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Sample records for bacillaceae

  1. Biological Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Liliane Nachtigall; Lara, Ana Paula de Souza Stori de; Ferreira, Márcio Soares; Nunes, Adrise Medeiros; Bernardi, Daniel; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas; Garcia, Flávio Roberto Mello

    2018-01-18

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is considered to be one of the major pest insects in fruit orchards worldwide. Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) strains are widely used as biological control agents and show high biological activity against different insect species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activity of different strains of B. thuringiensis against A. fraterculus larvae and adults. Bioassays were performed using suspensions of bacterial spores/crystals of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), kurstaki (Btk), and oswaldocruzi (Bto) strains at three concentrations [2 × 107, 2 × 108, and 2 × 109 colony-forming units per ml (CFU ml-1)]. At a concentration of 2 × 109 CFU ml-1, a significant larval effect (mortality 60%) was observed when compared with the control treatment. Larvae that ingested spore/crystal suspensions of Bti, Btk, or Bto bacterial strains exhibited significant larval and pupal deformations, leading to a significant decrease (~50%) in the completion of the insects' biological cycle (egg to adult). The B. thuringiensis strains (Bti, Btk, or Bto) at a concentration of 2 × 109 CFU ml-1 in combination with one food attractant (BioAnastrepha 3% or CeraTrap 1.5%) in formulations of toxic baits provided high mortality (mortality > 85%) of A. fraterculus adults 7 d after treatment. However, the Btk strain in combination with CeraTrap 1.5% caused mortality of 40%. On the basis of these results, the native bacterial strains Bti, Btk, and Bto were considered to be promising candidates as biological control agents against A. fraterculus. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Isolation of four hydrocarbon effluent-degrading Bacillaceae species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    percentage decreases in total hydrocarbon concentration within 18 days: 98% with Bacillus licheniformis STK08, 87% with Geobacillus stearothermophilus STM04, 80% with Lysinibacillus sphaericus STZ75 and 72% with Bacillus firmus STS84.

  3. Effect of chemical additives on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) against Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, L.; Qiu, S.; Huang, T.; Huang, Z.; Xu, L.; Wu, C.; Gelbič, Ivan; Guan, X.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2013), s. 1075-1080 ISSN 0022-0493 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : additives * Bacillus thuringiensis * biocontrol Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2013 http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.1603/EC12288

  4. Biological activity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) chitinase against Caenorhabditis elegans (Rhabditida: Rhabditidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, L.; Yu, J.; Xie, Y.; Lin, H.; Huang, Z.; Xu, L.; Gelbič, Ivan; Guan, X.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 2 (2014), s. 551-558 ISSN 0022-0493 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis * Caenorhabditis elegans * chitinase Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 1.506, year: 2014 http://www.bioone.org/doi/ pdf /10.1603/EC13201

  5. Different toxicity of the novel Bacillus thuringiensis (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) strain LLP29 against Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, L.; Tang, B.; Huang, E.; Huang, Z.; Liu, Z.; Huang, T.; Gelbič, Ivan; Guan, X.; Xu, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2013), s. 1098-1102 ISSN 0022-0493 Grant - others:National Natural Science Foundation of China (CN) 31071745; National Natural Science Foundation of China (CN) 31201574; Ministry of Education of China (CN) 20093515110010; Ministry of Education of China (CN) 20093515120010; Agricultural Science and Technology Achievements(CN) 2010GB2C400212; National High Technology Research and Development Program 863(CN) 2011AA10A203; Universities of Fujian Province(CN) JA12092; Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University(CN) xjq201203; Universities for the Development of the West Strait(CN) 0b08b005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis * receptor binding * ELISA Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2013 http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.1603/EC12308

  6. Selection and Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Eubacteriales: Bacillaceae) Strains for Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzetti, J; Ricietto, A P S; Fazion, F A P; Meneguim, A M; Neves, P M O J; Vilas-Boas, L A; Rodrigues, R B; Vilas-Bôas, G T

    2017-02-01

    The citrus fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is responsible for major losses to the citrus industry because it causes rot and drop of fruits. The current study aimed to select and characterize Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner, 1911) strains toxic to E. aurantiana. For this purpose, 47 B. thuringiensis strains were evaluated in selective bioassays using first instar larvae of E. aurantiana. The lethal concentration (LC 50 ) of the most toxic strains was estimated, and the strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical, and molecular methods. Of the 47 strains tested, 10 caused mortality above 85% and showed mean lethal concentrations between 1.05E+7 and 1.54E+8 spores mL -1 . The lowest LC 50 values were obtained for the HD-1 standard strain and the BR145, BR83, BR52, and BR09 strains. The protein profile showed the presence of Cry proteins of 60, 65, 70, 80, and 130 kDa. The molecular characterization showed the presence of cry1, cry2, cry3, and cry11 genes. The morphological analysis identified three different crystalline inclusions: bipyramidal, round, and cuboidal. The cry1 and cry2 genes were the most frequent among the B. thuringiensis strains evaluated and encode Cry proteins toxic to insects of the order Lepidoptera, which agree with the toxicity results obtained by the selective bioassays against E. aurantiana. The results showed four different B. thuringiensis strains toxic to E. aurantiana at the same level as the HD-1 standard strain, and these strains have biotechnological potential for E. aurantiana control through the production of transgenic plants or the formulation of biopesticides.

  7. Field evaluation of the synergistic effects of neem oil with Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.; Zannou, E.; Gbehounou, G.; Kossou, D.; Huis, van A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the synergistic effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv. Vuill.) (isolate Bb11) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner) with neem oil were evaluated in three agroecological zones in Be´nin. Four bioinsecticide treatments (neem oil, neem oil and B. bassiana used

  8. A mixed-species microarray for identification of food spoilage bacilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caspers, M.P.M.; Schuren, F.H.J.; van Zuijlen, A.C.M.; Brul, S.; Montijn, R.C.; Abee, T.; Kort, R.

    2011-01-01

    Failure of food preservation is frequently caused by thermostable spores of members of the Bacillaceae family, which show a wide spectrum of resistance to cleaning and preservation treatments. We constructed and validated a mixed-species genotyping array for 6 Bacillus species, including Bacillus

  9. A mixed-species microarray for identification of food spoilage bacilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caspers, Martien P M; Schuren, Frank H J; van Zuijlen, Andre C M; Brul, Stanley; Montijn, Roy C; Abee, Tjakko; Kort, Remco

    Failure of food preservation is frequently caused by thermostable spores of members of the Bacillaceae family, which show a wide spectrum of resistance to cleaning and preservation treatments. We constructed and validated a mixed-species genotyping array for 6 Bacillus species, including Bacillus

  10. Bacterial succession and metabolite changes during flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) retting with Bacillus cereus HDYM-02

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Zhao; Pengfei Liu; Chao Pan; Renpeng Du; Wenxiang Ping; Jingping Ge

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing and GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) were jointly used to reveal the bacterial succession and metabolite changes during flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) retting. The inoculation of Bacillus cereus HDYM-02 decreased bacterial richness and diversity. This inoculum led to the replacement of Enterobacteriaceae by Bacillaceae. The level of aerobic Pseudomonadaceae (mainly Azotobacter) and anaerobic Clostridiaceae_1 gradually increased and decreased, respectively...

  11. Bacillus niameyensis sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from human gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tidjani Alou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus niameyensis sp. nov. strain SIT3T (= CSUR P1266 = DSM 29725 is the type strain of B. niameyensis sp. nov. This Gram-positive strain was isolated from the digestive flora of a child with kwashiorkor and is a facultative anaerobic rod and a member of the Bacillaceae family. This organism is hereby described alongside its complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4  286  116 bp long genome (one chromosome but no plasmid contains 4130 protein-coding and 66 RNA genes including five rRNA genes.

  12. Pesquisa de proteínas citotóxicas e nematicidas em isolados Bacillus thuringiensis dos Açores

    OpenAIRE

    Raimundo, Natacha Sofia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado, Ciências Biomédicas, 25 de Maio de 2016, Universidade dos Açores. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), pertencente à família Bacillaceae, é classificado como gram-positiva e tem despertado elevado interesse em várias áreas, destacando-se a aplicações na agricultura e na saúde. Os isolados de Bt são caracterizados pela sua capacidade de produzir inclusões cristalinas de origem proteica durante a fase de esporulação, as quais são conhecidas como proteínas δ-endotoxinas ou pr...

  13. Toxins secreted by Bacillus isolated from lung adenocarcinomas favor the penetration of toxic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eMerlos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to explore the eventual role of bacteria in the induction of lung cancer by smoking habits. Viable bacteria closely related to the genus Bacillus were detected at high frequencies in lung-cancer biopsies. Similar, if not identical, microbes were isolated from cigarettes and in smog. Bacteria present in cigarettes could be transferred to a physiological solution via a smoker device that mimicked their potential transfer during smoking those bacteria produce exotoxins able to open transmembrane pores. These channels can be used as a way to penetrate cells of benzopyrenes and other toxic substances present in tobacco products. We hypothesize that Bacillaceae present in tobacco play a key role in the development of lung cancer.

  14. Supplemental control of lepidopterous pests on Bt transgenic sweet corn with biologically-based spray treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Robert R; Shepard, B Merle; Shapiro, Martin; Hassell, Richard L; Schaffer, Mark L; Smith, Chad M

    2009-01-01

    Biologically-based spray treatments, including nucleopolyhedroviruses, neem, and spinosad, were evaluated as supplemental controls for the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on transgenic sweet corn, Zea mays (L.) (Poales: Poaceae), expressing a Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) (Bt). Overall, transgenic corn supported lower densities of both pests than did nontransgenic corn. Control of the fall armyworm was improved in both whorl-stage and tassel-stage corn by the use of either a nucleopolyhedrovirus or neem, but the greatest improvement was seen with spinosad. Only spinosad consistently reduced damage to ears, which was caused by both pest species. In general, efficacy of the spray materials did not differ greatly between transgenic and nontransgenic corn.

  15. Conductive iron oxide minerals accelerate syntrophic cooperation in methanogenic benzoate degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Li; Tang, Jia; Wang, Yueqiang; Hu, Min; Zhou, Shungui, E-mail: sgzhou@soil.gd.cn

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Paddy soil contaminated with benzoate incubated with hematite and magnetite. • Iron oxides addition enhanced methanogenic benzoate degradation by 25–53%. • The facilitated syntrophy might involve direct interspecies electron transfer. • Bacillaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Methanobacterium are potentially involved. - Abstract: Recent studies have suggested that conductive iron oxide minerals can facilitate syntrophic metabolism of the methanogenic degradation of organic matter, such as ethanol, propionate and butyrate, in natural and engineered microbial ecosystems. This enhanced syntrophy involves direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) powered by microorganisms exchanging metabolic electrons through electrically conductive minerals. Here, we evaluated the possibility that conductive iron oxides (hematite and magnetite) can stimulate the methanogenic degradation of benzoate, which is a common intermediate in the anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds. The results showed that 89–94% of the electrons released from benzoate oxidation were recovered in CH{sub 4} production, and acetate was identified as the only carbon-bearing intermediate during benzoate degradation. Compared with the iron-free controls, the rates of methanogenic benzoate degradation were enhanced by 25% and 53% in the presence of hematite and magnetite, respectively. This stimulatory effect probably resulted from DIET-mediated methanogenesis in which electrons transfer between syntrophic partners via conductive iron minerals. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Bacillaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Methanobacterium are potentially involved in the functioning of syntrophic DIET. Considering the ubiquitous presence of iron minerals within soils and sediments, the findings of this study will increase the current understanding of the natural biological attenuation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic environments.

  16. The Identification of Discriminating Patterns from 16S rRNA Gene to Generate Signature for Bacillus Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Ravi P; Purohit, Hemant J

    2016-08-01

    The 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene has been widely used for the taxonomic classification of bacteria. A molecular signature is a set of nucleotide patterns, which constitute a regular expression that is specific to each particular taxon. Our main goal was to identify discriminating nucleotide patterns in 16S rRNA gene and then to generate signatures for taxonomic classification. To demonstrate our approach, we used the phylum Firmicutes as a model using representative taxa Bacilli (class), Bacillales (order), Bacillaceae (family), and Bacillus (genus), according to their dominance at each hierarchical taxonomic level. We applied combined composite vector and multiple sequence alignment approaches to generate gene-specific signatures. Further, we mapped all the patterns into the different hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA gene and confirmed the most appropriate distinguishing region as V3-V4 for targeted taxa. We also examined the evolution in discriminating patterns of signatures across taxonomic levels. We assessed the comparative classification accuracy of signatures with other methods (i.e., RDP Classifier, KNN, and SINA). Results revealed that the signatures for taxa Bacilli, Bacillales, Bacillaceae, and Bacillus could correctly classify isolate sequences with sensitivity of 0.99, 0.97, 0.94, and 0.89, respectively, and specificity close to 0.99. We developed signature-based software DNA Barcode Identification (DNA BarID) for taxonomic classification that is available at website http://www.neeri.res.in/DNA_BarID.htm . This pattern-based study provides a deeper understanding of taxon-specific discriminating patterns in 16S rRNA gene with respect to taxonomic classification.

  17. Biological mechanisms associated with triazophos (TAP) removal by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Juan; Feng, Yuqin; Dai, Yanran; Cui, Naxin [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and ResourceReuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Anderson, Bruce [Department of Civil Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston K7L3N6 (Canada); Cheng, Shuiping, E-mail: shpcheng@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and ResourceReuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Triazophos (TAP) is a widely used pesticide that is easily accumulated in the environment due to its relatively high stability: this accumulation from agricultural runoff results in potential hazards to aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands are generally considered to be an effective technology for treating TAP polluted surface water. However, knowledge about the biological mechanisms of TAP removal is still lacking. This study investigates the responses of a wetland plant (Canna indica), substrate enzymes and microbial communities in bench-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) loaded with different TAP concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 5 mg·L{sup −1}). The results indicate that TAP stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the roots of C. indica. The highest TAP concentrations significantly inhibited photosynthetic activities, as shown by a reduced effective quantum yield of PS II (Φ{sub PSII}) and lower electron transport rates (ETR). However, interestingly, the lower TAP loadings exhibited some favorable effects on these two variables, suggesting that C. indica is a suitable species for use in wetlands designed for treatment of low TAP concentrations. Urease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the wetland substrate were activated by TAP. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated that urease activity was influenced by both the TAP concentrations and season, while acidphosphatase (ACP) only responded to seasonal variations. Analysis of high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed seasonal variations in the microbial community structure of the wetland substrate at the phylum and family levels. In addition, urease activity had a greater correlation with the relative abundance of some functional microbial groups, such as the Bacillaceae family, and the ALP and ACP may be influenced by the plant more than substrate microbial communities. - Highlights: • Physiological responses of the wetland plant to triazophos

  18. Biological mechanisms associated with triazophos (TAP) removal by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Juan; Feng, Yuqin; Dai, Yanran; Cui, Naxin; Anderson, Bruce; Cheng, Shuiping

    2016-01-01

    Triazophos (TAP) is a widely used pesticide that is easily accumulated in the environment due to its relatively high stability: this accumulation from agricultural runoff results in potential hazards to aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands are generally considered to be an effective technology for treating TAP polluted surface water. However, knowledge about the biological mechanisms of TAP removal is still lacking. This study investigates the responses of a wetland plant (Canna indica), substrate enzymes and microbial communities in bench-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) loaded with different TAP concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 5 mg·L −1 ). The results indicate that TAP stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the roots of C. indica. The highest TAP concentrations significantly inhibited photosynthetic activities, as shown by a reduced effective quantum yield of PS II (Φ PSII ) and lower electron transport rates (ETR). However, interestingly, the lower TAP loadings exhibited some favorable effects on these two variables, suggesting that C. indica is a suitable species for use in wetlands designed for treatment of low TAP concentrations. Urease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the wetland substrate were activated by TAP. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated that urease activity was influenced by both the TAP concentrations and season, while acidphosphatase (ACP) only responded to seasonal variations. Analysis of high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed seasonal variations in the microbial community structure of the wetland substrate at the phylum and family levels. In addition, urease activity had a greater correlation with the relative abundance of some functional microbial groups, such as the Bacillaceae family, and the ALP and ACP may be influenced by the plant more than substrate microbial communities. - Highlights: • Physiological responses of the wetland plant to triazophos loads were

  19. DIVERSITY OF CULTIVABLE MICROORGANISMS IN THE EASTERN PART OF URMIA SALT LAKE, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Jookar Kashi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we employed culture techniques to study microbial diversity in Urmia Lake, a hypersaline lake in northwest of Iran. Water, soil and salt samples were taken from the Eastern part of Urmia Salt Lake in September 2011. A total of 11 water samples and 30 soil and salt samples were taken from 41 sites in the Lake. Bacterial isolates were cultured on different growth media and taxonomically affiliated based on their 16S rDNA gene sequence. Three hundred bacterial isolates were obtained from samples collected. Of these, 53 bacterial isolates were selected for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, based on their growth characteristics and colony morphology. Results showed that these 53 isolates represented 39 species, belonging to 18 genera (Bacillus, Oceanobacillus, Thalassobacillus, Planomicrobium, Halobacillus, Planococcus, Terribacillus, Staphylococcus, Piscibacillus, Virgibacillus, Gracilibacillus, Ornithinibacillus, Halomonas, Pseudomonas, Providencia, Salicola, Psychrobacter, Kocuria and they were from 9 families (Bacillaceae, Planococcaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Halomonadaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Moraxellaceae, Alteromonadaceae, Micrococcaceae pertaining to three phyla (Actinobacteria 1.8%, Firmicutes 78.6%, Proteobacteria 21.4%. The present study showed that Urmia Lake is a rich source for moderately halophilic and halotolerant bacteria. The phylogenetic analysis of sequences from Urmia Lake had some common 16S rDNA sequences from other hypersaline lakes previously reported.

  20. A mobile genetic element profoundly increases heat resistance of bacterial spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Boekhorst, Jos; Kuipers, Oscar P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial endospores are among the most resilient forms of life on earth and are intrinsically resistant to extreme environments and antimicrobial treatments. Their resilience is explained by unique cellular structures formed by a complex developmental process often initiated in response to nutrient deprivation. Although the macromolecular structures of spores from different bacterial species are similar, their resistance to environmental insults differs widely. It is not known which of the factors attributed to spore resistance confer very high-level heat resistance. Here, we provide conclusive evidence that in Bacillus subtilis, this is due to the presence of a mobile genetic element (Tn1546-like) carrying five predicted operons, one of which contains genes that encode homologs of SpoVAC, SpoVAD and SpoVAEb and four other genes encoding proteins with unknown functions. This operon, named spoVA 2mob , confers high-level heat resistance to spores. Deletion of spoVA 2mob in a B. subtilis strain carrying Tn1546 renders heat-sensitive spores while transfer of spoVA 2mob into B. subtilis 168 yields highly heat-resistant spores. On the basis of the genetic conservation of different spoVA operons among spore-forming species of Bacillaceae, we propose an evolutionary scenario for the emergence of extremely heat-resistant spores in B. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. amyloliquefaciens. This discovery opens up avenues for improved detection and control of spore-forming bacteria able to produce highly heat-resistant spores.

  1. A mixed-species microarray for identification of food spoilage bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspers, Martien P M; Schuren, Frank H J; van Zuijlen, Andre C M; Brul, Stanley; Montijn, Roy C; Abee, Tjakko; Kort, Remco

    2011-04-01

    Failure of food preservation is frequently caused by thermostable spores of members of the Bacillaceae family, which show a wide spectrum of resistance to cleaning and preservation treatments. We constructed and validated a mixed-species genotyping array for 6 Bacillus species, including Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus sporothermodurans, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus coagulans, and 4 Geobacillus species, including Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Geobacillus thermocatenulatus, Geobacillus toebii and Geobacillus sp., in order to track food spoilage isolates from ingredient to product. The discriminating power of the array was evaluated with sets of 42 reference and 20 test strains. Bacterial isolates contain a within-species-conserved core genome comprising 68-88% of the entire genome and a non-conserved accessory genome comprising 7-22%. The majority of the core genome markers do not hybridise between species, thus they allow for efficient discrimination at the species level. The accessory genome array markers provide high-resolution discrimination at the level of individual isolates from a single species. In conclusion, the reported mixed-species microarray contains discriminating markers that allow rapid and cost-effective typing of Bacillus food spoilage bacteria in a wide variety of food products. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diversity, Bacterial Symbionts and Antibacterial Potential of Gut-Associated Fungi Isolated from the Pantala flavescens Larvae in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Wei Shao

    Full Text Available The diversity of fungi associated with the gut of Pantala flavescens larvae was investigated using a culture-dependent method and molecular identification based on an analysis of the internally transcribed spacer sequence. In total, 48 fungal isolates were obtained from P. flavescens larvae. Based on phylogenetic analyses, the fungal isolates were grouped in 5 classes and 12 different genera. Fourteen bacterial 16S rDNA sequences derived from total genomic DNA extractions of fungal mycelia were obtained. The majority of the sequences were associated with Proteobacteria (13/14, and one Bacillaceae (1/14 was included. Leclercia sp., Oceanobacillus oncorhynchi and Methylobacterium extorquens, were reported for the first time as bacterial endosymbionts in fungi. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis indicated that bacterial symbionts produced specific metabolites and also exerted an inhibitory effect on fungal metabolites. The biological activity of the fungal culture extracts against the pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633 and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739 was investigated, and 20 extracts (42% exhibited antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested bacterial strains. This study is the first report on the diversity and antibacterial activity of symbiotic fungi residing in the gut of P. flavescens larvae, and the results show that these fungi are highly diverse and could be exploited as a potential source of bioactive compounds.

  3. Bacterial succession and metabolite changes during flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) retting with Bacillus cereus HDYM-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Liu, Pengfei; Pan, Chao; Du, Renpeng; Ping, Wenxiang; Ge, Jingping

    2016-09-02

    High-throughput sequencing and GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) were jointly used to reveal the bacterial succession and metabolite changes during flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) retting. The inoculation of Bacillus cereus HDYM-02 decreased bacterial richness and diversity. This inoculum led to the replacement of Enterobacteriaceae by Bacillaceae. The level of aerobic Pseudomonadaceae (mainly Azotobacter) and anaerobic Clostridiaceae_1 gradually increased and decreased, respectively. Following the addition of B. cereus HDYM-02, the dominant groups were all degumming enzyme producers or have been proven to be involved in microbial retting throughout the entire retting period. These results could be verified by the metabolite changes, either degumming enzymes or their catalytic products galacturonic acid and reducing sugars. The GC-MS data showed a clear separation between flax retting with and without B. cereus HDYM-02, particularly within the first 72 h. These findings reveal the important bacterial groups that are involved in fiber retting and will facilitate improvements in the retting process.

  4. Platinum Recovery from Synthetic Extreme Environments by Halophilic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Synthia; Props, Ruben; Fitts, Jeffrey P; Smet, Rebecca De; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Vital, Marius; Pieper, Dietmar H; Vanhaecke, Frank; Boon, Nico; Hennebel, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Metal recycling based on urban mining needs to be established to tackle the increasing supply risk of critical metals such as platinum. Presently, efficient strategies are missing for the recovery of platinum from diluted industrial process streams, often characterized by extremely low pHs and high salt concentrations. In this research, halophilic mixed cultures were employed for the biological recovery of platinum (Pt). Halophilic bacteria were enriched from Artemia cysts, living in salt lakes, in different salt matrices (sea salt mixture and NH4Cl; 20-210 g L(-1) salts) and at low to neutral pH (pH 3-7). The main taxonomic families present in the halophilic cultures were Halomonadaceae, Bacillaceae, and Idiomarinaceae. The halophilic cultures were able to recover >98% Pt(II) and >97% Pt(IV) at pH 2 within 3-21 h (4-453 mg Ptrecovered h(-1) g(-1) biomass). X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirmed the reduction to Pt(0) and transmission electron microscopy revealed both intra- and extracellular Pt precipitates, with median diameters of 9-30 nm and 11-13 nm, for Pt(II) and Pt(IV), respectively. Flow cytometric membrane integrity staining demonstrated the preservation of cell viability during platinum recovery. This study demonstrates the Pt recovery potential of halophilic mixed cultures in acidic saline conditions.

  5. Microbial secondary metabolites are an alternative approaches against insect vector to prevent zoonotic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharumadurai Dhanasekaran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1500 naturally occurring microorganisms have been identified as potentially insecticidal agents. Metabolites from 942 microbial isolates were screened for insecticidal and properties. The isolates included 302 streptomycetes, 502 novel actinobacteria including representatives of 18 genera, 28 unidentified aerobic actinobacteria, 70 fungi and 40 bacteria other than actinobacteria showed the insecticidal activity. Most spore-forming bacteria pathogenic to insects belong to the family Bacillaceae. Only four Bacillus species namely Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus popilliae, Bacillus lentimorbus, Bacillus sphaericus have been closely examined as insect control agents. Fungi are applied directly in the form of spores, mycelia or blastospores or by their metabolites. Many viruses that belong to the family Baculoviridae are pathogenic in insects. The microbial insecticides are generally pest-specific, readily biodegradable and usually lack toxicity to higher animals. This review paper communicates the insect problem in the transmission of diseases in human, animals, plants and problem of chemical insecticides control of insects using microbial metabolites from actinobacteria, bacteria, fungi and viruses.

  6. Sediminibacillus massiliensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic, Gram-positive bacterium isolated from a stool sample of a young Senegalese man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senghor, Bruno; Bassène, Hubert; Khelaifia, Saber; Robert, Catherine; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Ruimy, Raymond; Sokhna, Cheikh; Raoult, Didier; Lagier, Jean-Christophe

    2018-02-07

    A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic bacterium, referred to as strain Marseille-P3518 T , was isolated from a stool sample with 2% NaCl concentration from a healthy 15-year-old male living in Dielmo, a village in Senegal. Cells are aerobic, rod-shaped and motile and display endospore formation. Strain Marseille-P3518 T can grow in a medium with 0-20% (w/v) sodium chloride (optimally at 5-7.5% w/v). The major fatty acids were 12-methyl-tetradecanoic acid (45.8%), 13-methyl-tetradecanoic acid (26.9%) and 12-methyl-tridecanoic acid (12.8%). The genome is 4,347,479 bp long with 42.1% G+C content. It contains 4282 protein-coding and 107 RNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that strain Marseille-P3518 T is a member of the Bacillaceae family and is closely related to Sediminibacillus albus (97.4% gene sequence similarity). Strain Marseille-P3518 T was clearly differentiated from its phylogenetic neighbors on the basis of phenotypic and genotypic features. Strain Marseille-P3518 T is, therefore, considered to be a novel representative of the genus Sediminibacillus, for which the name Sediminibacillus massiliensis sp. nov. is proposed, and the type strain is Marseille-P3518 T (CSUR P3518T, DSM69894).

  7. Effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on molecular diversity of plankton from the Chubut rivers estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, J.M.; Halac, S.; Calvo, A.Y.; Villafane, V.; Jones, L.R.; Helbling, W.E.

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of a project designed to evaluate the impact of UVR upon estuarine plankton, we present here a molecular analysis of plankton diversity. Water samples were exposed to three radiation treatments (PAR, PAR + UV-A and PAR + UV-A + UV-B) in microcosms for ca 10 days during the Austral summer. At the beginning (t 0 ) and at the end of the experiment samples were filtered 0 through 20, 10, 5 and 0.22 μm pore sizes. The DNA amount retained in each filter indicated that most of the plankton biomass was in the 0.22-5 μm fraction at t0. In contrast, at the end of the experiment this proportion changed according to the radiation treatment and big cells (> 20 μm) dominated. An rDNA library was obtained from the DNA corresponding to the 0.22-5 μm fraction. There was no relationship between treatments and the number and frequency of restriction genotypes. Analyses of 27 clones fraction from t 0 indicated the presence of three genera of Rhodobacteraceae, one genus of Rhodospirillaceae, one SAR11 genus, one genus of Bacillaceae, an unclassified sequences of Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Rhodospirillaceae. Also, there were six sequences similar to Ostreococcus tauri (Mamiellales). Even though the sequence analyses are still ongoing, our initial data suggest a big impact of UV-B radiation in the amount and composition of the plankton community towards big cells. (authors)

  8. Antimicrobial activities of novel cultivable bacteria isolated from marine sponge Tedania anhelans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Ke, Caihuan; Wang, Dexiang

    2013-05-01

    Marine sponge Tedania anhelans distributes throughout the intertidal zone of Fujian, southeastern China, and is a potential source of natural bioactive products. The sponge harbors a large number of bacterial groups that have been identified using various techniques, including fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Fractionation of dissociated sponge allowed isolation of 25 bacterial species. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, phylogenetic analysis attributed most of these eubacteria to α- Proteobacteria, γ- Proteobacteria, Cytophaga / Flavobacterium / Bacteroidetes (CFB group), and the family Bacillaceae of Gram-positive bacteria. In sequence similarity, five putatively novel species were identified with less than 98% similarity to other strains in the NCBI database. Tests for antimicrobial activities were performed against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, antitumor indicators Escherichia coli 343/591 (with DNA repair deficiency), regular E. coli 343/636 (with different DNA repair capacity), and 10 bacterial isolates exhibited inhibitory bioactivities. Among these strains, three isolates were detected involving function gene NRPS-A domains, which were most closely related to the amino acid sequences of linear gramicidin synthetase and pyoverdine synthetase. These results contribute to our knowledge of the microbes associated with marine sponges and further reveal novel bacterial resources for the screening of bioactive marine natural products.

  9. Analysis of raw goat milk microbiota: impact of stage of lactation and lysozyme on microbial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Elizabeth A; Kalanetra, Karen M; Mills, David A; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2015-04-01

    To protect infants from infection, human milk contains high levels of the enzyme lysozyme, unlike the milk of dairy animals. We have genetically engineered goats to express human lysozyme (hLZ milk) in their milk at 68% the amount found in human milk to help extend this protection. This study looked at the effect of hLZ on bacteria in raw milk over time. As the microbial diversity of goats' milk has yet to be investigated in depth using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, we applied NGS and clone library sequencing (CLS) to determine the microbiota of raw goat milk (WT milk) and hLZ milk at early, mid and late lactation. Overall, in WT milk, the bacterial populations in milk at early and mid lactation were similar to each other with a shift occurring at late lactation. Both methods found Proteobacteria as the dominant bacteria at early and mid lactation, while Actinobacteria surged at late lactation. These changes were related to decreases in Pseudomonas and increases in Micrococcus. The bacterial populations in hLZ milk were similar to WT milk at early and mid lactation with the only significant differences occurring at late lactation with the elevation of Bacillaceae, Alicyclobacillaceae, Clostridiaceae and Halomonadaceae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Barcoded Pyrosequencing Reveals a Shift in the Bacterial Community in the Rhizosphere and Rhizoplane of Rehmannia glutinosa under Consecutive Monoculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linkun Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The production and quality of Rehmannia glutinosa can be dramatically reduced by replant disease under consecutive monoculture. The root-associated microbiome, also known as the second genome of the plant, was investigated to understand its impact on plant health. Culture-dependent and culture-independent pyrosequencing analysis was applied to assess the shifts in soil bacterial communities in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane under consecutive monoculture. The results show that the root-associated microbiome (including rhizosphere and rhizoplane microbiomes was significantly impacted by rhizocompartments and consecutive monoculture. Consecutive monoculture of R. glutinosa led to a significant decline in the relative abundance of the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane. Furthermore, the families Flavobacteriaceae, Sphingomonadaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae enriched while Pseudomonadaceae, Bacillaceae, and Micrococcaceae decreased under consecutive monoculture. At the genus level, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Arthrobacter were prevalent in the newly planted soil, which decreased in consecutive monocultured soils. Besides, culture-dependent analysis confirmed the widespread presence of Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp. in newly planted soil and their strong antagonistic activities against fungal pathogens. In conclusion, R. glutinosa monoculture resulted in distinct root-associated microbiome variation with a reduction in the abundance of beneficial microbes, which might contribute to the declined soil suppressiveness to fungal pathogens in the monoculture regime.

  11. Biodegradation of insensitive munition formulations IMX101 and IMX104 in surface soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indest, Karl J; Hancock, Dawn E; Crocker, Fiona H; Eberly, Jed O; Jung, Carina M; Blakeney, Gary A; Brame, Jon; Chappell, Mark A

    2017-07-01

    The biodegradation potential of insensitive munition melt cast formulations IMX101 and IMX104 was investigated in two unamended training range soils under aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions. Changes in community profiles in soil microcosms were monitored via high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing over the course of the experiments to infer key microbial phylotypes that may be linked to IMX degradation. Complete anaerobic biotransformation occurred for IMX101 and IMX104 constituents 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one during the 30-day incubation period with Camp Shelby (CS) soil. By comparison, soil from Umatilla chemical depot demonstrated incomplete DNAN degradation with reduced transformation rates for both IMX101 and IMX104. Aerobic soil microcosms for both soils demonstrated reduced transformation rates compared to anaerobic degradation for all IMX constituents with DNAN the most susceptible to biotransformation by CS soil. Overall, IMX constituents hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and 1-nitroguanidine did not undergo significant transformation. In CS soil, organisms that have been associated with explosives degradation, namely members of the Burkholderiaceae, Bacillaceae, and Paenibacillaceae phylotypes increased significantly in anaerobic treatments whereas Sphingomonadaceae increased significantly in aerobic treatments. Collectively, these data may be used to populate fate and transport models to provide more accurate estimates for assessing environmental costs associated with release of IMX101 and IMX104.

  12. Recognition of greater diversity of Bacillus species and related bacteria in human faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyles, Lesley; Honda, Harue; Logan, Niall A; Halket, Gillian; La Ragione, Roberto M; McCartney, Anne L

    2012-01-01

    In a study looking at culturable aerobic Actinobacteria associated with the human gastrointestinal tract, the vast majority of isolates obtained from dried human faeces belonged to the genus Bacillus and related bacteria. A total of 124 isolates were recovered from the faeces of 10 healthy adult donors. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed the majority belonged to the families Bacillaceae (n=81) and Paenibacillaceae (n=3), with Bacillus species isolated from all donors. Isolates tentatively identified as Bacillus clausii (n=32) and Bacillus licheniformis (n=28) were recovered most frequently, with the genera Lysinibacillus, Ureibacillus, Oceanobacillus, Ornithinibacillus and Virgibacillus represented in some donors. Phenotypic data confirmed the identities of isolates belonging to well-characterized species. Representatives of the phylum Actinobacteria were recovered in much lower numbers (n=11). Many of the bacilli exhibited antimicrobial activity against one or more strains of Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, with some (n=12) found to have no detectable cytopathic effect on HEp-2 cells. This study has revealed greater diversity within gut-associated aerobic spore-formers than previous studies, and suggests that bacilli with potential as probiotics could be isolated from the human gut. Copyright © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbiota Dynamics and Diversity at Different Stages of Industrial Processing of Cocoa Beans into Cocoa Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lídia J. R.; van der Velpen, Vera; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith; Kamphuis, Henri J.; Nout, M. J. Rob

    2012-01-01

    We sampled a cocoa powder production line to investigate the impact of processing on the microbial community size and diversity at different stages. Classical microbiological methods were combined with 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, coupled with clone library construction, to analyze the samples. Aerobic thermoresistant spores (ThrS) (100°C; 10 min) were also isolated and characterized (identity, genetic diversity, and spore heat resistance), in view of their relevance to the quality of downstream heat-treated cocoa-flavored drinks. In the nibs (broken, shelled cocoa beans), average levels of total aerobic microorganisms (TAM) (4.4 to 5.6 log CFU/g) and aerobic total spores (TS) (80°C; 10 min; 4.3 to 5.5 log CFU/g) were significantly reduced (P cocoa samples revealed a predominance of members of the Bacillaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Enterococcaceae. Eleven species of ThrS were found, but Bacillus licheniformis and the Bacillus subtilis complex were prominent and revealed great genetic heterogeneity. We concluded that the microbiota of cocoa powder resulted from microorganisms that could have been initially present in the nibs, as well as microorganisms that originated during processing. B. subtilis complex members, particularly B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, formed the most heat-resistant spores. Their occurrence in cocoa powder needs to be considered to ensure the stability of derived products, such as ultrahigh-temperature-treated chocolate drinks. PMID:22327588

  14. pGIAK1, a heavy metal resistant plasmid from an obligate alkaliphilic and halotolerant bacterium isolated from the Antarctic Concordia station confined environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suxia Guo

    Full Text Available pGIAK1 is a 38-kb plasmid originating from the obligate alkaliphilic and halotolerant Bacillaceae strain JMAK1. The strain was originally isolated from the confined environments of the Antarctic Concordia station. Analysis of the pGIAK1 38,362-bp sequence revealed that, in addition to its replication region, this plasmid contains the genetic determinants for cadmium and arsenic resistances, putative methyltransferase, tyrosine recombinase, spore coat protein and potassium transport protein, as well as several hypothetical proteins. Cloning the pGIAK1 cad operon in Bacillus cereus H3081.97 and its ars operon in Bacillus subtilis 1A280 conferred to these hosts cadmium and arsenic resistances, respectively, therefore confirming their bona fide activities. The pGIAK1 replicon region was also shown to be functional in Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, but was only stably maintained in B. subtilis. Finally, using an Escherichia coli - B. thuringiensis shuttle BAC vector, pGIAK1 was shown to display conjugative properties since it was able to transfer the BAC plasmid among B. thuringiensis strains.

  15. Microbiota dynamics and diversity at different stages of industrial processing of cocoa beans into cocoa powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lídia J R; van der Velpen, Vera; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith; Kamphuis, Henri J; Zwietering, Marcel H; Nout, M J Rob

    2012-04-01

    We sampled a cocoa powder production line to investigate the impact of processing on the microbial community size and diversity at different stages. Classical microbiological methods were combined with 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, coupled with clone library construction, to analyze the samples. Aerobic thermoresistant spores (ThrS) (100°C; 10 min) were also isolated and characterized (identity, genetic diversity, and spore heat resistance), in view of their relevance to the quality of downstream heat-treated cocoa-flavored drinks. In the nibs (broken, shelled cocoa beans), average levels of total aerobic microorganisms (TAM) (4.4 to 5.6 log CFU/g) and aerobic total spores (TS) (80°C; 10 min; 4.3 to 5.5 log CFU/g) were significantly reduced (P cocoa samples revealed a predominance of members of the Bacillaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Enterococcaceae. Eleven species of ThrS were found, but Bacillus licheniformis and the Bacillus subtilis complex were prominent and revealed great genetic heterogeneity. We concluded that the microbiota of cocoa powder resulted from microorganisms that could have been initially present in the nibs, as well as microorganisms that originated during processing. B. subtilis complex members, particularly B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, formed the most heat-resistant spores. Their occurrence in cocoa powder needs to be considered to ensure the stability of derived products, such as ultrahigh-temperature-treated chocolate drinks.

  16. Microbial composition of the Korean traditional food "kochujang" analyzed by a massive sequencing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Young-Do; Park, So-lim; Lim, Seong-Il

    2012-04-01

    Kochujang is a traditional Korean fermented food that is made with red pepper, glutinous rice, salt, and soybean. Kochujang is fermented by naturally occurring microorganisms through which it obtains various health-promoting properties. In this study, the bacterial diversities of 9 local and 2 commercial brands of kochujang were analyzed with a barcoded pyrosequencing technique targeting the hyper-variable regions V1/V2 of the 16S rRNA gene. Through the analysis of 13524 bacterial pyrosequences, 223 bacterial species were identified, most of which converged on the phylum Firmicutes (average 93.1%). All of the kochujang samples were largely populated (>90.9% of abundance) by 12 bacterial families, and Bacillaceae showed the highest abundance in all but one sample. Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis were the most dominant bacterial species and were broadly distributed among the kochujang samples. Each sample contained a high abundance of region-specific bacterial species, such as B. sonorensis, B. pumilus, Weissella salipiscis, and diverse unidentified Bacillus species. Phylotype- and phylogeny-based community comparison analysis showed that the microbial communities of the two commercial brands were different from those of the local brands. Moreover, each local brand kochujang sample had region-specific microbial community reflecting the manufacturing environment. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Managing the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt corn and insecticide treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Juliano R; Costa, Ervandil C; Guedes, Jerson V C; Arbage, Alessandro P; Neto, Armando B; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F

    2013-01-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis.

  18. Isolation and characterization of microorganisms and volatiles associated with Moroccan saffron during different processing treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancello, Francesco; Petretto, Giacomo; Sanna, Maria Lina; Pintore, Giorgio; Lage, Mounira; Zara, Severino

    2018-05-20

    Saffron may be spoiled by a variety of microorganisms during cultivation, harvesting, and post harvesting. As saffron can be dried and stored in different ways, this preliminary study explored the natural microbiota present in Moroccan saffron when subjected to different drying techniques. An analysis of the carotenoid-derived volatiles present in the saffron was also carried out. The culturable microbiota of the saffron samples dried using different methods, namely in the shade (also called natural), in the sun, or in the oven, were studied using classical and molecular approaches. The effect of the drying methods on head-space chemical volatiles was also determined. Eighty-two isolates grown in the different culture media were chosen from the colonies, and genotype analysis grouped the microorganisms into 58 clusters, revealing a wide diversity. Out of the 82 isolates, 75 belonged to the Bacillaceae family. The other isolates were distributed within the Dietziaceae, Paenibacillaceae and Carnobacteriaceae families. The dominant species was Bacillus simplex, which was detected in all samples, regardless of the drying method used. Lysinibacillus macroides was dominant in the sun-dried saffron. No pathogens were isolated, but an isolate belonging to Dietzia maris, a potential human pathogenic species, was detected. The biodiversity indexes were linked to the drying method and generally decreased as the intensity of the treatment increased. The results of this preliminary work show that the different drying methods strongly influenced the microbiota and affect the saffron volatile profile. Further analysis will be needed to determine possible effects of selected microbiota on saffron volatiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Presence of quorum-sensing inhibitor-like compounds from bacteria isolated from the brown alga Colpomenia sinuosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagasabhapathy, M; Yamazaki, G; Ishida, A; Sasaki, H; Nagata, S

    2009-11-01

    Several Gram-negative bacterial species use N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) molecules as quorum-sensing (QS) signals to regulate various biological functions. Similarly, various bacteria can stimulate, inhibit or inactivate QS signals in other bacteria by producing molecules called as quorum-sensing inhibitors (QSI). Our aim was to screen and identify the epibiotic bacteria associated with brown algae for their ability of producing QS-inhibiting activity. QSI screenings were conducted on several epibiotic bacteria isolated from a marine brown alga Colpomenia sinuosa, using Serratia rubidaea JCM 14263 as an indicator organism. Strain JCM 14263 controls the production of red pigment, prodigiosin by AHL QS. Out of 96 bacteria, which were isolated from the surface of the brown alga, 12% of strains showed the ability to produce QSI, which was observed from the pigmentation inhibition on Ser. rubidaea JCM 14263 without affecting its growth. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequencing method demonstrated bacterial isolates showing QS inhibition-producing bacteria belonging to the Bacillaceae (Firmicutes), Pseudomonadaceae (Proteobacteria), Pseudoalteromonadaceae (Proteobacteria) and Vibrionaceae (Proteobacteria). An appreciable percentage of bacteria isolated from the brown alga produced QSI-like compounds. The screening method using Ser. rubidaea described in this report will facilitate the rapid identification of QSI-producing bacteria from marine environment. This study reveals new avenue for future environmental applications. This study also suggests that these algal epibiotic bacteria may play a role in the defensive mechanism for their host by producing QSI or QSI-like compounds to suppress the settlement of other competitive bacteria.

  20. Individual and Combined Effects of Bacillus Thuringiensis and Azadirachtin on Plodia Interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri-Ganbalani, Gadir; Borzoui, Ehsan; Abdolmaleki, Arman; Abedi, Zahra; George Kamita, Shizuo

    2016-01-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a major stored product pest that is found throughout the world. In this study, the effect of oral exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) subsp. kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) and azadirachtin was evaluated in third instar P. interpunctella under laboratory conditions. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of Bt and azadirachtin on third instars was 490 and 241 μg a.i./ml, respectively. The median lethal time (LT50) of these insecticides was the same (4.5 d following exposure to 750 or 400 μg a.i./ml of Bt or azadirachtin, respectively). When the larvae fed on diet containing LC30 concentrations of both Bt and azadirachtin an additive interaction in terms of mortality was found. A synergistic interaction was found when the larvae fed on diet containing LC50 concentrations of both insecticides. Larvae that fed on insecticide-containing diet (either Bt or azadirachtin at an LC30 concentration, or both insecticides at LC30 or LC50 concentrations) showed lower glycogen and lipid levels, and generally lower protein content in comparison to control larvae. Larvae that fed on diet containing both Bt and azadirachtin showed reduced weight gain and nutritional indices in comparison to control larvae or larvae fed on the diet containing only one of the insecticides. Finally, exposure to both insecticides, either individually or in combination, reduced the level of digestive enzymes found in the midgut. Our findings indicate that both Bt and azadirachtin, either individually or in combination have significant potential for use in controlling of P. interpunctella. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  1. The microbiota of eight species of dehydrated edible seaweeds from North West Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Olmo, Ana; Picon, Antonia; Nuñez, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    The microbiota of eight species (Chondrus crispus, Himanthalia elongata, Laminaria ochroleuca, Palmaria palmata, Porphyra umbilicalis, Saccharina latissima, Ulva lactuca and Undaria pinnatifida) of edible seaweeds collected in North West Spain, marketed as dehydrated product, was quantitatively determined on nine solid media. Representative colonies were selected from solid culture media. The isolated microorganisms were identified by means of morphological characteristics, 16S rDNA sequencing and biochemical tests. U. pinnatifida was the seaweed species showing the most abundant microbial population, with counts on Marine agar up to 7.7 log cfu/g in individual samples and 5.0 log cfu/g as the mean value, and counts of coliforms up to 4.6 log cfu/g in individual samples and 2.4 log cfu/g as the mean value. The 225 identified bacterial isolates belonged to 11 families, 27 genera and 56 species. Bacillaceae was the family accounting for the highest number of isolates (111) followed by Enterobacteriaceae (60), Bacillales Family XII Incertae Sedis (20), Planococcaceae (11), Moraxellaceae (7), Paenibacillaceae (5) and Pseudomonadaceae (5). Bacterial species showing the highest occurrence in dehydrated seaweeds were Bacillus megaterium, B. licheniformis, Pantoea sp. and termoresistant Pantoea sp. Four of the Bacillus species isolated from dehydrated seaweeds (B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus and B. subtilis) are among those containing strains considered to be foodborne pathogens and nine of the isolated non-Bacillales bacterial species have been reported to contain human opportunistic pathogenic strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Solidago canadensis invasion affects soil N-fixing bacterial communities in heterogeneous landscapes in urban ecosystems in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Jiang, Kun; Zhou, Jiawei; Wu, Bingde

    2018-03-12

    Soil nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities (SNB) can increase the level of available soil N via biological N-fixation to facilitate successful invasion of several invasive plant species (IPS). Meanwhile, landscape heterogeneity can greatly enhance regional invasibility and increase the chances of successful invasion of IPS. Thus, it is important to understand the soil micro-ecological mechanisms driving the successful invasion of IPS in heterogeneous landscapes. This study performed cross-site comparisons, via metagenomics, to comprehensively analyze the effects of Solidago canadensis invasion on SNB in heterogeneous landscapes in urban ecosystems. Rhizospheric soil samples of S. canadensis were obtained from nine urban ecosystems [Three replicate quadrats (including uninvaded sites and invaded sites) for each type of urban ecosystem]. S. canadensis invasion did not significantly affect soil physicochemical properties, the taxonomic diversity of plant communities, or the diversity and richness of SNB. However, some SNB taxa (i.e., f_Micromonosporaceae, f_Oscillatoriaceae, and f_Bacillaceae) changed significantly with S. canadensis invasion. Thus, S. canadensis invasion may alter the community structure, rather than the diversity and richness of SNB, to facilitate its invasion process. Of the nine urban ecosystems, the diversity and richness of SNB was highest in farmland wasteland. Accordingly, the community invasibility of farmland wasteland may be higher than that of the other types of urban ecosystem. In brief, landscape heterogeneity, rather than S. canadensis invasion, was the strongest controlling factor for the diversity and richness of SNB. One possible reason may be the differences in soil electrical conductivity and the taxonomic diversity of plant communities in the nine urban ecosystems, which can cause notable shifts in the diversity and richness of SNB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution of bacterial contamination in non-sterile pharmaceutical materials and assessment of its risk to the health of the final consumers quantitatively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Essam Eissa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial contamination control in pharmaceutical products is a critical aspect in the field of drug manufacturing industry due to the encountered risk to the patients' health and possibly their life. The application of commercial bacterial identification system is crucial to identify the type of contamination and its source to anticipate the impact of bioburden on the products and setting corrective and preventive actions. During the period of one year, random samples from raw materials and final products were tested according to United States Pharmacopeia, and those that showed suspect results for specified microorganisms and/or out-of-specification limits or showed out-of-trend results were subjected to further identification by using miniaturized biochemical identification system after performing Gram stain. From the total bacterial isolates of the investigated products, more than 60% were primarily belonging to Micrococcaceae 16.98% (empty hard gelatin capsules, Enterobacteriaceae 18.86% (vaginal cream applicator, plastic caps for bottles, Sorbitol solution, finished hard gelatin capsule product, topical cream and oral suspension and Bacillaceae 24.53% (Talc powder, liquid oral preparation and finished hard gelatin capsule product. Gram Positive and Negative samples were 56.60% and 41.51% respectively from the total investigated sample products and materials. Finished pharmaceutical products constituted 53.33% and 68.18% from Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms respectively. An approach to quantitative risk assessment for pharmaceutical products was conducted on selected medicinal items and showed that Enterobacteriaceae followed by Burkholderiaceae contributed by more than 80% to the major hazard that could be delivered to patients through drugs. The applied risk can be used as a milestone for setting goals by pharmaceutical companies to improve the safety of medicinal products microbiologically and to identify the major sources

  4. Complete genome sequence of the industrial bacterium Bacillus licheniformis and comparisons with closely related Bacillus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Michael W; Ramaiya, Preethi; Nelson, Beth A; Brody-Karpin, Shari D; Zaretsky, Elizabeth J; Tang, Maria; de Leon, Alfredo Lopez; Xiang, Henry; Gusti, Veronica; Clausen, Ib Groth; Olsen, Peter B; Rasmussen, Michael D; Andersen, Jens T; Jørgensen, Per L; Larsen, Thomas S; Sorokin, Alexei; Bolotin, Alexander; Lapidus, Alla; Galleron, Nathalie; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Berka, Randy M

    2004-01-01

    Background Bacillus licheniformis is a Gram-positive, spore-forming soil bacterium that is used in the biotechnology industry to manufacture enzymes, antibiotics, biochemicals and consumer products. This species is closely related to the well studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, and produces an assortment of extracellular enzymes that may contribute to nutrient cycling in nature. Results We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 genome which comprises a circular chromosome of 4,222,336 base-pairs (bp) containing 4,208 predicted protein-coding genes with an average size of 873 bp, seven rRNA operons, and 72 tRNA genes. The B. licheniformis chromosome contains large regions that are colinear with the genomes of B. subtilis and Bacillus halodurans, and approximately 80% of the predicted B. licheniformis coding sequences have B. subtilis orthologs. Conclusions Despite the unmistakable organizational similarities between the B. licheniformis and B. subtilis genomes, there are notable differences in the numbers and locations of prophages, transposable elements and a number of extracellular enzymes and secondary metabolic pathway operons that distinguish these species. Differences include a region of more than 80 kilobases (kb) that comprises a cluster of polyketide synthase genes and a second operon of 38 kb encoding plipastatin synthase enzymes that are absent in the B. licheniformis genome. The availability of a completed genome sequence for B. licheniformis should facilitate the design and construction of improved industrial strains and allow for comparative genomics and evolutionary studies within this group of Bacillaceae. PMID:15461803

  5. A novel poly (L-lactide) degrading actinomycetes isolated from Thai forest soil, phylogenic relationship and the enzyme characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkhum, Sukhumaporn; Tokuyama, Shinji; Tamura, Tomohiko; Kitpreechavanich, Vichien

    2009-12-01

    Thirteen poly (L-lactide)-degrading microorganisms were isolated and selected based on their ability of clear zone formation on an emulsified PLA agar plate and the enzyme activity in culture broth. According to phenotypic properties and 16S rRNA gene sequence, these strains were classified to various families such as Thermomonosporaceae, Micromonosporaceae, Streptosporangiaceae, Bacillaceae and Thermoactinomycetaceae. Strain T16-1, identified as Actinomadura sp., demonstrated the highest PLA-degrading activity in the liquid culture using PLA film as a carbon source. A PLA-degrading enzyme produced by the strain was purified to homogeneity shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with specific activity of 38.3 unit/mg protein. The optimum pH and temperature were 10.0 and 70 masculineC, respectively, which are higher than previously reported among PLA-degrading enzyme. The enzyme was stable at pH 11-12. However, the enzyme activity remained at 70% when kept at 70 masculineC for 1 h. The molecular weight of purified PLA-degrading enzyme from the strain T16-1 was 30 kDa. The purified enzyme was inhibited by 5 mM EDTA and 5 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and diisopropyl fluorophosphates, strongly hydrolyzed Suc-(Ala)(3)-pNA, gelatin and PLA, but showed low activity on casein. The results indicated the PLA-degrading enzyme produced by the strain Actinomadura sp. T16-1 should be classified as serine protease.

  6. Comparison of bacterial communities in leachate from decomposing bovine carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hak Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Burial is associated with environmental effects such as the contamination of ground or surface water with biological materials generated during the decomposition process. Therefore, bacterial communities in leachates originating from the decomposing bovine carcasses were investigated. Methods To understand the process of bovine (Hanwoo carcass decomposition, we simulated burial using a lab-scale reactor with a volume of 5.15 m3. Leachate samples from 3 carcasses were collected using a peristaltic pump once a month for a period of 5 months, and bacterial communities in samples were identified by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Results We obtained a total of 110,442 reads from the triplicate samples of various sampling time points (total of 15 samples, and found that the phylum Firmicutes was dominant at most sampling times. Differences in the bacterial communities at the various time points were observed among the triplicate samples. The bacterial communities sampled at 4 months showed the most different compositions. The genera Pseudomonas and Psychrobacter in the phylum Proteobacteria were dominant in all of the samples obtained after 3 months. Bacillaceae, Clostridium, and Clostridiales were found to be predominant after 4 months in the leachate from one carcass, whereas Planococcaceae was found to be a dominant in samples obtained at the first and second months from the other two carcasses. The results showed that potentially pathogenic microbes such as Clostridium derived from bovine leachate could dominate the soil environment of a burial site. Conclusion Our results indicated that the composition of bacterial communities in leachates of a decomposing bovine shifted continuously during the experimental period, with significant changes detected after 4 months of burial.

  7. Density Dependence and Growth Rate: Evolutionary Effects on Resistance Development to Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jeannette C; Caprio, Michael A; Friedenberg, Nicholas A

    2018-02-09

    It has long been recognized that pest population dynamics can affect the durability of a pesticide, but dose remains the primary component of insect resistance management (IRM). For transgenic pesticidal traits such as Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae)), dose (measured as the mortality of susceptibles caused by a toxin) is a relatively fixed characteristic and often falls below the standard definition of high dose. Hence, it is important to understand how pest population dynamics modify durability and what targets they present for IRM. We used a deterministic model of a generic arthropod pest to examine how timing and strength of density dependence interacted with population growth rate and Bt mortality to affect time to resistance. As in previous studies, durability typically reached a minimum at intermediate doses. However, high population growth rates could eliminate benefits of high dose. The timing of density dependence had a more subtle effect. If density dependence operated simultaneously with Bt mortality, durability was insensitive to its strengths. However, if density dependence was driven by postselection densities, decreasing its strength could increase durability. The strength of density dependence could affect durability of both single traits and pyramids, but its influence depended on the timing of density dependence and size of the refuge. Our findings suggest the utility of a broader definition of high dose, one that incorporates population-dynamic context. That maximum growth rates and timing and strength of interactions causing density dependent mortality can all affect durability, also highlights the need for ecologically integrated approaches to IRM research. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Analysis of anoxybacillus genomes from the aspects of lifestyle adaptations, prophage diversity, and carbohydrate metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kian Mau Goh

    Full Text Available Species of Anoxybacillus are widespread in geothermal springs, manure, and milk-processing plants. The genus is composed of 22 species and two subspecies, but the relationship between its lifestyle and genome is little understood. In this study, two high-quality draft genomes were generated from Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1, isolated from Malaysian hot springs. De novo assembly and annotation were performed, followed by comparative genome analysis with the complete genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus WK1 and two additional draft genomes, of A. flavithermus TNO-09.006 and A. kamchatkensis G10. The genomes of Anoxybacillus spp. are among the smaller of the family Bacillaceae. Despite having smaller genomes, their essential genes related to lifestyle adaptations at elevated temperature, extreme pH, and protection against ultraviolet are complete. Due to the presence of various competence proteins, Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1 are able to take up foreign DNA fragments, and some of these transferred genes are important for the survival of the cells. The analysis of intact putative prophage genomes shows that they are highly diversified. Based on the genome analysis using SEED, many of the annotated sequences are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. The presence of glycosyl hydrolases among the Anoxybacillus spp. was compared, and the potential applications of these unexplored enzymes are suggested here. This is the first study that compares Anoxybacillus genomes from the aspect of lifestyle adaptations, the capacity for horizontal gene transfer, and carbohydrate metabolism.

  9. Thermophile-fermented compost as a fish feed additive modulates lipid peroxidation and free amino acid contents in the muscle of the carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryusuke; Miyamoto, Hirokuni; Inoue, Shin-Ichi; Shigeta, Kazuhiro; Kondo, Masakazu; Ito, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Matsushita, Teruo

    2016-05-01

    Recently, a compost fermented with marine animals with thermophilic Bacillaceae in a clean and exclusive process at high temperature was reported as a possible feed additive to improve the healthy balance in sea fish and mammals (i.e., pigs and rodents). Here, the effects of the oral administration of the compost on the muscle and internal organs of carp (Cyprinus carpio) as a freshwater fish model were investigated. The fatty acid composition was different in the muscle of the carp fed with or without the compost extract, but there was little difference in the hepatopancreas. The accumulation of triacylglycerols, cholesterol, lipid peroxide and hydroxyl lipids decreased in the muscle after the oral administration of the compost extract in the carps over 12 weeks, but the accumulation did not always decrease in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, free-radical-scavenging activities and the concentrations of free amino acids in the muscle did not always increase and was dependent on the dose of the compost at 12 weeks. The scavenging activities and part of free amino acid levels in the muscle of the carp were improved at 24 weeks after a high dose of compost exposure, and then the survival rates of the carp were maintained. Thus, the oral administration of thermophile-fermented compost can prevent peroxidation and increase the content of free amino acids in the muscle of the freshwater fish, depending on the dose and term of the administration, and may be associated with the viability of the fish. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Diversity of bacterial communities in the midgut of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations and their potential use as attractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadapad, Ashok B; Prabhakar, Chandra S; Chandekar, Snehal C; Tripathi, Jyoti; Hire, Ramesh S

    2016-06-01

    The microbiota plays an important role in insect development and fitness. Understanding the gut microbiota composition is essential for the development of pest management strategies. Midgut bacteria were isolated from nine wild B. cucurbitae populations collected from different agroecological zones of India. These isolates were further studied for attractant potential of fruit fly adults, and the chemical constituents in the supernatants of gut bacteria were analysed. Twenty-six bacterial isolates belonging to the families Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillaceae, Micrococcaceae and Staphylococcaceae were isolated and identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The dominant species in the midgut of melon fly were from the genera Enterobacter (34.6%), Klebsiella (19.2%), Citrobacter (7.7%), Bacillus (15.4%) and Providencia (7.7%), and 3.8% each of Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Leclercia and Exiguobacterium. Bactrocera cucurbitae and B. dorsalis adults were significantly attracted to bacterial whole cell cultures and their supernatants in the fruit fly attraction bioassays. Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Providencia species attracted both male and females of Bactrocera species. The supernatants of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Providencia species attracted a significantly greater number of females than males. The most abundant chemical constituents in supernatants of K. oxytoca and C. freundii were 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol, butyl isocyanatoacetate, 2-methyl-1-propanol and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, as identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The bacterial endosymbionts associated with melon fly exhibited attractant potential which could facilitate eco-friendly insect control strategies. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. pH and Organic Carbon Dose Rates Control Microbially Driven Bioremediation Efficacy in Alkaline Bauxite Residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Talitha C; Malcolm, Laura I; Tyson, Gene W; Warren, Lesley A

    2016-10-18

    Bioremediation of alkaline tailings, based on fermentative microbial metabolisms, is a novel strategy for achieving rapid pH neutralization and thus improving environmental outcomes associated with mining and refining activities. Laboratory-scale bioreactors containing bauxite residue (an alkaline, saline tailings material generated as a byproduct of alumina refining), to which a diverse microbial inoculum was added, were used in this study to identify key factors (pH, salinity, organic carbon supply) controlling the rates and extent of microbially driven pH neutralization (bioremediation) in alkaline tailings. Initial tailings pH and organic carbon dose rates both significantly affected bioremediation extent and efficiency with lower minimum pHs and higher extents of pH neutralization occurring under low initial pH or high organic carbon conditions. Rates of pH neutralization (up to 0.13 mM H + produced per day with pH decreasing from 9.5 to ≤6.5 in three days) were significantly higher in low initial pH treatments. Representatives of the Bacillaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, which contain many known facultative anaerobes and fermenters, were identified as key contributors to 2,3-butanediol and/or mixed acid fermentation as the major mechanism(s) of pH neutralization. Initial pH and salinity significantly influenced microbial community successional trajectories, and microbial community structure was significantly related to markers of fermentation activity. This study provides the first experimental demonstration of bioremediation in bauxite residue, identifying pH and organic carbon dose rates as key controls on bioremediation efficacy, and will enable future development of bioreactor technologies at full field scale.

  12. Triplex PCR-based detection of enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 in nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracias, Kiev S; McKillip, John L

    2011-04-01

    Although many strains of Bacillaceae are considered nonpathogenic, Bacillus cereus is recognized worldwide as a bacterial pathogen in a variety of foods. The ability of B. cereus to cause gastroenteritis following ingestion of contaminated food is due to the production of enterotoxins. The ubiquity of this genus makes it a persistent problem for quality assurance in food processing environments. The primary objective of this study was to develop and apply a multiplex real-time PCR-based assay for rapid and sensitive detection of enterotoxigenic B. cereus. Template DNA was separately extracted from tryptic soy broth (TSB)-grown and 2.5% Nonfat Dry Milk (NFDM)-grown B. cereus using a commercial system. Three enterotoxin gene fragments (hblC, nheA, and hblA) were simultaneously amplified in real-time followed by melting curve analysis to confirm amplicon identity. Resolution of melting curves (characteristic T(m)) was achieved for each amplicon (hblC = 74.5 °C; nheA = 78 °C; and hblA = 85.5 °C in TSB and 84 °C in NFDM) with an assay sensitivities of 10(1) CFU/ml for both TSB and NFDM-grown B. cereus compared to 10(4) CFU/ml in either matrix using gel electrophoresis. The results demonstrate the potential sensitivity of real-time bacterial detection methods in a heterogenous food matrix using real-time PCR. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Effects of zinc-methionine on growth performance, intestinal flora and immune function in pigeon squabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Yi, L; Zhao, M L; Wu, J Q; Wang, M Y; Cheng, X C

    2014-01-01

    1. Different concentrations of zinc-methionine (Zn-Met) were given to pigeon squabs, and the resulting effects on growth, immune functions and intestinal microflora were investigated from hatching to 28 d of age. A total of 180 artificially hatched pigeon squabs were randomly allotted to each of three treatments with three replicates of 20 squabs. The three treatments given were either one ml (2 mg/ml) Zn-Met, one ml (10 mg/ml) Zn-Met or one ml 0.9% NaCl solution. 2. The results showed that Zn-Met improved the growth performance of squabs. The average daily and average weekly weight gain was significantly greater in squabs treated with Zn-Met than in the control group. 3. The group given 2 and 10 mg supplemental Zn-Met had heavier thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius than the control group at d 28. 4. Maternal antibody titres against Newcastle disease haemagglutination inhibition and alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase were significantly higher in squabs treated with supplemental 2 and 10 mg Zn-Met compared to the control group at d 14 and d 28. 5. Additionally, the squabs given supplemental 2 mg Zn-Met exhibited significantly higher Bacillaceae, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Bifidobacterium populations at d 14 and d 28, but lower Escherichia coli populations at d 28 compared to the control group. On the contrary, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Bifidobacterium populations were significantly decreased with 10 mg Zn-Met at d 28. 6. This study indicates that supplementation with Zn-Met has a positive effect on growth performance, immune function and regulation of intestinal flora in pigeons. An inclusion level of 2 mg seems to be better than 10 mg Zn-Met per day per bird.

  14. Abundance, viability and diversity of the indigenous microbial populations at different depths of the NEEM Greenland ice core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanya Miteva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2537-m-deep North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM core provided a first-time opportunity to perform extensive microbiological analyses on selected, recently drilled ice core samples representing different depths, ages, ice structures, deposition climates and ionic compositions. Here, we applied cultivation, small subunit (SSU rRNA gene clone library construction and Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS targeting the V4–V5 region, to examine the microbial abundance, viability and diversity in five decontaminated NEEM samples from selected depths (101.2, 633.05, 643.5, 1729.75 and 2051.5 m deposited 300–80 000 years ago. These comparisons of the indigenous glacial microbial populations in the ice samples detected significant spatial and temporal variations. Major findings include: (a different phylogenetic diversity of isolates, dominated by Actinobacteria and fungi, compared to the culture-independent diversity, in which Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were more frequent; (b cultivation of a novel alphaproteobacterium; (c dominance of Cyanobacteria among the SSU rRNA gene clones from the 1729.75-m ice; (d identification of Archaea by NGS that are rarely detected in glacial ice; (e detection of one or two dominant but different genera among the NGS sequences from each sample; (f finding dominance of Planococcaceae over Bacillaceae among Firmicutes in the brittle and the 2051.5-m ice. The overall beta diversity between the studied ice core samples examined at the phylum/class level for each approach showed that the population structure of the brittle ice was significantly different from the two deep clathrated ice samples and the shallow ice core.

  15. Isolation and characterisation of aerobic endospore forming Bacilli from sugarcane rhizosphere for the selection of strains with agriculture potentialities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Milagros Orberá Ratón, Teresa; Yano, Ricardo; Rodríguez Gámez, Odalys; Floh, Eny Iochevet Segal; de Jesús Serrat Díaz, Manuel; Barbosa, Heloíza Ramos

    2012-04-01

    Eighteen aerobic endospore forming strains were isolated from sugarcane rhizosphere in N-free medium. A phenotypic description and analysis of the 5' end hypervariable region sequences of 16S rRNA revealed a high diversity of Bacillus and related genera. Isolates were identified, and four genera were obtained: seven strains belonged to Bacillus (Bacillaceae family), four belonged to Paenibacillus, six belonged to Brevibacillus and one strain was identified as Cohnella (Paenibacillaceae family). Four Brevibacillus strains showed in vitro inhibitory activity against plant pathogens fungi Curvularia and Fusarium. Seventy-four percent of the isolated bacteria grew on pectin as the only carbon source, showing polygalacturonase activity. Pectate lyase activity was detected for the first time in a Brevibacillus genus strain. All isolates showed endoglucanase activity. Calcium phosphate solubilisation was positive in 83.3% of the isolates, with higher values than those reported for Bacillus inorganic phosphate solubilising strains. High ethylene plant hormone secretion in the culture medium was detected in 22% of the bacteria. This is the first report of ethylene secretion in Paenibacillaceae isolates. Indole-3-acetic acid production was found in a Brevibacillus genus isolate. It was reported for the first time the presence of Cohnella genus strain on sugarcane rhizosphere bearing plant growth promoting traits. The sugarcane isolate Brevibacillus B65 was identified as a plant growth inoculant because it showed wider spectra of plant stimulation capabilities, including an antifungal effect, extracellular hydrolases secretion, inorganic phosphate solubilisation and plant hormone liberation. In this work, sugarcane was shown to be a suitable niche for finding aerobic endospore forming 'Bacilli' with agriculture biotechnological purposes.

  16. Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation carried out in a novel-design stainless steel tank: influence on the dynamics of microbial populations and physical-chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius; Magalhães, Karina Teixeira; de Almeida, Euziclei Gonzaga; da Silva Coelho, Irene; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out in a novel-design 40-kg-capacity stainless steel tank (SST) was studied in parallel to traditional Brazilian methods of fermentation in wooden boxes (40-kg-capacity wooden boxes (WB1) and 600-kg-capacity wooden boxes (WB2)) using a multiphasic approach that entailed culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa bean pulp samples and target metabolite analyses of both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both microbiological approaches revealed that the dominant species of major physiological roles were the same for fermentations in SST, relative to boxes. These species consisted of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora sp. in the yeast group; Lactobacillus fermentum and L. plantarum in the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group; Acetobacter tropicalis belonging to the acetic acid bacteria (AAB) group; and Bacillus subtilis in the Bacillaceae family. A greater diversity of bacteria and non-Saccharomyces yeasts was observed in box fermentations. Additionally, a potentially novel AAB belonging to the genus Asaia was isolated during fermentation in WB1. Cluster analysis of the rRNA genes-PCR-DGGE profiles revealed a more complex picture of the box samples, indicating that bacterial and yeast ecology were fermentation-specific processes (wooden boxes vs. SST). The profile of carbohydrate consumption and fermentation products in the pulp and beans showed similar trends during both fermentation processes. However, the yeast-AAB-mediated conversion of carbohydrates into ethanol, and subsequent conversion of ethanol into acetic acid, was achieved with greater efficiency in SST, while temperatures were generally higher during fermentation in wooden boxes. With further refinements, the SST model may be useful in designing novel bioreactors for the optimisation of cocoa fermentation with starter cultures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lentibacillus garicola sp. nov., isolated from myeolchi-aekjeot, a Korean fermented anchovy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo Yong; Lee, Se Hee; Jin, Hyun Mi; Jeon, Che Ok

    2015-06-01

    A Gram-stain positive, aerobic and moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain SL-MJ1(T), was isolated from myeolchi-aekjeot, a Korean traditionally fermented anchovy sauce. Cells were observed to be non-spore-forming rods showing oxidase-negative and catalase-positive reactions. Growth of strain SL-MJ1(T) was observed at 15-40 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and pH 6.5-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0-20 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 6 %). Chemotaxonomic data (major isoprenoid quinone: menaquinone-7; DNA G + C content: 42.8 mol%; cell wall type: meso-diaminopimelic acid; major fatty acids: anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0 and iso-C16:0) support the affiliation of the isolate to the genus Lentibacillus. Phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospholipid were identified as the major cellular polar lipids. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain SL-MJ1(T) is most closely related to Lentibacillus juripiscarius IS40-3(T) with a 95.3 % similarity. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences also support the conclusion that strain SL-MJ1(T) forms a phylogenetic lineage with members of the genus Lentibacillus within the family Bacillaceae. Given its phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features, we conclude that strain SL-MJ1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Lentibacillus, for which the name Lentibacillus garicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SL-MJ1(T) (=KACC 18130(T) = JCM 30131(T)).

  18. Lentibacillus alimentarius sp. nov., isolated from Myeolchi-jeotgal, a traditional Korean high-salt fermented anchovy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Aravind; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lee, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2018-02-03

    A Gram-positive, motile, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain M2024 T , was isolated from Myeolchi-jeotgal, a traditional Korean high-salt fermented anchovy and was characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain M2024 T belongs to the genus Lentibacillus in the family Bacillaceae of the Firmicutes. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain M2024 T is closely related to Lentibacillus populi WD4L-1 T (95.5%), Lentibacillus garicola SL-MJ1 T (95.2%) and Virgibacillus siamensis MS3-4 T (95.1%). The chemotaxonomic properties of strain M2024 T are consistent with those of members of the genus Lentibacillus: the quinone system has MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and anteiso-C 15:0 and anteiso-C 17:0 are the predominant cellular fatty acids. The major polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 36.2 mol%. Differential phenotypic properties compared with closely related type strains support the conclusion that strain M2024 T can be separated from previously described members of the genus Lentibacillus. The strain thus represents a novel species in this genus, for which the name Lentibacillus alimentarius sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M2024 T (= KEMB 9001-124 T  = JCM 16521 T ).

  19. Virgibacillus jeotgali sp. nov., isolated from Myeolchi-jeotgal, a traditional Korean high-salt-fermented anchovy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Aravind; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lee, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2016-10-24

    A Gram-staining-positive, motile, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium designated as NS3012T, was isolated from Myeolchi-jeotgal, a traditional Korean high-salt-fermented anchovy and was characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain NS3012T belongs to genus Virgibacillus in the family Bacillaceae of the Firmicutes. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain NS3012T closely related to Virgibacillus halotolerans WS-4627T (98.1 %) and Virgibacillus oceani MY11T (96.6 %) and Virgibacillus byunsanensis ISL-24T (96.5 %). The chemotaxonomic properties of strain NS3012T were consistent with those of the genus Virgibacillus: the quinone system with MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso C17:0 as the major cellular fatty acids; the cell-wall peptidoglycan type was based on meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major polar lipid is diphosphatidylglycerol. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.8 mol %. On the basis of phylogenetic inference, chemotaxonomic and other phenotypic properties, strain NS3012T is clearly differentiated from closely related species, showed the evidence that is separated from previously described members of the genus Virgibacillus and represents a novel species in this genus, for which the name Virgibacillus jeotgali sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NS3012T (=KEMB 9001-125T = JCM 16522T).

  20. A Green Microbial Fuel Cell-Based Biosensor for In Situ Chromium (VI) Measurement in Electroplating Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Chun; Tsai, Teh-Hua; Liu, Man-Hai; Kuo, Jui-Ling; Chang, Yung-Chu; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2017-10-27

    The extensive use of Cr(VI) in many industries and the disposal of Cr(VI)-containing wastes have resulted in Cr(VI)-induced environmental contamination. Cr(VI) compounds are associated with increased cancer risks; hence, the detection of toxic Cr(VI) compounds is crucial. Various methods have been developed for Cr(VI) measurement, but they are often conducted offsite and cannot provide real-time toxicity monitoring. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an eco-friendly and self-sustaining device that has great potential as a biosensor for in situ Cr(VI) measurement, especially for wastewater generated from different electroplating units. In this study, Exiguobacterium aestuarii YC211, a facultatively anaerobic, Cr(VI)-reducing, salt-tolerant, and exoelectrogenic bacterium, was isolated and inoculated into an MFC to evaluate its feasibility as a Cr(VI) biosensor. The Cr(VI) removal efficiency of E. aestuarii YC211 was not affected by the surrounding environment (pH 5-9, 20-35 °C, coexisting ions, and salinity of 0-15 g/L). The maximum power density of the MFC biosensor was 98.3 ± 1.5 mW/m² at 1500 Ω. A good linear relationship ( r ² = 0.997) was observed between the Cr(VI) concentration (2.5-60 mg/L) and the voltage output. The developed MFC biosensor is a simple device that can accurately measure Cr(VI) concentrations in the actual electroplating wastewater that is generated from different electroplating units within 30 min with low deviations (-6.1% to 2.2%). After treating the actual electroplating wastewater with the MFC, the predominant family in the biofilm was found to be Bacillaceae (95.3%) and was further identified as the originally inoculated E. aestuarii YC211 by next generation sequencing (NGS). Thus, the MFC biosensor can measure Cr(VI) concentrations in situ in the effluents from different electroplating units, and it can potentially help in preventing the violation of effluent regulations.

  1. Metal and antibiotic resistance exhibiting bacilli capable of degrading diphenylamin, phenolphthaline and titriplex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqbool, A.; Sabri, A.N.; Hussain, S.

    2006-01-01

    Nineteen gram variable strains (SA I, SA/sub 2/, SA/sub 3/, SA/sub 4/, SB/sub 1/SB/sub 2/, SB/sub 3/, SB/sub 4/, SB/sub 5/ SB/sub 6/, SB/sub 7/, E, C, G, I, J, K, O) and one gram positive bacterial strain (SB/sub 8/) were isolated from oil waste of petrol pump of PSO (Wahdat Rood) near Punjab University, new Campus, Lahore. All strains had common characters with bacillaceae. Biodegradability to hydrocarbons was demonstrated by using selective plate technique. Non of the isolate was found to utilize benzene, xylene, toluene as carbon source, while strain G, K and M could metabolize diphenylamine upto concentration 75 micro g ml/sup 1/. SB/sub 1/, SB/sub 2/ SB/sub 8/, could metabolize phenolphthalein upto 500 micro g ml/sup 1/ SA/sub 4/, SB/sub 6/, SB/sub 7/ could metabolize titriplex upto 500 micro g ml/sup -1. All isolates confer resistance to salt of Ni/sup +2/. Co/sub +2/ Zn/sup +2/ (except SA3, SB/sub 5/, G, O, M). Cr/sup +3/ (except Sb/sub 2/, O), Mn/sup +2/ (except I, O, M), Cu/sup +2/ (except G, I, O), Pb/sup +2/ (except SA/sub 2/, SA/sub 3/, SA/sub 4/ SB/sub 4/, SB/sub 5/,). The only strain C could tolerate salt of Cd/sup +2/ in the medium. Bacterial strains SA/sup 1/ SA/sub 3/ SB/sub 4/, SB/sub 5/, SB/sub 6/, SB/sub 7/, G and I confer resistance to erythromycin, SB/sub 8/, K, M to ampicilline, SA/sub 1/, SA/sub 4/, SB/sub 4/,SB/sub 5/, SB/sub 6/, SB/sub 7/, C, G, J, O to tetracycline SB/sub 6/, SB/sub 7/, E, C, G, I, J, K, to peniciline, G and M to streptomycin SA/sub 1/, SA/sub 4/, SB/sub 2/, SB/sub 4/, SB/sub 6/, SB/sub 7/, E, K to cefaradoxil, SB/sup 1/, I, J and O to cyrofioxacin. All isolates (except SA/sub 3/, E,C,G,O,M) harbor plasmids. Only SB/sub 1/, SB/sub 3/, SB/sub 4/, showed positive result for conjugation. (author)

  2. Effect of the pollution level on the functional bacterial groups aiming at degrading bisphenol A and nonylphenol in natural biofilms of an urban river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Li, Yi; Wang, Peifang; Niu, Lihua; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) are ubiquitous pollutants with estrogenic activity in aquatic environment and have attracted global concern due to their disruption of endocrine systems. This study investigated the spatial distribution characteristics of the bacterial groups involved in the degradation of BPA and NP within biofilms in an urban river using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The effects of the pollution level and water parameters on these groups were also assessed. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped the sampling sites into three clusters reflecting their varying nutrient pollution levels of relatively slight pollution (SP), moderate pollution (MP), and high pollution (HP) based on water quality data and Environmental Quality Standard for Surface Water of China (GB3838-2002). The BPA and NP concentration in river water ranged from 0.8 to 77.5 and 10.2 to 162.9 ng L(-1), respectively. Comamonadaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Bacillaceae, Sphingomonadacea, Burkholderiaceae, and Rhizobiaceae were the dominant bacterial taxa involved in BPA and NP degradation, comprising an average of 9.8, 8.1, 7.6, 6.7, 6.2, 4.1, and 2.8 % of total sequences, respectively. The total abundance of these groups showed a slight upward trend and subsequently rapidly decreased with increasing pollution levels. The average proportion of Comamonadaceae in MP river sections was almost 1.5-2 times than that in SP or HP one. The distribution of functional groups was found related to environmental variables, especially pH, conductivity, ammonium nitrogen (NH3-N), and BPA. The abundance of Comamonadaceae and Rhizobiaceae was both closely related to higher values of pH and conductivity as well as lower concentrations of NP and BPA. Alcaligenaceae and Pseudomonadaceae were associated with higher concentrations of TP and CODMn and inversely correlated with DO concentration. This study might provide effective data on

  3. Medicago truncatula Gaertn. as a model for understanding the mechanism of growth promotion by bacteria from rhizosphere and nodules of alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Anna; Kępczyńska, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    The present study showed all the 16 strains isolated and identified from the alfalfa rhizosphere and nodules, and registered in GenBank, to be good candidates for targeted use in studies addressing the rather weak known mechanism of plant growth promotion, including that of Medicago truncatula, a molecular crop model. Based on physiological, biochemical and molecular analysis, the 16 isolates obtained were ascribed to the following five families: Bacillaceae, Rhizobiaceae, Xantomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae, within which 9 genera and 16 species were identified. All these bacteria were found to significantly enhance fresh and dry weight of root, shoots and whole 5-week-old seedlings. The bacteria were capable of the in vitro use of tryptophan to produce indolic compounds at various concentrations. The ability of almost all the strains to enhance growth of seedlings and individual roots was positively correlated with the production of the indolic compounds (r = 0.69; P = 0.0001), but not with the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD) activity (no correlation). For some strains, it was difficult to conclude whether the growth promotion was related to the production of indolic compounds or to the ACCD activity. It is likely that promotion of M. truncatula root development involves also root interaction with pseudomonads, known to produce 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), a secondary metabolite reported to alter the root architecture by interacting with an auxin-dependent signaling pathway. Inoculation of seedlings with Pseudomonas brassicacearum KK 5, a bacterium known for its lowest ability to produce indolic compounds, the highest ACCD activity and the presence of the phlD gene responsible for DAPG precursor synthesis, resulted in a substantial promotion of root development. Inoculation with the strain increased the endogenous IAA level in M. truncatula leaves after inoculation of 5-week-old seedlings. Three other strains examined

  4. Microbial succession in an inflated lunar/Mars analog habitat during a 30-day human occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Teresa; Blachowicz, Adriana; Probst, Alexander J; Vaishampayan, Parag; Checinska, Aleksandra; Swarmer, Tiffany; de Leon, Pablo; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2016-06-02

    For potential future human missions to the Moon or Mars and sustained presence in the International Space Station, a safe enclosed habitat environment for astronauts is required. Potential microbial contamination of closed habitats presents a risk for crewmembers due to reduced human immune response during long-term confinement. To make future habitat designs safer for crewmembers, lessons learned from characterizing analogous habitats is very critical. One of the key issues is that how human presence influences the accumulation of microorganisms in the closed habitat. Molecular technologies, along with traditional microbiological methods, were utilized to catalog microbial succession during a 30-day human occupation of a simulated inflatable lunar/Mars habitat. Surface samples were collected at different time points to capture the complete spectrum of viable and potential opportunistic pathogenic bacterial population. Traditional cultivation, propidium monoazide (PMA)-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assays were employed to estimate the cultivable, viable, and metabolically active microbial population, respectively. Next-generation sequencing was used to elucidate the microbial dynamics and community profiles at different locations of the habitat during varying time points. Statistical analyses confirm that occupation time has a strong influence on bacterial community profiles. The Day 0 samples (before human occupation) have a very different microbial diversity compared to the later three time points. Members of Proteobacteria (esp. Oxalobacteraceae and Caulobacteraceae) and Firmicutes (esp. Bacillaceae) were most abundant before human occupation (Day 0), while other members of Firmicutes (Clostridiales) and Actinobacteria (esp. Corynebacteriaceae) were abundant during the 30-day occupation. Treatment of samples with PMA (a DNA-intercalating dye for selective detection of viable microbial population) had a

  5. A Green Microbial Fuel Cell-Based Biosensor for In Situ Chromium (VI Measurement in Electroplating Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chun Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of Cr(VI in many industries and the disposal of Cr(VI-containing wastes have resulted in Cr(VI-induced environmental contamination. Cr(VI compounds are associated with increased cancer risks; hence, the detection of toxic Cr(VI compounds is crucial. Various methods have been developed for Cr(VI measurement, but they are often conducted offsite and cannot provide real-time toxicity monitoring. A microbial fuel cell (MFC is an eco-friendly and self-sustaining device that has great potential as a biosensor for in situ Cr(VI measurement, especially for wastewater generated from different electroplating units. In this study, Exiguobacterium aestuarii YC211, a facultatively anaerobic, Cr(VI-reducing, salt-tolerant, and exoelectrogenic bacterium, was isolated and inoculated into an MFC to evaluate its feasibility as a Cr(VI biosensor. The Cr(VI removal efficiency of E. aestuarii YC211 was not affected by the surrounding environment (pH 5–9, 20–35 °C, coexisting ions, and salinity of 0–15 g/L. The maximum power density of the MFC biosensor was 98.3 ± 1.5 mW/m2 at 1500 Ω. A good linear relationship (r2 = 0.997 was observed between the Cr(VI concentration (2.5–60 mg/L and the voltage output. The developed MFC biosensor is a simple device that can accurately measure Cr(VI concentrations in the actual electroplating wastewater that is generated from different electroplating units within 30 min with low deviations (−6.1% to 2.2%. After treating the actual electroplating wastewater with the MFC, the predominant family in the biofilm was found to be Bacillaceae (95.3% and was further identified as the originally inoculated E. aestuarii YC211 by next generation sequencing (NGS. Thus, the MFC biosensor can measure Cr(VI concentrations in situ in the effluents from different electroplating units, and it can potentially help in preventing the violation of effluent regulations.

  6. Use of Plant Preservative Mixture™ for establishing in vitro cultures from field plants: Experience with papaya reveals several PPM™ tolerant endophytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pious; Agrawal, Mukta; Bharathkumar, C B

    2017-11-01

    Prevalence of diverse PPM™-tolerant endophytic bacteria in papaya, the broad-spectrum microbicide specified for use in plant tissue cultures, capable of surviving covertly in MS-based medium, with implications in contamination management. Plant Preservative Mixture™ was employed for establishing papaya (Carica papaya) tissue cultures from field explants. Comparing three recommended practices for controlling endogenous microbial contaminants, axillary shoot tips (1.0-1.5 cm) from cv. Arka Prabhath were treated with PPM™ 5% for 4 h (T1), 50% for 10 min (T2) or 100% for 10 min (T3) and cultured in MS-based papaya establishment medium (PEM). By 4-6 weeks, all treatments proved non-rewarding with cultures succumbing either to microbial contamination (80% in T1) or phytotoxicity effect/contamination (90% in T2 and 95% in T3). Another trial adopting a multi-step surface sterilization treatment (carbendazim-cetrimide-HgCl 2 ) followed by culturing in 0.05% PPM-supplemented PEM showed 35% obvious bacterial contamination compared with 40% in control. Single colonies from pooled bacterial growths were tested on 0.1% PPM-incorporated nutrient agar (NA) registering 60% isolates as PPM sensitive. Twenty PPM-surviving isolates were selected and identified. This showed 85% Gram-positive bacteria including 80% under phylum Firmicutes (55% spore-forming Bacillaceae and 25% Staphylococcaceae) and 5% Actinobacteria, and 15% Gram-negative Proteobacteria. About 50% isolates remained wholly non-obvious upon culturing on PEM while the rest showed slow growth with many displaying growth enhancement upon host tissue extract supplementation. Culturing the isolates on PPM-supplemented NA indicated 90-95% as tolerating 0.05-0.1% PPM and 65% overriding 0.2% PPM. The isolates, however, did not display obvious growth in PPM-supplemented PEM where the spore formers survived. The results indicate the prevalence of diverse PPM™-tolerant endophytic bacteria in papaya most of which

  7. The response of soil biota to phosphate fertilization in grassland columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoyi, Israel; Winstanley, Henry; Fowler, Andrew; Schmalenberger, Achim

    2017-04-01

    -feeding nematodes, enrichment index were significantly higher in the control compared to the P treatments. In addition, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that high and medium P significantly shifted the bacterial, fungal and Glomeromycota community structures compared to the control. The Next Generation Sequencing data revealed that the control had a significantly higher abundance of certain bacterial families when compared to the high P treatment (e.g. Bacillaceae, Paenibacillaceae, Nocardioidaceea, Micrococcaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae) that have been associated with P mineralization in the past. Our results show that some of the parameters are more sensitive to P application though the effect on others may have been masked by the low P status of the soil. Results from this study suggest that a positive effect of a single inorganic P fertilizer application on plant growth in a soil is largely cancelled out by its negative effect on the soil microbiota. These findings support the hypothesis that soil microbiota play an important role in plant P supply in low P index soils. The findings from this study will be included in a mathematical model on biotic P cycling to better predict the effects of fertilizer application in grassland agriculture.

  8. Continuous production of biohythane from hydrothermal liquefied cornstalk biomass via two-stage high-rate anaerobic reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Bu-Chun; Li, Jia-Ming; Zhu, Zhang-Bing; Zhang, Yuan-Hui; Lu, Jian-Wen; Shen, Rui-Xia; Zhang, Chong; Xing, Xin-Hui; Liu, Zhidan

    2016-01-01

    via Illumina MiSeq sequencing clarified that the biohydrogen process in the two-stage systems functioned not only for biohydrogen production, but also for the degradation of potential inhibitors. The higher distribution of the detoxification family Clostridiaceae , Bacillaceae , and Pseudomonadaceae was found in the biohydrogen process. In addition, a higher distribution of acetate-oxidizing bacteria ( Spirochaetaceae ) was observed in the biomethane process of the two-stage systems, revealing improved acetogenesis accompanied with an efficient conversion of acetate. Biohythane production could be a promising process for the recovery of energy and degradation of organic compounds from hydrothermal liquefied biomass. The two-stage process not only contributed to the improved quality of the gas fuels but also strengthened the biotransformation process, which resulted from the function of detoxification during biohydrogen production and enhanced acetogenesis during biomethane production.

  9. Pyrosequencing evidence for iron-cycling microbial communities in sediments of the Skagerrak and Bothnian Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Carolina; Dellwig, Olaf; Noriega-Ortega, Beatriz; Dähnke, Kirstin; Gehre, Matthias; Böttcher, Michael E.; Friedrich, Michael W.

    2015-04-01

    reduction, while cryptic Fe-S-cycling can be largely excluded. 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate Proteobacteria dominated both sites. Beta diversity, i.e. diversity differences between sites, were attributed to Chloroflexi, δ-, γ-Proteobacteria, candidate division OP8, Acidobacteria, Euryarchaeota YLA114 and Thermoplasmata E2 in SK. Unclassified Archaea, Acidobacteria, Chlorobi, α-, γ- and δ-Proteobacteria were taxa that showed significant values of Spearman correlation with Fe2+ concentrations. In the BB β-Proteobacteria and Cenarchaeaceae contributed to β-diversity and Spearman correlations showed that β-Proteobacteria correlated with Mn2+ concentrations. Potential Fe and Mn reducers including Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfuromonadaceae, Desulfobulbaceae, Geobacteraceae, Pelobacteraceae, Clostridiaceae, and Bacillaceae (between ≤0.1-12% relative abundance) as well as the archaeal Methanosarcinaceae were detected. Fe oxidation occurring near the sediment surface was supported by the presence of Fe oxidising Mariprofundus in SK and Gallionella in the brackish BB sediments reflecting their adaptation to the prevailing salinity. Although Spearman correlations showed several groups correlate with Fe/Mn, specific microorganisms could not be determined. Thus, an unclassified and abundant microbial community may carry out Fe/Mn cycling or alternatively, microorganisms that are known for Fe/Mn cycling, but are less abundant, could be involved.