17 JB strain using the SNPs and MLVA genotyping. In SNPs typing, the originally French 17JB strain represented the A.Br. 008/009 subgroup. In Levy's genotyping method, 843, 451 and 864 bp long fragments were identified at AA03, AJ03 and AA07 loci, respectively. In the vaccine manufacturer perspective these findings are much valuable on their own account, but similar research is required to extend molecular knowledge of B. anthracis epidemiology in Persia.

  19. Genome Sequence of Antibiotic-Producing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain KCTC 13012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Park, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Soo-Keun

    2015-10-01

    We report the 4.0-Mb draft genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (syn. Bacillus velezensis) KCTC 13012, which exhibits a broad spectrum of antagonistic activity against bacteria and fungi and promotes plant growth as well. The genome contains an array of biosynthetic gene clusters for secondary metabolites that are comparable to those in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42(T). Copyright © 2015 Jeong et al.

  20. Data on genome analysis of Bacillus velezensis LS69.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqiang; Kong, Yingying; Fan, Yajing; Geng, Ce; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2017-08-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the published entitled "Whole-genome sequencing of Bacillus velezensis LS69, a strain with a broad inhibitory spectrum against pathogenic bacteria" (Liu et al., 2017) [1]. Genome analysis revealed B. velezensis LS69 has a good potential for biocontrol and plant growth promotion. This article provides an extended analysis of the genetic islands, core genes and amylolysin loci of B. velezensis LS69.

  1. Data on genome analysis of Bacillus velezensis LS69

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guoqiang; Kong, Yingying; Fan, Yajing; Geng, Ce; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the published entitled “Whole-genome sequencing of Bacillus velezensis LS69, a strain with a broad inhibitory spectrum against pathogenic bacteria” (Liu et al., 2017) [1]. Genome analysis revealed B. velezensis LS69 has a good potential for biocontrol and plant growth promotion. This article provides an extended analysis of the genetic islands, core genes and amylolysin loci of B. velezensis LS69.

  2. Data on genome analysis of Bacillus velezensis LS69

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the published entitled “Whole-genome sequencing of Bacillus velezensis LS69, a strain with a broad inhibitory spectrum against pathogenic bacteria” (Liu et al., 2017 [1]. Genome analysis revealed B. velezensis LS69 has a good potential for biocontrol and plant growth promotion. This article provides an extended analysis of the genetic islands, core genes and amylolysin loci of B. velezensis LS69.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of the Bacillus subtilis menp1 promoter.

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, X; Taber, H W

    1996-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis men genes encode biosynthetic enzymes for formation of the respiratory chain component menaquinone. The menp1 promoter previously was shown to be the primary cis element for menFD gene expression. In the present work, it was found that either supplementation with nonfermentable carbon sources or reutilization of glycolytic end products increased menp1 activity in the late postexponential phase. The effect on menp1 activity by a particular end product (such as acetoin or ...

  4. Efektivitas Bacillus thuringiensis dalam Pengendalian Larva Nyamuk Anopheles sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citra Inneke Wibowo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nyamuk Anopheles sp adalah vektor penyakit malaria. Pengendalian vektor penyakit malaria dapat dilakukan secara biologis yaitu dengan menggunakan Bacillus thuringiensis. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui efektivitas konsentrasi Bacillus thuringiensis dalam pengendalian larva nyamuk Anopheles sp.Penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksperimental menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial (RAL Faktorial yang terdiri atas dua faktor yaitu konsentrasi Bacillus thuringiensis dan stadia larva Anopheles dengan pengulangan tiga kali.Perlakuan yang dicobakan adalahkonsentrasi Bacillus thuringiensis (A yang terdiri atas 5 taraf:A0: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 0 CFU.mL-1, A1: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 102 CFU.mL-1, A2: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 104 CFU.mL-1, A3: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 106CFU.mL-1, A4: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 108CFU.mL-1. Perlakuan tahapan instar larva Anopheles sp. (B adalah sebagai berikut:B1: stadia larva instar I, B2: stadia larva instar II, B3: stadia larva instar III, B4: stadia larva instar IVsehingga terdapat 60 satuan percobaan. Hasil penelitian  menunjukkan konsentrasi B. thuringiensis isolat CK dan IPB CC yang paling berpengaruh dalam pengendalian larva Anopheles sp adalah 108 CFU.mL-1 . Instar larva yang paling peka terhadap B. thuringiensis isolat IPB CC adalah instar I dan II sedangkan instar yang peka terhadap isolat CK adalah instar II, Perlakuan konsentrasi isolat B. thuringiensis dan tingkat instar larva yang paling baik dalam pengendalian larva Anopheles sp. adalah 108 CFU.mL-1, dan instar I dan II.

  5. Functional Diversity of AAA+ Protease Complexes in Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Elsholz, Alexander K. W.; Birk, Marlene S.; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Turgay, K?r?ad

    2017-01-01

    Here, we review the diverse roles and functions of AAA+ protease complexes in protein homeostasis, control of stress response and cellular development pathways by regulatory and general proteolysis in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. We discuss in detail the intricate involvement of AAA+ protein complexes in controlling sporulation, the heat shock response and the role of adaptor proteins in these processes. The investigation of these protein complexes and their adaptor pro...

  6. Functional Comparison of the Two Bacillus anthracis Glutamate Racemases▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, Dylan; Reese, Joseph G.; Louer, Craig R.; Ballard, Jimmy D.; Spies, M. Ashley; Blanke, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    Glutamate racemase activity in Bacillus anthracis is of significant interest with respect to chemotherapeutic drug design, because l-glutamate stereoisomerization to d-glutamate is predicted to be closely associated with peptidoglycan and capsule biosynthesis, which are important for growth and virulence, respectively. In contrast to most bacteria, which harbor a single glutamate racemase gene, the genomic sequence of B. anthracis predicts two genes encoding glutamate racemases, racE1 and rac...

  7. Fitness Trade-Offs in Competence Differentiation of Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Yüksel, Melih; Power, Jeffrey J.; Ribbe, Jan; Volkmann, Thorsten; Maier, Berenike

    2016-01-01

    In the stationary phase, Bacillus subtilis differentiates stochastically and transiently into the state of competence for transformation (K-state). The latter is associated with growth arrest, and it is unclear how the ability to develop competence is stably maintained, despite its cost. To quantify the effect differentiation has on the competitive fitness of B. subtilis, we characterized the competition dynamics between strains with different probabilities of entering the K-state. The relati...

  8. Pan-genome and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus sensu lato

    OpenAIRE

    Bazinet, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bacillus cereus sensu lato ( s . l .) is an ecologically diverse bacterial group of medical and agricultural significance. In this study, I use publicly available genomes to characterize the B. cereus s. l. pan-genome and perform the largest phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of this group to date in terms of the number of genes and taxa included. With these fundamental data in hand, I identify genes associated with particular phenotypic traits (i.e., "pan-GWAS" analysis...

  9. Pan-genome and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus sensu lato

    OpenAIRE

    Bazinet, Adam L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Bacillus cereus sensu lato (s. l.) is an ecologically diverse bacterial group of medical and agricultural significance. In this study, I use publicly available genomes and novel bioinformatic workflows to characterize the B. cereus s. l. pan-genome and perform the largest phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of this group to date in terms of the number of genes and taxa included. With these fundamental data in hand, I identify genes associated with particular phenotypic tra...

  10. Midgut microbiota and host immunocompetence underlie Bacillus thuringiensis killing mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Caccia, Silvia; Di Lelio, Ilaria; La Storia, Antonietta; Marinelli, Adriana; Varricchio, Paola; Franzetti, Eleonora; Banyuls, Núria; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Casartelli, Morena; Giordana, Barbara; Ferré, Juan; Gigliotti, Silvia; Ercolini, Danilo; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis and its toxins are widely used for insect control. Notwithstanding the remarkable importance of this insect pathogen, its killing mechanism has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we show that the microbiota resident in the host midgut triggers a lethal septicemia. The infection process is enhanced by reducing the host immune response and its control on replication of midgut bacteria invading the body cavity through toxin-induced epithelial lesions. The experimental approa...

  11. A novel hyaluronidase produced by Bacillus sp. A50.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueping Guo

    Full Text Available Hyaluronidases are a family of enzymes that degrade hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan, HA and widely used in many fields. A hyaluronidase producing bacteria strain was screened from the air. 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA analysis indicated that the strain belonged to the genus Bacillus, and the strain was named as Bacillus sp. A50. This is the first report of a hyaluronidase from Bacillus, which yields unsaturated oligosaccharides as product like other microbial hyaluronate lyases. Under optimized conditions, the yield of hyaluronidase from Bacillus sp. A50 could reach up to 1.5×10(4 U/mL, suggesting that strain A50 is a good producer of hyaluronidase. The hyaluronidase (HAase-B was isolated and purified from the bacterial culture, with a specific activity of 1.02×10(6 U/mg protein and a yield of 25.38%. The optimal temperature and pH of HAase-B were 44°C and pH 6.5, respectively. It was stable at pH 5-6 and at a temperature lower than 45°C. The enzymatic activity could be enhanced by Ca2+, Mg2+, or Ni2+, and inhibited by Zn2+, Cu2+, EDTA, ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, deferoxamine mesylate salt (DFO, triton X-100, Tween 80, or SDS at different levels. Kinetic measurements of HAase-B towards HA gave a Michaelis constant (Km of 0.02 mg/mL, and a maximum velocity (Vmax of 0.27 A232/min. HAase-B also showed activity towards chondroitin sulfate A (CSA with the kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax, 12.30 mg/mL and 0.20 A232/min respectively. Meanwhile, according to the sequences of genomic DNA and HAase-B's part peptides, a 3,324-bp gene encoding HAase-B was obtained.

  12. Expression of alpha-amylase in Bacillus licheniformis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rothstein, D M; Devlin, P E; Cate, R L

    1986-01-01

    In Bacillus licheniformis, alpha-amylase production varied more than 100-fold depending on the presence or absence of a catabolite-repressing carbon source in the growth medium. alpha-Amylase was produced during the growth phase and not at the onset of the stationary phase. Induction of alpha-amylase correlated with synthesis of mRNA initiating at the promoter of the alpha-amylase gene.

  13. Purification and medium optimization of α-amylase from Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    α-Amylase was first time isolated and purified from Bacillus subtilis 168 (1A1). Purified α-amylase fraction showed a single protein band with a molecular weight of 55 kD. Chemical characterization of the purified α-amylase revealed optimum amylolytic activity at 37°C and pH 7.0 using starch as substrate. It was stable at pH ...

  14. 14C Analysis of protein extracts from Bacillus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Jenny A; Falso, Miranda J Sarachine; Kashgarian, Michaele; Buchholz, Bruce A

    2014-07-01

    Investigators of bioagent incidents or interdicted materials need validated, independent analytical methods that will allow them to distinguish between recently made bioagent samples versus material drawn from the archives of a historical program. Heterotrophic bacteria convert the carbon in their food sources, growth substrate or culture media, into the biomolecules they need. The F(14)C (fraction modern radiocarbon) of a variety of media, Bacillus spores, and separated proteins from Bacillus spores was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). AMS precisely measures F(14)C values of biological materials and has been used to date the synthesis of biomaterials over the bomb pulse era (1955 to present). The F(14)C of Bacillus spores reflects the radiocarbon content of the media in which they were grown. In a survey of commercial media we found that the F(14)C value indicated that carbon sources for the media were alive within about a year of the date of manufacture and generally of terrestrial origin. Hence, bacteria and their products can be dated using their (14)C signature. Bacillus spore samples were generated onsite with defined media and carbon free purification and also obtained from archived material. Using mechanical lysis and a variety of washes with carbon free acids and bases, contaminant carbon was removed from soluble proteins to enable accurate (14)C bomb-pulse dating. Since media is contemporary, (14)C bomb-pulse dating of isolated soluble proteins can be used to distinguish between historical archives of bioagents and those produced from recent media. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biocontrol: Bacillus penetrans and Related Parasites of Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Sayre, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Bacillus penetrans Mankau, 1975, previously described as Duboscqia penetrans Thorne 1940, is a candidate agent for biocontrol of nematodes. This review considers the life stages of this bacterium: vegetative growth phase, colony fragmentation, sporogenesis, soil phase, spore attachment, and penetration into larvae of root-knot nematodes. The morphology of the microthallus colonies and the unusual external features of the spore are discussed. Taxonomic affinities with the actinomycetes, partic...

  16. Development of Bacillus subtilis mutants to produce tryptophan in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Karin; Cantor, Mette D.; Nørgaard, Jan Værum

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To generate tryptophan-overproducing Bacillus subtilis strains for in situ use in pigs, to reduce the feed cost for farmers and nitrogen pollution. Results A novel concept has been investigated—to generate B. subtilis strains able to produce tryptophan (Trp) in situ in pigs. Mutagenesis......-excreting B. subtilis strains were obtained with UV-mutagenesis and analogue selection and can be used in animal feed applications....

  17. Use of bacillus subtilis strains to inhibit postharvest pathogenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arras, G.; Gambella, F.; Demontis, S.; Petretto, A.

    1995-01-01

    An isolate (87) of the bacillus subtilis strains isolated from cold stored citrus fruit 13 proved to inhibit the growth in vitro of the penicillium italicum used in the experiment (from 50.6% to 92.2%) and to inhibit botrytis cinerea (from 65.3% to 95.9%). A further test, superimposing on plates containing PDA strains Nos. 13, 173, and 160, totally inhibited the fungi. Tested in vivo on artificially bruised oranges, they significantly inhibited two fungi

  18. Characterization of parasporin gene harboring Indian isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis

    OpenAIRE

    Lenina, N. K.; Naveenkumar, A.; Sozhavendan, A. E.; Balakrishnan, N.; Balasubramani, V.; Udayasuriyan, V.

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is popularly known as insecticidal bacterium. However, non-insecticidal Bt strains are more extensively available in natural environment than the insecticidal ones. Parasporin (PS) is a collection of genealogically heterogeneous Cry proteins synthesized in non-insecticidal isolates of Bt. An important character generally related with PS proteins is their strong cytocidal activity preferentially on human cancer cells of various origins. Identification and characteri...

  19. Crude oil degradation by phosphate-solubilizing bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria were isolated from tropical areas around the Indian peninsula. Two of the isolates showed high phosphatase activity. The isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus pumilus, and they showed high...

  20. Biodegradation of malathion by Bacillus licheniformis strain ML-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malathion, a well-known organophosphate pesticide, has been used in agriculture over the last two decades for controlling pests of economically important crops. In the present study, a single bacterium, ML-1, was isolated by soil-enrichment technique and identified as Bacillus licheniformis on the basis of the 16S rRNA technique. The bacterium was grown in carbon-free minimal salt medium (MSM and was found to be very efficient in utilizing malathion as the sole source of carbon. Biodegradation experiments were performed in MSM without carbon source to determine the malathion degradation by the selected strain, and the residues of malathion were determined quantitatively using HPLC techniques. Bacillus licheniformis showed very promising results and efficiently consumed malathion as the sole carbon source via malathion carboxylesterase (MCE, and about 78% malathion was degraded within 5 days. The carboxylesterase activity was determined by using crude extract while using malathion as substrate, and the residues were determined by HPLC. It has been found that the MCE hydrolyzed 87% malathion within 96 h of incubation. Characterization of crude MCE revealed that the enzyme is robust in nature in terms of organic solvents, as it was found to be stable in various concentrations of ethanol and acetonitrile. Similarly, and it can work in a wide pH and temperature range. The results of this study highlighted the potential of Bacillus licheniformis strain ML-1 as a biodegrader that can be used for the bioremediation of malathion-contaminated soil.

  1. Combating Fusarium Infection Using Bacillus-Based Antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Khan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to control toxigenic Fusarium species, wilt and head-blight infections are destructive and economically damaging diseases that have global effects. The utilization of biological control agents in disease management programs has provided an effective, safe, and sustainable means to control Fusarium-induced plant diseases. Among the most widely used microbes for biocontrol agents are members of the genus Bacillus. These species influence plant and fungal pathogen interactions by a number of mechanisms such as competing for essential nutrients, antagonizing pathogens by producing fungitoxic metabolites, or inducing systemic resistance in plants. The multivariate interactions among plant-biocontrol agent-pathogen are the subject of this study, in which we survey the advances made regarding the research on the Bacillus-Fusarium interaction and focus on the principles and mechanisms of action among plant-growth promoting Bacillus species. In particular, we highlight their use in limiting and controlling Fusarium spread and infestations of economically important crops. This knowledge will be useful to define strategies for exploiting this group of beneficial bacteria for use as inoculants by themselves or in combination with other microbes for enhanced crop protection.

  2. Characterization of Emetic Bacillus weihenstephanensis, a New Cereulide-Producing Bacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Munk Hansen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2006-01-01

    Cereulide production has until now been restricted to the species Bacillus cereus. Here we report on two psychrotolerant Bacillus weihenstephanensis strains, MC67 and MC118, that produce cereulide. The strains are atypical with regard to pheno- and genotypic characteristics normally used for iden......Cereulide production has until now been restricted to the species Bacillus cereus. Here we report on two psychrotolerant Bacillus weihenstephanensis strains, MC67 and MC118, that produce cereulide. The strains are atypical with regard to pheno- and genotypic characteristics normally used...

  3. A mathematical model for the study of lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms. I. Lipid accumulation during growth of Mucor circinelloides CBS 172-27 on a vegetable oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggelis, G.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available    The accumulation of lipids In microorganisms cultivated In growth media having as sole carbon and energy source vegetable or animal fat has been an object of research and industrial interest for many years. Interestingly, the accumulated fat often has a composition and structure much different from that of the fat present In the substrate.
       The present work describes a mathematical approach to the accumulation of fat by oleaginous microorganisms growing on medium containing vegetable oil as carbon source. A mathematical model, correlating the accumulation of reserve fat with the growth of microbial population and the available quantity of exocellular fat, is proposed. This model is verified by experimental data taken by cultivation of Mucor circinelloides CBS 172-27 on sunflower oil.
       The proposed model is described by the equation: XL = XLo + Lo(1-e-k2.t– (lnx-lnxo/k1    where XL(mg/l the concentration of reserve lipids at time t(h, XLo(mg/l the concentration of lipid reserves at time t=o, Lo(mg/l the initial concentration of exocellular fat (a t=o, X(mg/l the concentration of fat-free biomass at a given time t and Xo the concentration of fat-free biomass at time t=o; k1 and k2 constants.

       Durante muchos años la acumulación de lípidos en microorganismos desarrollados en medio de cultivo, tomando como única fuente de carbono y energía grasas vegetales o animales, ha sido objeto de investigación e Interés industrial.    Interesadamente, la grasa acumulada tiene a menudo una composición y estructura muy diferente de la que tiene la grasa presente en el sustrato.    El presente trabajo describe una aproximación matemática a la acumulaci

  4. Heat and desiccation are the predominant factors affecting inactivation of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus thuringiensis spores during simulated composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, K; Harvey, A; Barbieri, R; Xu, S; Reuter, T; Amoako, K K; Selinger, L B; McAllister, T A

    2016-01-01

    The suitability of composting for disposal of livestock mortalities due to Bacillus anthracis was assessed by measuring viability of surrogate spores from two strains each of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus thuringiensis after a heating cycle modelled on a cattle composting study. Sporulation was attempted from 10 to 37°C, but poor yields at lower temperatures resulted in 25, 30 and 37°C being selected to generate sufficient spores (8 log10  CFU ml(-1) ) for experiments. Spores were inoculated into 3 g autoclaved dried-ground compost rehydrated with 6 ml water or silica beads in a factorial design for each strain, sporulation temperature, matrix and sampling day (0, 25, 50, 100, 150). Maximum incubation temperature was 62°C, but spores were maintained at ≥55°C for 78 of 150 days. Although significant differences existed among Bacillus strains and sporulation temperatures, numbers of viable spores after 150 days averaged 1·3 log10  CFU g(-1) , a 5·2 log10 reduction from day 0. Spore inactivation was likely due to heat and desiccation as matrices were autoclaved prior to incubation, negating impacts of microflora. Results support composting for disposal of anthrax mortalities, provided long-term thermophillic heating is achieved. Due to limited sporulation at 10°C, livestock mortalities from anthrax at this or lower ambient temperatures would likely be of lower risk for disease transmission. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Modeling heat resistance of Bacillus weihenstephanensis and Bacillus licheniformis spores as function of sporulation temperature and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Eugénie; Coroller, Louis; Couvert, Olivier; Leguérinel, Ivan; Postollec, Florence; Boulais, Christophe; Carlin, Frédéric; Mafart, Pierre

    2012-05-01

    Although sporulation environmental factors are known to impact on Bacillus spore heat resistance, they are not integrated into predictive models used to calculate the efficiency of heating processes. This work reports the influence of temperature and pH encountered during sporulation on heat resistance of Bacillus weihenstephanensis KBAB4 and Bacillus licheniformis AD978 spores. A decrease in heat resistance (δ) was observed for spores produced either at low temperature, at high temperature or at acidic pH. Sporulation temperature and pH maximizing the spore heat resistance were identified. Heat sensitivity (z) was not modified whatever the sporulation environmental factors were. A resistance secondary model inspired by the Rosso model was proposed. Sporulation temperatures and pHs minimizing or maximizing the spore heat resistance (T(min(R)), T(opt(R)), T(max(R)), pH(min(R)) and pH(opt(R))) were estimated. The goodness of the model fit was assessed for both studied strains and literature data. The estimation of the sporulation temperature and pH maximizing the spore heat resistance is of great interest to produce spores assessing the spore inactivation in the heating processes applied by the food industry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Diversity of Bacillus species inhabiting on the surface and endophyte of lichens collected from Wuyi Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Cibin; Liu, Bo; Che, Jianmei; Chen, Meichun; Liu, Guohong; Wei, Jiangchun

    2015-05-04

    The present work reported the isolation, identification and diversity of Bacillus species colonizing on the surface and endophyte in lichens collected from Wuyi Mountain. Nine lichen samples of Evernia, Stereocaulon, Menegazzia and other 6 genera belonging to 7 families were collected from Wuyi mountain nature reserve. The bacillus-like species colonizing on the surface and endophyte in these lichens were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. There was no bacillus-like species isolated from Evernia, Ramalina and Lecarona. A total of 34 bacillus-like bacteria were isolated from another 6 lichen samples. These bacteria were identified as 24 species and were classified into Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus, Lysinibacillus and Viridiibacillus. Paenibacillus and Bacillus are the dominant genera, and accounting for 41. 2% and 35. 3% of all isolated bacteria respectively. Brevibacillus, Lysinibacillus and Viridiibacillu were first reported being isolated from lichens. There were different species and quantity of bacillus colonizing on the surface and endophyte in different lichens. The quantity of bacillus colonizing on the surface of Physcia was more than 3.85 x 10(6) cfu/g and was the largest in the isolated bacteria, while the species of bacillus colonizing on the surface and endophyte in Stereocaulon was the most abundant. Most of the isolated bacteria were colonizing on (in) one lichen genera, but Paenibacillus taichungensis, Paenibacillus odorifer, Brevibacillus agri, Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus was respectively colonizing on (in) 2-3 lichen genera and Bacillus mycoides was colonizing on (in) Menegazzia, Cladonia Physcia, and Stereocaulon. There are species and quantity diversity of bacillus colonizing on (in) lichens.

  7. Two purine nucleoside phosphorylases in Bacillus subtilis. Purification and some properties of the adenosine-specific phosphorylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank

    1978-01-01

    Two purine nucleoside phosphorylases (purine-nucleoside:orthophosphate ribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.1) were purified from vegetative Bacillus subtilis cells. One enzyme, inosine-guanosine phosphorylase, showed great similarity to the homologous enzyme of Bacillus cereus. It appeared...

  8. Effect of probiotic mixture on some haematological parametres in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ml in 1ml normal saline together with daily administration of a mixture of probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis) at 4.5 x10 CFU/ml, Group C: lambs were administered only viable STEC ...

  9. Lead biotransformation potential of allochthonous Bacillus sp. SKK11 with sesame oil cake in mine soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was aimed at assessing the potential of allochthonous Bacillus sp. SKK11 and sesame oil cake extract for transformation of Pb in mine soil. The bacteria were isolated from a brackish environment and identified as Bacillus sp. based on partial 16S rDNA sequences. The isolate SKK11 exhibite...

  10. SCREENING OF BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION BY BACILLUS SP ISOLATED FROM COASTAL REGION IN CUDDALORE TAMILNADU

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuvaneswari. M*and P. Sivagurunathan

    2016-01-01

    Marine microorganisms produce extracellular or membrane associated surface-active compounds (bio surfactants). Biosurfactant are organic compounds belonging to various classes including glycolipids, lipopeptides, fatty acids, phospholipids that reduce the interfacial tension between immiscible liquids.This study deals with production and characterization of biosurfactant from Bacillus sp. The efficiency of Bacillus spstrain isolated from a marine sediments soil sample from coastal region -Cud...

  11. Formulations of Bacillus subtilis BY-2 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are developing a collection of Bacillus strains, isolated from different environments, for use in controlling Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in China and elsewhere. Strain BY-2, isolated from internal tissues of an oilseed rape root, was demonstrated to be Bacillus subtilis based on bi...

  12. The sponge-associated bacterium Bacillus licheniformis SAB1: A source of antimicrobial compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Wahidullah, S.; Rodrigues, C.; DeSouza, L.

    investigation. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rDNA gene of Bacillus sp. SAB1 showed a strong similarity (100%) with the 16S rDNA gene of Bacillus licheniformis HNL09. The bioactive compounds produced by B. licheniformis SAB1 (GenBank accession...

  13. Role of enzymes of homologous recombination in illegitimate plasmid recombination in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meima, R; Haijema, BJ; Haan, GJ; Venema, G; Bron, S

    The structural stability of plasmid pGP1, which encodes a fusion between the penicillinase gene (penP) of Bacillus licheniformis and the Escherichia coli lacZ gene, was investigated in Bacillus subtilis strains expressing mutated subunits of the ATP-dependent nuclease, AddAB, and strains lacking the

  14. Enhanced production of poly glutamic acid by Bacillus sp. SW1-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus sp. SW1-2 producing poly glutamic acid (PGA), locally isolated from Eastern province in Saudi Arabia, was characterized and identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its closeness to Bacillus megaterium. The homopolymer consists mainly of glutamic as indicated in the ...

  15. Engineering of thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans for production of D(-)-lactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingzhao; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-12-02

    Genetically modified microorganisms having the ability to produce D(-)-lactic acid at temperatures between 30.degree. C. and 55.degree. C. are provided. In various embodiments, the microorganisms may have the chromosomal lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) gene and/or the chromosomal acetolactate synthase (alsS) gene inactivated. Exemplary microorganisms for use in the disclosed methods are Bacillus spp., such as Bacillus coagulans.

  16. Production of milk-clotting enzyme by Bacillus subtilis B1 from wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three strains, Bacillus subtilis B1, B. subtilis B18 and Bacillus thuringiensis B12, were screened from wheat bran to produce milk-clotting enzyme. Among them, B. subtilis B1 exhibited considerable milkclotting activity with low proteolytic activity. After response surface methodology optimization, milkclotting activity was ...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1012 - α-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true α-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1012 α-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus stearothermophilus. (a) α-Amylase enzyme preparation is obtained from the culture...

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus sp. FMQ74, a Dairy-contaminating Isolate from Raw Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okshevsky, Mira Ursula; Regina, Viduthalai R.; Marshall, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Representatives of the genus Bacillus are common milk contaminants that cause spoilage and flavor alterations of dairy products. Bacillus sp. FMQ74 was isolated from raw milk on a Danish dairy farm. To elucidate the genomic basis of this strain’s survival in the dairy industry, a high-quality draft...

  19. Anti-Bacillus Activity Of Some Plants Used In Traditional Medicine Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on collected information about traditional use of plants, anti-bacillus activity of methanol extracts of 180 plant species belonging to 72 families were investigated by in vitro bioassays using agar diffusion-method against standard strains of Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus and B. pumilis at 20 mg/ml. Seventy eight species ...

  20. Inhibitory effects of Bacillus probionts on growth and toxin production of Vibrio harveyi pathogens of shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, T; Lu, H; Nomura, N

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the effects of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus megaterium in terms of toxin and growth of pathogenic Vibrio harveyi. Three Bacillus probionts were isolated from probiotic BZT aquaculture and identified using a 16S rDNA sequence. Growth inhibition assay showed that supernatants from the 24-h culture of three Bacillus species were able to inhibit the growth of V. harveyi (LMG 4044); B. subtilis was the most effective based on the well diffusion method. Results of a liquid culture model showed that B. subtilis was also widely effective in inhibiting three strains of V. harveyi (isolated from Thailand, the Philippines and LMG 4044), and that both B. licheniformis and B. megaterium inhibit the growth of V. harveyi isolated from the Philippines. Moreover, a haemolytic activity assay demonstrated that V. harveyi (IFO 15634) was significantly decreased by the addition of B. licheniformis or B. megaterium supernatant. Bacillus subtilis inhibited Vibrio growth, and both B. licheniformis and B. megaterium suppressed haemolytic activity in Vibrio. The cell-free supernatants produced by Bacillus probionts inhibit Vibrio disease, and Bacillus probionts might have an influence on Vibrio cell-to-cell communications.

  1. APPLICATIONS OF POTASSIUM FERTILIZER AND Bacillus sp. BIOPESTICIDE FOR INCREASING TOMATO RESISTANCE TO BACTERIAL WILT DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Prihatiningsih

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt on tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a crucial disease, because it can reduce yield until 50%. The aims of this research were: 1 to find out biopesticide formula for Bacillus sp.growth, 2 to test Bacillus sp. against R. solanacearum in vitro, 3 to test potassium fertilizer combined with Bacillus sp. for enhancing tomato resistance to the bacterial wilt disease. The research was conducted in 2 steps i.e to test the persistence of Bacillus sp. in biopesticide formula, and to test the best combination of both potassium and the Bacillus sp. biopesticide. The results showed that Bacillus B298 was the best isolate in its persistence on the biopesticide formula of organic growth medium+CaCO3+CMC 1%+mannitol 1%, and in inhibiting R. solanacearum. The best biopesticide formula for the Bacillus sp. persistence was growth organic media+ CaCO3+CMC 1%+mannitol 1%. Bacillus sp. was able to increase tomato resistance to the bacterial wilt disease from the category of susceptible to be tolerant and becoming resistant.

  2. Effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on growth performance in Muscovy ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sheng-Qiu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether dietary Bacillus subtilis natto could affect growth performance of Muscovy ducks. A total of 120 hundred Muscovy ducks at the age of 1 day were randomly assigned to four groups (30 Muscovy ducks/group, and fed with diets supplemented with 0% (control group, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% Bacillus subtilis natto, respectively during the 6-week feeding period. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency of Muscovy ducks were significantly improved by the dietary addition of Bacillus subtilis natto, and the results were more significant in 0.4% dietary Bacillus subtilis natto treatment group; Also, Bacillus subtilis natto reduced Escherichia coli and Salmonella colonies, and increased lactobacilli population in the ileum and the cecum. Biochemical parameters, including total protein, GOT (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, GPT (glutamic pyruvic transaminase, AKP (alkaline phosphatase, triiodothyronine (T3 and tetraiodothyronine (T4 contents (pBacillus subtilis natto was added to the diets (p0.05. The results of the present study indicate that diets with 0.4% Bacillus subtilis natto improved the growth performance of Muscovy ducks by increasing the absorption of protein, simulating hormone secretion, suppressing harmful microflora, and improving the duodenal structure and immune functions of Muscovy ducks. It is suggested that Bacillus subtilis natto is a potential candidate to be used use as a probiotic to improve the growth performance of Muscovy ducks.

  3. Effect of Bacillus subtilis on the growth and survival rate of shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect ofBacillus subtilis, isolated from digestive tract of Macrobrachium rosenbergii was investigated on growth and survival rate of Litopenaeus vannamei during 60 days of culture. Sixteen aquaria with four replicates were used for treatments and controls. Treatment groups were consisted of Bacillus subtilis, isolated ...

  4. Influence of Bacillus polymyxa on the growth and development of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Saniewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic effect of Bacillus polymyxa, strain S13, toward Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae was evaluated iii vitro and in vivo. The growth of the pathogen was greatly inhibited in dual cultures with Bacillus polymyxa on potato dextrose agar. Suspension of B. polymyxa and its filtrate substantially inhibited spore germination and development of Fusarium oxysporuum f. sp. tulipae on tulip bulbs.

  5. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1209 - Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1209 Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713; exemption from the... the microbial pesticide Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 when used in or on all food commodities. [65...

  7. Architecture and assembly of the Bacillus subtilis spore coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomp, Marco; Carroll, Alicia Monroe; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus spores are encased in a multilayer, proteinaceous self-assembled coat structure that assists in protecting the bacterial genome from stresses and consists of at least 70 proteins. The elucidation of Bacillus spore coat assembly, architecture, and function is critical to determining mechanisms of spore pathogenesis, environmental resistance, immune response, and physicochemical properties. Recently, genetic, biochemical and microscopy methods have provided new insight into spore coat architecture, assembly, structure and function. However, detailed spore coat architecture and assembly, comprehensive understanding of the proteomic composition of coat layers, and specific roles of coat proteins in coat assembly and their precise localization within the coat remain in question. In this study, atomic force microscopy was used to probe the coat structure of Bacillus subtilis wild type and cotA, cotB, safA, cotH, cotO, cotE, gerE, and cotE gerE spores. This approach provided high-resolution visualization of the various spore coat structures, new insight into the function of specific coat proteins, and enabled the development of a detailed model of spore coat architecture. This model is consistent with a recently reported four-layer coat assembly and further adds several coat layers not reported previously. The coat is organized starting from the outside into an outermost amorphous (crust) layer, a rodlet layer, a honeycomb layer, a fibrous layer, a layer of "nanodot" particles, a multilayer assembly, and finally the undercoat/basement layer. We propose that the assembly of the previously unreported fibrous layer, which we link to the darkly stained outer coat seen by electron microscopy, and the nanodot layer are cotH- and cotE- dependent and cotE-specific respectively. We further propose that the inner coat multilayer structure is crystalline with its apparent two-dimensional (2D) nuclei being the first example of a non-mineral 2D nucleation crystallization

  8. Architecture and Assembly of the Bacillus subtilis Spore Coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomp, Marco; Carroll, Alicia Monroe; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus spores are encased in a multilayer, proteinaceous self-assembled coat structure that assists in protecting the bacterial genome from stresses and consists of at least 70 proteins. The elucidation of Bacillus spore coat assembly, architecture, and function is critical to determining mechanisms of spore pathogenesis, environmental resistance, immune response, and physicochemical properties. Recently, genetic, biochemical and microscopy methods have provided new insight into spore coat architecture, assembly, structure and function. However, detailed spore coat architecture and assembly, comprehensive understanding of the proteomic composition of coat layers, and specific roles of coat proteins in coat assembly and their precise localization within the coat remain in question. In this study, atomic force microscopy was used to probe the coat structure of Bacillus subtilis wild type and cotA, cotB, safA, cotH, cotO, cotE, gerE, and cotE gerE spores. This approach provided high-resolution visualization of the various spore coat structures, new insight into the function of specific coat proteins, and enabled the development of a detailed model of spore coat architecture. This model is consistent with a recently reported four-layer coat assembly and further adds several coat layers not reported previously. The coat is organized starting from the outside into an outermost amorphous (crust) layer, a rodlet layer, a honeycomb layer, a fibrous layer, a layer of “nanodot” particles, a multilayer assembly, and finally the undercoat/basement layer. We propose that the assembly of the previously unreported fibrous layer, which we link to the darkly stained outer coat seen by electron microscopy, and the nanodot layer are cotH- and cotE- dependent and cotE-specific respectively. We further propose that the inner coat multilayer structure is crystalline with its apparent two-dimensional (2D) nuclei being the first example of a non-mineral 2D nucleation crystallization

  9. Screen for agents that induce autolysis in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacriola, Christopher J; Falk, Shaun P; Weisblum, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The growing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant infections underscores the need to discover new antibiotics and to use them with maximum effectiveness. In response to these needs, we describe a screening protocol for the discovery of autolysis-inducing agents that uses two Bacillus subtilis reporter strains, SH-536 and BAU-102. To screen chemical libraries, autolysis-inducing agents were first identified with a BAU-102-based screen and then subdivided with SH-536 into two major groups: those that induce autolysis by their direct action on the cell membrane and those that induce autolysis secondary to inhibition of cell wall synthesis. SH-536 distinguishes between the two groups of autolysis-inducing agents by synthesizing and then releasing β-galactosidase (β-Gal) in late stationary phase at a time that cells have nearly stopped growing and are therefore tolerant of cell wall synthesis inhibitors. Four hits, named compound 2, compound 3, compound 5, and compound 24, obtained previously as inducers of autolysis by screening a 10,080-compound discovery library with BAU-102, were probed with SH-536 and found to release β-Gal, indicating that their mode of action was to permeabilize the B. subtilis cell membrane. The four primary hits inhibited growth in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus anthracis, with MICs in the 12.5- to 25-μg/ml (20 to 60 μM) range. The four primary hits were further used to probe B. subtilis, and their action was partially characterized with respect to the dependence of induced autolysis on specific autolysins.

  10. Zinc solubilizing Bacillus spp. potential candidates for biofortification in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Muhammad Zahid; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Jamil, Moazzam; Hussain, Tanveer

    2017-09-01

    Bioaugmentation of Zn solubilizing rhizobacteria could be a sustainable intervention to increase bioavailability of Zn in soil which can be helpful in mitigation of yield loss and malnutrition of zinc. In present study, a number of pure rhizobacterial colonies were isolated from maize rhizosphere and screened for their ability to solubilize zinc oxide. These isolates were screened on the basis of zinc and phosphate solubilization, IAA production, protease production, catalase activity and starch hydrolysis. All the selected isolates were also positive for oxidase activity (except ZM22), HCN production (except ZM27) and utilization of citrate. More than 70% of isolates produces ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, siderophores, exopolysaccharides and cellulase. More than half of isolates also showed potential for urease activity and production of lipase. The ZM31 and S10 were the only isolates which showed the chitinase activity. All these isolates were evaluated in a jar trial for their ability to promote growth of maize under axenic conditions. Results revealed that inoculation of selected zinc solubilizing rhizobacterial isolates improved the growth of maize. In comparison, isolates ZM20, ZM31, ZM63 and S10 were best compared to other tested isolates in stimulating the growth attributes of maize like shoot length, root length, plant fresh and dry biomass. These strains were identified as Bacillus sp. (ZM20), Bacillus aryabhattai (ZM31 and S10) and Bacillus subtilis (ZM63) through 16S rRNA sequencing. This study indicated that inoculation of Zn solubilizing strains have potential to promote growth and can be the potential bio-inoculants for biofortification of maize to overcome the problems of malnutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Bacillus cereus panophthalmitis associated with intraocular gas bubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Hemidan, A; Byrne-Rhodes, K A; Tabbara, K F

    1989-01-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that Bacillus cereus can cause a severe and devastating form of endophthalmitis following penetrating trauma by a metallic object. B. cereus is an uncommon aetiological agent in non-clostridial gas-forming infections. The patient studied in this single case report showed evidence of intraocular gas mimicking gas gangrene infection. The physiology of non-clostridial bacteria producing gas from anaerobic metabolic conditions is reviewed. Further intraocular and systemic complications which may be avoided by accurate and early diagnosis and the use of recommended treatment with antibiotics such as clindamycin. Images PMID:2493262

  12. Functional Diversity of AAA+ Protease Complexes in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsholz, Alexander K W; Birk, Marlene S; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Turgay, Kürşad

    2017-01-01

    Here, we review the diverse roles and functions of AAA+ protease complexes in protein homeostasis, control of stress response and cellular development pathways by regulatory and general proteolysis in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis . We discuss in detail the intricate involvement of AAA+ protein complexes in controlling sporulation, the heat shock response and the role of adaptor proteins in these processes. The investigation of these protein complexes and their adaptor proteins has revealed their relevance for Gram-positive pathogens and their potential as targets for new antibiotics.

  13. Ultra-violet-resistant mutants of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D R; Karunakaran, V [Polytechnic of Central London (UK). Faculty of Engineering and Science, School of Biological and Health Sciences; Burges, H D [Institute of Horticultural Research, Littlehampton (UK); Hacking, A J [Reading Univ. (UK). Dextra Labs.Ltd.

    1991-06-01

    One of the main disadvantages of using Bacillus thuringiensis as an insecticide is that the spore and crystal preparations applied to foliage are readily washed away by rain and are inactivated by sunlight. Spores from some strains of B. thuringiensis have been shown to be highly sensitive to u.v. light. This study has demonstrated how mutants with increased resistance to u.v., isolated by successive rounds of u.v. irradiation, and additionally with increased specific pathogenicity can be isolated. These techniques should be applied to strains that are frequently used in the industrial production of B.thuringiensis toxin. (author).

  14. Ultra-violet-resistant mutants of Bacillus thuringiensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.R.; Karunakaran, V.; Hacking, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    One of the main disadvantages of using Bacillus thuringiensis as an insecticide is that the spore and crystal preparations applied to foliage are readily washed away by rain and are inactivated by sunlight. Spores from some strains of B. thuringiensis have been shown to be highly sensitive to u.v. light. This study has demonstrated how mutants with increased resistance to u.v., isolated by successive rounds of u.v. irradiation, and additionally with increased specific pathogenicity can be isolated. These techniques should be applied to strains that are frequently used in the industrial production of B.thuringiensis toxin. (author)

  15. Sticking together: building a biofilm the Bacillus subtilis way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlamakis, Hera; Chai, Yunrong; Beauregard, Pascale; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    Biofilms are ubiquitous communities of tightly associated bacteria encased in an extracellular matrix. Bacillus subtilis has long served as a robust model organism to examine the molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation, and a number of studies have revealed that this process is regulated by several integrated pathways. In this Review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms that control B. subtilis biofilm assembly, and then briefly summarize the current state of knowledge regarding biofilm disassembly. We also discuss recent progress that has expanded our understanding of B. subtilis biofilm formation on plant roots, which are a natural habitat for this soil bacterium.

  16. Synthesis of acid-soluble spore proteins by Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Leventhal, J M; Chambliss, G H

    1982-01-01

    The major acid-soluble spore proteins (ASSPs) of Bacillus subtilis were detected by immunoprecipitation of radioactively labeled in vitro- and in vivo-synthesized proteins. ASSP synthesis in vivo began 2 h after the initiation of sporulation (t2) and reached its maximum rate at t7. This corresponded to the time of synthesis of mRNA that stimulated the maximum rate of ASSP synthesis in vitro. Under the set of conditions used in these experiments, protease synthesis began near t0, alkaline phos...

  17. Functional Diversity of AAA+ Protease Complexes in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsholz, Alexander K. W.; Birk, Marlene S.; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Turgay, Kürşad

    2017-01-01

    Here, we review the diverse roles and functions of AAA+ protease complexes in protein homeostasis, control of stress response and cellular development pathways by regulatory and general proteolysis in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. We discuss in detail the intricate involvement of AAA+ protein complexes in controlling sporulation, the heat shock response and the role of adaptor proteins in these processes. The investigation of these protein complexes and their adaptor proteins has revealed their relevance for Gram-positive pathogens and their potential as targets for new antibiotics. PMID:28748186

  18. Sigma A recognition sites in the Bacillus subtilis genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard; Larsen, Thomas Schou; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    2001-01-01

    A hidden Markov model of sigma (A) RNA polymerase cofactor recognition sites in Bacillus subtilis, containing either the common or the extended -10 motifs, has been constructed based on experimentally verified sigma (A) recognition sites. This work suggests that more information exists...... at the initiation site of transcription in both types of promoters than previously thought. When tested on the entire B. subtilis genome, the model predicts that approximately half of the sigma (A) recognition sites are of the extended type. Some of the response-regulator aspartate phosphatases were among...

  19. Higher antibiotic yielding mutants of bacillus subtilis by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.S.; Shaukat, G.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    When Bacillus Subtilis AECL69 was grown in malt extract-pepetone-molasses-sugar (MPMS) medium, it could produce antibiotic substance(s) with antibacterial and antifungal properties in the culture fluid. The bacterial cells grown in MPMS medium were washed and suspended into distilled water and irradiated with gamma rays in Gammacell 220 at different doses. Higher antibiotic yielding isolates (plus mutants) were obtained from cell pollutions irradiated at 15 Kr. These gamma rays-induced plus mutants showed simultaneous higher production of antibacterial as well as antifungal activity. (author)

  20. Hyper production of alkaline protease by mutagenized bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, A.M.; Tanseem, F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to augment the alkaline protease production from Bacillus subtilis by using chemical mutagen (MMS) and UV mutagenesis. A number of mutants were isolated which produce high levels of extra cellular proteases. Analysis of culture supernatants of these mutants had shown that the total amounts of proteolysis activity were increased from 1 to 2 fold over the wild strain. Clones showing promote response were further characterized by analyzing different parameters; like of Temperature, pH substrate concentration and incubation period, to study the activity of protease enzyme. (author)

  1. Sticking together: building a biofilm the Bacillus subtilis way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlamakis, Hera; Chai, Yunrong; Beauregard, Pascale; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Preface Biofilms are ubiquitous communities of tightly associated bacteria encased in an extracellular matrix. Bacillus subtilis has long-served as a robust model organism to examine the molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation and a number of studies have revealed that this process is subject to a number of integrated regulatory pathways. In this Review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms controlling biofilm assembly and briefly summarize the current state of knowledge regarding their disassembly. We also discuss recent progress that has expanded our understanding of biofilm formation on plant roots, which are a natural habitat for this soil bacterium. PMID:23353768

  2. Evolution of exploitative interactions during diversification in Bacillus subtilis biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragoš, Anna; Lakshmanan, Nivedha; Martin, Marivic

    2018-01-01

    variants. These variants can settle in alternative biofilm niches and develop new types of interactions that greatly influence population productivity. Here, we explore the evolutionary diversification of pellicle biofilms of the Gram positive, spore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We discover that......-similarly to other species-B. subtilis diversifies into distinct colony variants. These variants dramatically differ in biofilm formation abilities and expression of biofilm-related genes. In addition, using a quantitative approach, we reveal striking differences in surface complexity and hydrophobicity...

  3. Bacterial determinants of the social behavior of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Diego

    2013-09-01

    Bacteria utilize sophisticated cellular machinery to sense environmental changes and coordinate the most appropriate response. Fine sensors located on cell surfaces recognize a myriad of triggers and initiate genetic cascades leading to activation or repression of certain groups of genes. Structural elements such as pilli, exopolysaccharides and flagella are also exposed at the cell surface and contribute to modulating the intimate interaction with surfaces and host cells. This review will cover the latest advances in our understanding of the biology and functionality of these bacterial determinants within the context of biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. TRANSGENIC PLANTS EXPRESSING BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS DELTA-ENDOTOXINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-rong,Li; BrendaOppert; KunYanZhu; RandallA.Higgins; Fang-nengHuang; LawrentL.Buschman

    2003-01-01

    Commercial varieties of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) plants have been developed in many countries to control target pests. Initially, the expression of native Bt genes in plants was low due to mRNA instability, improper splicing, and post-translation modifications. Subsequently, modifications of the native Bt genes greatly enhanced expression levels. This is a review of the developments that made modem high-expression transgenic Bt plants possible, with an emphasis on the reasons for the low-level expression of native Bt genes in plant systems, and the techniques that have been used to improve plant expression of Bt toxin genes.

  5. [Potential of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Berliner for controlling Aedes aegypti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanczyk, Ricardo Antonio; Garcia, Marcelo de Oliveira; Alves, Sérgio Batista

    2003-12-01

    The importance of the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in the control of Aedes aegypti is presented. The use and potential of B. thuringiensis israelensis against the mosquito vector of dengue fever is described. Other aspects such as insect's resistance development against chemicals and advantages and constraints of using microbial control are discussed. Emphasis is given to the importance of the use of this bacterium in Brazil, which could contribute significantly to solving the mosquito problem without affecting the environment, humans and others invertebrate organisms in critical regions.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL-INFECTION IN MICE WITH BACILLUS-LICHENIFORMIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Jensen, H.E.; Jensen, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Bacillus licheniformis was assessed in normal and immunodepressed BALB/c mice. The animals were challenged intravenously with 4 x 10(7) colony forming units of B, licheniformis (ATCC 14580) and both normal and immunodepressed mice were susceptible. However, the infection...... was more severe in the immunosuppressed animals. In normal mice, lesions were restricted to the liver and kidneys, while lesions also occurred in other organs of immunodepressed mice. By crossed immunoelectrophoresis it was shown that antigens of B. licheniformis are potent immunogens, and the bacteria...

  7. Bacillus spp. Isolated from Puba as a Source of Biosurfactants and Antimicrobial Lipopeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Karla J.; Viana, Jaime dos Santos; Lopes, Fernanda C.; Pereira, Jamile Q.; dos Santos, Daniel M.; Oliveira, Jamil S.; Velho, Renata V.; Crispim, Silvia M.; Nicoli, Jacques R.; Brandelli, Adriano; Nardi, Regina M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Several products of industrial interest are produced by Bacillus, including enzymes, antibiotics, amino acids, insecticides, biosurfactants and bacteriocins. This study aimed to investigate the potential of two bacterial isolates (P5 and C3) from puba, a regional fermentation product from cassava, to produce multiple substances with antimicrobial and surface active properties. Phylogenetic analyses showed close relation of isolates P5 and C3 with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus thuringiensis, respectively. Notably, Bacillus sp. P5 showed antimicrobial activity against pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus, in addition to antifungal activity. The presence of genes encoding pre-subtilosin (sboA), malonyl CoA transacylase (ituD), and the putative transcriptional terminator of surfactin (sfp) were detected in Bacillus sp. P5, suggesting the production of the bacteriocin subtilosin A and the lipopeptides iturin A and surfactin by this strain. For Bacillus sp. C3 the presence of sboA and spas (subtilin) genes was observed by the first time in members of B. cereus cluster. Bacillus sp. P5 showed emulsifying capability on mineral oil, soybean biodiesel and toluene, while Bacillus sp. C3 showed emulsifying capability only on mineral oil. The reduction of the surface tension in culture medium was also observed for strain P5, confirming the production of surface-active compounds by this bacterium. Monoprotonated molecular species and adducts of sodium and potassium ions of surfactin, iturin, and fengycin were detected in the P5 culture medium. Comparative MS/MS spectra of the peak m/z 1030 (C14 surfactin A or C15 surfactin B [M+Na]+) and peak m/z 1079 (C15 iturin [M+Na]+) showed the same fragmentation profile of standards, confirming the molecular identification. In conclusion, Bacillus sp. P5 showed the best potential for the production of antifungal, antibacterial, and biosurfactant substances. PMID:28197131

  8. Inactivation of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Infectious Medical Waste. A Literature Review of Current On-Site Treatment Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    megaterium 2 Bacillus pumilus 2 Bacillus cereus 1 Bacillus coagulans 1 Staphylococcus epidermidis 5 Staphylococcus saprophyticus 3 Incinerator room...encouraged and supported me during the completion of my degree requirements. 0 ii LIST OF FIGURES Number Page 2-1. Thermal Death Time Curve for Bacillus ...in Bacteria ................................. 25 2-4. Electron Micrographs of Thin Sections of Bacillus subtilis ........ 25 2-5. Gravity Displacement

  9. The identification of a tetracycline resistance gene tet(M), on a Tn916-like transposon, in the Bacillus cereus group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate whether resistance genes present in bacteria in manure could transfer to indigenous soil bacteria, resistant isolates belonging to the Bacillus cereus group (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis) were isolated from farm soil (72 isolates) and manure...

  10. Efficacy of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in the control of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxins production on pistachio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahmoshteh, Fatemeh; Siciliano, Ilenia; Banani, Houda; Hamidi-Esfahani, Zohreh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Spadaro, Davide

    2017-08-02

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is an important nut for its economic, nutritional and health aspects but it can be contaminated by aflatoxigenic fungi in the field and during storage. Biological control could be considered as an alternative to chemical treatment. In this study, we evaluated the antifungal and anti-mycotoxigenic capability of two Bacillus spp. both in vitro and on pistachio kernels. In in vitro conditions, both strains were able to reduce the mycelial growth and they were able to degrade the four aflatoxins during the first three days after inoculation. AFG 1 and AFG 2 were rapidly degraded within two days of incubation with the bacterial strains. No aflatoxin was found in the bacterial cell walls, permitting exclusion of mycotoxin adsorption and hypothesis of an in vitro biodegradation as a mode of action. The cultivar of pistachio most susceptible to fungal colonization was 'Ahmad-Aghaei', selected among four main Iranian cultivars. A. parasiticus was able to grow and produce aflatoxins on pistachios, but at longer inoculation periods, a natural decrease of aflatoxins was registered. Both strains were able to reduce the fungal incidence and number of spores on pistachio with a stronger effect during the first 5dpi. The effect on aflatoxin content in vivo was less pronounced than in vitro, with a maximum effect at 8dpi. At longer times, there was a contrasting effect due to the lower activity of Bacillus spp. in stationary phase and higher growth of Aspergillus species. This consideration could explain the lack of aflatoxin reduction at 12dpi. Both bacterial strains showed good antifungal activity and aflatoxin reduction in in vitro conditions and on pistachio kernels. Altogether, these results indicate that Bacillus species could be considered as potential biocontrol agents to combat toxigenic fungal growth and subsequent aflatoxin contamination of nuts and agricultural crops in practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. PRODUKSI ANTIBIOTIKA OLEH Bacillus subtilis M10 DALAM MEDIA UREA-SORBITOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supartono Supartono

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PRODUCTION OF ANTIBIOTICS BY Bacillus subtilis M10 IN UREA-SORBITOL MEDIUM. Infection diseases still become the main health problems that suffered by people in Indonesia. Besides, there were many pathogen bacteria found to be resistant to the some antibiotics. Therefore, the efforts to get a new antibiotic require to be done continuously. A new local strain of Bacillus subtilis BAC4 has been known producing an antibiotic that inhibit Serratia marcescens ATCC 27117 growth. To make efficient the local strain, mutation on Bacillus subtilis BAC4 was done by using acridine orange and a mutant cell of Bacillus subtilis M10 that overproduction for producing antibiotic was obtained. Nevertheless, the production kinetics of antibiotic by this mutant has not been reported. The objective of this research was to study the production kinetics of antibiotic by Bacillus subtilis M10 mutant. The production of antibiotic was conducted using batch fermentation and antibiotic assay was performed with agar absorption method using Serratia marcescens ATCC 27117 as bacteria assay. Research result provided that Bacillus subtilis M10 mutant with overproduction of antibiotic produced an antibiotic since 8th hour’s fermentation and optimum of it production was at 14th hours after inoculation.  Penyakit infeksi masih menjadi masalah yang utama diderita oleh masyarakat Indonesia. Di samping itu, banyak bakteri patogen yang ditemukan resisten terhadap beberapa antibiotika. Oleh karena itu, upaya-upaya untuk mendapatkan antibiotika baru perlu dilakukan secara terus-menerus. Suatu galur lokal baru Bacillus subtilis BAC4 teridentifikasi memproduksi senyawa antibiotika yang menghambat pertumbuhan Serratia marcescens ATCC27117. Untuk memberdayakan galur tersebut, terhadap Bacillus subtilis BAC4 dilakukan mutasi dengan larutan akridin oranye dan diperoleh mutan Bacillus subtilis M10 yang memproduksi antibiotika berlebihan. Namun, kinetika produksi antibiotika oleh Bacillus

  12. Isolation and characterization of lipopeptide antibiotics produced by Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Wang, L; Su, C X; Gong, G H; Wang, P; Yu, Z L

    2008-09-01

    Antibiotics from Bacillus subtilis JA show strong pathogen inhibition ability, which has potential market application; yet, the composition of these antibiotics has not been elucidated. The aim of this paper is to isolate and identify these antibiotics. The antagonistic activity of JA was tested in vitro; it exhibited strong inhibition against some important phytopathogens and postharvest pathogens. Crude antibiotic production was extracted with methanol from the precipitate by adding 6 mol l(-1) HCl to the bacillus-free culture broth. The crude extract was run on Diamonsil C18 column (5 microm, 250 x 4.6 mm) in HPLC system to separate the antibiotics. Major antibiotics were classified into three lipopeptide families according to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis. Subsequently, the classification of antibiotics was confirmed with typical collision-induced dissociation fragments. Three kinds of antibiotics were isolated from B. subtilis JA and were identified to the lipopeptide families, surfactin, iturin and fengycin. These compounds could function as biocontrol agents against a large spectrum of pathogens. This study provided a reliable and rapid method for isolation and structural characterization of lipopeptide antibiotics from B. subtilis.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Phages Infecting Bacillus subtilis

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    Anna Krasowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages have been suggested as an alternative approach to reduce the amount of pathogens in various applications. Bacteriophages of various specificity and virulence were isolated as a means of controlling food-borne pathogens. We studied the interaction of bacteriophages with Bacillus species, which are very often persistent in industrial applications such as food production due to their antibiotic resistance and spore formation. A comparative study using electron microscopy, PFGE, and SDS-PAGE as well as determination of host range, pH and temperature resistance, adsorption rate, latent time, and phage burst size was performed on three phages of the Myoviridae family and one phage of the Siphoviridae family which infected Bacillus subtilis strains. The phages are morphologically different and characterized by icosahedral heads and contractile (SIOΦ, SUBω, and SPOσ phages or noncontractile (ARπ phage tails. The genomes of SIOΦ and SUBω are composed of 154 kb. The capsid of SIOΦ is composed of four proteins. Bacteriophages SPOσ and ARπ have genome sizes of 25 kbp and 40 kbp, respectively. Both phages as well as SUBω phage have 14 proteins in their capsids. Phages SIOΦ and SPOσ are resistant to high temperatures and to the acid (4.0 and alkaline (9.0 and 10.0 pH.

  14. DNA repair in ultraviolet-irradiated spores of Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.C.V.

    1976-01-01

    It has been shown previously by others that at least two independent repair mechanisms are present in Bacillus subtilis for removing ''spore photoproduct'' from DNA of ultraviolet (254 nm)-irradiated spores after germination. One of these, designated as ''spore repair,'' is shown in this study to restore ''spore photoproduct'' to two thymine residues, leaving the DNA backbone intact at the end of the process in vivo. The circumstances under which this repair can occur and some characteristics of its energy requirements have been clarified. The second repair process is identified as excision repair, which can excise both ''spore photoproduct'' from DNA of irradiated spores and cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers from DNA of irradiated vegetative cells. In this study it is shown that the gene hcr 1 affects an enzyme activity for the incision step initiating this repair, while the gene hcr 42 affects a step subsequent to incision in the mechanism. In addition a third, independent repair system, termed ''germinative excision repair,'' is discovered and shown to be specific for excising only cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers but not ''spore photoproduct.'' This repair system is responsible for the observed high ultraviolet-resistance and temporary capacity for host cell reactivation on recently germinated spores of Bacillus subtilis HCR - strains

  15. Bacillus subtilis strain specificity affects performance improvement in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhayat, L; Jacquier, V; Brinch, K S; Nielsen, P; Nelson, A; Geraert, P-A; Devillard, E

    2017-07-01

    The study reports the effects on broiler performance of a newly isolated Bacillus subtilis strain, which is phylogenetically not closely related to already well-described strains of B. subtilis. In the first experiment, birds were reared in battery cages and exposed to C. perfringens. An increase in growth performance was observed with the strain when compared to the challenged animals. Three additional growth trials were conducted to 35 d of age, in different rearing conditions (genetic breeds, corn-soybean meal-based diet with or without animal proteins, in presence or absence of phytase, on fresh or used litter) to investigate the efficacy and the specificity of this new B. subtilis strain on the improvement of BWG and FCR of broilers in comparison with a B. subtilis-based DFM already used in the field. Whatever the rearing conditions tested, the new B. subtilis strain led to an average 3.2% improvement in feed conversion ratio or bodyweight. Comparatively, the commercial Bacillus strain significantly improved broiler performance in only one trial out of 3 with an average improvement reaching 2%. All these results indicate that this new B. subtilis strain consistently improves broiler performances. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Molecular mechanisms involved in Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielich-Süss, Benjamin; Lopez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Summary Biofilms are the predominant lifestyle of bacteria in natural environments, and they severely impact our societies in many different fashions. Therefore, biofilm formation is a topic of growing interest in microbiology, and different bacterial models are currently studied to better understand the molecular strategies that bacteria undergo to build biofilms. Among those, biofilms of the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus subtilis are commonly used for this purpose. Bacillus subtilis biofilms show remarkable architectural features that are a consequence of sophisticated programs of cellular specialization and cell-cell communication within the community. Many laboratories are trying to unravel the biological role of the morphological features of biofilms, as well as exploring the molecular basis underlying cellular differentiation. In this review, we present a general perspective of the current state of knowledge of biofilm formation in B. subtilis. In particular, a special emphasis is placed on summarizing the most recent discoveries in the field and integrating them into the general view of these truly sophisticated microbial communities. PMID:24909922

  17. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Its Dipteran-Specific Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitan Ben-Dov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti is the first Bacillus thuringiensis to be found and used as an effective biological control agent against larvae of many mosquito and black fly species around the world. Its larvicidal activity resides in four major (of 134, 128, 72 and 27 kDa and at least two minor (of 78 and 29 kDa polypeptides encoded respectively by cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry11Aa, cyt1Aa, cry10Aa and cyt2Ba, all mapped on the 128 kb plasmid known as pBtoxis. These six δ-endotoxins form a complex parasporal crystalline body with remarkably high, specific and different toxicities to Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae. Cry toxins are composed of three domains (perforating domain I and receptor binding II and III and create cation-selective channels, whereas Cyts are composed of one domain that acts as well as a detergent-like membrane perforator. Despite the low toxicities of Cyt1Aa and Cyt2Ba alone against exposed larvae, they are highly synergistic with the Cry toxins and hence their combinations prevent emergence of resistance in the targets. The lack of significant levels of resistance in field mosquito populations treated for decades with Bti-bioinsecticide suggests that this bacterium will be an effective biocontrol agent for years to come.

  18. Methodology for fast evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein content

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    Alves Lúcia M. Carareto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the production and use of Bacillus thuringiensis in Brazil at a commercial scale faces certain difficulties, among them the establishment of efficient methodologies for the quantitation of toxic products to be commercialized. Presently, the amount of toxin is given in percentage by analyzing the samples total protein content. Such methodology however, does not measure the actual amount of active protein present in the product, since most strains express different endotoxin genes and might even produce b-toxin. Since the various types of toxins exhibit different antigenic characteristics, this work has as objective the utilization of fast immunological techniques to quantify the level of crystal protein. Crystal protein produced by a subspecies of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis was purified by ultracentrifugation and utilized to immunize rabbits and to produce hiperimmune sera. Such sera were latter used to evaluate the level of proteins on commercial bioinsecticide and on laboratory cultures of B. thuringiensis through the immunodot technique. The results were obtained by comparison of data obtained from reactions with known concentrations of crystal protein permitting to evaluate the level of such protein on various materials.

  19. Central carbon metabolism influences cellulase production in Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Liu, S; Li, Y; Wang, H; Xiao, S; Li, C; Liu, B

    2018-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis that can produce cellulase including endo glucanase and glucosidase is an important industrial microbe for cellulose degradation. The purpose of this research was to assess the effect of endo glucanase gene bglC and glucosidase gene bglH on the central metabolic flux in B. licheniformis. bglC and bglH were knocked out using homologous recombination method, respectively, and the corresponding knockout strains were obtained for 13 C metabolic flux analysis. A significant change was observed in metabolic fluxes after 13 C metabolic flux ratio analysis. In both of the knockout strains, the increased fluxes of the pentose phosphate pathway and malic enzyme reaction enabled an elevated supply of NADPH which provided enough reducing power for the in vivo synthesis reactions. The fluxes through tricarboxylic acid cycle and anaplerotic reactions increased fast in the two knockout strains, which meant more energy generated. The changed fluxes in central carbon metabolism provided a holistic view of the physiological status in B. licheniformis and possible targets for further strain engineering. Cellulase is very important in the field of agriculture and bioenergy because of its degrading effect on cellulosic biomass. This study presented the effect of central carbon metabolism on cellulase production in Bacillus licheniformis. The study also provided a holistic view of the physiological status in B. licheniformis. The shifted metabolism provided a quantitative evaluation of the biosynthesis of cellulase and a priority ranked target list for further strain engineering. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Pulsed dielectric barrier discharge for Bacillus subtilis inactivation in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Arias, A. N.; Rodríguez-Méndez, B. G.; López-Callejas, R.; Valencia-Alvarado, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Peña-Eguiluz, R.; Barocio, S. R.; Muñoz-Castro, A. E.; de la Piedad Beneitez, A.

    2012-06-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus subtilis bacteria in water has been experimentally studied by means of a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (PDBD) in a coaxial reactor endowed with an alumina dielectric. The plasma source is capable of operating at atmospheric pressure with gas, water or hybrid gas-liquid media at adjustable 25 kV pulses, 30 μs long and at a 500 Hz frequency. In order to evaluate the inactivation efficiency of the system, a set of experiments were designed on the basis of oxygen flow control. The initial data have showed a significant bacterial rate reduction of 103-107 CFU/mL. Additional results proved that applying an oxygen flow for a few seconds during the PDBD treatment inactivates the Bacillus subtilis population with 99.99% effectiveness. As a reference, without gas flow but with the same exposure times, this percentage is reduced to ~90%. The analysis of the relationship between inactivation rate and chemical species in the discharge has been carried out using optical emission spectroscopy as to identifying the main reactive species. Reactive oxygen species such as atomic oxygen and ozone tuned out to be the dominant germicidal species. Some proposed inactivation mechanisms of this technique are discussed.

  1. Genome engineering using a synthetic gene circuit in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Da-Eun; Park, Seung-Hwan; Pan, Jae-Gu; Kim, Eui-Joong; Choi, Soo-Keun

    2015-03-31

    Genome engineering without leaving foreign DNA behind requires an efficient counter-selectable marker system. Here, we developed a genome engineering method in Bacillus subtilis using a synthetic gene circuit as a counter-selectable marker system. The system contained two repressible promoters (B. subtilis xylA (Pxyl) and spac (Pspac)) and two repressor genes (lacI and xylR). Pxyl-lacI was integrated into the B. subtilis genome with a target gene containing a desired mutation. The xylR and Pspac-chloramphenicol resistant genes (cat) were located on a helper plasmid. In the presence of xylose, repression of XylR by xylose induced LacI expression, the LacIs repressed the Pspac promoter and the cells become chloramphenicol sensitive. Thus, to survive in the presence of chloramphenicol, the cell must delete Pxyl-lacI by recombination between the wild-type and mutated target genes. The recombination leads to mutation of the target gene. The remaining helper plasmid was removed easily under the chloramphenicol absent condition. In this study, we showed base insertion, deletion and point mutation of the B. subtilis genome without leaving any foreign DNA behind. Additionally, we successfully deleted a 2-kb gene (amyE) and a 38-kb operon (ppsABCDE). This method will be useful to construct designer Bacillus strains for various industrial applications. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SUBSP. plantarum PROBIOTIC STRAINS AS PROTEASE PRODUCERS

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    E. V. Маtseliukh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteases from probiotic strains of the genus Bacillus, just like the antibiotics, bacteriocins and other hydrolytic enzymes, are one of the main factors that determine their biological activity. The aim of this work was to study the synthesis and biochemical properties of proteases from two strains Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM B-5139 and UCM B-5140 that included in the probiotic Endosporin. The cultivation of strains was carried out in flasks under rotating for two days. The influence of physico-chemical parameters of the reaction medium on proteolytic activity was studied on partially purified protease preparations. Lytic activity was determined by turbidimetric method. On the second day of cultivation B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM В-5139 and UCM В-5140 synthesized the metal-dependent peptidase and serine protease, respectively. The optimum conditions of their action were the following: temperature 37–40 °C and pH 6.5–7.0. Isolated proteases are able to lyse the living cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Thus we demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM B-5140 and UCM B-5139, included in the probiotic veterinary preparation Endosporin, produced proteolytic enzymes that hydrolyze the native insoluble proteins (elastin, fibrin and collagen. These enzymes belong to the group of neutral metal-dependent and serine proteases. They are active under physiological conditions against gram-positive bacteria and yeasts. The application of these proteases in biotechnology is considered.

  3. Plasmid-associated sensitivity of Bacillus thuringiensis to UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, T.G.; Wilson, G.R.; Bull, D.L.; Aronson, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus thuringiensis were more sensitive to UV light than were spores or cells of plasmid-cured B. thuringiensis strains or of the closely related Bacillus cereus. Introduction of B. thuringiensis plasmids into B. cereus by cell mating increased the UV sensitivity of the cells and spores. Protoxins encoded by one or more B. thuringiensis plasmids were not involved in spore sensitivity, since a B. thuringiensis strain conditional for protoxin accumulation was equally sensitive at the permissive and nonpermissive temperatures. In addition, introduction of either a cloned protoxin gene, the cloning vector, or another plasmid not containing a protoxin gene into a plasmid-cured strain of B. thuringiensis all increased the UV sensitivity of the spores. Although the variety of small, acid-soluble proteins was the same in the spores of all strains examined, the quantity of dipicolinic acid was about twice as high in the plasmid-containing strains, and this may account for the differences in UV sensitivity of the spores. The cells of some strains harboring only B. thuringiensis plasmids were much more sensitive than cells of any of the other strains, and the differences were much greater than observed with spores

  4. Thiopeptide antibiotics stimulate biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Rachel; Watrous, Jeramie D; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Bowers, Albert A; Shank, Elizabeth A

    2015-03-10

    Bacteria have evolved the ability to produce a wide range of structurally complex natural products historically called "secondary" metabolites. Although some of these compounds have been identified as bacterial communication cues, more frequently natural products are scrutinized for antibiotic activities that are relevant to human health. However, there has been little regard for how these compounds might otherwise impact the physiology of neighboring microbes present in complex communities. Bacillus cereus secretes molecules that activate expression of biofilm genes in Bacillus subtilis. Here, we use imaging mass spectrometry to identify the thiocillins, a group of thiazolyl peptide antibiotics, as biofilm matrix-inducing compounds produced by B. cereus. We found that thiocillin increased the population of matrix-producing B. subtilis cells and that this activity could be abolished by multiple structural alterations. Importantly, a mutation that eliminated thiocillin's antibiotic activity did not affect its ability to induce biofilm gene expression in B. subtilis. We go on to show that biofilm induction appears to be a general phenomenon of multiple structurally diverse thiazolyl peptides and use this activity to confirm the presence of thiazolyl peptide gene clusters in other bacterial species. Our results indicate that the roles of secondary metabolites initially identified as antibiotics may have more complex effects--acting not only as killing agents, but also as specific modulators of microbial cellular phenotypes.

  5. Pulsed dielectric barrier discharge for Bacillus subtilis inactivation in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Arias, A N; López-Callejas, R; De la Piedad Beneitez, A; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; Valencia-Alvarado, R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Barocio, S R; Muñoz-Castro, A E

    2012-01-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus subtilis bacteria in water has been experimentally studied by means of a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (PDBD) in a coaxial reactor endowed with an alumina dielectric. The plasma source is capable of operating at atmospheric pressure with gas, water or hybrid gas-liquid media at adjustable 25 kV pulses, 30 μs long and at a 500 Hz frequency. In order to evaluate the inactivation efficiency of the system, a set of experiments were designed on the basis of oxygen flow control. The initial data have showed a significant bacterial rate reduction of 10 3 -10 7 CFU/mL. Additional results proved that applying an oxygen flow for a few seconds during the PDBD treatment inactivates the Bacillus subtilis population with 99.99% effectiveness. As a reference, without gas flow but with the same exposure times, this percentage is reduced to ∼90%. The analysis of the relationship between inactivation rate and chemical species in the discharge has been carried out using optical emission spectroscopy as to identifying the main reactive species. Reactive oxygen species such as atomic oxygen and ozone tuned out to be the dominant germicidal species. Some proposed inactivation mechanisms of this technique are discussed.

  6. Assembly and Function of the Bacillus anthracis S-Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missiakas, Dominique; Schneewind, Olaf

    2017-09-08

    Bacillus anthracis, the anthrax agent, is a member of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group, which includes invasive pathogens of mammals or insects as well as nonpathogenic environmental strains. The genes for anthrax pathogenesis are located on two large virulence plasmids. Similar virulence plasmids have been acquired by other B. cereus strains and enable the pathogenesis of anthrax-like diseases. Among the virulence factors of B. anthracis is the S-layer-associated protein BslA, which endows bacilli with invasive attributes for mammalian hosts. BslA surface display and function are dependent on the bacterial S-layer, whose constituents assemble by binding to the secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP) via S-layer homology (SLH) domains. B. anthracis and other pathogenic B. cereus isolates harbor genes for the secretion of S-layer proteins, for S-layer assembly, and for synthesis of the SCWP. We review here recent insights into the assembly and function of the S-layer and the SCWP.

  7. Enterotoxigenic gene profiles of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium isolates recovered from honey Búsqueda de factores de virulencia en cepas de Bacillus cereus y de Bacillus megaterium aisladas de miel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. López

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and thirty two Bacillus cereus and 52 Bacillus megaterium isolates from honeys were evaluated for the presence of genes encoding enterotoxin HBL, enterotoxin-T, cytotoxin K and the NHE complex, respectively. The relationship between hemolytic and coagulase activity and its correlation with the presence of the four mentioned enterotoxins was determined by principal component analysis (PCA. PCA in B. cereus revealed a positive correlation among free coagulase, hemolysis and the presence of genes hblA, hblB, hblC, hblD (HBL complex and bceT (enterotoxin-T, but no correlation with the clumping factor (bound coagulase and the presence of sequences of the NHE complex. On the other hand, PCA in B. megaterium showed a high positive correlation between coagulase (bound and free and the haemolytic activity but no correlation in relation to the presence of genes of the HBL complex, cytotoxin K, enterotoxin T and the NHE complex. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the detection of cytotoxin K and of the NHE complex genes in B. megaterium. The relationship between the coagulase activity and the presence of virulence factors has not been described before in the genus Bacillus, being this work the first report of this correlation. Interestingly, the presence of the cytK gene was almost independent of the presence of the rest of virulence factors herein analyzed both in B. cereus and B. megaterium populations. Our results suggest that honey could be a possible vehicle for foodborne illness due to the presence of toxigenic B. cereus and B. megaterium strains containing different virulence factors.Se evaluaron 132 aislamientos de Bacillus cereus y 52 de Bacillus megaterium provenientes de mieles de distintos orígenes geográficos para investigar la presencia de secuencias de ADN relacionadas con genes de virulencia y su posible correlación con la actividad hemolítica y coagulasa. Con respecto a los genes de virulencia, se analizaron por

  8. Lead (Pb) bioaccumulation; genera Bacillus isolate S1 and SS19 as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifiyanto, Achmad; Apriyanti, Fitria Dwi; Purwaningsih, Puput; Kalqutny, Septian Hary; Agustina, Dyah; Surtiningsih, Tini; Shovitri, Maya; Zulaika, Enny

    2017-06-01

    Lead (Pb) includes a group of large heavy metal in nature was toxic either on animal or human and did not provide an advantage function biologically. Bacillus isolates S1 and SS19 known resistant to lead up to 50 mg / L PbCl2. In this research will be examined whether genera Bacillus isolates S1 and SS19 could accumulate metal lead (Pb), their capability in accumulating and profile protein differences when the bacteria genera Bacillus isolates S1 and SS19 get exposed metal lead (Pb). Inoculum at age ± 9 hours are used, with a Nutrient Broth (NB) containing 50, 75 and 100 mg / L PbCl2. Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP) used to assessed Pb2+ concentrations. Bioaccumulation levels of Pb2+ by Bacillus isolate S1 and SS19 related to the distinction of beginning concentration to the final concentration. Bacillus isolate S1 achieved 53% and 51% bioaccumulation efficiency rate in lead presence concentration (75 and 100 mg/L) and 51% (50 mg/L). Another way Bacillus isolate SS19 was able to accumulate 57% (50 mg/L PbCl2) and kept stable on 36% bioaccumulation efficiency rate (75 and 100 mg/L PbCl2). Regarding SDS-PAGE electrophoresis protein profile result, protein in ± 127 kDa, molecule mass detected in the presence of Lead for Bacillus isolate S1.

  9. Differences in the roles of a glutamine amidotransferase subunit of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthase between Bacillus circulans and Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itagaki, Shiori; Haga, Minami; Oikawa, Yuji; Sakoda, Ayaka; Ohke, Yoshie; Sawada, Hiroshi; Eguchi, Tadashi; Tamegai, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    BtrC2 of the butirosin producer Bacillus circulans is a non-catalytic subunit of 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose (DOI) synthase that is involved in butirosin biosynthesis, and also a homolog of glutamine amidotransferase subunit (PdxT) of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) synthase of Bacillus subtilis. BtrC2 has been found to have functions in B. circulans both in primary and secondary metabolism. In this study, we investigated the properties of PdxT of B. subtilis in order to determine whether the property of enzyme stabilization is universal among PdxT homologs. Complementation with PdxT in the btrC2 disruptant of B. circulans restored the growth and short-term production of antibiotics, but long-term production of antibiotics cannot be restored. Additionally, PdxT did not bind physically with or stabilize BtrC. Our results indicate that the function of BtrC2 in secondary metabolism is specific properties, not universal among PdxT homologs.

  10. Bacillus subtilis HJ18-4 from traditional fermented soybean food inhibits Bacillus cereus growth and toxin-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jeong Seon; Lee, Sun Young; Choi, Hye Sun

    2014-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis HJ18-4 isolated from buckwheat sokseongjang, a traditional Korean fermented soybean food, exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens, including Bacillus cereus. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial efficacy and regulation of toxin gene expression in B. cereus by B. subtilis HJ18-4. Expression of B. cereus toxin-related genes (groEL, nheA, nheC, and entFM) was downregulated by B. subtilis HJ18-4, which also exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus. We also found that water extracts of soy product fermented with B. subtilis HJ18-4 significantly inhibited the growth of B. cereus and toxin expression. These results indicate that B. subtilis HJ18-4 could be used as an antimicrobial agent to control B. cereus in the fermented soybean food industry. Our findings also provide an opportunity to develop an efficient biological control agent against B. cereus. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Diversity in the antibacterial potential of probiotic cultures Bacillus licheniformis MCC2514 and Bacillus licheniformis MCC2512.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobharani, Papanna; Padmaja, Radhakrishnan J; Halami, Prakash M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristic diversity and stability of antimicrobial compounds produced by two probiotic strains of Bacillus licheniformis (MCC2514 and MCC2512). Antimicrobial compounds from the two strains notably varied, related to stability and potency. The inhibitory spectrum of B. licheniformis MCC2512 was higher than MCC2514, but, related to the effect on Micrococcus luteus ATCC9341, MCC2514 (LD50 = 450 AU ml(-1)) was more potent than MCC2512 (LD50 = 750 AU ml(-1)). The compounds were thermo-resistant and stable at a wide range of pH and exhibited considerable resistance to digestive enzymes and bile salts (anionic biological detergents), contributing to their appropriate application in various food systems. The isolate B. licheniformis MCC2512 gave a positive response to Bacillus subtilis-based biosensors BSF2470 and BS168.BS2, confirming the mode of action on the cell wall and subtilin-type, respectively. For B. licheniformis MCC2514, the mode of action was characterized by constructing B. subtilis reporters that interfered in five major biosynthetic pathways, i.e., biosynthesis of DNA, RNA, protein, the cell wall and fatty acids. B. licheniformis MCC2514 responded to the yvgS reporter, indicating it as an RNA synthesis inhibitor. Overall, the investigation reveals variability of the antimicrobial compounds from B. licheniformis of different origins and for their possible application as biopreservative agents. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Occurrence of Natural Bacillus thuringiensis Contaminants and Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis-Based Insecticides on Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Kristine; Rosenquist, Hanne; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Wilcks, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    A total of 128 Bacillus cereus-like strains isolated from fresh fruits and vegetables for sale in retail shops in Denmark were characterized. Of these strains, 39% (50/128) were classified as Bacillus thuringiensis on the basis of their content of cry genes determined by PCR or crystal proteins visualized by microscopy. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and plasmid profiling indicated that 23 of the 50 B. thuringiensis strains were of the same subtype as B. thuringiensis strains used as commercial bioinsecticides. Fourteen isolates were indistinguishable from B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD1 present in the products Dipel, Biobit, and Foray, and nine isolates grouped with B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai present in Turex. The commercial strains were primarily isolated from samples of tomatoes, cucumbers, and peppers. A multiplex PCR method was developed to simultaneously detect all three genes in the enterotoxin hemolysin BL (HBL) and the nonhemolytic enterotoxin (NHE), respectively. This revealed that the frequency of these enterotoxin genes was higher among the strains indistinguishable from the commercial strains than among the other B. thuringiensis and B. cereus-like strains isolated from fruits and vegetables. The same was seen for a third enterotoxin, CytK. In conclusion, the present study strongly indicates that residues of B. thuringiensis-based insecticides can be found on fresh fruits and vegetables and that these are potentially enterotoxigenic. PMID:16672488

  13. Characterization of Bacillus spp. strains for use as probiotic additives in pig feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nadja; Thorsen, Line; Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra

    2014-01-01

    for use as probiotic additives in pig feed. A total of 245 bacterial isolates derived from African fermented food, feces and soil were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and screened for antimicrobial activity and growth in the presence of antibiotics, bile salts and at pH 4.0. Thirty-three Bacillus......Bacillus spp. are commonly used as probiotic species in the feed industry, however, their benefits need to be confirmed. This study describes a high throughput screening combined with the detailed characterization of endospore-forming bacteria with the aim to identify new Bacillus spp. strains...

  14. High Pressure Germination of Bacillus subtilis Spores with Alterations in Levels and Types of Germination Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    1ITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a CONTRACTNUMBER High pressure germination of Bacillus subtilis spores with W911NF-09-l-0286 alterations in levels and types of...A moderate high pressure (mHP) of 150 megaPascals (MPa) triggers germination of Bacillus subtilis spores via germinant receptors (GRs), while...germination by a very high pressure (vHP) of550 MPa is GR-independent. The mHP and vHP germination of Bacillus subtilis spores with different levels ofGRs

  15. Bacillus: A Biological Tool for Crop Improvement through Bio-Molecular Changes in Adverse Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Radhakrishnan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop productivity is affected by environmental and genetic factors. Microbes that are beneficial to plants are used to enhance the crop yield and are alternatives to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Pseudomonas and Bacillus species are the predominant plant growth-promoting bacteria. The spore-forming ability of Bacillus is distinguished from that of Pseudomonas. Members of this genus also survive for a long time under unfavorable environmental conditions. Bacillus spp. secrete several metabolites that trigger plant growth and prevent pathogen infection. Limited studies have been conducted to understand the physiological changes that occur in crops in response to Bacillus spp. to provide protection against adverse environmental conditions. This review describes the current understanding of Bacillus-induced physiological changes in plants as an adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses. During water scarcity, salinity and heavy metal accumulate in soil, Bacillus spp. produce exopolysaccharides and siderophores, which prevent the movement of toxic ions and adjust the ionic balance and water transport in plant tissues while controlling the pathogenic microbial population. In addition, the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid and1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase by Bacillus regulates the intracellular phytohormone metabolism and increases plant stress tolerance. Cell-wall-degrading substances, such as chitosanase, protease, cellulase, glucanase, lipopeptides and hydrogen cyanide from Bacillus spp. damage the pathogenic bacteria, fungi, nematodes, viruses and pests to control their populations in plants and agricultural lands. The normal plant metabolism is affected by unfavorable environmental stimuli, which suppress crop growth and yield. Abiotic and biotic stress factors that have detrimental effects on crops are mitigated by Bacillus-induced physiological changes, including the regulation of water transport

  16. Study of the dynamic of Bacillus species during of oil contaminated soil by PCR-DGGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shavandi

    2018-06-01

    Discussion and conclusion: Comparison of the pattern of DGGE bands variation between the microcosms showed that by entry of the contaminant into the soil, the diversity of Bacillus species was increased, indicating that Bacillus species has a particular role in diesel degradation. Simultaneous with decline of the pollution and microbial count of the soil, diversity of DGGE bands was decreased. Out of these findings we may conclude that addition of diesel as a carbon source to the soil increases the Bacillus spp. diversity at the beginning of bioremediation and afterwards by elimination of the pollutant, the diversity decreases gradually and shifts back to its original structure.

  17. Production of the antimicrobial peptides Caseicin A and B by Bacillus isolates growing on sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, R M; Guinane, C M; O'Connor, P M; Fitzgerald, G F; Hill, C; Stanton, C; Ross, R P

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Bacillus isolates capable of degrading sodium caseinate and subsequently to generate bioactive peptides with antimicrobial activity. Sodium caseinate (2.5% w/v) was inoculated separately with 16 Bacillus isolates and allowed to ferment overnight. Protein breakdown in the fermentates was analysed using gel permeation-HPLC (GP-HPLC) and screened for peptides (casein. This study highlights the potential to exploit Bacillus sp. or the enzymes they produce for the generation of bioactive antimicrobial peptides from bovine casein. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Bacillus: A Biological Tool for Crop Improvement through Bio-Molecular Changes in Adverse Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.

    2017-01-01

    Crop productivity is affected by environmental and genetic factors. Microbes that are beneficial to plants are used to enhance the crop yield and are alternatives to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Pseudomonas and Bacillus species are the predominant plant growth-promoting bacteria. The spore-forming ability of Bacillus is distinguished from that of Pseudomonas. Members of this genus also survive for a long time under unfavorable environmental conditions. Bacillus spp. secrete several metabolites that trigger plant growth and prevent pathogen infection. Limited studies have been conducted to understand the physiological changes that occur in crops in response to Bacillus spp. to provide protection against adverse environmental conditions. This review describes the current understanding of Bacillus-induced physiological changes in plants as an adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses. During water scarcity, salinity and heavy metal accumulate in soil, Bacillus spp. produce exopolysaccharides and siderophores, which prevent the movement of toxic ions and adjust the ionic balance and water transport in plant tissues while controlling the pathogenic microbial population. In addition, the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid and1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase by Bacillus regulates the intracellular phytohormone metabolism and increases plant stress tolerance. Cell-wall-degrading substances, such as chitosanase, protease, cellulase, glucanase, lipopeptides and hydrogen cyanide from Bacillus spp. damage the pathogenic bacteria, fungi, nematodes, viruses and pests to control their populations in plants and agricultural lands. The normal plant metabolism is affected by unfavorable environmental stimuli, which suppress crop growth and yield. Abiotic and biotic stress factors that have detrimental effects on crops are mitigated by Bacillus-induced physiological changes, including the regulation of water transport, nutrient up-take and

  19. Diversity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Bacillus Species: Chemistry and Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Muhammad Abdul Mojid; Shin, Hee Jae; Islam, Mohammad Tofazzal

    2013-01-01

    Marine Bacillus species produce versatile secondary metabolites including lipopeptides, polypeptides, macrolactones, fatty acids, polyketides, and isocoumarins. These structurally diverse compounds exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antialgal activities. Some marine Bacillus strains can detoxify heavy metals through reduction processes and have the ability to produce carotenoids. The present article reviews the chemistry and biological activities of secondary metabolites from marine isolates. Side by side, the potential for application of these novel natural products from marine Bacillus strains as drugs, pesticides, carotenoids, and tools for the bioremediation of heavy metal toxicity are also discussed. PMID:23941823

  20. Biodegradation of hard keratins by two bacillus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laba, Wojciech; Rodziewicz, Anna

    2014-02-01

    Extensive quantities of keratinic by-products are disposed annually by animal-processing industry, causing a mounting ecological problem due to extreme resilience of these materials to enzymatic breakdown. There is a growing trend to apply cheap and environment-friendly methods to recycle keratinic wastes. Soil bacteria of profound keratinolytic potential, especially spore-forming rods from the genus Bacillus, play a significant role in keratinase-mediated biodegradation of keratins, therefore could be effective in hastening their biodegradation. Keratin hydrolysis in microbial cultures is one of the most promising techniques not only to utilize this protein but also to obtain valuable by products. The study was undertaken to investigate the biodegradation process of various keratinic materials by two Bacillus strains. Two keratinolytic strains, Bacillus cereus and B. polymyxa, were subject to cultures in the presence of several keratinic appendages, like chicken feathers, barbs and rachea of ostrich feathers, pig bristle, lamb wool, human hair and stratum corneum of epidermis, as main nutrient sources. Bacterial ability to decompose these waste materials was evaluated, at the background of keratinase and protease biosynthesis, in brief four-day cultures. Keratinolytic activity was measured on soluble keratin preparation and proteases were assayed on casein. Additionally, amounts of liberated proteins, amino acids and thiols were evaluated. Residual keratin weight was tested afterwards. Both tested strains proved to be more adapted for fast biodegradation of feather β-keratins than hair-type α-keratins. B. cereus revealed its significant proteolytic potential, especially on whole chicken feathers (230 PU) and stratum corneum (180 PU), but also on separated barbs and rachea, which appeared to be moderate protease inducers. Keratinolytic activity of B. cereus was comparable on most substrates and maximum level obtained was 11 KU. B. polymyxa was found to be a