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Sample records for baby ebm scanning

  1. Retention of EBM competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, Josephine; Aiyer, Meenakshy K; Gumidyala, Krishna; Meyer, Lynne E

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal follow-up study surveyed the attitudes toward, and skills in, evidence-based medicine (EBM) of medical school graduates who had participated in a formal EBM curriculum during their third-year Internal Medicine (IM) clerkship. The objective was to measure whether competencies were retained over time and to identify the long- term impact on the graduates' attitudes toward, and proficiency in, EBM after graduation. Questionnaire results showed that a group of medical school graduates retained EBM skills and a positive attitude about the importance of applying EBM principles in patient care one to three years after completing an EBM course.

  2. Scanning electron microscopy of the collodion membrane from a self-healing collodion baby*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Isaacsson, Henrique; Guarenti, Isabelle Maffei; Silva, Ricardo Marques e; de Castro, Luis Antônio Suita

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Self-healing collodion baby is a well-established subtype of this condition. We examined a male newborn, who was covered by a collodion membrane. The shed membrane was examined with scanning electron microscopy. The outer surface showed a very compact keratin without the normal elimination of corneocytes. The lateral view of the specimen revealed a very thick, horny layer. The inner surface showed the structure of lower corneocytes with polygonal contour. With higher magnifications villous projections were seen in the cell membrane. PMID:26375232

  3. The practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) in gastroenterology: discrepancies between EBM familiarity and EBM competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscaglia, Jonathan; Nagula, Satish; Yuan, Jay; Bucobo, Juan Carlos; Kumar, Atul; Forsmark, Chris E; Draganov, Peter V

    2011-09-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has become increasingly important in the practice of gastroenterology and endoscopy, and the training of future gastroenterology physicians. The objectives were to assess the attitudes/opinions of gastroenterology specialists towards EBM, and evaluate possible gaps in education for certain EBM-related concepts. An internet-based survey was emailed to 4073 gastroenterology specialists. The main outcome measurements were physicians' endorsement of EBM, impact of EBM on clinical practice, utilization of EBM-specific resources, self-assessed understanding of EBM concepts (EBM familiarity score), and actual knowledge of EBM concepts (EBM competency score). A total of 337 gastroenterology specialists participated. On a sale of 1-10, there was widespread agreement that EBM improves patient care (median score = 9, interquartile range (IQR) = 7-10), and physicians should be familiar with techniques for critical appraisal of studies (median = 9, IQR = 8-10). Most (64.0%) utilized the EBM-related resource UpToDate™ regularly, as opposed to PubMed™ (47.1%) or Clinical Evidence™ (5.4%). The mean EBM familiarity score was 3.4 ± 0.6 on a scale of 1-4. Out of a maximum 49 points, the mean EBM competency score was 35 ± 4.9. There was poor concordance among EBM familiarity and competency scores (r = 0.161; p = 0.005). Academic practice (p EBM training (p = 0.001) were all associated with improved EBM competency. The attitudes and opinions of EBM are extremely favorable among gastroenterology physicians. Although gastroenterology physicians report familiarity with most EBM-related concepts, there is poor correlation with their actual knowledge of EBM. Further educational initiatives should be undertaken to address methods in which EBM skills are reinforced among all gastroenterology practitioners.

  4. The EBM argument hygiene campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Peter

    2013-06-01

    The campaign promoting evidence-based medicine (EBM) shares similarities with Joseph Lister's 19th century campaign promoting surgical antisepsis. Both target medical practitioners as their primary clients, and both appeal to these clients in the manner of a public health programme, arguing that their standards are authoritative and relevant, that the clients fail to meet them, and that this failure is a problem that requires the clients to change. Both promote hygienic solutions to the problems that they identify, the problem of microbial pathogens in the case of Lister, and the process of clinical decision making in the case of EBM. Hygienic solutions aim to operationalize standards as case-independent procedures that can be performed as habits, and seek to identify instruments of purification against sources of contamination. EBM's solution is hygienic because it characterizes clinical decision-making behaviour as a source of contamination and because it promotes a general procedure designed to correct it. Comparing the EBM campaign to Lister's helps to explain why some clinicians have had trouble trying to implement EBM as a decision-making procedure in particular cases. EBM promotes a hygienic solution, but unlike Lister, does not confront a well-defined, empirically grounded problem. Some of the difficulties with EBM stem from a mismatch between its hygienic solution and the complexity and case-dependency of clinical decision making. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. [Trends toward EBLM in the EBM era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibori, Masahiro

    2012-07-01

    Evidence-based laboratory medicine (EBLM) is the strategic application of evidence-based medicine (EBM) to laboratory medicine. Although trends toward EBLM were inspired by the movements of EBM and EBLM shares a common policy with EBM, EBLM has many of its own characteristics to be considered from the aspects of not only science but also clinical practice.

  6. A study on the mechanical characteristics of the EBM-printed Ti-6Al-4V LCP plates in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng-Cheng; Yang, Yun-Ji; Liu, Run; Shu, He-Xi; Gong, Jin-Peng; Yang, Yong; Sun, Qi; Wu, Xing; Cai, Ming

    2014-11-05

    The electron beam melting (EBM) Ti-6Al-4V material technology has been developed over a short time period. It was introduced through a research to develop Ti-6Al-4V implants for patients, but EBM printed locking compression plates have not been used for clinical implants. The main purpose of this study is to find whether the EBM Ti-6Al-4V plate suit for clinical implants. First, we scanned an AO-locking compression plate (LCP) and printed LCP samples using EBM. Next, we evaluated the EBM plate surface roughness through optical microscopy as well as the LCP and EBM plates' mechanical characteristics using the ASTM standard, which is commonly used to test the mechanical properties of bone plates subject to bending. Each sample was examined using a single-cycle four-point bending test and hardness testing to acquire data on bending stiffness, bending strength, bending structural stiffness, and hardness. The results show significant differences in bending stiffness, bending strength, bending structural stiffness, and hardness between the samples using EBM and the original LCP plates. The EBM-printed samples' surface roughness was 0.49 ± 0.02 μm. The mean hardness of the LCP sample was 266.67 HV10 ± 5.8, and the EBM-printed sample mean hardness was 341.1 HV10 ± 1.93. The EBM samples' bending stiffness was 87.67%, which is greater than using the LCP plates'; and the bending strength was 190.7% greater, the bending structural stiffness was 73.2% greater, and the hardness was 27.9% greater. The results show that the EBM plates' general mechanical strength was significantly greater than the LCP plates. An EBM plate is advantageous for clinical implants because it can be customized with great potential for improvement.

  7. A locally created EBM course for faculty development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crites, Gerald E; Chrisagis, Ximena; Patel, Vipul; Little, David; Drehmer, Timothy

    2004-02-01

    International EBM workshops have significant barriers and lack focus on institutional needs. The authors describe a local EBM curriculum and report its effectiveness and participant satisfaction. Local EBM experts devised an EBM course designed to improve faculty understanding of EBM skills and concepts. Retention of EBM concepts was assessed with a 10-item EBM knowledge test administered before and after the course. Participants were also asked to self-assess five EBM skills immediately after and nine months after the course. They also filled out a satisfaction survey. In total, 61% of the participants completed the course. The EBM knowledge test showed a significant change in scores for EBM concepts. The participants' self-assessed EBM skills remained high at nine months. Participants rated most course variables highly. It is concluded that a locally developed EBM faculty curriculum can succeed if scholars define institutional needs, receive broad institutional support, use proven educational methodologies and avoid scheduling conflicts.

  8. Design, development, and initial operation of BabyScan: An in-vivo counter for children around Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, Frazier, E-mail: fbronson@canberra.com [Canberra Industries Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, CT 06450 (United States); Hayano, Ryugo [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Oginni, Babatunde; Jaderstrom, Henrik; Ilie, Gabriela [Canberra Industries Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, CT 06450 (United States); Yamanaka, Shunji [Department of Mechanical and Biofunctional Systems, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Muramatsu, Isamu [Canberra Japan KK, 4-19-8 Asakusabashi, Taito-ku, Tokyo, 111-0053 (Japan)

    2015-06-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi accident has released large quantities of radionuclides, including {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs. These radionuclides, when inhaled or ingested, cause internal dose to the individual. Whole Body Counting [WBC], also known as in-vivo counting is a common method to assess internal radioactivity as a tool to evaluate internal dose. The FastScan WBC system was widely used following the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents for in-vivo measurements of the population. Although the FastScan was designed for adults, it was successfully used for children by having them stand on a small stool. However small children and infants cannot stand, and have a much lower quantity of radioactive cesium. That required the development of a much more sensitive WBC system, called the BabyScan. A very important element of the project was to make the unit look esthetically pleasing, while not compromising performance. The steel shield was enclosed in a molded fiberglass exterior skin, whereas a carbon-fiber liner was used on the interior, to keep the background low. The system was calibrated using MCNP; on-site testing with phantoms confirmed the adequacy of the mathematical efficiency calibrations. The system has a Minimum Detectable Activity with a 4-min measurement of approximately 20 Bq for infants approximately 10 kg in weight, and ~40 Bq for children approximately 30 kg in weight. The {sup 40}K that is naturally present is also reliably detected at the appropriate quantity for infants as small as 6 kg. Data from the first 365 subjects counted showed that {sup 40}K was detected in all of them, and that there was no {sup 134}Cs or {sup 137}Cs above the MDA levels.

  9. Design, development, and initial operation of BabyScan: An in-vivo counter for children around Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, Frazier; Hayano, Ryugo; Oginni, Babatunde; Jaderstrom, Henrik; Ilie, Gabriela; Yamanaka, Shunji; Muramatsu, Isamu

    2015-06-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi accident has released large quantities of radionuclides, including 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs. These radionuclides, when inhaled or ingested, cause internal dose to the individual. Whole Body Counting [WBC], also known as in-vivo counting is a common method to assess internal radioactivity as a tool to evaluate internal dose. The FastScan WBC system was widely used following the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents for in-vivo measurements of the population. Although the FastScan was designed for adults, it was successfully used for children by having them stand on a small stool. However small children and infants cannot stand, and have a much lower quantity of radioactive cesium. That required the development of a much more sensitive WBC system, called the BabyScan. A very important element of the project was to make the unit look esthetically pleasing, while not compromising performance. The steel shield was enclosed in a molded fiberglass exterior skin, whereas a carbon-fiber liner was used on the interior, to keep the background low. The system was calibrated using MCNP; on-site testing with phantoms confirmed the adequacy of the mathematical efficiency calibrations. The system has a Minimum Detectable Activity with a 4-min measurement of approximately 20 Bq for infants approximately 10 kg in weight, and 40 Bq for children approximately 30 kg in weight. The 40K that is naturally present is also reliably detected at the appropriate quantity for infants as small as 6 kg. Data from the first 365 subjects counted showed that 40K was detected in all of them, and that there was no 134Cs or 137Cs above the MDA levels.

  10. EBM-9000: EB mask writer for product mask fabrication of 16nm half-pitch generation and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekoshi, Hidekazu; Nakayama, Takahito; Saito, Kenichi; Ando, Hiroyoshi; Inoue, Hideo; Nakayamada, Noriaki; Kamikubo, Takashi; Nishimura, Rieko; Kojima, Yoshinori; Yashima, Jun; Anpo, Akihito; Nakazawa, Seiichi; Iijima, Tomohiro; Ohtoshi, Kenji; Anze, Hirohito; Katsap, Victor; Golladay, Steven; Kendall, Rodney

    2014-07-01

    EBM-9000 equipped with new features such as new electron optics, high current density (800A/cm2) and high speed deflection control has been developed for the 11nm technology node(tn) (half pitch (hp) 16nm). Also in parallel of aggressive introduction of new technologies, EBM-9000 inherits the 50kV variable shaped electron beam / vector scan architecture, continuous stage motion and VSB-12 data format handling from the preceding EBM series to maintain high reliability accepted by many customers. This paper will report our technical challenges and results obtained through the development.

  11. Beyond 'faith-based medicine' and EBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, John

    2006-08-01

    Longstanding debate on evidence-based medicine (EBM) may have reached a critical saturation point. I briefly report on systematic reviews on the recurring themes in the critical literature. In this context, some criticisms to EBM are substantial and enduring, although convincing arguments to contrast unresolved issues have yet to be produced. Nonetheless, few changes have been adopted and conservative attitudes persist in EBM. Despite its 'success', implementation in practice has been inexorably overshadowed leading to paradoxical shortcomings. This controversial scenario offers a formidable occasion to gain needed insight. The aim of this paper is to attempt a comprehensive analysis by reframing a number of key concerns, while furnishing pragmatic, interdisciplinary solutions for these deep-rooted dilemmas. In the interests of all stakeholders, I seek to promote a concerted effort to resolve conflict and build consensus. This paper explores a strategically unifying vision of primary care, based on current understanding of practice patterns, having a research-friendly 'common ground' where practitioners' information needs may be met. In addition, an analysis of existing problems identifies underlying 'root causes'. Moreover, I expediently reframe crucial matters by focusing on EBM, more than as a paradigm, as an organisation, hence amenable to a variety of cross-disciplinary analyses and solutions. Finally, recent state-of-the-art reviews on implementation and dissemination research are cited for the pertinent implications for study design and practice. Present policies and influential testimonials on behalf of EBM encounter the pitfalls of hindering learning and progress through defensive attitudes and mechanisms. Current study designs and evaluation criteria must strive to adapt to real-world settings, rather than vice versa. The arguments exposed herein alter the terms of the debate on EBM and may outline a basis for initiatives with conflict-resolution and

  12. [Evidence based medicine (EBM) in health care system and individual patients treatment. Part I. EBM in health care system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Włodzimierz; Mielniczuk, Hanna

    2008-01-01

    The cooperation of activities of quality management in health care as HTA, QA, EBM has been considered. It was shown that EBM is independent information system for formulating guidelines and decision making placed between HTA and QA. Althought EBM is based on epidemiological knowledge and inspired epidemiological research is not by itself a part of epidemiology.

  13. Teaching trainers to incorporate evidence-based medicine (EBM) teaching in clinical practice: the EU-EBM project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangaratinam, Shakila; Barnfield, Gemma; Weinbrenner, Susanne; Meyerrose, Berit; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Horvath, Andrea R; Zanrei, Gianni; Kunz, Regina; Suter, Katja; Walczak, Jacek; Kaleta, Anna; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Gee, Harry; Mol, Ben W J; Khan, Khalid S

    2009-09-10

    Evidence based medicine (EBM) is considered an integral part of medical training, but integration of teaching various EBM steps in everyday clinical practice is uncommon. Currently EBM is predominantly taught through theoretical courses, workshops and e-learning. However, clinical teachers lack confidence in teaching EBM in workplace and are often unsure of the existing opportunities for teaching EBM in the clinical setting. There is a need for continuing professional development (CPD) courses that train clinical trainers to teach EBM through on-the-job training by demonstration of applied EBM real time in clinical practice. We developed such a course to encourage clinically relevant teaching of EBM in post-graduate education in various clinical environments. We devised an e-learning course targeting trainers with EBM knowledge to impart educational methods needed to teach application of EBM teaching in commonly used clinical settings. The curriculum development group comprised experienced EBM teachers, clinical epidemiologists, clinicians and educationalists from institutions in seven European countries. The e-learning sessions were designed to allow participants (teachers) to undertake the course in the workplace during short breaks within clinical activities. An independent European steering committee provided input into the process. The curriculum defined specific learning objectives for teaching EBM by exploiting educational opportunities in six different clinical settings. The e-modules incorporated video clips that demonstrate practical and effective methods of EBM teaching in everyday clinical practice. The course encouraged focussed teaching activities embedded within a trainer's personal learning plan and documentation in a CPD portfolio for reflection. This curriculum will help senior clinicians to identify and make the best use of available opportunities in everyday practice in clinical situations to teach various steps of EBM and demonstrate their

  14. Characterization of decay component of resist surface charging on EBM-8000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayamada, Noriaki; Kamikubo, Takashi; Anze, Hirohito; Ogasawara, Muheniro

    2014-07-01

    In our previous work, we reported the static portion of the surface charging on EBM-8000 and compared it with that on EBM-6000. The scope of this paper is to report the analysis of charging decay component on EBM-8000 and compare it with EBM-6000. We confirmed that our fundamental modeling scheme of the charging decay worked well on EBM-8000 as well as on EBM-6000. However, we found totally different charging decay behaviors between EBM-8000 and EBM-6000. To explain the results, we propose a conceptual model of the charging decay phenomena both on EBM-8000 and EBM-6000.

  15. [PERSONALIZED MEDICINE AND EBM: ETHICAL ASPECTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radermecker, R P

    2015-01-01

    More patients are actually treated due to the incredible improvements of medical care, especially in the field of pharmacotherapy. Medical guidelines are based on the results of controlled trials. This kind of medicine, also called Evidence Based Medicine (EBM), is actually the cornerstone of good clinical practice. Nevertheless, it remains a lot of patients disappointed by the fact that they have no medical gain of their treatment. The reason is that each patient has his/her own metabolic characteristics. Better is, the characterization of such patients, better will be the treatment targeting them. It is what is called the personalized medicine. To reach this challenge, pharmacogenetic advances would be helpful. From an antagonism between EBM and personalized medicine, this new medical paradigm has to consider these approaches as partners. To reach this goal, medical doctors, legal authorities and pharmaceutical companies have to be responsible in front of these new ethical challenges.

  16. EBM, HTA, and CER: clearing the confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Bryan R; Drummond, Michael; Jönsson, Bengt; Neumann, Peter J; Schwartz, J Sanford; Siebert, Uwe; Sullivan, Sean D

    2010-06-01

    The terms evidence-based medicine (EBM), health technology assessment (HTA), comparative effectiveness research (CER), and other related terms lack clarity and so could lead to miscommunication, confusion, and poor decision making. The objective of this article is to clarify their definitions and the relationships among key terms and concepts. This article used the relevant methods and policy literature as well as the websites of organizations engaged in evidence-based activities to develop a framework to explain the relationships among the terms EBM, HTA, and CER. This article proposes an organizing framework and presents a graphic demonstrating the differences and relationships among these terms and concepts. More specific terminology and concepts are necessary for an informed and clear public policy debate. They are even more important to inform decision making at all levels and to engender more accountability by the organizations and individuals responsible for these decisions.

  17. The effect of evidence-based medicine (EBM) training seminars on the knowledge and attitudes of medical students towards EBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Yousef S; Batayha, Waleed; Al-Omari, Mousa

    2011-08-01

    There is debate about the most effective method for teaching evidence-based medicine (EBM) in medical schools. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of integration of EBM training seminars into the curriculum of the community medicine course in changing the knowledge and attitudes of the fourth year medical students towards EBM. This is a quasi-experimental study conducted on the fourth year medical students who joined the community medicine mandatory summer course at Jordan University of Science and Technology in the period between July 1 and August 31, 2008. We measured medical students' self-reported attitudes about and knowledge of EBM before the integration of EBM seminars into the community medicine course and at the end of course. A high proportion of students had positive attitude towards EBM before and after the course. After the course, the vast majority (91.8%) became aware of the presence of guidelines and protocols for diseases compared with 59.0% who were aware of that before (P EBM before the training. After the training, a significantly higher proportion of students reported understanding the epidemiological concepts. Integration of EBM training course into community course for the fourth year students improved their EBM knowledge. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of EBM curriculum in changing behaviours, practice patterns and patient care outcome. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) for undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Hajar; Mirmohamadsadeghi, Maede; Adibi, Iman; Ashorion, Vahid; Sadeghizade, Atefe; Adibi, Peiman

    2008-09-01

    Teaching evidence-based medicine (EBM) to practitioners and residents will improve their performance. There is insufficient evidence regarding the teaching of EBM in undergraduate medical education. We aimed to determine whether an EBM workshop would improve undergraduate medical student's ability to form clinical questions and search databases, as well as their attitudes towards EBM. This was a quasi-experimental study on fifth- and sixth-year medical students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. In a 4- day workshop, students learned and practised how to form clinical questions, perform literature searches and carry out critical appraisals. We assessed the student's ability to form a clinical question and their performance in searching and identifying the best clinical literature to answer the question, before and after the workshop. Students' attitudes were assessed using the Likert scale 15-item questionnaire on the last day of the workshop. Wilcoxon signed ranks test was performed to compare pre- and post-tests. The workshop increased students' scores in developing clinical questions (P = 0.004, mean rank = 14) and search skills (P EBM [mean = 3.76, (standared deviation = 0.7)]. The course allowed students (79.2%) to appreciate the need for EBM education for medical students. The students also commented that the course showed them the importance of EBM knowledge in effective clinical performance. EBM workshop for undergraduate medical students increased their ability to form clinical questions and carry out appropriate literature searches. It also improved their attitudes towards learning and applying EBM.

  19. EBM in primary care: a qualitative multicenter study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Carlos; Sola, Iván; Rotaeche, Rafael; Marzo-Castillejo, Mèrce; Louro-González, Arturo; Carrillo, Ricard; González, Ana-Isabel; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2011-08-09

    Evidence based medicine (EBM) has made a substantial impact on primary care in Spain over the last few years. However, little research has been done into family physicians (FPs)' attitudes related to EBM. The present study investigates FPs' perceptions of EBM in the primary care context. This study used qualitative methodology. Information was obtained from 8 focus groups composed of 67 FPs from 47 health centers in 4 autonomous regions in Spain. Intentional sampling considered participants' previous education in EBM, and their experience as tutors in family medicine or working groups' members of the Spanish Society of Family Practice. Sociological discourse analysis was used with the support of the MAXqda software. Results were validated by means of triangulation among researchers and contrast with participants. Findings were grouped into three main areas: 1) The tug-of-war between the "science" of EBM and "experience" in the search for good clinical practice in primary care; 2) The development of EBM sensemaking as a reaction to contextual factors and interests; 3) The paradox of doubt and trust in the new EBM experts.The meaning of EBM was dynamically constructed within the primary care context. FPs did not consider good clinical practice was limited to the vision of science that EBM represents. Its use appeared to be conditioned by several factors that transcended the common concept of barriers. Along with concerns about its objectivity, participants showed a tendency to see EBM as the use of simplified guidelines developed by EBM experts. The identification of science with EBM and its recognition as a useful but insufficient tool for the good clinical practice requires rethinking new meanings of evidence within the primary care reality. Beyond the barriers related to accessing and putting into practice the EBM, its reactive use can determine FPs' questions and EBM development in a direction not always centred on patients' needs. The questioning of experts

  20. EBM in primary care: a qualitative multicenter study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderón Carlos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence based medicine (EBM has made a substantial impact on primary care in Spain over the last few years. However, little research has been done into family physicians (FPs' attitudes related to EBM. The present study investigates FPs' perceptions of EBM in the primary care context. Methods This study used qualitative methodology. Information was obtained from 8 focus groups composed of 67 FPs from 47 health centers in 4 autonomous regions in Spain. Intentional sampling considered participants' previous education in EBM, and their experience as tutors in family medicine or working groups' members of the Spanish Society of Family Practice. Sociological discourse analysis was used with the support of the MAXqda software. Results were validated by means of triangulation among researchers and contrast with participants. Results Findings were grouped into three main areas: 1 The tug-of-war between the "science" of EBM and "experience" in the search for good clinical practice in primary care; 2 The development of EBM sensemaking as a reaction to contextual factors and interests; 3 The paradox of doubt and trust in the new EBM experts. The meaning of EBM was dynamically constructed within the primary care context. FPs did not consider good clinical practice was limited to the vision of science that EBM represents. Its use appeared to be conditioned by several factors that transcended the common concept of barriers. Along with concerns about its objectivity, participants showed a tendency to see EBM as the use of simplified guidelines developed by EBM experts. Conclusions The identification of science with EBM and its recognition as a useful but insufficient tool for the good clinical practice requires rethinking new meanings of evidence within the primary care reality. Beyond the barriers related to accessing and putting into practice the EBM, its reactive use can determine FPs' questions and EBM development in a direction not

  1. Teaching trainers to incorporate evidence-based medicine (EBM teaching in clinical practice: the EU-EBM project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleta Anna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence based medicine (EBM is considered an integral part of medical training, but integration of teaching various EBM steps in everyday clinical practice is uncommon. Currently EBM is predominantly taught through theoretical courses, workshops and e-learning. However, clinical teachers lack confidence in teaching EBM in workplace and are often unsure of the existing opportunities for teaching EBM in the clinical setting. There is a need for continuing professional development (CPD courses that train clinical trainers to teach EBM through on-the-job training by demonstration of applied EBM real time in clinical practice. We developed such a course to encourage clinically relevant teaching of EBM in post-graduate education in various clinical environments. Methods We devised an e-learning course targeting trainers with EBM knowledge to impart educational methods needed to teach application of EBM teaching in commonly used clinical settings. The curriculum development group comprised experienced EBM teachers, clinical epidemiologists, clinicians and educationalists from institutions in seven European countries. The e-learning sessions were designed to allow participants (teachers to undertake the course in the workplace during short breaks within clinical activities. An independent European steering committee provided input into the process. Results The curriculum defined specific learning objectives for teaching EBM by exploiting educational opportunities in six different clinical settings. The e-modules incorporated video clips that demonstrate practical and effective methods of EBM teaching in everyday clinical practice. The course encouraged focussed teaching activities embedded within a trainer's personal learning plan and documentation in a CPD portfolio for reflection. Conclusion This curriculum will help senior clinicians to identify and make the best use of available opportunities in everyday practice in clinical

  2. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Baby Feeding your baby Other Baby topics ') document.write(' Caring for your baby ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Feeding your baby ') document.write('') } ') document. ...

  3. The transformation of an EBM curriculum: a 10-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyer, Meenakshy K; Dorsch, Josephine L

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an essential tool for students across the medical education continuum. Incorporation of EBM skills into core competencies by national educational organizations denotes their vital role. The main purpose is to describe the transformation of an EBM curriculum in an Internal Medicine clerkship and the educational principles that influenced changes over ten years. The EBM curriculum over ten years was reviewed. This retrospective review was divided into four phases, based on the educational interventions used. Associated outcomes of the curriculum, student skills, and satisfaction with the course and faculty involvement were assessed. A majority of the 493 students felt they received adequate and appropriate exposure to EBM. The curriculum evolved from a teacher-centered approach using computer-based case scenarios to a learner-centered, and patient centric approach. Student skills in EBM improved, as was evidenced by the pre- and post-tests and the evaluations of critically appraised topic assignments. EBM is an essential tool to develop life-long learners. A learner-centered, patient centric approach is well received by students. Long-term studies are needed to assess the impact of these teaching interventions on patient outcomes.

  4. Accounting for EBM: notions of evidence in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Helen

    2006-06-01

    This paper takes as a focus of anthropological enquiry the set of techniques and practices for the appraisal and clinical application of research evidence that has become known as evidence-based medicine (EBM) (or, more recently, evidence-based health care). It first delineates and classifies the criticisms of EBM emerging from within the health professions. It then charts the evolution of EBM in responding to these criticisms and uncovers its character as a pedagogical innovation aimed at transforming clinical practice. It identifies EBM as an indeterminate and malleable range of techniques and practices characterised not by particular kinds of methodological rigour, but by the pursuit of a new approach to medical knowledge and authority. It situates this characterisation within a contemporaneous political and economic climate of declining trust and growing accountability. This analysis provides a basis from which to consider the notions of evidence implicit in EBM itself and also in the qualitative social sciences, including anthropology, which not only critique but also contribute to these notions themselves. Finally, the paper considers possible future trajectories for EBM with regard to the incorporation of cultural and structural dimensions of health and the inclusion of qualitative material in the evidence base.

  5. "Evaluating normative epistemic frameworks in medicine: EBM and casuistic medicine".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingeman, Emily

    2016-08-01

    Since its inception in the early 1990s, evidence-based medicine (EBM) has become the dominant epistemic framework for Western medical practice. However, in light of powerful criticisms against EBM, alternatives such as casuistic medicine have been gaining support in both the medical and philosophical community. In the absence of empirical evidence in support of the claim that EBM improves patient outcomes, and in light of considerations that it is unlikely that such evidence will be forthcoming, another standard is needed to assess EBM against its alternatives. In this paper, I propose a set of criteria for this purpose based on Helen Longino's criteria for assessing the objectivity of a knowledge productive community. I then apply these criteria to assess EBM against a casuistic framework for medical knowledge. I argue that EBM's strict adherence to a hierarchical organization of knowledge can reasonably be expected to block it from fulfilling a high level of objectivity. A casuistic framework, on the other hand, because it emphasizes critical evaluation in conjunction with the flexibility of a case-based approach, could be expected to better facilitate a more optimal epistemic community. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Does integrated training in evidence-based medicine (EBM) in the general practice (GP) specialty training improve EBM behaviour in daily clinical practice? A cluster randomised controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kortekaas, M F; Bartelink, M E L; Zuithoff, N P A; van der Heijden, G J M G; de Wit, N J; Hoes, A W

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an important element in the general practice (GP) specialty training. Studies show that integrating EBM training into clinical practice brings larger benefits than stand-alone modules...

  7. Practising evidence-based medicine (EBM): a descriptive analysis of medical students' whole-task EBM assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Lauren A; Capdarest-Arest, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    Researchers have suggested whole-task learning activities to practice and teach evidence-based medicine (EBM); however, limited description exists of their use in EBM curricula. This article describes medical students' execution of a whole-task EBM assignment and characterises themes emerging from assignment submissions. Between 2013 and 2015, Stanford University's paediatric clerkship students completed a whole-task EBM assignment based on a patient encounter. The assignment captured students' efforts to perform all EBM steps and describe their patient scenario and future knowledge needs strategies. Assignments were analysed using descriptive statistics and qualitative description. 123 students completed the assignment. Students formulated therapy (n=76), prognosis (n=18), diagnosis (n=15), harm (n=9) and aetiology (n=2) questions, and used a single (n=58) or multiple information resources (n=57). Based on evidence appraisal, 95 students indicated that the found evidence would inform future practice while 16 were sceptical of its conclusivity. 65 learners wanted to share evidence with colleagues; 33 with patients and families. To meet future knowledge needs, learners suggested using a structured approach (eg, PICO (patient, intervention, comparison and outcome); n=58), reading more primary literature (n=22) and creating question logs (n=21). This article provides a glimpse into students' EBM process and demonstrates the feasibility of whole-task activities for use in EBM training. Findings related to students' clinical uncertainty and information sharing raise questions about coverage of these topics in current EBM training and suggest that further investigation is warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. EBM regeneration and changes in EBM component mRNA expression in stromal cells after corneal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Abirami; Marino, Gustavo K; Torricelli, Andre A M; Wilson, Steven E

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the production of the epithelial basement membrane (EBM) component mRNAs at time points before lamina lucida and lamina densa regeneration in anterior stromal cells after corneal injury that would heal with and without fibrosis. Rabbit corneas were removed from 2 to 19 days after -4.5D or -9.0D photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) with the VISX S4 IR laser. Corneas were evaluated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for full regeneration of the lamina lucida and the lamina densa. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) based quantitative real-time (RT)-PCR was used to quantitate the expression of mRNAs for laminin α-3 (LAMA3), perlecan, nidogen-1, and nidogen-2 in the anterior stroma. After -4.5D PRK, EBM was found to be fully regenerated at 8 to 10 days after surgery. At 4 days after PRK, the nidogen-2 and LAMA3 mRNAs levels were detected at statistically significantly lower levels in the anterior stroma of the -9.0D PRK corneas (where the EBM would not fully regenerate) compared to the -4.5D PRK corneas (where the EBM was destined to fully regenerate). At 7 days after PRK, nidogen-2 and LAMA3 mRNAs continued to be statistically significantly lower in the anterior stroma of the -9.0D PRK corneas compared to their expression in the anterior stroma of the -4.5D PRK corneas. Key EBM components LAMA3 and nidogen-2 mRNAs are expressed at higher levels in the anterior stroma during EBM regeneration in the -4.5D PRK corneas where the EBM is destined to fully regenerate and no haze developed compared to the -9.0D PRK corneas where the EBM will not fully regenerate and myofibroblast-related stromal fibrosis (haze) will develop.

  9. EBM regeneration and changes in EBM component mRNA expression in stromal cells after corneal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Abirami; Marino, Gustavo K.; Torricelli, Andre A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the production of the epithelial basement membrane (EBM) component mRNAs at time points before lamina lucida and lamina densa regeneration in anterior stromal cells after corneal injury that would heal with and without fibrosis. Methods Rabbit corneas were removed from 2 to 19 days after −4.5D or −9.0D photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) with the VISX S4 IR laser. Corneas were evaluated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for full regeneration of the lamina lucida and the lamina densa. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) based quantitative real-time (RT)–PCR was used to quantitate the expression of mRNAs for laminin α-3 (LAMA3), perlecan, nidogen-1, and nidogen-2 in the anterior stroma. Results After −4.5D PRK, EBM was found to be fully regenerated at 8 to 10 days after surgery. At 4 days after PRK, the nidogen-2 and LAMA3 mRNAs levels were detected at statistically significantly lower levels in the anterior stroma of the −9.0D PRK corneas (where the EBM would not fully regenerate) compared to the −4.5D PRK corneas (where the EBM was destined to fully regenerate). At 7 days after PRK, nidogen-2 and LAMA3 mRNAs continued to be statistically significantly lower in the anterior stroma of the −9.0D PRK corneas compared to their expression in the anterior stroma of the −4.5D PRK corneas. Conclusions Key EBM components LAMA3 and nidogen-2 mRNAs are expressed at higher levels in the anterior stroma during EBM regeneration in the −4.5D PRK corneas where the EBM is destined to fully regenerate and no haze developed compared to the −9.0D PRK corneas where the EBM will not fully regenerate and myofibroblast-related stromal fibrosis (haze) will develop.

  10. How can we teach EBM in clinical practice?? An analysis of barriers to implementation of on-the-job EBM teaching and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.O. Rengerink; S. Thangaratinam; G. Barnfield; K. Suter; A.R. Horvath; J. Walczak; A. Welminska; S. Weinbrenner; B. Meyerrose; T.N. Arvanitis; R. Onody; G. Zanrei; R. Kunz; C. Arditi; B. Burnand; H. Gee; K.S. Khan; B.W.J. Mol

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) improves the quality of health care. Courses on how to teach EBM in practice are available, but knowledge does not automatically imply its application in teaching. We aimed to identify and compare barriers and facilitators for teaching EBM in clinical prac

  11. Evidence-based medicine (EBM): what long-term care providers need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huai Y

    2011-05-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been widely used in medicine for 2 decades. Recently, EBM has become a central part of reforming nursing homes and quality improvement. It is very important for long-term care providers to practice EBM. This article briefly introduces the concept of EBM; addresses some potential benefits, harms, and challenges of practicing EBM in long-term care settings; and promotes EBM and its appropriate use among long-term care providers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ethics and EBM: acknowledging bias, accepting difference and embracing politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Ian

    2010-04-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been effective because it confers both epistemic and moral authority, promising that both individual patient care and public health interventions are effective, safe and efficient, that these decisions and standards can be determined (and therefore judged) in a transparent manner and that this form of decision making is reliable, objective and value-free. The problem is that EBM refers to particular, ideologically and philosophically specific concepts of evidence, medicine and the relationship between them. The analysis of the 'ethics' of EBM, therefore, requires not only a critique of its philosophical naïvety and its attachment to modernism and positivism, but a critique of its social, cultural and political implications.

  13. Designer Babies

    OpenAIRE

    Menard, Marion; Overgaard, Anne Cecilie; Birisawa, Noella C.; Laloë, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    This project aims at examining the sense-making process of Danish females between the age 18-25 regarding the Designer Babies awareness campaign “How far would you go?”. We investigate how we as communicators can get to know our audience through quantitative and qualitative research methods, and by utilizing various theoretical frameworks such as audience reception analysis and dialogical approach. Our discussion is anchored in Anthony Giddens's theory of ‘modernity and self-identity’, which ...

  14. How can we teach EBM in clinical practice? An analysis of barriers to implementation of on-the-job EBM teaching and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Thangaratinam, Shakila; Barnfield, Gemma; Suter, Katja; Horvath, Andrea R; Walczak, Jacek; Wełmińska, Anna; Weinbrenner, Susanne; Meyerrose, Berit; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Onody, Rita; Zanrei, Gianni; Kunz, Regina; Arditi, Chantal; Burnand, Bernard; Gee, Harry; Khan, Khalid S; Mol, Ben W J

    2011-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) improves the quality of health care. Courses on how to teach EBM in practice are available, but knowledge does not automatically imply its application in teaching. We aimed to identify and compare barriers and facilitators for teaching EBM in clinical practice in various European countries. A questionnaire was constructed listing potential barriers and facilitators for EBM teaching in clinical practice. Answers were reported on a 7-point Likert scale ranging from not at all being a barrier to being an insurmountable barrier. The questionnaire was completed by 120 clinical EBM teachers from 11 countries. Lack of time was the strongest barrier for teaching EBM in practice (median 5). Moderate barriers were the lack of requirements for EBM skills and a pyramid hierarchy in health care management structure (median 4). In Germany, Hungary and Poland, reading and understanding articles in English was a higher barrier than in the other countries. Incorporation of teaching EBM in practice faces several barriers to implementation. Teaching EBM in clinical settings is most successful where EBM principles are culturally embedded and form part and parcel of everyday clinical decisions and medical practice.

  15. Description and evaluation of an EBM curriculum using a block rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, David H; Haugen, Julie; Sommers, Peter S; Lovett, Peter

    2004-10-11

    While previous authors have emphasized the importance of integrating and reinforcing evidence-based medicine (EBM) skills in residency, there are few published examples of such curricula. We designed an EBM curriculum to train family practice interns in essential EBM skills for information mastery using clinical questions generated by the family practice inpatient service. We sought to evaluate the impact of this curriculum on interns, residents, and faculty. Interns (n = 13) were asked to self-assess their level of confidence in basic EBM skills before and after their 2-week EBM rotation. Residents (n = 21) and faculty (n = 12) were asked to assess how often the answers provided by the EBM intern to the inpatient service changed medical care. In addition, residents were asked to report how often they used their EBM skills and how often EBM concepts and tools were used in teaching by senior residents and faculty. Faculty were asked if the EBM curriculum had increased their use of EBM in practice and in teaching. Interns significantly increased their confidence over the course of the rotation. Residents and faculty felt that the answers provided by the EBM intern provided useful information and led to changes in patient care. Faculty reported incorporating EBM into their teaching (92%) and practice (75%). Residents reported applying the EBM skills they learned to patient care (86%) and that these skills were reinforced in the teaching they received outside of the rotation (81%). All residents and 11 of 12 faculty felt that the EBM curriculum had improved patient care. To our knowledge, this is the first published EBM curriculum using an individual block rotation format. As such, it may provide an alternative model for teaching and incorporating EBM into a residency program.

  16. EBM E-learning: Feasible and Effective for Occupational Physicians in Different Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenholtz, Nathalie Ir; Sluiter, Judith K; van Dijk, Frank Jh; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen

    2012-09-01

    Although evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a useful method for integrating evidence into the decision-making process of occupational physicians, occupational physicians lack EBM knowledge and skills, and do not have the time to learn the EBM method. In order to enable them to educate themselves at the time and place they prefer, we designed an electronic EBM course. We studied the feasibility and utility of the course as well as its effectiveness in increasing EBM knowledge, skills, and behaviour. Occupational physicians from various countries were included in a within-subjects study. Measurements were conducted on participants' EBM knowledge, skills, behaviour, and determinants of behaviour at baseline, directly after finishing the course and 2 months later (n = 36). The feasibility and utility of the course were evaluated directly after the course (n = 42). The course is applicable as an introductory course on EBM for occupational physicians in various countries. The course is effective in enhancing EBM knowledge and self-efficacy in practising EBM. No significant effect was found on EBM skills, behaviour, and determinants of behaviour. After the course, more occupational physicians use the international journals to solve a case. An electronic introductory EBM course is suitable for occupational physicians. Although it is an effective method for increasing EBM knowledge, it does not seem effective in improving skills and behaviour. We recommend integrating e-learning courses with blended learning, where it can be used side by side with other educational methods that are effective in changing behaviour.

  17. Adherence to EBM guidelines in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafizianova, R Kh; Burykin, I M

    2015-01-01

    Adequate and rational pharmacotherapy is an important element of rehabilitation of patients with myocardial infarction. Orders of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, domestic and international guidelines, and scientific publications - all contain a complete algorithm for rational pharmacotherapy [1, 2]. These documents are based on the principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM) and help practicing physicians to carry out individualized and rational pharmacotherapy. However, clinical studies have shown low adherence of physicians to clinical guidelines. In the Russian Federation the death rate from cardiovascular diseases is higher than in developed countries. Thus, studies of the causes of high cardiovascular mortality are needed. To assess adherence of practicing physicians to principles of evidence-based medicine in treating patients after myocardial infarction at the stage of rehabilitation. A retrospective analysis of 157 cases of patients in rehabilitation after myocardial infarction for the years 2006 and 2009 was undertaken.We analyzed the list of drugs, prescribed to patients during the period of rehabilitation, drug combinations, regimens and pharmacoepidemiological parameters. We used the following rehabilitation criteria: blood pressure control, smoking cessation, and weight control. Recommendations of controlled physical activities have also been studied. Patient care was compared with the guideline recommendations. Statistical analysis was performed using the OLAP system. 65 patients with myocardial infarction received rehabilitation therapy in 2006, and 92 - in 2009. It was found, that in 2006 physicians prescribed an average of 4.5 drugs per patient, and in 2009 - 4.6 drugs per patient. The average number of cardiovascular drugs (category C of ATC classification) per patient was 2.9 in 2006, and 2.6 - in 2009. Polypharmacy was found in half of the patients.In terms of evidence-based medicine, an important element in the rehabilitation

  18. Shaken baby symptoms (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby syndrome is a severe form of head injury caused by the baby's brain rebounding inside of the baby's skull when shaken. In this injury there is bruising of the brain, swelling, pressure, and bleeding (intracerebral hemorrhage). This can ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... hear about breakthroughs for babies and families. Ask a question Our health experts can answer questions about ...

  20. Developing resident learning profiles: Do scientific evidence epistemology beliefs, EBM self-efficacy beliefs and EBM skills matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Nancy J.

    This study investigated resident scientific evidence epistemology beliefs, evidence based medicine (EBM) self-efficacy beliefs, and EBM skills. A convenience sample of fifty-one residents located in six U.S. based residency programs completed an online instrument. Hofer's epistemology survey questionnaire was modified to test responses based on four types of scientific evidence encountered in medical practice (Clinical Trial Phase 1, Clinical Trial Phase 3, Meta-analysis and Qualitative). It was hypothesized that epistemology beliefs would differ based on the type of scientific evidence considered. A principal components analysis produced a two factor solution that was significant across type of scientific evidence suggesting that when evaluating epistemology beliefs context does matter. Factor 1 is related to the certainty of research methods and the certainty of medical conclusions and factor 2 denotes medical justification. For each type of scientific evidence, both factors differed on questions comprising the factor structure with significant differences found for the factor 1 and 2 questions. A justification belief case problem using checklist format was triangulated with the survey results, and as predicted the survey and checklist justification z scores indicated no significant differences, and two new justification themes emerged. Modified versions of Finney and Schraw's statistical self-efficacy and skill instruments produced expected significant EBM score correlations with unexpected results indicating that the number of EBM and statistics courses are not significant for EBM self-efficacy and skill scores. The study results were applied to the construction of a learning profile that provided residents belief and skill feedback specific to individual learning needs. The learning profile design incorporated core values related to 'Believer' populations that focus on art, harmony, tact and diplomacy. Future research recommendations include testing context

  1. Organic Baby Food: Better for Baby?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Infant and toddler health Is organic baby food better for my baby? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Organic foods are grown or processed without synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Feeding ...

  2. The Effect of Scan Length on the Structure and Mechanical Properties of Electron Beam-Melted Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Wesley; Dinardo, Joseph; Barr, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Electron beam melting (EBM) is a powder bed fusion-based additive manufacturing process in which selective areas of a layer of powder are melted with an electron beam and a part is built layer by layer. EBM scanning strategies within the Arcam AB® A2X EBM system rely upon governing relationships between the scan length of the beam path, the beam current, and speed. As a result, a large parameter process window exists for Ti-6Al-4V. Many studies have reviewed various properties of EBM materials without accounting for this effect. The work performed in this study demonstrates the relationship between scan length and the resulting density, microstructure, and mechanical properties of EBM-produced Ti-6Al-4V using the scanning strategies set by the EBM control software. This emphasizes the criticality of process knowledge and careful experimental design, and provides an alternate explanation for reported orientation-influenced strength differences.

  3. Microstructures and wear properties of surface treated Ti–36Nb–2Ta–3Zr–0.35O alloy by electron beam melting (EBM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zijin [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Yong, E-mail: yonliu@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wu, Hong, E-mail: wuhong927@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhang, Weidong [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Guo, Wei [Department of Microstructure Physics and Alloy Design, Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Düsseldorf 40237 (Germany); Tang, Huiping; Liu, Nan [State Key Laboratory of Porous Metals Materials, Northwest Institute for Non-Ferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Gum metal was firstly modified via electron beam melting method. • The surface hardness and the wear resistance of TNTZO alloys are significantly increased through EBM process. • The phase constitutions and microstructural features of EBM treated TNTZO alloys are sensitive to the processing parameters. • The relationship between the wear property and the surface microstructure of TNTZO alloy is discussed. - Abstract: Ti–36Nb–2Ta–3Zr–0.35O (wt.%) (TNTZO, also called gum metal) alloy was surface treated by electron beam melting (EBM), in order to improve wear properties. The microstructures and phase constitutions of the treated surface were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The results showed that the martensitic phase and dendrites were formed from the β phase alloy after the EBM treatment, and microstructures in the surface changed with the processing parameters. Compared with the untreated TNTZO alloy, the surface modified TNTZO alloys exhibited higher nano-hardness, 8.0 GPa, and the wear loss was also decreased apparently. The samples treated at a scanning speed of 0.5 m/s exhibited the highest wear resistance due to the fast cooling rate and the precipitation of acicular α″ phase. The relationship between the wear property and the surface microstructure of TNTZO alloy was discussed.

  4. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump In This Topic Breastfeeding ... healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications ... write(' Feeding your baby ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Common illnesses ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Family health & safety ') ...

  6. Does integrated training in evidence-based medicine (EBM) in the general practice (GP) specialty training improve EBM behaviour in daily clinical practice? A cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, M.F.; Bartelink, M.E.L.; Zuithoff, N.P.A.; van der Heijden, G.J.M.G.; de Wit, N.J.; Hoes, A.W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an important element in the general practice (GP) specialty training. Studies show that integrating EBM training into clinical practice brings larger benefits than stand-alone modules. However, these studies have neither been performed in GP nor assessed E

  7. Does integrated training in evidence-based medicine (EBM) in the general practice (GP) specialty training improve EBM behaviour in daily clinical practice? : A cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, M F; Bartelink, M E L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/100449069; Zuithoff, N P A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313995494; van der Heijden, G J M G; de Wit, N J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/100525393; Hoes, A W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/101111762

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an important element in the general practice (GP) specialty training. Studies show that integrating EBM training into clinical practice brings larger benefits than stand-alone modules. However, these studies have neither been performed in GP nor assessed

  8. Improved health or improved decision making? The ethical goals of EBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mona

    2011-10-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is frequently portrayed as a value-free approach to knowing what kinds of treatment 'really work.' Since practitioners should help patients to improve their health, and EBM tells us which interventions will work, then it follows that we must practice EBM, offering only those interventions supported by evidence. The primary goal of EBM, then, is an ethical one - to improve health. More recently, EBM's authors have also committed themselves to 'shared decision making' in which evidence plays a role in the clinical encounter, but where patients, motivated by their own values, should have final decision-making authority. Envisioned this way, strengthening the informed consent process, rather than improved health per se, is viewed as the goal of EBM. In this paper, I will explore this shift in EBM's ethics from the goal of improved health towards the goal of strengthened informed consent. Drawing upon data from a qualitative enquiry of scholars involved in the development of EBM, I will argue that EBM is now committed to both of these ethical goals. Where they conflict, the aim of the intervention will determine which goal practitioners should pursue. Having increased the ethical complexity of EBM, we are left with the question of whether EBM would still be judged a success if it did not lead to much in the way of improvements in health, but primarily strengthened informed consent. This paper will conclude by arguing that this more nuanced version of EBM's ethics accurately reflects the dynamics of real clinical practice but undermines the original, perceived need for EBM.

  9. Undergraduate medical students' perceptions, attitudes, and competencies in evidence-based medicine (EBM), and their understanding of EBM reality in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahdab, Fares; Firwana, Belal; Hasan, Rim; Sonbol, Mohamad Bassam; Fares, Munes; Alnahhas, Iyad; Sabouni, Ammar; Ferwana, Mazen

    2012-08-12

    Teaching evidence-based medicine (EBM) should be evaluated and guided by evidence of its own effectiveness. However, no data are available on adoption of EBM by Syrian undergraduate, postgraduate, or practicing physicians. In fact, the teaching of EBM in Syria is not yet a part of undergraduate medical curricula. The authors evaluated education of evidence-based medicine through a two-day intensive training course. The authors evaluated education of evidence-based medicine through a two-day intensive training course that took place in 2011. The course included didactic lectures as well as interactive hands-on workshops on all topics of EBM. A comprehensive questionnaire, that included the Berlin questionnaire, was used to inspect medical students' awareness of, attitudes toward, and competencies' in EBM. According to students, problems facing proper EBM practice in Syria were the absence of the following: an EBM teaching module in medical school curriculum (94%), role models among professors and instructors (92%), a librarian (70%), institutional subscription to medical journals (94%), and sufficient IT hardware (58%). After the course, there was a statistically significant increase in medical students' perceived ability to go through steps of EBM, namely: formulating PICO questions (56.9%), searching for evidence (39.8%), appraising the evidence (27.3%), understanding statistics (48%), and applying evidence at point of care (34.1%). However, mean increase in Berlin scores after the course was 2.68, a non-statistically significant increase of 17.86%. The road to a better EBM reality in Syria starts with teaching EBM in medical school and developing the proper environment to facilitate transforming current medical education and practice to an evidence-based standard in Syria.

  10. Undergraduate medical students’ perceptions, attitudes, and competencies in evidence-based medicine (EBM), and their understanding of EBM reality in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Teaching evidence-based medicine (EBM) should be evaluated and guided by evidence of its own effectiveness. However, no data are available on adoption of EBM by Syrian undergraduate, postgraduate, or practicing physicians. In fact, the teaching of EBM in Syria is not yet a part of undergraduate medical curricula. The authors evaluated education of evidence-based medicine through a two-day intensive training course. Methods The authors evaluated education of evidence-based medicine through a two-day intensive training course that took place in 2011. The course included didactic lectures as well as interactive hands-on workshops on all topics of EBM. A comprehensive questionnaire, that included the Berlin questionnaire, was used to inspect medical students’ awareness of, attitudes toward, and competencies’ in EBM. Results According to students, problems facing proper EBM practice in Syria were the absence of the following: an EBM teaching module in medical school curriculum (94%), role models among professors and instructors (92%), a librarian (70%), institutional subscription to medical journals (94%), and sufficient IT hardware (58%). After the course, there was a statistically significant increase in medical students' perceived ability to go through steps of EBM, namely: formulating PICO questions (56.9%), searching for evidence (39.8%), appraising the evidence (27.3%), understanding statistics (48%), and applying evidence at point of care (34.1%). However, mean increase in Berlin scores after the course was 2.68, a non-statistically significant increase of 17.86%. Conclusion The road to a better EBM reality in Syria starts with teaching EBM in medical school and developing the proper environment to facilitate transforming current medical education and practice to an evidence-based standard in Syria. PMID:22882872

  11. Evidence-based medicine for medical students: introducing EBM in a primary care rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayley, William E

    2005-04-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) seeks to improve patients' lives by applying the best available evidence to decisions affecting health outcomes. Since medical students often do not appreciate the value of an evidence-based approach to medicine when they enter third-year clinical training, a curriculum was developed introducing third-year students to the practice of EBM during a primary care clinical rotation. Twenty-seven students over 4 rotations participated in the series of 6 hour-long seminars, and 8 items from a 27-item questionnaire were used to measure the impact on students' self reported understanding and use of EBM. Responses to questionnaires given before and after completion of the curriculum documented improved self-reported understanding of EBM and improved self-reported comfort with critical appraisal. A seminar series introducing EBM in a primary care rotation improved students' familiarity with and receptivity to use of EBM.

  12. Ambulatory Morning Report: A Case-Based Method of Teaching EBM Through Experiential Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Gina L; Visintainer, Paul F; Kleppel, Reva; Rothberg, Michael B

    2016-02-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) skills are important to daily practice, but residents generally feel unskilled incorporating EBM into practice. The Kolb experiential learning theory, as applied to curricular planning, offers a unique methodology to help learners build an EBM skill set based on clinical experiences. We sought to blend the learner-centered, case-based merits of the morning report with an experientially based EBM curriculum. We describe and evaluate a patient-centered ambulatory morning report combining the User's Guides to the Medical Literature approach to EBM and experiential learning theory in the internal medicine department at Baystate Medical Center. The Kolb experiential learning theory postulates that experience transforms knowledge; within that premise we designed a curriculum to build EBM skills incorporating residents' patient encounters. By developing structured clinical questions based on recent clinical problems, residents activate prior knowledge. Residents acquire new knowledge through selection and evaluation of an article that addresses the structured clinical questions. Residents then apply and use new knowledge in future patient encounters. To assess the curriculum, we designed an 18-question EBM test, which addressed applied knowledge and EBM skills based on the User's Guides approach. Of the 66 residents who could participate in the curriculum, 61 (92%) completed the test. There was a modest improvement in EBM knowledge, primarily during the first year of training. Our experiential curriculum teaches EBM skills essential to clinical practice. The curriculum differs from traditional EBM curricula in that ours blends experiential learning with an EBM skill set; learners use new knowledge in real time.

  13. Improved quality and more attractive work by applying EBM in disability evaluations: a qualitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, Jan L; Kok, Rob; Ketelaar, Sarah M; Smits, Paul B A; van Dijk, Frank J H; Verbeek, Jos H

    2016-02-29

    The uptake of evidence in practice by physicians, even if they are trained in the systematic method of evidence-based medicine (EBM), remains difficult to improve. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions and experiences of physicians doing disability evaluations regarding motivators and preconditions for the implementation of EBM in daily practice. This qualitative study was nested in a cluster randomized controlled trial (Trial registration NTR1767; 20-apr-2009) evaluating the effects of training in EBM. The 45 physicians that participated received a comprehensive 6-months training program in EBM of which the last course day included audio-recorded interviews in groups. During these interviews participating physicians discussed perceptions and experiences regarding EBM application in daily practice. In an iterative process we searched for common motivators or preconditions for the implementation of EBM. Three main concepts or themes emerged after analyzing the transcriptions of the discussions: 1) improved quality of physicians' actions, such as clients benefiting from the application of EBM; 2) improved work attractiveness of physicians; and 3) preconditions that have to be met in order to work in an evidence-based manner including professional competence, facilitating material conditions and organizational support and demands. Physicians trained in EBM are motivated to use EBM because they perceive it as a factor improving the quality of their work and making their work more attractive. In addition to personal investments and gains, organizational support should further facilitate the uptake of evidence in practice.

  14. Making evidence-based medicine (EBM) doable in developing countries: a locally-tailored workshop for EBM in a Pakistani institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zareen; Iqbal, Mobeen; Hashim, Jawad; Quadri, Mujtaba

    2009-05-01

    To demonstrate that evidence-based medicine (EBM) training can be imparted in developing countries using minimal resources. Development of a minimal cost workshop with validation of gain in EBM skills using the Berlin questionnaire. Teaching hospital in Pakistan. Multidisciplinary faculty from The Shifa College of Medicine and Nursing, Pakistan. A 14-hour locally-tailored McMaster-style workshop, using a problem-based, learner-focused small group format, with pre- and post-workshop evaluation of EBM skills. Analysis of the pre- and post-Berlin questionnaires of the participants revealed that the pre-workshop Berlin questionnaire score for the group was 4.7+/-2.3, with a post-workshop Berlin score of 7.6+/-1.0 (pEBM workshops can be locally-tailored in developing countries, where access to such workshops is generally not available. Workshops can serve to promote EBM skills in faculty, who can then help to disseminate and model concepts. The process increases awareness and interest in EBM, which in this case resulted in formation of a national platform for EBM.

  15. Does integrated training in evidence-based medicine (EBM) in the general practice (GP) specialty training improve EBM behaviour in daily clinical practice? A cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortekaas, M F; Bartelink, M E L; Zuithoff, N P A; van der Heijden, G J M G; de Wit, N J; Hoes, A W

    2016-09-13

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an important element in the general practice (GP) specialty training. Studies show that integrating EBM training into clinical practice brings larger benefits than stand-alone modules. However, these studies have neither been performed in GP nor assessed EBM behaviour of former trainees in daily clinical practice. GP specialty training in the Netherlands. All 82 third year GP trainees who started their final third year in 2011 were approached for inclusion, of whom 79 (96%) participated: 39 in the intervention group and 40 in the control group. Integrated EBM training, in which EBM is embedded closely within the clinical context by joint assignments for the trainee and supervisor in daily practice, and teaching sessions based on dilemmas from actual patient consultations. Stand-alone EBM training at the institute only. Our primary outcome was EBM behaviour, assessed by measuring guideline adherence (incorporating rational, motivated deviation) and information-seeking behaviour. Our secondary outcomes were EBM attitude and EBM knowledge. Data were acquired using logbooks and questionnaires, respectively. Analyses were performed using mixed models. Logbook data were available from 76 (96%) of the participating trainees at baseline (7614 consultations), 60 (76%) at the end of the third year (T1, 4973 consultations) and 53 (67%) 1 year after graduation (T2, 3307 consultations). We found no significant differences in outcomes between the 2 groups, with relative risks for guideline adherence varying between 0.96 and 0.99 (95% CI 0.86 to 1.11) at T1, and 0.99 and 1.10 (95% CI 0.92 to 1.25) at T2, and for information-seeking behaviour between 0.97 and 1.16 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.91) and 0.90 and 1.10 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.32), respectively. Integrated EBM training compared with stand-alone EBM training does not improve EBM behaviour, attitude or knowledge of (future) GPs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  16. Mechanical evaluation of porous titanium (Ti6Al4V) structures with electron beam melting (EBM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Jayanthi; Starly, Binil; Raman, Shivakumar; Christensen, Andy

    2010-04-01

    Patient specific porous implants for the reconstruction of craniofacial defects have gained importance due to their better performance over their generic counterparts. The recent introduction of electron beam melting (EBM) for the processing of titanium has led to a one step fabrication of porous custom titanium implants with controlled porosity to meet the requirements of the anatomy and functions at the region of implantation. This paper discusses an image based micro-structural analysis and the mechanical characterization of porous Ti6Al4V structures fabricated using the EBM rapid manufacturing process. SEM studies have indicated the complete melting of the powder material with no evidence of poor inter-layer bonding. Micro-CT scan analysis of the samples indicate well formed titanium struts and fully interconnected pores with porosities varying from 49.75%-70.32%. Compression tests of the samples showed effective stiffness values ranging from 0.57(+/-0.05)-2.92(+/-0.17)GPa and compressive strength values of 7.28(+/-0.93)-163.02(+/-11.98)MPa. For nearly the same porosity values of 49.75% and 50.75%, with a variation in only the strut thickness in the sample sets, the compressive stiffness and strength decreased significantly from 2.92 GPa to 0.57 GPa (80.5% reduction) and 163.02 MPa to 7.28 MPa (93.54 % reduction) respectively. The grain density of the fabricated Ti6Al4V structures was found to be 4.423 g/cm(3) equivalent to that of dense Ti6Al4V parts fabricated using conventional methods. In conclusion, from a mechanical strength viewpoint, we have found that the porous structures produced by the electron beam melting process present a promising rapid manufacturing process for the direct fabrication of customized titanium implants for enabling personalized medicine. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... and your partner to bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during ... life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk is so good for babies. You and your ...

  18. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... sign in | my dashboard | sign out our cause health topics stories & media research & professionals get involved Search ... your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  19. Your Premature Baby

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    ... birth defects, premature birth and infant mortality. Solving premature birth Featured articles Accomplishments and lessons learned since ... Complications & Loss > Preterm labor & premature birth > Premature babies Premature babies E-mail to a friend Please fill ...

  20. Babies Need Tummy Time

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    ... so your baby can start to sit up, crawl, and walk Improves your baby's motor skills (using ... Health and Human Services. Home About SIDS/Safe Infant Sleep Campaign Materials Explore the Campaign News & Media ...

  1. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & ...

  2. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... threaten our babies. We help moms have full-term pregnancies and healthy babies. If something goes wrong, ... contact donate © 2017 March of Dimes Foundation Privacy, terms and notices Get to know us Prematurity Research ...

  3. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your ... health & safety ') document.write('') } Ask our experts! Have a question? ...

  4. MotherToBaby

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    ... experts behind the most up-to-date research! Hurricane Harvey & Baby Are you Pregnant (or Breastfeeding) and Affected by Hurricane Harvey? MotherToBaby experts have answers to your questions. Get ...

  5. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... health research Prematurity research centers For providers NICU Family Support® Prematurity Campaign Collaborative Info for your patients ...

  6. Diapering Your Baby

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    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... bebé New parents spend a lot of time changing their baby. Indeed, babies may use 10 diapers ...

  7. Breastfeed Your Baby

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    ... In fact, giving babies things like rice cereal, baby food, or formula during the first 6 months can ... may help answer some of your questions. My baby really doesn't need other food or liquid for the first 6 months? Right. ...

  8. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... to bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk is so good for babies. You and your baby may need time and practice to get comfortable breastfeeding, but you’ll get ...

  9. Battered Baby: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We report on a three-year-old child, a case of battered baby syndrome. Case Presentation A three-year-old female child was brought with multiple bruises, fracture of left femur and features of raised intracranial tension. The etiology was unclear at presentation. Inconsistencies in history given by the mother, a background of poverty and single parenthood, presence of multiple bruises over the body, multiple infarcts in Computerized Tomography (CT scan, absence of external calvarial injuries and finally subdural hematoma in the autopsy report led to the diagnosis of child abuse. Conclusions Every clinician must be alert to the possibility of battered baby in a child with multiple injuries.

  10. Factors influencing the EBM behaviour of GP trainers: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Pas, E; van Dijk, N; Bartelink, M E L; Wieringa-De Waard, M

    2013-01-01

    General practitioner (GP) trainees state that their trainers are not consistent in using evidence-based medicine (EBM) or are even dismissive of it. As trainers are important role models in the Dutch GP training system this could have a large influence on the EBM training of GP trainees. To establish the motivations and barriers of Dutch GP trainers in using EBM. A questionnaire on personal characteristics, knowledge, skills (Berlin, score 0-15) and attitude (McColl, VAS score 0-100), and statements about EBM barriers were presented to 106 GP trainers. Additionally, three focus group sessions with trainers (n = 30) were held. Knowledge and skills were less than half correct (mean 6.1, standard deviation (SD) 2.9); the overall score on attitude was 58.8 (SD 9.4). Factor analysis showed four categories of barriers: EBM competence (mean 3.5 (SD 0.8)), search activities (mean 3.5 (SD 0.8)), motivation (mean 3.8 (SD 0.7)) and time (mean 2.5 (SD 0.9)). After analysis of the focus group sessions, five categories of motivations and barriers predominated: EBM competence, attitude and behaviour, sources, time and logistics. GP trainers experience motivations in EBM; however, these motivations can also be barriers, depending on the trainer's level of knowledge and attitude.

  11. Validation of an Evidence-Based Medicine Critically Appraised Topic Presentation Evaluation Tool (EBM C-PET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Hans B; Frohna, John G; Giudice, Erin L

    2013-06-01

    Competence in evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an important clinical skill. Pediatrics residents are expected to acquire competence in EBM during their education, yet few validated tools exist to assess residents' EBM skills. We sought to develop a reliable tool to evaluate residents' EBM skills in the critical appraisal of a research article, the development of a written EBM critically appraised topic (CAT) synopsis, and a presentation of the findings to colleagues. Instrument development used a modified Delphi technique. We defined the skills to be assessed while reviewing (1) a written CAT synopsis and (2) a resident's EBM presentation. We defined skill levels for each item using the Dreyfus and Dreyfus model of skill development and created behavioral anchors using a frame-of-reference training technique to describe performance for each skill level. We evaluated the assessment instrument's psychometric properties, including internal consistency and interrater reliability. The EBM Critically Appraised Topic Presentation Evaluation Tool (EBM C-PET) is composed of 14 items that assess residents' EBM and global presentation skills. Resident presentations (N  =  27) and the corresponding written CAT synopses were evaluated using the EBM C-PET. The EBM C-PET had excellent internal consistency (Cronbach α  =  0.94). Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess interrater reliability. Intraclass correlation coefficients for individual items ranged from 0.31 to 0.74; the average intraclass correlation coefficients for the 14 items was 0.67. We identified essential components of an assessment tool for an EBM CAT synopsis and presentation with excellent internal consistency and a good level of interrater reliability across 3 different institutions. The EBM C-PET is a reliable tool to document resident competence in higher-level EBM skills.

  12. Health Issues of Premature Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Health Issues of Premature Babies Page Content Because premature babies are born before they are physically ready ... associated with prematurity. Because of these health concerns, premature babies are given extra medical attention and assistance ...

  13. Bringing Up Baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespeca, Sue McCleaf

    1999-01-01

    Presents recommendations for developing sound baby collections that include selecting books that: have designs infants are attracted to, provide tactile experiences, incorporate rhymes, have rounded edges (board books), and can be cleaned (cloth books). Includes an alphabetical list of good books for babies, as well as books on planning a lapsit…

  14. Your Colicky Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... movement of the car are often calming. Play music — some babies respond to sound as well as movement. Place your baby in the same room as a running clothes dryer, white noise machine, or vacuum — some infants find the constant ...

  15. [Computerized decision support systems: EBM at the bedside].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobussi, Matteo; Banzi, Rita; Moja, Lorenzo; Bonovas, Stefanos; González-Lorenzo, Marien; Liberati, Elisa Giulia; Polo Friz, Hernan; Nanni, Oriana; Mangia, Massimo; Ruggiero, Francesca

    2016-11-01

    One of the aims of Evidence-Based Medicine is to improve quality and appropriateness of care by the expedition of the knowledge transfer process. Computerized Decision Support Systems (CDSSs) are computer programs that provide alerts to the prescribing doctor directly at the moment of medical examination. In fact, alerts are integrated within the single patient electronic health record. CDSS based on the best available and updated evidence and guidelines may be an efficient tool to facilitate the transfer of the latest results from clinical research directly at the bedside, thus supporting decision-making. The CODES (COmputerized DEcision Support) trial is a research program funded by the Italian Ministry of Health and the Lombardy Region. It aims to evaluate the feasibility of the implementation of a CDSS at the hospital level and to assess its efficacy in daily clinical practice. The CODES project includes two pragmatic RCTs testing a CDSS (i.e. the EBMeDS - MediDSS) in two large Italian hospitals: the first is a general hospital in Vimercate (Lombardy), the second is an oncologic research center in Meldola (Emilia Romagna). The CDSS supports a full spectrum of decisions: therapy, drug interactions, diagnosis, and management of health care services are covered by a hundreds of reminders. However only few reminders are activated per patient, highlighting crucial problems in the delivery of high-quality care. The two trials have similar design and primary outcome, the rate at which alerts detected by the software are resolved by a decision of the clinicians. The project also includes the assessment of barriers and facilitators in the adoption of these new technologies by hospital staff members and the retrospective evaluation of the repeated risks in prescription habits. The trials are ongoing and currently more than 10,000 patients have been randomized. The qualitative analysis revealed a progressive shift in the perception of the tool. Doctors are now seeing it

  16. Who's afraid of EBM? Medical professionalism from the perspective of evidence-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloch, Sabine

    2017-03-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) and medical professionalism are two prominent notions in current medical debates. However, proponents of professionalism fear a restriction in doctors' freedom to make their best decisions for individual patients caused by the influence of EBM and highly standardised decision procedures. The challenge which EBM allegedly poses to physicians' discretion forms the starting point for an analysis of the relationship between professionalism, as an inherent value system of medical practice, and EBM, as an approach to optimise the decision-making for individual patients. The analysis starts with a brief conceptual clarification of the ambiguous term "professionalism". It then focuses on three key aspects of medical professionalism which may come into conflict with the basic tenets of EBM. The potential tensions between (a) professional autonomy and clinical practice guidelines, (b) individualised care and standardisation, and (c) esoteric authority and public accountability are analysed and a suggestion for reconcilement regarding each point is made. The article closes with a summary on how a better reflection on medical professionalism may help towards a fuller understanding of EBM and vice versa.

  17. Professional networks and EBM use: a study of inter-physician interaction across levels of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascia, Daniele; Dandi, Roberto; Di Vincenzo, Fausto

    2014-10-01

    Physicians around the globe are increasingly encouraged to adopt guidelines, protocols and other scientific material when making clinical decisions. Extant research suggests that the clinicians' propensity to use evidence-based medicine (EBM) is strongly associated with the professional collaborative networks they establish and maintain with peers. In this paper we explore whether and how the connectedness of primary care physicians with colleagues working in hospital settings is related to their frequency of EBM use in clinical practice. We used survey data from 104 pediatricians working in five local health authorities in the Italian NHS. Social network and attributional data concerning single physicians, as well as their self-reported frequency of EBM use, were collected for three major pathologies in pediatric care: asthmatic, gastro-enteric and urinary pathologies. Ordered regression analysis was employed. Our findings documented a positive association between the number of physicians' relationships with hospital colleagues and the frequency of use EBM. Results also indicated that physicians' organizational affiliations influence the frequency of EBM use. Finally, contrary to our expectations, it was found that clinicians' affiliation to formal collaborative arrangements is at odds with the likelihood of reporting higher frequency of EBM use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Challenging the epistemological foundations of EBM: what kind of knowledge does clinical practice require?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Katrina J; Rogers, Wendy A

    2012-10-01

    This paper raises questions about the epistemological foundations of evidence-based medicine (EBM). We argue that EBM is based upon reliabilist epistemological assumptions, and that this is appropriate - we should focus on identifying the most reliable processes for generating and collecting medical knowledge. However, we note that this should not be reduced to narrow questions about which research methodologies are the best for gathering evidence. Reliable processes for generating medical evidence might lie outside of formal research methods. We also question the notion of the knower that is assumed by EBM. We argue that EBM assumes an enlightenment conception of knowers as autonomous, substitutable individuals. This conception is troubled by the way that clinicians learn the role of anecdote in health care and the role of patient choice, all of which bring into play features of clinicians and patients as situated individuals with particular backgrounds and experiences. EBM's enlightenment conception of the knower is also troubled by aspects of the way evidence is produced. Given these limitations, we argue that EBM should retain its reliabilist bent, but should look beyond formal research methodologies in identifying processes that yield reliable evidence for clinical practice. We suggest looking to feminist epistemology, with its focus on the standpoints of individual situated knowers, and the role of social context in determining what counts as knowledge. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Your Premature Baby: Low Birthweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many low-birthweight babies are born prematurely, many risk factors for having a low-birthweight baby are the same for preterm labor and ... risk for having a low-birthweight baby. Medical risk factors for having a low-birthweight baby Preterm labor . This is labor that starts ...

  20. Can Baby Hear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Can Baby Hear? Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Photo courtesy of NIH/NIDCD "Yes!" says newborn hearing screening At dawn on January 1, 2007, Evelyn ...

  1. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ...

  2. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Fighting premature birth About us Annual report Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently ... for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk ...

  3. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for ... a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! ...

  4. Cosleeping and Your Baby

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    ... don't have openings or cutouts that could trap your baby's head. Make sure your mattress fits ... Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  5. Bonding with Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in infant massage in your area. Breastfeeding and bottle-feeding are both natural times for bonding. Infants respond ... activities include: participating together in labor and delivery feeding ( breast or bottle ); sometimes dad forms a special bond with baby ...

  6. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... and support to get started. Learn what you can do if you have breastfeeding problems or discomforts . ... and families. Ask a question Our health experts can answer questions about your pregnancy or baby's health. ...

  7. "The Water Babies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavis, Q. D.

    1976-01-01

    Describes the loss of esteem as a children's classic of "The Water Babies," discusses the literary justification for keeping it in circulation, and offers suggestions for using it in children's education. (JM)

  8. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... on Racial and Ethnic Disparities March of Dimes Plan Aims to Make United States a Leader in ... for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk ...

  9. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... answer questions about your pregnancy or baby's health. Go Stay in touch Connect with us to hear how you can make a difference and let your friends know you are helping end premature ...

  10. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... bottle-feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is ... and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump In This Topic ...

  11. "Us and them": a social network analysis of physicians' professional networks and their attitudes towards EBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascia, Daniele; Cicchetti, Americo; Damiani, Gianfranco

    2013-10-22

    Extant research suggests that there is a strong social component to Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) adoption since professional networks amongst physicians are strongly associated with their attitudes towards EBM. Despite this evidence, it is still unknown whether individual attitudes to use scientific evidence in clinical decision-making influence the position that physicians hold in their professional network. This paper explores how physicians' attitudes towards EBM is related to the network position they occupy within healthcare organizations. Data pertain to a sample of Italian physicians, whose professional network relationships, demographics and work-profile characteristics were collected. A social network analysis was performed to capture the structural importance of physicians in the collaboration network by the means of a core-periphery analysis and the computation of network centrality indicators. Then, regression analysis was used to test the association between the network position of individual clinicians and their attitudes towards EBM. Findings documented that the overall network structure is made up of a dense cohesive core of physicians and of less connected clinicians who occupy the periphery. A negative association between the physicians' attitudes towards EBM and the coreness they exhibited in the professional network was also found. Network centrality indicators confirmed these results documenting a negative association between physicians' propensity to use EBM and their structural importance in the professional network. Attitudes that physicians show towards EBM are related to the part (core or periphery) of the professional networks to which they belong as well as to their structural importance. By identifying virtuous attitudes and behaviors of professionals within their organizations, policymakers and executives may avoid marginalization and stimulate integration and continuity of care, both within and across the boundaries of healthcare

  12. Learning results of GP trainers in a blended learning course on EBM: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Pas, Ellen; Wieringa-de Waard, Margreet; de Ruijter, Wouter; van Dijk, Nynke

    2015-06-12

    General practitioners (GPs) experience barriers to the use of evidence-based medicine (EBM) related to a negative attitude and to insufficient knowledge and skills. We therefore designed a blended learning intervention to develop the competence of GP trainers in EBM. This study investigated the effectiveness of this intervention in increasing the trainers' EBM competencies (i.e. knowledge, skills, attitude and behaviour). In total 129 GP trainers participated in the blended learning course on EBM consisting of four 3-h face-to-face meetings and an intensive preparatory e-course before each meeting over a 12-month period. The primary outcomes were changes in knowledge and skills (Fresno test), changes in attitude (McColl test) and intentions to change behaviour. Secondary outcomes were changes in self-rated knowledge, skills and attitude, and the relation between personal characteristics and changes in knowledge, skills and attitude. Data were collected before the start of the intervention (T0), at the end of the last day of the intervention (T1) and four months after the end of the intervention (T2). The mean changes in scores on the Fresno test were ∆T1-T0 = 40.8 (SD ±36.7, p blended learning course on EBM for GP trainers induces an increase in knowledge and skills that, although decreased, remains after four months. Attitude and behaviour towards EBM show no differences before and after the intervention, although GPs' intention to use EBM more often in their practice is present.

  13. Viewpoint: envisioning the successful integration of EBM and humanism in the clinical encounter: fantasy or fallacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Gary

    2008-03-01

    Some authors challenge the dominance of evidence-based medicine (EBM) in current medical practice because of its tendency to disregard the patient in the clinical process and thus distort the clinician's view of the patient as the primary focus. This tendency to "scientize" the clinician-patient encounter threatens to seriously reduce the role of humanistic elements in medicine. Although the pendulum shift toward the epistemology of EBM is worrisome, it is only one aspect of the problems facing modern medicine in the process of discovering-or rediscovering-the human dimension in medical care. The author uses his own and others' interpretation of the philosophy of an underappreciated thinker, Michael Polanyi, as a springboard to envision the research required for the development of models of medical education and clinical practice that appropriately acknowledge both EBM and humanism. Striking the right balance between these two elements will require much additional research, but those who simply demonize EBM as the major barrier to humanistic practice fail to appreciate the essential role for critical thinking in responding to the demands of patient safety and health care quality. All may agree that the current medical landscape needs immediate attention but this author argues that such work needs to use the available tools such as EBM and Polanyi's Theory of Tacit Knowing as well as products of future research efforts. Failure to do less will prevent us from reaching the ideal of a truly humanistic encounter firmly embedded in practices that maximize patient safety and health care quality.

  14. Real-time EBM: from bed board to keyboard and back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rachel; Helenius, Ira M; Schimming, Laura M; Takahara, Nogusa; Kronish, Ian; Korenstein, Deborah

    2007-12-01

    To practice Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), physicians must quickly retrieve evidence to inform medical decisions. Internal Medicine (IM) residents receive little formal education in electronic database searching, and have identified poor searching skills as a barrier to practicing EBM. To design and implement a database searching tutorial for IM residents on inpatient rotations and to evaluate its impact on residents' skill and comfort searching MEDLINE and filtered EBM resources. Randomized controlled trial. Residents randomized to the searching tutorial met for up to 6 1-hour small group sessions to search for answers to questions about current hospitalized patients. Second- and 3rd-year IM residents. Residents in both groups completed an Objective Structured Searching Evaluation (OSSE), searching for primary evidence to answer 5 clinical questions. OSSE outcomes were the number of successful searches, search times, and techniques utilized. Participants also completed self-assessment surveys measuring frequency and comfort using EBM databases. During the OSSE, residents who participated in the intervention utilized more searching techniques overall (p EBM searching tutorial improved searching techniques of IM residents and resulted in increased comfort with MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library, but did not impact overall searching success.

  15. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) for undergraduate medical students: A six-step, integrative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwa, Hani; Abdelaziz, Adel

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in practicing evidence-based medicine (EBM) to provide valid and up-to-date information about health problems and procedures for solving these problems. However, studying EBM among other medical education disciplines remains unsatisfactory. To design and pilot a basic course on EBM for undergraduate medical students in order to raise the awareness of the Saudi medical education community about this discipline. The developed course targeted undergraduate Year 4 medical students at Ibn Sina National College for Medical Studies in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The course was integrated longitudinally into ?Integrated Multisystem Module? of Year 4. Students and faculty perceptions were evaluated for program evaluation purposes. Course design was based on Kern et al. six-step approach for curriculum development. Students overall perception of this course was positive except for some points related to the time allocated and their training on using evidence databases. Faculty members who participated in implementing the course perceived it positively. Teaching EBM is recommended and applicable. It is not resource-intensive, and can be conducted through developing and integrating EBM courses in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Students and teachers agree upon the need and importance of teaching such discipline.

  16. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.

  17. Dinosaur Eggs and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Hirsch, Karl F.; Horner, John R.

    1996-01-01

    In the last couple of decades the study of dinosaur eggs and babies has proved to be one of the most exciting and profitable areas of dinosaur research. This is the first book solely devoted to this topic and reviews, in scientific detail, our present state of knowledge about this exciting area of palaeontology. Chapters in the book discuss all aspects of the science including the occurrence of eggs, nests and baby skeletons, descriptive osteology of juvenile skeletons, comparative histology of juvenile bone, analyses of eggs and egg shells, palaeoenvironments of nesting sites, nesting behaviour and developmental growth of baby dinosaurs. The volume will be an invaluable addition to the book collections of vertebrate palaeontologists and their graduate students.

  18. Refining knowledge, attitude and practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) among pharmacy students for professional challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Gharbieh, Eman; Khalidi, Doaa Al; Baig, Mirza R; Khan, Saeed A

    2015-04-01

    Practicing evidence based medicine (EBM) is a professional need for the future clinical pharmacist in UAE and around the world. An attempt was made to evaluate pharmacy student's knowledge, attitude and proficiency in the practice of EBM. A within-subject study design with pre and post survey and skill test were conducted using case based practice of EBM through a validated questionnaire. The results were tabulated and there was a statistically significant increase in pharmacy students' perceived ability to go through steps of EBM, namely: formulating PICO questions (95.3%), searching for evidence (97%), appraising the evidence (81%), understanding statistics (78.1%), and applying evidence at point of care (81.2%). In this study, workshops and (Problem Based Learning) PBLs were used as a module of EBM teaching and practices, which has been shown to be an effective educational method in terms of improving students' skills, knowledge and attitude toward EBM. Incorporating hands on experience, PBLs will become an impetus for developing EBM skills and critical appraisal of research evidence alongside routine clinical practice. This integration would constitute the cornerstone in lifting EBM in UAE up to the needed standards and would enable pharmacy students to become efficient pharmacists that rely on evidence in their health practice.

  19. School Funding in Ohio: From "DeRolph" to the Evidence-Based Model (EBM) and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittner, Nicholas A.; Carleton, Melissa M.; Casto, Cassandra

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in 1997, a series of Ohio Supreme Court decisions ruled that Ohio's school foundation-based funding system was unconstitutional. Despite judicially mandated reform directives, little change was made until recently when Ohio adopted a modified Evidence-Based Model (EBM) into its statutory funding scheme. Ohio's EBM is intended to remedy…

  20. Microstructures and wear properties of surface treated Ti-36Nb-2Ta-3Zr-0.35O alloy by electron beam melting (EBM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zijin; Liu, Yong; Wu, Hong; Zhang, Weidong; Guo, Wei; Tang, Huiping; Liu, Nan

    2015-12-01

    Ti-36Nb-2Ta-3Zr-0.35O (wt.%) (TNTZO, also called gum metal) alloy was surface treated by electron beam melting (EBM), in order to improve wear properties. The microstructures and phase constitutions of the treated surface were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The results showed that the martensitic phase and dendrites were formed from the β phase alloy after the EBM treatment, and microstructures in the surface changed with the processing parameters. Compared with the untreated TNTZO alloy, the surface modified TNTZO alloys exhibited higher nano-hardness, 8.0 GPa, and the wear loss was also decreased apparently. The samples treated at a scanning speed of 0.5 m/s exhibited the highest wear resistance due to the fast cooling rate and the precipitation of acicular α″ phase. The relationship between the wear property and the surface microstructure of TNTZO alloy was discussed.

  1. Feeding patterns and diet -- babies and infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000712.htm Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants To use ... prevent childhood obesity Alternative names Babies and infants - feeding; Diet - age appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies ...

  2. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How To Feed Your Baby Either breast- or bottle-feeding works well for babies with heart problems, but ... do best with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is ...

  3. Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these questions: Has your baby been sick? A couple of days of not eating, especially if combined ... is a fascinating place, and your baby is learning new things every day. Keep distractions at a ...

  4. Assessing vision in a baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bowman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Don’t be anxious about examining a baby. If the baby is awake and attentive, there is a lot you can find out by asking the parents and by simply observing the baby’s reactions.

  5. Healthy Smile for Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your baby’s gums or brush your baby’s teeth, give your baby healthy foods, and take your baby to the dentist by the time ... they have teeth, you should clean their gums. Give your baby a healthy start! Here are tips ... healthy. Take Care of Your Baby’s Mouth m Clean your ...

  6. Your Baby's Growth: 3 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Your Baby's Growth: 3 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Baby's Growth: 3 Months Print A A A What's in ... months of life are a period of rapid growth. Your baby will gain about 1 to 1½ ...

  7. Salmonella from Baby Turtles

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-09

    Dr. Stacey Bosch, a veterinarian with CDC, discusses her article on Salmonella infections associated with baby turtles.  Created: 1/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/9/2017.

  8. Math: "Baby Research"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb-Lundberg, Kristina

    1976-01-01

    The concept of "baby research" signifies a playful investigation that takes place at a child's initiative, carried out with freedom and joy, without specific knowledge of preconceived ideas of where it will lead. A joyous firsthand experience with Cuisenaire rods is described by a teacher who once disliked teaching mathematics.…

  9. Shaken baby syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Still, it is a form of child abuse . Injuries are most likely to happen when the baby is shaken and then the ... or tossing the child in the air, or jogging with the child. It also ... other types of head injuries, although these are often minor.

  10. The status of marine and coastal EBM among a large sample of U.S. federal programs: a social network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Apa, A.; Fullerton, A.; Schwing, F. B.; Brady, M.

    2016-12-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) is an integrated management approach that considers the entire ecosystem, including humans, across multiple sectors, with the goal to collectively manage natural resources, habitat, and species in a sustainable manner while maintaining ecosystem services to humans on the long-term. In the United States, the National Ocean Council (NOC) established a federal interagency subgroup (National Ocean Policy EBM-Subgroup) to provide policy advice on EBM strategies and technical representation from the federal agencies that are part of the NOC. As part of the NOP EBM-Subgroup effort, this study summarizes the status of EBM for several federal programs within the NOC agencies that implement or support marine and coastal EBM activities. Our objective was to provide an overview of the current state of practice among the many and varied U.S. federal programs employing EBM approaches in the ocean, coastal zone, and the Great Lakes. We used social network analysis techniques to explore similarities among programs in different topic areas (e.g., type of audience, partners, training, EBM best management practices and principles). Results highlight substantial differences in perceived and effective performances across programs, with Management programs showing a higher level of integration of EBM approaches than Non-Management programs. The use of EBM best management practices and principles among programs is unbalanced, with some key elements of EBM strategies less commonly employed in the management planning. This analysis identified gaps in the implementation of EBM strategies that can inform natural resource managers and planners

  11. [Scientability - a concept for the handling of homeopathic remedies by EbM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymayr, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EbM) has proved to be very useful in healthcare; thanks to its methodology the reliability of our knowledge of the benefits and harms of interventions can be assessed. This at least applies to interventions which are based on a plausible concept for their mechanism of action and which have already achieved positive effects in experiments and simple studies. However, for interventions whose concepts contradict scientific findings EbM has proved to be unsuitable; it has not been able to prevent that they are still regarded as effective amongst wide parts of the population and medical experts. Particularly homeopathy has managed to even present itself as scientifically justified by using EbM. With the aim of highlighting the speculative character of homeopathy and other procedures and of preventing EbM from getting damaged, the concept of scientability is introduced in this article. This concept only approves of clinical studies if the intervention that is to be tested does not contradict definite scientific findings. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. Physicians' propensity to collaborate and their attitude towards EBM: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascia, Daniele; Cicchetti, Americo; Fantini, Maria Pia; Damiani, Gianfranco; Ricciardi, Walter

    2011-07-25

    The healthcare management literature states that physicians often coordinate their activities within and between organizations through social networks. Previous studies have also documented the relationship between professional networks and physicians' attitudes toward evidence-based medicine (EBM). The present study sought associations between physicians' self-reported attitudes toward EBM and the formation of inter-physician collaborative network ties. Primary data were collected from 297 clinicians at six hospitals belonging to one of the largest local health units of the Italian National Health Service. Data collection used a survey questionnaire that inquired about professional networks and physicians' characteristics. Social network analysis was performed to describe inter-physician professional networks. Multiple regression quadratic assignment procedures were performed to assess the relationship between self-reported attitudes toward EBM and clinicians' propensity to collaborate. Physicians who reported similar attitudes toward EBM were more likely to exchange information and advice through collaborative relationships (β = 0.0198; p < 0.05). Similarities in other characteristics, such as field of specialization (β = 0.1988; p < 0.01), individual affiliations with hospital sites (β = 0.0845; p < 0.01), and organizational clinical directorates (β = 0.0459; p < 0.01), were also significantly related to physicians' propensity to collaborate. Communities of practice within healthcare organizations are likely to contain separate clusters of physicians whose members are highly similar. Organizational interventions are needed to foster heterophily whenever multidisciplinary cooperation is required to provide effective health care.

  13. The EBM-DPSER conceptual model: integrating ecosystem services into the DPSIR framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelble, Christopher R; Loomis, Dave K; Lovelace, Susan; Nuttle, William K; Ortner, Peter B; Fletcher, Pamela; Cook, Geoffrey S; Lorenz, Jerry J; Boyer, Joseph N

    2013-01-01

    There is a pressing need to integrate biophysical and human dimensions science to better inform holistic ecosystem management supporting the transition from single species or single-sector management to multi-sector ecosystem-based management. Ecosystem-based management should focus upon ecosystem services, since they reflect societal goals, values, desires, and benefits. The inclusion of ecosystem services into holistic management strategies improves management by better capturing the diversity of positive and negative human-natural interactions and making explicit the benefits to society. To facilitate this inclusion, we propose a conceptual model that merges the broadly applied Driver, Pressure, State, Impact, and Response (DPSIR) conceptual model with ecosystem services yielding a Driver, Pressure, State, Ecosystem service, and Response (EBM-DPSER) conceptual model. The impact module in traditional DPSIR models focuses attention upon negative anthropomorphic impacts on the ecosystem; by replacing impacts with ecosystem services the EBM-DPSER model incorporates not only negative, but also positive changes in the ecosystem. Responses occur as a result of changes in ecosystem services and include inter alia management actions directed at proactively altering human population or individual behavior and infrastructure to meet societal goals. The EBM-DPSER conceptual model was applied to the Florida Keys and Dry Tortugas marine ecosystem as a case study to illustrate how it can inform management decisions. This case study captures our system-level understanding and results in a more holistic representation of ecosystem and human society interactions, thus improving our ability to identify trade-offs. The EBM-DPSER model should be a useful operational tool for implementing EBM, in that it fully integrates our knowledge of all ecosystem components while focusing management attention upon those aspects of the ecosystem most important to human society and does so within

  14. The EBM-DPSER Conceptual Model: Integrating Ecosystem Services into the DPSIR Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelble, Christopher R.; Loomis, Dave K.; Lovelace, Susan; Nuttle, William K.; Ortner, Peter B.; Fletcher, Pamela; Cook, Geoffrey S.; Lorenz, Jerry J.; Boyer, Joseph N.

    2013-01-01

    There is a pressing need to integrate biophysical and human dimensions science to better inform holistic ecosystem management supporting the transition from single species or single-sector management to multi-sector ecosystem-based management. Ecosystem-based management should focus upon ecosystem services, since they reflect societal goals, values, desires, and benefits. The inclusion of ecosystem services into holistic management strategies improves management by better capturing the diversity of positive and negative human-natural interactions and making explicit the benefits to society. To facilitate this inclusion, we propose a conceptual model that merges the broadly applied Driver, Pressure, State, Impact, and Response (DPSIR) conceptual model with ecosystem services yielding a Driver, Pressure, State, Ecosystem service, and Response (EBM-DPSER) conceptual model. The impact module in traditional DPSIR models focuses attention upon negative anthropomorphic impacts on the ecosystem; by replacing impacts with ecosystem services the EBM-DPSER model incorporates not only negative, but also positive changes in the ecosystem. Responses occur as a result of changes in ecosystem services and include inter alia management actions directed at proactively altering human population or individual behavior and infrastructure to meet societal goals. The EBM-DPSER conceptual model was applied to the Florida Keys and Dry Tortugas marine ecosystem as a case study to illustrate how it can inform management decisions. This case study captures our system-level understanding and results in a more holistic representation of ecosystem and human society interactions, thus improving our ability to identify trade-offs. The EBM-DPSER model should be a useful operational tool for implementing EBM, in that it fully integrates our knowledge of all ecosystem components while focusing management attention upon those aspects of the ecosystem most important to human society and does so within

  15. Medical practitioners in outpatient care: who is interested in participating in EBM courses? Results of a representative postal survey in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thorsten; Stroebel, Angelika; Raspe, Heiner

    2005-10-01

    We surveyed the attitudes of medical practitioners towards evidence-based medicine (EBM) and characterized those with an interest in participating in EBM courses. A random sample of 900 outpatient care doctors stratified by level and field of specialization was surveyed by means of a postal questionnaire. Importance of knowledge on information management, a positive attitude towards EBM and not yet doing critical appraisal were significant predictors of interest in participating in EBM courses. Low participation rates of outpatient care doctors in EBM courses are not due to attitudinal or general motivational problems. Although possible predictors of interest in participation could be specified, further factors contributing to actual participation need to be identified.

  16. Shaken baby syndrome; Shaken-baby-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W.; Ahlhelm, F.; Papanagiotou, P. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Rohrer, T. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie und Neonatologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) describes the coincidence of subdural hematoma, retinal bleeding and, disadvantageous for the prognosis, diffuse brain damage caused by powerful shaking of the infant. The clinical symptoms include irritability, difficulty with drinking, somnolence, apathy, cerebral cramp attacks, apnoea, temperature regulation disorders and vomiting due to cranial pressure. Milder symptoms of SBS are often not diagnosed and the number of unregistered cases is probably much greater. The diagnosis of SBS is made through the typical symptom constellation, but the lack of retinal bleeding does not exclude the diagnosis. Normally the infants are held by the thorax or upper arms and shaken in a sagittal direction during which the head falls backwards and forwards and is stopped abruptly at each extreme position. The injurious mechanism is considered to be caused by rotational forces which force tissue layers in the brain against each other and also lead to rupture of bridging veins between the skull and the brain. The prognosis is poor and approximately 25% of infants die of SBS within days or weeks. Approximately 75% of survivors suffer from long term damage with physical handicaps, limitations in hearing, visual disturbances up to blindness and mental disorders or combinations of these conditions. Prevention is therefore the most important aspect. (orig.) [German] Das Shaken-baby-Syndrom (SBS) oder Schuetteltrauma des Saeuglings beschreibt die Koinzidenz subduraler Haematome, retinaler Blutungen und prognostisch unguenstiger, diffuser Hirnschaeden durch heftiges Schuetteln eines Saeuglings. Die klinischen Symptome umfassen Irritabilitaet, Trinkschwierigkeiten, Somnolenz, Apathie, zerebrale Krampfanfaelle, Apnoe, Temperaturregulationsstoerungen und Erbrechen durch Hirndruck. Leichtere Symptome des SBS werden haeufig nicht diagnostiziert, die Dunkelziffer ist wahrscheinlich viel hoeher. Die Diagnose des SBS wird durch die typische Symptomkonstellation gestellt

  17. LAMELLAR ICHTHYOSIS (COLLODION BABY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramarta IGE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ichthyosis are a heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorder of keratinization which affected the epidermis characterized by presence of visible scales on the skin surface in the absence of inflammation. It can occur as a disease limited to the skin or in association with abnormalities of other organ systems. Lamelar ihthyosis (LI is one of two mayor autosomal recessive ichthyosis with an incidence of approximately one in 300,000. The diagnosis is based on clinical and pathologic finding. Infection is the most common complication, while prognosis of LI is depends on severity and complication of the disease. A case of lamellar ichthyosis in 0 day Balinese female baby was reported. The skin of the body was thick, plate-like appearance, scaling on the entire body, some of the thick skin was ruptured on chest and extremities. There were eclabium on the mouth and ectropion on the eyes. Histopathology examination showed hyperkeratosis without perivascular infiltration lymphocyte. The baby was given breast feeding, antibiotic, hydrocortisone cream and olium olivarum. The prognosis of the baby is good.

  18. Effective or just practical? An evaluation of an online postgraduate module on evidence-based medicine (EBM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Anke; Young, Taryn; van Schalkwyk, Susan

    2013-05-27

    Teaching the steps of evidence-based medicine (EBM) to undergraduate as well as postgraduate health care professionals is crucial for implementation of effective, beneficial health care practices and abandonment of ineffective, harmful ones. Stellenbosch University in Cape Town, South Africa, offers a 12-week, completely online module on EBM within the Family Medicine division, to medical specialists in their first year of training. The aim of this study was to formatively evaluate this module; assessing both the mode of delivery; as well as the perceived effectiveness and usefulness thereof. We used mixed methods to evaluate this module: A document review to assess whether the content of the module reflects important EBM competencies; a survey of the students to determine their experiences of the module; and semi-structured interviews with the tutors to explore their perspectives of the module. Ethics approval was obtained. The document review indicated that EBM competencies were covered adequately, although critical appraisal only focused on randomised controlled trials and guidelines. Students had a positive attitude towards the module, but felt that they needed more support from the tutors. Tutors felt that students engaged actively in discussions, but experienced difficulties with understanding certain concepts of EBM. Furthermore, they felt that it was challenging explaining these via the online learning platform and saw the need to incorporate more advanced technology to better connect with the students. In their view the key to successful learning of EBM was to keep it relevant and applicable to everyday practice. Tutors also felt that an online module on EBM was advantageous, since doctors from all over the world were able to participate. Our study has shown that the online module on EBM was effective in increasing EBM knowledge and skills of postgraduate students and was well received by both students and tutors. Students and tutors experienced generic

  19. Recognition of a Baby's Emotional Cry towards Robotics Baby Caregiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Yamamoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We developed a method for pattern recognition of baby's emotions (discomfortable, hungry, or sleepy expressed in the baby's cries. A 32-dimensional fast Fourier transform is performed for sound form clips, detected by our reported method and used as training data. The power of the sound form judged as a silent region is subtracted from each power of the frequency element. The power of each frequency element after the subtraction is treated as one of the elements of the feature vector. We perform principal component analysis (PCA for the feature vectors of the training data. The emotion of the baby is recognized by the nearest neighbor criterion applied to the feature vector obtained from the test data of sound form clips after projecting the feature vector on the PCA space from the training data. Then, the emotion with the highest frequency among the recognition results for a sound form clip is judged as the emotion expressed by the baby's cry. We successfully applied the proposed method to pattern recognition of baby's emotions. The present investigation concerns the first stage of the development of a robotics baby caregiver that has the ability to detect baby's emotions. In this first stage, we have developed a method for detecting baby's emotions. We expect that the proposed method could be used in robots that can help take care of babies.

  20. EBM apps that help you search for answers to your clinical questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windish, Donna

    2014-06-01

    In the age of smartphones and tablets, it has become common place to find apps that help you do or find almost anything. The quality and breadth of medical apps has improved greatly in recent years. You can now find medical apps that recreate textbooks, search for current articles, calculate likelihood ratios and find point-of-care answers to clinical questions. This article describes and reviews apps aimed at helping clinicians search for evidence to support the practice of EBM.

  1. The Baby Boom and the Baby Boomette: Two Different Eras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarella, Edward P.

    1987-01-01

    The "baby boomette," occurring since 1973, differs from the earlier "baby boom" in that the maximum number of births, the rate of growth, and the size of the yearly increase will all be less. Also, the rate of decline will be slower and the length of the boomette will be shorter. (MLF)

  2. Challenges to Learning Evidence-Based Medicine and Educational Approaches to Meet These Challenges: A Qualitative Study of Selected EBM Curricula in U.S. and Canadian Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Lauren A; ten Cate, Olle; Chen, H Carrie; Irby, David M; O'Brien, Bridget C

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a fixture in many medical school curricula. Yet, little is known about the challenges medical students face in learning EBM or the educational approaches that medical schools use to overcome these challenges. A qualitative multi-institutional case study was conducted between December 2013 and July 2014. On the basis of the Association of American Medical Colleges 2012 Medical School Graduation Questionnaire data, the authors selected 22 U.S. and Canadian Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited medical schools with graduates reporting confidence in their EBM skills. Participants were interviewed and asked to submit EBM curricular materials. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using an inductive approach. Thirty-one EBM instructors (17 clinicians, 11 librarians, 2 educationalists, and 1 epidemiologist) were interviewed from 17 medical schools (13 in the United States, 4 in Canada). Four common EBM learning challenges were identified: suboptimal role models, students' lack of willingness to admit uncertainty, a lack of clinical context, and students' difficulty mastering EBM skills. Five educational approaches to these challenges that were common across the participating institutions were identified: integrating EBM with other courses and content, incorporating clinical content into EBM training, EBM faculty development, EBM whole-task exercises, and longitudinal integration of EBM. The identification of these four learner-centered EBM challenges expands on the literature on challenges in teaching and practicing EBM, and the identification of these five educational approaches provides medical educators with potential strategies to inform the design of EBM curricula.

  3. Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months Print A A A What's in ... your child's birth, the doctor has been recording growth in weight, length, and head size (circumference) during ...

  4. Superstitions Endanger Babies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾名之

    2002-01-01

    泰国妇女择日分娩,为了让子女在“黄道吉日”来到这个世界,泰国1/5以上的孕妇实行了剖腹产。殊不知,此举将严重影响孩子大脑的发育。可怜天下父母心!本则消息出现“剖腹产”一词:caesarean/caesarean section([医]剖腹生产术)。另如:Their first baby was born by caesarean。/他们的头胎婴儿是剖腹产的。需注意的是,首字母大写的Cesarean却别具含义:凯撒的;皇帝的。 此外,文中一个way,用法新鲜,别具含义。

  5. How to confidently teach EBM on foot: development and evaluation of a web-based e-learning course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weberschock, Tobias; Sorinola, Olanrewaju; Thangaratinam, Shakila; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Khan, Khalid S

    2013-10-01

    Scarcity of well-trained clinical tutors is a key constraint in integrating teaching of evidence-based medicine (EBM) into clinical activities. We developed a web-based educational course for clinical trainers to confidently teach EBM principles in everyday practice. Its e-learning modules defined the learning objectives and incorporated video clips of practical and effective EBM teaching methods for exploiting educational opportunities in six different clinical settings. We evaluated the course with clinical tutors in different specialties across six European countries using a questionnaire to capture learning achievement against preset objectives. Among 56 tutors, 47 participants (84%) improved their scores from baseline. The mean pre-course score was 69.2 (SD=10.4), which increased to 77.3 (SD=11.7) postcourse (pEBM teaching and learning based on real clinical scenarios in the workplace can be useful in facilitating EBM teaching on foot. It can be integrated in the continuing professional development programmes for clinical trainers.

  6. Collodion Baby - a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Vesna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Colloidon baby describes a highly characteristic clinical entity in newborns encased in a yellowish translucent membrane resembling collodion. In most cases the condition either precedes the development of one of a variety of ichthyoses, the commonest of which are lamellar ichthyosis and non-bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma, or occasionally represents an initial phase of other ichthyoses such as ichthyosis vulgaris. In at least 10% of all cases of collodion baby, the condition is followed by a mild ichthyosis of lamellar type, so mild as to be considered more or less normal, so-called self-healing collodion baby or ‘lamellar ichthyosis of the newborn’. In this report we present a rare case of collodion baby in whom, after collodion membrane peeled-off, the skin retained normal appearance.

  7. Healthy Mouth for Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Tooth Decay (Caries) > A Healthy Mouth for Your Baby A ...

  8. [Manufactured baby food: safety expectations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, L; Van Egroo, L-D; Galesne, N

    2010-12-01

    Food safety is a concern for parents of infants, and healthcare professionals are often questioned by them about this topic. Baby food European regulation ensures high levels of safety and is more rigorous than common food regulation. Maximal limit for pesticides in baby food demonstrates the high level of requirements. This limit must be below the 10 ppb detection threshold, whatever the chemical used. Other contaminants such as nitrates are also the subject of greater expectations in baby food. Food safety risks control needs a specific know-how that baby food manufacturers have acquired and experienced, more particularly by working with producers of high quality raw material. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Shaken Baby Syndrome: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Maha; Shah, Janki; Dalpiaz, Amanda; Schwamb, Richard; Miao, Yimei; Warren, Kelly; Khan, Sardar

    2015-06-01

    Shaken Baby Syndrome occurs in infants as a result of the brain pushing against the skull due to severe acceleration-deceleration forces. Symptoms of Shaken Baby Syndrome include subdural, subarachnoid, and retinal hemorrhages. MRI and ocular examinations are used to determine the extent of mental and visual damage and β-amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemical staining is used to detect axonal injuries. Surgeries such as Subdural hemorrhage (SDH) evacuation surgery and the Burr hole craniotomy are used to treat Shaken Baby Syndrome; however, the prognosis is poor in many cases. Because of the severity of Shaken Baby Syndrome and its traumatic and sometimes fatal effects, it is important to educate new parents, nurses, and doctors on the syndrome in order to prevent incidents.

  10. The LHC babies

    CERN Document Server

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    With the machine restart and first collisions at 3.5 TeV, 2009 and 2010 were two action-packed years at the LHC. The events were a real media success, but one important result that remained well hidden was the ten births in the LHC team over the same period. The mothers – engineers, cryogenics experts and administrative assistants working for the LHC – confirm that it is possible to maintain a reasonable work-life balance. Two of them tell us more…   Verena Kain (left) and Reyes Alemany (right) in the CERN Control Centre. With the LHC running around the clock, LHC operations engineers have high-pressure jobs with unsociable working hours. These past two years, which will undoubtedly go down in the annals of CERN history, the LHC team had their work cut out, but despite their high-octane professional lives, several female members of the team took up no less of a challenge in their private lives, creating a mini-baby-boom by which the LHC start-up will also be remembe...

  11. Electron beam mask writer EBM-9500 for logic 7nm node generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Hideki; Kamikubo, Takashi; Nakahashi, Satoshi; Nomura, Haruyuki; Nakayamada, Noriaki; Suganuma, Mizuna; Kato, Yasuo; Yashima, Jun; Katsap, Victor; Saito, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Ryoei; Miyamoto, Nobuo; Ogasawara, Munehiro

    2016-10-01

    Semiconductor scaling is slowing down because of difficulties of device manufacturing below logic 7nm node generation. Various lithography candidates which include ArF immersion with resolution enhancement technology (like Inversed Lithography technology), Extreme Ultra Violet lithography and Nano Imprint lithography are being developed to address the situation. In such advanced lithography, shot counts of mask patterns are estimated to increase explosively in critical layers, and then it is hoped that multi beam mask writer (MBMW) is released to handle them within realistic write time. However, ArF immersion technology with multiple patterning will continue to be a mainstream lithography solution for most of the layers. Then, the shot counts in less critical layers are estimated to be stable because of the limitation of resolution in ArF immersion technology. Therefore, single beam mask writer (SBMW) can play an important role for mask production still, relative to MBMW. Also the demand of SBMW seems actually strong for the logic 7nm node. To realize this, we have developed a new SBMW, EBM-9500 for mask fabrication in this generation. A newly introduced electron beam source enables higher current density of 1200A/cm2. Heating effect correction function has also been newly introduced to satisfy the requirements for both pattern accuracy and throughput. In this paper, we will report the configuration and performance of EBM-9500.

  12. Espresso Book Machine (EBM and Libraries Espresso Kitap Makinesi ve Kütüphaneler (EKM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Çetin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article, which is in the form of a short opinion paper, gives introductory information about Espresso Book Machines (EBM that convert digital content into books in five minutes and concludes with the idea that EBMs have enabled the utilisation of new methods in improving library collections. Kısa bir görüş niteliğindeki bu yazıda çok sayıda sayısal içeriği 5 dakikada kitaba dönüştüren Espresso Kitap Makinesi (EKM hakkında tanıtım bilgisi verilmekte ve yazı, EKM’nin kütüphane dermesinin geliştirilmesinde yeni yöntemlerin kullanılmasına yol açtığı ve açmakta olduğu düşüncesi üzerinde noktalanmaktadır.

  13. Experimental and numerical investigation of the refinement of Hf by EBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchev, Veliko; Vutova, Katia; Vassileva, Vania

    2014-05-01

    Electron beam melting (EBM) in vacuum is one of the most promising technologies for refining and recycling of metals that react with oxygen when heated. Hf is such a metal. Pure Hf (with a small content of gas and metal impurities) is needed for a variety of applications in the aerospace industry and metallurgy, in the production of components of nuclear reactors, microprocessors, optical components etc. We conducted experiments with the ELIT-60 equipment on Hf ingots at electron beam powers of 12, 15, 17 kW and obtained data about the concentration of impurities by the ICP-MS method. For further understanding and optimizing the Hf refining processes, a non-stationary heat model was applied for numerical simulation of the heat transfer processes. Simulation data about the liquid pool variation during the e-beam treatment was thus obtained. The flatness of the crystallization front shape, which is connected to the structure quality, was investigated by optimization criteria related to the curvature of the liquid/solid boundary curve. We also describe an algorithm for calculation of the criteria. One of the criteria was applied to EBM of Hf for different electron beam powers; the results obtained were confirmed by the experimental data. Combining experimental, theoretical and simulation results, a proper technological regime is proposed for better Hf refining.

  14. Risk Assessment of Baby Powder Exposure through Inhalation

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Min Chaul; Park, Jung Duck; Choi, Byung Soon; Park, So Young; Kim, Dong Won; Chung, Yong Hyun; HISANAGA, Naomi; Yu, Il Je

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the exposure risk through inhalation to baby powder for babies and adults under simulated conditions. Baby powder was applied to a baby doll and the amount of baby powder consumed per application was estimated. The airborne exposure to baby powder during application was then evaluated by sampling the airborne baby powder near the breathing zones of both the baby doll and the person applying the powder (the applicator). The average amount of baby powder consu...

  15. Recognition of a Baby's Emotional Cry Towards Robotics Baby Caregiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Yamamoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We developed a method for pattern recognition of baby’s emotions (discomfortable, hungry, or sleepy expressed in the baby’s cries. A 32‐dimensional fast Fourier transform is performed for sound form clips, detected by our reported method and used as training data. The power of the sound form judged as a silent region is subtracted from each power of the frequency element. The power of each frequency element after the subtraction is treated as one of the elements of the feature vector. We perform principal component analysis (PCA for the feature vectors of the training data. The emotion of the baby is recognized by the nearest neighbor criterion applied to the feature vector obtained from the test data of sound form clips after projecting the feature vector on the PCA space from the training data. Then, the emotion with the highest frequency among the recognition results for a sound form clip is judged as the emotion expressed by the baby’s cry. We successfully applied the proposed method to pattern recognition of baby’s emotions. The present investigation concerns the first stage of the development of a robotics baby caregiver that has the ability to detect babyʹs emotions. In this first stage, we have developed a method for detecting babyʹs emotions. We expect that the proposed method could be used in robots that can help take care of babies.

  16. Do knowledge infrastructure facilities support Evidence-Based Practice in occupational health? An exploratory study across countries among occupational physicians enrolled on EBM courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, N.I.R.; Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; Sluiter, J.K.; van Dijk, F.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is an important method used by occupational physicians (OPs) to deliver high quality health care. The presence and quality of a knowledge infrastructure is thought to influence the practice of EBM in occupational health care. This study explores

  17. Do knowledge infrastructure facilities support Evidence-Based Practice in occupational health? An exploratory study across countries among occupational physicians enrolled on EBM courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, N.I.R.; Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; Sluiter, J.K.; van Dijk, F.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is an important method used by occupational physicians (OPs) to deliver high quality health care. The presence and quality of a knowledge infrastructure is thought to influence the practice of EBM in occupational health care. This study explores th

  18. Do knowledge infrastructure facilities support Evidence-Based Practice in occupational health? An exploratory study across countries among occupational physicians enrolled on EBM courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.I.R. Hugenholtz; K. Nieuwenhuijsen; J.K. Sluiter; F.J.H. van Dijk

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is an important method used by occupational physicians (OPs) to deliver high quality health care. The presence and quality of a knowledge infrastructure is thought to influence the practice of EBM in occupational health care. This study explores th

  19. COLLOIDON BABY WITH OPHTHALMIC INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Collodion baby is a rare, genetic heterogeneous skin disorder. It refers to a clinicentity used for newborns who are encased by a translucent, tight and parchment paper like skin sheets so called collodion membrane, on the entire body surface. 1 Collodion baby is a phenotype which broadly describes the above condition which includes a number of phenotypes. The two most common phenotypes are lamellar ichthyosis and non-bullous congenital erythroderma which account for 75% of cases and others like Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, Netherton syndrome, Gaucher disease etc account for 15% of the cases. 2 Lamellar ichthyosis which is more common, is an autosomal recessive condition caused by mutations in the transglutaminase-1 gene, defect on chromosome 14q11.Lid ectropion and ocular complications like exposure keratitis are seen commonly in colloidon babies. 3 15 day old male baby, first issue of a second degree consanguineously married couple, born at a gestation age of 36 weeks (normal vaginal delivery was referred to ophthalmic institute for management of ectropion. Child was diagnosed to have lamellar ichthyosis at the paediatric referral institute. At birth baby weighed 2500 grams, length 48 cm, head circumference of 34 cm.

  20. Designer babies--why not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M

    2001-02-01

    Though many objections can be levelled against the idea of the practice of genetic intervention to produce 'designer babies', upon examination they are shown to hinge on features which concern parental intentions towards their children, rather than features specific to the means involved. These intentions may be pursued by a variety of social practices which may, though need not, involve a measure of 'traditional' genetic selection (i.e. in terms of the identity and characteristics of the reproducing partners). This paper reviews a number of these objections and, by parity of reasoning, rejects their claim to count specifically or decisively against genetic intervention in pursuit of 'designer babies'. Rejecting these objections does not lead to the endorsement of 'designing babies, but it shows that any unease must be grounded elsewhere and defended by other arguments.

  1. Clinical Epidemiology (CE) and Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) in the Asia Pacific region (Round Table Forum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tin Tin; Bulgiba, Awang M; Sampatanukul, Pichet; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo; Chang, Peter; Tharyan, Prathap; Lin, Vivian; Wong, Yut Lin

    2013-01-01

    Clinical Epidemiology (CE) and Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) have become increasingly important in an era of rising costs, patient safety concerns and evidence-based health care. CE and EBM research in the Asia Pacific region have grown significantly. However, there are three main challenges such as linking evidence to practice and policy; developing a strong collaborative network; and a need for resources and technical expertise to produce evidence. The Cochrane Collaboration is a possible solution to resolve above challenges identified, particularly the challenge of transforming evidence to practice. In addition, training can be carried out to enhance technical expertise in the region and there is also the promising potential that collaborations could extend beyond systematic reviews. To improve the adoption of evidence-based health policy, selection of the best evidence for the right audience and focusing on the relevant issues through appropriate methodology are essential. Information on effectiveness and cost effectiveness needs to be highlighted for policy makers. The way forward to strengthen research and capacity building is to establish the Asia Pacific Consortium for CE and EBM. The consortium would help to create mutually rewarding scientific research and collaborations that will augur well for advances in CE and EBM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Baby MIND Experiment Construction Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonova, M.; et al.

    2017-04-28

    Baby MIND is a magnetized iron neutrino detector, with novel design features, and is planned to serve as a downstream magnetized muon spectrometer for the WAGASCI experiment on the T2K neutrino beam line in Japan. One of the main goals of this experiment is to reduce systematic uncertainties relevant to CP-violation searches, by measuring the neutrino contamination in the anti-neutrino beam mode of T2K. Baby MIND is currently being constructed at CERN, and is planned to be operational in Japan in October 2017.

  3. 29 BABY DUMPING AND EVOLVING BABY FACTORIES IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Few scholarly works existing on this social problem center on poverty .... their parents. Similarly, Sazali .... Table 5: Number of cases related to baby dumping in Malaysia ..... children from imminent risk of harm, as the nation's present commitment of resources, laws, and .... Stigma: Notes on Management of Spoiled Identity.

  4. Partner-built ecosystem science - The National Ocean Partnership Program as a builder of EBM Tools and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, P. L.; Green, R. E.; Kohanowich, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    The National Ocean Partnership Program (NOPP) was created in 1997 by federal public law to identify "and carry out partnerships among federal agencies, academia, industry, and other members of the oceanographic scientific community in the areas of data, resources, education, and communications." Since that time, numerous federal agencies have pooled talent, funding, and scientific resources (e.g. ships, aircraft, remote sensors and computing capability) to address pressing ocean science needs which no one entity can manage alone. In this presentation, we will address the ways the National Ocean Policy identifies ecosystem-based management (EBM) as a foundation for providing sound science-based and adaptable management to maintain the health, productivity, and resilience of U.S. ocean, coastal, and Great Lakes ecosystems. Because EBM is an important approach for efficient and effective interagency, multi-jurisdictional, and cross-sectoral marine planning and management, ocean science partnerships such as those provided by NOPP create a pool of regionally-pertinent, nationally-available data from which EBM decision makers can draw to address critical management issues. Specifically, we will provide examples drawn from the last five years of funding to illustrate how the NOPP process works, how it is managed by a federal Interagency Working Group (IWG-OP), and how EBM practitioners can both partner with others through the NOPP and offer guidance on the implementation of projects beneficial to the regional needs of the EBM community. Projects to be discussed have been carried out under the following themes: Arctic Cumulative Impacts: Marine Arctic Ecosystem Study (MARES) - Ecosystem Dynamics and Monitoring of the Beaufort Sea: An Integrated Science Approach. Biodiversity Indicators: Demonstration of a U.S. Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (Marine BON) Long-Term Observations: Coordinated Regional Efforts That Further the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System

  5. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! Baby Feeding your baby Other Baby topics ') document. ...

  6. UNA NUEVA SECCIÓN EN EBM.RECIDE: SUPLEMENTOS MONOGRÁFICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto De la Cruz Sánchez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available EBM.RECIDE introduces monographic supplements, a new journal section designed to highlight the progress in a specific field. The publication of these studies is intended to show recent advances in a specific knowledge area of sport sciences. This new section's main objective is to propose a set of studies with a common field, addressing the same topic through multiple perspectives and different methodological approaches. This new issues will provide the reader with a whole focus of a determined knowledge area and compare the different ways of research taking place in a field of interest.In this first supplement, we published a selection of the best papers presented at the Ist International Congress of Combat Sports held in Murcia, 9 to December 12, 2010, in the official languages of English and Spanish. Works appearing in this supplement have been carefully selected to meet the criteria of scientific interest and quality outlined above.Keys words: Supplements, Combat Sports.

  7. From EBM to EBL: two steps forward or one step back?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    The author employs his vantage point as a contributor to Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) and Evidence-based Librarianship (EBL) in the United Kingdom to anticipate obstacles to be overcome by the emerging EBL paradigm. After reviewing and synthesizing three proto-definitions of EBL, he discusses issues around the potential domains to be populated by research findings. He then briefly considers the contribution that critical appraisal skills can make to an evidence-based profession. In concluding that "evidence-based librarianship" is a self-limiting "label," he encourages health information professionals instead to promote the contribution of librarianship to evidence-based practice, a role for which they are uniquely qualified.

  8. MODERN PRODUCTS FOR FEEDING PREMATURE BABIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. V. Surzhik

    2012-01-01

    .... Adequate feeding is one of the fundamental factors of premature babies nursing. To ensure a premature baby with all necessary components for power saving in breast milk intake, breast milk fortifiers...

  9. Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome) KidsHealth > For Parents > Abusive Head ... babies tend to cry the most. How These Injuries Happen Abusive head trauma results from injuries caused ...

  10. Probiotic Supplements Failed to Prevent Babies' Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167008.html Probiotic Supplements Failed to Prevent Babies' Infections Benefits of ... 3, 2017 MONDAY, July 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Probiotic supplements may not protect babies from catching colds ...

  11. Babies' Marijuana Exposure Evident in Their Pee

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162472.html Babies' Marijuana Exposure Evident in Their Pee Parents should reduce ... 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Babies exposed to secondhand marijuana smoke take in THC, the primary psychoactive chemical ...

  12. Organizing Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) Journal Clubs in Department of Neurosurgery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Sattarnezhad, Neda

    2012-01-01

    A journal club is a group of individuals who meet regularly to evaluate critically the clinical application of latest medical literature. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is 'the use of current best evidence, in making decisions about the care of individual patients'. For this purpose, we organized journal clubs using standard EBM method, to substitute for traditional ones, evaluating efficacy of evidence based meetings in improvement of medical education in department of Neurosurgery. After six traditional journal clubs two validated questionnaires (evaluating organizing method and degree of satisfaction), were filled out by the residents. After an instructing workshop and six evidence based journal sessions, the same questionnaires were completed by the attendees. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 17. The mean score of the first questionnaires (Evaluating the method of organizing sessions) 16.72±7.86 (median=14) for traditional journal clubs and 40.18±6.38 (median=40) for evidence based forms (P=0.003).The mean grade of the second questionnaires (degree of satisfaction) was 13.18±4.6 (median=14) and 21.90±4.27 (median=22), for traditional and evidence based ones, respectively. (P=0.006). The aim of evidence based journal club is to help individuals to evaluate the current literature critically. The best way to decide if any adjustments are necessary is to ask the participants whether they are satisfied with the conference. As improvement of critical judgment is the goal of the journal clubs, the response of the resident according to the knowledge of methodology and biostatistics, is a principle. In present study, significant improvement in critical appraisal skills was seen after holding evidence based journal clubs.

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L... inches) in length may be imported into the continental United States from Zambia only under the...

  14. Wonderful Instant of Chinese Millennium Babies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    AS the new millennium arrived twenty-five photographers in various cities took photos of newly delivered babies, These valuable photos became the first chapter in the photo data bank featuring babies' photographs started on January 22. Though they were all the very first photos of these newly-born babies, the behavior of the babies was very different. Li Shuzhe in Beijing was the

  15. Common Cold in Babies: Symptoms and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common cold in babies Symptoms and causes By Mayo Clinic Staff The first indication of the common cold in a baby is often: A congested ... or green Other signs and symptoms of a common cold in a baby may include: Fever Sneezing ...

  16. Compassionate Roots Begin with Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Long before babies understand words, they understand touch. The first experience of compassion infants receive is gentle, caring touch, which gives a strong message, especially when accompanied by eye contact and a soft tone of voice. The kind of relationship a compassionate caregiver strives to develop with an infant creates attachment, an…

  17. Your baby and the flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babies and the flu; Your infant and the flu; Your toddler and the flu ... FLU SYMPTOMS IN INFANTS AND TODDLERS The flu is an infection of the nose, throat, and (sometimes) lungs. Call your baby’s health care provider if you notice any of ...

  18. ["All of us actually practice EBM!" - Attitudes of German GPs towards evidence-based medicine and clinical guidelines in daily practice: a focus group study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker, Bettina; Redaèlli, Marcus; Simic, Dusan; Wilm, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of guidelines in general practice is difficult. Do general practitioners (GPs) reject evidence-based medicine (EBM) in general? Which attitudes do GPs have towards EBM and guidelines, and which value do they attach to EBM in daily routine? We conducted a qualitative study using five focus groups with 53 GPs. The study was set in the German federal states of Bavaria, Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Hesse and Hamburg. Participants were selected according to area (rural/urban), region (North/South, East/West) and grade of professionalisation. Focus groups were digitally recorded and fully transcribed. Data were analysed in a multidisciplinary team using qualitative content analysis. Most participants felt positive towards EBM. Lack of feasibility was explicitly mentioned: the participants distinguished between "practised" and "true" EBM. Guidelines are often considered unsuitable for general practice. The GPs felt confident that their treatment of patients was evidence-based. Compared to older studies, German GPs have an increasingly favourable opinion about EBM. In order to enhance the practical application of EBM and guidelines the attitudes of GPs need to be considered. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Evidence-informed person-centred health care (part II): are 'cognitive biases plus' underlying the EBM paradigm responsible for undermining the quality of evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshia, Shashi S; Makhinson, Michael; Young, G Bryan

    2014-12-01

    Recently, some leaders of the evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement drew attention to the "unintended" negative consequences associated with EBM. The term 'cognitive biases plus' was introduced in part I to encompass cognitive biases, conflicts of interests, fallacies and certain behaviours. 'Cognitive biases plus' in those closely involved in creating and promoting the EBM paradigm are responsible for their (1) inability to anticipate and then recognize flaws in the tenets of EBM; (2) discounting alternative views; and (3) delaying reform. A narrative review style was used, with methods as in part I. Over the past two decades there has been mounting qualitative and quantitative methodological evidence to suggest that the faith placed in (1) the EBM hierarchy with randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews at the summit; (2) the reliability of biostatistical methods to quantitate data; and (3) the primacy of sources of pre-appraised evidence, is seriously misplaced. Consequently, the evidence that informs person-centred care is compromised. Arguments focusing on 'cognitive biases plus' are offered to support our hypothesis. To the best of our knowledge, EBM proponents have not provided an explanation. Reform is urgently needed to minimize continuing risks to patients. If our hypothesis is correct, then in addition to the suggestions made in part I, deficiencies in the paradigm must be corrected. Meaningful solutions are only possible if the biases of scientific inbreeding and groupthink are minimized by collaboration between EBM leaders and those who have been sounding warning bells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. ["Designer baby" changed to French for "double hope baby"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagniez, P-L; Loriau, J; Tayar, C

    2005-10-01

    Scientific advances during the last decades regarding potential intervention on embryos arouse many questions in society to prepare the ground concerning the limits that should be set for these practices. For the first time in 1994, a parliamentary proceeding allowed the definition of a French model of bioethics through laws of the same name. These laws, among others, authorized in a well and strictly defined setting the practice of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Because of technical progress concerning PGD, new questions arose, especially concerning the accomplishment of designer babies. The French Chamber of Representatives came in with a new law that banishes the concept of designer babies and replaces it with another concept: double hope babies, in French "bébé du double espoir". A first hope of a pregnancy giving birth to a healthy child and the second being that this child conceived with the aid of PGD could help treat an elder brother. Because of the issuing of two specific laws in a ten years interval, France occupies a privileged place in a Europe where bioethical issues continue to be debated, particularly PGD.

  1. [Effect of crystalline metastasis of lactose on hardness of compressed baby milk powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Mitsuho; Otsubo, Kazumitsu; Ohara, Mika; Omae, Rika; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the crystalline metastasis of lactose, which is a main component baby milk powder, and the hardness of baby milk powder compressed by humidification followed by drying. Because baby milk powder is manufactured using a spray dryer, lactose in compressed baby milk powder exists in an amorphous (solid dispersion) form. X-ray diffraction measurement showed that this amorphous lactose metastasized to β-form crystalline lactose, and thereafter metastasized to the α-form during the humidification-drying process. As a result of this crystalline metastasis, the hardness of the compressed baby milk powder increased, and then decreased. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed bridging structures between the particles increased and then decreased during the humidification-drying process. This showed that bridging structures between the particles produced by crystalline metastasis of lactose as a result of the humidification-drying process, which leads to an increase in the hardness of the compressed baby milk powder. These results show that the necessary degree of hardness of the porous compressed baby milk powder (necessary for packaging and transportation) resulted from the humidification-drying process.

  2. UNA NUEVA SECCIÓN EN EBM.RECIDE: SUPLEMENTOS MONOGRÁFICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Feu Molina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available EBM.RECIDE introduces monographic supplements, a new journal section designed to highlight the progress in a specific field. The publication of these studies is intended to show recent advances in a specific knowledge area of sport sciences. This new section's main objective is to propose a set of studies with a common field, addressing the same topic through multiple perspectives and different methodological approaches. This new issues will provide the reader with a whole focus of a determined knowledge area and compare the different ways of research taking place in a field of interest.In this first supplement, we published a selection of the best papers presented at the Ist International Congress of Combat Sports held in Murcia, 9 to December 12, 2010, in the official languages of English and Spanish. Works appearing in this supplement have been carefully selected to meet the criteria of scientific interest and quality outlined above.Keys words: Supplements, Combat Sports.EBM.RECIDE  presenta una nueva sección de la revista destinada a exponer los avances que se van produciendo en un ámbito específico: suplementos monográficos. La publicación de estos trabajos de investigación tiene como misión la presentación la comunidad científica y a nuestros lectores los avances que se van produciendo en un ámbito específico. La sección nueva tiene como principal objetivo proponer de forma concentrada, en un solo número, los avances que se producen en un tema monográfico desde una perspectiva poliédrica que permita abordar el tema central a partir de diferentes materias disciplinares y enfoques metodológicos de investigación. Esta modalidad editorial facilitará al lector la búsqueda de contenidos relacionados y confrontar las diferentes líneas de investigación que se producen en un campo de su interés.En este primer suplemento se publica una selección de los mejores trabajos expuestos en el I Congreso Internacional de Deportes de

  3. Reason, reality and objectivity--shared dogmas and distortions in the way both 'scientistic' and 'postmodern' commentators frame the EBM debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Michael

    2008-10-01

    Both defenders and certain critics of evidence-based medicine (EBM) share philosophical commitments - assumptions about the meaning of and relationship between such fundamental concepts as 'objectivity', 'subjectivity' and 'rationality'- that frame the debate between them. Critics need to be particularly careful in analysing their own philosophical commitments. Ironically, failure to do so has led some to ground their rejection of EBM in philosophical theses that are less clear and/or more contentious than the reasonable conclusions they wish to defend. There is no need to label 'objectivity' a 'myth' or 'scientific method' an 'illusion' in order to identify what is wrong in EBM. Such strategies play into the hands of EBM dogmatists, allowing them to continue to position themselves as the defenders of 'science' and 'reason'.

  4. Baby universes in string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Gopakumar, Rajesh; Ooguri, Hirosi; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-03-01

    We argue that the holographic description of four-dimensional Bogomol’nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield black holes naturally includes multicenter solutions. This suggests that the holographic dual to the gauge theory is not a single AdS2×S2 but a coherent ensemble of them. We verify this in a particular class of examples, where the two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory gives a holographic description of the black holes obtained by branes wrapping Calabi-Yau cycles. Using the free fermionic formulation, we show that O(e-N) nonperturbative effects entangle the two Fermi surfaces. In an Euclidean description, the wave function of the multicenter black holes gets mapped to the Hartle-Hawking wave function of baby universes. This provides a concrete realization, within string theory, of effects that can be interpreted as the creation of baby universes. We find that, at least in the case we study, the baby universes do not lead to a loss of quantum coherence, in accord with general arguments.

  5. Baby Universes in String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Ooguri, H; Vafa, C; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Gopakumar, Rajesh; Ooguri, Hirosi; Vafa, Cumrun

    2005-01-01

    We argue that the holographic description of four-dimensional BPS black holes naturally includes multi-center solutions. This suggests that the holographic dual to the gauge theory is not a single AdS_2 times S^2 but a coherent ensemble of them. We verify this in a particular class of examples, where the two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory gives a holographic description of the black holes obtained by branes wrapping Calabi-Yau cycles. Using the free fermionic formulation, we show that O(e^{-N}) non-perturbative effects entangle the two Fermi surfaces. In an Euclidean description, the wave-function of the multi-center black holes gets mapped to the Hartle-Hawking wave-function of baby universes. This provides a concrete realization, within string theory, of effects that can be interpreted as the creation of baby universes. We find that, at least in the case we study, the baby universes do not lead to a loss of quantum coherence, in accord with general arguments.

  6. A clinically integrated curriculum in evidence-based medicine for just-in-time learning through on-the-job training: the EU-EBM project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppus, Sjors F P J; Emparanza, Jose I; Hadley, Julie; Kulier, Regina; Weinbrenner, Susanne; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Burls, Amanda; Cabello, Juan B; Decsi, Tamas; Horvath, Andrea R; Kaczor, Marcin; Zanrei, Gianni; Pierer, Karin; Stawiarz, Katarzyna; Kunz, Regina; Mol, Ben W J; Khan, Khalid S

    2007-11-27

    Over the last years key stake holders in the healthcare sector have increasingly recognised evidence based medicine (EBM) as a means to improving the quality of healthcare. However, there is considerable uncertainty about the best way to disseminate basic knowledge of EBM. As a result, huge variation in EBM educational provision, setting, duration, intensity, content, and teaching methodology exists across Europe and worldwide. Most courses for health care professionals are delivered outside the work context ('stand alone') and lack adaptation to the specific needs for EBM at the learners' workplace. Courses with modern 'adaptive' EBM teaching that employ principles of effective continuing education might fill that gap. We aimed to develop a course for post-graduate education which is clinically integrated and allows maximum flexibility for teachers and learners. A group of experienced EBM teachers, clinical epidemiologists, clinicians and educationalists from institutions from eight European countries participated. We used an established methodology of curriculum development to design a clinically integrated EBM course with substantial components of e-learning. An independent European steering committee provided input into the process. We defined explicit learning objectives about knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviour for the five steps of EBM. A handbook guides facilitator and learner through five modules with clinical and e-learning components. Focussed activities and targeted assignments round off the learning process, after which each module is formally assessed. The course is learner-centred, problem-based, integrated with activities in the workplace and flexible. When successfully implemented, the course is designed to provide just-in-time learning through on-the-job-training, with the potential for teaching and learning to directly impact on practice.

  7. A clinically integrated curriculum in Evidence-based Medicine for just-in-time learning through on-the-job training: The EU-EBM project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvath Andrea R

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last years key stake holders in the healthcare sector have increasingly recognised evidence based medicine (EBM as a means to improving the quality of healthcare. However, there is considerable uncertainty about the best way to disseminate basic knowledge of EBM. As a result, huge variation in EBM educational provision, setting, duration, intensity, content, and teaching methodology exists across Europe and worldwide. Most courses for health care professionals are delivered outside the work context ('stand alone' and lack adaptation to the specific needs for EBM at the learners' workplace. Courses with modern 'adaptive' EBM teaching that employ principles of effective continuing education might fill that gap. We aimed to develop a course for post-graduate education which is clinically integrated and allows maximum flexibility for teachers and learners. Methods A group of experienced EBM teachers, clinical epidemiologists, clinicians and educationalists from institutions from eight European countries participated. We used an established methodology of curriculum development to design a clinically integrated EBM course with substantial components of e-learning. An independent European steering committee provided input into the process. Results We defined explicit learning objectives about knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviour for the five steps of EBM. A handbook guides facilitator and learner through five modules with clinical and e-learning components. Focussed activities and targeted assignments round off the learning process, after which each module is formally assessed. Conclusion The course is learner-centred, problem-based, integrated with activities in the workplace and flexible. When successfully implemented, the course is designed to provide just-in-time learning through on-the-job-training, with the potential for teaching and learning to directly impact on practice.

  8. From the EBM pyramid to the Greek temple: a new conceptual approach to Guidelines as implementation tools in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Carulla, L; Lukersmith, S; Sullivan, W

    2017-04-01

    Guideline methods to develop recommendations dedicate most effort around organising discovery and corroboration knowledge following the evidence-based medicine (EBM) framework. Guidelines typically use a single dimension of information, and generally discard contextual evidence and formal expert knowledge and consumer's experiences in the process. In recognition of the limitations of guidelines in complex cases, complex interventions and systems research, there has been significant effort to develop new tools, guides, resources and structures to use alongside EBM methods of guideline development. In addition to these advances, a new framework based on the philosophy of science is required. Guidelines should be defined as implementation decision support tools for improving the decision-making process in real-world practice and not only as a procedure to optimise the knowledge base of scientific discovery and corroboration. A shift from the model of the EBM pyramid of corroboration of evidence to the use of broader multi-domain perspective graphically depicted as 'Greek temple' could be considered. This model takes into account the different stages of scientific knowledge (discovery, corroboration and implementation), the sources of knowledge relevant to guideline development (experimental, observational, contextual, expert-based and experiential); their underlying inference mechanisms (deduction, induction, abduction, means-end inferences) and a more precise definition of evidence and related terms. The applicability of this broader approach is presented for the development of the Canadian Consensus Guidelines for the Primary Care of People with Developmental Disabilities.

  9. Writing time estimation of EB mask writer EBM-9000 for hp16nm/logic11nm node generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamikubo, Takashi; Takekoshi, Hidekazu; Ogasawara, Munehiro; Yamada, Hirokazu; Hattori, Kiyoshi

    2014-10-01

    The scaling of semiconductor devices is slowing down because of the difficulty in establishing their functionality at the nano-size level and also because of the limitations in fabrications, mainly the delay of EUV lithography. While multigate devices (FinFET) are currently the main driver for scalability, other types of devices, such as 3D devices, are being realized to relax the scaling of the node. In lithography, double or multiple patterning using ArF immersion scanners is still a realistic solution offered for the hp16nm node fabrication. Other lithography candidates are those called NGL (Next Generation Lithography), such as DSA (Directed-Self-Assembling) or nanoimprint. In such situations, shot count for mask making by electron beam writers will not increase. Except for some layers, it is not increasing as previously predicted. On the other hand, there is another aspect that increases writing time. The exposure dose for mask writing is getting higher to meet tighter specifications of CD uniformity, in other words, reduce LER. To satisfy these requirements, a new electron beam mask writer, EBM-9000, has been developed for hp16nm/logic11nm generation. Electron optical system, which has the immersion lens system, was evolved from EBM-8000 to achieve higher current density of 800A/cm2. In this paper, recent shot count and dose trend are discussed. Also, writing time is estimated for the requirements in EBM-9000.

  10. [EBM Service: evidence-based answers provided by general practitioners to questions asked by general practitioners--a project from South Tyrol/Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoliori, Giuliano; Kostner, Simon; Abholz, Heinz-Harald

    2010-01-01

    General practices also require more and more evidence-based decision-making. But knowledge is increasing rapidly and guidelines produced to help doctors to find answers to their problems seem to exclude a number of problems that are important in general practices. Here we report on the introduction and activities of an EbM Service provided by general practitioners to answer questions of their colleagues. The aim is to give EBM answers, but also, in doing so, to teach the application of EBM and--in the long run--to enable the users themselves to find EBM answers. The provision of EBM answers is fairly pragmatic: after using the service the inquiring physician should be better informed, i.e., have more evidence-based information, but sometimes this need not be the "ultimate truth" that experts might deliver. EBM answers are published both on the homepage of the College of General Practitioners and in their journal. It took quite a while to implement this service, and the number of those using it has increased slowly but constantly.

  11. Student peer assessment in evidence-based medicine (EBM) searching skills training: an experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Jonathan D; Bear, David G; Wayne, Sharon J; Perea, Paul P

    2013-10-01

    Student peer assessment (SPA) has been used intermittently in medical education for more than four decades, particularly in connection with skills training. SPA generally has not been rigorously tested, so medical educators have limited evidence about SPA effectiveness. Seventy-one first-year medical students were stratified by previous test scores into problem-based learning tutorial groups, and then these assigned groups were randomized further into intervention and control groups. All students received evidence-based medicine (EBM) training. Only the intervention group members received SPA training, practice with assessment rubrics, and then application of anonymous SPA to assignments submitted by other members of the intervention group. Students in the intervention group had higher mean scores on the formative test with a potential maximum score of 49 points than did students in the control group, 45.7 and 43.5, respectively (P = 0.06). SPA training and the application of these skills by the intervention group resulted in higher scores on formative tests compared to those in the control group, a difference approaching statistical significance. The extra effort expended by librarians, other personnel, and medical students must be factored into the decision to use SPA in any specific educational context. SPA has not been rigorously tested, particularly in medical education. Future, similarly rigorous studies could further validate use of SPA so that librarians can optimally make use of limited contact time for information skills training in medical school curricula.

  12. Tailoring the thermal conductivity of the powder bed in Electron Beam Melting (EBM) Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C J; Tammas-Williams, S; Hernandez-Nava, E; Todd, I

    2017-09-05

    Metallic powder bed additive manufacturing is capable of producing complex, functional parts by repeatedly depositing thin layers of powder particles atop of each other whilst selectively melting the corresponding part cross-section into each layer. A weakness with this approach arises when melting overhanging features, which have no prior melted material directly beneath them. This is due to the lower thermal conductivity of the powder relative to solid material, which as a result leads to an accumulation of heat and thus distortion. The Electron Beam Melting (EBM) process alleviates this to some extent as the powder must first be sintered (by the beam itself) before it is melted, which results in the added benefit of increasing the thermal conductivity. This study thus sought to investigate to what extent the thermal conductivity of local regions in a titanium Ti-6Al-4V powder bed could be varied by imparting more energy from the beam. Thermal diffusivity and density measurements were taken of the resulting sintered samples, which ranged from being loosely to very well consolidated. It was found that the calculated thermal conductivity at two temperatures, 40 and 730 °C, was more than doubled over the range of input energies explored.

  13. Field trials of the Baby Check score card: mothers scoring their babies at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, A J; Morley, C J; Green, S J; Cole, T J; Walker, K A; Bonnett, J M

    1991-01-01

    The Baby Check score card has been developed to help parents and health professionals grade the severity of acute illness in babies. This paper reports the results of two field trials in which mothers used Baby Check at home, 104 mothers scoring their babies daily for a week and 56 using it for six months. They all found Baby Check easy to use, between 68% and 81% found it useful, and 96% would recommended it to others. Over 70% of those using it daily used it very competently. Those using it infrequently did less well, suggesting that familiarity with the assessment is important. The scores obtained show that Baby Check's use would not increase the number of mothers seeking medical advice. With introduction and practice most mothers should be able to use Baby Check effectively. It should help them assess their babies' illnesses and make appropriate decisions about seeking medical advice.

  14. Acute appendicitis in a premature baby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beluffi, Giampiero; Alberici, Elisa [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Section of Paediatric Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Piazzale Golgi 2, 27100 Pavia PV (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    A case of acute appendicitis in a premature baby in whom diagnosis was suggested on plain films of the abdomen is presented. In this baby air in a hollow viscus suspected of being an enlarged appendix was the clue to diagnosis. The diagnostic dilemma of this rare and life-threatening condition in premature babies and newborns is underlined. The relevance of different imaging modalities and of different findings in this age group is discussed. Awareness of this rare condition and possible differential diagnosis in newborns and premature babies is stressed. (orig.)

  15. MODERN PRODUCTS FOR FEEDING PREMATURE BABIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Surzhik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades there has been substantial progress in the technology of premature infants nursing, especially with extremely low birth weight. Adequate feeding is one of the fundamental factors of premature babies nursing. To ensure a premature baby with all necessary components for power saving in breast milk intake, breast milk fortifiers — specifically developed additives that adjust the composition of food for premature babies, are used for more than 20 years (for premature babies receiving breast milk. On the one hand, to preserve all benefits of breastfeeding, on the other — to prevent the deficit development of necessary elements for adequate growth and development of nutrients.

  16. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in healthy preterm babies.

    OpenAIRE

    Moncrieff, M; Bamford, M; Benson, J; Bodden, J

    1980-01-01

    Urine was cultured from 51 healthy preterm babies. If the initial bag specimen grew more than 50 000 organisms/ml, a second bag specimen was cultured. After two positive bag specimens a suprapubic urine was cultured. Significant bacteriuria was excluded on the basis of one or two bag specimens in 90% of the babies. Suprapubic urine was sterile in a further 11 babies. Four babies with positive bag specimens were unfortunately not completely investigated: 2 had mixed growths and 2 had pure grow...

  17. [The EbM Commentary at the Annual Meeting of the German Congress of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (DKOU): background, aims and vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubs, L; Kirschner, S; Neugebauer, E; Hassenpflug, J

    2011-08-01

    The critical appraisal of clinical and scientific work to assure the effectiveness and to balance the risks of treatment are mandatory today. Recent innovations in medicine often lead only to minor improvement in patient benefit. For the better understanding of the presented study results, the EbM commentary was introduced in 2007 at the Annual Meeting of the German Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. The EbM commentary was developed within the Swiss Orthopaedic Society and is a vital part of the Annual Meetings. The EbM commentary is a carefully prepared critical appraisal of an orally presented study by a specially trained colleague. The commentary consists of three components and begins with a systematic analysis following the SPION principle. What kind of study was carried out? Which patients were enrolled in the investigation? What kind of interventions were compared? How was the outcome measured? What is the benefit of the study for my own practice and what is the benefit for the patient? The reporting and the evaluation of the patient benefit is of great interest. In the second step the strengths and weaknesses of the study were discussed and the study will be rated for their evidence. For the best case the presented study implies direct changes in the usual treatment of patients. In the worst case no changes are necessary and the study is rated "so what" because of methodological weaknesses making the drawn conclusions invalid. For the audience the EbM commentary may support their rating of the quality of the presented study. The congress team selects interesting presentations for the EbM commentary. The EbM commentators receive the oral presentation and in most cases additional information from the selected studies four weeks in advance of the meeting. The EbM commentary is focused on a precise analysis of the presented data in an open and pleasant discussion. The aim of the EbM commentary is to clearly point out the patient benefit and to disclose

  18. Can Babies Learn to Read? A Randomized Trial of Baby Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley; Strouse, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Targeted to children as young as 3 months old, there is a growing number of baby media products that claim to teach babies to read. This randomized controlled trial was designed to examine this claim by investigating the effects of a best-selling baby media product on reading development. One hundred and seventeen infants, ages 9 to 18 months,…

  19. Baby Universes and String Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Gopakumar, Rajesh; Ooguri, Hirosi; Vafa, Cumrun

    The description of 4D BPS black holes in terms of branes wrapped on various cycles in a Calabi-Yau space gives us the opportunity to study various issues in quantum gravity in a definite way by means of the worldvolume theory of the branes. In the particular example discussed here, there is a simple worldvolume description in terms of 2D Yang-Mills theory. The latter is an exactly solvable system of free fermions in one dimension. The exact answer for the free energy of this system can be written in a way that suggests an interpretation in terms of contributions from multiple (baby) universes.

  20. Water Babies: an evolutionary parable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, John; Hale, Piers J

    2008-12-01

    The nineteenth-century Anglican theologian Charles Kingsley was immediately impressed by Darwin's Origin of Species. Whilst many in Victorian Britain reacted against the idea of natural selection, Kingsley saw in the contingency of selection a divinely ordained imperative for human endeavour, not least the pursuit of scientific knowledge. Here, Kingsley believed, was a crucial insight into the seemingly indifferent laws of nature, one that humankind could use to elevate themselves to ever-greater heights. Kingsley chose to teach these lessons about the moral nature of evolution through 'Water Babies', one of the most charming and enduring of children's fairy tales.

  1. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... hear about breakthroughs for babies and families. Ask a question Our health experts can answer questions about ...

  2. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... hear about breakthroughs for babies and families. Ask a question Our health experts can answer questions about ...

  3. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  4. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems March ... your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety March for Babies Sign up now to ...

  5. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  6. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  7. Designer Babies: Eugenics Repackaged or Consumer Options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    "Designer babies" is a term used by journalists and commentators--not by scientists--to describe several different reproductive technologies. These technologies have one thing in common: they give parents more control over what their offspring will be like. Designer babies are made possible by progress in three fields: (1) Advanced Reproductive…

  8. Baby Blues’ highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby Blues’ is a new highbush blueberry from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University’s Agricultural Experiment Station. ‘Baby Blues’ is a vigorous, high-yielding, very small-f...

  9. Designer Babies: Eugenics Repackaged or Consumer Options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    "Designer babies" is a term used by journalists and commentators--not by scientists--to describe several different reproductive technologies. These technologies have one thing in common: they give parents more control over what their offspring will be like. Designer babies are made possible by progress in three fields: (1) Advanced…

  10. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  11. Welcoming a New Baby into Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Puberty Welcoming a New Baby Into Your Family KidsHealth > For Kids > Welcoming a New Baby Into Your Family Print A A A What's in this article? ... first look at the newest member of your family. Expect your brother or sister to be small, ...

  12. Resuscitating the Baby after Shoulder Dystocia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savas Menticoglou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To propose hypovolemic shock as a possible explanation for the failure to resuscitate some babies after shoulder dystocia and to suggest a change in clinical practice. Case Presentation. Two cases are presented in which severe shoulder dystocia was resolved within five minutes. Both babies were born without a heartbeat. Despite standard resuscitation by expert neonatologists, no heartbeat was obtained until volume resuscitation was started, at 25 minutes in the first case and 11 minutes in the second. After volume resuscitation circulation was restored, there was profound brain damage and the babies died. Conclusion. Unsuspected hypovolemic shock may explain some cases of failed resuscitation after shoulder dystocia. This may require a change in clinical practice. Rather than immediately clamping the cord after the baby is delivered, it is proposed that (1 the obstetrician delay cord clamping to allow autotransfusion of the baby from the placenta and (2 the neonatal resuscitators give volume much sooner.

  13. Has evidence-based medicine ever been modern? A Latour-inspired understanding of a changing EBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieringa, Sietse; Engebretsen, Eivind; Heggen, Kristin; Greenhalgh, Trish

    2017-05-16

    Evidence-based health care (EBHC), previously evidence-based medicine (EBM), is considered by many to have modernized health care and brought it from an authority-based past to a more rationalist, scientific grounding. But recent concerns and criticisms pose serious challenges and urge us to look at the fundamentals of a changing EBHC. In this paper, we present French philosopher Bruno Latour's vision on modernity as a framework to discuss current changes in the discourse on EBHC/EBM. Drawing on Latour's work, we argue that the early EBM movement had a strong modernist agenda with an aim to "purify" clinical reality into a dichotomy of objective "evidence" from nature and subjective "preferences" from human society and culture. However, we argue that this shift has proved impossible to achieve in reality. Several recent developments appear to point to a demise of purified evidence in the EBHC discourse and a growing recognition-albeit implicit and undertheorized-that evidence in clinical decision making is relentlessly situated and contextual. The unique, individual patient, not abstracted truths from distant research studies, must be the starting point for clinical practice. It follows that the EBHC community needs to reconsider the assumption that science should be abstracted from culture and acknowledge that knowledge from human culture and nature both need translation and interpretation. The implications for clinical reasoning are far reaching. We offer some preliminary principles for conceptualizing EBHC as a "situated practice" rather than as a sequence of research-driven abstract decisions. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. PREBIOTICS, INULIN AND BABY FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Bel’mer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotics play significant role in life support of microorganisms of human gastrointestinal tract, and normal functional state of intestinal biocenosis is sufficient condition for human health. Intestinal microbiocenosis is a component of regulation of proteins and lipids metabolism, vitamins synthesis, detoxication process in intestine, etc. prebiotics include a number of disaccharides (lactulose, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides (inulin, cellulose, etc.. Fructose polymer — inulin — provides growth of bifido- and lactobacteria, improves metabolism and has immunomodulating activity. Formation of intestinal micro biocenosis in infant is provided by prebiotics of breast milk. Further state of micro biocenosis, which is necessary for growth and development of child, is determined by adequate intake of prebiotics from fruits, vegetables and cereals. It is reasonable to use special baby foods fortified with prebiotics (for example, inulin.Key words: prebiotics, intestinal microflora, inulin.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(3:121-125

  15. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in healthy preterm babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieff, M; Bamford, M; Benson, J; Bodden, J

    1980-09-01

    Urine was cultured from 51 healthy preterm babies. If the initial bag specimen grew more than 50 000 organisms/ml, a second bag specimen was cultured. After two positive bag specimens a suprapubic urine was cultured. Significant bacteriuria was excluded on the basis of one or two bag specimens in 90% of the babies. Suprapubic urine was sterile in a further 11 babies. Four babies with positive bag specimens were unfortunately not completely investigated: 2 had mixed growths and 2 had pure growths of 100 000 organisms/ml. As we and others consider that bacteriuria can only be diagnosed on a suprapubic sample of urine the incidence of proved infection in our series was zero. If both the babies with a pure growth of 100 000 organisms/ml had true bacteriuria, the incidence would rise to 1.3%. In view of the difficulties in obtaining clean urine samples in preterm babies and as the incidence of bacteriuria is so low, we do not recommend that healthy preterm babies be screened for bacteriuria.

  16. EBM-9000: EB mask writer for product mask fabrication of 16nm half-pitch generation and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekoshi, Hidekazu; Nakayama, Takahito; Saito, Kenichi; Ando, Hiroyoshi; Inoue, Hideo; Nakayamada, Noriaki; Kamikubo, Takashi; Nishimura, Rieko; Kojima, Yoshinori; Yashima, Jun; Anpo, Akihito; Nakazawa, Seiichi; Iijima, Tomohiro; Ohtoshi, Kenji; Anze, Hirohito; Katsap, Victor; Golladay, Steven; Kendall, Rodney

    2014-10-01

    In the half pitch (hp) 16nm generation, the shot count on a mask is expected to become bipolar. The multi-patterning technology in lithography seems to maintain the shot count around 300G shots instead of increase in the number of masks needed for one layer. However, as a result of mask multiplication, the better positional accuracy would be required especially in Mask-to-Mask overlay. On the other hand, in complex OPC, the shot count on a mask is expected to exceed 1T shots. In addition, regardless of the shot count forecast, the resist sensitivity needs to be lower to reduce the shot noise effect so as to get better LER. In other words, slow resist would appear on main stream, in near future. Hence, such trend would result in longer write time than that of the previous generations. At the same time, most mask makers request masks to be written within 24 hours. Thus, a faster mask writer with better writing accuracy than those of previous generations is needed. With this background, a new electron beam mask writing system, EBM- 9000, has been developed to satisfy such requirements of the hp 16nm generation. The development of EBM-9000 has focused on improving throughput for larger shot counts and improving the writing accuracy.

  17. NASA/ORNL/AFRL Project Work on EBM LSHR: Additive Manufacturing of High-Temperature Gamma-Prime Strengthened Ni-Based Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudbrack, Chantal K.; Kirka, Michael M.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Carter, Robert W.; Semiatin, Sheldon L.; Gabb, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    Powder-bed fabrication of aerospace alloys may revolutionize production by eliminating the need for extensive machining and expensive tooling. Heated-bed electron-beam melting (EBM) offers advantages over non-heated laser additive manufacturing (AM) methods, including lower residual stress, reduced risk of contamination, slower cooling rates, and faster build times. NASA Glenn Research Center has joint project work with Oak Ridge National Lab and the Air Force Research Laboratory to explore the feasibility of fabricating advanced Ni-based gamma-prime superalloys with EBM AM.

  18. Finding a Doctor for Your New Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suspending or revoking his or her license for criminal behavior. Disciplinary action is rare but, fortunately, very ... feel after the baby is born. Choosing the right health care provider will help you feel confident ...

  19. Finding a Doctor for Your New Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Finding a Doctor for Your New Baby KidsHealth > For Parents > Finding ... to be board certified in their subspecialty. Family Physicians Family physicians must complete 3 years of residency ...

  20. Feeding Your Baby in the NICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Mara Tesler Stein, Psy.D., authors of "Parenting Your Premature Baby and Child: The Emotional Journey". ... Too Soon Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies ...

  1. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English ... Pregnancy Registry (50 US states and DC) Problem Zika infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects ...

  2. Healthy Family 2009: Bringing in Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Bringing in Baby Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... Down syndrome and other common genetic disorders, inherited family conditions, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, or disorders ...

  3. Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emails CDC Features Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... few even die from the disease. Understanding Whooping Cough Vaccines: DTaP and Tdap Two vaccines in the ...

  4. Having a Baby (Especially for Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnancy. Caffeine—Caffeine is found in coffee, tea, chocolate, energy drinks, and soft drinks. It is a ... only for a few weeks or months has health benefits for the baby. When you go back to ...

  5. Maternal health and the baby boom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albanesi, Stefania; Olivetti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    .... Our hypothesis is that the improvements in maternal health contributed to the mid‐twentieth century baby boom and generated a rise in women's human capital, ultimately leading to a decline in desired fertility for subsequent cohorts...

  6. Music Therapy Helps Preemie Babies Thrive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160627.html Music Therapy Helps Preemie Babies Thrive Mom's singing helps ... of over a dozen clinical trials, found that music therapy helped stabilize premature newborns' breathing rate during ...

  7. Mineral profile of Spanish commercial baby food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir-Marqués, Alba; González-Masó, Anna; Cervera, M Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Commercial baby foods are an important part of the daily intake of babies from 6 to 12 months. The mineral profile of commercial baby foods in Spain was determined to establish levels of essential and non-essential elements, and their contribution to adequate intake (AI) and estimated average requirement (EAR). Thirty-five jars of commercial foods containing meat, fish, vegetables and fruit were obtained from the Spanish market and the mineral composition determined for 14 elements. In general, the baby foods analysed were sufficient for an adequate mineral intake, but contributions to AI and EAR for iron, zinc and calcium were very low (5-20%, 10-60% and 10-70%, respectively). This deficiency could be associated with growth problems or diseases in adulthood, and fortification of commercial products is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Questions Remain about Whether EBM Competencies Learned in Medical School are Retained in Residency. A review of: Dorsch, Josephine L., Meenakshy K. Aiyer, Krishna Gumidyala and Lynne E. Myer. “Retention of EBM Competencies.” Medical Reference Services Quarterly 25.3 (Fall 2006: 45‐57.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lewis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To assess medical graduates’ use of evidence based medicine (EBM in residency, self‐perception of EBM skills, attitudes toward EBM, and the impact of a formal EBM curriculum in their third undergraduate year.Design – A longitudinal follow‐up study by self‐administered questionnaire.Setting – Internal medicine residency programs in US hospitals.Subjects – A convenience sample of 2001 and 2002 graduates of the University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria (UICOM‐P (n=78, and their respective residency program directors (n=72.Methods – A student graduate questionnaire (SGQ was sent to all members of UICOM‐P’s 2001 and 2002 graduating classes who had completed the EBM course during their M‐3 Internal Medicine clerkship. A program director questionnaire (PDQ, similar to the SGQ, was sent to the graduates’ residency program directors. The research instrument was tested with a pilot group prior to use, but not validated. The questionnaires consisted of 4 main sections. The first section examined formal and informal EBM programs in the graduates’ residency curriculum. The second section consisted of a self‐assessment of EBM skills by the residents and an assessment of those skills by their program directors. The third section asked graduates to compare their EBM skills to those of their fellow residents who had not been students at UICOM‐P. Similarly, in the third section of the PDQ, program directors were asked to compare the EBM skills of UICOM‐P graduates and non‐UICOM‐P graduates participating in the residency program. The last section concerned professional and demographic characteristics. Copies of the surveys were mailed out to non‐responders after 6 weeks. Results were collated but statistical analysis was not applied.Main results – The response rate was 32% for residents and 35% for program directors. The number of incomplete surveys was not reported. Forty‐four percent of all

  9. Exact BPS bound for noncommutative baby Skyrmions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domrin, Andrei, E-mail: domrin@mi.ras.ru [Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, Moscow State University, Leninskie gory, 119992, GSP-2, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lechtenfeld, Olaf, E-mail: lechtenf@itp.uni-hannover.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik and Riemann Center for Geometry and Physics, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstraße 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Linares, Román, E-mail: lirr@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, C.P. 09340, México D.F. (Mexico); Maceda, Marco, E-mail: mmac@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, C.P. 09340, México D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-11-25

    The noncommutative baby Skyrme model is a Moyal deformation of the two-dimensional sigma model plus a Skyrme term, with a group-valued or Grassmannian target. Exact abelian solitonic solutions have been identified analytically in this model, with a singular commutative limit. Inside any given Grassmannian, we establish a BPS bound for the energy functional, which is saturated by these baby Skyrmions. This asserts their stability for unit charge, as we also test in second-order perturbation theory.

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-48 Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes...

  11. The ART of marketing babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadeer, Imrana

    2010-01-01

    New legislation can be oppressive for a significant population depending upon the politics of its drafters. The current upsurge of the surrogacy trade in India, and the label of a "win-win" situation that it has acquired, points towards an unfettered commercialisation of assisted reproductive technology and the practice of surrogacy that is blinding its middle class users as well as providers, policy makers and law makers, and charging an imagination that is already caught up in spiralling consumerism. This paper analyses the Draft Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill and Rules, 2008, in the Indian socioeconomic context. It identifies the interests of the affected women, and examines the contradictions of the proposed Bill with their interests, as well as with current health and population policies, confining itself to the handling of surrogacy and not the entire content of the Bill. The bases of the analytical perspective used are: the context of poverty and the health needs of the Indian population; the need to locate surrogacy services within the overall public health service context and its epidemiological basis; the need to restrain direct human experimentation for the advancement of any technology; the use of safer methods; and, finally, the rights of surrogate mothers and their babies, in India, as opposed to the compulsion or dynamics of the medical market and reproductive tourism.

  12. Baby boomers nearing retirement: the healthiest generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Neil E; Lang, Iain A; Henley, William; Melzer, David

    2010-02-01

    The baby-boom generation is entering retirement. Having experienced unprecedented prosperity and improved medical technology, they should be the healthiest generation ever. We compared prevalence of disease and risk factors at ages 50-61 years in baby boomers with the preceding generation and attributed differences to period or cohort effects. Data were from the Health Survey for England (HSE) from 1994 to 2007 (n = 48,563). Logistic regression models compared health status between birth cohorts. Age-period-cohort models identified cohort and period effects separately. Compared to the wartime generation, the baby-boomer group was heavier (3.02 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.42-3.63; p Baby boomers reported fewer heart attacks (OR = 0.61; CI, 0.47-0.79; p baby boomers are moving toward retirement with improved cardiovascular health. However, the baby-boomer cohort has a higher prevalence of mental illness diagnoses and shows no improvement in self-rated health compared to the wartime birth cohort. There remains substantial scope to reduce health risks and future disability.

  13. Looking for Japan's missing third baby boom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Sachiko; Goto, Aya; Reich, Michael R

    2017-10-10

    High-income countries are now experiencing a decline in fertility. After experiencing baby booms in 1947-1949 and 1971-1974, Japan's population has been decreasing since 2015. In an attempt to predict the next baby boom, we searched for any upward demographic trends occurring after 1974. We analyzed time trends of the numbers and rates of live births, stillbirths and induced abortions using Japanese government data from 1975 to 2014. We then selected two birth cohorts: the first baby boomers who were 0-4 years old in 1950, and the second baby boomers who were 0-4 years old in 1975, and analyzed their rates of live births, stillbirths, and abortions by five-year age groups. There was no upswing in the numbers of births, stillbirths, or induced abortions; however, the abortion rate increased during 1996-2002. Compared with the first baby boomer cohort, the second baby boomer cohort had half the peak live birth rate for the same age group (25-29 years old), and half the peak rate of abortions, with a shift toward a younger age group (20-24). This analysis of Japanese fertility trends derived from all pregnancy outcomes showed no upward trend in fertility in Japan since 1974. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Baby boom generation at the retirement onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojilković Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden increase in the number of live births after the Second World War due to an increase in fertility rates has led to the formation of cohorts with specific characteristics or baby boom generation. This generation is unique in the history of the demographic phenomenon that has affected and affects the functioning of many segments of society. The aim of this paper is to assess structure of baby boomers who are few years away from retirement, using demographic data. Impact of baby boomer age structure of current and future retirees is described with a graphical display of current and projected age pyramid of baby boomers. Demographic pattern that women live longer than men is evident in the projected pyramid. In addition, the number of baby boomers will lead to a "younger" old population. The imbalance in the number of men and women pensioners, as well as older cohorts of women and female baby boomers was analyzed. As a result, an increasing trend of women's age pensioners who are members of the baby boom generation was clearly observed, which is opposite to the older cohort of women who often were family pensioners. Different circumstances and conditions in which female boomers lived and worked will form a new "pension model" because they will gain their benefits as well as men, for the first time in significant number, unlike their mothers, which gained the right to retire after they become widows. Number of women age pensioners is getting greater comparing to men, as the result of changes in the economic activities of women in the last half of the 20th century. When baby boomers retire and exit the working population, this will create a vacuum, because the numerically smaller generations will enter working population, while the sudden and very shortly, the number of population older than 60 or 65 will increase, most of them will likely to acquire the right to a pension. It is undeniable that baby boomers had impact on demographic structure

  15. What is my Baby Like? Representations Concerning the Baby in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pedreira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AimTo investigate if during the third trimester of pregnancy fantasies emerge in the baby representations based on the information that pregnant women have on their real babies through ultrasound techniques.MethodA qualitative, descriptive and exploratory research based on a sample of 30 pregnant Portuguese women, whose average age is 32 years old, was developed. A socio-demographic questionnaire and a semi-directive interview entitled "Interview of Maternal Representations During Pregnancy – Revised Version" (IRMAG-R, Ammaniti & Tambelli, 2010 were employed.ResultsBaby representations are immersed in a fantasy dimension, which means that the imaginary baby is quite present in this phase of pregnancy. Pregnant women mainly attribute psychological characteristics to the babies, rather than physical characteristics. Regardless of the type of characteristics analysed, the preference for these characteristics emerges based on their wishes. Secondly, characteristics of the parents may also emerge. Fetal movements and information from ultrasound have no significant influence on the characterization of the baby.ConclusionDespite the development of ultrasound techniques, the imaginary baby defines parents representations about the baby on the third trimester of pregnancy. Consequently, a new understanding of how pregnant women experience the transition to the postnatal phase has to be considered.

  16. Myth: babies would choose prelabour caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Anjita; Bewley, Susan; McIntosh, Thea

    2011-10-01

    Interest in rising caesarean section (CS) rates focuses on the putative relative effects on maternal health and perinatal mortality, especially in 'non-medical', 'request' or 'repeat' planned prelabour CS (PLCS). Shortening pregnancy and avoiding labour affect fetal maturity. Babies who do not experience labour have significantly increased respiratory and other morbidities that may have profound effects on development, determining immediate and potentially life-long disease. It is thus surprising that obstetricians do not advocate awaiting or inducing labour even in women considering CS. Mothers must be fully informed of all the evidence before they can give valid consent and make decisions on their baby's behalf. New evidence about immunological and metabolic differences induced by obstetric interventions continues to emerge, but large knowledge gaps exist. Although all modes of delivery carry potential risk of neonatal morbidity or mortality, we conclude that normal babies would indeed 'choose' labour. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Baby Skyrme models without a potential term

    CERN Document Server

    Ashcroft, Jennifer; Krusch, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    We develop a one-parameter family of static baby Skyrme models that do not require a potential term to admit topological solitons. This is a novel property as all currently known baby Skyrme models must contain a potential term in order to have stable soliton solutions, though the Skyrme model does not require this. Our new models satisfy an energy bound that is linear in terms of the topological charge and can be saturated in an extreme limit. They also satisfy a virial theorem that is shared by the Skyrme model. We calculate the solitons of our new models numerically and observe that their form depends significantly on the choice of parameter. In one extreme, we find compactons whilst at the other there is a scale invariant model in which solitons can be obtained exactly as solutions to a Bogomolny equation. We provide an initial investigation into these solitons and compare them with the baby Skyrmions of other models.

  18. Risk Assessment of Baby Powder Exposure through Inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Min Chaul; Park, Jung Duck; Choi, Byung Soon; Park, So Young; Kim, Dong Won; Chung, Yong Hyun; Hisanaga, Naomi; Yu, Il Je

    2011-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess the exposure risk through inhalation to baby powder for babies and adults under simulated conditions. Baby powder was applied to a baby doll and the amount of baby powder consumed per application was estimated. The airborne exposure to baby powder during application was then evaluated by sampling the airborne baby powder near the breathing zones of both the baby doll and the person applying the powder (the applicator). The average amount of baby powder consumed was 100 mg/application, and the average exposure concentration of airborne baby powder for the applicator and baby doll was 0.00527 mg/m(3) (range 0.00157~0.01579 mg/m(3)) and 0.02207 mg/m(3) (range 0.00780~ 0.04173 mg/m(3)), respectively. When compared with the Occupational Exposure Limit of 2 mg/m(3) set by the Korean Ministry of Labor and the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 2 mg/m(3) set by the ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists), the exposure concentrations were much lower. Next, the exposure to asbestos-containing baby powder was estimated and the exposure risk was assessed based on the lung asbestos contents in normal humans. As a result, the estimated lung asbestos content resulting from exposure to asbestos-containing baby powder was found to be much lower than that of a normal Korean with no asbestos-related occupational history.

  19. VTR module: weaning foods for baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Weaning should start when the baby turns 4 months old. At this stage (4 to 6 months), milk is no longer enough. Parents should introduce new foods which can meet the fast-increasing nutrition needs of the child. Among the latest materials produced by the Video Radio Production Division of the Nutrition Center of the Philippines is a VTR training module entitled "Karagdagang Pagkain ni Baby" (Weaning Foods for Baby), designed to strengthen this important aspect of child care. Specifically, the module seeks to encourage parents to introduce foods in addition to breastmilk to their 4 to 6 month old children and to start giving them "complete" meals from 6 months onward. It provides suggestions on the kinds of foods or food combinations to give to the baby and encourages home food production (backyard gardening, poultry-raising etc) to supply food requirements of growing children. Contents of the module include how-to's on weaning food preparation (mashing, straining, flaking, chopping, scraping, etc), prescriptions on the kinds and amounts of foods for babies; and food combinations (porridge or rice and a viand from the 3 basic food groups: energy-giving, body building and regulating). For instance, at 4 months old, the baby may be given lugao (porridge), soup and fruits; at 5 months, eggs, vegetables and beans; at 6 months, fish/meat, oil or gata (coconut oil). With a running time of 18 minutes, the module uses computer graphics to highlight food items, recommended amounts, and age group requirements in the text, and applies digital multi-effects to ensure smooth traditions.

  20. Dementia risk factors for Australian baby boomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010 were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.

  1. Migration of bisphenol A from plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and reusable polycarbonate drinking bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubwabo, C; Kosarac, I; Stewart, B; Gauthier, B R; Lalonde, K; Lalonde, P J

    2009-06-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has recently received special attention. It has been shown that exposure to BPA may occur through the consumption of beverages or foods that have been in contact with polycarbonate (PC) plastic containers or epoxy resins in food packaging. A BPA migration study was conducted using a variety of plastic containers, including polycarbonate baby bottles, non-PC baby bottles, baby bottle liners, and reusable PC drinking bottles. Water was used to simulate migration into aqueous and acidic foods; 10% ethanol solution to simulate migration to low- and high-alcoholic foods; and 50% ethanol solution to simulate migration to fatty foods. By combining solid-phase extraction, BPA derivatization and analysis by GC-EI/MS/MS, a very low detection limit at the ng l(-1) level was obtained. Migration of BPA at 40 degrees C ranged from 0.11 microg l(-1) in water incubated for 8 h to 2.39 microg l(-1) in 50% ethanol incubated for 240 h. Residual BPA leaching from PC bottles increased with temperature and incubation time. In comparison with the migration observed from PC bottles, non-PC baby bottles and baby bottle liners showed only trace levels of BPA. Tests for leachable lead and cadmium were also conducted on glass baby bottles since these represent a potential alternative to plastic bottles. No detectable lead or cadmium was found to leach from the glass. This study indicated that non-PC plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and glass baby bottles might be good alternatives for polycarbonate bottles.

  2. Hexagonal Structure of Baby Skyrmion Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Hen, Itay

    2007-01-01

    We study the zero-temperature crystalline structure of baby Skyrmions by applying a full-field numerical minimization algorithm to baby Skyrmions placed inside different parallelogramic unit-cells and imposing periodic boundary conditions. We find that within this setup, the minimal energy is obtained for the hexagonal lattice, and that in the resulting configuration the Skyrmion splits into quarter-Skyrmions. In particular, we find that the energy in the hexagonal case is lower than the one obtained on the well-known rectangular lattice, in which splitting into half-Skyrmions is observed.

  3. The Jerusalem psychiatric mother-baby unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizel, S; Kandel Katzenelson, S; Fainstein, V

    2005-09-01

    The Jerusalem mother and baby unit (MBU) is influenced by the psychoanalytical orientation of the staff, and the historical and cultural conditions surrounding the unit. Forty-three patients with 44 babies (one set of twins) were admitted in 13 years, a rate of admission far from the theoretical demand. Schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and mood disorders have been the major diagnoses in more than 50% of the patients. Mothers with schizophrenia were significantly more likely to be admitted sooner after the birth than mothers without schizophrenia (p = 0.025). One infant was separated from the mother on discharge and four recommendations for adoption were given.

  4. Faith, existence and birth of preterm babies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Prinds

    The aim is to explore if becoming a mother preterm of a premature baby, actualises existential and religious issues, and to explore the impact of the considerations in their way of coping. It is thus to shed light on these issues, that can both function as a positive coping-resource and the oppos......The aim is to explore if becoming a mother preterm of a premature baby, actualises existential and religious issues, and to explore the impact of the considerations in their way of coping. It is thus to shed light on these issues, that can both function as a positive coping...

  5. Faith, existence and birth of preterm babies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Prinds

    The aim is to explore if becoming a mother preterm of a premature baby, actualises existential and religious issues, and to explore the impact of the considerations in their way of coping. It is thus to shed light on these issues, that can both function as a positive coping-resource and the oppos......The aim is to explore if becoming a mother preterm of a premature baby, actualises existential and religious issues, and to explore the impact of the considerations in their way of coping. It is thus to shed light on these issues, that can both function as a positive coping...

  6. THE BABY BLUES AND POSTNATAL DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryati Suryati

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Baby Bluesadalah depresi ringan yang terjadi pada ibu-ibu dalam masa beberapa jam setelah melahirkan, sampai beberapa hari setelah melahirkan, dan kemudian dia akan hilang dengan sendirinya jika diberikan pelayanan psikologis yang baik. Banyak para ibu-ibu setelah melahirkan mengalami emosi yang berlebihan dan merasa sangat sedih sekali, dan diiringi tangisan tanpa alasan yang jelas. Dalam masa ini tidak mungkin lagi kita akan melihat ibu tersenyum atau tertawa. Sebagian ibu merasa sangat khawatir, cemas, dan tegang. Masalah – masalah kecil saja jika tidak cepat diatasi pada masa hamil, atau sebelum melahirkan dapat menimbulkan Baby Blues.

  7. 'Video Feedback' Program Might Help Treat Autism in Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164583.html 'Video Feedback' Program Might Help Treat Autism in Babies Therapists ... TUESDAY, April 11, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A "video feedback" intervention program may help babies at risk of ...

  8. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... health research Prematurity research centers For providers NICU Family Support® Prematurity Campaign Collaborative Info for your patients ...

  9. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sign in | my dashboard | sign out our cause health topics stories & media research & professionals get involved Search ... your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  10. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and your partner to bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during ... life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk is so good for babies. You and your ...

  11. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping ... This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping ...

  12. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... share stories Become inspired by stories from the families at the heart of our mission or share ...

  13. Solid Foods: How to Get Your Baby Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... place servings in a dish. Opened jars of baby food can be safely refrigerated for two to three days. Avoid power struggles. If your baby turns away from a new food, don't push. Simply try again another time. ...

  14. Field trials of the Baby Check score card in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, A J; Morley, C J; Cole, T J; Green, S J; Walker, K A; Rennie, J M

    1991-01-01

    The Baby Check score card was used by junior paediatric doctors to assess 262 babies under 6 months old presenting to hospital. The duty registrar and two consultants independently graded the severity of each baby's illness without knowledge of the Baby Check score. The registrars assessed the babies at presentation while the consultants reviewed the notes. The consultants and registrars agreed about the need for hospital admission only about 75% of the time. The score's sensitivity and predictive values were similar to those of the registrars' grading. The score's specificity was 87%. Babies with serious diagnosis scored high, while minor illnesses scored low. The predictive value for requiring hospital admission increased with the score, rising to 100% for scores of 20 or more. The appropriate use of Baby Check should improve the detection of serious illness. It could also reduce the number of babies admitted with minor illness, without putting them at increased risk.

  15. Pregnancy Problems More Likely with Baby Boys, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160159.html Pregnancy Problems More Likely With Baby Boys, Study Suggests Gender-related differences seem to start ... are more likely when women are carrying baby boys, new research suggests. After analyzing more than half ...

  16. Review of Rotational Symmetry Breaking in Baby Skyrme Models

    CERN Document Server

    Karliner, Marek

    2009-01-01

    We discuss one of the most interesting phenomena exhibited by baby skyrmions -- breaking of rotational symmetry. The topics we will deal with here include the appearance of rotational symmetry breaking in the static solutions of baby Skyrme models, both in flat as well as in curved spaces, the zero-temperature crystalline structure of baby skyrmions, and finally, the appearance of spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry in rotating baby skyrmions.

  17. MRI Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from ...

  18. Daughter Elimination: Cradle Baby Scheme in Tamil Nadu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Srinivasan (Sharada); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTamil Nadu’s two decade old Cradle Baby Scheme tries to ensure that female babies who would otherwise have been killed are given up for adoption. Civil society activists are not happy with the scheme because they feel that it only encourages parents to abandon female babies and is not a

  19. The Birth of a Breastfeeding Baby and Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Lothian, Judith A.

    2005-01-01

    In this column, the author describes the way in which the normal, natural process of labor and birth prepares both mother and baby for breastfeeding. Birth practices including induced labor, routine interventions, epidural analgesia, and separation of mother and baby disrupt the process of early breastfeeding for mother and baby. Normal, natural birth sets the stage for uncomplicated breastfeeding.

  20. Portrait of Promise: Preventing Shaken Baby Syndrome. [Videotape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior League of St. Paul, MN.

    Shaken baby syndrome describes the serious injuries that can occur when a very young child is severely or violently shaken, causing the brain to move back and forth inside the skull. The syndrome usually originates when a parent or other caregiver shakes a baby out of anger or frustration, often because the baby would not stop crying or…

  1. Hepatitis B Shots Are Recommended for All New Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby who gets infected with the hepatitis B virus during the first five years of life has a 15% to 25% risk for pre ... your baby from infection with the hepatitis B virus, make sure your baby ... the first year of life will stay infected for life. How many doses ...

  2. Implementing the Fussy Baby Network[R] Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkerson, Linda; Hofherr, Jennifer; Heffron, Mary Claire; Sims, Jennifer Murphy; Jalowiec, Barbara; Bromberg, Stacey R.; Paul, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    Erikson Institute Fussy Baby Network[R] (FBN) developed an approach to engaging parents around their urgent concerns about their baby's crying, sleeping, or feeding in a way which builds their longer-term capacities as parents. This approach, called the FAN, is now in place in new Fussy Baby Network programs around the country and is being infused…

  3. Me? Have Another Baby? Preconception Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-01

    Preconception health means taking care of your own health now so you’ll be healthy for yourself and your future baby.  Created: 10/1/2012 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 10/1/2012.

  4. Me? Have a Baby? Preconception Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-01

    Preconception health means taking care of your own health now so you’ll be healthy for yourself and your future baby.  Created: 10/1/2012 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 10/1/2012.

  5. Is gripe water baby-friendly?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adhisivam, B

    2012-01-01

    ... pushing the aforementioned guidelines to the back seat. One such irrational practice is the use of gripe water for infants on a routine basis and for colic. [sup][2] Anything (including gripe water) other than breast milk administered to a baby during the first six months may increase the risk of introducing bacteria, causing allergies and irritating the b...

  6. Social Early Stimulation of Trisomy-21 Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Maria Teresa Sanz; Balana, Javier Menendez

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated with twenty Down's syndrome babies to verify whether subjects undergoing social early stimulation would benefit from this type of treatment. An experimental study was designed with two training groups: visual or written instructions. The analyses of the results established statistically significant differences in the…

  7. Baby Bell Libraries?--An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Jack

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the emerging three-tiered structure (i.e., the "Baby Bells," network nodes, and information marketers) that will assume responsibility for implementing a new national information network and getting networked information to the public. The role of libraries related to networked information is also considered. (EA)

  8. Your baby in the birth canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for your baby inside your uterus at the time of delivery is head down. This is called cephalic presentation. ... head down, your doctor may recommend a cesarean delivery. Breech ... occurs about 3% of the time. There are a few types of breech: A ...

  9. Back to School for Retired Baby Boomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumgardner, Stan

    2009-01-01

    Across the nation, schools increasingly are tapping into a vast resource pool--retired educators. The potential effects of the retirement boom--baby boomers reaching retirement age--have been well documented. An April 2009 "New York Times" article estimates that by 2013, more than one-third of the nation's 3.2 million teachers could…

  10. The Baby Boom--Entering Midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier, Leon F.; De Vita, Carol J.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. baby-boom generation, born between 1946 and 1964, is the largest generation in the nations's history. Numbering over 80 million people in 1990, this giant generation has indelibly changed U.S. society, requiring adjustments in schools, labor markets, housing markets, and government programs. Perhaps more than any other institution,…

  11. Social Early Stimulation of Trisomy-21 Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Maria Teresa Sanz; Balana, Javier Menendez

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated with twenty Down's syndrome babies to verify whether subjects undergoing social early stimulation would benefit from this type of treatment. An experimental study was designed with two training groups: visual or written instructions. The analyses of the results established statistically significant differences in the…

  12. Expedient Treatment of a Collodion Baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Chung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Only ~270 cases of collodion babies have been reported in the literature since 1892. As the name suggests, the term “collodion baby” refers to a phenotype that can be characterized by a yellow, shiny, tight parchment-like membrane stretched over the skin. Although the collodion membrane is only an evanescent condition of the newborn, neonatal complications can occur in 45% of all collodion babies, leading to a mortality rate of ~11% in the first few weeks of life. Most children born as collodion babies will spontaneously desquamate within 2 weeks, but may be as long as 3 months. Eventually, these children develop signs of one of several types of ichthyosis, which gives the skin the appearance of “fish scales.” We report a unique case of a Caucasian male that was born as a Collodion baby at the University of Kentucky Children's Hospital in Lexington, Kentucky. Although the impairment of the skin barrier function put the patient at risk for a number of complications, he improved significantly after being treated with emollients and antibiotics. In contrast to previous findings, we found that skin emollients were beneficial and did not increase the risk of infection.

  13. Pacifiers: Are They Good for Your Baby?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it might be more difficult to break the habit. Of course, pacifiers have pitfalls as well. Consider the drawbacks: Early pacifier use might interfere with breast-feeding. Sucking on a breast is different from sucking on a pacifier or bottle, and some babies are sensitive to those differences. ...

  14. Problem-Based Learning in Web Environments: The Case of ``Virtual eBMS'' for Business Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Gianluca; Secundo, Giustina; Taurino, Cesare

    This chapter presents a case study where Problem Based Learning (PBL) approach is applied to a Web-based environment. It first describes the main features behind the PBL for creating Business Engineers able to face the grand technological challenges of the 2020. Then it introduces a Web Based system supporting the PBL strategy, called the “Virtual eBMS”. This system has been designed and implemented at the e-Business Management Section of the Scuola Superiore ISUFI - University of Salento (Italy), in the framework of a research project carried out in collaboration with IBM. Besides the logical and technological description of Virtual eBMS, the chapter presents two applications of the platform in two different contexts: an academic context (international master) and an entrepreneurial context (awareness workshop with companies and entrepreneurs). The system is illustrated starting from the description of an operational framework for designing curricula PBL based from the author perspective and, then, illustrating a typical scenario of a learner accessing to the curricula. In the description, it is highlighted both the “structured” way and the “unstructured” way to create and follow an entire learning path.

  15. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  16. Passive smoking in babies: The BIBE study (Brief Intervention in babies. Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabezas Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that exposure to passive smoking in general, and in babies in particular, is an important cause of morbimortality. Passive smoking is related to an increased risk of pediatric diseases such as sudden death syndrome, acute respiratory diseases, worsening of asthma, acute-chronic middle ear disease and slowing of lung growth. The objective of this article is to describe the BIBE study protocol. The BIBE study aims to determine the effectiveness of a brief intervention within the context of Primary Care, directed to mothers and fathers that smoke, in order to reduce the exposure of babies to passive smoking (ETS. Methods/Design Cluster randomized field trial (control and intervention group, multicentric and open. Subject: Fathers and/or mothers who are smokers and their babies (under 18 months that attend pediatric services in Primary Care in Catalonia. The measurements will be taken at three points in time, in each of the fathers and/or mothers who respond to a questionnaire regarding their baby's clinical background and characteristics of the baby's exposure, together with variables related to the parents' tobacco consumption. A hair sample of the baby will be taken at the beginning of the study and at six months after the initial visit (biological determination of nicotine. The intervention group will apply a brief intervention in passive smoking after specific training and the control group will apply the habitual care. Discussion Exposure to ETS is an avoidable factor related to infant morbimortality. Interventions to reduce exposure to ETS in babies are potentially beneficial for their health. The BIBE study evaluates an intervention to reduce exposure to ETS that takes advantage of pediatric visits. Interventions in the form of advice, conducted by pediatric professionals, are an excellent opportunity for prevention and protection of infants against the harmful effects of ETS. Trial Registration Clinical

  17. Rotational symmetry breaking in baby Skyrme models

    CERN Document Server

    Hen, Itay

    2007-01-01

    We consider multisolitons with charges 1 =< B =< 5 in the baby Skyrme model for the one-parametric family of potentials U=\\mu^2 (1-\\phi_3)^s with 0baby Skyrme models. We find that for charge one, stable solutions exist for every value of s and they are rotationally-symmetric. For higher charges, stable solutions exist only below s \\approx 2. In the charge-two sector the stable solutions are always rotationally-symmetric and ring-like. For charge three and above, rotational symmetry is exhibited only in the small s region; above a certain critical value of s, this symmetry is broken and a strong repulsion between the constituent one-Skyrmions becomes apparent. We also compute the spatial energy distributions of these solutions.

  18. MODEL SEIR UNTUK EPIDEMI FLU BABI PADA POPULASI BABI DENGAN LAJU KONTAK JENUH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kharis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Babi merupakan inang alami dari virus influensa yang secara anatomis, fisiologis, dan imunitas mirip (similar dengan yang ada pada manusia. Virus influenza subtipe A yang ada pada manusia yaitu H1N1, H3N2 dan H1N2 merupakan enzootic pada populasi babi di dunia. babi dapat terinfeksi oleh turunan-turunan virus influenza tipe A dari manusia maupun dari burung dan dalam hal ini dianggap sebagai inang sementara (Intermediate hosts dari turunan-turunan virus flu babi yang berpotensi menyebabkan epidemi bahkan pandemi. Evolusi antigenik dari virus influenza pada babi terjadi dengan laju sekitar 6 kali lebih lambat dibandingkan dengan virus influenza pada manusia. Dalam tulisan ini akan dikaji model matematika untuk epidemi flu babi pada populasi babi. Model yang diberikan merupakan model deterministik dengan laju kontak jenuh yang merupakan perumuman dari laju kontak standar. Perumuman ini dinyatakan dengan adanya probabilitas suatu individu melakukan kontak yang dinyatakan sebagai suatu fungsi dari populasi. Pengkajian yang dilakukan meliputi penentuan titik ekuilibrium model matematika dan analisa kestabilannya. Diharapkan hasil kajian ini dapat bermanfaat dalam penanggulangan wabah flu babi pada sumber utama yaitu populasi babi sehingga dapat dilakukan pencegahan sebelum mewabah di populasi manusia. Pigs are a natural host of influenza virus that are similar anatomically, physiologically, and immunity which in humans. Influenza viruses of A subtype in humans are H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2. They are enzootic in the swine population in the world. Pigs can be infected by strains of type A influenza viruses from humans or from birds. Pigs are considered as a temporary host (intermediate hosts of the derivatives of the swine flu virus that has the potential to cause epidemics and even pandemics. Antigenic evolution of influenza viruses in pigs occurred at rate about 6 times slower than the influenza viruses in humans. In this paper the mathematical model

  19. EKSPLORASI HIJUAN PAKAN BABI DAN CARA PENGGUNAANNYA PADA PETERNAKAN BABI TRADISIONAL DI PROVINSI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Budaarsa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis hijauan yang diberikan sebagai pakan ternak babi dan cara penggunaannya di propvinsi Bali. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode survei di seluruh kabupaten dan kota di Bali. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan teknik stratified random sampling, dengan pengelompokan atas dataran rendah dan dataran tinggi di masing-masing kabupaten dan kota. Pada masing-masing kelompok di ambil 2 orang peternak babi tradisional, sehingga ada 4 peternak yang diwawancarai di masing-masing kabupaten dan kota atau 32 peternak di seluruh Bali. Hasil survei menunjukkan bahwa ada perbedaan hijauan yang diberikan oleh peternak di dataran rendah dan dataran tinggi. Jenis hijauan yang diberikan di dataran rendah antara lain: batang pisang (Musa paradisiaceae, kangkung (Ipomaea aquatica, biah-biah (Limnocharis flava, dan eceng gondok (Eichornia crassipes. Sedamgkan di dataran tinggi antara lain: batang pisang (Musa paradisiaceae, ketela rambat (Ipomaea batatas, daunt alas (Colocasia esculenta daun lamtoro (Leucaena leucocephala dan dag-dagse (Pisonia alba. Batang pisang dominan (95 % diberikan di dataran rendah maupun di dataran tinggi. Pemberian hijauan ada dengan cara direbus ada yang diberikan dalam bentuk segar. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah terdapat keragaman jenis hijauan pakan babi dan cara pemberiannya antara di dataran rendah dengan dataran tinggi di Bali. Batang pisang merupakan hijauan yang paling banyak digunakan untuk pakan babi pada peternakan babi tradisional, baik pada dataran rendah maupun dataran tinggi.

  20. The baby killers are still at large.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, J

    1994-08-12

    This newspaper editorial reports that the UN Children's Fund's (UNICEF) executive director and recent US Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient believes that 1.5 million infants would survive annually if breast feeding declines worldwide were reversed. UNICEF adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes in the World Health Assembly in 1981. The code restricts direct advertising, inadequate labels, saleswomen dressed as nurses, and promotion of free samples. The Baby Food Action Network is reported to have released a report which states that baby food companies are still donating free supplies of infant formula to hospitals. The UNICEF position is that provision of free supplies is the most important disincentive to breast feeding. 81 governments adopted the guidelines, but 41 countries have hospitals which accept free samples. 28 of these 41 countries adopted the ban. The Nestle Company, which was cited 20 years age for this practice, won the legal battle and today defies the guidelines in 22 countries, including China, Zimbabwe, and Bangladesh. A US company, Mead Johnson, uses advertising on its label that shows Beatrice Potter's Peter Rabbit being bottle fed. The International Code restricts idealization of bottle feeding. Nutrician, a large conglomerate ownership of US and European infant formula companies, brazenly advertises in the Peruvian daily newspapers with photos of baby milk boxes being donated to hospitals. Dr. Derek Jelliffe, an infant nutritionist, is credited with being the first to publicize the dangers of commercialized malnutrition 21 years ago.

  1. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... hold your breath for short periods. A complete scan usually take only 30 seconds to a few ...

  2. DESIGN OF A PORTABLE AND ATTACHABLE BABY COT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOWAH BORIS NII-AKO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To solve congestion problems facing many hospitals in developing countries, baby cots are being eliminated and mothers are made to sleep on the same bed with their new-born babies; a practice known as co-sleeping. The work presented here seeks to reduce risks of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS and suffocation associated with co-sleeping by employing the formal engineering design process to develop a portable, safe and cost effective baby cot. The cot is attachable to the mother’s bed, has four movement restrictors to regulate the movement of the baby within a given range and a hard surface mattress to ensure the safety of the baby. There are ventilation ports provided to keep the temperature within the cot comfortable. The design can be modified to be used by older babies and may be mounted on a collapsible stand where space limitations are not critical.

  3. Case management for the baby boom generation: a strengths perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, C; Perkins, K

    1998-01-01

    To understand the challenges and opportunities for case management as the turn of the century approaches, we must consider the 76 million individuals born between 1946 and 1964, commonly referred to as the baby boom generation. This article examines the baby boom generation in the context of planning effective case management services. The generation's strengths are highlighted to suggest how case management systems can meet the anticipated service needs of baby boomers as they age.

  4. Successful liver transplantation in babies under 1 year.

    OpenAIRE

    Beath, S V; Brook, G D; Kelly, D. A.; Cash, A J; McMaster, P; Mayer, A. D.; Buckels, J A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To review the outcome of liver transplantation in babies aged less than 1 year. DESIGN--Prospective evaluation of survival, clinical complications, and nutritional and developmental status before and one year after liver transplantation. SETTING--The Children's Hospital and Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham. SUBJECTS--All 25 babies who received liver transplantation from January 1989 to December 1992 were included. Median age was 9 months and median weight was 7.0 kg. Seven babi...

  5. Short term outcome in babies refused perinatal intensive care.

    OpenAIRE

    Sidhu, H.; Heasley, R. N.; Patterson, C C; Halliday, H L; Thompson, W.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the mortality in babies refused admission to a regional perinatal centre with that in babies accepted for intensive care in the centre. DESIGN--Retrospective study with group comparison. SETTING--Based at the Royal Maternity Hospital, Belfast, with follow up of patients in all obstetric units in Northern Ireland. PATIENTS--Requests for transfer of 675 babies to the regional perinatal centre (prenatally and postnatally) were made from hospitals in Northern Ireland between...

  6. Presence of nitrates in baby foods marketed in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Sebastião Rebelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the current levels of nitrates in baby foods marketed in Lisbon, Portugal to estimate the toxicological risk associated with their intake. The nitrate content was determined in bottled baby foods of four varieties: vegetable-based foods, meat-based foods, fish-based foods, and fruit-based foods. A total of 39 samples were analyzed over the period 2010–2011. Average and median levels of nitrate in baby foods were lower than the maximum limits established by European Union legislation (200 mg kg−1. Median nitrate values in baby foods were 61, 30, 39, and 15 mg kg−1 w/w for vegetable-based baby foods, meat-based baby foods, fish-based baby foods, and fruit-based baby foods, respectively. The estimated nitrate daily intake through bottled baby foods for infants indicate that individually, these foods are not able to induce nitrate toxicity in the children population.

  7. Manual Activity and Onset of First Words in Babies Exposed and Not Exposed to Baby Signing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Brenda C.; DePaolis, Rory A.

    2014-01-01

    Support for baby signing (BS) with hearing infants tends to converge toward three camps or positions. Those who advocate BS to advance infant language, literacy, behavioral, and cognitive development rely heavily on anecdotal evidence and social media to support their claims. Those who advocate BS as an introduction to another language, such as…

  8. Recognition and management of Shaken Baby Syndrome

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nicholson, Alf

    2016-04-01

    Abusive head trauma (previously referred to as Shaken Baby Syndrome) consists of a triad of findings which included subdural haemorrhage, retinal haemorrhages and encephalopathy after receiving a shake injury or blunt trauma to the head. Debate rages regarding the exact mechanism. Previously published reports on abusive head trauma (AHT) highlight the young age of the victims (median 4 months of age), the significant preponderance of male infants (3:1 in most series), the high rate of probable male perpetrators (just over 50%), and relatively high rates of mortality and morbidity

  9. Baby falcon rescued on CERN site

    CERN Multimedia

    Harriet Jarlett

    2016-01-01

    This baby falcon was found on Tuesday, 7 June near a car parked in the Building 40 carpark.   Connie Potter, who first saw the bird, contacted CRR (Centre de Réadaptation des Rapaces) at Bardonnex. Following their advice Connie and Chris Thomas managed to pick it up and get it into a box, and waited with the bird at the main gate for the CRR to collect it. The chick will be fed and trained to fly at the Centre in a tunnel, and ultimately released into the wild, probably near CERN. The bird, who has been tagged with ID number 2054, weighed 119 grams.

  10. Misi Baby Spa - Un Mundo para Bebes

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Misi Baby Spa es un lugar privilegiado concebido y diseñado especialmente para mamás, papás y bebés. Busca fortalecer el vínculo afectivo entre el núcleo familiar con herramientas como la lúdica, la música y el agua. Aliado con grandes marcas representativas del sector y encadenado a la marca Misi brindará un gran respaldo y garantía de servicio a sus clientes. Hombres y mujeres de clase media alta y alta interesados en el cuidado de y desarrollo de sus hijos, obtendrán en ...

  11. Infertility trial outcomes: healthy moms and babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Traditionally, the primary outcome of infertility trials has been a positive pregnancy test or a clinically recognized pregnancy. However, parents desire a healthy baby that grows up to be a healthy adult, rather than a positive pregnancy test. Too often results of infertility trials are lacking in crucial obstetric details. This is problematic because treatments for infertility have the capacity to increase the risk for a variety of adverse obstetric outcomes. This review will outline important obstetric variables that should be included when reporting infertility research. The rationale for including these data, precise definitions of the variables, and cost-effective strategies for obtaining these obstetric details will be highlighted.

  12. Million Dollar Baby (2004 and Palliative Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elías García Sánchez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The worst misfortune that can befall an old, tormented and fearful boxing trainer is that the pupil he is training and of whom he is very fond should have a lesion as serious as a quadriplegia. This is the crux of the plot in Million Dollar Baby. A person who suffers a quadriplegia sees how most of her physical and sensorial abilities disappear and habitually suffers psychological disturbances requiring palliative medical care. Relatives are subjected to great stress and suffering. All these aspects are reflected, in general accurately, in the film.

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses small ... Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type ...

  16. What's Happening on the West Coast? The National Ocean Policy, EBM and Ocean Governance on the West Coast of the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    A robust update on the latest ocean governance developments in the West Coast region of the U.S. will be provided, highlighting implementation of the National Ocean Policy and ongoing dialog among federal, state and tribal entities and coastal stakeholders at a range of scales. The link between ecosystem-based management (EBM) as a guiding principle and meaningful management outcomes will discussed, guided by the latest ocean policy priorities from local, state, tribal and regional scales in the West Coast. The West Coast Regional Planning Body has been recently initiated under the framework provided by the National Ocean Policy, bringing together a formal partnership of state and tribal governments with federal agencies in a way never before achieved in the region. The newly reformed West Coast Ocean Partnership builds upon efforts of the West Coast Governors Alliance on Ocean Health to continue to address priority ocean policy topics, while other regional efforts are identifying data, science and tools to support an EBM approach. All of these will be discussed in detail, providing both up-to-date reports on the latest West Coast activities, while illustrating lessons learned from past regional efforts and exactly how EBM has been effectively integrated. The West Coast of the U.S. is a unique region in terms of geographic scale, governance structure and history of innovative ocean management approaches. Using opportunities provided by recent state, tribal, regional and national policy initiatives, the West Coast has undertaken a range of activities to better coordinate ocean management while enhancing dialogs to support it. This presentation will provide a concise summary of current efforts, demonstrating how policy is being translated into significant action and highlighting opportunities to build on successful outcomes to date.

  17. Massage Changes Babies' Body, Brain and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Chihiro; Shiga, Takashi

    Tactile stimulation is an important factor in mother-infant interactions. Many studies on both human and animals have shown that tactile stimulation during the neonatal period has various beneficial effects in the subsequent growth of the body and brain. In particular, massage is often applied to preterm human babies as “touch care”, because tactile stimulation together with kinesthetic stimulation increases body weight, which is accompanied by behavioral development and the changes of endocrine and neural conditions. Among them, the elevation of insulin-like growth factor-1, catecholamine, and vagus nerve activity may underlie the body weight gain. Apart from the body weight gain, tactile stimulation has various effects on the nervous system and endocrine system. For example, it has been reported that tactile stimulation on human and animal babies activates parasympathetic nervous systems, while suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalcortical (HPA) axis, which may be related to the reduction of emotionality, anxiety-like behavior, and pain sensitivity. In addition, animal experiments have shown that tactile stimulation improves learning and memory. Facilitation of the neuronal activity and the morphological changes including the hippocampal synapse may underlie the improvement of the learning and memory. In conclusion, it has been strongly suggested that tactile stimulation in early life has beneficial effects on body, brain structure and function, which are maintained throughout life.

  18. COMMERCIAL BABY PORRIDGES IN NUTRITION OF INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zakharova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the issue of the most important product among additional food for infants — baby porridges. It includes historical data on usage of various cereal crops in human nutrition. A special significance of porridges in culture of food and traditions of Russian population is highlighted. The authors give information about nutritional value and chemical composition of different cereals — buckwheat, rice, pearl-barley, millet, oats etc. A special attention is given to differences in concentrations of nutrients and micronutrients manufactured by different ways from the same kind of cereal. The necessity to feed infants with commercial baby porridges is based in the article. There are also represented characteristics of various commercial porridges for nutrition of infants: hypoallergenic, glutenfree and containing gluten, enriched with pre- and probiotics. The article also contains data on nutritional value of milk and milk-free porridges. The authors raised a discussion on possibility and standards of usage of different additional components, such as sugar, maltodextrin, honey, vanillin, vegetable oils in production of infant porridges. The selection of certain type of porridges as additional food for healthy and infants with different diseases and digestive disorders is based.

  19. Safety evaluation of superabsorbent baby diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosemund, Kirstin; Schlatter, Harald; Ochsenhirt, Jennifer L; Krause, Edburga L; Marsman, Daniel S; Erasala, Geetha N

    2009-03-01

    Superabsorbent disposable baby diapers are sophisticated, well-engineered products that provide many benefits including convenience, comfort, exceptional leakage protection, improved hygiene and skin care benefits compared with cloth diapers. Safety assurance is an integral part of the diaper development process at Procter & Gamble, with the goal of ensuring safety for both caregivers and babies. A systematic, stepwise approach to safety assessment starts with a thorough evaluation of new design features and materials, using the principles of general risk assessment including, as appropriate, controlled trials to assess clinical endpoints or independent scientific review of safety data. The majority of the diaper materials are polymers that are safe and do not have inherent toxicity issues. Trace amounts of non-polymeric materials, such as colorants, are assessed based on their skin contact potential. New materials or design features are introduced in marketed products only if they have been shown to be safe under the conditions of recommended or foreseeable use. The product safety continues to be confirmed after launch by means of in-market monitoring. This article provides a broad overview of human safety exposure-based risk assessment used at Procter & Gamble for absorbent hygiene products.

  20. Inhalation of baby talc powder by hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, A.P.; Zwicker, G.M.; Cannon, W.C.; Watson, C.R.

    1975-01-01

    Groups of 50 male and 50 female Syrian golden hamsters are being exposed to baby talc powder aerosol 3 min/day, 30 min/day, and 150 min/day, respectively, for 30 exposure days, and for 30 min/day and 150 min/day, respectively, for 300 exposure days. Mean total aerosol concentration is approximately 28 ..mu..g/l, mean respirable fraction of the aerosol is approximately 8 ..mu..g/l. Two groups of 25 male and 25 female control hamsters are receiving sham exposures 150 min/day for 30 and 300 exposure days, respectively. After the 30- and 300-day exposures the hamsters are being maintained for life span observations. At death, lung, trachea, larynx, liver, kidneys, adrenals, heart, stomach, ovaries and uterus, or testicles, and tissues showing gross lesions, are collected for histopathologic examination. Evaluative criteria are histopathologic findings, life span and body weights. Experimental data and results are incomplete at this time. Final results will be available by spring 1975. Preliminary pathologic evaluation indicates that systemic amyloidosis is the major cause of death in the exposed as well as in the control animals. Kidneys, adrenal glands, and liver are most frequently involved. Inhalation of baby talc powder has caused no obvious pulmonary lesions and no decreased life span in the exposed hamsters evaluated to date as compared with their controls.

  1. Export Marketing of Croatian Baby Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Kolega

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has traditionally been the exporter of livestock and beef. In 1988 Croatia exported a record of 35,7 thousand tons of livestock, worth almost 60 million US $. During the period between 1981 and 1991, the export of beef and processed meat was somewhat smaller, about 12,8 thousand tons, 40 million US $ worth. The most important export destinations were Italy, with almost 90% of all volume and monetary value of export, and Greece. In March 1993 EU has banned the import of livestock and beef from Croatia, due to a scandal with infected cattle. In spite of the subsequent abolition of this ban, Croatian export never really recovered, so today the export of beef amounts to less than a thousand tons. Even though the conditions on the export markets and in the domestic cattle breeding industry have changed, we think that it is possible to achieve the export expansion of Croatian baby beef in the foreign market. This article describes the results of the research conducted on the Italian and Greek market. According to expert opinions and the results of our survey it is evident that, with a certain quality of the product, it would be possible to renew the export of Croatian baby beef to the target markets.

  2. Japan's baby bust: an economic issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This brief article articulates that the solution to the declining birthrate in Japan is to change the corporate culture and societal values and begin putting the family first. At the present rate of fertility decline, Japan could well have just over 67 million total population in another 100 years, which is 50% of the present total. In 1990, the Finance Minister tried to convince Japanese couples to have more babies by abandoning policies that led women to higher education. The implication is that women would then want to stay at home and have babies. The prosperity of the late 1980s and early 1990s did not encourage higher fertility. The likely reason for low fertility is the male-dominated, corporate culture where male workers leave home early in the morning and work till late at night. Wives are left to care for children and maintain a full-time job. The total fertility rate (TFR) was 3.65 in 1950 and 1.39 in 1998. Both Germany and Italy have lower fertility but higher rates of immigration. The decline in the TFR is responsible for many of the current economic policies. New taxes were introduced in 1997 to pay for social security of the aged, and then the economy stalled. Life expectancies continue to rise. The elderly are a larger proportion of total population than children aged under 15 years. Women marry late, and the divorce rate is high.

  3. Zuigelingen met een scheef hoofd [Babies with cranial deformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, M.M.; Claessens, E.A.; Dovens, A.J.; Vles, J.S.; van der Hulst, R.R.

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet

  4. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the baby is born, the birth mother (the woman who gives birth to the baby) signs papers that end her rights to the child and give her consent for ... a woman’s future health. However, the longer a woman waits to have an abortion, the more ... away. Glossary Dilation and Evacuation (D&E): A ...

  5. Zuigelingen met een scheef hoofd [Babies with cranial deformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, M.M.; Claessens, E.A.; Dovens, A.J.; Vles, J.S.; van der Hulst, R.R.

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet ther

  6. Baby Boom Equals Career Bust. Monographs on Career Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Charles Guy

    Presenting the Baby Boom (1946-1965) as both a potential social problem and opportunity for American leadership, this monograph discusses the following aspects of this population concern: (1) its immediate and long-term impact on career opportunities for those college graduates who make up the baby boom generation; (2) its impact on those whose…

  7. Baby Boom Caregivers: Care in the Age of Individualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guberman, Nancy; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Blein, Laure; Olazabal, Ignace

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many Baby Boomers are faced with the care of aging parents, as well as that of disabled or ill spouses or children. This study examines how Baby Boomers in Quebec, Canada, perceive and play their role as caregivers and how this might differ from their parents' generation. Design and methods: This was a qualitative and empirical study…

  8. Retirement Prospects of the Baby Boom Generation: A Different Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterlin, Richard A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined average economic status of baby boom cohorts as they approach retirement using data on their life cycle income experience. Findings suggest that baby boomers are likely to enter old age in better economic position than preboom cohorts because of deferred marriages, reduced childbearing, and increased labor force participation of wives…

  9. Physicians workforce: legal immigrants will extend baby boom demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-15

    The baby boom generation will place large demands on the Medicare program and the U.S. health care system. These demands may be extended by a large legal immigrant population that will become Medicare-eligible soon after the baby boom generation does. The U.S. health care system should be prepared for sustained stress from this again population.

  10. THE IMPACT OF CHANGING CONSUMER PREFERENCES ON BABY FOOD CONSUMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, James Michael

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between processed baby food consumption, socioeconomic factors, and attitudes and awareness concerning baby food safety and nutrition. The results are consistent with the view that recent concerns about safety may have negatively impacted consumption. Several socioeconomic factors were also found to be significant in explaining consumption.

  11. Fussy Babies, Worried Families, and a New Service Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkerson, Linda; Gray, Larry; Mork, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    The authors document the conceptualization, over time, of "fussy baby syndrome" and the establishment of a Fussy Baby Clinic. Excessive infant crying (commonly called colic) typically subsides in the first 3 months but may set up a cycle of parent-infant distress. Families studied felt a high degree of emotional stress and physical exhaustion;…

  12. Stakeholder Attitudes EBM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) conducted a survey of fisheries stakeholders on the Gulf and East Coasts of the United States seeking their views on...

  13. [EbM from the bottom up: are questions asking for evidence in daily clinical practice answerable?---a report from a pilot test to assist general practitioners with using evidence-based medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Wolfgang; Weingart, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Many physicians agree on the advantages of using Evidence-based Medicine (EbM) in daily practice, but they do not make use of this method very often. One reason for this lack of EbM implementation is that it is difficult to access clinically relevant and appropriate information in daily practice. The division "Principles and Practices of EbM" in the German Network for Evidence-based Medicine (DNEbM) initiated a pilot project to improve their information management. During two weeks in February 2007 physicians in a local setting in the southeast part of Germany were offered an EbM expert service. They were asked to formulate open-ended questions arising from daily practice. Seventeen experts answered these questions within a three day period. In addition, all participants regularly received an edited version of these topics, and finally a questionnaire was sent out to evaluate physician satisfaction. Five family doctors and two hospital departments formulated 28 questions in two weeks. There was a wide range of answers, from evidence summaries (including full texts of the trials or relevant guidelines) up to expert opinion together with a discussion of different action strategies in the case of uncertain evidence. The participating physicians' satisfaction with this offer of low-barrier access to the best available evidence and the answers provided by the experts was high. Apart from the suggested solutions to the respective problems the project initiated a critical self-analysis of their individual clinical practice among the participating physicians. All of them saw the need for continuing this project. Further investigations are needed in order to optimise both the process of EbM implementation on a long-term basis and the health care quality by providing EbM expert services.

  14. Helix Scan: A Scan Design for Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; HU Yu; LI Xiaowei

    2007-01-01

    Scan design is a widely used design-for-testability technique to improve test quality and efficiency. For the scan-designed circuit, test and diagnosis of the scan chain and the circuit is an important process for silicon debug and yield learning. However, conventional scan designs and diagnosis methods abort the subsequent diagnosis process after diagnosing the scan chain if the scan chain is faulty. In this work, we propose a design-for-diagnosis scan strategy called helix scan and a diagnosis algorithm to address this issue. Unlike previous proposed methods, helix scan has the capability to carry on the diagnosis process without losing information when the scan chain is faulty. What is more, it simplifies scan chain diagnosis and achieves high diagnostic resolution as well as accuracy. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our design.

  15. Making the Critical Appraisal for Summaries of Evidence (CASE) for evidence-based medicine (EBM): critical appraisal of summaries of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Margaret J; Shurtz, Suzanne

    2013-07-01

    Standards for evaluating evidence-based medicine (EBM) point-of-care (POC) summaries of research are lacking. The authors developed a "Critical Appraisal for Summaries of Evidence" (CASE) worksheet to help assess the evidence in these tools. The authors then evaluated the reliability of the worksheet. The CASE worksheet was developed with 10 questions covering specificity, authorship, reviewers, methods, grading, clarity, citations, currency, bias, and relevancy. Two reviewers independently assessed a random selection of 384 EBM POC summaries using the worksheet. The responses of the raters were then compared using a kappa score. The kappa statistic demonstrated an overall moderate agreement (κ = 0.44) between the reviewers using the CASE worksheet for the 384 summaries. The 3 categories of evaluation questions in which the reviewers disagreed most often were citations (κ =  0), bias (κ = 0.11), and currency (κ = -0.18). The CASE worksheet provided an effective checklist for critically analyzing a treatment summary. While the reviewers agreed on worksheet responses for most questions, variation occurred in how the raters navigated the tool and interpreted some of the questions. Further validation of the form by other groups of users should be investigated.

  16. 75 FR 43107 - Revocation of Requirements for Full-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Parts 1508 and 1509 Revocation of Requirements for Full-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full- Size Baby Cribs AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Section 104(b.../Hand delivery/Courier (for paper, disk, or CD-ROM submissions), preferably in five copies, to: Office...

  17. Shaken baby syndrome (síndrome do bebê chacoalhado: relato de caso Skaken baby syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvens B. Fernandes

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de uma lactente de 50 dias de vida que foi trazida ao Pronto Socorro Pediátrico do Hospital de Clínicas da UNICAMP com crises convulsivas. Ao exame apresentava-se sem sinais externos de trauma, hipoativa e com crises convulsivas generalizadas. A fundoscopia evidenciou hemorragia retiniana difusa bilateral. Foi submetida a tomografia de crânio que mostrou hemorragia inter-hemisférica e "swelling" cerebral. A criança foi internada na UTI pediátrica, mantida sob ventilação assistida e recebendo hidantal porém, apesar do tratamento, evoluiu para óbito três dias depois. Desde o início havia suspeita de maus-tratos, o que foi confirmado um dia após a internação quando o pai relatou que "chacoalhou" a criança porque ela chorava bastante. O presente estudo tem como objetivo ressaltar aspectos sociais, epidemiológicos e a dificuldade diagnostica desta síndrome que algumas vezes pode ser fatal, como neste caso.The authors report the case of a 50-day-old baby who was brought to the Pediatric Emergency Room of the "Hospital de Clinicas da UNICAMP" with seizures. At the examination she presented without external signs of trauma, hypoactive and with generalized seizures. Numerous hemorrhages were found in the ocular fundi. CT scan showed interhemisferic hemorrhage and brain swelling. The child was admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, kept under controlled ventilation and hydantal. Although these measures, she died three days later. Since the beginning there was suspicion of child abuse. One day after the admission the father told that he had shaken the baby because she was crying too much. The present paper discuss social and epidemiological aspects, and about the difficulties in the diagnosis of this syndrome that sometimes may be fatal, as in this case.

  18. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I-Sheng

    2007-12-20

    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  19. Power outages, power externalities, and baby booms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlando, Alfredo

    2014-08-01

    Determining whether power outages have significant fertility effects is an important policy question in developing countries, where blackouts are common and modern forms of family planning are scarce. Using birth records from Zanzibar, this study shows that a month-long blackout in 2008 caused a significant increase in the number of births 8 to 10 months later. The increase was similar across villages that had electricity, regardless of the level of electrification; villages with no electricity connections saw no changes in birth numbers. The large fertility increase in communities with very low levels of electricity suggests that the outage affected the fertility of households not connected to the grid through some spillover effect. Whether the baby boom is likely to translate to a permanent increase in the population remains unclear, but this article highlights an important hidden consequence of power instability in developing countries. It also suggests that electricity imposes significant externality effects on rural populations that have little exposure to it.

  20. Surrogate mothers: whose baby is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B

    1984-01-01

    Advances in medical technology offer infertile couples who wish to raise children alternatives to adoption. The increasing number of surrogate mother contracts creates a myriad of legal issues surrounding the rights of the natural mother, the natural father and the child that is produced. In this Article, the Author discusses the legal issues and rights of the parties under the Constitution, the surrogate contract and family law principles. The Author proposes that courts should consider a surrogate contract as a revocable prebirth agreement which allows the natural mother to keep the child if she chooses. In addition, the Author advocates an interpretation of the statutes forbidding baby selling that would prohibit surrogate contracts in which the mother is paid a fee for the child.

  1. Carbon Footprint Analysis for Baby Strollers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ang; Luo Yifan

    2012-01-01

    The increasing awareness of climate change has led or- ganizations to demand a standard procedure to measure and com- municate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions linked to their products or services. The publicly available specification PAS 2050 has been developed in response to broad community and industry desire for a consistent method-carbon footprint for assessing the life cycle GHG emissions of goods and services. Specifically, this paper illustrates the implementation of carbon footprint for a baby stroller in accordance with PAS 2050. A fial value of 321 kg per one stroller including package was calculated. Moreover, the study led to identify raw materials production of the stroller as the main source of GHS emissions where efforts need to focus for emission reduction opportunities. This case study is hoped to be a starting point for organizations to benefit from the increasing application of carbon footprint assessment.

  2. An antifungal peptide from baby lima bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2006-12-01

    A 6-kDa antifungal peptide with inhibitory activity on mycelial growth in Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, and Physalospora piricola was isolated from baby lima beans. The peptide suppressed growth in M. arachidicola with an IC(50) of 0.87 muM and inhibited activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 4 muM. The peptide exhibited an N-terminal amino acid sequence similar to those of leguminous defensins. The isolation procedure comprised ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on carboxymethyl (CM)-cellulose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and Affi-gel blue gel but was adsorbed on CM-cellulose.

  3. Failure to thrive in babies and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Lay Hoon; How, Choon How; Ng, Kar Hui

    2016-06-01

    Failure to thrive in a child is defined as 'lack of expected normal physical growth' or 'failure to gain weight'. Diagnosis requires repeated growth measurements over time using local, age-appropriate growth centile charts. Premature babies with appropriate growth velocity and children with 'catch-down' growth, constitutional growth delay or familial short stature show normal growth variants, and usually do not require further evaluation. In Singapore, the most common cause of failure to thrive in children is malnutrition secondary to psychosocial and caregiver factors. 'Picky eating' is common in the local setting and best managed with an authoritative feeding style from caregivers. Other causes are malabsorption and existing congenital or chronic medical conditions. Child neglect or abuse should always be ruled out. Iron deficiency is the most common complication. The family doctor plays a pivotal role in early detection, timely treatment, appropriate referrals and close monitoring of 'catch-up' growth in these children.

  4. The Incredible Years Parents and Babies Program:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken W.; Klest, Sihu; Sandoy, Tróndur Møller

    2016-01-01

    linear-regression analyses were used for evaluating the effect of the intervention on primary and secondary outcomes. Results There were no intervention effects on the primary outcomes. For secondary outcomes, intervention mothers reported a significantly smaller network than control mothers (β = -0......Introduction Infancy is an important period of life; adverse experiences during this stage can have both immediate and lifelong impacts on the child’s mental health and well-being. This study evaluates the effects of the Incredible Years Parents and Babies (IYPB) program as a universal intervention.......15 [-1.85,-0.28]). None of the other secondary outcomes showed any effects. When examining the lowest-functioning mothers in a moderator analysis, we found that intervention mothers report significantly higher parent stress (β = 5.33 [0.27,10.38]), lower confidence (β = -2.37 [-4.45,-0.29]), and worse...

  5. Facial aesthetics: babies prefer attractiveness to symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Curtis A; Butterworth, George; Roberts, Tony; Graupner, Lida; Hole, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The visual preferences of human infants for faces that varied in their attractiveness and in their symmetry about the midline were explored. The aim was to establish whether infants' visual preference for attractive faces may be mediated by the vertical symmetry of the face. Chimeric faces, made from photographs of attractive and unattractive female faces, were produced by computer graphics. Babies looked longer at normal and at chimeric attractive faces than at normal and at chimeric unattractive faces. There were no developmental differences between the younger and older infants: all preferred to look at the attractive faces. Infants as young as 4 months showed similarity with adults in the 'aesthetic perception' of attractiveness and this preference was not based on the vertical symmetry of the face.

  6. Lumbar spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower back ... your breath for short periods of time. The scan should take only 10 to 15 minutes.

  7. Studying the issues in the additive manufacturing of dental implants by Electron Beam MeltingRTM (EBM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidinia, Mahdi

    properties of lattice abutments in response to a static compression load were analyzed. However, the mechanical behavior of a structure could be considerably different under cyclic loads where fatigue failure could occur at stresses far below the static failure stress. Therefore, experimental and numerical analyses were performed in order to investigate the fatigue properties of the lattice dental abutment. Beside the design of a structure, some numerical models were developed to investigate the effects of Electron Beam MeltingRTM (EBM) process parameters on the heat distribution and the mentioned issues such as surface roughness and residual stress. A moving electron beam heat source and the temperature dependent properties of Ti-6Al- 4V were used in order to provide a 3D thermal-fluid flow model of EBMRTM, where the influence of process parameters as well as fluid convection on heat distribution were studied. Also, a coupled Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) - Finite Element Method (FEM) model was developed for studying the heat and thermal stress distribution in EBMRTM. The coupled CFD-FEM model combines the ability of CFD in considering the effects of fluid convection with the ability of FEM in calculating the thermal stress. The influences of the spacing distance between the Ti-6Al-4V plates produced by EBMRTM on the heat accumulation and the resultant surface roughness were investigated numerically and experimentally. An equation was derived from experimental data to predict the values of surface roughness as a function of the spacing distance. Finally, the influence of a novel design of heat sinks on the minimization of anisotropy was investigated, where the heat sinks were built in-situ during the EBMRTM process. Three sets of coupons with different numbers of heat sinks were designed and produced by EBMRTM. Another set of coupons was produced without a heat sink for comparison purposes. The results of the study could be used as the supportive experimental

  8. Inhibition of iron absorption from human milk by baby food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oski, F A; Landaw, S A

    1980-05-01

    We measured the effect of a common baby food, strained pears, on the absorption of iron from human milk. Five adult subjects were initially fed 1 dL of human milk that contained added ferrous citrate Fe 59; the same subjects were later fed human milk and one jar of baby food. Incorporation of 59Fe into RBCs averaged approximately one quarter of the administered iron from the human milk. When the milk was combined with the baby food, incorporation was significantly decreased. The addition of a supplemental food to the diet of the breast-fed infant impairs the bioavailability of the iron from human milk.

  9. The "Shaken Baby" syndrome: pathology and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squier, Waney

    2011-11-01

    The "Shaken Baby" syndrome (SBS) is the subject of intense controversy; the diagnosis has in the past depended on the triad of subdural haemorrhage (SDH), retinal haemorrhage and encephalopathy. While there is no doubt that infants do suffer abusive injury at the hands of their carers and that impact can cause catastrophic intracranial damage, research has repeatedly undermined the hypothesis that shaking per se can cause this triad. The term non-accidental head injury has therefore been widely adopted. This review will focus on the pathology and mechanisms of the three physiologically associated findings which constitute the "triad" and are seen in infants suffering from a wide range of non-traumatic as well as traumatic conditions. "Sub" dural bleeding in fact originates within the deep layers of the dura. The potential sources of SDH include: the bridging veins, small vessels within the dura itself, a granulating haemorrhagic membrane and ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Most neuropathologists do not routinely examine eyes, but the significance of this second arm of the triad in the diagnosis of Shaken Baby syndrome is such that it merits consideration in the context of this review. While retinal haemorrhage can be seen clinically, dural and subarachnoid optic nerve sheath haemorrhage is usually seen exclusively by the pathologist and only rarely described by the neuroradiologist. The term encephalopathy is used loosely in the context of SBS. It may encompass anything from vomiting, irritability, feeding difficulties or floppiness to seizures, apnoea and fulminant brain swelling. The spectrum of brain pathology associated with retinal and subdural bleeding from a variety of causes is described. The most important cerebral pathology is swelling and hypoxic-ischaemic injury. Mechanical shearing injury is rare and contusions, the hallmark of adult traumatic brain damage, are vanishingly rare in infants under 1 year of age. Clefts and haemorrhages in the immediate

  10. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for ... a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! ...

  11. Baby Doe and the Search for a Quality Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, T. Hennessy; Hecimovic, Anton

    1985-01-01

    The author reviews quality of life arguments proposed in Baby Doe cases involving severely handicapped infants and views quality of life in terms of six dimensions: educability, relationships, residence, access, technology, and medical considerations. (CL)

  12. Gene Therapy Helps 2 Babies Fight Type of Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163244.html Gene Therapy Helps 2 Babies Fight Type of Leukemia Tweaking ... time," said Qasim, a professor of cell and gene therapy at University College London. Small trials are under ...

  13. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Perinatal Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving ... your partner to bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the ...

  14. Drug Might Help Some Babies with Rare, Fatal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fared so well. As published Dec. 5 in The Lancet , four of the babies in the trial died ... SOURCES: new releases, Dec. 6, 2016, Stanford University, The Lancet HealthDay Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay . All rights reserved. ...

  15. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... premature birth Zika virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ...

  16. Pediatricians Say No to Wearable Smartphone Baby Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends against using these high-tech baby monitors in healthy infants, said Dr. Rachel ... Owlet responded that the company has performed "extensive product safety testing," adding that its Smart Sock is ...

  17. Phonetic features by babies with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gara, M M; Logemann, J A; Rademaker, A W

    1994-11-01

    Twenty-three babies with nonsyndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate were audiotaped at regular intervals from 5 to 35 months of age. Narrow phonetic transcription of their comfort-state vocalizations and word approximations was accomplished to describe phonetic development over time and according to the nonrandomized age of palatoplasty. The babies that had earlier palatal repair produced significantly higher percentages of oral stops after 12 months of age than babies with similar clefts that had later palatal repair. No significant differences are evident, however, according to age of palatoplasty, for mean frequency use of oral fricatives up to 3 years of age. For all 23 babies, regardless of the age of palatoplasty intervention, time is an even stronger variable than age of palatoplasty for development of palatal, alveolar and velar place features, oral stops, and oral fricatives.

  18. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food ... baby on solid foods Using a breast pump In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food ...

  19. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems March of Dimes research grants ... best food for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why ...

  20. Mother and baby yoga is good for you.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Cheryl

    2013-05-01

    Mother and baby yoga is becoming more and more popular in the western world, as postpartum mothers discover the benefits of being able to 'work out', bond with their baby and relax, all in one session. Postnatal yoga can offer calm and a sense of wellbeing, helping mothers to improve and stabilise their emotional health and to bond. Additionally the mother is able to focus on her relationship with her baby, rebuild the weakened pelvic floor, strengthen the abdominal muscles and even alleviate back and neck pain. For babies, yoga can aid digestion and alleviate colic; help to strengthen tiny limbs; improve sleep patterns; and enhance their ability to interact with their mother and other people.

  1. Buying and Caring for Baby Bottles and Nipples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and nipples. References American Academy of Pediatrics. Practical Bottle Feeding Tips. Available at: www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/feeding-nutrition/Pages/Practical-Bottle-Feeding-Tips.aspx. Accessed April 7, 2015. Stettler N, ...

  2. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food ... baby on solid foods Using a breast pump In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food ...

  3. Are Ultrasound "Snapshots" of Your Unborn Baby a Good Idea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Are Ultrasound "Snapshots" of Your Unborn Baby a Good Idea? ... It Works Risks of Nonmedical Ultrasounds What's an Ultrasound? For many expectant parents, ultrasounds offer a window ...

  4. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Card Grades Cities, Counties; Focuses on Racial and Ethnic Disparities March of Dimes Plan Aims to Make ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ...

  5. [An epidemiologic study on low-birth-weight babies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, K

    1984-07-01

    A case-control study was made in Gunma Prefecture of 1,390 mothers of babies born weighing 2,500 grams or less and an equal number of mothers of 3,000-up to-4,000 gram babies matched by place and month of birth. A correlation was found between low-birth-weight babies and maternal age, stature, menstrual history and past history. The mother's occupation, educational career, smoking habits, amount of sleep each day, date of issue of the Mother's Handbook and the number of the periodical health examinations received can be listed as socio-medical factors. Bleeding and lower abdominal pain during pregnancy, anemia and toxemia of pregnancy are found as prenatal factors. Low-birth-weight babies are found to be correlated with multiple pregnancy, breech presentation, placenta previa and premature separation of the placenta, also.

  6. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... issues and advocacy priorities National Network of Perinatal Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ...

  7. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ...

  8. EVALUATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING PESTICIDES IN BABY FOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three extraction methods and two detection techniques for determining pesticides in baby food were evaluated. The extraction techniques examined were supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), enhanced solvent extraction (ESE), and solid phase extraction (SPE). The detection techni...

  9. Lamellar ichthyosis (collodian baby with severe bilateral ectropion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boparai M

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of lamellar ichthyosis (collodian baby, is being reported. Skin biopsy has confirmed the diagnosis. Severe bilateral ectropion of thee eyelids was the prominent feature. Management of such cases has been briefly discussed.

  10. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? ... her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk ...

  11. Babies' Fascination with Faces May Start in the Womb

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... like shapes," said study author Vincent Reid, a psychology professor at Lancaster University in England. The investigators ... were published June 8 in the journal Current Biology . "This preference has been recognized in babies for ...

  12. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for ... a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! ...

  13. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  14. Field trials of the Baby Check score card in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, C J; Thornton, A J; Green, S J; Cole, T J

    1991-01-01

    Sixteen general practitioners (GPs) used the Baby Check score card to assess illness severity in 86 babies under 6 months old. Their reactions to Baby Check were positive: in 79 (92%) it gave an accurate assessment of the baby's illness and 16 (100%) said they would trust it. Fifteen (94%) found it useful, and most of those who did not said the baby was not ill or had an obvious diagnosis. Thirteen (81%) said they would use it and wanted their health visitors and midwives to use it and 15 (94%) wanted the mothers in their practice to use it. The majority (64%) of babies scored 0-7; 31% scored 8 to 19; and only 5% scored over 20. Well babies had low scores, while the two sickest babies, needing urgent hospital treatment, scored 29 and 33. The use of Baby Check by GPs would help them assess babies thoroughly and quantify illness severity objectively.

  15. Jack Thomas, our third baby, enters the world!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Without the confidence and support of the medical team, this mother's first birth was difficult and unsatisfying. She was able to give birth naturally, in the care of a midwife, with her second baby. With confidence in her ability to give birth and the wisdom that comes with experience, she is able to give birth naturally with her third baby in spite of being induced.

  16. Jack Thomas, Our Third Baby, Enters the World!

    OpenAIRE

    Stebbins, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Without the confidence and support of the medical team, this mother’s first birth was difficult and unsatisfying. She was able to give birth naturally, in the care of a midwife, with her second baby. With confidence in her ability to give birth and the wisdom that comes with experience, she is able to give birth naturally with her third baby in spite of being induced.

  17. Having Healthy Babies (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-19

    Most babies in the United States are born perfectly healthy. However, a small percentage are born with birth defects, and these conditions account for one of every five infant deaths in the United States. In this podcast, Dr. Sarah Tinker discusses ways for women to improve their chances of having a healthy baby.  Created: 1/19/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/19/2017.

  18. Exploration of a hearing protective device solution for premature babies

    OpenAIRE

    Valls Esteve, Arnau

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of a hearing protective device solution for premature babies The levels of noise in most hospital NICUs frequently exceed recommended World Health Organization (WHO) standards and recommended international limits. Additionally, premature babies and newborns can have stays of up to 3 months in these settings. In recent years, the combination of these two factors has raised concerns in the medical community about the effects of patients' exposure to noise, starting to be clearly ...

  19. Baby Boomers and Generation X: strategies to bridge the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholf, L; Loveless, S

    2001-09-01

    Health care staffing challenges for the next few years necessitate the need to develop strategies to integrate the Generation Xer into a predominantly Baby Boomer work force. Strategies to assist Baby Boomers and Generation Xers to engage one another in constructive relationships are discussed. Misunderstanding and stereotyping create barriers that focus on differences and perceived limitations rather than identification of common thinking and focusing on strengths of each generation.

  20. Building the U.S. First Offshore Wind Farm-Applying EBM Approaches to Successfully Address Offshore Energy, Commercial Fisheries, and Recreational Boating interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, A.

    2016-12-01

    In August 2015 construction commenced on the Block Island Wind Farm, the first offshore wind energy project in the U.S. This pilot-scale offshore energy project, located 18 miles offshore of the Rhode Island mainland, was sited through a comprehensive ocean planning process. As the project progressed into design and construction, our team utilized potent ecosystem based management approaches to great advantage to address the human and resource interactions that existed in the project area. These practices have included designing and executing collaborative long-term monitoring ventures to fill key science gaps and reconcile fisheries concerns, establishing effective industry to industry engagement, and developing durable multi-sector agreements. This presentation will describe the specific EBM approaches used after the planning process was completed to bring the project to construction; highlighting where key aspects of the National Ocean Policy goals and principles have been successfully applied.

  1. Cortical hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in shaken-baby (shaken impact) syndrome: value of diffusion-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parizel, Paul M.; Oezsarlak, Oezkan; Goethem, Johan W. van [Department of Radiology, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium); Ceulemans, Berten; Laridon, Annick [Department of Pediatric Neurology, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium); Jorens, Philippe G. [Department of Pediatric Intensive Care Medicine, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium)

    2003-12-01

    Shaken-baby syndrome (SBS) is a type of child abuse caused by violent shaking of an infant, with or without impact, and characterized by subdural hematomas, retinal hemorrhages, and occult bone fractures. Parenchymal brain lesions in SBS may be missed or underestimated on CT scans, but can be detected at an earlier stage with diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) as areas of restricted diffusion. We demonstrate the value of DW-MRI in a 2-month-old baby boy with suspected SBS. The pattern of diffusion abnormalities indicates that the neuropathology of parenchymal lesions in SBS is due to hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries, and not to diffuse axonal injury. (orig.)

  2. Shaken baby syndrome: the quest for evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squier, Waney

    2008-01-01

    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS), characterized by the triad of subdural haemorrhage, retinal haemorrhage, and encephalopathy, was initially based on the hypothesis that shaking causes tearing of bridging veins and bilateral subdural bleeding. It remains controversial. New evidence since SBS was first defined three decades ago needs to be reviewed. Neuropathology shows that most cases do not have traumatic axonal injury, but hypoxic-ischaemic injury and brain swelling. This may allow a lucid interval, which traumatic axonal injury will not. Further, the thin subdural haemorrhages in SBS are unlike the thick unilateral space-occupying clots of trauma. They may not originate from traumatic rupture of bridging veins but from vessels injured by hypoxia and haemodynamic disturbances, as originally proposed by Cushing in 1905. Biomechanical studies have repeatedly failed to show that shaking alone can generate the triad in the absence of significant neck injury. Impact is needed and, indeed, seems to be the cause of the majority of cases of so-called SBS. Birth-related subdural bleeds are much more frequent than previously thought and their potential to cause chronic subdural collections and mimic SBS remains to be established.

  3. Color View 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 14 (June 8, 2008), the 14th Martian day after landing. It shows two trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. Soil from the right trench, informally called 'Baby Bear,' was delivered to Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on Sol 12 (June 6). The following several sols included repeated attempts to shake the screen over TEGA's oven number 4 to get fine soil particles through the screen and into the oven for analysis. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. Each of the trenches is about 9 centimeters (3 inches) wide. This view is presented in approximately true color by combining separate exposures taken through different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Cross correlations of the American baby names

    CERN Document Server

    Barucca, Paolo; Marinari, Enzo; Parisi, Giorgio; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2014-01-01

    The quantitative description of cultural evolution is a challenging task. The most difficult part of the problem is probably to find the appropriate measurable quantities that can make more quantitative such evasive concepts as, for example, dynamics of cultural movements, behavior patterns and traditions of the people. A strategy to tackle this issue is to observe particular features of human activities, i.e. cultural traits, such as names given to newborns. We study the names of babies born in the United States of America from 1910 to 2012. Our analysis shows that groups of different correlated states naturally emerge in different epochs, and we are able to follow and decrypt their evolution. While these groups of states are stable across many decades, a sudden reorganization occurs in the last part of the twentieth century. We think that this kind of quantitative analysis can be possibly extended to other cultural traits: although databases covering more than one century (as the one we used) are rare, the ...

  5. Collodion Baby with TGM1 gene mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma D

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Deepak Sharma,1 Basudev Gupta,2 Sweta Shastri,3 Aakash Pandita,1 Smita Pawar4 1Department of Neonatology, Fernandez Hospital, Hyderguda, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, 2Department of Pediatrics, Civil Hospital, Palwal, Haryana, 3Department of Pathology, NKP Salve Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Fernandez Hospital, Hyderguda, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaAbstract: Collodion baby (CB is normally diagnosed at the time of birth and refers to a newborn infant that is delivered with a lambskin-like membrane encompassing the total body surface. CB is not a specific disease entity, but is a common phenotype in conditions like harlequin ichthyosis, lamellar ichthyosis, nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, and trichothiodystrophy. We report a CB that was brought to our department and later diagnosed to have TGM1 gene c.984+1G>A mutation. However, it could not be ascertained whether the infant had lamellar ichthyosis or congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (both having the same mutation. The infant was lost to follow-up.Keywords: cellophane membrane, c.984+1G>A mutation, lamellar ichthyosis, nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, parchment membrane, TGM1 gene

  6. Urban poverty: delivering babies in the slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, M

    1998-01-01

    Government of India statistics indicate that about 3 million of New Delhi's 11 million people live in slums, while another 3 million people, most fleeing rural poverty, are expected to migrate to the capital by 2000. ASHA Community Health and Development Society is a nongovernmental organization currently working in 23 of India's slums, serving a population of about 150,000 people. The group has pioneered the use of community-based networks in New Delhi to improve health in the poorest communities. While ASHA has a small, full-time staff, most of the daily health care work is conducted by slum volunteers. Ekta Vihar is a slum community of 1800 residents. Community members' primary source of health care are Vimla Rana and Sobha, two illiterate women who reside in the community and are part of a team of community health workers trained by ASHA. Rana and Sobha deliver almost all of the babies born annually in the slum and care for community members when they become ill.

  7. Iodine Contents in Baby Food Consumed in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate iodine intake in Japanese infants, iodine contents were determined in both commercial and homemade baby food samples consumed in Japan. Fifty-three samples of commercial bottled or retort baby food and 25 samples of homemade baby food for one day were collected and their iodine contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after an extraction with 0.5% tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Among the commercial baby food samples, 35 samples showed low iodine values ( 1000 ng/g wet weight. Significantly higher iodine values were observed in 15 samples composed of dishes cooked using kombu (a kind of kelp than other samples. Among the homemade baby food samples, 12 samples brought very low iodine intake (< 1- 24 μg/d, while 5 samples brought very high iodine intake (283-978 μg/d. These results indicate that intermittent high iodine baby food including dishes cooked using kombu contributes to sufficient iodine intake in Japanese infants.

  8. Inorganic arsenic levels in baby rice are of concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meharg, Andrew A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.meharg@abdn.ac.uk; Sun, Guoxin [Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Williams, Paul N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Adomako, Eureka; Deacon, Claire [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Zhu, Yong-Guan [Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea [Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Building, Meston Walk, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-15

    Inorganic arsenic is a chronic exposure carcinogen. Analysis of UK baby rice revealed a median inorganic arsenic content (n = 17) of 0.11 mg/kg. By plotting inorganic arsenic against total arsenic, it was found that inorganic concentrations increased linearly up to 0.25 mg/kg total arsenic, then plateaued at 0.16 mg/kg at higher total arsenic concentrations. Inorganic arsenic intake by babies (4-12 months) was considered with respect to current dietary ingestion regulations. It was found that 35% of the baby rice samples analysed would be illegal for sale in China which has regulatory limit of 0.15 mg/kg inorganic arsenic. EU and US food regulations on arsenic are non-existent. When baby inorganic arsenic intake from rice was considered, median consumption (expressed as {mu}g/kg/d) was higher than drinking water maximum exposures predicted for adults in these regions when water intake was expressed on a bodyweight basis. - Median consumption of organic arsenic levels for UK babies from baby rice is above threshold considered safe.

  9. Lung gallium scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallium 67 lung scan; Lung scan; Gallium scan - lung; Scan - lung ... Gallium is injected into a vein. The scan will be taken 6 to 24 hours after the gallium is injected. (Test time depends on whether your condition is acute or chronic .) ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limitations of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan ... tissues in your body. top of page How is the procedure performed? Nuclear medicine imaging is usually ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... code: Phone no: Thank you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  12. Heart PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  13. Should we maintain baby hatches in our society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asai Atsushi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A baby hatch called the “Stork’s Cradle” has been in place at Jikei Hospital in Kumamoto City, Japan, since May 10, 2007. Babyklappes were first established in Germany in 2000, and there are currently more than 90 locations. Attitudes regarding baby hatches are divided in Japan and neither opinions for nor against baby hatches have thus far been overwhelming. To consider the appropriateness of baby hatches, we present and examine the validity of each major objection to establishing baby hatches. Discussion There are various objections to baby hatches as follows: It violates a child’s right to know the identity of his or her biological parents by allowing anonymous birth; it neglects fulfillment of the biological parents’ basic obligation to raise their child and its very availability induces abandonment of infants; some people abuse it for very selfish reasons; it cannot save babies’ lives; the rights of one parent can be ignored if the other surrenders a child without his or her consent; it puts a baby in medical jeopardy; and it has no clear legal basis. The authors would argue that there are many plausible refutations for each objection mainly based on priority of child’s right to life, pregnant women’s vulnerability and necessity of anonymity, social responsibility to protect and raise children, differences between dropping a child off at a baby hatch and child neglect, limited function of social childcare center, inevitability of abuse by a minority of people, necessary distinction between outcomes that occur only because baby hatches exist and those that occur regardless of their existence, important local direct and upmost measures for women in trouble, and difference between ambiguous legality and illegality. Summary We argue that a certain number of baby hatches should continue to be established as a last resort, in a form that can maintain anonymity if the parent dropping the child off so desires. It

  14. η Carinae Baby Homunculus uncovered by ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Zulema; Beaklini, Pedro P. B. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, R. do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Falceta-Gonçalves, Diego, E-mail: zulema.abraham@iag.usp.br [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, R. Arlindo Bettio 1000, 03828-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-20

    We report observations of η Carinae obtained with ALMA in the continuum of 100, 230, 280, and 660 GHz in 2012 November, with a resolution that varied from 2.''88 to 0.''45 for the lower and higher frequencies, respectively. The source is not resolved, even at the highest frequency; its spectrum is characteristic of thermal bremsstrahlung of a compact source, but different from the spectrum of optically thin wind. The recombination lines H42α, He42α, H40α, He40α, H50β, H28α, He28α, H21α, and He21α were also detected, and their intensities reveal non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects. We found that the line profiles could only be fit by an expanding shell of dense and ionized gas, which produces a slow shock in the surroundings of η Carinae. Combined with fittings to the continuum, we were able to constrain the shell size, radius, density, temperature, and velocity. The detection of the He recombination lines is compatible with the high-temperature gas and requires a high-energy ionizing photon flux, which must be provided by the companion star. The mass-loss rate and wind velocity, necessary to explain the formation of the shell, are compatible with an luminous blue variable eruption. The position, velocity, and physical parameters of the shell coincide with those of the Weigelt blobs. The dynamics found for the expanding shell correspond to matter ejected by η Carinae in 1941 in an event similar to that which formed the Little Homunculus; for that reason, we called the new ejecta the 'Baby Homunculus'.

  15. Scan BIST with biased scan test signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Dong; CHEN MingJing; SUN JiaGuang

    2008-01-01

    The conventional test-per-scan built-in self-test (BIST) scheme needs a number of shift cycles followed by one capture cycle.Fault effects received by the scan flip-flops are shifted out while shifting in the next test vector like scan testing.Unlike deterministic testing,it is unnecessary to apply a complete test vector to the scan chains.A new scan-based BIST scheme is proposed by properly controlling the test signals of the scan chains,Different biased random values are assigned to the test signals of scan flip-flops in separate scan chains.Capture cycles can be inserted at any clock cycle if necessary.A new testability estimation procedure according to the proposed testing scheme is presented.A greedy procedure is proposed to select a weight for each scan chain.Experimental results show that the proposed method can improve test effectiveness of scan-based BIST greatly,and most circuits can obtain complete fault coverage or very close to complete fault coverage.

  16. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK KUNYIT PADA ANAK BABI YANG MENDERITA COLIBACILLOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I NENGAH KERTA BESUNG

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kolibasilosis adalah salah satu penyakit pada anak babi yang disebabkan oleh Escherichia coli (E.coli dan umumnya penyakit tersebut diobati dengan antibiotika. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan informasi pengaruh kunyit sebagai obat alternatif untuk mengobati kejadian kolibasilosis pada anak babi. Dua belas ekor anak babi yang menderita kolibasilosis dikelompokkan ke dalam tiga kelompok yakni kelompok pertama adalah anak babi sebagai kontrol yakni tidak diberikan ekstrak kunyit maupun sulfonamida. Kelompok kedua anak babi diberikan ekstrak kunyit, sedangkan kelompok ketiga anak babi diobati dengan sulfonamida. Data berupa kejadian diare dan total bakteri E. coli dianalisis dengan analisis varian. Pengaruh pemberian kunyit dan pengobatan dengan sulfonamida nampak pada hari kelima setelah perlakuan, yakni berupa penurunan kejadian diare dan pengurangan total bakteri E.coli. Hasil penelitian menunjukkkan bahwa ekstrak kunyit sangat potensial dapat dipakai sebagai obat alternatif dalam pengobatan penyakit kolibasilosis pada anak babi. THE EFFECT OF TURMERIC (Curcuma longa ON PIGLETS WITH COLIBACILLOSIS ABSTRACT Colibacillosis is one of diseases in piglets coused by Eschericia coli (E.coli, and commonly antibiotica therapy to used preventively that diseases. The present study was conducted to observe that effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa, as a alternative drugs on therapy of collibacillosis. Twelve of piglets with colibacillosis diseases were devided in to three groups, each group consisted of four piglets. First group was the negative control group without treatment of sulphonamides and turmeric too, the second group was the turmeric extract treatment and the last group was the colibacillosis piglets treated with sulphonamides. Analisis of variance was to analysed of data from diarrhea occurrence and a total of E. coli bacteria. Effect of turmeric and sulphonamides on colibacillosis of all piglets was detected at fifth days, with

  17. Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A dreadful condition of premature babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak sharma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available NEC is inflammatory necrosis of intestine with most common site being terminal ileum and ascending colon in preterm babies (1. The condition is typically seen in premature infants, and the timing of its onset is generally inversely proportional to the gestational age of the baby at birth, i.e. The earlier a baby is born, longer is the time of risk for NEC in premature babies. The incidence of NEC is inversely proportional to the gestational age and birth weight (2. Baby have initial symptoms which include feeding intolerance, increased gastric residuals, abdominal distension and bloody stools (3. The laboratory triad includes metabolic acidosis, hyponatremia and thrombocytopenia. Pneumatosis intestinalis is the pathognomonic radiological finding in the NEC. Modified Bell’s staging is used to stage the NEC. Treatment involves Nil per Oral, supportive care, antibiotics, surgery in advanced stages and parenteral nutrition (4,5. Complication of NEC includes mortality, prolonged NICU stay, intestinal strictures, enterocutaneous fistula, intra-abdominal abscess, cholestasis, and short-bowel syndrome (6,7, neurodevelopmental, motor, sensory, and cognitive problems (8,9.

  18. Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicha, H.

    1985-06-01

    Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning (CSF scanning) today is mainly carried out in addition to computerized tomography to obtain information about liquor flow kinetics. Especially in patients with communicating obstructive hydrocephalus, CSF scanning is clinically useful for the decision for shunt surgery. In patients with intracranial cysts, CSF scanning can provide information about liquor circulation. Further indications for CSF scanning include the assessment of shunt patency especially in children, as well as the detection and localization of cerebrospinal fluid leaks.

  19. Major congenital anomalies in babies born with Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Joan K; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that over 40% of babies with Down syndrome have a major cardiac anomaly and are more likely to have other major congenital anomalies. Since 2000, many countries in Europe have introduced national antenatal screening programs for Down syndrome. This study aimed...... to determine if the introduction of these screening programs and the subsequent termination of prenatally detected pregnancies were associated with any decline in the prevalence of additional anomalies in babies born with Down syndrome. The study sample consisted of 7,044 live births and fetal deaths with Down...... syndrome registered in 28 European population-based congenital anomaly registries covering seven million births during 2000-2010. Overall, 43.6% (95% CI: 42.4-44.7%) of births with Down syndrome had a cardiac anomaly and 15.0% (14.2-15.8%) had a non-cardiac anomaly. Female babies with Down syndrome were...

  20. Respon Imun Anak Babi Pasca Vaksinasi Hog Cholera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Jayanata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh antibodi maternal terhadap titer antibodi anak babi yang di vaksin hog cholera umur 7 hari. Penelitian menggunakan tujuh sampel babi dari induk yang divaksin secara teratur yang diberikan perlakuan vaksinasi pada umur 7 hari. Pengambilan sampel serum dilakukan pravaksinasi (7 hari, dan satu minggu serta dua minggu pasca vaksinasi. Untuk menentukan titer antibodi virus Hog cholera pada sampel anak babi dilakukan uji ELISA. Data yang diperoleh kemudian dianalisis mengunakan paired sampel T test antara titer antibodi hog cholera. Hasil paired sample T test menunjukkan terjadinya penurunan titer antibodi maternal yang nyata (p<0,05 pada pra vaksinasi ( umur 7 hari dengan satu minggu pasca vaksinasi dan sangat nyata (p<0,01 dengan hari dua minggu pasca vaksinasi. Dari hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa antibodi maternal yang tinggi akan mengakibatkan penurunan pada titer antibodi pasca vaksinasi. Perlu dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut untuk mengetahui waktu vaksinasi yang efektif

  1. THE MONITORING OF MERCURY CONTENT IN BABY FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Tóth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Children's nutrition is very important for the healthy growth and development of the child, but it affects the health of the individual as well later in adulthood. For the production of baby food, commonly available on the market are used raw materials consistently grown under very strict supervision of specially designated for children's nutrition. It shall also apply to the more stringent standards on fertilizer, soil treatment during growth, harvesting, storage and process for the production of baby food. At work, we have focused on monitoring the content of Hg in the 12 samples of baby food, available in the sales network of the Slovak Republic and comparing it with the Highest permissible quantity (0.05 mg.kg-1. On the basis of the findings shows that the content of Hg in the one sample exceeded the HPQ, the content of Hg was in the range 0.6 - 20.4% of the HPQ.

  2. Babies born dying: just bad karma? A discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Victoria J

    2014-12-01

    The paper examines the notion of being born dying and karma. Karma is a belief upheld by Buddhists and non-Buddhists: That is, karma follows people from their previous lives into their current lives. This raises a difficult question: Does karma mean that a baby's death is its own fault? While great peace can be found from a belief in karma, the notion of a baby's karma returning in some sort of retributive, universal justice can be de-emphasized and is considered "un-Buddhist." Having an understanding of karma is intrinsic to the spiritual care for the dying baby, not only from the perspective of parents and families who have these beliefs, but also for reconciling one's own beliefs as a healthcare practitioner.

  3. How do baby boomers' mobility patterns change with retirement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu; Haustein, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Baby boomers will comprise a considerable share of tomorrow's older population. Previous research has indicated higher travel activity and car use amongst baby boomers than amongst older cohorts. However, little evidence exists on the effects of boomers' ageing on the transportation system....... To analyse how retirement affects baby boomers' travel and the related future travel demand, we compared three groups, distinguished by employment status as ‘still working’, ‘early retirees’ and ‘recent retirees’, in a longitudinal setting. Data for 864 individuals were collected via standardised telephone...... interviews in 2009 and 2012. We find a clear tendency towards reducing the car use and mileage over time and as a consequence of retirement. Nevertheless, car use for leisure purposes increased after retirement. Whilst retirement had a bigger impact on men's than on women's car use, those women who continued...

  4. Pedagogy with babies: perspectives of eight nursery managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfer, Peter; Page, Jools

    2015-12-02

    The last 30 years have seen a significant increase in babies attending nursery, with corresponding questions about the aims and organisation of practice. Research broadly agrees on the importance of emotionally consistent, sensitive and responsive interactions between staff and babies. Policy objectives for nursery and expectations of parents and staff give rise to different and sometimes conflicting aims for such interactions; for example attachments to staff, peer interactions or early learning. Research shows marked variations of pedagogy aims and organisation with babies in nurseries in different national and cultural contexts. It also demonstrates variation between nurseries in similar contexts and between staff in their beliefs and values about work with babies. This paper reports on an exploratory study of the beliefs, aspirations and approaches of eight managers concerning pedagogy with babies in two similar English local authorities. These managers spoke of the importance of being responsive to the concerns and priorities of parents, whilst being sensitive to the demands of the work on their staff. The main finding was of the contradictions and confusions managers felt were inherent in the work, arising from both conflicting policy objectives and personal beliefs and aspirations; sometimes their own and sometimes those of individual staff and parents. Urban, Vandenbroeck, Van Laere, Lazzari, and Peeters' [(2012). Towards competent systems in early childhood education and care. Implications for policy and practice. European Journal of Education, 47(4), 508-526.] concept of the 'competent system' is used to recommend a grounded approach to the development of a more culturally, socially and individually responsive pedagogy with babies than appears to exist at present.

  5. [Stiff baby syndrome is a rare cause of neonatal hypertonicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønne, Maria Sode; Nielsen, Preben Berg; Mogensen, Christian Backer

    2014-02-24

    Stiff baby syndrome (hyperekplexia) is a rare genetic disorder. The condition can easily be misdiagnosed as epilepsy or severe sepsis because of hypertonicity and seizure-like episodes and has an increased risk of severe apnoea and sudden infant death. Tapping of the nasal bridge inducing a startle response is the clinical hallmark. We report cases of two sisters born with stiff baby syndrome with hypertonicity, exaggerated startle reaction and cyanosis. The syndrome has a good prognosis if treated with clonazepam and both cases were developmental normal after one year.

  6. Baby MIND Experiment Construction Status arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Antonova, M.; Bayes, R.; Benoit, P.; Blondel, A.; Bogomilov, M.; Bross, A.; Cadoux, F.; Cervera, A.; Chikuma, N.; Dudarev, A.; Ekelöf, T.; Favre, Y.; Fedotov, S.; Hallsjö, S-P.; Izmaylov, A.; Karadzhov, Y.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotyantsev, A.; Kleymenova, A.; Koga, T.; Kostin, A.; Kudenko, Y.; Likhacheva, V.; Martinez, B.; Matev, R.; Medvedeva, M.; Mefodiev, A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Nessi, M.; Nicola, L.; Noah, E.; Ovsiannikova, T.; Pais Da Silva, H.; Parsa, S.; Rayner, M.; Rolando, G.; Shaykhiev, A.; Simion, P.; Soler, F.J.P.; Suvorov, S.; Tsenov, R.; Ten Kate, H.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Yershov, N.

    Baby MIND is a magnetized iron neutrino detector, with novel design features, and is planned to serve as a downstream magnetized muon spectrometer for the WAGASCI experiment on the T2K neutrino beam line in Japan. One of the main goals of this experiment is to reduce systematic uncertainties relevant to CP-violation searches, by measuring the neutrino contamination in the anti-neutrino beam mode of T2K. Baby MIND is currently being constructed at CERN, and is planned to be operational in Japan in October 2017.

  7. Learning and adherence to baby massage after two teaching strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cláudia Marchetti; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida; Gonçalves, Lia Lopes; Machado, Thais Gaiad; Voos, Mariana Callil

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about learning/adherence after different baby massage teaching strategies. We compared the learning/adherence after two strategies. Twenty mothers from the group manual-course (GMC) and 20 from the group manual-orientations (GMO) received a booklet. GMC participated in a course during the third trimester. GMO received verbal instructions during the postpartum hospital stay. Multiple-choice and practical tests assessed learning (GMC: performing strokes on a doll; GMO: on the baby). Adherence was measured 3 months after childbirth. No differences were found between the groups in learning/adherence. Both teaching strategies showed similar and positive results. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The wise baby as the voice of the true self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethelard, F; Young-Bruehl, E

    1999-10-01

    Sandor Ferenczi wrote about a typical dream of the "Wise Baby" and later used this figure to represent the child who is traumatized into precocious wisdom, who becomes "the family psychiatrist." We discuss Ferenczi's theory of traumatization and the "split self," noting how it was taken up in D. W. Winnicott's "True Self/False Self" conceptualization. We then present three patients' wise baby dreams to show how these trauma theories can be used in dream interpretation and how dream interpretation can support them.

  9. MIXED GONADAL DYSGENESIS IN A SEVEN MONTH OLD BABY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ayu Krishna Levina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed gonadal dysgenesis is a very rare case with genital ambiguity as a clinical manifestation.Diagnosis of this condition is emerging due to proper gender assignment and  prompt treatment toachieve optimal physical and psychologic development. We reported a genital ambigous in a 7 month old baby, who was referred with enlargement of clitoris, an unpalpable testis, but with a highconcentration testosteron serum level, an uterus from genitography, and a mosaic karyotype 45,X/46,XY. The working diagnosis of this baby is mixed gonadal dysgenesis. Patients is being evaluated by a multidisciplinary team and planned having laparoscopy.  [MEDICINA 2014;45:52-57

  10. Diffusion-weighted MRI in shaken baby syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Yu-Leung; Chu, Winnie C.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Gary W.K. [Department of Paediatrics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Yeung, David K.W. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2003-08-01

    We present the characteristic CT and MRI findings of a 2-month-old girl with shaken baby syndrome. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging performed 8 days after the insult established the presence of injury to the white matter in the corpus callosum and subcortical white matter in the temporo-occipito-parietal region. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is valuable in the diagnostic work-up of suspected shaken baby syndrome, as injury to the white matter can be demonstrated days after the injury. (orig.)

  11. 1 in 20 Pregnant Women Infected with Zika Have Babies with Birth Defects: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html 1 in 20 Pregnant Women Infected With Zika Have Babies With Birth Defects: CDC Report from ... in the U.S. territories who were infected with Zika during pregnancy had babies with serious birth defects, ...

  12. Most Cow's Milk Baby Formulas Don't Up Risk of Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163146.html Most Cow's Milk Baby Formulas Don't Up Risk ... nutrition for babies, a new study suggests that most cow's milk formulas don't increase the risk ...

  13. Zika Babies May Look Normal At Birth, Display Brain Defects Later: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162159.html Zika Babies May Look Normal at Birth, Display Brain ... 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Babies exposed to the Zika virus in the womb can look normal at ...

  14. Excess Pre-Pregnancy Weight May Slightly Raise Baby's Cerebral Palsy Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Excess Pre-Pregnancy Weight May Slightly Raise Baby's Cerebral Palsy Risk But, study found overall odds remain quite ... slight increased risk of having a baby with cerebral palsy, a new study suggests. After reviewing data from ...

  15. Living in the Real World--"Babies Get Out: Outdoor Settings for Infant Toddler Play."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Suggests advantages and design considerations for outdoor settings for babies. Climate, wildlife, equipment, and the needs and natures of both babies and caregivers are discussed. Provides ideas for landscape design and structures. (SH)

  16. Feeding newborns after hospital discharge from a Baby-Friendly Health Care Institution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vivancos, Raquel Bosquim Zavanella; Leite, Adriana Moraes; Furtado, Maria Cândida de Carvalho; Góes, Fernanda dos Santos Nogueira de; Haas, Vanderlei José; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize how babies are fed during their hospital stay and after hospital discharge from a Baby-Friendly Health Care Institution, using indicators proposed by the World Health Organization. METHODS...

  17. Line scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope (LSSSCM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareau, Daniel S; Krueger, James G; Hawkes, Jason E; Lish, Samantha R; Dietz, Michael P; Mülberger, Alba Guembe; Mu, Euphemia W; Stevenson, Mary L; Lewin, Jesse M; Meehan, Shane A; Carucci, John A

    2017-08-01

    For rapid pathological assessment of large surgical tissue excisions with cellular resolution, we present a line scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope (LSSSCM). LSSSCM uses no scanning mirrors. Laser light is focused with a single cylindrical lens to a line of diffraction-limited width directly into the (Z) sample focal plane, which is parallel to and near the flattened specimen surface. Semi-confocal optical sections are derived from the linear array distribution (Y) and a single mechanical drive that moves the sample parallel to the focal plane and perpendicular to the focused line (X). LSSSCM demonstrates cellular resolution in the conditions of high nuclear density within micronodular basal cell carcinoma.

  18. Effects of processing on microstructure and mechanical properties of a titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) fabricated using electron beam melting (EBM), part 1: Distance from build plate and part size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrabe, Nikolas, E-mail: nhrabe@gmail.com [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 325 Broadway, Stop 647, Boulder, CO 80305-3328 (United States); Quinn, Timothy, E-mail: timothy.quinn@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 325 Broadway, Stop 647, Boulder, CO 80305-3328 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Selective electron beam melting (EBM) is a layer-by-layer additive manufacturing technique that shows great promise for fabrication of medical devices and aerospace components. Before its potential can be fully realized, however, a comprehensive understanding of processing–microstructure–properties relationships is necessary. Titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) parts were built in a geometry developed to allow investigation of the following two intra-build processing parameters: distance from the build plate and part size. Microstructure evaluation (qualitative prior-β grain size, quantitative α lath thickness), tensile testing, and Vickers microhardness were performed for each specimen. Microstructure and mechanical properties, including microhardness, were not found to vary as a function of distance from the build plate, which was hypothesized to be influenced by the build plate preheating associated with the EBM process. Part size, however, was found to influence ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield strength (YS) by less than 2% over the size range investigated. A second order effect of thermal mass might also have influenced these results. Differences were observed between the EBM Ti–6Al–4V microstructure of this work and the expected acicular or Widmanstätten microstructure normally achieved through annealing above the β transus. Therefore, a different relationship between α lath thickness and mechanical properties might be expected.

  19. The Impact of Baby Swimming on Introductory and Elementary Swimming Training

    OpenAIRE

    Břízová, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    THESIS ANNOTATION Title: The Impact of Baby Swimming on Introductory and Elementary Swimming Training Aim: To assess the impact of 'baby swimming' on the successfulness in introductory and partly in elementary swimming training, and to find out whether also other circumstances (for example the length of attendance at 'baby swimming') have some influence on introductory swimming training. Methods: We used a questionnaire method for the parents of children who had attended 'baby swimming' and f...

  20. Evaluation of Orientation Dependence of Fracture Toughness and Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior of As-Deposited ARCAM EBM Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Mohsen; Dahar, Matthew; Aman, Ron; Harrysson, Ola; Beuth, Jack; Lewandowski, John J.

    2015-03-01

    This preliminary work documents the effects of test orientation with respect to build and beam raster directions on the fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth behavior of as-deposited EBM Ti-6Al-4V. Although ASTM/ISO standards exist for determining the orientation dependence of various mechanical properties in both cast and wrought materials, these standards are evolving for materials produced via additive manufacturing (AM) techniques. The current work was conducted as part of a larger America Makes funded project to begin to examine the effects of process variables on the microstructure and fracture and fatigue behavior of AM Ti-6Al-4V. In the fatigue crack growth tests, the fatigue threshold, Paris law slope, and overload toughness were determined at different load ratios, R, whereas fatigue precracked samples were tested to determine the fracture toughness. The as-deposited material exhibited a fine-scale basket-weave microstructure throughout the build, and although fracture surface examination revealed the presence of unmelted powders, disbonded regions, and isolated porosity, the resulting mechanical properties were in the range of those reported for cast and wrought Ti-6Al-4V. Remote access and control of testing was also developed at Case Western Reserve University to improve efficiency of fatigue crack growth testing.

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... interfere with the procedure. You will receive specific instructions based on the type of scan you are ... after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special instructions are necessary, you will be informed by a ...

  2. RBC nuclear scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  3. Effects of baby-friendly hospital initiative on breast-feeding practices in sindh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahjabeen; Akram, Durre Samin

    2013-06-01

    To determine changes in the breastfeeding practices of mothers after receiving counseling on 'Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding' as defined by the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative comparing baby friendly hospitals (BFHs) and non-baby-friendly hospitals in Sindh, Pakistan. The observational study was conducted from June 2007 to June 2009 in randomly selected baby-friendly and non-baby-friendly hospitals of Sindh, Pakistan. Non-probability purposive sampling was employed.The maternity staff was trained on 'Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding.'The changes in breastfeeding practices were analysed by SPSS version 15. A total of 236 women were included in the study. Of them, 196 (83.05%) were from baby-friendly hospitals and 40 (16.94%) from non-baby-friendly hospitals. Besides, 174 (88.7%) mothers in baby-friendly hospitals and 5 (12.5%) in non-baby-friendly hospitals during antenatal care received counseling by healthcare providers.There was an increase in breastfeeding practice up to 194 (98.97%) in the first category compared to 12 (30%) in the other category. Counseling under the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative improved breastfeeding practices up to 98.97% in baby-friendly compared to non-baby-friendly hospitals.

  4. The Baby-Friendly Initiative: Protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Catherine M; Unger, Sharon L

    2012-01-01

    Breastfeeding confers extensive and well-established benefits and is recognized as an extremely effective preventative health measure for both mothers and babies. Except in very few specific medical situations, breastfeeding should be universally encouraged for all mothers and infants. To improve worldwide breastfeeding initiation and duration rates, the WHO and UNICEF launched the Baby-Friendly Initiative (BFI) in 1991. The goal was to protect, promote and support breastfeeding by adherence to the WHO’s “Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding”. Since then, more than 20,000 hospitals in 156 countries have achieved Baby-Friendly status, with a resultant increase in both breastfeeding initiation and duration. Still, only 500 hospitals are currently designated Baby-Friendly in industrialized countries, including 37 health centres or health authorities in Canada. Health care practitioners have a unique and influential role in promoting and supporting breastfeeding. Provincial and territorial government leadership is essential to ensuring implementation of the BFI in all health care facilities delivering services to families with young children. PMID:23730170

  5. The Ububele Baby Mat Service – A primary preventative mental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... by the Baby Mat practitioners in relation to culturally diverse understandings of ... The therapeutic couple engages with culturally-informed frames of reference in ... it was found to help those accessing the mat to find symbolic meaning in the ...

  6. Do Mothers Want Professional Carers to Love Their Babies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Jools

    2011-01-01

    This article reports an aspect of a life historical study which investigated the part that "love" played in mothers' decision-making about returning to work and placing their babies in day care. The article begins with a brief discussion of the context, including 21st-century policies in England to encourage mothers to return to the workforce…

  7. 9 Great Information Sources About Baby and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 9 Great Information Sources About Baby and You Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript ... array of other accessible information on pregnancy from the National Library of Medicine. ...

  8. Developing Baby Bag Design by Using Kansei Engineering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janari, D.; Rakhmawati, A.

    2016-01-01

    Consumer's preferences and market demand are essential factors for product's success. Thus, in achieving its success, a product should have design that could fulfill consumer's expectation. Purpose of this research is accomplishing baby bag product as stipulated by Kansei. The results that represent Kanseiwords are; neat, unique, comfortable, safe, modern, gentle, elegant, antique, attractive, simple, spacious, creative, colorful, durable, stylish, smooth and strong. Identification value on significance of correlation for durable attribute is 0,000 < 0,005, which means significant to baby's bag. While the value of coefficient regression is 0,812 < 0,005, which means that durable attribute insignificant to baby's bag.The result of the baby's bag final design selectionbased on the questionnaire 3 is resulting the combination of all design. Space for clothes, diaper's space, shoulder grip, side grip, bottle's heater pocket and bottle's pocket are derived from design 1. Top grip, space for clothes, shoulder grip, and side grip are derived from design 2.Others design that were taken are, spaces for clothes from design 3, diaper's space and clothes’ space from design 4.

  9. BABY EMPATHY: INFANT DISTRESS AND PEER PROSOCIAL RESPONSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Mitzi-Jane E; Bradley, Ben S; Mcgrath, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is an important competence in our social world, a motivator of prosocial behavior, and thought to develop throughout the second year of life. The current study examined infants' responses to naturalistic peer distress to explore markers of empathy and prosocial behavior in young babies. Seventeen 8-month-old infants participated in a repeated measures design using the "babies-in-groups" paradigm, with maternal presence as the independent variable. Significant differences were found between response types: Gaze was the standard response to infant distress, followed by socially directed behaviors and affect, with self-distress rarely occurring. Maternal presence was not found to impact the nature or frequency of babies' responses to peer distress. During distress episodes, babies looked preferentially at the distressed peer, then other mothers, and least to their own mother. Data revealed that infant responses to peer distress resulted in a successful cessation of that distress episode over one third of the time. Case studies are provided to illustrate the quantitative data. The results provided evidence of empathic concern and prosocial behavior in the first year of life, and provoke a challenge to developmental theories of empathy. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  10. Baby Health Checkup: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Pediatrician: The First Year (American Academy of Pediatrics) Also in Spanish Well-Baby Exam: What to Expect during Routine ... A Check-Up for Success (American Academy of Pediatrics) Also in Spanish What Can Parents Expect During Their Infant's Well- ...

  11. Prospective audit of perinatal mortality among inborn babies in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-05-05

    May 5, 2010 ... inborn babies in a tertiary health center in Lagos,. Nigeria. EN Ekure .... The inclusion criteria for this study were birth weight of at least 500 g and/or a .... Table 4: Wigglesworth classification of perinatal deaths. Birth weight (g).

  12. The Birth of a Baby: Obscenity or Censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Michael D.

    This paper discusses the issues involved and presents an overall picture of attempts to censor the April 11, 1938 issue of "Life" magazine featuring a four-page spread of 35 pictures from the film "The Birth of a Baby." It examines contemporary news accounts from newspapers published in New York, Boston, Chicago, St. Louis, New…

  13. Little Babies: Born Too Soon--Born Too Small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD. Office of Research Reporting.

    The booklet describes the condttion known as low birth weight and suggests ways in which a mother can take precautions against its occurring in her own child. Problems and maternal factors associated with low birth weight babies are discussed, and research on the causes of prematurity and growth retardation are reviewed. (SBH)

  14. Tiny Babies May Face Mental Health Problems Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163563.html Tiny Babies May Face Mental Health Problems Later Review found greater likelihood of ADHD, anxiety and depression To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  15. Having Healthy Babies (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-19

    Birth defects account for one of every five infant deaths in the United States. This podcast discusses the chances and ways for women to have healthy babies.  Created: 1/19/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/19/2017.

  16. Reducing Baby Bottle Tooth Decay. A SERVE Research Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    This pamphlet discusses strategies for reducing baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) among Native American children. BBTD in infants and toddlers is a painful disease characterized by extensive decay of the upper front and side teeth. It is caused by prolonged exposure of teeth to carbohydrates, such as those contained in infant formula, milk, and fruit…

  17. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-04

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects. Learn how to protect babies from Zika-related health conditions.  Created: 4/4/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/4/2017.

  18. Sign Language with Babies: What Difference Does It Make?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Susan Kubic

    2010-01-01

    Teaching sign language--to deaf or other children with special needs or to hearing children with hard-of-hearing family members--is not new. Teaching sign language to typically developing children has become increasingly popular since the publication of "Baby Signs"[R] (Goodwyn & Acredolo, 1996), now in its third edition. Attention to signing with…

  19. Congenital absence of pericardium in babies with patent ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, I O; Anas, R

    2013-06-01

    We report a case of two babies with absence of pericardium and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). The absence of pericardium was found coincidentally during PDA ligation. The PDA was successfully ligated but the pericardium was not reconstructed. Postoperatively, the agenesis of the pericardium did not interfere with cardiac function.

  20. Applied and fundamental aspects of BABY BOOM-mediated regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidmann, I.A.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Somatic embryogenesis, Transcription factor, AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE, BABY BOOM, BBM, Sweet Pepper Transformation Title: Applied and Fundamental Aspects of BBM-mediated Regeneration Author: Iris Heidmann Catergories: Plant regeneration, Plant

  1. The Baby Boom Echo: Implications for School Enrollments and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERS Spectrum, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Based on NCES statistics, the school-age population (the baby boom echo) will pose major challenges for education. Between 1996 and 2006, total public and private school enrollment will rise from a record 51.7 million to 54.6 million. The nation will need 190,000 additional teachers, 6,000 more schools, and $15 billion in additional annual…

  2. Intention to shop online: A study of Malaysian baby boomers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yet Mee Lim; Ching Seng Yap; Teck Heang Lee

    2011-01-01

    ... control, and intention to shop online. Based on a sample of 146 baby boomers who are Internet users but not online shoppers, the study found that two of the three determinants--attitude towards online shopping and subjective norm--were...

  3. Gaborone is Growing like a Baby: Life Expectancies and Death ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    This article examines the paradox of Botswana's twin reputations: first, success- ful national .... statements. The image of Gaborone growing like a baby is suggestive of the .... through developments, through school education of Rre Khama'. ..... ways anticipated by a life cycle change that not unexpectedly includes nostalgia.

  4. Selling Out Mothers and Babies by Marsha Walker

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra M., Gossler

    2003-01-01

    The monitoring project reported in Marsha Walker's book, Selling Out Mothers and Babies, offers a qualitative assessment of formula companies' unethical marketing practices in the United States. The book presents extensive documentation on the questionable strategies of formula companies and how they avoid and circumvent recommendations of the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes.

  5. Inorganic arsenic levels in baby rice are of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meharg, Andrew A; Sun, Guoxin; Williams, Paul N; Adomako, Eureka; Deacon, Claire; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea

    2008-04-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a chronic exposure carcinogen. Analysis of UK baby rice revealed a median inorganic arsenic content (n=17) of 0.11 mg/kg. By plotting inorganic arsenic against total arsenic, it was found that inorganic concentrations increased linearly up to 0.25 mg/kg total arsenic, then plateaued at 0.16 mg/kg at higher total arsenic concentrations. Inorganic arsenic intake by babies (4-12 months) was considered with respect to current dietary ingestion regulations. It was found that 35% of the baby rice samples analysed would be illegal for sale in China which has regulatory limit of 0.15 mg/kg inorganic arsenic. EU and US food regulations on arsenic are non-existent. When baby inorganic arsenic intake from rice was considered, median consumption (expressed as microg/kg/d) was higher than drinking water maximum exposures predicted for adults in these regions when water intake was expressed on a bodyweight basis.

  6. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? ... It’s also a great time for you and your partner to bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ...

  7. Every Day in The Womb Boosts Babies' Brain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at birth. They showed no signs of structural brain injury. The preterm babies were compared to 130 infants born full term at a mean age of 39 weeks of pregnancy. The mean birth weight was nearly 3,400 ... comparison of the infants' brains in the third trimester (the final 13 to ...

  8. Know Yourself: Building Relationships with Teenagers and Their Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, Ida; Gilkerson, Linda; Wechsler, Nick

    2007-01-01

    This article provides general guidelines for home visitors who work with teenage parents and their babies to explore their own thoughts and feelings in relation to the young parents with whom they work and to develop a receptive posture in working with these clients. The authors first guide the reader through a series of questions to identify the…

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... encourage linking to this site. × Recommend RadiologyInfo to a friend Send to (friend's e-mail address): From ( ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... encourage linking to this site. × Recommend RadiologyInfo to a friend Send to (friend's e-mail address): From ( ...

  11. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    V/Q scan; Ventilation/perfusion scan; Lung ventilation/perfusion scan ... A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan is actually two tests. They may be done separately or together. During the perfusion scan, a health care provider injects ...

  12. Hard water softening effect of a baby cleanser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walters RM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Russel M Walters, Emmanuel Anim-Danso, Stephanie M Amato, Kimberly A Capone, M Catherine Mack, Lorena S Telofski, David A Mays Skin Care Research & Development, Johnson & Johnson Consumer Inc., Skillman, NJ, USA Background: Hard water is associated with atopic dermatitis (eczema. We wanted to determine if a baby cleanser and its individual components altered free ionized calcium (Ca2+ in a simulated hard water baby bath. For these studies, an in vitro determination of free Ca2+ in a simulated hard water baby bath, and an in vivo exploratory study of free Ca2+ absorption into skin from hard water were performed.Methods: Free Ca2+ was measured with an ion-sensitive electrode in vitro in hard water (100–500 ppm, Ca2+ before and after addition of the cleanser and/or its components. In an exploratory study, absorption of Ca2+ into skin from hard water was determined in three female participants (aged 21–29 years.Results: At an in-use dilution of 1%, the test cleanser reduced free Ca2+ from ~500 ppm to <200 ppm; a 10% in-use dilution bound virtually all free Ca2+. The anionic surfactant component contributed the most to this effect. In the exploratory in vivo study, we measured a reduction of ~15% in free Ca2+ from simulated hard water over 10 minutes.Conclusion: Baby cleansers can bind free Ca2+ and reduce the effective water hardness of bath water. Reducing the amount of free Ca2+ in the water will reduce the availability of the ion for binding to the skin. Altering or reducing free Ca2+ concentrations in bath water may be an important parameter in creating the ideal baby bath. Keywords: bath, cleanser, hard water, infant, neonate, surfactant

  13. Hard water softening effect of a baby cleanser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Russel M; Anim-Danso, Emmanuel; Amato, Stephanie M; Capone, Kimberly A; Mack, M Catherine; Telofski, Lorena S; Mays, David A

    2016-01-01

    Background Hard water is associated with atopic dermatitis (eczema). We wanted to determine if a baby cleanser and its individual components altered free ionized calcium (Ca2+) in a simulated hard water baby bath. For these studies, an in vitro determination of free Ca2+ in a simulated hard water baby bath, and an in vivo exploratory study of free Ca2+ absorption into skin from hard water were performed. Methods Free Ca2+ was measured with an ion-sensitive electrode in vitro in hard water (100–500 ppm, Ca2+) before and after addition of the cleanser and/or its components. In an exploratory study, absorption of Ca2+ into skin from hard water was determined in three female participants (aged 21–29 years). Results At an in-use dilution of 1%, the test cleanser reduced free Ca2+ from ~500 ppm to <200 ppm; a 10% in-use dilution bound virtually all free Ca2+. The anionic surfactant component contributed the most to this effect. In the exploratory in vivo study, we measured a reduction of ~15% in free Ca2+ from simulated hard water over 10 minutes. Conclusion Baby cleansers can bind free Ca2+ and reduce the effective water hardness of bath water. Reducing the amount of free Ca2+ in the water will reduce the availability of the ion for binding to the skin. Altering or reducing free Ca2+ concentrations in bath water may be an important parameter in creating the ideal baby bath. PMID:27789967

  14. The 2030 Problem: Caring for Aging Baby Boomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knickman, James R; Snell, Emily K

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the coming challenges of caring for large numbers of frail elderly as the Baby Boom generation ages. Study Setting A review of economic and demographic data as well as simulations of projected socioeconomic and demographic patterns in the year 2030 form the basis of a review of the challenges related to caring for seniors that need to be faced by society. Study Design A series of analyses are used to consider the challenges related to caring for elders in the year 2030: (1) measures of macroeconomic burden are developed and analyzed, (2) the literatures on trends in disability, payment approaches for long-term care, healthy aging, and cultural views of aging are analyzed and synthesized, and(3)simulations of future income and assets patterns of the Baby Boom generation are developed. Principal Findings The economic burden of aging in 2030 should be no greater than the economic burden associated with raising large numbers of baby boom children in the 1960s. The real challenges of caring for the elderly in 2030 will involve: (1) making sure society develops payment and insurance systems for long-term care that work better than existing ones, (2) taking advantage of advances in medicine and behavioral health to keep the elderly as healthy and active as possible, (3) changing the way society organizes community services so that care is more accessible, and (4) altering the cultural view of aging to make sure all ages are integrated into the fabric of community life. Conclusions To meet the long-term care needs of Baby Boomers, social and public policy changes must begin soon. Meeting the financial and social service burdens of growing numbers of elders will not be a daunting task if necessary changes are made now rather than when Baby Boomers actually need long-term care. PMID:12236388

  15. Baby-MONITOR: A Composite Indicator of NICU Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalkowski, Marc A.; Zupancic, John A. F.; Pietz, Kenneth; Richardson, Peter; Draper, David; Hysong, Sylvia J.; Thomas, Eric J.; Petersen, Laura A.; Gould, Jeffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: NICUs vary in the quality of care delivered to very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. NICU performance on 1 measure of quality only modestly predicts performance on others. Composite measurement of quality of care delivery may provide a more comprehensive assessment of quality. The objective of our study was to develop a robust composite indicator of quality of NICU care provided to VLBW infants that accurately discriminates performance among NICUs. METHODS: We developed a composite indicator, Baby-MONITOR, based on 9 measures of quality chosen by a panel of experts. Measures were standardized, equally weighted, and averaged. We used the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative database to perform across-sectional analysis of care given to VLBW infants between 2004 and 2010. Performance on the Baby-MONITOR is not an absolute marker of quality but indicates overall performance relative to that of the other NICUs. We used sensitivity analyses to assess the robustness of the composite indicator, by varying assumptions and methods. RESULTS: Our sample included 9023 VLBW infants in 22 California regional NICUs. We found significant variations within and between NICUs on measured components of the Baby-MONITOR. Risk-adjusted composite scores discriminated performance among this sample of NICUs. Sensitivity analysis that included different approaches to normalization, weighting, and aggregation of individual measures showed the Baby-MONITOR to be robust (r = 0.89–0.99). CONCLUSIONS: The Baby-MONITOR may be a useful tool to comprehensively assess the quality of care delivered by NICUs. PMID:24918221

  16. Pilot evaluation of the text4baby mobile health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans William Douglas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile phone technologies for health promotion and disease prevention have evolved rapidly, but few studies have tested the efficacy of mobile health in full-fledged programs. Text4baby is an example of mobile health based on behavioral theory, and it delivers text messages to traditionally underserved pregnant women and new mothers to change their health, health care beliefs, practices, and behaviors in order to improve clinical outcomes. The purpose of this pilot evaluation study is to assess the efficacy of this text messaging campaign. Methods We conducted a randomized pilot evaluation study. All participants were pregnant women first presenting for care at the Fairfax County, Virginia Health Department. We randomized participants to enroll in text4baby and receive usual health care (intervention, or continue simply to receive usual care (control. We then conducted a 24-item survey by telephone of attitudes and behaviors related to text4baby. We surveyed participants at baseline, before text4baby was delivered to the intervention group, and at follow-up at approximately 28 weeks of baby’s gestational age. Results We completed 123 baseline interviews in English and in Spanish. Overall, the sample was predominantly of Hispanic origin (79.7% with an average age of 27.6 years. We completed 90 follow-up interviews, and achieved a 73% retention rate. We used a logistic generalized estimating equation model to evaluate intervention effects on measured outcomes. We found a significant effect of text4baby intervention exposure on increased agreement with the attitude statement “I am prepared to be a new mother” (OR = 2.73, CI = 1.04, 7.18, p = 0.042 between baseline and follow-up. For those who had attained a high school education or greater, we observed a significantly higher overall agreement to attitudes against alcohol consumption during pregnancy (OR = 2.80, CI = 1.13, 6.90, p = 0.026. We also observed a

  17. Grenville Zircon Fertility, Baby Boom, and Baby Boom Echo; Natural Bias in the Detrital Zircon Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moecher, D. P.; Samson, S. D.

    2006-12-01

    Grenville-aged (~1150-1050 Ma) granitoids of eastern Laurentia exposed in Appalachian basement massifs are as much as 20 times more Zr-rich and much more fertile for crystallizing zircon compared to Paleozoic Laurentian granitoids of the Eastern Blue Ridge, Inner Piedmont, and Carolina terranes. Erosion of Grenville source rocks generates disproportionately large numbers and/or sizes of detrital zircon compared to less fertile magmatic sources. The latter are essentially undetectable by standard detrital zircon provenance methods (SHRIMP or LA-ICP-MS analysis of magmatic cores of >100 micron grains). Grenvillian zircon fertility biased the Neoproterozoic to Recent detrital record as a result of: (1) zircon durability and insolubility in aqueous fluids means detrital zircons eroded from Grenville basement terranes are recycled during repeated orogenesis; (2) inertness of zircon below upper amphibolite facies (onset of anatexis), and high Zr resulting from concentration of detrital zircon in sedimentary protoliths, means dominantly metasedimentary terranes will fail to generate sufficient new zircon corresponding in age to the time of accretion of those terranes to Laurentia. Zircon growth under incipient anatectic conditions generates new zircon as overgrowths on detrital magmatic cores; overgrowths are often too thin to analyze by ion or laser beam. In this case, metasedimentary terranes may be rendered essentially undetectable. New `magmatic' zircon may be generated with greater degrees of anatexis, but might be inferred to be of plutonic, not metamorphic, parentage. Grenville modes dominate detrital zircon age distributions for: Laurentian Neoproterozoic rift basins; Neoproterozoic to Lower Ordovician passive margin sequences; Appalachian Paleozoic syn-orogenic clastic sequences; Appalachian metasedimentary terranes; and modern rivers. The latter is surprising since Grenville terranes comprise baby boom' that echoed through later orogenies. The natural Grenville

  18. 76 FR 81467 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Collection; Importation of Baby Corn and Baby Carrots From Zambia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... with regulations for the importation of baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. DATES: We will consider...Detail ;D=APHIS-2011-0111-0001. Postal Mail/Commercial Delivery: Send your comment to Docket No. APHIS...

  19. Healthy Parenting Skills Program toward First-Time Father’s Skills on Caring for Newborn Baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uswatun Khasanah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study is to examine the effects of skills training program named healthy parenting program on first time father skills. The skills are baby bath and umbilical cord care, baby blanket, burping and handling the baby, baby lullaby and replace baby clothes.Method: This is a quasi experiment study. Sampling technique is purposive sampling with 30 first time father with 0-28 days new born baby. Sample equally assigned into experimental and control groups. Subject in experimental group received healthy parenting skills program, while control group was given routine care only. The instrument is observation guideline. Wilcoxon and Man Whitney Test are used to analyze data.Result: Father’ skills in experimental group after receiving the program are statistically increased from before the program (bathing and umbilical cord care, baby blanket, baby burping, baby handling, baby lullaby, replace baby clothes.Conclusion: Father’ skills in experimental group after receiving the program are statistically increased over control group (bathing and umbilical cord care, baby blanket skill, baby burping, baby handling, baby lullaby, replace baby clothes. Suggestions are the educational efforts by health-care professionals could beneficially be directed toward fathers throughout prenatal and postpartum periods. Health center in Indonesia should initiate class program directed to father in part of program in reducing neonates and post partum mothers health problems.

  20. 76 FR 37055 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby Squash and Baby Courgettes From Zambia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... plant pests are not introduced into the United States. Allowing baby squash and baby courgettes to...

  1. Radionucleotide scanning in osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, W.; Kanat, I.O.

    1986-07-01

    Radionucleotide bone scanning can be an excellent adjunct to the standard radiograph and clinical findings in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Bone scans have the ability to detect osteomyelitis far in advance of the standard radiograph. The sequential use of technetium and gallium has been useful in differentiating cellulitis and osteomyelitis. Serial scanning with technetium and gallium may be used to monitor the response of osteomyelitis to antibiotic therapy.

  2. Laser Scanning in Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Håkan Olsson; Juha Hyyppä; Markus Holopainen

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) to forests has been revolutionary during the last decade. This development was facilitated by combining earlier ranging lidar discoveries [1–5], with experience obtained from full-waveform ranging radar [6,7] to new airborne laser scanning systems which had components such as a GNSS receiver (Global Navigation Satellite System), IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) and a scanning mechanism. Since the first commercial ALS in 1994, new ALS-based fore...

  3. Body growth and brain development in premature babies: an MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzarouchi, Loukia C.; Zikou, Anastasia; Kosta, Paraskevi; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Drougia, Aikaterini; Andronikou, Styliani [University of Ioannina, Intensive Care Unit, Child Health Department, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Astrakas, Loukas G. [University of Ioannina, Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2014-03-15

    Prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction are associated with neurodevelopmental disabilities. To assess the relationship between growth status and regional brain volume (rBV) and white matter microstructure in premature babies at around term-equivalent age. Premature infants (n= 27) of gestational age (GA): 29.8 ± 2.1 weeks, with normal brain MRI scans were studied at corrected age: 41.2 ± 1.4 weeks. The infants were divided into three groups: 1) appropriate for GA at birth and at the time of MRI (AGA), 2) small for GA at birth with catch-up growth at the time of MRI (SGA{sub a}) and 3) small for GA at birth with failure of catch-up growth at the time of MRI (SGA{sub b}). The T1-weighted images were segmented into 90 rBVs using the SPM8/IBASPM and differences among groups were assessed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured bilaterally in 15 fiber tracts and its relationship to GA and somatometric measurements was explored. Lower rBV was observed in SGA{sub b} in superior and anterior brain areas. A positive correlation was demonstrated between FA and head circumference and body weight. Body weight was the only significant predictor for FA (P< 0.05). In premature babies, catch-up growth is associated with regional brain volume catch-up at around term-equivalent age, starting from the brain areas maturing first. Body weight seems to be a strong predictor associated with WM microstructure in brain areas related to attention, language, cognition, memory and executing functioning. (orig.)

  4. Goals and options in keeping preterm babies warm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, A J; Freer, Y

    2011-01-01

    More than 50 years after Silverman showed the association between temperature control and mortality, recent data again stress the importance of the thermal environment of the preterm infant. The goals of care are straightforward: maintain a normal body temperature, ensure a stable thermal environment and avoid cold stress; but the options to achieve them are many and less certain. There is a problem in defining a 'normal' temperature. A single measurement will tell nothing about whether the baby is using energy for thermal balance. The preterm baby should be monitored with the continuous recording and display of a central and peripheral temperature. This will give an early indication of cold stress before any change is seen in the central temperature. Reducing evaporative heat losses at birth has improved temperatures on admission, although no studies have shown any effect on outcome. No data have shown that the use of incubators is any better than radiant heaters.

  5. On the names of Babiński.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasecki, A P; Hachinski, V

    1996-02-01

    The 100th anniversary of the discovery of the extensor plantar response will be celebrated in 1996. It was Joseph François Félix Babiński who became known worldwide for the sign that bears his name. In order to help Joseph in establishing his career, brother Henri gave up his aspirations and abandoned engineering. Clovis Vincent, "father' of French neurosurgery and pupil of Joseph, stated: "Joseph Babinski lived for science, and Henri lived for his brother; without Henri Babinski, Joseph would not have accomplished that much". However, Henri's name became famous in all Paris for a cookbook Gastronomie Pratique written under the pseudonym of "Ali-Bab.' Throughout Joseph's career his surname remained distorted despite his own efforts to spell and pronounce it correctly. Several people can claim the name Babiński, but in neurology and neurosurgery there is only one, Joseph.

  6. God-mother-baby: what children think they know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Florian; Perner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    This study tested one hundred and nine 3- to 6-year-old children on a knowledge-ignorance task about knowledge in humans (mother, baby) and God. In their responses, participants not reliably grasping that seeing leads to knowing in humans (pre-representational) were significantly influenced by own knowledge and marginally by question format. Moreover, knowledge was attributed significantly more often to mother than baby and explained by agent-based characteristics. Of participants mastering the task for humans (representational), God was largely conceived as ignorant "man in the sky" by younger and increasingly as "supernatural agent in the sky" by older children. Evidence for egocentrism and for anthropomorphizing God lends support to an anthropomorphism hypothesis. First-time evidence for an agent-based conception of others' knowledge in pre-representational children is presented.

  7. Baby booms, busts, and population ageing in the developed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reher, David S

    2015-01-01

    The key challenge facing contemporary society is a process of population ageing rooted mainly in past fertility cycles. The goals of the study reported in this paper were (i) to analyse jointly the post-1930s baby boom and the baby bust that followed, (ii) to consider the specific ways this particular combination influenced the process of ageing in different societies, and (iii) to evaluate some possible implications for policy of different historical experiences. Demographic time series for 27 nations in the developed world were used. The main results confirm the importance of the boom and bust fertility cycle of the second half of the twentieth century for population ageing. Some countries will experience ageing processes driven mainly by the growth of elderly populations while others will age largely as a result of declines in working-age populations. These differences underscore the need to tailor policy priorities for specific patterns of ageing.

  8. Anaerobic cultures from preserved tissues of baby mammoth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Fisher, Daniel; Hoover, Richard B.

    2011-10-01

    Microbiological analysis of several cold-preserved tissue samples from the Siberian baby mammoth known as Lyuba revealed a number of culturable bacterial strains that were grown on anaerobic media at 3 oC. Lactic acid produced by LAB (lactic acid bacteria) group, usually by members of the genera Carnobacterium and Lactosphera, appears to be a wonderful preservative that keeps other bacteria from colonizing a system. Permafrost and lactic acid preserved the body of this one month-old baby mammoth and kept it in exceptionally good condition, resulting in this mammoth being the most complete sample of the species ever recovered. The diversity of novel psychrophilic anaerobic isolates was expressed on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic levels. Here, we discuss the specifics of the isolation of new psychrophilic strains, differentiation from trivial contamination, and preliminary results for characterization of the cultures.

  9. Motivational messages: lead a Baby Friendly Initiative community project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Sue; Butler, Donna

    2012-01-01

    2011 saw Baby Friendly Initiative (BFI) success in the towns of Blackburn with Darwen. The towns serve around 2,500 new babies a year, have significant social deprivation and mixed ethnicity. Commitment was made by the Trust and Local Authority, to progress to meeting full BFI standards by commissioning the Acute Trusts Infant Feeding Coordinator (midwife) to lead on the project and the change needed. Numerous challenges were met along the way, such as capacity to lead and deliver (leading to the recruitment of Donna), swine flu, GP training, organisational changes and loss of ante- and postnatal interventions. This was the first Community Trust in England to achieve full accreditation without follow up visits. This article hopes to inspire other Trusts to get started, keep going and don't let go until you get there--because it's worth it.

  10. Ultradian components of the sleep-wake cycle in babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna-Barreto, L; Benedito-Silva, A A; Marques, N; de Andrade, M M; Louzada, F

    1993-04-01

    Behavioral states may be analyzed as expressions of underlying cyclic activity involving several physiological systems. The human sleep-wake cycle in the first year of life shows, in addition to the establishment of circadian rhythmicity around the second month, the dynamics of its ultradian components, as can be seen in the more or less gradual decline of the polyphasic pattern. To detect these changes, we have analyzed the sleep-wake cycle of five babies of different ages (3, 4, 9, 11, and 13 months) observed for 5 consecutive days (Monday through Friday), 10 h (08:00-18:00 h) per day at a kindergarten by the first author, and during the night (18:00-08:00 h) by the parents. Behavioral observations were designed for minimizing interference with the babies' habits. Sleep/wake data were arranged in 60-min intervals, and the relative amount of time spent asleep per interval constituted the time series submitted for statistical analysis. The five resulting time series were submitted to spectral analysis for detecting the composition of frequencies contributing to the observed sleep/wake cycle. Several frequencies were thus obtained for each baby in the ultradian and circadian domain, ranging from one cycle in 2.0 h to one cycle in 24 h. The circadian component was the strongest rhythmic influence for all individuals except for the youngest (3-month-old) baby, who showed a semicircadian component as the main frequency in the power spectrum. Three individuals showed ultradian frequencies in the domain of 3-4 h. Differences in the spectra derive from three possible, and probably not exclusive, causes: 1) ontogenetic changes, 2) different masking effects, and 3) individual differences.

  11. Bone scanning in otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyek, A M

    1979-09-01

    Modern radionuclide bone scanning has introduced a new concept in physiologic and anatomic diagnostic imaging to general medicine. As otolaryngologists must diagnose and treat disease in relation to the bony and/or cartilaginous supporting structures of the neurocranium and upper airway, this modality should be included in the otolaryngologist's diagnostic armamentarium. It is the purpose of this manuscript to study the specific applications of bone scanning to our specialty at this time, based on clinical experience over the past three years. This thesis describes the development of bone scanning in general (history of nuclear medicine and nuclear physics; history of bone scanning in particular). General concepts in nuclear medicine are then presented; these include a discussion of nuclear semantics, principles of radioactive emmissions, the properties 99mTc as a radionuclide, and the tracer principle. On the basis of these general concepts, specific concepts in bone scanning are then brought forth. The physiology of bone and the action of the bone scan agents is presented. Further discussion considers the availability and production of the bone scan agent, patient factors, the gamma camera, the triphasic bone scan and the ultimate diagnostic principle of the bone scan. Clinical applications of bone scanning in otolaryngology are then presented in three sections. Proven areas of application include the evaluation of malignant tumors of the head and neck, the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disorders, the diagnosis of facial fractures, the evaluation of osteomyelitis, nuclear medicine imaging of the larynx, and the assessment of systemic disease. Areas of adjunctive or supplementary value are also noted, such as diagnostic imaging of meningioma. Finally, areas of marginal value in the application of bone scanning are described.

  12. Shaken Baby Syndrome: A South African Medico-Legal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Le Roux-Kemp

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Shaken Baby Syndrome refers to the violent and repetitive shaking of an infant, and is a form of abusive head trauma. It was first described in 1974, and has since been the topic of intensive study and discussion. The syndrome has classically been diagnosed with a triad of injuries, namely subdural haemorrhage, retinal haemorrhage and encephalopathy (brain abnormalities. However, recent publications have led to some doubt regarding the causation and diagnostic significance of the triad. It is now generally accepted that other conditions, even natural diseases, may cause the findings listed in the so-called "triad". To date, no reported case law is available on Shaken Baby Syndrome in South Africa; therefore this article focuses on cases in the United States and United Kingdom to delineate some of the issues associated with litigating the condition. This includes the obligation of expert witnesses to give independent, factual evidence about their areas of expertise. It is recommended that medical and legal professionals involved in cases of alleged child abuse should collect as much information as possible about the context of the case. Confessions by parents or caregivers should be treated with circumspection. Awareness campaigns should be aimed at informing the public of the dangers of shaking an infant. And with regards to Shaken Baby Syndrome an increased focus on evidence-based medicine is necessary to dissipate the uncertainty around the condition.

  13. How much wrapping do babies need at night?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfield, R E; Fleming, P J; Azaz, Y E; Howell, T E; Jacobs, D E; Nadin, P S; McCabe, R; Stewart, A J

    1993-08-01

    In a longitudinal, population based study, overnight temperature recordings were made in the bedrooms of 152 babies aged 3-18 weeks and the insulation provided by their bedclothing was assessed. Outdoor temperatures for the study nights were also available. Parents applied more insulation on colder nights with lower bedroom temperatures than on warmer nights (mean 8.5 tog at 15 degrees C minimum bedroom temperature falling to 4.0 tog at 25 degrees C). For a particular temperature they also applied 2 tog more insulation in winter than in summer. The amounts of bedclothing used in the home were compared with insulation levels predicted to achieve thermo-neutrality over a similar range of environmental temperature from heat balance studies in young infants. They corresponded closely. The average amount of bedclothing chosen for babies in Avon allows them to remain in thermoneutral conditions throughout the night. These values are proposed as broad guidelines for the thermal care of young babies at night.

  14. Baby-Friendly hospital practices and meeting exclusive breastfeeding intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrine, Cria G; Scanlon, Kelley S; Li, Ruowei; Odom, Erika; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M

    2012-07-01

    To describe mothers' exclusive breastfeeding intentions and whether Baby-Friendly hospital practices are associated with achieving these intentions. In the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II, women completed a prenatal questionnaire and approximately monthly questionnaires through 12 months. Mothers met their prenatal exclusive breastfeeding intention if their duration after the hospital stay (excluding hospital supplementation) equaled or exceeded their intention. Primary predictor variables included 6 Baby-Friendly hospital practices: breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth, giving only breast milk, rooming in, breastfeeding on demand, no pacifiers, and information on breastfeeding support. Among women who prenatally intended to exclusively breastfeed (n = 1457), more than 85% intended to do so for 3 months or more; however, only 32.4% of mothers achieved their intended exclusive breastfeeding duration. Mothers who were married and multiparous were more likely to achieve their exclusive breastfeeding intention, whereas mothers who were obese, smoked, or had longer intended exclusive breastfeeding duration were less likely to meet their intention. Beginning breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth and not being given supplemental feedings or pacifiers were associated with achieving exclusive breastfeeding intention. After adjustment for all other hospital practices, only not receiving supplemental feedings remained significant (adjusted odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.8, 3.1). Two-thirds of mothers who intend to exclusively breastfeed are not meeting their intended duration. Increased Baby-Friendly hospital practices, particularly giving only breast milk in the hospital, may help more mothers achieve their exclusive breastfeeding intentions.

  15. Finnish Baby Boomers and the Emergence of the Third Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Karisto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the lives of baby boomers in Finland, and is based on several studies previously published in Finnish. The article considers the particular characteristics of this group of baby boomers. It then discusses whether the baby boom cohorts can also be called a generation. Following this, the life course of the boomer generation is contrasted with various images that have appeared in the media and elsewhere about their lives. Boomers have been presented as a radical’ or ‘selfish’ generation. This article proposes two new themes: boomers as a crossroads generation and boomers as a bridging generation. The paper also considers the emergence of the third age as approached from a generational perspective. The third age has been defined as a generational field underpinned by agency and consumption, with its roots in the youth culture of the post-war decades. This characterization is also highly relevant to the Finnish case, but needs to be elaborated by taking into account socio-historical knowledge of the distinctive life course of the boomer generation.

  16. Support for baby-boom retirees--not to worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatter, H G; Walker, J F

    1998-03-01

    Flaws in the discussion of the baby-boom retiree problem make the Social Security problem seem worse than it really is. Problems include the overwhelming emphasis upon fiscal and related financial aspects at the expense of consideration of the output of goods and services, and the almost total neglect of projected real income and productivity rises. Rather, baby-boom retirees can be coped with on the basis of hypothetically reasonable projected magnitudes. It is currently being argued that the future US economy cannot provide Social Security support for the upcoming baby-boom retirees. However, people who support such an argument fail to consider the main determinant of capacity to support. That determinant is the historically established rise in productivity as expressed in per capita output or output per hour of the employed population. Maintaining Social Security pension support through 2030 involves little to no strain upon society, while abolishing such support would cause considerable strain. The authors describe who Social Security supports now and in the future, and explain the capacity of US society to fund Social Security in the decades ahead.

  17. Implementing baby-friendly practices: strategies for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pat Bohling; Moore, Karen; Peters, Liz

    2012-01-01

    Breastfeeding is widely viewed as the optimal feeding method for infants among professional nursing and medical organizations. Its health benefits have been comprehensively studied and documented for both infants and mothers. Hospitals and birthing centers can strongly influence the outcomes for mothers who choose to breastfeed by establishing effective breastfeeding behaviors immediately after birth and during the hospital stay. The Baby-Friendly USA initiative outlines 10 steps to successful breastfeeding. Although these steps have been successfully supported in practice, they can be difficult to implement due to a variety of factors, including resistance to change. Specific steps generate more barriers to overcome than others--namely exclusive breastfeeding without supplementation or pacifiers, rooming-in for 23 out of 24 hours, and skin-to-skin contact with a parent immediately after birth and during the hospital stay. Our hospital spent 5 years implementing Baby-Friendly practices to prepare for a successful site visit. In the process, barriers to key Baby-Friendly steps were overcome through creative approaches and strategic education for staff, physicians, and parents. The purpose of this article is to outline specific actions taken that assisted our hospital in its successful journey. Those actions and strategies will hopefully be of value to others in their journey toward designation.

  18. Acral self-healing collodion baby: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Bruno; Martínez, Juan Pablo; Luna, Paula Carolina; Larralde, Margarita

    2016-12-01

    Collodion baby is a term used to describe a phenotype characterized by the presence of a tight, translucent membrane that covers the entire skin at birth. This membrane usually sheds around 10 to 14 days and reveals the underlying disease (mainly different types of Recessive Ichthyosis or other infrequent disorders). A rare variant of this phenotype is known as acral self-healing collodion baby whereby the patients are born with the typical membrane but limited to the hands and feet only, and after it sheds, the skin appears completely normal. We report five cases of this very rare subtype of collodion baby. All the patient cases that are presented involved both hands and feet. One of the patients also had the umbilicus embedded in a subtle collodion membrane. None of the patients had a family history of the same entity or any other type of ichthyosis. In all patients, the condition resolved spontaneously within a few weeks and no patients developed any other manifestation. Although no molecular analysis was performed, we contribute to the knowledge of the clinical features of this extremely uncommon and benign entity, since to the best of our knowledge there are only two previous reports available in literature.

  19. Engaging Chicago hospitals in the baby-friendly hospital initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Samantha L; Wych, Sadie; Willows, Catherine A; Harrington, Joseph; Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Becker, Adam B

    2013-11-01

    Breastfeeding is now widely recognized as a vital obesity prevention strategy and hospitals play a primary role in promoting, supporting and helping mothers to initiate and maintain breastfeeding. The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) provides an evidence-based model that hospitals can use to plan and implement breastfeeding quality improvement (QI) projects. Funding under Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW), administered by the CDC, brought together key Chicago partners to provide individualized support and technical assistance with breastfeeding QI projects to the 19 maternity hospitals in Chicago. A community organizing approach was taken to mobilize hospital interest in breastfeeding QI projects, leading to successes, e.g. 12/19 (63 %) Chicago hospitals registered with Baby-Friendly USA, Inc. (BFUSA) to pursue official Baby-Friendly designation. Key factors that fostered this success included: involving all levels of hospital staff, financial incentives, and ongoing tailored technical assistance. To assist other communities in similar work, this article discusses the approach the project took to mobilize hospitals to improve breastfeeding support practices based on the BFHI, as well as successes and lessons learned.

  20. [Brazilian guidelines for marketing baby food: history, limitations and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Renata

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to present and discuss Brazilian policy concerning actions to protect breastfeeding, especially the history, international and national background, limitations, and perspectives of the Brazilian Guidelines for the Marketing of Baby Food, Pacifiers and Bottles. The Brazilian Guidelines, which play a crucial role in protecting breastfeeding against industry marketing strategies, were based on the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, proposed by the World Health Organization in 1981. The first version of the Brazilian Guidelines was released in 1988, and there were subsequent revisions in 1992 and 2001/2002. In 2006, the Guidelines became national law. However, the strides made over this period in terms of regulation have been few because the law is not always observed. Thus, it is essential that all actors involved, including government officials, manufacturers and sellers of baby food and other baby products, teaching and health professionals and their associations, international bodies, and non-governmental organizations make a commitment to enforce the current law.

  1. 'I never thought that this baby would survive; I thought that it would die any time': perceptions and care for preterm babies in eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiswa, Peter; Nyanzi, Stella; Namusoko-Kalungi, Sarah; Peterson, Stefan; Tomson, Goran; Pariyo, George W

    2010-10-01

    To explore the current care for and perceptions about preterm babies among community members in eastern Uganda. A neonatal midwife observed care of preterm babies in one general hospital and 15 health centres using a checklist and a field diary. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 community health workers (CHWs) and also with 10 mothers, six fathers and three grandmothers of preterm babies. Three focus group discussions were conducted with midwives and women and men in the community. Content analysis of data was performed. Community members mentioned many features which may correctly be used to identify preterm babies. Care practices for preterm babies at health facilities and community level were inadequate and potentially harmful. Health facilities lacked capacity for care of preterm babies in terms of protocols, health workers' skills, basic equipment, drugs and other supplies. However, community members and CHWs stated that they accepted the introduction of preterm care practices such as skin-to-skin and kangaroo mother care. In this setting, care for preterm babies is inadequate at both health facility and community level. However, acceptance of the recommended newborn care practices indicated by the community is a window of opportunity for introducing programmes for preterm babies. In doing so, consideration needs to be given to the care provided at health facilities as well as to the gaps in community care that are largely influenced by beliefs, perceptions and lack of awareness. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Development of the e-Baby serious game with regard to the evaluation of oxygenation in preterm babies: contributions of the emotional design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Luciana Mara Monti; Dias, Danielle Monteiro Vilela; Góes, Fernanda Dos Santos Nogueira; Seixas, Carlos Alberto; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan; Martins, José Carlos Amado; Rodrigues, Manuel Alves

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to describe the development process of a serious game that enables users to evaluate the respiratory process in a preterm infant based on an emotional design model. The e-Baby serious game was built to feature the simulated environment of an incubator, in which the user performs a clinical evaluation of the respiratory process in a virtual preterm infant. The user learns about the preterm baby's history, chooses the tools for the clinical evaluation, evaluates the baby, and determines whether his/her evaluation is appropriate. The e-Baby game presents phases that contain respiratory process impairments of higher or lower complexity in the virtual preterm baby. Included links give the user the option of recording the entire evaluation procedure and sharing his/her performance on a social network. e-Baby integrates a Clinical Evaluation of the Preterm Baby course in the Moodle virtual environment. This game, which evaluates the respiratory process in preterm infants, could support a more flexible, attractive, and interactive teaching and learning process that includes simulations with features very similar to neonatal unit realities, thus allowing more appropriate training for clinical oxygenation evaluations in at-risk preterm infants. e-Baby allows advanced user-technology-educational interactions because it requires active participation in the process and is emotionally integrated.

  3. Frequency scanning microstrip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Magnus; Jørgensen, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    The principles of using radiating microstrip resonators as elements in a frequency scanning antenna array are described. The resonators are cascade-coupled. This gives a scan of the main lobe due to the phase-shift in the resonator in addition to that created by the transmission line phase...

  4. Scanning laser Doppler vibrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Marie; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    With a Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) a vibrating surface is automatically scanned over predefined grid points, and data processed for displaying vibration properties like mode shapes, natural frequencies, damping ratios, and operational deflection shapes. Our SLDV – a PSV-500H from...

  5. LIDAR COMBINED SCANNING UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Elizarov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The results of lidar combined scanning unit development for locating leaks of hydrocarbons are presented The unit enables to perform high-speed scanning of the investigated space in wide and narrow angle fields. Method. Scanning in a wide angular field is produced by one-line scanning path by means of the movable aluminum mirror with a frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 20 degrees of swing. Narrowband scanning is performed along a spiral path by the deflector. The deflection of the beam is done by rotation of the optical wedges forming part of the deflector at an angle of ±50. The control function of the scanning node is performed by a specialized software product written in C# programming language. Main Results. This scanning unit allows scanning the investigated area at a distance of 50-100 m with spatial resolution at the level of 3 cm. The positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space is 15'. The developed scanning unit gives the possibility to browse the entire investigated area for the time not more than 1 ms at a rotation frequency of each wedge from 50 to 200 Hz. The problem of unambiguous definition of the beam geographical coordinates in space is solved at the software level according to the rotation angles of the mirrors and optical wedges. Lidar system coordinates are determined by means of GPS. Practical Relevance. Development results open the possibility for increasing the spatial resolution of scanning systems of a wide range of lidars and can provide high positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space.

  6. Laser Scanning in Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Olsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS to forests has been revolutionary during the last decade. This development was facilitated by combining earlier ranging lidar discoveries [1–5], with experience obtained from full-waveform ranging radar [6,7] to new airborne laser scanning systems which had components such as a GNSS receiver (Global Navigation Satellite System, IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit and a scanning mechanism. Since the first commercial ALS in 1994, new ALS-based forest inventory approaches have been reported feasible for operational activities [8–12]. ALS is currently operationally applied for stand level forest inventories, for example, in Nordic countries. In Finland alone, the adoption of ALS for forest data collection has led to an annual savings of around 20 M€/year, and the work is mainly done by companies instead of governmental organizations. In spite of the long implementation times and there being a limited tradition of making changes in the forest sector, laser scanning was commercially and operationally applied after about only one decade of research. When analyzing high-ranked journal papers from ISI Web of Science, the topic of laser scanning of forests has been the driving force for the whole laser scanning research society over the last decade. Thus, the topic “laser scanning in forests” has provided a significant industrial, societal and scientific impact. [...

  7. Resonant scanning mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John; Newman, Mike; Gutierrez, Homero; Hoffman, Charlie; Quakenbush, Tim; Waldeck, Dan; Leone, Christopher; Ostaszewski, Miro

    2014-10-01

    Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. developed a Resonant Scanning Mechanism (RSM) capable of combining a 250- Hz resonant scan about one axis with a two-hertz triangular scan about the orthogonal axis. The RSM enables a rapid, high-density scan over a significant field of regard (FOR) while minimizing size, weight, and power requirements. The azimuth scan axis is bearing mounted allowing for 30° of mechanical travel, while the resonant elevation axis is flexure and spring mounted with five degrees of mechanical travel. Pointing-knowledge error during quiescent static pointing at room temperature across the full range is better than 100 μrad RMS per axis. The compact design of the RSM, roughly the size of a soda can, makes it an ideal mechanism for use on low-altitude aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles. Unique aspects of the opto-mechanical design include i) resonant springs which allow for a high-frequency scan axis with low power consumption; and ii) an independent lower-frequency scan axis allowing for a wide FOR. The pointing control system operates each axis independently and employs i) a position loop for the azimuth axis; and ii) a unique combination of parallel frequency and amplitude control loops for the elevation axis. All control and pointing algorithms are hosted on a 200-MHz microcontroller with 516 KB of RAM on a compact 3"×4" digital controller, also of Ball design.

  8. CT scan of choristoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriki, A.; Morimoto, M.; Sada, Y.; Kurisaka, M.; Mori, K.

    1987-02-01

    Choristoma is a rare tumor that occurs in the pituitary gland. The case presented here is a 44-year-old male. A plain CT scan demonstrated a slight high-density mass near the posterior clinoid of the sella turcica, while a moderate and homogeneous enhancing effect and a clear borderline were shown by an enhanced CT scan. A cornal CT scan study showed that the tumor extended from the intrasellar to the suprasellar region. The diagnosis of choristoma was made by means of histology.

  9. Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Coret CD; Suero MB; Tierney NK

    2014-01-01

    Catherine D Coret, Michael B Suero, Neena K Tierney Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc, Skillman, NJ, USA Purpose: To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Materials and methods: Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1–36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30), a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30), or a lightly...

  10. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH PENGOLAHAN BUAH MERAH PADA SISTEM PEMELIHARAAN BABI SECARA PASTURA

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Sawen; Bernaddeta Wahyuni Irianti Rahayu; Iriani Sumpe

    2015-01-01

    Suatu penelitian telah dilakukan pada bulan April 2013, untuk mengetahui pemanfaatan limbah hasil pengolahan buah merah pada sistem pemeliharaan ternak babi secara pastura di Kampung Umpakalo Jayawijaya. Bagi masyarakat suku Dani di Lembah Baliem Kabupaten Jayawijaya, babi memiliki nilai penting secara sosial budaya dan ekonomi. Babi tidak dapat dipisahkan dari kehidupan keseharian mereka secara turun temurun. Penelitian menggunakan metode eksperimen dengan percobaan lapangan untuk mengukur p...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached to a ... will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake procedures are painless. ...

  13. The conical scan radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosch, T.; Hennings, D.

    1982-07-01

    A satellite-borne conical scan radiometer (CSR) is proposed, offering multiangular and multispectral measurements of Earth radiation fields, including the total radiances, which are not available from conventional radiometers. Advantages of the CSR for meteorological studies are discussed. In comparison to conventional cross track scanning instruments, the CSR is unique with respect to the selected picture element size which is kept constant by means of a specially shaped detector matrix at all scan angles. The conical scan mode offers the chance to improve angular sampling. Angular sampling gaps of previous satellite-borne radiometers can be interpolated and complemented by CSR data. Radiances are measured through 10 radiometric channels which are selected to study cloudiness, water vapor, ozone, surface albedo, ground and mean stratospheric temperature, and aerosols.

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special camera and a computer ... last two months that used iodine-based contrast material. Your doctor will instruct you on how to ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine ... you are undergoing. top of page What does the equipment look like? Special camera or imaging devices ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  17. Pediatric CT Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  18. Shoulder MRI scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... finding on an x-ray or bone scan Shoulder pain and fever Decreased motion of the shoulder joint ... of the shoulder joint Shoulder instability Shoulder weakness Shoulder pain and a history of cancer Shoulder pain that ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a computer to provide information about your thyroid’s size, shape, position and function that is often unattainable ... The thyroid scan is used to determine the size, shape and position of the thyroid gland. The ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as an overactive thyroid gland, a condition called hyperthyroidism , cancer or other growths assess the nature of ... an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated contrast material within the last two ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... called hyperthyroidism , cancer or other growths assess the nature of a nodule discovered in the gland detect ... CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated contrast material within the last two months. are taking medications ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are noninvasive and, with the exception of intravenous injections, are usually painless medical tests that help physicians ... before the scan. The radiotracer given by intravenous injection is usually given up to 30 minutes prior ...

  5. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope. Specifications / Capabilities: Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  6. Photothermal imaging scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Diane; Stolz, Christopher J.; Wu, Zhouling; Huber, Robert; Weinzapfel, Carolyn

    2006-07-11

    Photothermal Imaging Scanning Microscopy produces a rapid, thermal-based, non-destructive characterization apparatus. Also, a photothermal characterization method of surface and subsurface features includes micron and nanoscale spatial resolution of meter-sized optical materials.

  7. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  9. Slow Scan Telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Originally developed under contract for NASA by Ball Bros. Research Corporation for acquiring visual information from lunar and planetary spacecraft, system uses standard closed circuit camera connected to a device called a scan converter, which slows the stream of images to match an audio circuit, such as a telephone line. Transmitted to its destination, the image is reconverted by another scan converter and displayed on a monitor. In addition to assist scans, technique allows transmission of x-rays, nuclear scans, ultrasonic imagery, thermograms, electrocardiograms or live views of patient. Also allows conferencing and consultation among medical centers, general practitioners, specialists and disease control centers. Commercialized by Colorado Video, Inc., major employment is in business and industry for teleconferencing, cable TV news, transmission of scientific/engineering data, security, information retrieval, insurance claim adjustment, instructional programs, and remote viewing of advertising layouts, real estate, construction sites or products.

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluate changes in the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How should ... such as an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated contrast material within the ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine ... you are undergoing. top of page What does the equipment look like? The special camera and imaging ...

  12. Cervical spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects of the cervical spine Bone problems Fracture Osteoarthritis Disc herniation Risks Risks of CT scans include: ... Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, ...

  13. Scanning laser Doppler vibrometry

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    With a Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) a vibrating surface is automatically scanned over predefined grid points, and data processed for displaying vibration properties like mode shapes, natural frequencies, damping ratios, and operational deflection shapes. Our SLDV – a PSV-500H from Polytec Inc. – was acquired and put to operation in October 2014, paid by a sub-donation of DKK 1,5 mill. of the total VILLUM CASMaT grant. Opening possibilities of measuring complicated vibration shapes...

  14. Implications of the baby bust generation upon the health care market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, P; Koehler, W

    1993-01-01

    Implications of the Baby Boomers upon the American society are well known. However, the effects of its successor generation, the Baby Busters, have not been as well documented nor reviewed. The next twenty years (1990-2010) will see the fabric of American society unfolded and rewoven as this phenomenon undergoes its place in history. It is not too early to examine the implications of the Baby Bust phenomenon. This study examines the implications and consequences of the Baby Bust for Health Care Marketers.

  15. Advanced Network Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiqur Rahman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Network scanning is à procedure for identifying active hosts on a network, either for the purpose of attacking them or for network security assessment. Scanning procedures, such as ping sweeps and port scans, return information about which IP addresses map to live hosts that are active on the Internet and what services they offer. Another scanning method, inverse mapping, returns information about what IP addresses do not map to live hosts; this enables an attacker to make assumptions about viable addresses. Scanning is one of three components of intelligence gathering for an attacker. In the foot printing phase, the attacker creates a profile of the target organization, with information such as its domain name system (DNS and e-mail servers, and its IP address range. Most of this information is available online. In the scanning phase, the attacker finds information about the specific IP addresses that can be accessed over the Internet, their operating systems, the system architecture, and the services running on each computer. In the enumeration phase, the attacker gathers information such as network user and group names, routing tables, and Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP data

  16. Simple quantitative analysis of Escherichia coli K-12 internalized in baby spinach using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Kim, Kyung Ho; Kim, Sungkyun; Kim, Yong Soo; Li, Qing X; Jun, Soojin

    2010-11-15

    Bacterial contamination continues to be a serious concern for food safety. Although washing fresh produce helps in reducing pathogen levels, pathogen internalization often limits the effectiveness of washing. When pathogens internalize in leafy vegetables, the method of identification and quantitative measurement would be called into question. This study was aimed to use Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy integrated with an attenuated total reflectance kit for quantification of Escherichia coli K-12 internalized in baby spinach. The bacteria were inoculated into vascular and intracellar tissues of spinach leaves by syringe injection and the distribution of internalized E. coli K-12 cells was confirmed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FTIR measurement following the preparation of bacterial suspension from spinach leaves with high speed pulverizing enabled to detect the absorbance peaks in the amide II region between 1590 and 1490 cm⁻¹ as a fingerprint for the microbes. It was found that the estimated concentrations of E. coli K-12 agreed well with the concentrations determined by plate counting with R² values of 0.98 and 0.97 in peptone water and spinach extracts, respectively. The results demonstrated that FTIR can identify and quantify E. coli K-12 in baby spinach extracts at a limit of detection of approximately 100 CFU/mL in 5 min. The developed method is expected to be suitable for the analysis of pathogenic E. coli strains and other bacterial species in fresh vegetables.

  17. QUANTIFICATION OF GLYCYRRHIZIN BIOMARKER IN GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA RHIZOME AND BABY HERBAL FORMULATIONS BY VALIDATED RP-HPTLC METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Prawez; Foudah, Ahmed I.; Zaatout, Hala H.; T, Kamal Y; Abdel-Kader, Maged S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: A simple and sensitive thin-layer chromatographic method has been established for quantification of glycyrrhizin in Glycyrrhiza glabra rhizome and baby herbal formulations by validated Reverse Phase HPTLC method. Materials and Methods: RP-HPTLC Method was carried out using glass coated with RP-18 silica gel 60 F254S HPTLC plates using methanol-water (7: 3 v/v) as mobile phase. Results: The developed plate was scanned and quantified densitometrically at 256 nm. Glycyrrhizin peaks from Glycyrrhiza glabra rhizome and baby herbal formulations were identified by comparing their single spot at Rf = 0.63 ± 0.01. Linear regression analysis revealed a good linear relationship between peak area and amount of glycyrrhizin in the range of 2000-7000 ng/band. Conclusion: The method was validated, in accordance with ICH guidelines for precision, accuracy, and robustness. The proposed method will be useful to enumerate the therapeutic dose of glycyrrhizin in herbal formulations as well as in bulk drug. PMID:28573236

  18. Planning for the baby boomers' healthcare needs: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Terri C; Johnson, Edward; Gasperino, Daniel; Tokatli, Pinar

    2003-01-01

    Will the impact of baby boomers, as they age, be a bonanza or a bust for the healthcare system? A range of perspectives prevail, from increasing in-patient admissions capacity to accommodate the sheer numbers, to the creation of a variety of healthcare services and delivery channels that address their unique requirements. This case study presents a top 100, regional hospital's approach to this dilemma. The strategic marketing process using segmentation, targeting, and positioning (STP) was employed to guide the administration's planning and decision making.

  19. Australian baby boomers face retirement during the global financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Hal; Wells, Yvonne; O'Loughlin, Kate; Heese, Karla

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impact in Australia of the global financial crisis on the baby boom cohort approaching later life. Data from national focus groups of people aged 50 to 64 years (N = 73), conducted in late 2008, found widespread but variable concern and uncertainty concerning work and retirement plans and experiences. A national survey (N = 1,009) of those aged 50 to 64 years in mid-2009 reported lower levels of financial satisfaction compared with other life domains; many planned to postpone retirement. Findings are interpreted in the context of policies and markets that differed significantly from those in the United States, notwithstanding the global nature of the financial crisis.

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: thick-tailed bush baby [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thick-tailed bush baby Otolemur crassicaudatus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Otolemur..._crassicaudatus_L.png Otolemur_crassicaudatus_NL.png Otolemur_crassicaudatus_S.png Otolemur..._crassicaudatus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Otolemur+crassicaudatus&t=L ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Otolemur+crassicaudatus&t=NL htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Otolemur+crassicaudatus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Otolemur+crassicaudatus&t=NS ...

  1. SEA中Baby-step-giant-step策略的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高付强

    2010-01-01

    本文介绍了计算椭圆曲线有限群阶的成熟算法Schoof-Elkies-Atkin算法,分析了算法的主要流程,给出了SEA算法中Baby-step-giant-step策略过程的详细分析,并提出了一点改进意见,经试验表明,改进后,SEA算法的实现效率有一定的提高.

  2. The experiences of mothers who lost a baby during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A GW Nolte

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of mothers who lost a baby during pregnancy and care given by doctors and midwives during this period. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die ervaring van moeders met betrekking tot die dood van ‘n baba tydens swangerskap te verken en te beskryf, asook die versorging wat hulle van vroedvroue en dokters gedurende die periode ontvang het. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  3. Maturation of the lower oesophageal sphincter in the preterm baby.

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    There are few reported studies of the lower oesophageal sphincter in preterm infants and none has investigated babies of less than 34 weeks gestation. Using a modified manometric technique suitable for use on very low birth weight infants we have measured sphincter pressures on 68 occasions in 25 infants of postconceptional age between 27 and 41 weeks. In even the most preterm infants the lower oesophageal sphincter could be defined. The mean effective sphincter pressure rose from 3.8 mmHg in...

  4. Baby Fae: the "anything goes" school of human experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, G J

    1985-02-01

    The case of Baby Fae is likened to previous cases of high-risk xenograft experiments in which members of groups at particular risk for exploitation were sacrificed to scientific progress in violation of major precepts of the Nuremberg Code. Annas finds fault with the scientific justification for performing the experiment on an infant, the adequacy of the Institutional Review Board review, and the quality of the parents' consent. He concludes that, if current federal regulations cannot prevent such gross exploitation of the terminally ill, they must be revised. In addition, a "national review board" should perhaps be established to deal with complex new technologies.

  5. U.S. talc; baby powder and much more

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    When most people think of talc, they probably envision talcum and baby powder. Since talc is very soft and easily carved, one might also think of sculptures in soapstone (massive talc). In fact, these uses of talc are quite minor compared to its wide variety of applications in manufacturing and agriculture. High-quality (pure) talc has many physical and chemical properties favorable for its use, such as its softness, purity, fragrance retention, whiteness, luster, moisture content, oil and grease adsorption, chemical inertness, low electrical conductivity, high dielectric strength, and high thermal conductivity (Virta, 1998).

  6. Mental support during two months after delivery to facilitate psychosocial acceptance for a mother who has a baby with Apert syndrome By using "baby memorandum"

    OpenAIRE

    長谷川, 香

    2005-01-01

    The mental shock of parents who have had a baby with congenital malformation cannot be overstressed. In this paper, we report a 29-year-old mother who has a new-born baby with Apert syndrome to show her psychosocial acceptance after the diagnosis by using "baby memorandum" (memo that is used in our neonatal unit for communication between mothers and nurses). The mother wrote her honest and frank feelings on these memo pages for two months after delivery. Thus, the memo was useful to understan...

  7. Effects of processing on microstructure and mechanical properties of a titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) fabricated using electron beam melting (EBM), Part 2: Energy input, orientation, and location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrabe, Nikolas, E-mail: nhrabe@gmail.com [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 325 Broadway, Stop 647, Boulder, CO 80305-3328 (United States); Quinn, Timothy, E-mail: timothy.quinn@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 325 Broadway, Stop 647, Boulder, CO 80305-3328 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Selective electron beam melting (EBM) is a layer-by-layer additive manufacturing technique that shows great promise for fabrication of medical devices and aerospace components. Before its potential can be fully realized, however, a comprehensive understanding of processing-microstructure-properties relationships is necessary. Titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) parts were built in a newly developed, unique geometry to allow accurate investigation of the following intra-build processing parameters: energy input, orientation, and location. Microstructure evaluation (qualitative prior-β grain size, quantitative α lath thickness), tensile testing, and Vickers microhardness were performed for each specimen. For a wide range of energy input (speed factor 30–40), small differences in mechanical properties (2% change in ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and 3% change in yield strength (YS)) were measured. Vertically built parts were found to have no difference in UTS or YS compared to horizontally built parts, but the percent elongation at break (% EL) was 30% lower. The difference in % EL was attributed to a different orientation of the tensile axis for horizontal and vertical parts compared to the elongated prior-β grain and microstructural texture direction in EBM Ti–6Al–4V. Orientation within the x–y plane as well as location were found to have less than 3% effect on mechanical properties, and it is possible a second order effect of thermal mass contributed to these results.

  8. Congenital Pyloric Atresia with Distal Duodenal Atresia- Role of CT Scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogender Singh Kadian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mainstay of diagnosis of congenital pyloric atresia is by plain X-ray of the abdomen showing a large gas bubble with no gas distally. But very rarely it can be associated with distal duodenal atresia when the baby may present as lump abdomen. In such a situation apart from the X-ray, another radiological investigation is needed to delineate the exact nature of the lump. Since the role of ultrasonography is limited in intestinal pathologies and contrast studies are not informative in atresias, the CT scan is the ideal choice. We had managed a case of pyloric atresia with similar presentation with preoperative CT scan.

  9. Confocal Line Scanning Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanbai, S; Wiora, G; Wewer, L [NanoFocus AG, Lindnerstr. 98, 46149 Oberhausen (Germany); Zafarullah, I [Applied Scientific Imaging Inc., Toronto (Canada); Roth, H, E-mail: chanbai@nanofocus.de, E-mail: wiora@nanofocus.de [Institute of Automatic Control Engineering, University of Siegen, Hoelderlinstr. 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2011-08-19

    We have developed a novel confocal-based imaging sensor for surface characterization. In this case, a tilted-plane technique is incorporated in a confocal imaging system to create a new parallel scanning scheme, enabling the sensor to be designed and developed as a robust and simple configuration. With a tilted disk consisting of in-line pinholes, a motionless parallel z scanning scheme is manifested when the specimen is transversely scanned through the stationary diffraction-foci projecting at different depths. This sensor uses a line scanning approach, so that it is entitled as a Confocal Line Scanning Sensor (CLSS). In this paper, the CLSS principle, the concept of data processing, and major calibration are described. The sensor was first developed as a two-dimensional profiler to cover the measurement ranges of up to 50 {mu}m in depth and up to 15 mm in lateral length. Experimental results were carried out using calibrated specimens for roughness measurement. In this system, the optical lateral resolution is 0.5 {mu}m, and the depth resolution, defined by noise-limited approach, is 15 nm.

  10. Femtosecond scanning tunneling microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.J.; Donati, G.P.; Rodriguez, G.; Gosnell, T.R.; Trugman, S.A.; Some, D.I.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). By combining scanning tunneling microscopy with ultrafast optical techniques we have developed a novel tool to probe phenomena on atomic time and length scales. We have built and characterized an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope in terms of temporal resolution, sensitivity and dynamic range. Using a novel photoconductive low-temperature-grown GaAs tip, we have achieved a temporal resolution of 1.5 picoseconds and a spatial resolution of 10 nanometers. This scanning tunneling microscope has both cryogenic and ultra-high vacuum capabilities, enabling the study of a wide range of important scientific problems.

  11. Implementing and revitalizing the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeh, Randa; Casanovas, Carmen

    2009-06-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was launched in the 1990s by the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF as a global effort with hospitals, health services, and parents to ensure babies are breastfed for the best start in life. It is one of the Operational Targets of the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding endorsed in 2002 by the Fifty-Fifth World Health Assembly and the UNICEF Executive Board. After about 18 years, great progress has been made, and most countries have breastfeeding authorities or BFHI coordinating groups. The BFHI has led to increased rates of exclusive breastfeeding, which are reflected in improved health and survival. Based on this progress, the Initiative was streamlined according to the experience of the countries and materials were revised. The new package consolidated all WHO and UNICEF materials into one package, reflected new research and experience, revisited the criteria used for the BFHI in light of HIV/ AIDS, reinforced the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes, provided modules for mother-friendly care, and gave more guidance for monitoring and reassessment. WHO and partners will continue to give support to BFHI implementation as one essential effort contributing to achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

  12. Non-Irritant Baby Shampoos May Cause Cataract Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of different shampoo formulations as a risk factor for cataract formation was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats in the present study. METHODS: Study was performed by using 20 rats. Two different shampoos used by adult subjects and two different baby shampoos were used in the study. Different shampoos were used in different groups for 14 days, and they were followed for changes. RESULTS: Different degree of opacities were observed in 4 (40%, 4 (40%, 5 (50%, and 6 (60% eyes in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for formation of cataract between the groups (p>0.05. The number of irritated eyes was significantly lower (p<0.05 in groups C (10% and D (20% compared to groups A (90% and B (80%. CONCLUSION: The use of non-irritant baby shampoos does not seem to eliminate the risk of cataract formation and these should even be used more carefully as the non-irritant shampoo will have more contact with the eye. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(1: 1-6

  13. Non-Irritant Baby Shampoos May Cause Cataract Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of different shampoo formulations as a risk factor for cataract formation was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats in the present study. METHODS: Study was performed by using 20 rats. Two different shampoos used by adult subjects and two different baby shampoos were used in the study. Different shampoos were used in different groups for 14 days, and they were followed for changes. RESULTS: Different degree of opacities were observed in 4 (40%, 4 (40%, 5 (50%, and 6 (60% eyes in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for formation of cataract between the groups (p>0.05. The number of irritated eyes was significantly lower (p<0.05 in groups C (10% and D (20% compared to groups A (90% and B (80%. CONCLUSION: The use of non-irritant baby shampoos does not seem to eliminate the risk of cataract formation and these should even be used more carefully as the non-irritant shampoo will have more contact with the eye. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000: 1-6

  14. Compromised Agency: The Case of BabyLegs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Liboiron

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of agency is ubiquitous in STS, particularly regarding cases of alternative ways of knowing and doing science such as civic, citizen, and feminist sciences, among others. Yet the focus on agency often glosses over the constraints placed on agents, particularly within asymmetrical power relations. This article follows the case of BabyLegs, a do-it-yourself monitoring tool for marine microplastic pollution, and the attempt to keep the technology open source within an intellectual property (IP system set up to privatize it. The tactics used to design BabyLegs as a feminine, silly, doll-tool to discredit the device in the eyes of an IP system that valued traditional gender roles lead to the eventual success of keeping the device open source. Yet, those same tactics also reinforced and reproduced the structures of power and essentialism they were designed to resist. I characterize this technological ambivalence as compromise, and argue that all agency exercised within asymmetrical power relations is compromised. This is not to say resistance is futile, but that agency is never pure, and this recognition lets us be more intentional in how we might compromise as practitioners of diverse scientific knowledges.

  15. Effect of agglomeration on flowability of baby food powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Karolina; Lenart, Andrzej

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the wet agglomeration in a fluidized bed on flowability of agglomerated products, such as baby food powders. The agglomeration process was performed in the fluidized bed. The wetting liquid used to the process was: water, 2% lecithin solution, and 50% sugar solution. Food powders flowability was expressed as: Hausner Ratio, pouring time, angles of sliding and of repose and flow function. The composition of materials, used to prepare mixtures, has a significant influence on tested properties. The higher milk powder of the mixtures caused decreasing of their flowability. Wet agglomeration of baby food powders caused an increase in the mean diameter of particles, which made it possible to receive agglomerates with good flowability and decreased bulk density. The increase of milk powder content from 0 to 73% in the mixture before the agglomeration contributed to improve its flowability. Wet agglomeration with 2% lecithin solution and 50% sugar solution reduced particle size and bulk density, improved flowability of received agglomerates in relation to agglomerates received with water as a wetting liquid.

  16. Using baby books to increase new mothers' safety practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stephanie M; Penner, Emily K; Duncan, Greg J

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether educational baby books are an effective method for increasing low-income, first-time mothers' safety practices during their child's first 18 months. Primiparous women (n = 167) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: an educational book group, a noneducational book group, or a no-book group. Home visits and interviews measured safety practices when women were in their third trimester of pregnancy (baseline) and when their children were 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age. Women in the educational book group had fewer risks in their homes and exercised more safety practices than the no-book group (- 20% risk reduction; effect size = -.30). When the safety practices involved little time or expense (eg, putting away sharp objects), the educational book group was significantly more likely to engage in these behaviors than the no-book group (40% higher practices; effect size = 0.19) or noneducational book group (27% higher practices; effect size = 0.13). However, no differences were found between groups for behaviors that required high effort in time, money, or hassle (eg, installing latches on cabinets). Educational baby books appear to be an easy and low-cost way to increase the safety practices of new mothers, especially if the practices involve little to no time, money, or hassle. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Improvement of baby corn yield by using green manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chutichudet, P.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Suitable rates of compost and chemical fertilizers to improve baby corn yield have been reported ; information on an appropriate type of green manure to increase its yield is rather limited. Use of green manure showed from a farmer with a practicable method in actual fields, which is not expensive and can be adjusted to the physical and chemical characteristics of soil. Therefore , the major objective of this experiment was to find a way to improve the yield of baby corn through the use of five types of green manure treatments and control, comprising no green manure (control, mung bean (Vigna radiata L., hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L., sword bean (Canavaria ensiformis L., copwea (Vigna unguiculata L. and sesbania (Sesbania rostrata Brem.. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications on June 2000, tested at the experimental field of Agricultural Technology Department, Technology Faculty, Mahasarakham University, Kantharawichai District, Maha Sarakham Province. The results indicated that sesbania used as green manure resulted in a fresh weight content higher than the others, and promoted plant height, plant diameter, leaf area, ear number / plant, yield both before and after peeling / rai, ear weight both before and after peeling / ear, ear diameter after peeling and standard yield content / rai consequently. In addition, the ear color after peeling was satisfactory for consumers. Yield contents / rai grown on the other sources of green manures were significantly lower (P < 0.01

  18. Common feeding problems in babies and children: 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, P

    1998-01-01

    Weaning is the cause of much concern among first-time mothers. A milk-only diet is advised until 3-4 months of age. Health professionals should ensure the baby receives a sufficient and balanced diet during the weaning period, to meet the needs for energy and growth. Breast milk or infant formula should continue up to the age of at least one year. The weaning period is a good time to educate parents in good nutrition. A wide variety of foods should be the aim in child nutrition, but each different type needs to be started separately during weaning. Care is needed to ensure vegetarian babies receive enough proteins, vitamins and minerals (especially iron). Failure to thrive has a multitude of causes, and treatment must be that of the cause. Strictly vegan children who eat no dairy products will need added synthetic vitamin B12. Failure to thrive may be due to physical problems (eg choanal atresia), infection, vomiting, diarrhoea, anorexia, parental ignorance or poverty. Other causes include coeliac disease, cow's milk protein allergy, cystic fibrosis, severe eczema or asthma, or diabetes.

  19. Plasticizers in total diet samples, baby food and infant formulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Breindahl, T.

    2000-01-01

    The plasticizers di-n-butylphthalate (DBP), butylbenzylphthalate (BBP), di-2-(ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di-2-(ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) were analysed in 29 total diet samples, in 11 samples of baby food and in 11 samples of infant formulae. In all of the total diet samples the presence of one...... or more of the plasticizers was demonstrated. Maximum and minimum mean concentrations in the total diet samples were: 0.09-0.19 mg DBP/kg, 0.017-0.019 mg BBP/kg, 0.11-0.18 mg DEHP/kg and 0.13-0.14 mg DEHA/kg. One or more of the phthalates was also found in about 50% of the samples of baby food as well...... as in infant formulae. The calculated mean maximum intakes of the individual compounds from the total diet samples were below 10% of the restrictions proposed by the EU Scientific Committee for Food (SCF), and the spread in individual intakes was considerable. DEHP was the plasticizer determined most...

  20. Evaluation of growth in very low birth weight preterm babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşinel, Serdar; Aldemir, Esin Yıldız; Kavuncuoğlu, Sultan; Yeşinel, Seda; Yıldız, Hayrettin

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate physical growth of very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm babies at a mean age of three years and to investigate the factors which affected growth. The factors including maternal problems, prenatal problems, early neonatal problems, nutrition, familial socioeconomical status and presence of chronic disease which affected catch-up growth in terms of height and weight in VLBW infants followed up in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of our hospital were examined. The target height formula was used in assessment of growht in height and the contribution of genetic properties was investigated. The points of the subjects on the growth curve were plotted according to the Percentile Curve of the Turkish Children prepared by Neyzi et al. The states of the subjects with and without intrauterine growth retardation (were compared. The study was intitiated after obtaining approval from the ethics committeee of our hospital (100/25.10.2005). One hundred and seventeen preterm babies (57 females and 60 males) with a mean adjusted age of 35.8±2.39 80 of whom were appropriate for gestational age (AGA), 28 of whom were symmetrical (small gestational age) SGA and 9 of whom were asymmetrical SGA were included in the study. The mean gestational age (GA) was found to be 31±2.16 weeks and the mean birth weight (BW) was found to be 1271±226 g. The mean current height was found to be 92.06±4.90 cm. The mean weight was found to be 12.98±1.94 kg. The mean target height was calculated to be 163.66±8.1 cm (157.20 cm for the girls and 170.20 cm for the boys). It was found that 15 preterm babies (12.8%) could not achieve the target height (girls: 6%, boys: 6.8%). The risk factors related with failure to achieve target height were found to include ventilator treatment, presence of chronic disease, advanced stage intracranial bleeding (ICB), posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, absence of breastfeeding, failure to sit at the table with the family and