reports of human babesiosis have come from Canada,46 Mexico,23 Cuba,47 Portugal,48 Brazil,49,50 Japan,51 Czech Republic,52 Colombia ,53 Italy,45 Austria...human babesiosis in Colombia . Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2003;36:493-498. 54. Marathe A, Tripathi J, Handa V, Date V. Human babesiosis: a case report...with human immunodeficiency virus [letter]. Ann Intern Med. 1987;107:944. 74. Machtinger L, Telford SR 3d, Inducil C, Klapper E, Pepkowitz SH
This 60 second PSA describes babesiosis, a preventable and treatable tickborne disease, including the signs and symptoms of infection and ways to prevent it. Created: 4/25/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria. Date Released: 4/26/2012.
This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing babesiosis and providing patients at risk with tick bite prevention messages. Created: 4/25/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria. Date Released: 4/25/2012.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Babesiosis to Campylobacteriosis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (â¥1,000 cases reported during the...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Babesiosis to Campylobacteriosis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selectedâ notifiable diseases (â¥1,000 cases reported during the...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Babesiosis to Coccidioidomycosis - 2014.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (â¥1,000 cases reported during the...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Babesiosis to Campylobacteriosis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (â¥1,000 cases reported during the...
Irwin Peter J
Full Text Available Abstract Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused by protozoan haemoparasites. This review article considers recent literature pertaining to the taxonomic classification of Babesia and Theileria species affecting dogs and the geographical distribution of these parasites. The diagnosis of canine babesiosis by traditional, molecular and serological methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of piroplasmosis, and of the treatment and prevention of this disease.
Full Text Available Cardiac dysfunction in canine babesiosis has traditionally been regarded as a rare complication, with the majority of lesions reported as incidental findings at post-mortem examination. Recent studies have, however, demonstrated cardiac lesions in canine babesiosis. Cardiac troponins, especially troponin I, are sensitive markers of myocardial injury in canine babesiosis, and the magnitude of elevation of plasma troponin I concentrations appears to be proportional to the severity of the disease. ECG changes in babesiosis are similar to the pattern described for myocarditis and myocardial ischaemia and together with histopathological findings indicate that the heart suffers from the same pathological processes described in other organs in canine babesiosis, namely inflammation and hypoxia. The clinical application of the ECG appears to be limited and thus cardiovascular assessment should be based on functional monitoring rather than an ECG tracing. On cardiac histopathology from dogs that succumbed to babesiosis, haemorrhage, necrosis, inflammation and fibrin microthrombi in the myocardium were documented, all of which would have resulted in ECG changes and elevations in cardiac troponin. Myocardial damage causes left ventricular failure, which will result in hypotension and an expansion of the plasma volume due to homeostatic mechanisms.
Adaszek, Łukasz; Winiarczyk, Stanisław
Babesiosis (piroplasmosis) is a tick-borne disease with a symptoms of hemolytic anemia. For the first time babesiosis was described in dogs in United States in 1934. The etiological factor of this disease in Poland is protozoa Babesia canis, and its vector--Dermacentor-tick. The most common symptoms of babesiosis are: icterus, hemoglobinuria, occasionally vomits and diarrhea. The biochemical examination of blood serum from sick animals can reveal the increase of activity of AST, ALT, the increase of total bilirubine, urea and creatynine concentrations. The results of hematological examinations can show anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. The diagnosis of babesiosis bases on anamnesis, clinical examinations of dogs, microscopical examinations of blood smears from sick animals; IF-assay and PCR can also be helpful for the diagnosis of babesiosis. Till now does not exist the effective immunoprophylaxis against this disease. Babesiosis is well-known disease, however there are still problems with therapy of infected animals. Most effective drug in therapy of dog piroplasmosis is imidocarb, but sometimes can be observed side effects after it application. It is possible that the genetically differences which are detected in subspecies may have an influence on the severity of disease and the effectiveness of therapy.
Full Text Available A questionnaire, designed to obtain qualitative information on a number of variables concerning canine babesiosis (biliary fever in South Africa, was sent to 510 veterinary practices in late 1993. Of the 157 practices that responded, all were presented with cases of babesiosis and most were situated in Gauteng, the Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. Apart from the Western Cape, a winter-rainfall region, the prevalence of babesiosis cases in dogs was highest in summer. Most of the respondent practices treated between 1000 and 5000 sick dogs that included 100 to 500 babesiosis cases each year. Respondents identified cerebral babesiosis, enterorrhagia, 'red' or haemoconcentrated babesiosis, acute renal failure and pulmonary babesiosis or 'shock lung', amongst others, as the most prevalent forms of complicated ('atypical' babesiosis. Diminazene, imidocarb and trypan blue were the most popular antibabesials. Trypan blue was most often used in shocked patients, whereas diminazene and imidocarb were preferred when there was a high parasitaemia in the absence of shock. At least 19 antibabesial treatment regimens were used in practices. These comprised the use of single doses of antibabesial drugs; split doses with repeat injections, and combined drug variations, some of which are undesirable due to possible sterilisation of Babesia infection or potential toxicity. Side-effects were most commonly associated with imidocarb use. Ninety-six percent of respondents used supportive treatment (e.g. corticosteroids, vitamins and 'liver support' in all cases of babesiosis. The use of blood transfusion as supportive treatment varied according to practice and severity of the case. Most practices never cross-matched blood to be transfused, and transfusion reactions were rare. Diminazene was most frequently incriminated in cases where drug 'resistance' or relapses occurred. Cerebral and 'red' cases resulted in high mortality. Treatment of babesiosis costs the dog
This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study. Created: 5/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 5/23/2011.
Full Text Available Proteinuria, and renal tubular casts and epithelial cells in urine sediment, are commonly observed in both complicated and uncomplicated babesiosis, but do not necessarily reflect or predict renal failure. This study investigated the presence and degree of renal damage in canine babesiosis. Renal function and integrity were evaluated using serum urea and creatinine, serum electrolytes (sodium and potassium, fractional clearance of sodium (FcNa and potassium (FcK, urine enzyme activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase, urine protein:creatinine ratio, and urinalysis. One control group (n =10 and 3 groups of babesiosis cases were studied: mild uncomplicated (n =10, severe uncomplicated (n = 11, and complicated (n = 9. All babesiosis groups showed well-concentrated urine. Mean serum urea was elevated in the severe and complicated groups, and was significantly different from the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for creatinine, although the complicated group had a mean value above the normal reference range. Hypokalaemia was uncommon in all the groups. Hyperkalaemia was present in only 2 dogs in the complicated group. Marginal hyponatraemia was present in a minority of dogs in all groups. The serumelectrolytes were not significantly different between groups. There was no overall elevation, nor any statistically significant difference in both the FcNa and FcK between the groups. Only 1 dog, in the complicated group, showed marked enzymuria. Proteinuria was a common finding and was significantly different between the severe and complicated groups and the control group. Some dogs in all groups had renal tubular epithelial cells in the urinary sediment, which increased in severity from the mild to the complicated groups and was significantly different from the control group. This study demonstrated that minimal renal damage occurs more often in canine babesiosis than significant
Full Text Available Canine babesiosis is a common cause of thrombocytopaenia but there are few formal studies that have investigated this haematological finding in dogs. Thrombocyte counts from full blood counts were retrospectively analysed for the years 1996-2002. Thrombocyte counts and mean platelet volumes of dogs with babesiosis were compared with those of dogs, seen over the same period of time, that did not have babesiosis. There were 1162 cases in the Babesiosis group and 10 808 in the Non-babesiosis group.Afrequency distribution of the thrombocyte counts showed a trimodal distribution in the Non-babesiosis group compared to a bimodal distribution in the Babesiosis group, with a strong positive skewness. The modes for the frequency distributions were 10, 40, 300 and 10, 35 Ã— 109/l thrombocytes, respectively. The median thrombocyte count in the Babesiosis group was 14 Ã— 109/l and 282 Ã— 109/l in the Non-babesiosis group. There was a statistically significant difference in the median thrombocyte count between the Babesiosis group and the Non-babesiosis group. In the Babesiosis group, 99 %of the thrombocyte counts were below the lower reference range value (250 Ã— 109/l and 62 % of thrombocyte counts were below 25 Ã— 109/l . The mean platelet volume (11.1 fl for the Babesiosis group was greater than the reference range (6-10 fl and significantly larger than in the Non-babesiosis group (median 9.7 fl. Thrombocyte counts greater than 110 and 250Ã—109/l had a predictive value that the dog was not suffering from babesiosis of 99.3 % and 99.8 %, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the thrombocyte counts of dogs with babesiosis when grouped by parasitaemia scores. The mechanisms of the thrombocytopaenia are not fully understood, and multiple mechanisms, including concomitant thrombocytopaeniainducing diseases such as ehrlichiosis, probably result in this haematological finding. Babesiosis in the South African
Full Text Available This review presents up-to-date information on the distribution and control measures of babesiosis in Latin America. Bovine babesiosis caused by Babesia bovis and B. bigemia will be emphasized. The disease is endemic is most countries and poses a serious economic burdenon livestock production in the region (U.S.$1365 million/year, FAO, 1989. Of the estimated 250 million cattle in Central and South America, approximately 175 million (70% are in tick-infested regions. Humid, tropical and subtropical areas favor development of the main vector, the one-host tick Boophilus microplus. In many regions bovine babesiosis is enzootically stable as consequence of a balanced host-parasite relationship. However, Latin America offers a wide range of epidemiologica conditions that are influenced by variations from tropical to cool climates and by susceptible purebred cattle that are regularly imported to upgrade local stocks. The control measures employed in most countries for babesiosis esentially rely on chemotherapy, use of acaricides for B. microplus, and to a lesser degree, on immunization methods. In general, these measures are expensive, time consuming, and in many cases, provide limited success. Finally, the zoonotic potential ob babesiosis will be addressd, with special emphasis on the situation in the United States. Even though bovine babesiosis has long been eradicated from the U.S.A., human babesiosis in endemic in the northeastern region of the country.
Full Text Available This retrospective study describes 4 cases of canine babesiosis with histologically confirmed acute pancreatitis. In addition, 16 dogs with babesiosis are reported with serum amylase (>3500 U/l and/or lipase (>650 U/l activity elevations of a magnitude that would support a diagnosis of probable acute pancreatitis, although extra-pancreatic sources of the enzymes could not be excluded in these cases. Median time of pancreatitis diagnosis was 2.5 days post-admission, with primarily young (median age 3 years, sexually intact dogs affected. The development of pancreatitis was unrelated to the degree of anaemia at time of admission. In addition to pancreatitis, 80 % of cases suffered from other babesial complications, namely icterus (13, acute respiratory distress syndrome (6, immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (6, renal failure (3, haemoconcentration (2 and cerebral syndrome (2. Acute respiratory distress syndrome, renal failure and cerebral syndrome were associated with a poor prognosis, with 4 of the 5 dogs included in the overall 26 % mortality rate having at least 1 of these complications. Haemolytic anaemia with ischaemia-reperfusion injury to the pancreas is proposed as a possible primary pathophysiological mechanism in babesial pancreatitis. Hypotensive shock, immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia, haemoconcentration and possibly altered lipid metabolism in babesiosis may also be involved. The previously postulated pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu of complicated babesiosis may underlie the progression, if not the primary initiation, of pancreatic pathology. Acute pancreatitis may represent the previously reported 'gut' form of babesiosis.
Full Text Available Equine babesiosis is a tick-borne haematological disease of equidae that can affect acutely, subacutely and chronically. The disease is manifested by intermittent fever, anaemia, icterus and haemoglobinuria. The authors describe the clinical, haematological and therapeutic aspects of babesiosis in equines at two units in Kotley and at two units in Jehlum of the Remount Veterinary and Farms Corps (RVFC. Animals on these units showed the signs of illness. On clinical examination, intermittent temperature, increased respiratory rate, anaemia, lacrimation, conjunctivitis and pale mucous membranes were observed. Haematological examination revealed a decrease in red blood cell count and haemoglobin concentration, accompanied by an increase in total white blood cell count. Cases of babesiosis in horses were successfully treated with imidocarb dipropionate at a dose rate of 4 mg/kg body weight, administered intramuscularly four times at 72 h intervals, together with supportive therapy.
Babesia species are obligate intraerythrocytic tick-borne protozoan parasites that are the etiologic agents of Babesiosis, a potentially life-threatening, malaria-like illness in humans and animals. Babesia-infected people have been known to suffer from complications including liver problems, severe...
I. N. Bashir, Z. I. Chaudhry, S. Ahmed and M. A. Saeed
Full Text Available Canine babesiosis is increasing in incidence and prevalence and is now a major problem in dogs. During this study, a total of 6204 dogs were examined for babesiosis over a 12 month period from January to December, 2006 in Lahore and 2.62% were found positive. The dogs were grouped on the basis of their age, sex and breed and season of the year. The male dogs were more prone to disease than female dogs (3.39 vs. 1.32%, whereas the incidence of disease was higher in younger dogs (6.9% than older age groups. Crossbreds were more prone to the infection (10.9% than purebreds. However, none of them were completely resistant. Warm and humid season played a key role in the spread of disease. Predominant vector of the disease was found to be Rhipicephalus species.
F Noorollahi; Ghasemi, F.; Bahonar, A.; S Nabian; Zakeri, S.; Z Sadeghi Dehkordi; S Rahbari
Background Ovine babesiosis is the most important haemoparasitic tick-borne disease of small ruminants in Iran caused by Babesia ovis, B. motasi, and B. crassa. The aim of this study was to characterize the species of ovine Babesia species isolated from different geographical region of Iran. Methods One hundred fifty four blood samples collected from animals, which demonstrated the pale mucous membranes or hyperthermia. The specimens were transferred to the laboratory and the blood smears sta...
Full Text Available Background: Ovine babesiosis is the most important haemoparasitic tick-borne disease of small ruminants in Iran caused by Babesia ovis, B. motasi, and B. crassa. The aim of this study was to characterize the species of ovine Babesia species isolated from different geographical region of Iran.Methods: One hundred fifty four blood samples collected from animals, which demonstrated the pale mucous membranes or hyperthermia. The specimens were transferred to the laboratory and the blood smears stained with Geimsa, the morphological and biometrical data of parasite in any infected erythrocyte have been considered. Extracted DNA from each blood samples were used in PCR and semi nested- PCR in order to confirm the presence of the species.Results: The results of the PCR assays showed nine (5.85%, 81 (53% and 18 (11.7% were distinguished as Babesia, Theileria and mixed infection, respectively. Semi nested- PCR did not confirm the presence of B. motasi.Conclusion: The causative organism of many cases of haemoprotozoal diseases, which recorded in previous studies, could be B. ovis or Theileria lestoquardi. The result confirmed that B. ovis was only species which causes babesiosis in the study areas. It seems that the biometrical polymorphisms could exist in B. ovis in Iran. This polymorphism could be a main problem in differentiation between B. ovis and B. motasi and it could be dissolved by specific PCR analysis.
Zobba, Rosanna; Nuvoli, Anna Maria; Sotgiu, Francesca; Lecis, Roberta; Spezzigu, Antonio; Dore, Gian Mario; Masia, Marco Antonio; Cacciotto, Carla; Parpaglia, Maria Luisa Pinna; Dessì, Daniele; Pittau, Marco; Alberti, Alberto
The recent characterization of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of a pathogenic Babesia species in a domestic sow paved the way for establishing diagnostic and epidemiological tools for porcine babesiosis. Here, we developed the first specific Babesia sp. Suis PCR, and we applied this test to a panel of samples collected from animals living in a typical Mediterranean environment (Sardinia, Italy), including domestic pigs, wild boars, and ticks. In domestic pigs, PCR coupled with sequencing revealed an estimated Babesia infection frequency of 26.2% and the presence of distinct 18S sequence types. The different distribution of sequence types in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects might suggest the existence of phylogenetically closely related strains with variable pathogenicity in pigs. Moreover, molecular identification of tick species indicated Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus bursa as candidate vectors potentially involved in the transmission of this pathogen. Collectively, the data reveal the suitability of 18S rRNA PCR/sequencing for molecular diagnosis of porcine babesiosis and for large-scale investigations on the presence and geographical distribution of Babesia sp. Suis genetic variants.
Hildebrandt, A; Hunfeld, K-P
Human babesiosis is caused by the intraerythrocytic parasite of the genus Babesia (phylum Apicomplexa). Humans are commonly infected by the bite of Ixodid ticks. Rarely, transmission does occur perinatal or via contaminated blood transfusion. There is only insufficient data available on the clinical relevance in Europe, whereas there are known endemic states in the United States with an increasing importance of the disease in transfusion medicine. The following article gives an overview of the situation in Germany. Human babesiosis is a zoonotic disease with a worldwide increasing importance according to the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. Clinical symptoms have a wide range from asymptomatic to severe and letal cases. So far, the detection of the parasites in ticks and seroepidemiological data in Europe identified 3 humanpathogenic species: B. microti, B. divergens und B. venatorum (EU1-3). The relative small number of approximately 50 documented human cases is probably due to the lack of knowledge of the disease and the availability of diagnostic tools. Comprehensive systematic investigations of the prevalence in ticks, seroepidemiological data and improved diagnostic tests are urgently needed to evaluate the importance of the parasite.
Full Text Available The diagnosis of tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis still depends on observing the parasite in the infected erythrocyte. Microscopic observation is tedious and often problematic in both early and carrier infections. Better diagnostic methods are needed to prevent clinical disease, especially when susceptible cattle are being moved into disease enzootic areas. This study evaluates two techniques for early diagnosis of Babesia bovis infections in cattle, DNA probes specific for the organism and fluorescent probes specific nucleic acid. The radioisotopically labeled DNA probes are used in slot blot hybridizations whith lysed blood samples, not purified DNA. Thusfar, the probe is specific for B. bovis and can detect as few as 1000 B. bovis parasites in 10µl of blood. The specificity of the fluorescent probe depends on the characteristic morphology of the babesia in whole blood samples, as determined microscopically. The fluorescent probe detects as afew as 10,000 B. bovis parasites in 10*l as blood. The application of each method for alboratory and field use is discussed.
Halos, Lénaïg; Lebert, Isabelle; Abrial, David; Danlois, Fabien; Garzik, Karin; Rodes, Daniel; Schillmeier, Monika; Ducrot, Christian; Guillot, Jacques
The incidence of canine babesiosis may vary considerably from one country to another depending on the distribution of the causative parasite species and their specific vectors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical occurrence of canine babesiosis diagnosed in European veterinary clinics and propose an updated map of the disease distribution in Western Europe. Questionnaires were sent to companion animal veterinary clinics in Spain, France, Benelux, Germany and Austria. The annual number of babesiosis cases in 2010, the number of practitioners in the clinic and the location of the clinic were recorded. The total numbers of dogs and practitioners in each country were used for definition of the reference populations and the annual incidence of canine babesiosis was calculated by dividing the total number of reported babesiosis cases by the total number of dogs in the veterinary practices involved in the study. Data were georeferenced for distribution map construction. The overall annual incidence of clinical babesiosis amongst the investigated dog population was 0.7%, with significant variations amongst countries and regions. Three epidemiological situations were described: (i) Spain, with co-existence of several species of piroplasms and patchy distribution of babesiosis, (ii) France, with overall presence of babesiosis due to Babesia canis and local variations and (iii) Benelux, Germany and Austria, with overall low prevalence of the disease associated with localised description related either to imported cases or to small autochthonous foci of B. canis infection.
Full Text Available The incidence of canine babesiosis may vary considerably from one country to another depending on the distribution of the causative parasite species and their specific vectors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical occurrence of canine babesiosis diagnosed in European veterinary clinics and propose an updated map of the disease distribution in Western Europe. Questionnaires were sent to companion animal veterinary clinics in Spain, France, Benelux, Germany and Austria. The annual number of babesiosis cases in 2010, the number of practitioners in the clinic and the location of the clinic were recorded. The total numbers of dogs and practitioners in each country were used for definition of the reference populations and the annual incidence of canine babesiosis was calculated by dividing the total number of reported babesiosis cases by the total number of dogs in the veterinary practices involved in the study. Data were georeferenced for distribution map construction. The overall annual incidence of clinical babesiosis amongst the investigated dog population was 0.7%, with significant variations amongst countries and regions. Three epidemiological situations were described: (i Spain, with co-existence of several species of piroplasms and patchy distribution of babesiosis, (ii France, with overall presence of babesiosis due to Babesia canis and local variations and (iii Benelux, Germany and Austria, with overall low prevalence of the disease associated with localised description related either to imported cases or to small autochthonous foci of B. canis infection.
Defauw, P; Schoeman, J P; Smets, P; Goddard, A; Meyer, E; Liebenberg, C; Daminet, S
Renal damage is deemed a common, yet poorly documented, complication in canine babesiosis. Serum urea and creatinine are insensitive and non-specific markers of early renal dysfunction and their measurements are influenced by hemolysis caused by babesiosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use urinary markers to assess the localization and degree of renal dysfunction in dogs with Babesia rossi infection. Urinary immunoglobulin G (uIgG) and urinary C-reactive protein (uCRP) were measured as markers for glomerular dysfunction, while urinary retinol-binding protein (uRBP) was used as a marker for tubular dysfunction. Eighteen dogs presenting with uncomplicated babesiosis were included and compared with eight clinically healthy dogs. Previously validated commercial ELISA kits were used for the measurement of uIgG, uCRP, and uRBP. Results were related to urinary creatinine concentrations (c). Dogs with babesiosis had significantly higher concentrations of all three measured urinary markers compared to healthy dogs. Except for urinary protein/c ratio (UPC), routine urinary and serum markers for renal function (urine specific gravity (USG), serum urea and creatinine (sCr)) were not significantly different between dogs with babesiosis and healthy dogs. All three urinary markers were positively correlated with each other and with UPC. The data supports the presence of both glomerular and tubular dysfunction in dogs suffering from uncomplicated B. rossi infection. Urinary markers were superior to USG, serum urea and creatinine concentrations for the early detection of renal dysfunction in dogs with babesiosis.
Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Lawrence, J. A.; Kafuwa, P. T.;
. They were then issued to smallholder farmers, together with unvaccinated controls, where many of them were exposed to heavy tick infestation. Vaccination was shown to provide a significant degree of protection against babesiosis on the smallholder farms; 15/32 unvaccinated controls developed clinical...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anaplasmosis, anthrax, babesiosis... DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.10 Anaplasmosis, anthrax... condemned: (1) Anthrax. (2) Blackleg. (3) Unhealed vaccine lesions (vaccinia). (4) Strangles. (5)...
Chaudhuri, S; Varshney, J P
Homeopathic Crotalus horridus 200C was evaluated in 13 clinical cases of babesiosis in dogs, compared with another 20 clinical cases treated with diminazine. Babesiosis is an important tropical tick-borne haemoprotozoan disease in dogs clinically manifested by anorexia, dehydration, temperature, dullness/depression, diarrhoea/constipation, pale mucosa, hepatomegaly, vomiting/nausea, splenomegaly, distended abdomen/ascites, yellow coloured urine, emaciation/weight loss, and occular discharge. The diagnosis of babesiosis was based on cytological evidence of Babesia gibsoni in freshly prepared blood smears. The dogs were treated with oral C. horridus 200C, 4 pills four times daily for 14 days (n=13) or diminazine aceturate 5 mg/kg single intramuscularly dose (n=20). All the dogs were administered 5% Dextrose normal saline at 60 ml/kg intravenously for 4 days. Initial clinical scores were similar in both groups and showed similar progressive improvement with the two treatments over 14 days. Parasitaemia also improved in both groups, but haematological values showed no change. No untoward reactions were observed. It appears that C. horridus is as effective in causing clinical recovery in moderate cases of canine babesiosis caused by Babesia gibsoni as the standard drug diminazine. Large scale randomized trials are indicated for more conclusive results.
M.P. De Scally
Full Text Available Pigmented serum, usually due to free haemoglobin and/or bilirubin, is a common finding in dogs with babesiosis, resulting in interference with all biochemical tests that rely on photochemistry. This is particularly true of urea and creatinine determinations, complicating the diagnosis of acute renal failure, which is a serious complication of babesiosis. A disproportionately raised serum urea concentration of unknown origin occurs in severely anaemic canine babesiosis patients and gives rise to an increased serum urea:creatinine ratio. The assay for cystatin-C, an excellent measure of glomerular filtration rate, is unaffected by free serum haemoglobin, and due to its different intrinsic origins, is free of influence by the metabolic derangements and organ pathology, other than renal disease, encountered in canine babesiosis. Serum cystatin-C was used to compare the concentrations of serum urea and serum creatinine in dogs with the severely anaemic form of canine babesiosis as well as a canine babesiosis-free reference group. Mean serum urea and mean serum urea:creatinine ratio were significantly elevated in the babesia-infected group relative to the reference population in this study. Mean serum creatinine and mean serum cystatin-C were within the reference ranges. Therefore an elevated urea:creatinine ratio in canine babesiosis in the presence of a normal serum creatinine concentration is considered to be caused by an elevated serum urea concentration and is most likely of non-renal origin. Serum creatinine was therefore as specific a measure of renal function as serum cystatin-C in canine babesiosis in this study. The sensitivity of serum creatinine as a measure of renal function was not established by this study. Serum urea, however, proved to be of little use compared to serum cystatin-C and serum creatinine. Serum urea should therefore not be used to diagnose renal failure in canine babesiosis.
Swelum Ayman A.
Full Text Available Clinical, haematological, and biochemical changes induced by naturally occurring babesiosis in dromedary camels were described. Of 258 dromedary camels studied, 34 camels suffered from fever, appetite loss, weakness, depression, and reluctant movement; abortion and/or infertility were also observed. Parasitological blood examinations were performed using Giemsastained blood smears. The clinically affected animals were diagnosed with babesiosis, with 13.17% overall morbidity. Camels that suffered from babesiosis were subjected to haematological and biochemical analyses and the affected group was compared with a control group containing 34 healthy camels. The affected animals showed a highly significant (P<0.001 reduction of the total red blood cell (RBC count, haemoglobin (HGB concentration, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV as well as a highly significant reduction (P<0.01 of haematocrit (HCT and a significant reduction of (P<0.05 mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH. Additional, highly significant increases (P<0.01 in white blood cell (WBC count and plateletcrit (PCT percentage were detected. However, other haematological parameters were not significantly altered. There was a very significant reduction (P<0.001 of the blood iron level and a very significant increase (P<0.001 in blood urea nitrogen (BUN and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the affected camels. Additionally, significant increases in total protein, albumin, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and total bilirubin were observed in the affected camels. It was concluded that babesiosis highly affects the haematobiochemical parameters of dromedary camels, including the liver, kidney, and muscle functions. These results represent novel findings concerning natural babesiosis in camels.
Ionita, Mariana; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Pfister, Kurt; Hamel, Dietmar; Buzatu, Catalin Marius; Silaghi, Cornelia
Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the protozoa Babesia spp. that affects dogs worldwide. In Romania, canine babesiosis has become quite frequent in the last few years, with a wide variety of clinical signs, ranging from mild, nonspecific illness to peracute collapse, and even death. Traditionally, a Babesia infection in dogs is diagnosed based on the morphologic appearance of the intraerythrocytic piroplasms observed in peripheral blood smears. To date, no data on genetic characterization of Babesia species in dogs has been documented for Romania. Therefore, a molecular survey on natural Babesia infections of dogs in Romania using polymerase chain reaction and genetic sequence analysis of a fragment of the ssRNA gene was performed. A total number of 16 blood samples were tested for the presence of Babesia DNA. Blood samples were collected from 11 dogs with symptoms of babesiosis and microscopically proven positive for Babesia and from a group of five asymptomatic dogs, not tested microscopically for Babesia, which were included in the study for comparative analysis. The piroplasm-specific PCR amplifying the partial 18S rRNA gene confirmed Babesia spp. infection in all 11 samples from dogs with clinical babesiosis, and in one of the clinically normal dogs. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of Babesia canis in all clinically affected dogs and Babesia vogeli in one clinically normal dog. This is the first molecular evidence of B. canis and B. vogeli in dogs from Romania. The results of the study provide basic information toward a better understanding of the epidemiology of canine babesiosis in Romania and will help to promote an effective control program.
Penzhorn Barend L
Full Text Available Abstract Canine babesiosis is a common, highly virulent disease in Southern Africa with even pups and juveniles being severely affected. This contrasts with bovine babesiosis, for example, where host, parasite and vector co-evolved and young animals develop immunity after infection without showing clinical signs. Babesia rossi, the main causative organism of canine babesiosis in sub-Saharan Africa, was first described from a side-striped jackal (Canis adustus in Kenya. Although data are meagre, there is evidence that indigenous African canids, such as jackals and wild dogs (Lycaon pictus, can harbour the parasite without showing untoward effects. Dogs are not indigenous to Africa. The vast majority of dogs presented at veterinary facilities in South Africa represent recently introduced European, Asian or American breeds. The contention is that B. rossi is a new challenge to which these dogs have not adapted. With intensive treatment of clinical cases, natural selection is effectively negated and the status quo will probably be maintained indefinitely. It is postulated that Babesia vogeli, which frequently results in unapparent infections or mild manifestations in dogs, represents or is closely related to the ancestral form of the canine parasite, possibly originating from wolves (Canis lupus.
Łyp, P; Adaszek, Ł; Furmaga, B; Winiarczyk, S
In this study, we used PCR to detect and characterize B. canis from naturally infected dogs in Poland with subclinical babesiosis by amplifying and sequencing a portion of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Venous blood samples were collected from ten dogs with subclinical babesiosis. A 559-bp fragment of the B. canis 18S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR. Sequencing of the PCR products led to the identification of a new variant of Babesia canis, differing from the previously detected protozoa genotypes (18S rRNA-A and 18S rRNA-B) with nucleotide substitutions in positions 150 and 151 of the tested gene fragment. The results indicate the emergence within the Polish territory of a new, previously unencountered Babesia canis genotype responsible for the development of subclinical babesiosis.
Joyce Alina J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of vascular occlusion in the pathogenesis of human haemoprotozoal disease is unresolved. Methods Giemsa-stained tissue sections from a human case of Babesia microti infection in a splenectomized patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and colon cancer were examined to ascertain the distribution of parasitized erythrocytes within the vascular lumen. Results No evidence of sequestration was observed. Conclusion This first report on the vascular location of B. microti in human tissue suggests that severe multi-organ failure due to babesiosis is independent of sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes. A similar pathogenesis may also cause multi-organ failure in other intraerythrocytic protozoal infections, including falciparum malaria.
Solano-Gallego, Laia; Baneth, Gad
Canine babesiosis caused by different Babesia species is a protozoal tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution and global significance. Historically, Babesia infection in dogs was identified based on the morphologic appearance of the parasite in the erythrocyte. All large forms of Babesia were designated Babesia canis, whereas all small forms of Babesia were considered to be Babesia gibsoni. However, the development of molecular methods has demonstrated that other Babesia species such as Babesia conradae, Babesia microti like piroplasm, Theileria spp. and a yet unnamed large form Babesia spp. infect dogs and cause distinct diseases. Babesia rossi, B. canis and Babesia vogeli previously considered as subspecies are identical morphologically but differ in the severity of clinical manifestations which they induce, their tick vectors, genetic characteristics, and geographic distributions, and are therefore currently considered separate species. The geographic distribution of the causative agent and thus the occurrence of babesiosis are largely dependent on the habitat of relevant tick vector species, with the exception of B. gibsoni where evidence for dog to dog transmission indicates that infection can be transmitted among fighting dog breeds independently of the limitations of vector tick infestation. Knowledge of the prevalence and clinicopathological aspects of Babesia species infecting dogs around the world is of epidemiologic and medical interest. Babesiosis in domestic cats is less common and has mostly been reported from South Africa where infection is mainly due to Babesia felis, a small Babesia that causes anemia and icterus. In addition, Babesia cati was reported from India and sporadic cases of B. canis infection in domestic cats have been reported in Europe, B. canis presentii in Israel and B. vogeli in Thailand. Babesiosis caused by large Babesia spp. is commonly treated with imidocarb dipropionate with good clinical response while small Babesia spp
Paulauskas, Algimantas; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Karvelienė, Birutė; Grigonis, Aidas; Aleksandravičienė, Asta; Zamokas, Gintaras; Babickaitė, Lina; Sabūnas, Vytautas; Petkevičius, Saulius
Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis is an emerging infectious disease in Europe. Although previously uncommon, canine babesiosis has become quite frequent in Lithuania during the past decade. In the last few years an increasing number of cases with a wide variety of clinical signs have been recorded throughout the country. In Lithuania the identification of the disease agent in veterinarian clinics is based on a microscopic analysis of size and morphology. To date, no data on the genetic characterization of Babesia species in dogs have been documented for Lithuania. A total of 123 blood samples from dogs showing clinical signs of babesiosis on the basis of veterinary examination were tested for the presence of babesial parasites. Babesia isolated from dogs were detected and characterized by nested-PCR and sequence analysis of a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene. Babesia parasites were detected in blood smears of 94 dogs (76.4%). The molecular analysis revealed the presence of B. canis in 108 dogs (87.8%). Two genotypes of B. canis were distinguished on the basis on two nucleotide (GA → AG) substitutions observed in 18S rRNA gene sequences. The results of the present study provide knowledge of the distribution of B. canis genotypes in dogs in Lithuania, and show the necessity to use a molecular analysis for an accurate diagnosis of canine babesiosis.
Goddard, Amelia; Leisewitz, Andrew L; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads;
to any treatment. Cytokine concentrations were assessed using a canine-specific multiplex assay on an automated analyser. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were......Babesia rossi infection causes a severe inflammatory response in the dog, which is the result of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in cytokine concentrations were present in dogs with babesiosis and whether...... measured. Twelve of the Babesia-infected dogs died (12%) and 85 survived (88%). Babesia-infected dogs were also divided into those that presented within 48 hours from displaying clinical signs, and those that presented more than 48 hours after displaying clinical signs. Cytokine concentrations were...
E. G. Sulaiman
Full Text Available The study included examination of 175 native goats, 27 were infected with Babesia ovis, B. motasi, B. foliata and B. taylori, (recorded in Mosul for the first time and 25 were clinically normal and served as control. Results indicated that the percentage of the infection with Babesiosis was 15.42% and the percentage of parasitemia ranged between 3.5-10.4% with a mean 6.95%, infected goats showed signs of loss of appetite, weakness, pale mucous membranes, jaundice, fever, coughing, nasal discharge, recumbency, diarrhea and haemoglobinuria. A statistically significant decrease were recorded in total red blood cells (RBC, haemoglobin concentration (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV and platelets counts. Anemia was of microcytic hypochromic type. A statistically significant increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate and significant increase in total white blood cells was recorded due to significant increase in lymphocyte and neutrophile count. Results of the biochemical testes indicated an increase in activity of alanin amino transferase (AST, aspartate amino transferase (ALT, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen and icterus index, with a significant decrease in total serum protein, albumin and globulin levels. Results also indicated the presence of Rhipecephalus ticks which were: Rh. sanguineus and Rh. turanicus.
Full Text Available This study was designed to document the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS in dogs with complicated babesiosis, and to assess their impact on outcome. Ninety-one cases were evaluated retro-spectively for SIRS and 56 for MODS. The liver, kidneys, lungs, central nervous system and musculature were assessed. Eighty-seven percent of cases were SIRS-positive. Fifty-two percent of the cases assessed for organ damage had single-organ damage and 48 % had MODS. Outcome was not significantly affected by either SIRS or MODS, but involvement of specific organs had a profound effect. Central nervous system involvement resulted in a 57 times greater chance of death and renal involvement in a 5-fold increased risk compared to all other complications. Lung involvement could not be statistically evaluated owing to co-linearity with other organs, but was associated with high mortality. Liver and muscle damage were common, but did not significantly affect outcome. There are manysimilarities between the observations in this study and previous human and animal studies in related fields, lending additional support to the body of evidence for shared underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in systemic inflammatory states.
Fakhar, Mahdi; Hajihasani, Atta; Maroufi, Shilan; Alizadeh, Houjjat; Shirzad, Hossein; Piri, Faranak; Pagheh, Abdol Sattar
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the Babesia infection in domestic animals in Kurdistan Province of Iran for the first time. In this survey, 9,111 domestic livestock, including cattle and sheep, were randomly sampled and examined from 500 flocks in Kurdistan Province from July 2007 to September 2009. Thin peripheral blood smears were taken and then stained by Giemsa staining method. From a total of 9,111 collected samples, 2,642 were sheep and 6,469 were cattle. Babesia spp. is detected in 1,359 (51.4%) out of sheep samples and 136 (2.1%) out of cattle samples by direct examination of blood smear. Altogether, the prevalence rate of Babesia infection was 16.4% (n = 1,495) in both animal groups. Babesia ovis and Babesia bigemina were the most prevalent species found in sheep and cattle, respectively. The relatively high prevalence of Babesia infection in livestock indicates the epizootic stability status of babesiosis in the western part of Iran.
Raquel Soares Juliano
Full Text Available A babesiose bovina é uma hemoparasitose causada, no Brasil, pelos protozoários B. bovis e B. bigemina, as quais apresentam como único vetor biológico o carrapato Boophilus microplus. Foram avaliadas amostras dos animais da Estação Experimental de Estudos de Bovinos Curraleiros (EEEC colhidas nos anos de 2001 (n=117 e 2003 (n=113. A detecção de anticorpos anti-B. bovis e anti-B. bigemina foi realizada pelo ELISA-indireto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a soroepidemiologia da babesiose bovina em rebanho Curraleiro, obter informações sobre a situação da doença na população e relacionar os resultados obtidos com informações edafoclimáticas e de manejo disponíveis. A taxa de ocorrência em 2001 foi de 92,3% para B. bovis e de 83,8% para B. bigemina e, em 2003, foi de 92,9 e 66,4%, respectivamente. Houve diferença significativa na freqüência de soropositivos em relação à faixa etária no ano de 2003, ocorrendo uma diminuição com o avançar da idade. Sendo assim, foi possível concluir que, apesar das condições edafoclimáticas e do controle químico realizado no combate a ectoparasitas, os animais foram expostos à Babesia spp e encontravam-se em situação de estabilidade enzoótica para babesiose.Bovine babesiosis is a blood parasitic disease. In Brazil it is caused by B. bovis and B. bigemina protozoa, both of which reveal the Boophilus microplus tick as the only biological vector. Animal samples were collected at Experimental Study Farm of Curraleiro Cattle (ESFC in 2001 (n=117 and 2003 (n=113. The detection of antibodies against B. bovis and B. bigemina was carried out by ELISA-indirect method. This research was aimed at studing seroepidemiological aspects of bovine babesiosis in a Curraleiro herd, as well as obtain information about babesiosis stability in this population and relate the results with available climactic and management information. The occurrence rate of positive animals was 92.3% for B. bovis
Saito-Ito, A; Takada, N; Ishiguro, F; Fujita, H; Yano, Y; Ma, X-H; Chen, E-R
Field rodent surveys for Babesia infection were performed from 2002 to 2005 in the vicinities of human babesiosis occurrences in Taiwan and mainland China. Babesia microti was identified by microscopical examination and/or PCR in 1 Rattus coxinga and 1 Crocidura horsfieldii in central Taiwan and in 13 Niviventer confucianus and 1 Apodemus agrarius in Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces of southeastern China. Of 15 B. microti samples detected by PCR, all except 1 were shown to be the Kobe-type, the aetiological small subunit rRNA gene-type of the first Japanese patient; the exception was also a Kobe-related type. The Kobe-type had been found in rodents only in a few places including the human infection occurrence place in Japan. The internal transcribed spacer 1 to 2 sequences of the Taiwanese and Chinese Kobe-types were very similar to each other but considerably different (approx. 94% pairwise identities) from that of the Japanese Kobe-type. A Taiwanese Kobe-type strain was serologically differentiated from the Kobe strain originating from the Japanese first patient. The distribution of the Kobe-type in the vicinities of human babesiosis occurrences in Taiwan and China as well as in Japan is suggestive of involvement of the Kobe-type in Asian human babesiosis.
The risk of vector-borne infections in sled dogs associated with existing and new endemic areas in Poland. Part 2: Occurrence and control of babesiosis in a sled dog kennel during a 13-year-long period.
Bajer, Anna; Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Rodo, Anna; Welc-Falęciak, Renata
The achievements of sled dogs in competitions depend both on their training and on their health. Vector-borne infections may lead to anemia, affect joints or heart muscles or even cause death. Canine babesiosis is an emerging, quickly spreading tick-borne disease in Central Europe. Over a 13-year period (2000-2012) the occurrence of babesiosis cases was analyzed in one sled dog kennel situated in Kury, a village near Tłuszcz (N 52°24'56.78″, E 21°30'37.55″) in Central Poland. Twenty cases/episodes of babesiosis were noted among the 10-12 dogs living in the kennel. In 2000-2004, no cases of babesiosis were noted; the first two cases were noted in April 2005. Since that time, only one dog remained uninfected; 6 dogs were infected once, 3 dogs demonstrated symptoms of babesiosis twice, one dog was infected three times and one dog had it five times. Babesiosis appeared in Spring and Autumn, despite the application of anti-tick treatment. No fatal cases were recorded, but in one case a splenectomy was performed due to splenomegaly and spleen rupture. Additionally, the abundance of the main Babesia canis vector, the Dermacentor reticulatus tick, was estimated and monitored during a 4-year period (2008-2012) close to the dog kennel. The abundance of questing ticks was high in 2008 and 2009, but dropped by 10-fold between 2010 and 2012, when the abandoned meadow was cut and used as horse pasture by the local farmer. The regular occurrence, typical seasonal pattern and identification of B. canis DNA in questing tick from this locality confirmed the establishment of a new hyper enzootic region for canine babesiosis. The effectiveness and schedule of applied preventive measures were discussed.
Full Text Available Accurate measurements of serum aminotransferase (ALT activity in dogs relies on the endogenous pro-enzyme pyridoxal 5-phosphate (P5P. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the exclusion of P5P from the analytical method causes an underestimation of serum ALT activity in dogs suffering from babesiosis and in those manifesting evidence of hepatocellular damage, and to determine if anorexia causes sufficient P5P depletion to affect in vitro serum ALT activity. One-hundred-and-twenty healthy control dogs and 105 Babesia-infected dogs were included in the study. Two methods for ALT measurement were used: Method 1 included P5P, and Method 2 excluded P5P from the reaction mixture. Higher serum ALT activity was measured with Method 1 in the Babesia-infected dogs (P < 0.001, as well as in 14 dogs with suspected hepatocellular damage (P = 0.03. Duration of anorexia had no effect, irrespective of the method used. Although inclusion of P5P to the reaction mixture consistently resulted in higher measured serum ALT activity, the differences were too small to have led to incorrect diagnoses in the Babesia-infected dogs suspected of liver disease.
Full Text Available A reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediate produced during an inflammatory response is the important part of host-defense strategies of organisms to kill the parasite. However, it is not well known whether these intermediates cause DNA damage and oxidative stress in goats infected with Babesia ovis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of babesiosis on basal levels of DNA damage and oxidative status of goats naturally infected with B.ovis.DNA damage and antioxidant parameters were determined in B. ovis infected goats. Ten infected Anatolian Black Goats with B. ovis diagnosed via clinical signs and microscopic findings and ten healthy were used in the study.The Babesia infection increased the levels of DNA damage, malondialdehyde (MDA, protein carbonyl content (PCO and plasma concentration of nitric oxide metabolites (NOx, and decreased total antioxidant activities (AOA and reduced glutathione (GSH. A significant positive correlation between DNA damage, MDA, PCO, and NOx concentrations was found in the infected goats. DNA damage showed a negative association with AOA and GSH concentrations in the infected goats.The Babesia infection increases oxidative stress markers and DNA damage and decreases AOA in goats. These results suggest that the increases in the production of free radicals due to Babesia infection not only contribute to host-defense strategies of organisms to kill the parasite but also induce oxidative damage in other cells.
陈小光; 李学荣; 吴忠道
巴贝虫(Babesia spp.)是一种人畜共患的血液寄生虫,主要由蜱传播,呈世界性分布,国内外均有人体感染的报道,人感染巴贝虫后,可导致贫血、高热、血红蛋白尿、黄疸、肌痛等症状,临床症状轻重不一,可由无症状感染到威胁生命,主要取决于宿主的身体状况和寄生虫.常用的检查方法有涂片染色法、动物接种分离法、血清学检测法及分子生物学检测法.该文就巴贝虫的形态学特点、生活史、基因组、致病性、临床与实验室诊断以及预防治疗方面做一综述.%Babesia is a zoonotic hemoparasite mainly transmitted by ticks. In recent years,human babesiosis has been frequently reported throughout the world. Patients may show up with symptoms like anemia,hyperthermia,hemoglobinuria,jaundice and myalgia.The clinical features vary from asymptomatic to life threatening,depending on the conditions of the patient and the parasite involved.The routine detection methods include smear staining method,animal inoculation method of separation,serological detection method,and molecular biological detection method.In this review,we focused on recent recognization of Babesia spp.,including morphological characteristics,life cycle,genome,pathogenicity,clinical and laboratory diagnosis,treatment and prevention.
Richard Zapata Salas
Full Text Available La babesiosis es una enfermedad del ganado bovino transmitida por la garrapata Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus y causada por los parásitos protozoarios Babesia bovis y B. bigemina. Una zona se considera epizootiológicamente estable frente a Babesia spp, cuando el 75% de los bovinos entre las edades de 3 a 9 meses son serorreactivos (IgG frente a Babesia bovis y Babesia bigemina y no hay evidencia de signos clínicos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la seroprevalencia de Babesia bovis y Babesia bigemina en el ganado bovino de la hacienda Vegas de la Clara (Universidad de Antioquia, Gómez Plata, Antioquia, por medio de inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Se diseñó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo con análisis de corte transversal. Fue evaluada toda la población bovina de la hacienda Vegas de la Clara (n = 118. Las muestras fueron evaluadas por inmunofluorescencia indirecta para la detección de anticuerpos tipo IgG específicos contra Babesia bovis y B. bigemina. La serorreactividad obtenida en los bovinos evaluados, para al menos una especie de Babesia fue del 89,8%, para Babesia bovis del 83,8%, mientras que para B. bigemina del 61%. Se obtuvo una relación estadísticamente significativa entre la serorreactividad para B. bigemina y la frecuencia del tratamiento garrapaticida. La serorreactividad indica estabilidad enzoótica en el hato para B. bovis, mientras que para B. bigemina se encontró que la frecuencia del tratamiento garrapaticida interrumpe su ciclo de transmisión.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine babesiosis (or piroplasmosis is endemic in northern Portugal, but molecularly confirmed cases of infection with small piroplasms have not been reported in the country. Three German shepherd dogs - a bitch and its 2-month old pup and an unrelated male - clinically suspected of piroplasmosis were assessed for babesial infection. Results Parasitemia with small piroplasms was detected by microscopy in two dogs. All three dogs were positive by PCR and the Babesia microti-like small piroplasm (syn. Theileria annae was identified by DNA sequencing. These are the first confirmed cases of babesiosis caused by the B. microti-like piroplasm both in dogs from Portugal and in dogs suspected of clinical piroplasmosis outside of Spain. Conclusions Although the bitch and the male had visited neighboring Galicia (northwestern Spain, where the disease is endemic, incursion of this piroplasm into northern Portugal is evident and infection of the non-traveled pup was due to either vertical transmission or autochthonous tick infection.
Wormser, Gary P; Dattwyler, Raymond J; Shapiro, Eugene D; Halperin, John J; Steere, Allen C; Klempner, Mark S; Krause, Peter J; Bakken, Johan S; Strle, Franc; Stanek, Gerold; Bockenstedt, Linda; Fish, Durland; Dumler, J Stephen; Nadelman, Robert B
Evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis), and babesiosis were prepared by an expert panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. These updated guidelines replace the previous treatment guidelines published in 2000 (Clin Infect Dis 2000; 31[Suppl 1]:1-14). The guidelines are intended for use by health care providers who care for patients who either have these infections or may be at risk for them. For each of these Ixodes tickborne infections, information is provided about prevention, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. Tables list the doses and durations of antimicrobial therapy recommended for treatment and prevention of Lyme disease and provide a partial list of therapies to be avoided. A definition of post-Lyme disease syndrome is proposed.
Stevens, K B; Spickett, A M; Vosloo, W; Pfeiffer, D U; Dyason, E; Du Plessis, B
A serological survey of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis was conducted in the foot-and-mouth disease buffer zone surrounding the Kruger National Park in South Africa between 2001 and 2003 to determine whether the withdrawal of government-subsidized dipping in certain regions had affected the seroprevalence of these tick-borne diseases. Seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bovis increased during the study period. This increase was greater in Limpopo Province where farmers had to supply their own acaricide than in Mpumalanga Province where dipping materials were provided by the local Veterinary Services. The number of animals testing positive for B. bigemina decreased in both provinces during the study period, which was attributed to possible vector displacement rather than more effective tick control measures. Responses to a questionnaire on ticks and tick-borne diseases revealed local knowledge on the subject to be highly variable and sometimes incorrect.
Yoshinari Natalino Hajime
Full Text Available This paper reports a case of coinfection caused by pathogens of Lyme disease and babesiosis in brothers. This was the first case of borreliosis in Brazil, acquired in Cotia County, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Both children had tick bite history, presented erythema migrans, fever, arthralgia, mialgia, and developed positive serology (ELISA and Western-blotting directed to Borrelia burgdorferi G 39/40 and Babesia bovis antigens, mainly of IgM class antibodies, suggestive of acute disease. Also, high frequencies of antibodies to B. bovis was observed in a group of 59 Brazilian patients with Lyme borreliosis (25.4%, when compared with that obtained in a normal control group (10.2% (chi-square = 5.6; p < 0.05. Interestingly, both children presented the highest titers for IgM antibodies directed to both infective diseases, among all patients with Lyme borreliosis.
Yoshinari, Natalino Hajime; Abrão, Milena Garcia; Bonoldi, Virginia Lúcia Nazário; Soares, Cleber Oliveira; Madruga, Claudio Roberto; Scofield, Alessandra; Massard, Carlos Luis; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique
This paper reports a case of coinfection caused by pathogens of Lyme disease and babesiosis in brothers. This was the first case of borreliosis in Brazil, acquired in Cotia County, State of S o Paulo, Brazil. Both children had tick bite history, presented erythema migrans, fever, arthralgia, mialgia, and developed positive serology (ELISA and Western-blotting) directed to Borrelia burgdorferi G 39/40 and Babesia bovis antigens, mainly of IgM class antibodies, suggestive of acute disease. Also, high frequencies of antibodies to B. bovis was observed in a group of 59 Brazilian patients with Lyme borreliosis (25.4%), when compared with that obtained in a normal control group (10.2%) (chi-square = 5.6; p < 0.05). Interestingly, both children presented the highest titers for IgM antibodies directed to both infective diseases, among all patients with Lyme borreliosis.
Full Text Available Perceived causes, diagnosis and treatment of redwater (babesiosis and gallsickness (anaplasmosis in cattle by livestock farmers in communal areas of the central Eastern Cape Province were investigated by means of participatory methods, semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey. Most livestock owners relate the causes of these diseases to excessive grazing of lush green grass, which is thought to bring about an accumulation of bile in the body. The majority of livestock owners diagnose gallsickness and redwater on the basis of presenting signs and post mortem findings. Eighty nine percent of a total of 343 livestock owners participating in the study claimed to administer herbal remedies to treat the 2 tick-borne diseases; 75 % of these combine herbal remedies with conventional medicines and 25 % use herbal remedies only. Application of herbal remedies was reportedly aimed mainly at the removal of excess bile. However, some plant species used to prepare herbal remedies are reported to possess activities ranging from anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-pyretic and purgative, and may be effective in the treatment of gallsickness and redwater. A lack of understanding of the causes and transmission of gallsickness and redwater, leading to ill-directed treatment, and widespread deviation from the directions of use when administering conventional medicines, were identified as problems that could be addressed by farmer training and the supply of appropriate information.
Pantchev, Nikola; Pluta, Silvia; Huisinga, Elke; Nather, Stephanie; Scheufelen, Miriam; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Schweinitz, Andrea; Hampel, Herwig; Straubinger, Reinhard K
Tick-borne diseases (TBD) in dogs have gained in significance in German and Austrian veterinary practices. The widespread European tick species Ixodes ricinus represents an important vector for spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group and Rickettsiales such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The meadow or ornate dog tick (Dermacentor reticulatus) is an important vector for Babesia canis, as is the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) for Babesia vogeli in the Mediterranean region. The present work covers pathogen transmission by tick vectors, including the mechanisms and the minimum intervals required, in conjunction with possible non-vector-borne transmission routes. It also addresses the incubation periods, pathogenicity and clinical findings associated with each pathogen and genospecies and presents case examples. Current data on prevalence, annual fluctuations and distribution in various pre-selected dog populations (symptomatic versus asymptomatic) in both countries are depicted in maps. Reasons for changes in prevalence (especially of Borrelia) are discussed. Criteria and algorithms for clinical diagnosis and monitoring in dogs, including case history, direct detection (blood smears, molecular detection by species-specific PCR and sequencing) and indirect methods (whole-cell and peptide-based antibody tests), are presented, together with laboratory abnormalities (haematology, clinical chemistry, urine). The role of anti-C6 antibody concentration (ACAC) and its correlation with proteinuria and Lyme nephritis are assessed on the basis of new data. Consideration is also given to the importance of blood smears, PCR and serology in the case of anaplasmosis and babesiosis, and the diagnostic value of combining these methods. The relevance of molecular differentiation of Anaplasma species (A. phagocytophilum versus A. platys) and Babesia spp. (large versus small forms) in cases of serological cross-reaction is emphasized. A summary is given of
Full Text Available A 12-month study was conducted in 4 communal grazing areas in the Bushbuckridge region, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The main objective was to investigate the impact of reduced acaricide application on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis (Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma marginale in the local cattle population. To this end 60 cattle in each communal grazing area were bled at the beginning and the conclusion of the experimental period and their sera were assayed for B. bovis, B. bigemina and Anaplasma antibodies. Cattle in the intensively dipped group were dipped 26 times and maintained on a 14-day dipping interval throughout the study, whereas cattle in the strategically dipped group were dipped only 13 times. Three cattle, from which adult ticks were collected, were selected from each village, while immature ticks were collected by drag-sampling the surrounding vegetation. During the dipping process, a questionnaire aimed at assessing the prevalence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease, abscesses and mortalities was completed by an Animal Health Technician at each diptank. An increase in seroprevalence to B. bovis and B. bigemina and a decrease in seroprevalence to Anaplasma was detected in the strategically dipped group while in the intensively dipped group the converse was true. Amblyomma hebraeum was the most numerous tick species on the cattle, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus was more plentiful than Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus. Drag samples yielded more immature stages of A. hebraeum than of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus spp. The incidence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease and of abscesses increased in the strategically dipped group at the start of the survey.
Ana Lucia Schild
Full Text Available Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos de um surto de babesiose cerebral ocorrido em bovinos no município de Santa Vitória do Palmar, RS em uma propriedade localizada geograficamente na Latitude S 33°05'23" e Longitude WO 53°09'29", região considerada zona livre de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Em meados de novembro de 2007 foram transferidos para essa propriedade quatro touros, quatro novilhas e duas vacas provenientes do município de Minas do Leão,RS localizado geograficamente na Latitude S 30°12'07" e Longitude WO 52°03'25". De um total de 393 animais, 40 bovinos adultos morreram no período entre 19 de janeiro e 2 de março de 2008. O diagnóstico foi realizado pela observação das lesões macroscópicas e pela presença de numerosas formas parasitárias de Babesia bovis em impressões de fragmentos do córtex telencefálico coradas por Giemsa, que foram enviados ao Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Faculdade de Veterinária da UFPel (LRD. Sugere-se que o clima favorável com temperaturas médias entre 23,2°C e 23,6°C e umidade relativa do ar média entre 77,5° e 75,3% observados no período determinaram a ocorrência de uma geração de carrapatos que ao infestarem e inocularem o agente em animais sem nenhuma imunidade contra o mesmo desencadearam o surto.An outbreak of babesiosis by Babesia bovis is reported in cattle in the municipality of Santa Vitória do Palmar, considered a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus free area, in southern Brazil on a farm located at Latitude S 33°05'23" and Longitude WO 53°09'29". In mid November four bulls, four cows and two heifers originated from the municipality of Minas do Leão, RS, a tick endemic area, located at Latitude S 30°12'07" and Longitude WO 52°03'25" were introduced in the herd. Fourty out of 393 adult cattle died. The first bovine died on January 19 and the last on March 2. The diagnosis of babesiosis was performed by the observation of gross lesions and
Patrick J Kelly
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although tick-borne diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in dogs in tropical areas, there is little information on the agents causing these infections in the Caribbean. METHODOLOGY: We used PCRs to test blood from a cross-section of dogs on St Kitts for Ehrlichia (E. canis, Babesia (B. spp., Anaplasma (A. spp. and Hepatozoon (H. spp. Antibodies against E. canis and A. phagocytophilum/platys were detected using commercial immunochromatography tests. Records of the dogs were examined retrospectively to obtain clinical and laboratory data. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There was serological and/or PCR evidence of infections of dogs with E. canis (27%; 46/170, Babesia spp. (24%; 90/372 including B. canis vogeli (12%; 43/372 and B. gibsoni (10%; 36/372, A. platys (11%; 17/157 and H. canis (6%; 15/266. We could not identify the Babesia sp. detected in nine dogs. There was evidence of multiple infections with dual infections with E. canis and B. canis vogeli (8%; 14/179 or B. gibsoni (7%; 11/170 being the most common. There was agreement between immunochromatography and PCR test results for E. canis for 87% of dogs. Only 13% of exposed dogs had signs of a tick-borne disease and 38% had laboratory abnormalities. All 10 dogs presenting for a recheck after treatment of E. canis with doxycycline were apparently healthy although all remained seropositive and six still had laboratory abnormalities despite an average of two treatments with the most recent being around 12 months previously. Infections with Babesia spp. were also mainly subclinical with only 6% (4/67 showing clinical signs and 13% (9/67 having laboratory abnormalities. Similarly, animals with evidence of infections with A. platys and H. canis were largely apparently healthy with only occasional laboratory abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Dogs are commonly infected with tick-borne pathogens in the Caribbean with most having no clinical signs or laboratory abnormalities.
Full Text Available A study on the presence of Babesia in humans was performed in Puerto Berrío (Latitude 6.50deg. Longitude: -74.38deg. River: Magdalena. Area: 74.410km², Colombia-South America. Indirect immunofluorescence, thin and thick blood smears were used to study 194 individuals. Patients were grouped according to their risk-factors for Babesia infection: (group 1 individuals with fever, chills, sweating and other malaria-type symptoms; (group 2 symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals from local cattle ranches, which were enrolled in an active form, and (group 3 workers from the local slaughterhouse. Seven individuals were serologically positive for Babesia: Three individuals presented IgM antibodies against B. bovis, while one had IgG against this species; one individual had IgM against B. bigemina, another had IgG and a third both IgM and IgG against this species. Only one individual was parasitologically positive for Babesiaand serologically positive for Babesia bovis (IgM 1:64
Full Text Available Peter J MayneInternational Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USABackground: Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease (LD, and Babesia, Bartonella, and Ehrlichia species (spp. are recognized tick-borne pathogens in humans worldwide. Using serology and molecular testing, the incidence of these pathogens was investigated in symptomatic patients from Australia.Methods: Sera were analyzed by an immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA followed by immunoglobulin (IgG and IgM Western blot (WB assays. Both whole blood and sera were analyzed for detection of specific Borrelia spp. DNA using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR testing. Simultaneously, patients were tested for Babesia microti, Babesia duncani, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Bartonella henselae infection by IgG and IgM IFA serology, PCR, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH.Results: Most patients reported symptom onset in Australia without recent overseas travel. 28 of 51 (55% tested positive for LD. Of 41 patients tested for tick-borne coinfections, 13 (32% were positive for Babesia spp. and nine (22% were positive for Bartonella spp. Twenty-five patients were tested for Ehrlichia spp. and (16% were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum while none were positive for Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Among the 51 patients tested for LD, 21 (41% had evidence of more than one tick-borne infection. Positive tests for LD, Babesia duncani, Babesia microti, and Bartonella henselae were demonstrated in an individual who had never left the state of Queensland. Positive testing for these pathogens was found in three others whose movements were restricted to the east coast of Australia.Conclusion: The study identified a much larger tick-borne disease (TBD burden within the Australian community than hitherto reported. In particular, the first cases of endemic human Babesia and Bartonella disease in Australia with coexisting Borrelia infection are described, thus defining current hidden and unrecognized components of TBD and demonstrating local acquisition in patients who have never been abroad.Keywords: Borrelia, lyme disease, Babesia, Bartonella, ehrlichiosis, Australia, humans
Imre, Mirela; Farkas, Róbert; Ilie, Marius Stelian; Imre, Kálmán; Dărăbuş, Gheorghe
Blood samples from 49 symptomatic dogs from 5 western and north-western counties of Romania were screened using microscopic examination, polymerase-chain-reaction-restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism procedure (PCR-RFLP), and sequence analysis. Results of the microscopic evaluation of stained blood smears revealed 45 positive samples with the presence of large and small intraerythrocytic piroplasms in 35 and 10 samples, respectively. Babesia canis (35/49, 71.4%) and Babesia gibsoni (14/49, 28.6%) were identified and differentiated by PCR-RFLP targeting the 18S rRNA gene. Results of the sequence analysis of all B. gibsoni and 17 randomly selected B. canis PCR products confirmed the PCR-RFLP-diagnosed species. The distribution of B. gibsoni infection was positively associated (pRomania confirmed by sequencing.
Cuesta, Isabel; González, Luis M.; Estrada, Karel; Grande, Ricardo; Zaballos, Ángel; Lobo, Cheryl A.; Barrera, Jorge
Babesia divergens causes significant morbidity and mortality in cattle and splenectomized or immunocompromised individuals. Here, we present a 10.7-Mb high-quality draft genome of this parasite close to chromosome resolution that will enable comparative genome analyses and synteny studies among related parasites. PMID:25395649
Nadia Aline Bobbi Antoniassi
Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de mortalidade em bovinos por Babesia bovis em abril de 2007, no Município de Picada Café, Rio Grande do Sul. Em um rebanho com 55 novilhas, 28 (50,9% morreram em cinco dias. A doença iniciou vinte dias após o ingresso dos bovinos na propriedade. Os sinais clínicos incluíam febre, incoordenação, agressividade, anemia, petéquias nas mucosas e morte 1 á 2 dias após. Em 4 animais necropsiados, observaram-se palidez de mucosas, hemorragias múltiplas, esplenomegalia, fígado aumentado e alaranjado, vesícula biliar com parede edemaciada e contendo bile grumosa. Os rins estavam vermelho-escuros e a bexiga continha urina cor de vinho tinto. O encéfalo apresentou cor róseo-cereja externamente e ao corte, mais marcado no córtex telencefálico, cerebelo e corpo estriado, contrastando com a cor branca da substância branca. Na histologia havia nefrose hemoglobinúrica, necrose hepática paracentral, bilestase canalicular, congestão esplênica, além de congestão com grande quantidade de eritrócitos parasitados por estruturas compatíveis com Babesia bovis na região cortical do encéfalo, também observadas em esfregaços teciduais dessas regiões. A morte de 28 bovinos em 5 dias deveu-se, provavelmente, à falta de imunidade contra o parasito. O tratamento foi realizado com dipropionato de imidocarb nos demais animais, havendo recuperação dos bovinos que apresentavam sinais iniciais leves e não ocorrência de novos casos durante um período de dois meses, quando foram enviados para abate.An outbreak of cattle mortality due to Babesia bovis infection in the county of Picada Café, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, in April 2007 is described. Twenty eight heifers (50.9% died, out of a herd of 55 animals, in five days. The disease occurred approximately 20 days after heifers were transferred to this farm. The clinical signs included fever, anemia, aggressiveness, incoordination, petechiae in the mucous membranes and death after 1 to 2 days. The necropsy revealed pale mucous membranes, splenomegaly, enlarged and yellowish liver, congested and edematous gall bladder containing viscous granular bile. The kidneys and urine were dark red. The gray matter of cerebrum and cerebellum had a characteristic cherry-pink color. Hemorrhage was seen in the epicardium and endocardium. The histological findings consisted of hemoglobinuric nephrosis, paracentral hepatic necrosis, bile stasis, spleen congestion. The gray matter of the brain exhibited congestion with erythrocytes parasitized by Babesia bovis, which were also seen in the brain impression smear. The death of 28 heifers in 5 days was attributed to inadequate immunity against the parasite. The application of imidocarb dipropionate in animals presenting the initial stage of the disease and in all other animals of the herd was adopted as preventive treatment and no new cases of the disease happened in the next two months, when they were sent to slaughter.
Distribution of nymphal Ixodes scapularis in Rhode Island was used as a logistical regressor for predicting presence of human babesiosis. Although the incidence of babesiosis is increasing in southern Rhode Island, large areas of the state are free of babesiosis risk.
Rodgers, Sarah E; Mather, Thomas N
Distribution of nymphal Ixodes scapularis in Rhode Island was used as a logistical regressor for predicting presence of human babesiosis. Although the incidence of babesiosis is increasing in southern Rhode Island, large areas of the state are free of babesiosis risk.
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Full Text Available dogs but recently has gained attention as an emerging zoonotic disease problem. Babesia are transmitted by i...7691604 (description) Genchi C Human babesiosis, an emerging zoonosis. Parassitologia 49 Suppl 1:29-31 (2007) ...
Full Text Available Human babesiosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by ixodid ticks, and has not previously been reported in Norway. We report a case of severe babesiosis that occurred in Norway in 2007. The patient had previously undergone a splenectomy. He was frequently exposed to tick bites in an area endemic for bovine babesiosis in the west of Norway. The patient presented with severe haemolysis and multiorgan failure. Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed 30% parasitaemia with Babesia spp. He was treated with quinine in combination with clindamycin, apheresis, and supportive treatment with ventilatory support and haemofiltration, and made a complete recovery. This is the first case reported in Norway; however Babesia divergens seroprevalence in cattle in Norway is high, as is the risk of Ixodes ricinus tick bite in the general population. Babesiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained febrile haemolytic disease.
Mørch, K; Holmaas, G; Frolander, P S; Kristoffersen, E K
Human babesiosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by ixodid ticks, and has not previously been reported in Norway. We report a case of severe babesiosis that occurred in Norway in 2007. The patient had previously undergone a splenectomy. He was frequently exposed to tick bites in an area endemic for bovine babesiosis in the west of Norway. The patient presented with severe haemolysis and multiorgan failure. Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed 30% parasitaemia with Babesia spp. He was treated with quinine in combination with clindamycin, apheresis, and supportive treatment with ventilatory support and haemofiltration, and made a complete recovery. This is the first case reported in Norway; however Babesia divergens seroprevalence in cattle in Norway is high, as is the risk of Ixodes ricinus tick bite in the general population. Babesiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained febrile haemolytic disease.
and fields, and P. leuco- Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner; and the pus most frequently occurs in woodland, both agent of human babesiosi-s, Babesia ...Houghton Miffin, Boston. Sonenshine, D. E., J. T. Lamb, Jr., & G. Anastos. Carroll, J. F. & J. D. Nichols. 1986. Parasitization of 1965. The distribution ... distribution lists of mites (Acari), parasitic and Florschutz, Jr., 0. & R. F. Darsie, Jr. 1960. Addi- phoretic, in the hair of wild mammals of North
Vector-borne infection constitutes a significant health issue in dogs worldwide. Recent reports point to an increasing number of canine vector-borne disease cases in European countries, including Poland. Canine babesiosis caused by various Babesia species is a protozoal tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution and significant veterinary importance. The development and application of molecular methods have increased our knowledge about canine babesiosis, its prevalence, and clinical and ...
Full Text Available Vector-borne infection constitutes a significant health issue in dogs worldwide. Recent reports point to an increasing number of canine vector-borne disease cases in European countries, including Poland. Canine babesiosis caused by various Babesia species is a protozoal tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution and significant veterinary importance. The development and application of molecular methods have increased our knowledge about canine babesiosis, its prevalence, and clinical and pathological aspects of the infection. Parasitologists and veterinary surgeons need an accurate description of the species responsible for canine babesiosis to improve diagnostic and therapeutic methods, as well as predictions for the course of the disease. Therefore, we decided to summarise recent knowledge concerning Babesia species and B. canis.
[b]Introduction and objective[/b]. Tick-borne infections constitute an increasing health problem in dogs and may lead to death, especially in young or elderly individuals. Canine babesiosis constitutes a serious health problem in dogs worldwide. The aim of the study was to verify the probability of vertical transmission of [i]Babesia canis[/i] between the bitch and the pups. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. In Autumn 2011, cases of babesiosis were diagnosed in a litter of 6-week-old puppie...
Babesia bovis (B. bovis) is a major causative agent of bovine babesiosis, with a considerable worldwide impact. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of PCR assay and microscopical examination (ME) for detection of B. bovis in naturally infected and apparently healthy water...... buffaloes and crossbred cattle under field circumstances from Sharkia province of Egypt. A total 34 animals (20 crossbred cattle and 14 buffaloes) were clinically and laboratory investigated during the period from March to August 2008. Fifteen animals showed symptoms of bovine babesiosis while 19 animals...
Helieh S. Oz
Full Text Available Babesiosis, a common disease of animals, can infect humans via vector “tick bite”, particularly in endemic areas. The recent reports of fatal cases in Hepatitis C and postliver transplant patients resulting from transfusion of contaminated blood should alert the medical profession regarding this emerging dilemma in endemic as well as nonendemic areas and the need for accurate blood screening for transfusion. Here, we illustrate different stages of the parasite lifecycle, progression of babesiosis in animal model, some aspects of pathologic outcomes, ongoing therapeutic modalities, and a feasible Acridine Orange fluorescent methodology for the diagnostic evaluation of blood samples.
Paratuberculosis Bluetongue New world screwworm Sheep pox and goat pox Old world screwworm African horse sickness Trichinellosis. African swine fever...diseases): Article 188.8.131.52. The following diseases are included in List B, (sheep and goat diseases): Bovine anaplasmosis Ovine epididymitis...Brucella ovis) Bovine babesiosis Caprine and ovine brucellosis (excluding B. ovis) Bovine brucellosis Caprine arthritis/encephalitis Bovine genital
Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Nuss, Andrew B; Meyer, Jason M;
Ticks transmit more pathogens to humans and animals than any other arthropod. We describe the 2.1 Gbp nuclear genome of the tick, Ixodes scapularis (Say), which vectors pathogens that cause Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other diseases. The large genome reflects...
The tropical horse tick, Dermacentor nitens, is the natural vector of Babesia caballi in the Americas; the distribution of this tick in the United States is limited to the southernmost parts of Florida and Texas. Babesia caballi, one of the etiologic agents of equine babesiosis, occurs widely throug...
Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Nuss, Andrew B.; Meyer, Jason M.
Ticks transmit more pathogens to humans and animals than any other arthropod. We describe the 2.1 Gbp nuclear genome of the tick, Ixodes scapularis (Say), which vectors pathogens that cause Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other diseases. The large genome reflects acc...
Animal health issues are important aspects of the bilateral partnership between Mexico and the United States of America (U.S.). Because the U.S. is free of the cattle fever ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, and bovine babesiosis, the widespread distribution of cattle f...
Rhipicephalus microplus is an invasive tick vector that transmits the protozoan parasites Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, the causative agents of bovine babesiosis (cattle fever). Acaricide resistant R. microplus populations have become a major problem for many cattle producing areas of the world. Py...
African trypanosomiasis. 2. Anthrax, inhalation. 3. Babesiosis. 4. Brucellosis. 5. Clonorchiasis: with biliary ccmplications. 6. Filariasis. 7. Malaria...94 8. Opisthorchiasis: with biliary complications. 9. Relapsing fever. 10. Trench fever. VII. Chronic fever Chronic fever, fever lasting more than...with gram-negative septicemia, paralytic ileus , meningitis, and pneumonia with abscess formation. II. Empyema Empyema is usually a complication of
Incidence of bovine babesiosis in Portugal is currently unknown. In this study, a first survey of Babesia bovis and B. bigemina infection in cattle was carried out using blood samples from 406 clinically healthy individuals from different districts from Central and Southern regions of Portugal and a...
Background The incidence of bovine babesiosis, caused by Babesia divergens (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) has decreased markedly since the 1930 s, but may re-emerge as a consequence of climate change and changes in legislation and pasturing practices. This is a potentially serious disease, with both economical and animal welfare consequences. Therefore, there is a need to survey the distribution of B. divergens. Methods ...
García, T D; Figueroa, M J V; Ramos, A J A; Rojas, M C; Cantó, A G J; Falcón, N A; Alvarez, M J A
Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle caused by Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis and is transmitted by the tick vector Boophilus microplus. In this study, we investigate B. bigemina infection regarding the clinical infection, T cell distribution, and cytokine profile during the acute phase of an experimental infection in pregnant cows.
Apicomplexa tick borne hemoparasites including B. bovis, B. microti, and Theileria equi are responsible for bovine and human babesiosis and equine theileriosis respectively. These neglected parasites of vast medical, epidemiological, and economic impact have complex life cycles in their vertebrate a...
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)determination is a classical hematological test.Although it is a non spe-cific laboratory parameter it is still widely used in present medicine.The author hereby briefly reviews and dis-cuses on clinical importance of ESR test for important tropical intraerythrocytic blood infection (malaria,leish-maniasis and babesiosis).
Genetic manipulation is an essential technique to analyze gene function; however, limited methods are available for Babesia bovis, a causative pathogen of the globally important cattle disease, bovine babesiosis. To date, two stable transfection systems have been developed for B. bovis, using select...
... diseases, cholera and other vibrio illnesses, Listeria, babesiosis, brucellosis, Harmful Algal Bloom... Human Rabies Patient Info 50 1 15/60 Waterborne Diseases Outbreak Form 57 1 20/60 Cholera and other... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork...
... diseases, cholera and other vibrio illnesses, Listeria, babesiosis, brucellosis, Harmful Algal Bloom... Possible Human Rabies Patient Info 50 1 15/60 13 Waterborne Diseases Outbreak Form 57 1 20/60 19 Cholera... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Proposed Data Collections Submitted for...
Brennan, Meghan B; Herwaldt, Barbara L; Kazmierczak, James J; Weiss, John W; Klein, Christina L; Leith, Catherine P; He, Rong; Oberley, Matthew J; Tonnetti, Laura; Wilkins, Patricia P; Gauthier, Gregory M
Babesia microti, an intraerythrocytic parasite, is tickborne in nature. In contrast to transmission by blood transfusion, which has been well documented, transmission associated with solid organ transplantation has not been reported. We describe parasitologically confirmed cases of babesiosis diagnosed ≈8 weeks posttransplantation in 2 recipients of renal allografts from an organ donor who was multiply transfused on the day he died from traumatic injuries. The organ donor and recipients had no identified risk factors for tickborne infection. Antibodies against B. microti parasites were not detected by serologic testing of archived pretransplant specimens. However, 1 of the organ donor's blood donors was seropositive when tested postdonation and had risk factors for tick exposure. The organ donor probably served as a conduit of Babesia parasites from the seropositive blood donor to both kidney recipients. Babesiosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of unexplained fever and hemolytic anemia after blood transfusion or organ transplantation.
Karlsson, Maria E; Andersson, Martin O
Babesiosis is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis in large parts of the world. In Sweden, the occurrence and diversity of Babesia species is largely unknown. In order to estimate the exposure to Babesia from infected ticks, we collected questing Ixodes ricinus from several sites across southern Sweden during two consecutive field seasons and investigated the occurrence of Babesia species. We report for the first time the occurrence of the zoonotic species Babesia venatorum in Swedish ticks, with a prevalence of 1%. We also detected B. microti (prevalence 3.2%) and B. divergens (prevalence 0.2%). The incidence of Babesia in questing ticks is substantially lower than that of several other tick-borne diseases in Sweden. Nevertheless, babesiosis should not be neglected as a possible diagnosis following tick bites in humans and animals in Sweden.
Full Text Available The objective of this bibliographic essay, addressed both to veterinary clinicians and researchers, is to bring to mind the disease in terms of etiology, clinical manifestations and therapeutic and prophylactic management, as well as to remind the issues arising from recent researches. Depending on the virulence of the parasite species, body's immune response and therapeutic management approached, the plateau of disease evolution can be quite wide - from a favorable prognosis to a lethal outcome of the animal. The complexity of the pathogenic mechanism in babesiosis is due to soluble parasite antigens (SPA which, according to recent studies, have been obtained in vitro and then used as immunological product in disease prevention. Producing a vaccine against canine babesiosis with parasite antigens of local strains could play an important role to prevent the clinical expression of this disease in Romania.
Goddard, Amelia; Leisewitz, Andrew L; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri
BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia without clinical bleeding is a consistent finding in virulent canine babesiosis. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to investigate the platelet index phenotype in Babesia rossi-infected dogs and the association with disease outcome. We hypothesized that an incre......BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia without clinical bleeding is a consistent finding in virulent canine babesiosis. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to investigate the platelet index phenotype in Babesia rossi-infected dogs and the association with disease outcome. We hypothesized...... that an increased proportion of large, activated platelets would be present. METHODS: Ninety-six infected and 15 control dogs were included. Babesia-infected dogs were further divided into survivors and nonsurvivors. Platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet volume distribution width (PDW), plateletcrit...
Silvano Wendel Neto
Full Text Available Several bacterial and parasite transfusion-transmitted diseases have been described in the medical literature. This review deals with the main bacterial (Syphilis, Lyme disease, Gram positive and Gram negative agents, parasite (Chagas disease, malaria, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis and babesiosis and rickettsial diseases that are carried by blood products. Preventional aspects (e.g. storage, screening tests, use of leukocyte-depleted components, diagnosis, geographical distribution and the incidence of these transfusional hazards are also discussed.
spongiform encephalopathy Sheep and goat diseases Equine diseases • Ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis) • Caprine and ovine brucellosis (excluding B...Vesicular Stomatitis • Bluetongue • Sheep Pox and Goat Pox 9 • Swine Vesicular Disease • Rinderpest • Peste des Petits Ruminants • Contagious Bovine...Cochliomyia hominivorax) • Old World screwworm (Chrysomya bezziana) • Bovine anaplasmosis • Bovine babesiosis • Bovine brucellosis • Bovine genital
Willette, Michelle; Ponder, Julia; Cruz-Martinez, Luis; Arent, Lori; Bueno Padilla, Irene; de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Redig, Patrick
Raptors are susceptible to a broad array of established and emerging bacterial and parasitic diseases, including babesiosis, chlamydiosis, clostridiosis, coccidiosis, cryptosporidiosis, malaria, mycobacteriosis, pasteurellosis, salmonellosis, trichomoniasis, and pododermatitis. Many of these conditions are opportunistic and can be easily managed or averted with proper preventive measures related to captive management, husbandry and diet, and veterinary care. Once infected, treatment must be prompt, appropriate, and judicious. This article examines the significance, diagnosis, management, and prevention of select bacterial and parasitic pathogens of raptors.
Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Bąska, Piotr; Długosz, Ewa
Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by parasites of the genus Babesia. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine that plays a role in the pathogenesis of canine babesiosis. In this study, the authors determined the concentration of serum TNF-α in 11 dogs infected with Babesia canis and calculated Spearman's rank correlations between the concentration of TNF-α and blood pressure, and between TNF-α and indices of renal damage such as: fractional excretion of sodium (FE(Na(+))), urinary creatinine to serum creatinine ratio (UCr/SCr), renal failure index (RFI), urine specific gravity (USG) and urinary protein to urinary creatinine ratio (UPC). The results demonstrated statistically significant strong negative correlations between TNF-α and systolic arterial pressure (r = -0.7246), diastolic arterial pressure (r = -0.6642) and mean arterial pressure (r = -0.7151). Serum TNF-α concentration was also statistically significantly correlated with FE(Na(+)) (r = 0.7056), UCr/SCr (r = -0.8199), USG (r = -0.8075) and duration of the disease (r = 0.6767). The results of this study show there is an increase of serum TNF-α concentration during canine babesiosis, and the increased TNF-α concentration has an influence on the development of hypotension and renal failure in canine babesiosis. This probably results from the fact that TNF-α is involved in the production of nitric oxide and induction of vasodilation and hypotension, which may cause renal ischaemia and hypoxia, and finally acute tubular necrosis and renal failure.
McElwain Terry F; Cochran Matt H; Bent Stephen J; Bowers Edwin J; Hewitt David G; Ortega-Santos Alfonso; Teel Pete D; Duhaime Roberta A; Ugstad Paul O; Messenger Matthew T; Hillman Robert; Almazán Consuelo; Wagner Gale G; Miller Ryan S; Wikel Stephen K
Abstract Background Babesia are emerging health threats to humans and animals in the United States. A collaborative effort of multiple disciplines to attain optimal health for people, animals and our environment, otherwise known as the One Health concept, was taken during a research workshop held in April 2009 to identify gaps in scientific knowledge regarding babesioses. The impetus for this analysis was the increased risk for outbreaks of bovine babesiosis, also known as Texas cattle fever,...
Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Teel, Pete D; Auclair, Allan N; Messenger, Matthew T; Guerrero, Felix D; Schuster, Greta; Miller, Robert J
The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood-feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain arthropod species as vectors of infectious agents is associated with the history of research on bovine babesiosis and R. annulatus. Together, R. microplus and R. annulatus are referred to as cattle fever ticks (CFT). Bovine babesiosis became a regulated foreign animal disease in the United States of America (U.S.) through efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP) established in 1906. The U.S. was declared free of CFT in 1943, with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone in south Texas along the border with Mexico. This achievement contributed greatly to the development and productivity of animal agriculture in the U.S. The permanent quarantine zone buffers CFT incursions from Mexico where both ticks and babesiosis are endemic. Until recently, the elimination of CFT outbreaks relied solely on the use of coumaphos, an organophosphate acaricide, in dipping vats or as a spray to treat livestock, or the vacation of pastures. However, ecological, societal, and economical changes are shifting the paradigm of systematically treating livestock to eradicate CFT. Keeping the U.S. CFT-free is a critical animal health issue affecting the economic stability of livestock and wildlife enterprises. Here, we describe vulnerabilities associated with global change forces challenging the CFTEP. The concept of integrated CFT eradication is discussed in reference to global change.
Background: Babesiosis is an emerging and potentially zoonotic disease caused by tick-borne piroplasmids of the Babesia genus. New genetic variants of piroplasmids with unknown associations to vectors and hosts are recognized. Data on the occurrence of Babesia spp. in ticks and wildlife widen the knowledge on the geographical distribution and circulation of piroplasmids in natural foci. Questing and rodent-attached ticks, rodents, and birds were screened for the presence of Babesia-specific D...
ABSTRACT Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina are tick-borne hemoparasites causing babesiosis in cattle worldwide. This study was aimed at providing information about the occurrence and geographical distribution of B. bovis and B. bigemina species in cattle from Gauteng province, South Africa. A total of 268 blood samples collected from apparently healthy animals in 14 different peri-urban localities were tested using previously established nested PCR assays for the detection of B. bovis and B....
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, and Babesia microti, a causative agent of babesiosis, are increasingly implicated in the growing tick-borne disease burden in the northeastern United States. These pathogens are transmitted via the bite of an infected tick vector, Ixodes scapularis, which is capable of harboring and inoculating a host with multiple pathogens simultaneously. Clinical presentation of the diseases is heterogeneous and ranges from mild flu-like symptoms t...
Human babesiosis was first recognized in Connecticut in 1989, nearly 15 years after Lyme disease, a similarly transmitted spirochetosis, was detected in the state. To determine the seroprevalence for the babesial pathogen and whether it was recently introduced, we used an indirect immunofluorescence assay to test for Babesia microti antibody in 1,285 Connecticut residents. Four groups were studied: I, people seropositive for Lyme disease, tested from 1986 to 1989; II, randomly selected outpat...
containing the pathogen. Other examples include hepatitis C, malaria, syphilis, babesiosis, brucellosis , leptospirosis, arboviral infections...Avenue SECRETARY Des Moines, IA 50319 New Mexico Environment Dept. (515) 281-3447 Occupational Health and Safety Bureau 1190 St. Francis Drive ACTING...Nevada (702) 688-1474 4-9 New Hampshire (603) 271-3170 New Jersey (609) 292-0404 New Mexico (505) 827-2885New York (518) 457-2481 North Carolina (919
We present a case of a 66-year-old woman with decompensated alcoholic liver cirrhosis and poorly controlled non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who was admitted with a 1 day history of altered mental status, high-grade fevers, worsening jaundice and generalised malaise with subsequent development of hypotension requiring intensive care. She was diagnosed with severe babesiosis with high-grade parasitaemia. She was also found to have Lyme disease coinfection. Despite aggressive therapeutic...
Adalberto A. Pérez de León
Full Text Available The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus and R. (B. microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain arthropod species as vectors of infectious agents is associated with the history of research on bovine babesiosis and R. annulatus. Together, R. microplus and R. annulatus are referred to as cattle fever ticks (CFT. Bovine babesiosis became a regulated foreign animal disease in the United States of America (U.S. through efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP established in 1906. The U.S. was declared free of CFT in 1943, with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone in south Texas along the border with Mexico. This achievement contributed greatly to the development and productivity of animal agriculture in the U.S. The permanent quarantine zone buffers CFT incursions from Mexico where both ticks and babesiosis are endemic. Until recently, the elimination of CFT outbreaks relied solely on the use of coumaphos, an organophosphate acaricide, in dipping vats or as a spray to treat livestock, or the vacation of pastures. However, ecological, societal, and economical changes are shifting the paradigm of systematically treating livestock to eradicate CFT. Keeping the U.S. CFT-free is a critical animal health issue affecting the economic stability of livestock and wildlife enterprises. Here, we describe vulnerabilities associated with global change forces challenging the CFTEP. The concept of integrated CFT eradication is discussed in reference to global change.
McElwain Terry F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Babesia are emerging health threats to humans and animals in the United States. A collaborative effort of multiple disciplines to attain optimal health for people, animals and our environment, otherwise known as the One Health concept, was taken during a research workshop held in April 2009 to identify gaps in scientific knowledge regarding babesioses. The impetus for this analysis was the increased risk for outbreaks of bovine babesiosis, also known as Texas cattle fever, associated with the re-infestation of the U.S. by cattle fever ticks. Results The involvement of wildlife in the ecology of cattle fever ticks jeopardizes the ability of state and federal agencies to keep the national herd free of Texas cattle fever. Similarly, there has been a progressive increase in the number of cases of human babesiosis over the past 25 years due to an increase in the white-tailed deer population. Human babesiosis due to cattle-associated Babesia divergens and Babesia divergens-like organisms have begun to appear in residents of the United States. Research needs for human and bovine babesioses were identified and are presented herein. Conclusions The translation of this research is expected to provide veterinary and public health systems with the tools to mitigate the impact of bovine and human babesioses. However, economic, political, and social commitments are urgently required, including increased national funding for animal and human Babesia research, to prevent the re-establishment of cattle fever ticks and the increasing problem of human babesiosis in the United States.
Schulze, Terry L; Jordan, Robert A; Healy, Sean P; Roegner, Vivien E
The etiological agents that cause human babesiosis (Babesia microti) and Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) share a common tick vector (Ixodes scapularis Say) and rodent reservoir (Peromyscus leucopus), but because the geographical distribution of babesiosis is more restricted than Lyme disease, it was not considered a nationally notifiable disease until 2011. Although recent studies have shown dramatic increases in the number of cases of babesiosis and expansion of its range, little is known about infection and coinfection prevalence of these pathogens in the primary tick vector. Of the 478 I. scapularis nymphs collected within six Monmouth County, NJ, municipalities between 2004 and 2006, 4.0 and 10.0% were infected with B. microti and B. burgdorferi, respectively, while 2.9% were coinfected. Analysis of the 610 I. scapularis adults collected during the same period yielded an infection prevalence of 8.2% for B. microti and 45.2% for B. burgdorferi, while 6.2% were coinfected. The potential public health importance of these findings is discussed.
Beelitz, Pamela; Schumacher, Stefan; Marholdt, Fritz; Pfister, Kurt; Silaghi, Cornelia
An accumulation of autochthonous cases of canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis has been registered in a small animal clinic in the Saarland since the beginning of 2006, some cases with fatal outcome. This study aims to contribute to the explanation of strong focal occurrence of infections with B. canis in this region.Therefore, patient owners who had presented their dogs in the years 2006 and 2007 because of babesiosis and who had claimed not having left the Saarland with their dogs at least six months before the outbreak of Babesiosis, were asked for their dog walking habits. Accordingly, a selection often tick collection sites of various landscape structures was made.Tick sampling by flagging the vegetation took place every month from March to December 2008. The collected ticks were identified morphologically. In eight of ten collecting sites a total of 397 adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected from March to December with the highest frequencies during the months of May, October and November. All collected specimens were examined by genus-specific conventional PCR for the presence of Babesia-DNA. In positive samples, the PCR-products were differentiated by sequencing. ten D. reticulatus (2.5%) ticks examined were found positive for DNA of B. canis canis originating from three out of eight collection sites. Consequently, an endemic distribution of D. reticulatus was confirmed and a natural
Luis M. González
Full Text Available Human babesiosis is a zoonosis primarily transmitted through Ixodes ticks and alternatively by routes such as blood transfusions from asymptomatic donors. We report the first case of human babesiosis caused by Babesia divergens in a patient with HIV. This study also focuses on elucidating the possible transmission route of infection in this patient, who received numerous blood transfusions but showed patent symptoms only after splenectomy. A battery of detection tools along with a novel Western-Blot Assay and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay using the major surface protein of B. divergens (Bd37 as a target were used to evaluate the presence of B. divergens or antibodies against the parasite in samples from the patient and the blood donors involved in this case. A retrospective study of the humoral status against the parasite revealed B. divergens IgG antibodies in one of the implicated donors, but also showed that the patient had been already exposed to the parasite before any transfusion. Thus, this analysis of natural and transfusion transmission routes suggests a pre-existing subclinical babesiosis in the patient.
Ana Paula Silva
Full Text Available Bovine babesiosis is an important disease of cattle where Rhipicephalus microplus acts as a vector for the two causal organisms Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina. A total of 22 calves were randomly monitored during three years by semi-nested PCR assay and ELISA test to determine prevalence of B. bovis and B. bigemina. The overall prevalence of B. bovis and B. bigemina was 30% and 35% by nested PCR (nPCR, and 70% and 75% by ELISA, respectively. Statistical analysis of the characteristics of animals showed that age and tick infestations (p<0.05 might play an important role in the spread of babesiosis as animal less than 6 months old. A high correlation (Kappa index of 0.70 for B. bovis and 0.65 for B. bigemina, respectively between serological and molecular tests suggests that the combination of the utilized techniques in the present study is suitable for babesiosis diagnosis in an endemic unstable area.
Moritz, Erin D; Winton, Colleen S; Tonnetti, Laura; Townsend, Rebecca L; Berardi, Victor P; Hewins, Mary-Ellen; Weeks, Karen E; Dodd, Roger Y; Stramer, Susan L
Background Babesia microti, a tickborne intraerythrocytic parasite that can be transmitted by means of blood transfusion, is responsible for the majority of cases of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in the United States. However, no licensed test exists for screening for B. microti in donated blood. We assessed data from a large-scale, investigational product-release screening and donor follow-up program. Methods From June 2012 through September 2014, we performed arrayed fluorescence immunoassays (AFIAs) for B. microti antibodies and real-time polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assays for B. microti DNA on blood-donation samples obtained in Connecticut, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. We determined parasite loads with the use of quantitative PCR testing and assessed infectivity by means of the inoculation of hamsters and the subsequent examination for parasitemia. Donors with test-reactive samples were followed. Using data on cases of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis, we compared the proportions of screened versus unscreened donations that were infectious. Results Of 89,153 blood-donation samples tested, 335 (0.38%) were confirmed to be positive, of which 67 (20%) were PCR-positive; 9 samples were antibody-negative (i.e., 1 antibody-negative sample per 9906 screened samples), representing 13% of all PCR-positive samples. PCR-positive samples were identified all through the year; antibody-negative infections occurred from June through September. Approximately one third of the red-cell samples from PCR-positive or high-titer AFIA-positive donations infected hamsters. Follow-up showed DNA clearance in 86% of the donors but antibody seroreversion in 8% after 1 year. In Connecticut and Massachusetts, no reported cases of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis were associated with screened donations (i.e., 0 cases per 75,331 screened donations), as compared with 14 cases per 253,031 unscreened donations (i.e., 1 case per 18,074 unscreened donations) (odds ratio, 8
Full Text Available The babesias are one of the most ubiquitous and widespread blood parasites in the worldbased on numbers and distribution of species in animals, second only to the trypanosomes . They generally have two classes of hosts, an invertebrate and a vertebrate host. The maintenance of Babesia spp. Is dependent on both hosts; the specific tick vector must feed on a vertebrate reservoir that is competante in maintaining the Babesia organisms in an infectious state. Therefore, B. microti presents itself as an emerging zoonosis only in areas where there is a primary competent reservoir. The first documented case of babesiosis in humans was in 1957 . A splenectomized farmer in Yugoslavia was diagnosed with a B. bovis infection. But now most cases of babesial infections in humans have been asquired in temperate regions of the USA and Europe. That a tick-transmitted protozoan parasite, one of the causative agents of piroplasmosis (babesiosis. The disease is characterized by sings of malaise, inappetence, fever, hemolytic anemia and hemoglobinuria. The parasite has a wide distribution and occurs on all continents, except Australia. The life cycle of the parasite in animals organism (equine hosts, traveling dogs, cats comprises two intracellular stages: sporozoites innoculated by infected ticks develop into schizonts within lymphocytes where they maltiply and subsequently transform into microzoites, which then invide erythrocytes. Purpose of the experiment’s to study the influence of the babesious infection to nonliner female mice stomach structure. Materials and methods. The examinational material of this investigations are the female nonliner controle intact miсe of the 4-6-week-old (n=15 and such paterns, which were with the babesious infection (n=45. For all of examinational animals groups were used macroscopic and hystological methods. Macroscopic analysis was included organoleptic, biomechanical, microtopographical methods of investigations (external
Ewa J Mierzejewska
Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. Tick-borne infections constitute an increasing health problem in dogs and may lead to death, especially in young or elderly individuals. Canine babesiosis constitutes a serious health problem in dogs worldwide. The aim of the study was to verify the probability of vertical transmission of [i]Babesia canis[/i] between the bitch and the pups. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. In Autumn 2011, cases of babesiosis were diagnosed in a litter of 6-week-old puppies of a Central Asian Shepherd dog. Immediately following the first case of infection, blood samples were collected from all the pups in the litter (n=10 and from the female. Detection of Babesia infection was performed by molecular and microscopical techniques. [b]Results.[/b] The presence of[i] B. canis [/i]DNA was detected using PCR in three pups, presenting at the time or 24–48 hours later with babesiosis symptoms, and in their asymptomatic mother. The isolates derived from the pups and the female – 520 bp 18S rRNA gene fragment – were compared and analyzed. All isolates from the pups and their mother were identical and showed 100% homology with [i]B. canis[/i] group B (EU622793, supporting the same source of infection. Additionally, the USG of the peritoneal cavity was performed in the female, presenting evidence for splenomegaly. [b]Conclusions.[/b] On the basis of (1 the same timing of three pup cases; (2 the identical [i]B. canis[/i] sequences derived from all positive dogs; (3 evident splenomegaly in the asymptomatic female, this provides the first evidence of the vertical transmission of this piroplasm in dogs.
Reginaldo G Bastos
Full Text Available Members of the CCp protein family have been previously described to be expressed on gametocytes of apicomplexan Plasmodium parasites. Knocking out Plasmodium CCp genes blocks the development of the parasite in the mosquito vector, making the CCp proteins potential targets for the development of a transmission-blocking vaccine. Apicomplexans Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina are the causative agents of bovine babesiosis, and apicomplexan Theileria equi causes equine piroplasmosis. Bovine babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis are the most economically important parasite diseases that affect worldwide cattle and equine industries, respectively. The recent sequencing of the B. bovis and T. equi genomes has provided the opportunity to identify novel genes involved in parasite biology. Here we characterize three members of the CCp family, named CCp1, CCp2 and CCp3, in B. bigemina, B. bovis and T. equi. Using B. bigemina as an in vitro model, expression of all three CCp genes and proteins was demonstrated in temperature-induced sexual stages. Transcripts for all three CCp genes were found in vivo in blood stages of T. equi, and transcripts for CCp3 were detected in vivo in blood stages of B. bovis. However, no protein expression was detected in T. equi blood stages or B. bovis blood stages or B. bovis tick stages. Collectively, the data demonstrated a differential pattern of expression of three orthologous genes of the multidomain adhesion CCp family by B. bigemina, B. bovis and T. equi. The novel CCp members represent potential targets for innovative approaches to control bovine babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis.
Full Text Available Vector borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowdays, in intercontinetal countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and popultion of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveilance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, erlichiosis, leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fudamental role at primeraly prevention and then treatment of vector borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases.During a four year period, from 2009-2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analysed for vector borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, erlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis in routine laboratory work. The analysis were done by serological tests – ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis and blood smear for babesiosis, erlichiosis and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on avarege more then half of the samples
Cholewiński, Marcin; Derda, Monika; Hadaś, Edward
Despite the considerable progress of medicine, parasitic diseases still pose a great threat to human health and life. Among parasitic diseases, those transmitted by vectors, mainly arthropods, play a particular role. These diseases occur most frequently in the poorest countries and affect a vast part of the human population. They include malaria, babesiosis, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis and filariasis. This study presents those vector-transmitted diseases that are responsible for the greatest incidence and mortality of people on a global scale. Attention is focused primarily on diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, flies, Hemiptera and ticks.
Tiškina, Valentina; Capligina, Valentina; Must, Külli; Berzina, Inese; Ranka, Renate; Jokelainen, Pikka
A previously splenectomized dog from Estonia was presented with a sudden lack of appetite and discoloration of the urine. Despite supportive therapy, its condition deteriorated dramatically during 1 day. Severe thrombocytopenia and high numbers of protozoan hemoparasites were evident in blood smears, and the hematocrit dropped from 46 to 33 %. The dog was euthanized before specific antibabesial treatment was initiated. Blood samples from the dog and from two other dogs in the same household tested positive for Babesia using molecular methods, and the sequences of partial 18S rRNA gene confirmed the causative species as Babesia canis canis. The risk of severe, rapidly progressing babesiosis in splenectomized dogs merits awareness.
Sarma, Kalyan; Mondal, D B; Saravanan, M
Tick-borne infectious diseases constitute an emerging problem in Veterinary Medicine. The study was undertaken to find out the ultrasonographic changes of liver and spleen in 101 positive cases of tick borne intracellular haemoparasitic diseases in dogs. Abdominal survey of ultrasonography revealed hypo echogenicity of liver, gall bladder distension, splenomegaly, hepato-splenomegaly and ascites in various tick born intracellular diseases viz. ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, anaplasmosis, hepatozoonosis and in mixed infection. Correlating these USG finding with other laboratory examination will be very much useful to spot the diseases condition and organ involvement in tick born intracellular diseases of dog.
Park, HyunJoo; Kim, Kyoohyun; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Youngchan; Lee, SangEun; Park, YongKeun
Babesia microti causes emergency human babesiosis. However, little is known about the alterations in B. microti invaded red blood cells (Bm-RBCs) at the individual cell level. Through quantitative phase imaging techniques based on laser interferometry, we present the simultaneous measurements of structural, chemical, and mechanical modifications in individual mouse Bm-RBCs. 3-D refractive index maps of individual RBCs and in situ parasite vacuoles are imaged, from which total contents and concentration of dry mass are also precisely quantified. In addition, we examine the dynamic membrane fluctuation of Bm-RBCs, which provide information on cell membrane deformability.
Miller, Clare E.; Bain, Barbara J.
The laboratory haematologist has a role in the diagnosis of parasitic infections. Peripheral blood examination is critical in the diagnosis of malaria, babesiosis, filariasis and trypanosomiasis. Bone marrow examination is important in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis and occasionally leads to the diagnosis of other parasitic infections. The detection of eosinophilia or iron deficiency anaemia can alert the laboratory haematologist or physician to the possibility of parasitic infection. In addition to morphological skills, an adequate clinical history is important for speedy and accurate diagnosis, particularly in non-endemic areas. PMID:26075046
Full Text Available The laboratory haematologist has a role in the diagnosis of parasitic infections. Peripheral blood examination is critical in the diagnosis of malaria, babesiosis, filariasis and trypanosomiasis. Bone marrow examination is important in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis and occasionally leads to the diagnosis of other parasitic infections. The detection of eosinophilia or iron deficiency anaemia can alert the laboratory haematologist or physician to the possibility of parasitic infection. In addition to morphological skills, an adequate clinical history is important for speedy and accurate diagnosis, particularly in non-endemic areas.
Zygner, W; Górski, P; Wedrychowicz, H
Dermacentor reticulatus tick is a vector and final host of Babesia canis canis, protozoan parasite of the dog. In Poland and other European countries, endemic regions for canine babesiosis caused by B. canis canis are the same as endemic regions for D. reticulatus. In many of these regions, canine babesiosis is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in dogs. In Europe, increasing range of geographical distribution of D. reticulatus is observed. A consequence of this fact may be increasing range of canine babesiosis. D. reticulatus is one of the most common ticks occurring in Poland, however, it occurs mainly in the north-eastern and eastern part of the country, and there are many areas in which this species has not been reported yet. In this study, D. reticulatus ticks were collected from March 2007 to November 2008 in central and eastern Mazowsze region, and in some localities in Białystok and Lublin regions. Twenty four new sites for D. reticulatus, mainly in central and eastern regions of Mazowsze Province have been found. 18 localities are placed on banks of the fishing ponds or in river valleys and 6 are forests borders or barren lands and meadows, not situated near rivers or other water reservoirs. All tick-rich sites are localized in river valleys or on pond banks. However, statistical analysis showed that there were no differences in the density of ticks between groups of areas. These results show that the occurrence of D. reticulatus in newly detected areas has became endemic. Probably woodless, unregulated river valleys are important migration tracts for this species of tick and enable them to penetrate new territories. It seems likely that geographical range of D. reticulatus is widening from east to west of Poland what can induce an increase in the number of canine babesiosis cases in areas non-endemic for B. canis canis and its vector. Climate change may be also partially responsible for earlier beginning of tick's seasonal activity as well as for
Valerie Byrnes; Sanjiv Chopra; Margaret J Koziel
An inefficient cellular immune response likely leads to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Resolution of chronic HCV infection in the absence of treatment is a rare occurrence. We report the case of a 39-year old white male with a 17-year history of chronic HCV infection, who eradicated HCV following a serious illness due to co-infection with Babesia (babesiosis), Borriela Borgdorferi (Lyme disease) and Ehrlichia (human granulocytic ehrlichiosis). We hypothesize that the cellular immune response mounted by this patient in response to his infection with all three agents but in particular Babesia was sufficient to eradicate HCV.
Sloan, Steven R; Andrzejewski, Chester; Aqui, Nicole A; Kiss, Joseph E; Krause, Peter J; Park, Yara A
Apheresis can remove pathogens and mediators that contribute to pathogenic inflammatory responses in diseases not generally considered to be "Hematologic." Erythrocytapheresis can remove intracellular pathogens such as Babesiosis. Plasmapheresis can remove mediators of the inflammatory response in conditions such as sepsis, chronic autoimmune urticaria and malignant pertussis. Leukapheresis can remove potentially harmful leukocytes in Crohn's Disease and malignant pertussis. While apheresis can remove all of these substances, the clinical efficacy and pathophysiologic changes that occur during apheresis in these conditions are largely unknown. Hence, the clinical utility of apheresis in these conditions is largely unknown and research in these areas has the potential to benefit many patients with a variety of diseases.
Katz, F F
In marking the 100th anniversary of the landmark publication in 1893 by Theobald Smith and Frederick L. Kilborne on cattle babesiosis and arthropod transmission, this article takes note of other contributions of Theobald Smith to the knowledge of a variety of parasitic organisms. Notable are his studies on the protozoan agent of avian enterohepatitis. The results of Smith's work in comparative pathology, to which he devoted his professional life, have had broad applications with economic and health benefits for domestic animals and humans.
Birkenheuer, Adam J.; Levy, Michael G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.
Canine babesiosis has recently been recognized as an emerging infectious disease of dogs in North America. We sought to develop a seminested PCR to detect and differentiate Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype), B. canis subsp. vogeli, B. canis subsp. canis, and B. canis subsp. rossi DNA in canine blood samples. An outer primer pair was designed to amplify an ∼340-bp fragment of the 18S rRNA genes from B. gibsoni (Asian genotype), B. canis subsp. vogeli, B. canis subsp. rossi, and B. canis subsp. ...
Mousam Das; Sabyasachi Konar
Objective: To observe other hemoprotozoan diseases with canine ehrlichiosis and to evaluate the clinical and hematological aspects of dogs naturally infected with ehrlichiosis with other hemoprotozoan diseases.Methods:Blood was collected for hematological value and Giemsa stained blood smear was made for diagnosis of Ehrlichia sp. and other hemoprotozoan parasites from naturally infected dogs. Case history was taken from the owner and clinical signs and symptoms were noted.Results:A total of 47 cases of ehrlichiosis in dogs were reported with babesiosis (8.51%) and hepatozoonosis (6.38%) hemoprotozoan diseases. Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, Brucella canis,Babesia gibsoni and Hepatozoon canis were observed under oil immersion lense of microscope in Giemsa stained peripheral blood smears. Marked anaemia and neutrophilic leukocytosis were observed.Conclusions:The results of this study stated that clinical and haematological changes occurred in canine ehrlichiosis with babesiosis and hepatozoonosis due to parasitemia. In mixed infection, the disease more severe, and also it depended on immunity of animals. Babesia gibsoni andHepatozoon canis with Ehrlichia sp. were first reported from West Bengal state of India by this study.
Arthur M. Spickett
Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of disease and damage agents, impact directly and indirectly on the economy of the livestock industry in southern Africa. This study surveyed the occurrence and distribution of ticks infesting livestock across the North West province, South Africa. During three phases in consecutive years, officers of the provincial Veterinary Department collected specimens monthly from livestock hosts at specified sites across the province. Data analysis constituted the fourth phase of the study. A total of 1090 collections from 265 sites yielded 42 566 tick specimens, comprising 22 different tick species (18 ixodids, 4 argasids. The specimens represent all of the major tick vectors of disease that occur in South Africa. The major tick-borne diseases (i.e. heartwater, both African and Asiatic bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis were found to be prevalent mainly in the north-eastern region of the province, which also displayed the highest tick species diversity. The central region appears transitory to some of the major vectors. Although some tick species were contained within specific regions, others were widespread across the province. Associated serology data show that most herds sampled in areas endemic for babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the north-eastern region are endemically unstable and at risk to these tick-borne diseases should vector control measures become ineffective.
Røed Knut H
Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of bovine babesiosis, caused by Babesia divergens (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida has decreased markedly since the 1930 s, but may re-emerge as a consequence of climate change and changes in legislation and pasturing practices. This is a potentially serious disease, with both economical and animal welfare consequences. Therefore, there is a need to survey the distribution of B. divergens. Methods We tested sera from 306 healthy pastured cows from 24 farms along the southern Norwegian coast by using an indirect immunofluorescence IgG antibody test (IFAT. Fractions of seropositive cows were compared by calculating 95% CI. Results The results of this test showed that 27% of the sera were positive for B. divergens antibodies. The fraction of antibody-positive sera that we detected showed a two-humped distribution, with a high fraction of positives being found in municipalities in the western and eastern parts of the study area, while the municipalities between these areas had few or no positive serum samples. Conclusions Neither the farmers' observations nor the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System give an adequate picture of the distribution of bovine babesiosis. Serological testing of cows by using IFAT is a convenient way of screening for the presence of B. divergens in an area.
Full Text Available Human infection by [i]Babesia microti[/i] has been recognized as an emerging zoonosis with important public health implications worldwide. In Europe the reported cases of human babesiosis have been attributed mostly to [i]B. divergens[/i] infection, with only sporadic cases of the disease caused by [i]B. microti [/i]or [i]B. venatorum[/i]. This study, based on molecular methods (PCR, R-T PCR, DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, reveals for the first time in Poland, asymptomatic infection with . microti in immunocompetent healthy individuals working in forest ecosystems. Of the 58 professional foresters examined, two (3.4% were identified as [i]B. microti[/i]-positive by specific PCR. The results of this study also provide strong evidence that in eastern Poland, where tick-borne diseases (TBDs are endemic, there is a potential risk of acquiring human babesiosis due to zoonotic [i]B. microti [/i]parasites commonly found in rodents and[i] I. ricinus[/i] ticks. The potential public health importance of this finding is discussed.
Full Text Available Human babesiosis is caused by one of several babesial species transmitted by ixodid ticks that have distinct geographical distributions based on the presence of competent animal hosts. The pathology of babesiosis, like malaria, is a consequence of the parasitaemia which develops through the cyclical replication of Babesia parasites in a patient's red blood cells, though symptoms typically are nonspecific. We have identified the gene encoding Rhoptry-Associated Protein -1 (RAP-1 from a human isolate of B. divergens, Rouen1987 and characterized its protein product at the molecular and cellular level. Consistent with other Babesia RAP-1 homologues, BdRAP-1 is expressed as a 46 kDa protein in the parasite rhoptries, suggesting a possible role in red cell invasion. Native BdRAP-1 binds to an unidentified red cell receptor(s that appears to be non-sialylated and non-proteinacious in nature, but we do not find significant reduction in growth with anti-rRAP1 antibodies in vitro, highlighting the possibility the B. divergens is able to use alternative pathways for invasion, or there is an alternative, complementary, role for BdRAP-1 during the invasion process. As it is the parasite's ability to recognize and then invade host cells which is central to clinical disease, characterising and understanding the role of Babesia-derived proteins involved in these steps are of great interest for the development of an effective prophylaxis.
El-Ashker, Maged; Hotzel, Helmut; Gwida, Mayada; El-Beskawy, Mohamed; Silaghi, Cornelia; Tomaso, Herbert
In this preliminary study, a novel DNA microarray system was tested for the diagnosis of bovine piroplasmosis and anaplasmosis in comparison with microscopy and PCR assay results. In the Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt, 164 cattle were investigated for the presence of piroplasms and Anaplasma species. All investigated cattle were clinically examined. Blood samples were screened for the presence of blood parasites using microscopy and PCR assays. Seventy-one animals were acutely ill, whereas 93 were apparently healthy. In acutely ill cattle, Babesia/Theileria species (n=11) and Anaplasma marginale (n=10) were detected. Mixed infections with Babesia/Theileria spp. and A. marginale were present in two further cases. A. marginale infections were also detected in apparently healthy subjects (n=23). The results of PCR assays were confirmed by DNA sequencing. All samples that were positive by PCR for Babesia/Theileria spp. gave also positive results in the microarray analysis. The microarray chips identified Babesia bovis (n=12) and Babesia bigemina (n=2). Cattle with babesiosis were likely to have hemoglobinuria and nervous signs when compared to those with anaplasmosis that frequently had bloody feces. We conclude that clinical examination in combination with microscopy are still very useful in diagnosing acute cases of babesiosis and anaplasmosis, but a combination of molecular biological diagnostic assays will detect even asymptomatic carriers. In perspective, parallel detection of Babesia/Theileria spp. and A. marginale infections using a single microarray system will be a valuable improvement.
Full Text Available Babesia ovis and Theileria ovis are among the important and main etiological agents causing ovine babesiosis and ovine theileriosis, causing severe economic losses among sheep and goats. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and molecular diagnosis of B. ovis and T. ovis in Lohi sheep at Livestock Experiment Station Bahadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan.The prevalence of B. ovis and T. ovis was investigated in 200 Lohi sheep of mixed age and sex by PCR during 2011. The assay was employed using primers Bbo-F & Bbo-R, specific for a 549-bp fragment in B. ovis genomic DNA and primers TSsr 170F & TSsr 670R, specific for a 520-bp fragment in T. ovis genomic DNA. The animals were also screened for both haemoparasites through stained thin blood smears.Thirty two (16%, 48 (24% and 26 (13% were the number of animals found positive for B. ovis, T. ovis and for mixed infection with both parasites, respectively, through microscopy. Sixty eight (34%, 73 (37% and 42 (21% were the number of animals found positive for B. ovis, T. ovis and for mixed infection with both parasites, respectively, through PCR test.The results indicate the high sensitivity of PCR for surveying babesiosis and theileriosis and there is noteworthy prevalence of these diseases in sheep at an experimental station where environmental conditions are relatively controlled as compared to field conditions.
Hunfeld, K P; Brade, V
The three host-tick Ixodes (I.) ricinus is regarded as an important vector of tick-borne microorganisms pathogenic for humans in central Europe and is primarily known as the main vector of Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi and the virus causing tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), the most clinically relevant tick transmitted pathogens for humans in European countries. Furthermore, it is now well established that I. ricinus also transmits Ehrlichia (E.) phagocytophila, Babesia (Ba.) divergens, and Ba. microti, all agents of zoonotic infections in dear, sheep, cattle, dogs, and horses. In addition to their known zoonotic potential, recent molecular-epidemiological and seroepidemiological surveys as well as increasingly reported clinical cases of infections caused by these tick-borne organisms other than B. burgdorferi (TOBB) also strongly suggest a possible relevance of Babesia, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia for humans at risk in Europe. However, there are few medical microbiological investigations and epidemiological data on the distribution and relevance of Babesia for humans in our part of the northern hemisphere. There is also very little diagnostic and clinical knowledge on human babesiosis in many regions of Europe. Furthermore, sophisticated diagnostic tools designed for the reliable detection of the underlying pathogens, are not yet generally available to the microbiological laboratory. This review aims to provide basic information on human babesiosis and the most relevant causative pathogens of the disease in Europe and to draw attention to this parasitic infection as a possibly emerging and probably under-diagnosed disease in this part of the northern hemisphere.
孙嘉慧; 韩建平; 冯正; 胡薇
Human babesiosis,a malaria-like zoonosis transmitted by the tick,is mainly distributed in Europe,USA and some Asian countries.There are various kinds of diagnostic methods for babesiosis caused by Babesia microti,but many of them are still in the preliminary stage.This article reviewes the main diagnostic techniques and the existing problems.%田鼠巴贝虫病是一种与疟疾相似的人兽共患血液寄生虫病,主要分布于美国、欧洲和亚洲等国家和地区.田鼠巴贝虫病的诊断方法种类繁多,但目前大多仍处于初期探索阶段.本文对现有的人感染田鼠巴贝虫病的主要诊断方法和存在的问题作一简要综述.
Pérez, Bianca; Antunes, Sandra; Gonçalves, Lídia M; Domingos, Ana; Gomes, José R B; Gomes, Paula; Teixeira, Cátia
Babesia bigemina is a protozoan parasite that causes babesiosis, a disease with a world-wide distribution in mammals, principally affecting cattle and man. The unveiling of the genome of B. bigemina is a project in active progress that has already revealed a number of new targets with potential interest for the design of anti-babesiosis drugs. In this context, babesipain-1 has been identified as a proteolytically active enzyme whose three-dimensional structure has not been resolved yet, but which is known to be inhibited by cysteine proteases inhibitors such as E64, ALLN, leupeptin, and vinyl sulfones. In this work, we introduce (1) a homology model of babesipain-1; (2) a comparison between babesipain-1 and falcipain-2, a cysteine protease of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum; (3) in vitro data for babesipain-1 inhibition by HEDICINs and HECINs, previously reported as modest inhibitors of falcipain-2; and (4) the docked binding conformations of HEDICINs and HECINs in the model of babesipain-1. HEDICINs presented similar preferred binding conformations for both babesipain-1 and falcipain-2. However, in vitro bioassay shows that HEDICINs and HECINs are better inhibitors of babesipain-1 than of falcipain-2, which could be explained by observed differences between the active pockets of these proteins in silico. Results presented herein provide a valuable contribution to future computer-aided molecular design of new babesipain-1 inhibitors.
Gohil, Sejal; Kats, Lev M; Seemann, Torsten; Fernandez, Kate M; Siddiqui, Ghizal; Cooke, Brian M
Babesia bovis is a pathogen of considerable economic significance to the livestock industry worldwide but the precise mechanisms by which this parasite causes disease in susceptible cattle remain poorly understood. It is clear, however, that alterations to the structure and function of red blood cells in which the parasites reside and replicate play an important role in pathogenesis and that these are secondary to the export of numerous, currently unknown and uncharacterised parasite-encoded proteins. Using a rational bioinformatic approach, we have identified a set of 362 proteins (117 of which are hypothetical) that we predict encompasses the B. bovis exportome. These exported proteins are likely to be trafficked to various cellular locations, with a subset destined for the red blood cell cytosol or the red blood cell cytoskeleton. These proteins are likely to play important roles in mediating the pathogenesis of babesiosis. We have selected three novel proteins and confirmed their predicted export and localisation within the host red blood cell by immunofluorescence using specific antibodies raised against these proteins. Complete characterisation of these novel exported parasite proteins will help elucidate their function within the host red blood cell and assist in identification of new therapeutic targets for babesiosis.
Kristen L. Knapp
Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, and Babesia microti, a causative agent of babesiosis, are increasingly implicated in the growing tick-borne disease burden in the northeastern United States. These pathogens are transmitted via the bite of an infected tick vector, Ixodes scapularis, which is capable of harboring and inoculating a host with multiple pathogens simultaneously. Clinical presentation of the diseases is heterogeneous and ranges from mild flu-like symptoms to near-fatal cardiac arrhythmias. While the reason for the variability is not known, the possibility exists that concomitant infection with both B. burgdorferi and B. microti may synergistically increase disease severity. In an effort to clarify the current state of understanding regarding coinfection with B. burgdorferi and B. microti, in this review, we discuss the geographical distribution and pathogenesis of Lyme disease and babesiosis in the United States, the immunological response of humans to B. burgdorferi or B. microti infection, the existing knowledge regarding coinfection disease pathology, and critical factors that have led to ambiguity in the literature regarding coinfection, in order to eliminate confusion in future experimental design and investigation.
Marlene I. Vargas
Full Text Available Ten male, 12-month-old Jersey with intact spleens, serologically and parasitologically free from Babesia were housed individually in an arthropod-free isolation system from birth and throughout entire experiment. The animals were randomly divided into two groups. Five animals (group A were intravenously inoculated with 6.6 X10(7 red blood cells parasitized with pathogenic sample of Babesia bovis (passage 7 BboUFV-1, for the subsequent "ex vivo" determination of the expression of adhesion molecules. Five non-inoculated animals (group B were used as the negative control. The expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM, PECAM-1 E-selectin and thrombospondin (TSP was measured in bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVECs. The endothelial cells stimulated with a pool of plasma from animals infected with the BboUFV-1 7th passage sample had a much more intense immunostaining of ICAM-1, VCAM, PECAM-1 E-selectin and TSP, compared to the cells which did not received the stimulus. The results suggest that proinflammatory cytokines released in the acute phase of babesiosis may be involved in the expression of adhesion molecules thereby implicating them in the pathophysiology of babesiosis caused by B. bovis.
Schiffman, E K; McLaughlin, C; Ray, J A E; Kemperman, M M; Hinckley, A F; Friedlander, H G; Neitzel, D F
Lyme disease (LD), anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other tick-borne diseases (TBDs) attributed to Ixodes ticks are thought to be widely underreported in the United States. To identify TBD cases diagnosed in 2009, but not reported to the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH), diagnostic and procedural billing codes suggestive of tick-borne diseases were used to select medical charts for retrospective review in medical facilities serving residents of a highly endemic county in Minnesota. Of 444 illness events, 352 (79%) were not reported. Of these, 102 (29%) met confirmed or probable surveillance case criteria, including 91 (26%) confirmed LD cases with physician-diagnosed erythema migrans (EM). For each confirmed and probable LD, probable anaplasmosis and confirmed babesiosis case reported to MDH in 2009, 2.8, 1.3, 1.2 and 1.0 cases were likely diagnosed, respectively. These revised estimates provide a more accurate assessment and better understanding of the burden of these diseases in a highly endemic county.
Samreen Zulfiqar; Ali Saeed; Furhan Iqbal; Sadia Shahnawaz; Muhammad Ali; Arif Mahmood Bhutta; Shahid Iqbal; Sikandar Hayat; Shazia Qadir; Muhammad Latif; Nazia Kiran
Objective:To determine the presence of Babesia bovis (B. bovis) in large ruminants in southern Punjab and its effect on hematological and serum biochemical profile of host animals. Methods:Blood samples were collected from 144 large ruminants, including 105 cattle and 39 buffaloes, from six districts in southern Punjab including Multan, Layyah, Muzaffar Garh, Bhakar, Bahawalnagar and Vehari. Data on the characteristics of animals and herds were collected through questionnaires. Different blood (hemoglobin, glucose) and serum (ALT, AST, LDH, cholesterol) parameters of calves and cattle were measured and compared between parasite positive and negative samples to demonstrate the effect of B. bovis on the blood and serological profile of infected animals. Results:27 out of 144 animals, from 5 out of 6 sampling districts, produced the 541-bp fragment specific for B. bovis. Age of animals (P=0.02), presence of ticks on animals (P=0.04) and presence of ticks on dogs associated with herds (P=0.5) were among the major risk factors involved in the spread of bovine babesiosis in the study area. ALT concentrations were the only serum biochemical values that significantly varied between parasite positive and negative cattle. Conclusions:This study has reported for the first time the presence of B. bovis in large ruminant and the results can lead to the prevention of babesiosis in the region to increase the livestock output.
Yamane, I; Thomford, J W; Gardner, I A; Dubey, J P; Levy, M; Conrad, P A
We determined the extent of the serologic cross-reactivity in the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test for Babesia gibsoni, and the optimal cut-off titer for seropositivity in the test. The lowest titer to B gibsoni detected in a dog with naturally acquired clinical babesiosis was 1,280, and 7 of 12 dogs had titer between 10,240 and 20,480. Two experimentally infected normosplenic dogs developed high titer (40,960 to 81,920) to B gibsoni, and the same sera reacted in IFA tests for B canis (titer Neospora caninum (titer canis and T gondii had titer < or = 160 to B gibsoni. Dogs that were experimentally infected with N caninum had titer (80 to 10,240) to N caninum, but failed to have serologic reactivity to B gibsoni. Serologic titer of healthy dogs from Australia, a country where B gibsoni is not known to exist, was < or = 160 to B gibsoni. On the basis of these findings, a cut-off titer of 320 was considered to be appropriate for serodiagnosis of B gibsoni in dogs with clinical signs of babesiosis. A more conservative titer of 1,280 was established as the cut-off titer for seroepidemiologic studies based on relative costs and benefits of false-positive results and failure to isolate B gibsoni parasites after splenectomy and immunosuppression from a clinically normal dog with B gibsoni titer of 640.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Full Text Available Cattle are the major source of food security and income for pastoral farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. However, infectious and parasitic diseases remain a major constraint to improved cattle productivity in the region. The use of animal health economics to support decision-making on cost-effective disease control options is increasingly becoming important in the developing world. Trypano-tolerant indigenous Orma / zebu cattle in a trypanosomosis-endemic area of Kenya were evaluated for economic performance using gross-margin analysis and partial-farm budgeting. Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu cross-bred cattle were exposed to similar husbandry practices and monitored for growth rate, incidence of common infections (trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis and the cost of treatment assessed. Interview questionnaires were also used to assess the preference rating of the 2 breeds. Results indicated that incidence of infection was trypanosomosis 3 %, anaplasmosis 58 %, babesiosis 11 %, East Coast Fever 22 % and helminthosis 28 %, with no significant difference between breeds. The Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu breeds had comparable economic benefits, hence a pastoralist in Magadi division is likely to get similar returns from both breeds. This study therefore recommends adoption of not only the Sahiwal / zebu but also the Orma / zebu breed for cattle improvement in trypanosomosis endemic areas and conservation of indigenous genetic resources.
田鼠巴贝虫是引起人兽共患巴贝虫病的主要病原体之一.在全球散发的人巴贝虫病例报道中时常诊断出该病原体的存在.因此,由该病原体引起的人巴贝虫病逐渐引起了人们的重视,促进了对田鼠巴贝虫病的诊断研究.本文就目前国内外关于田鼠巴贝虫病的病原、分子生物学和免疫学诊断技术的最新进展做一综述.%Babesia microti,which is one of the mainly causative agents o[zoonotic babesiosis,has constantly been diagnosed in the sporadic case reports around the world.Human babesiosis,due to this pathogen,is gaining increased attention that facilitates the research in the detection of Babesia microti infection.This review will presents the current advances in detecting techniques for Babesia microti infection,including etiological techniques,molecular biological techniques and immunological techniques.
Cantu-C, Antonio; Ortega-S, J Alfonso; García-Vázquez, Zeferino; Mosqueda, Juan; Henke, Scott E; George, John E
Species of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) ticks are the vectors of babesiosis (cattle fever tick), which are distributed worldwide. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are important secondary hosts for the cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (B.) annulatus and Rhipicephalus (B.) microplus. White-tailed deer are capable of sustaining Boophilus spp. tick populations in the presence or absence of cattle. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina and the prevalence of antibodies to them and identify possible risk factors for bovine babesiosis in white-tailed deer in 3 northeastern states of México. Whole blood and serum samples (n = 457) were collected from white-tailed deer in the states of Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas during the spring of 2004. Samples were tested for B. bovis and B. bigemina by nested polymerase chain reaction (n-PCR) (the primers for B. bovis identified the gene Rap-1 and B. bigemina were specific primers) and by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). A questionnaire was given to each ranch to obtain information about management practices. Logistic regression methods were used to test the association between management factors and the dependent variable of positive n-PCR or IFAT. Nineteen (4.2%) samples were positive to B. bigemina and 6 (1.7%) were positive to B. bovis by n-PCR. Serological testing showed 59.9% (n = 274) of deer sampled were positive to B. bovis and 5.4% (n = 25) were positive to B. bigemina antibodies. The logistic model varied with different dependent variables. With positive n-PCR and B. bigemina as the dependent variable, 3 factors were associated: habitat (presence of brush and exotic grasses; odds ratio (OR), 3.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3-8.5), grazing system (continuous grazing OR 4.0; CI, 1.3-12.2), and tick treatment frequency (3-4 mo; OR 7.0, CI 1.4-34.3; 5-6 mo; OR, 11.0; CI, 1.9-62.7; > 6 mo; OR, 4.6; CI, 0.9-23.3). These findings
Full Text Available A total of 344 dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa, was examined for ectoparasites, and all visible arthropods were collected from the left side of each dog. By doubling these numbers it was estimated that the dogs harboured 14 724 ixodid ticks, belonging to 6 species, 1028 fleas, belonging to 2 species, and 26 lice. Haemaphysalis leachi accounted for 420 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus for 14 226 of the ticks. Pure infestations of H. leachi were present on 14 dogs and of R. sanguineus on 172 dogs. Small numbers of Amblyomma hebraeum, R. appendiculatus, R. evertsi evertsi and R. simus were also collected. The predominance of R. sanguineus accounts for the high prevalence of canine ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis within the survey region, compared to canine babesiosis (Babesia canis, which is transmitted by H. leachi, and is a much rarer disease.
Full Text Available The aim of this communication is to provide preliminary information on the tick-borne pathogens of potential zoonotic importance present in southern Africa, mainly focusing on their geographical distribution and host range, and to identify research gaps. The following tick-borne zoonoses have been reported to occur in southern Africa based mainly on case reports: Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever caused by Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever virus; ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia ruminantium, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum; babesiosis caused by Babesia microti; relapsing fever caused by Borrelia duttonii and rickettsioses caused by Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia aeschlimannii and Rickettsia conorii. The epidemiological factors influencing their occurrence are briefly reviewed.
Kamani, Joshua; Sannusi, Abdulrahim; Dogo, A Goni; Tanko, James T; Egwu, Kinsley O; Tafarki, Agbadu E; Ogo, Isaac N; Kemza, Sarah; Onovoh, Emmanuel; Shamaki, David; Lombin, Lami H; Catto, Victoria; Birkenheuer, Adam J
A sexually intact 6-month-old female Alsatian dog was presented to the Veterinary Clinic of the National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria, for the following complaints: anorexia, hemoglobinuria, fever, tick infestation and general malaise. Microscopy revealed piroplasms with a wide range of sizes (1-5 μm in length) in red blood cells, raising a suspicion of a co-infection with two or more Babesia species. Specific PCR assays for canine Babesia spp. and DNA sequencing revealed the presence of Babesia canis and Babesia rossi co-infection. This study constitutes the first report of co-infection with B. canis and B. rossi in the West African sub-region and the first report of autochthonous B. canis on the African continent. Practitioners should be aware of potential changes in the species/sub-species of Babesia causing canine babesiosis in this region.
Babesia bovis (B. bovis) is a major causative agent of bovine babesiosis, with a considerable worldwide impact. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of PCR assay and microscopical examination (ME) for detection of B. bovis in naturally infected and apparently healthy water...... were apparently healthy. Two blood samples were collected from each animal; one was used for preparation of Giemsa-stained smears for ME while the other sample was used for DNA extraction and PCR testing. Out of 34 cattle and buffaloes, ME identified 13 animals (38.2%) as infected by B. bovis whereas...... apparently healthy, 5 animals (26.3%) were identified as infected by ME meanwhile 15 animals (78.9%) were identified by PCR. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that water buffalos are likely to have a natural tolerance to B. bovis pathogen and/or more likely to be persistent carriers which were...
Yamasaki, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Nakamura, Kensuke; Sasaki, Noboru; Murakami, Masahiro; Rajapakshage, Bandula Kumara Wickramasekara; Ohta, Hiroshi; Yamato, Osamu; Maede, Yoshimitsu; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi
In this study, we attempted to detect Babesia gibsoni in blood smears and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues obtained from B. gibsoni-infected dogs using in situ hybridization. Using a digoxigenin-conjugated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probe, both intraerythrocytic and exoerythrocytic parasites in the culture could be specifically stained in blood smears fixed with 4% phosphate-buffered paraformaldehyde. This indicated that genomic DNA extracted from the parasites could be detected using in situ hybridization. Moreover, the parasite could be specifically stained in paraffin-embedded spleen, lymph node, and kidney sections using in situ hybridization. Infected erythrocytes in blood vessels in the spleen and kidney, hemosiderin-laden macrophages in the spleen, and phagocytized erythrocytes, which seemed to be infected with the parasites, in lymph nodes were also specifically stained. This suggests that in situ hybridization can be utilized to investigate both the life cycle of B. gibsoni and the pathological condition of canine babesiosis.
Full Text Available Canine babesiosis caused by tick-borne organisms of the genus Babesia, is one of the most significant disease worldwide. The aims of this study were to determine the hematological changes in six dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis. The hematological evaluation included Hemoglobin (Hb, Red Blood Cell (RBC, Platelet, Packet Cell Volume (PCV, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC and Reticulocyte counts. They were estimated using an autonomic hematologic analyzer. The animal had hypocytic hypochromic anemia and 20% of the cases had a packed cell volume (PCV less of 24%. All the animal had thrombocytopenia and platelets counts was lower than 50x103 cell/ µl The results of this study show that Babesia infection in dogs caused anemia and thrombocytopenia.
Munkhjargal, Tserendorj; AbouLaila, Mahmoud; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Ichikawa, Madoka; Davaasuren, Batdorj; Nyamjargal, Tserendorj; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo
We evaluated the inhibitory effects of pepstatin A and mefloquine on the in vitro and in vivo growths of Babesia parasites. The in vitro growth of Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, B. caballi, and B. equi was significantly inhibited (P mefloquine (50% inhibitory concentrations = 59.7, 56.7, 20.7, and 4 μM, respectively). Furthermore, both reagents either alone at a concentration of 5 mg/kg or in combinations (2.5/2.5 and 5/5 mg/kg) for 10 days significantly inhibited the in vivo growth of B. microti in mice. Mefloquine treatment was highly effective and the combination treatments were less effective than other treatments. Therefore, mefloquine may antagonize the actions of pepstatin A against babesiosis and aspartic proteases may play an important role in the asexual growth cycle of Babesia parasites.
Aosta Valley is the only region of Italy free of reported human cases of dirofilariosis due to Dirofilaria repens. Nonetheless, the retrospective analysis of five locally acquired D. repens infections in dogs, seems to indicate that an animal reservoir exist in the area. A feline case imported from Camargue, France, is also described. The most common dermatological signs were erythema, alopecia, crusting, papulae and nodules. All patients had lesional pruritus and dogs were affected by concurrent babesiosis. Eradication of the underlying condition, followed by a therapy with the specific adulticide and microfilaricide drugs led to a complete recovery of microfilaraemia. Increased pet travel and ecological changes are extending the ranges of vector borne, parasitic and zoonotic diseases. This fact pose a unique diagnostic challenge for the veterinarian, since the index of suspicion may be absent outside endemic areas.
Rhee, Hanna; Cameron, Daniel J
Lyme disease (LD) is a complex, multisystemic illness. As the most common vector- borne disease in the United States, LD is caused by bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, with potential coinfections from agents of anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and ehrlichiosis. Persistent symptoms and clinical signs reflect multiorgan involvement with episodes of active disease and periods of remission, not sparing the coveted central nervous system. The capability of microorganisms to cause and exacerbate various neuropsychiatric pathology is also seen in pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS), a recently described disorder attributed to bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus in which neurologic tics and obsessive-compulsive disorders are sequelae of the infection. In the current overview, LD and PANDAS are juxtaposed through a review of their respective infectious etiologies, clinical presentations, mechanisms of disease development, courses of illness, and treatment options. Future directions related to immunoneuropsychiatry are also discussed.
Omar, Mosaab A; Salama, Akram; Elsify, Ahmed; Rizk, Mohamed Abdo; Al-Aboody, Mohammad Saleh; AbouLaila, Mahmoud; El-Sayed, Shimaa Abd El-Salam; Igarashi, Ikuo
Enoxacin is a broad-spectrum 6-fluoronaphthyridinone antibacterial agent (fluoroquinolones) structurally related to nalidixic acid used mainly in the treatment of urinary tract infections and gonorrhea. Also it has been shown recently that it may have cancer inhibiting effect. The primary antibabesial effect of Enoxacin is due to inhibition of DNA gyrase subunit A, and DNA topoisomerase. In the present study, enoxacin was tested as a potent inhibitor against the in vitro growth of bovine and equine Piroplasms. The in vitro growth of five Babesia species that were tested was significantly inhibited (P Theileria equi, respectively). Enoxacin IC50 values for Babesia and Theileria parasites were satisfactory as the drug is potent antibacterial drug with minimum side effects. Therefore, enoxacin might be used for treatment of Babesiosis and Theileriosis especially in case of mixed infections with bacterial diseases or incase of animal sensitivity against diminazin toxicity.
Rajković Dragana V.
Full Text Available As specific arthropods, ticks in urban environments transmit the agents of dangerous contagious diseases endangering human and animal health. They are vectors of numerous infective agents that cause serious diseases of animals such as babesiosis and ehrlichiosis. Tick populations maintain and transmit an increasing number of different infective agents. In regard to the human population, they transmit the agents of tick encephalitis, Omsk hemorrhagic disease, Crim-Congo hemorrhagic disease, Kyasa-nur forest fever, ixodid fever, Q fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Siberian tick typhus and Lyme disease the last of which according to acarological references has become the dominant zoonosis in over 140 of the world's countries. In urban environments ticks represent problem both for their epidemiological significance and as organisms whose presence disturbs people during their work and rest. In Europe, the two most frequent species and Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus. Both species have a wide spectrum of hosts.
Cornillot, Emmanuel; Hadj-Kaddour, Kamel; Dassouli, Amina; Noel, Benjamin; Ranwez, Vincent; Vacherie, Benoît; Augagneur, Yoann; Brès, Virginie; Duclos, Aurelie; Randazzo, Sylvie; Carcy, Bernard; Debierre-Grockiego, Françoise; Delbecq, Stéphane; Moubri-Ménage, Karina; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Usmani-Brown, Sahar; Bringaud, Frédéric; Wincker, Patrick; Vivarès, Christian P.; Schwarz, Ralph T.; Schetters, Theo P.; Krause, Peter J.; Gorenflot, André; Berry, Vincent; Barbe, Valérie; Ben Mamoun, Choukri
We have sequenced the genome of the emerging human pathogen Babesia microti and compared it with that of other protozoa. B. microti has the smallest nuclear genome among all Apicomplexan parasites sequenced to date with three chromosomes encoding ∼3500 polypeptides, several of which are species specific. Genome-wide phylogenetic analyses indicate that B. microti is significantly distant from all species of Babesidae and Theileridae and defines a new clade in the phylum Apicomplexa. Furthermore, unlike all other Apicomplexa, its mitochondrial genome is circular. Genome-scale reconstruction of functional networks revealed that B. microti has the minimal metabolic requirement for intraerythrocytic protozoan parasitism. B. microti multigene families differ from those of other protozoa in both the copy number and organization. Two lateral transfer events with significant metabolic implications occurred during the evolution of this parasite. The genomic sequencing of B. microti identified several targets suitable for the development of diagnostic assays and novel therapies for human babesiosis. PMID:22833609
Chabria, Shiven; Ogbuagu, Onyema
SUMMARY We present a case of a 66-year-old woman with decompensated alcoholic liver cirrhosis and poorly controlled non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who was admitted with a 1 day history of altered mental status, high-grade fevers, worsening jaundice and generalised malaise with subsequent development of hypotension requiring intensive care. She was diagnosed with severe babesiosis with high-grade parasitaemia. She was also found to have Lyme disease coinfection. Despite aggressive therapeutic measures including appropriate antibiotics and multiple exchange blood transfusions, she developed septic shock and fulminant multiple organ failure with eventual demise. In this article, we highlight multiple tick-borne illnesses in a vulnerable host, in this case an elderly patient with liver cirrhosis, as risk factors for severe morbidity and potentially fatal outcomes. PMID:25733088
Vector repellent is one element in the prevention of vector-borne diseases. Families that neglect protecting their children against vectors risk their children contracting illnesses such as West Nile virus, eastern equine encephalitis, Lyme disease, malaria, dengue hemorrhagic fever, yellow fever, babesiosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Southern tick-associated rash illness, ehrlichiosis, tick-borne relapsing fever, tularemia, and other insect and arthropod related diseases (CDC, 2011). Identification of families at risk includes screening of the underlying basis for reluctance to apply insect repellent. Nurses and physicians can participate in a positive role by assisting families to determine the proper prophylaxis by recommending insect repellent choices that are economical, safe, and easy to use. A holistic alternative might include the suggestion of clove oil in cases where families might have trepidations regarding the use of DEET on children. This article will explore the safety and effectiveness of clove oil and its use as an insect repellent.
Colwell, Douglas D; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico
Changing climate is not the only driver for alterations in the dynamic interaction between arthropod vectors of zoonotic parasites and their hosts, including humans. A suite of other factors ranging from urbanization and deforestation to changing demographics in both developing and developed countries, the impact of the recent economic crisis, increased global movement of people and animals and follow-on effects of major catastrophes. This article reviews the most important vector-borne parasites of zoonotic concern that are changing/expanding their distribution patterns in both endemic and/or previously non-endemic areas. We include the discussion of the changing aspects of malaria, leishmaniasis, babesiosis, Chagas disease as well as of some spirurid and filarioid nematodes.
A. William, S.U.R. Chaudhari1 and N.N. Atsandac2
Full Text Available A 3-year (retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of diseases; clinical conditions of dogs and cats presented at the Government Veterinary Clinic, Maiduguri from January 1995 to December 1997. The prevalent diseases; conditions of dogs included helminthosis (19.19%, accidental injury (18.18%, tick infestation ( 15.15% , canine distemper (8.42% , diarrhoea ( 6.73%, mange ( 7.41%, rabies (5.05% and babesiosis (4.71%, Prevalent diseases/conditions of cats included helminthosis (26.67%. tick infestation ( 8.89%. diarrhea ( 16.67%, nutritional deficiencies ( 15.56% and respiratory infections ( 12.22%. Of highest prevalence in both dogs and cats was helminthosis (20.93%, followed by tick infestation (13. 70% and diarrhea (9.04% suggesting a poor husbandy of these pets in Maiduguri area. Cases of automobile accidental injury of dogs were also high, probably due to the same factors of poor husbandry.
Full Text Available The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas′ disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply.
Byaruhanga, C; Oosthuizen, M C; Collins, N E; Knobel, D
A participatory epidemiological (PE) study was conducted with livestock keepers in Moroto and Kotido districts, Karamoja Region, Uganda, between October and December 2013 to determine the management options and relative importance of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) amongst transhumant zebu cattle. Data collection involved 24 focus group discussions (each comprising 8-12 people) in 24 settlement areas (manyattas), key informant interviews (30), direct observation, a review of surveillance data, clinical examination, and laboratory confirmation of cases of TBDs. Methods used in group discussions included semi-structured interviews, simple ranking, pairwise ranking, matrix scoring, proportional piling and participatory mapping. The results of pairwise comparison showed the Ngakarimojong-named diseases, lokit (East Coast fever, ECF), lopid (anaplasmosis), loukoi (contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, CBPP), lokou (heartwater) and lokulam (babesiosis), were considered the most important cattle diseases in Moroto in that order, while ECF, anaplasmosis, trypanosomosis (ediit), CBPP and nonspecific diarrhoea (loleo) were most important in Kotido. Strong agreement between informant groups (Kendall's coefficient of concordance W=0.568 and 0.682; panimals that suffered from ECF, anaplasmosis, heartwater and babesiosis died, as the respective median scores for case fatality rates (CFR) were 89.5% (42, 100), 82.8% (63, 100), 66.7% (20, 100) and 85.7% (0, 100). In Kotido, diseases with high incidence scores were ECF (21% [6,32]), anaplasmosis (17% [10,33]) and trypanosomosis (8% [2,18]). The CFRs for ECF and anaplasmosis were 81.7% (44, 100) and 70.7% (48, 100), respectively. Matrix scoring revealed that disease indicators showed strong agreement (W=0.382-0.659, pimportant diseases in this pastoral region. Results from this study may assist in the design of feasible control strategies.
Full Text Available Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60% was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50% were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified.
Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Rodo, Anna; Siński, Edward; Bajer, Anna
Vector-borne infections constitute increasing health problem in dogs worldwide, including sled dogs, dramatically decreasing the fitness of working dogs and even leading to death. In the period 2006-2008 eighty-two blood samples were collected from eight sled dog kennels in Central Poland. The prevalence of four vector-borne infections (Babesia canis, Bartonella sp., Anaplasma/Ehrlichia and Borrelia burgdorferi) was estimated in 82 sled dogs using PCR and nested PCR for diagnosis and the same methods were used to identify the vector-borne pathogens in 26 dogs presenting at veterinary clinics with symptoms of vector-borne diseases. None of four studied vector-borne pathogens was detected in samples originating from veterinary clinics. Among the remaining 82 dogs B. canis infections were confirmed in three dogs undergoing treatment for babesiosis. The DNA of tick-borne pathogens was also found among 22 (27.8%) of the 79 apparently healthy dogs, including 20 cases of B. canis infection (25.3%), one case of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection and one case of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. No evidence of Bartonella spp. and Ehrlichia canis infections were found in this set of samples. Sequencing of a Babesia fragment of 18S rDNA amplified from acute (n=5) and asymptomatic (n=5) cases revealed that all isolates were identical to the Babesia canis canis sequence, originally isolated from Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in Poland. A range of factors was shown to affect the distribution of babesiosis in sled dogs. The data are also discussed in respect to the health risk factors generated by asymptomatic B. canis infections and the efficiency of chemoprophylaxis measures taken by sled dog owners.
Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Ybanez, Adrian Patalinghug; Ybanez, Rochelle Haidee Daclan; Perez, Zandro Obligado; Guswanto, Azirwan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki
Babesia bovis is the causative agent of fatal babesiosis in cattle. In the present study, we investigated the genetic diversity of B. bovis among Philippine cattle, based on the genes that encode merozoite surface antigens (MSAs). Forty-one B. bovis-positive blood DNA samples from cattle were used to amplify the msa-1, msa-2b, and msa-2c genes. In phylogenetic analyses, the msa-1, msa-2b, and msa-2c gene sequences generated from Philippine B. bovis-positive DNA samples were found in six, three, and four different clades, respectively. All of the msa-1 and most of the msa-2b sequences were found in clades that were formed only by Philippine msa sequences in the respective phylograms. While all the msa-1 sequences from the Philippines showed similarity to those formed by Australian msa-1 sequences, the msa-2b sequences showed similarity to either Australian or Mexican msa-2b sequences. In contrast, msa-2c sequences from the Philippines were distributed across all the clades of the phylogram, although one clade was formed exclusively by Philippine msa-2c sequences. Similarities among the deduced amino acid sequences of MSA-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c from the Philippines were 62.2-100, 73.1-100, and 67.3-100%, respectively. The present findings demonstrate that B. bovis populations are genetically diverse in the Philippines. This information will provide a good foundation for the future design and implementation of improved immunological preventive methodologies against bovine babesiosis in the Philippines. The study has also generated a set of data that will be useful for futher understanding of the global genetic diversity of this important parasite.
El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Goto, Minami; Noishiki, Kaori; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma; Takashima, Yasuhiro
Canine babesiosis constitutes a major global veterinary medical problem caused by tick-borne hemoparasites Babesia gibsoni and Babesia canis. Babesia gibsoni induces more severe clinical signs and is mainly transmitted by the ixodid Haemaphysalis longicornis. In Japan, B. gibsoni is primarily found in the western districts, with few records in the eastern parts. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate distribution patterns of B. gibsoni infection in 9 Japanese islands and peninsulas using direct microscopy and PCR. Therefore, 196 hunting dogs were randomly sampled during the period from March to September 2011. Ages and sexes of dogs were identified. Direct microscopy of Giemsa-stained blood smear revealed pear-shaped piroplasms of B. gibsoni in 3 (1.6%) dogs. PCR was done initially with the universal primer set (B18S-F and B18S-R) amplifying the 1,665-bp portion of the 18S rRNA gene, followed by the specific primer set (Bg18F1 and Bg18R2) amplifying 2,363-bp fragments of the same gene. Accordingly, 84 (42.9%) and 8 (4.1%) dogs were positive, respectively. The current investigation shows that canine babesiosis was recorded in all islands except for Sado Island, Atsumi Peninsula, and Tanegashima Island. The highest infection rate was detected in the main island of Okinawa, while the lowest was on Ishigaki Island. Both sexes were non-significantly infected. However, the diversity of infection in islands was significantly different (P < 0.05). Although B. gibsoni has been previously found in western and eastern Japan, the present work highlights the prevalence of infection in many Japanese districts, including islands and peninsulas, giving realistic data that can facilitate treatment and control.
Lempereur, Laetitia; Wirtgen, Marc; Nahayo, Adrien; Caron, Yannick; Shiels, Brian; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand; Linden, Annick
Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by different species of intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites within the genus Babesia. Different species of Babesia are described as potentially zoonotic and cause a malaria-like disease mainly in immunocompromised humans. Interest in the zoonotic potential of Babesia is growing and babesiosis has been described by some authors as an emergent zoonotic disease. The role of cervids to maintain tick populations and act as a reservoir host for some Babesia spp. with zoonotic capability is suspected. To investigate the range and infection rate of Babesia species, ticks were collected from wild cervids in southern Belgium during 2008. DNA extraction was performed for individual ticks, and each sample was evaluated for the absence of PCR inhibition using a PCR test. A Babesia spp. genus-specific PCR based on the 18S rRNA gene was applied to validated tick DNA extracts. A total of 1044 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected and 1023 validated samples were subsequently screened for the presence of Babesia spp. DNA. Twenty-eight tick samples were found to be positive and identified after sequencing as containing DNA representing: Babesia divergens (3), B. divergens-like (5), Babesia sp. EU1 (11), Babesia sp. EU1-like (3), B. capreoli (2), or unknown Babesia sp. (4). This study confirms the presence of potentially zoonotic species and Babesia capreoli in Belgium, with a tick infection rate of 2.7% (95% CI 1.8,3.9%). Knowledge of the most common reservoir source for transmission of zoonotic Babesia spp. will be useful for models assessing the risk potential of this infection to humans.
Su-Qin Man; Ke Qiao; Jie Cui; Meng Feng; Yong-Feng Fu; Xun-Jia Cheng
Background:Babesiosis is an uncommon but emerging tick-borne disease caused by the genus Babesia.In this case study,we report a case of human infection with a novel Babesia sp.in China.Findings:The patient in question had been suffering from repetitive occurrences of mild fever of unknown origin and fatigue for 10 years.Ring forms,tetrads,and one or two dots of chromatin or trophozoite-like organisms were observed in the patient's thin blood smears and bone marrow smears.Using a confocal laser-scanning microscope,it was observed that the patient's serum had reactivity with the surface proteins of the B.microti strain.Electron microscopy revealed oval red blood cells with 1 ～ 2 μm of knob protrusions in the cellular membrane.The results of the Babesia-specific nested PCR assay for 18S rRNA confirmed the presence of Babesia infection.The construction of a phylogenetic relationship showed clustering with B.microti and B.duncani,which was identified as a novel Babesia species and named as Babesia sp.XXB/HangZhou.Azithromycin,doxycycline,and moxifloxacin hydrochloride were shown to relieve symptoms but were not as effective after continuous usage.After atovaquone (Mepron(R)) administration,the patient recovered from fever and tested negative for detection of Babesia-specific genes.Conclusion:Babesia sp.XXB/HangZhou is a novel Babesia species,which causes mild babesiosis in an immunocompetent patient.
Sevinc, Ferda; Cao, Shinuo; Zhou, Mo; Sevinc, Mutlu; Ceylan, Onur; Xuan, Xuenan
Ovine babesiosis, caused by the intra-erythrocytic protozoan parasite Babesia ovis, is an infectious and economically important tick-borne disease of sheep. Diagnostic testing is an essential tool used for the control of the disease. In order to identify and characterize the immunoreactive proteins which are useful in serological diagnosis of the disease, a complementary DNA (cDNA) expression library was constructed from B. ovis merozoite mRNA. A cDNA clone designated as BoSA2 was identified by immunoscreening of a cDNA library using immune sheep serum. The sequence of the BoSA2 cDNA had a partial open reading frame of 1156 nucleotides encoding a polypeptide of 384 amino acid residues. Theoretical molecular mass for the mature protein was 43.5 kDa. The sequence of the BoSA2 was inserted into the expression vector pGEX-4T-1 and then expressed in Escherichia coli DH5α cells as a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged fusion protein. This recombinant fusion protein (rBoSA2) was purified by GST-affinity chromatography. Immunoreactivity of the rBoSA2 was evaluated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the sera from the animals naturally and experimentally infected with B. ovis. ELISA results demonstrated that this antigen was useful for the diagnosis of ovine babesiosis. The localization of the BoSA2 protein was shown in and on the parasite and in the cytoplasm of the infected erythrocyte by confocal laser microscope. To our knowledge, rBoSA2 is the second immunoreactive recombinant protein of B. ovis until the present.
Sevinc, Ferda; Cao, Shinuo; Xuan, Xuenan; Sevinc, Mutlu; Ceylan, Onur
In order to identify immunoreactive proteins that are usable for the immunological diagnosis of Babesia ovis infections, a phage lambda cDNA expression library was constructed and screened using parasite-specific immune serum. Immunoscreening resulted in the identification of a full-length cDNA clone encoding a secreted protein designated Babesia ovis secreted antigen 1 (BoSA1). The full-length BoSA1 cDNA contained a 1,137-bp open reading frame that encoded a protein of 378 amino acids, with a signal peptide and 2 internal repeat domains. The theoretical molecular mass of the mature protein was 42.5 kDa. Recombinant BoSA1 (rBoSA1) protein was expressed in Escherichia coli strain DH5α cells as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein and was purified by affinity chromatography. Purified rBoSA1 was tested for reactivity with sera from animals experimentally or naturally infected with B. ovis, in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that specific antibodies against rBoSA1 were detectable on days 7 and 8 of the experimental infection and were maintained during the sampling period. Additionally, 38 field sera taken from sheep naturally infected with B. ovis gave strong positive reactions in the ELISA between day 20 and day 30 of treatment. As a result, the identified recombinant BoSA1 protein seems to be a promising diagnostic antigen that is usable for the development of serological assays for the diagnosis of ovine babesiosis. This is the first report on the molecular cloning, expression, and potential use of a recombinant antigen for the diagnosis of ovine babesiosis.
Jessica M Dunn
Full Text Available Babesia microti and Borrelia burgdorferi, the respective causative agents of human babesiosis and Lyme disease, are maintained in their enzootic cycles by the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis and use the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus as primary reservoir host. The geographic range of both pathogens has expanded in the United States, but the spread of babesiosis has lagged behind that of Lyme disease. Several studies have estimated the basic reproduction number (R0 for B. microti to be below the threshold for persistence (<1, a finding that is inconsistent with the persistence and geographic expansion of this pathogen. We tested the hypothesis that host coinfection with B. burgdorferi increases the likelihood of B. microti transmission and establishment in new areas. We fed I. scapularis larva on P. leucopus mice that had been infected in the laboratory with B. microti and/or B. burgdorferi. We observed that coinfection in mice increases the frequency of B. microti infected ticks. To identify the ecological variables that would increase the probability of B. microti establishment in the field, we integrated our laboratory data with field data on tick burden and feeding activity in an R0 model. Our model predicts that high prevalence of B. burgdorferi infected mice lowers the ecological threshold for B. microti establishment, especially at sites where larval burden on P. leucopus is lower and where larvae feed simultaneously or soon after nymphs infect mice, when most of the transmission enhancement due to coinfection occurs. Our studies suggest that B. burgdorferi contributes to the emergence and expansion of B. microti and provides a model to predict the ecological factors that are sufficient for emergence of B. microti in the wild.
Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Jia, Honglin; Aboge, G Oluga; Terkawi, M Alaa; Kuriki, Ken; Nakamura, Chinatsu; Kumagai, Akiko; Zhou, Jinlin; Lee, Eung-goo; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Fujisaki, Kozo; Xuan, Xuenan
The thrombospondin-related adhesive protein of Babesia gibsoni (BgTRAP) is known as an immunodominant antigen and is, therefore, considered as a candidate for the development of a diagnostic reagent for canine babesiosis. The recombinant BgTRAP (rBgTRAP) expressed in Escherichia coli was tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting antibodies to B. gibsoni in dogs. The ELISA with rBgTRAP clearly differentiated between B. gibsoni-infected dog sera and specific pathogen-free (SPF) dog sera. The sera collected from dogs experimentally infected with closely related parasites, B. canis canis, B. canis vogeli, B. canis rossi, and Neospora caninum, showed no cross-reactivity by the ELISA with rBgTRAP. A total of 107 blood samples collected from dogs that had been diagnosed as having babesiosis at veterinary hospitals in Japan were examined for the diagnosis of B. gibsoni infection by the ELISA and PCR. Ninety-six (89.7%) and 89 (83.2%) of the tested samples were positive by the ELISA and PCR, respectively, while 11 (10.3%) and 4 (3.7%) were ELISA+/PCR- and ELISA-/PCR+, respectively. In addition, the sensitivity of the ELISA with rBgTRAP was much higher than that of previously established ELISAs with rBgP50, rBgSA1, and rBgP32. These results indicate that the rBgTRAP is the most promising diagnostic antigen for the detection of an antibody to B. gibsoni in dogs and that the combined ELISA/PCR approach could provide the most reliable diagnosis for clinical sites.
Full Text Available Background: Small ruminants’ babesiosis caused by Babesia ovis, is transmitted during blood feeding by infected ticks and is the most economically important tick-borne disease in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was carried out to to estimate the infection rate of B. ovis in sheep and goats by PCR. We have analysed risk factors that might influence infection of sheep and goats with B. ovis.Methods: A total 402 blood samples were examined microscopically for the presence of Babesia infection. All samples were tested by PCR. During sampling, whole body of each animal and farm dogs was examined for the presence of ticks.Results: Forty-two animals (10.4% were positive for Babesia spp. upon microscopic examination, whereas 67 animals (16.7% yielded the specific DNA for B. ovis of which 52 animals were sheep and 15 animals were goats.Twenty-nine farms (72.5% were found positive for B. ovis. The percentage of positive animals in each location varied from 13 % to 20 %. The relative risk of the presence of ticks in sheep and goats (P< 0.01 and farm dogs (P< 0.01 for PCRpositive results forB. ovis in sheep and goats was found 3.8 and 2.9, respectively. A total of 747 ticks identified as Rhipicephalus bursa, R. sanguineus and R. turanicus on the basis of morphological features.Conclusion: Other animal species besides dogs may also be risk factors for babesiosis in sheep and goats. Also, R. bursa may play an important role as a vector of the parasite in Iran.
Milton Begeres de Almeida
estimadas em 6.220 cabeças por ano representando um prejuízo econômico anual aproximado de R$3.732.000,00 evidenciando a necessidade de medidas preventivas que evitem a exposição de animais desprote-gidos aos agentes da TPB.A retrospective study of tick fever was made, which occurred from 1978-2005 in southern Rio Grande do Sul in the influence area of the Regional Diagnostic Laboratory of the Federal University of Pelotas. From 4,884 cattle specimens, sent by practitioners or which were from necropsies performed at the Diagnostic Laboratory, 231 (4.7% were diagnosed as tick fever. Data from 221 of those outbreaks were analyzed. Ninety one (41.1% outbreaks were caused by Babesia bovis, 11 (4.9% by Babesia bigemina, and 65 (29.41% by Anaplasma marginale. In other 33 (14.93% outbreaks of babesiosis there is no information if the disease was caused by B. bovis or B. bigemina, and 21 (9.5% outbreaks were caused by mixed infection of A. marginale and B. bovis or B. bigemina. Mean morbidity, mortality, and letality rates in 149 outbreaks were 11.17%, 6.81%, and 70.04%, respectively. Most outbreaks occurred during summer (January-March and autumn (April-June, mainly in 1 to 3-year-old cattle. Clinical signs were depression, weakness, fallen ears, fever, and weight loss. Low packed cell volume values were always found. Hemoglobinury was observed in babesiosis. Neurological signs characterized by gait alterations, muscular tremors, aggressiveness and falling down with tonic and clonic convulsions were observed in babesiosis by B. bovis. The main gross lesions were anemia, jaundice, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, yellow liver and cardiac hemorrhages. Hemoglobinury was observed in babesiosis, and congestion of the cerebral cortex in babesiosis by B. bovis. It is concluded that B. bovis is the main agent causing thick fever in southern Rio Grande do Sul. In that region with a cattle population of 2,630,000 heads the annual losses due to tick fever can be estimated in 6,220 cattle or
Carcy, B; Randazzo, S; Depoix, D; Adaszek, L; Cardoso, L; Baneth, G; Gorenflot, A; Schetters, T P
The vast majority of clinical babesiosis cases in dogs in Europe is caused by Babesia canis. Although dogs can be vaccinated, the level of protection is highly variable, which might be due to genetic diversity of B. canis strains. One of the major merozoite surface antigens of B. canis is a protein with a Mr of 28 kDa that belongs to the Bc28 multigene family, that comprises at least two genes, Bc28.1 and a homologous Bc28.2 gene. The two genes are relatively conserved but they are very distinct in their 3' ends, enabling the design of specific primers. Sequencing of the Bc28.1 genes from 4 genetically distinct B. canis laboratory strains (A8, B, 34.01 and G) revealed 20 mutations at conserved positions of which three allowed the classification of B. canis strains into three main groups (A, B and 34.01/G) by RFLP. This assay was subsequently used to analyze blood samples of 394 dogs suspected of clinical babesiosis from nine countries in Europe. All blood samples were first analyzed with a previously described assay that allowed detection of the different Babesia species that infect dogs. Sixty one percent of the samples contained detectable levels of Babesia DNA. Of these, 98.3% were positive for B. canis, the remaining cases were positive for B. vogeli. Analysis of the Bc28.1 gene, performed on 178 of the B. canis samples, revealed an overall dominance of genotype B (62.4%), followed by genotypes A (37.1%) and 34 (11.8%). Interestingly, a great variation in the geographical distribution and prevalence of the three B. canis genotypes was observed; in the North-East genotype A predominated (72.1% A against 27.9% B), in contrast to the South-West where genotype B predominated (10.3% A against 89.7% B). In the central part of Europe intermediate levels were found (26.0-42.9% A against 74.0-57.1% B, from West to East). Genotype 34 was only identified in France (26.9% among 78 samples) and mostly as co-infection with genotypes A or B (61.9%). A comparative analysis of
Oldiges, Daiane P.; Laughery, Jacob M.; Tagliari, Nelson Junior; Leite Filho, Ronaldo Viana; Davis, William C.; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Termignoni, Carlos; Knowles, Donald P.; Suarez, Carlos E.
The Rhipicephalus microplus tick is a notorious blood-feeding ectoparasite of livestock, especially cattle, responsible for massive losses in animal production. It is the main vector for transmission of pathogenic bacteria and parasites, including Babesia bovis, an intraerythrocytic apicomplexan protozoan parasite responsible for bovine Babesiosis. This study describes the development and testing of a live B. bovis vaccine expressing the protective tick antigen glutathione-S-transferase from Haemaphysalis longicornis (HlGST). The B. bovis S74-T3B parasites were electroporated with a plasmid containing the bidirectional Ef-1α (elongation factor 1 alpha) promoter of B. bovis controlling expression of two independent genes, the selectable marker GFP-BSD (green fluorescent protein–blasticidin deaminase), and HlGST fused to the MSA-1 (merozoite surface antigen 1) signal peptide from B. bovis. Electroporation followed by blasticidin selection resulted in the emergence of a mixed B. bovis transfected line (termed HlGST) in in vitro cultures, containing parasites with distinct patterns of insertion of both exogenous genes, either in or outside the Ef-1α locus. A B. bovis clonal line termed HlGST-Cln expressing intracellular GFP and HlGST in the surface of merozoites was then derived from the mixed parasite line HlGST using a fluorescent activated cell sorter. Two independent calf immunization trials were performed via intravenous inoculation of the HlGST-Cln and a previously described control consisting of an irrelevant transfected clonal line of B. bovis designated GFP-Cln. The control GFP-Cln line contains a copy of the GFP-BSD gene inserted into the Ef-1α locus of B. bovis in an identical fashion as the HIGST-Cln parasites. All animals inoculated with the HlGST-Cln and GFP-Cln transfected parasites developed mild babesiosis. Tick egg fertility and fully engorged female tick weight was reduced significantly in R. microplus feeding on HlGST-Cln-immunized calves
Eisen, Rebecca J; Eisen, Lars; Beard, Charles B
The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, is the primary vector to humans in the eastern United States of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, as well as causative agents of anaplasmosis and babesiosis. Its close relative in the far western United States, the western blacklegged tick Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls, is the primary vector to humans in that region of the Lyme disease and anaplasmosis agents. Since 1991, when standardized surveillance and reporting began, Lyme disease case counts have increased steadily in number and in geographical distribution in the eastern United States. Similar trends have been observed for anaplasmosis and babesiosis. To better understand the changing landscape of risk of human exposure to disease agents transmitted by I. scapularis and I. pacificus, and to document changes in their recorded distribution over the past two decades, we updated the distribution of these species from a map published in 1998. The presence of I. scapularis has now been documented from 1,420 (45.7%) of the 3,110 continental United States counties, as compared with 111 (3.6%) counties for I. pacificus. Combined, these vectors of B. burgdorferi and other disease agents now have been identified in a total of 1,531 (49.2%) counties spread across 43 states. This marks a 44.7% increase in the number of counties that have recorded the presence of these ticks since the previous map was presented in 1998, when 1,058 counties in 41 states reported the ticks to be present. Notably, the number of counties in which I. scapularis is considered established (six or more individuals or one or more life stages identified in a single year) has more than doubled since the previous national distribution map was published nearly two decades ago. The majority of county status changes occurred in the North-Central and Northeastern states, whereas the distribution in the South remained fairly stable. Two previously distinct foci for I. scapularis in the
Kmieciak, Wioletta; Ciszewski, Marcin; Szewczyk, Eligia M
The article presents an overview of diagnostics of tick-borne diseases in Poland, which form one of the most prevalent group of occupational illnesses in the Polish area. This is a current issue due to a constantly growing number of tick-borne infections, i.e., Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, tularemia, Q fever, human granulocytic anaplasmosis and babesiosis. The scale of the problem is well illustrated by the latest reports of the Polish National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene (NIPH - NIH). The article also covers the taxonomy of vectors of etiological factors, as well as their reservoirs and possible transmission to humans. The highest risk of tick-borne infection is particularly connected with people either resting or working in the forest or meadow surroundings (i.e., foresters, farmers, hunters). The article contains up-to-date data on epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, symptomatology, laboratory medicine and factors affecting the credibility of results according to current recommendations of the Polish Society of Epidemiology and Physicians of Infectious Diseases and the Polish National Chamber of Laboratory Diagnosticians. The presented review focuses on modern laboratory techniques used in difficult diagnostics of tick-borne diseases, mainly diagnostics algorithms, pre-analytical phase (type of biological material) and analytical phase of diagnostics (reference methods, efficacy of different techniques, interfering factors, proper diagnostic procedures).
Kaewkong, Worasak; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Kongklieng, Amornmas; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Boonmars, Thidarut; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Maleewong, Wanchai
Canine babesiosis, hepatozoonosis, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis are tick-borne diseases caused by different hemopathogens. These diseases are causes of morbidity and mortality in dogs. The classic method for parasite detection and differentiation is based on microscopic observation of blood smears. The limitations of the microscopic method are that its performance requires a specially qualified person with professional competence, and it is ineffective in differentiating closely related species. This study applied PCR amplification with high throughput pyrosequencing for molecular differential detection of the following 4 hemoparasites common to tropical areas in dog blood samples: Babesia vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma platys. PCR was initially used to amplify specific target regions of the ribosomal RNA genes of each parasite using 2 primer pairs that included 18S rRNA for protozoa (B. vogeli and H. canis) and 16S rRNA for rickettsia (E. canis and A. platys). Babesia vogeli and H. canis were discriminated using 9 nucleotide positions out of 30 base pairs, whereas E. canis and A. platys were differentiated using 15 nucleotide positions out of 34 base pairs that were determined from regions adjacent to 3' ends of the sequencing primers. This method provides a challenging alternative for a rapid diagnosis and surveillance of these tick-borne diseases in canines.
Vargas-Hernández, G; André, M R; Faria, J L M; Munhoz, T D; Hernandez-Rodriguez, M; Machado, R Z; Tinucci-Costa, M
Ehrlichiosis and babesiosis are tick-borne diseases, caused mainly by Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis, respectively, with a worldwide occurrence in dogs, whose main vector is the brown-dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The present work aimed to detect the presence of E. canis and Babesia sp. in 91 dog blood samples in Colombia, by molecular and serological techniques. We also performed sequence alignment to indicate the identity of the parasite species infecting these animals. The present work shows the first molecular detection of E. canis and B. vogeli in dogs from Colombia. Immunoglobulin-G (IgG) antibodies to E. canis and Babesia vogeli were found in 75 (82.4%) and 47 (51.6%) sampled dogs, respectively. Thirty-seven (40.6%) and 5 (5.5%) dogs were positive in PCR for E. canis and Babesia sp., respectively. After sequencing, amplicons showed 99% of identity with isolates of E. canis and B. vogeli. The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA-Anaplasmataceae sequences and 18S rRNA-piroplasmid sequences supported the identity of the found E. canis and B. vogeli DNAs, respectively. The present work shows the first molecular detection of E. canis and B. vogeli in dogs in Colombia.
Zamoto-Niikura, Aya; Morikawa, Shigeru; Hanaki, Ken-Ichi; Holman, Patricia J; Ishihara, Chiaki
The U.S. lineage, one of the major clades in the Babesia microti group, is known as a causal agent of human babesiosis mostly in the northeastern and upper midwestern United States. This lineage, however, also is distributed throughout the temperate zone of Eurasia with several reported human cases, although convincing evidence of the identity of the specific vector(s) in this area is lacking. Here, the goal was to demonstrate the presence of infectious parasites directly in salivary glands of Ixodes persulcatus, from which U.S. lineage genetic sequences have been detected in Asia, and to molecularly characterize the isolates. Five PCR-positive specimens were individually inoculated into hamsters, resulting in infections in four; consequently, four strains were newly established. Molecular characterization, including 18S rRNA, β-tubulin, and CCT7 gene sequences, as well as Western blot analysis and indirect fluorescent antibody assay, revealed that all four strains were identical to each other and to the U.S. lineage strains isolated from rodents captured in Japan. The 18S rRNA gene sequence from the isolates was identical to those from I. persulcatus in Russia and China, but the genetic and antigenic profiles of the Japanese parasites differ from those in the United States and Europe. Together with previous epidemiological and transmission studies, we conclude that I. persulcatus is likely the principal vector for the B. microti U.S. lineage in Japan and presumably in northeastern Eurasia.
Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Huyen, Nguyen Xuan; Shinuo, Cao; Inpankaew, Tawin; Maklon, Khuanwalai; Aboulaila, Mahmoud; Ueno, Akio; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo
Bovine babesiosis is a tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan disease that is mainly caused by Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina and is characterized by significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The disease is widespread in the northeastern region of Thailand, where an increasingly large part of the livestock is composed of water buffaloes. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological distribution of B. bovis and B. bigemina in water buffaloes in the northeastern region of Thailand. A total of 305 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the nested PCR (nPCR) assay, ELISA, and IFAT techniques. The overall prevalence of B. bovis and B. bigemina was 11.2% and 3.6% by nPCR, 14.7% and 5.9% by ELISA, and 16.8% and 5.6% by IFAT, respectively. The high concordance between the molecular and the serological detection tests revealed the specificity and sensitivity of the diagnostic assays used for the detection of infection as well as the endemic stability status of the parasites in the surveyed areas. Statistically significant differences in the prevalence of the two infections were observed on the basis of age and location but not gender. Our data provide valuable information regarding the epidemiology of B. bovis and B. bigemina infection in water buffaloes in the northeastern region of Thailand which will likely be very beneficial for management and control programs of this disease.
Full Text Available During the period March to September 2000, a study was conducted in Oodi village, Kgatleng District, Botswana, to investigate the seasonal fluctuation of internal, external and blood parasites of donkeys. Twelve adult donkeys were randomly selected from a farmer with a herd of 15 donkeys. Monthly visits were made to the farmer when the donkeys were examined for parasites. The only ectoparasites recovered from the donkeys were instars of various tick species. The most prevalent tick was Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (98.4 %, followed by Amblyomma hebraeum and Hyalomma species. The only haemoparasite seen on microscopy was Babesia equi at low parasitaemia in 26.8% of the donkeys. However, no clinical babesiosis was evident. Coprological examination showed the presence of strongyle eggs in moderate numbers. Very low numbers of coccidia oocysts were found in the faecal samples. High tick numbers and worm egg counts coincided with the warm, wet months in contrast to the low numbers recovered during the cold, dry months. An interview conducted by the authors indicated that donkeys were nutritionally marginalised by owners. Supplementary feeding was therefore recommended, especially during the winter months when grazing is poor.
Baldissera, Matheus D; Gonçalves, Ricardo A; Sagrillo, Michele R; Grando, Thirssa H; Ritter, Camila S; Grotto, Fabielly S; Brum, Gerson F; da Luz, Sônia C A; Silveira, Sergio O; Fausto, Viviane P; Boligon, Aline A; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Stefani, Lenita M; da Silva, Aleksandro S; Souza, Carine F; Monteiro, Silvia G
Diminazene aceturate (DA) is the active component of some trypanocidal drugs used for the treatment of animals infected with trypanosomosis and babesiosis. Residues of DA may cause hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of oxidative stress, i.e., changes in the antioxidant defense system of rats treated with a single dose of 3.5 mg kg(-1) of DA. All treatments were intramuscularly administered, and evaluations were performed on days 7 and 21 post-treatment (PT). Liver and kidney samples were collected and evaluated by histopathology and oxidative stress parameters (thiobarbituric acid-reactive species, catalase, superoxide dismutase, carbonyl, non-protein thiols, and reduced glutathione). Finally, blood was collected to determine seric DA concentration. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in liver and kidney of rats were dramatically inhibited (p 0.05). Both non-protein thiols (NPSH) and glutathione (GSH) levels in liver and kidney decreased (p kidney tissues on 21 days PT. Histopathology revealed vacuolar degeneration in liver and kidney samples on day 21 PT. Our findings indicate that DA could cause oxidative damage to liver and kidney of rats.
Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.).
Full Text Available A participatory surveillance of livestock and poultry diseases was carried out in Agidi Development Area of Nasarawa State among 123 farmers, 29 of the respondent were female, while 94 were male. Open-ended interviews were utilized where necessary to clarify information that needed clarifications by the respondents; physical examination of the some affected animals and it surroundings were carried out during the surveillance. The following diseases were established in the study area: Peste des peptits ruminants, Foot rot, helminthosis, mite/lice/flea infestation, tick infestation, bloat, Orf (Contagious ecthyma, poison, mange, Newcastle disease, fowl pox, coccidiosis, infectious bursal disease (Gumboro, chronic respiratory disease, African Swine Fever (ASF, abortion, Dystocia, sudden death, foot and mouth disease, Fascioliasis, trypanosomosis, black quarter disease, babesiosis, and wounds. Some of these diseases have specific period (season of outbreak, while some occurs at all season. Analysis of data indicated that Newcastle disease was the most important disease of poultry, Peste des peptits ruminants was the disease that lead to high mortality in small ruminants, while African Swine Fever (ASF is the most devastating disease of pigs, and Lice/flea infestation is the most common disease to poultry, small ruminants and pigs, in the study area.
Andrei Daniel Mihalca
Full Text Available Rodents comprise more species than any other mammal order. Most rodents are considered keystone species in their ecological communities, hence the survival of many other species in the ecosystem depend on them. From medical point of view, this is particularly important for rodent-dependent pathogens. In the particular case of tick-borne diseases, rodents are important as hosts for vector ticks and as reservoir hosts (Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Tick-borne relapsing fevers, tick-borne rickettsioses, babesiosis. Community and population ecology of rodents was shown to be correlated with disease ecology in the case of many tick-borne diseases. In Eastern Europe, several adult hard-tick species use rodents as their principal hosts: Ixodes apronophorus, I. crenulatus, I. laguri, I. redikorzevi, I. trianguliceps. However, the majority of ticks feeding on rodents are immature stages of ticks which as adults are parasitic on larger mammals. Larvae and nymphs of I. ricinus, the most abundant and medically important tick from Europe, are commonly found on rodents. This is particularly important, as many rodents are synanthropic and, together with other micromammals and birds are often the only available natural hosts for ticks in urban environments. This work reviews the correlated ecology of rodents and Ixodes ricinus.
Shemshad, Khadijeh; Rafinejad, Javad; Kamali, Karim; Piazak, Norayer; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mahdi; Shemshad, Masoomeh; Biglarian, Akbar; Nourolahi, Fathollah; Valad Beigi, Enshallah; Enayati, Ahmad Ali
This report presents the results of the first faunistic study of hard ticks in Qazvin province of Iran. The primary objective was to determine the species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks that parasitize domestic ruminants. Information about the abiotic preferences of these species has been provided. A total of 286 cattle, 1,053 goats, and 2,050 sheep were examined in 13 villages in 28 flocks distributed throughout the studied areas. Total direct body collections of ticks were made from each domestic ruminant. A total of 228 Ixodid specimens belonging to nine species in three different genera were recorded in the areas, including Boophilus annulatus (Say, 1821), Hyalomma anatolicum Koch, 1844, Hyalomma asiaticum (Schulze and Schlettke, 1929), Hyalomma detritum Schulze, 1919, Hyalomma dromedarii Koch, 1844, Hyalomma marginatum Koch 1844, Hyalomma schulzei Olenev, 1931, Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanz, 1878 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806). The most abundant species on sheep was R. sanguineus (46.92%), while B. annulatus (6.6%) found only on cattle. A finding of great significance was that R. sanguineus, the main vector of babesiosis, is firmly established throughout the counties. A further objective of the study was to compare the abundance of the major tick species on domestic ruminants. This was carried out at 19 sampling sites. The highest number of ticks was collected in July-August during the hot season.
Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Wesołowska, Agnieszka; Wędrychowicz, Halina
Urinary creatinine to serum creatinine (UCr/SCr) ratio and renal failure index (RFI) are useful indices of renal damage. Both UCr/SCr ratio and RFI are used in differentiation between prerenal azotaemia and acute tubular necrosis. In this work the authors calculated the UCr/SCr ratio and RFI in dogs infected with Babesia canis and the values of these indices in azotaemic dogs infected with the parasite. The results of this study showed significantly lower UCr/SCr ratio in dogs infected with B. canis than in healthy dogs. Moreover, in azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis the UCr/SCr ratio was significantly lower and the RFI was significantly higher than in non-azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis. The calculated correlation between RFI and duration of the disease before diagnosis and treatment was high, positive and statistically significant (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). The results of this study showed that during the course of canine babesiosis caused by B. canis in Poland acute tubular necrosis may develop.
Full Text Available The objective was to develop a non-terminal, acute normovolaemic anaemia model in dogs that has minimal effects on patient well-being. Eleven normal Beagle dogs were used. About 20 % of the circulating blood volume was removed from the jugular vein 1-3 times per day over a 3-4 day period until a haematocrit (Ht of 13-17 % was obtained. Normovolaemia was maintained by replacing the volume deficit of the red blood cells with Ringer's lactate and re-infusing the plasma. Full blood count and Ht were monitored twice daily. The 13-17 % Ht was reached within 3-4 days with the number of phlebotomies ranging from four to seven. The model was primarily developed to determine echocardiographic values as well as Doppler abdominal splanchnic blood flow parameters in anaemic dogs as part of a study that will compare these results to similar studies in babesiosis-induced anaemia. The model may also be useful in the evaluation of the pathophysiology of anaemia in dogs or as a model for anaemia in humans.
Kallio, Eva R; Begon, Michael; Birtles, Richard J; Bown, Kevin J; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Watts, Phillip C
Tick-borne diseases pose an increasingly important public health problem in Europe. Rodents are the reservoir host for many tick-transmitted pathogens, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti, which can cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis and babesiosis, respectively. To estimate the presence of these pathogens in rodents in Finland, we examined blood samples from 151 bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and demonstrate, for the first time, that A. phagocytophilum and B. microti commonly infect bank voles (in 22% and 40% of animals, respectively) in Finland. Sequence analysis of a fragment of 18S rRNA showed that the B. microti strain isolated was identical to the Munich strain, which is considered to be nonzoonotic. The A. phagocytophilum strain (based on a fragment of the msp4 gene) was identical to one found earlier in rodents in the United Kingdom that is transmitted by the tick Ixodes trianguliceps, all the life stages of which feed on small mammals. The infection probability of B. microti in the bank voles was the greater the older the individual was, and males were more often infected than females. A. phagocytophilum infection probability first increased and then decreased with the age of individual without any difference between sexes. While these pathogens presumably pose a limited zoonotic risk to humans in Finland, they might have important interactions with other rodent pathogens and therefore affect infection dynamics of, for example, zoonotic pathogens.
Lantos, Paul M.; Wormser, Gary P.
Purpose The controversial diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease is often given to patients with prolonged, medically unexplained physical symptoms. Many such patients are also treated for chronic co-infections with Babesia, Anaplasma, or Bartonella in the absence of typical presentations, objective clinical findings, or laboratory confirmation of active infection. We have undertaken a systematic review of the literature to evaluate several aspects of this practice. Methods Five systematic literature searches were performed using Boolean operators and the PubMed search engine. Results The literature searches did not demonstrate convincing evidence of 1) chronic anaplasmosis infection, 2) treatment responsive symptomatic chronic babesiosis in immunocompetent persons in the absence of fever, laboratory abnormalities and detectable parasitemia, 3) either geographically widespread or treatment responsive symptomatic chronic infection with Babesia duncani in the absence of fever, laboratory abnormalities and detectable parasitemia, 4) tick-borne transmission of Bartonella species, or 5) simultaneous Lyme disease and Bartonella infection. Conclusions The medical literature does not support the diagnosis of chronic, atypical tick-borne coinfections in patients with chronic, nonspecific illnesses. PMID:24929022
Bouattour, A; Darghouth, M A; Daoud, A
Ticks (Ixodidae) play a significant role as vectors of pathogens of domestic animals in Tunisia. The major losses caused by ticks are related to transmission of protozoan parasites. These include agents of tropical theileriosis and babesiosis in ruminants. Since 1991, we conducted research studies on tick population of livestock in Tunisia. This overview reports a synthesis on tick distribution, their biology and their role as vectors of pathogens in domestic animals, particularly cattle. During the whole period of the study about 15,000 tick specimens were collected from different zones of the country. A total of 14 species were identified. Hyalomma detritum detritum was the most abundant and important (vector of Theileria annulata) species infesting cattle. Hyalomma dromedarii and Hyalomma impeltatum were collected on domestic ruminants in the arid and desertic zones. Hyalomma marginatum marginatum and Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum were widespread and found on livestock hosts. Ixodes ricinus, vector of Babesia divergens and Borrelia burgdorferi sl, colonises mainly the humid zone. Boophilus annulatus and Rhipicephalus bursa infesting cattle, sheep and goats were found in the sub-humid and semi-arid zones. Haemaphysalis sulcata and Hae. punctata were collected in humid and sub-humid zones on cattle and sheep. Rhipicephalus turanicus were collected in different regions, on different animal species. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, tick of dogs, were often collected on livestock. Only few specimens of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Hyalomma franchinii were collected.
Full Text Available Human babesiosis, especially caused by the cattle derived Babesia divergens parasite, is on the increase, resulting in renewed attentiveness to this potentially life threatening emerging zoonotic disease. The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology and intra-erythrocytic development of these parasites are poorly understood. This impedes concerted efforts aimed at the discovery of novel anti-babesiacidal agents. By applying sensitive cell biological and molecular functional genomics tools, we describe the intra-erythrocytic development cycle of B. divergens parasites from immature, mono-nucleated ring forms to bi-nucleated paired piriforms and ultimately multi-nucleated tetrads that characterizes zoonotic Babesia spp. This is further correlated for the first time to nuclear content increases during intra-erythrocytic development progression, providing insight into the part of the life cycle that occurs during human infection. High-content temporal evaluation elucidated the contribution of the different stages to life cycle progression. Moreover, molecular descriptors indicate that B. divergens parasites employ physiological adaptation to in vitro cultivation. Additionally, differential expression is observed as the parasite equilibrates its developmental stages during its life cycle. Together, this information provides the first temporal evaluation of the functional transcriptome of B. divergens parasites, information that could be useful in identifying biological processes essential to parasite survival for future anti-babesiacidal discoveries.
Coleman Glen T
Full Text Available Abstract Despite the combination of favourable climate for parasites and vectors, and large populations of stray dogs, information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of canine vector-borne diseases in India is limited. However, with the country's expanding economy and adaptation to western culture, higher expectations and demands are being placed on veterinary surgeons for improved knowledge of diseases and control. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of these diseases in India and identify existing knowledge gaps in the literature which need to be addressed. The available literature on this subject, although limited, suggests that a number of canine vector-borne diseases such as filariasis, babesiosis and ehrlichiosis are endemic throughout India, as diagnosed mostly by morphological methods. Detailed investigations of the epidemiology and zoonotic potential of these pathogens has been neglected. Further study is essential to develop a better understanding of the diversity of canine vector-borne diseases in India, and their significance for veterinary and public health.
Mahmoud M. Elhaig, Abdelfattah Selim, Mohamed M. Mahmoud and Eman K El-Gayar
Full Text Available Trypanosomosis and babesiosis are economically important vector-borne diseases for animal health and productivity in developing countries. In Egypt, molecular epidemiological surveys on such diseases are scarce. In the present study, we examined 475 healthy and 25 clinically diagnosed cattle from three provinces in Lower Egypt, for Trypanosoma (T. and Babesia (B. infections using an ITS1 PCR assay that confirmed Trypanosoma species presence and an 18S rRNA assay that detected B. bigemina. Results confirmed Trypanosoma spp. and B. bigemina presence in 30.4% and 11% individuals, respectively, with eight animals (1.6% being co-infected with both hemoparasites. Subsequent type-specific PCRs revealed that all Trypanosoma PCR positive samples corresponded to T. evansi and that none of the animals harboured T. brucei gambiense or T. brucei rhodesiense. Nucleotide sequencing of the variable surface glycoprotein revealed the T. evansi cattle strain to be most closely related (99% nucleotide sequence identity to strains previously detected in dromedary camels in Egypt, while the 18S rRNA gene phylogeny confirmed the presence of a unique B. bigemina haplotype closely related to strains from Turkey and Brazil. Statistically significant differences in PCR prevalence were noted with respect to gender, clinical status and locality. These results confirm the presence of high numbers of carrier animals and signal the need for expanded surveillance and control efforts.
Mihalca, Andrei D; Sándor, Attila D
Rodents comprise more species than any other mammal order. Most rodents are considered keystone species in their ecological communities, hence the survival of many other species in the ecosystem depend on them. From medical point of view, this is particularly important for rodent-dependent pathogens. In the particular case of tick-borne diseases, rodents are important as hosts for vector ticks and as reservoir hosts (Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Tick-borne relapsing fevers, tick-borne rickettsioses, babesiosis). Community and population ecology of rodents was shown to be correlated with disease ecology in the case of many tick-borne diseases. In Eastern Europe, several adult hard-tick species use rodents as their principal hosts: Ixodes apronophorus, I. crenulatus, I. laguri, I. redikorzevi, I. trianguliceps. However, the majority of ticks feeding on rodents are immature stages of ticks which as adults are parasitic on larger mammals. Larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant and medically important tick from Europe, are commonly found on rodents. This is particularly important, as many rodents are synanthropic and, together with other micromammals and birds are often the only available natural hosts for ticks in urban environments. This work reviews the correlated ecology of rodents and I. ricinus.
Full Text Available Hanna Rhee1, Daniel J Cameron21Medicine, San Diego, CA, 2Northern Westchester Hospital, Mount Kisco, NY, USAAbstract: Lyme disease (LD is a complex, multisystemic illness. As the most common vector-borne disease in the United States, LD is caused by bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, with potential coinfections from agents of anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and ehrlichiosis. Persistent symptoms and clinical signs reflect multiorgan involvement with episodes of active disease and periods of remission, not sparing the coveted central nervous system. The capability of microorganisms to cause and exacerbate various neuropsychiatric pathology is also seen in pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS, a recently described disorder attributed to bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus in which neurologic tics and obsessive-compulsive disorders are sequelae of the infection. In the current overview, LD and PANDAS are juxtaposed through a review of their respective infectious etiologies, clinical presentations, mechanisms of disease development, courses of illness, and treatment options. Future directions related to immunoneuropsychiatry are also discussed.Keywords: neuroborreliosis, infection, obsessive-compulsive disorder, tic disorder, Borrelia burgdorferi, strep throat
Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Kothalawala, Hemal; Abeyratne, Sembukutti Arachchige Eranga; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Hadirampela, Dilhani Thilanka; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; Sukumar, Subramaniyam; Kuleswarakumar, Kulanayagam; Chandrasiri, Alawattage Don Nimal; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki
Hemoprotozoan parasites are responsible for significant economic losses in cattle. We screened Sri Lankan cattle populations for the presence of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis, using species-specific PCR assays. Out of 316 samples collected from animals in four different districts of Sri Lanka (Nuwara Eliya, Polonnaruwa, Ampara, and Jaffna), 231 (73.1%) were positive for at least one parasite species. All four parasite species were detected among the study groups from all of the districts surveyed. The first and second commonest hemoprotozoan parasites identified were T. orientalis (53.5%) and B. bigemina (30.1%), respectively. We found that the dry zones (Polonnaruwa, Ampara, and Jaffna) had more Babesia-positive animals than the hill country wet zone (Nuwara Eliya). In contrast, T. orientalis was the predominant species detected in Nuwara Eliya, while infection with T. annulata was more common in the dry zones. In addition, 81 (35.1%) of the 231 positive samples were infected with more than one parasite species. The presence of multiple parasite species among the different cattle populations is of clinical and economic significance. Therefore, island-wide control and prevention programs against bovine babesiosis and theileriosis are needed to minimize the financial burden caused by these parasites.
Belotindos, Lawrence P; Lazaro, Jonathan V; Villanueva, Marvin A; Mingala, Claro N
Theileriosis is a tick-borne disease of domestic and wild animals that cause devastating economic loss in livestock in tropical and subtropical regions. Theileriosis is not yet documented in the Philippines as compared to babesiosis and anaplasmosis which are considered major tick-borne diseases that infect livestock in the country and contribute major losses to the livestock industry. The study was aimed to detect Theileria sp. at genus level in blood samples of cattle using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Specifically, it determined the phylogenetic relationship of Theileria species affecting cattle in the Philippines to other Theileria sp. registered in the GenBank. A total of 292 blood samples of cattle that were collected from various provinces were used. Theileria sp. was detected in 43/292 from the cattle blood samples using PCR assay targeting the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene. DNA sequence showed high similarity (90-99%) among the reported Theileria sp. isolates in the GenBank and the Philippine isolates of Theileria. Phylogenetic tree construction using nucleotide sequence classified the Philippine isolates of Theileria as benign. However, nucleotide polymorphism was observed in the new isolate based on nucleotide sequence alignment. It revealed that the new isolate can be a new species of Theileria.
Tian, Zhancheng; Liu, Guangyuan; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jin; Xie, Junren; Zheng, Jinfeng; Yuan, Xiaosong; Wang, Fangfang; Shen, Hui; Tian, Meiyuan
Ovine babesiosis and theileriosis are important hemoprotozoal diseases of sheep and goats in tropical and subtropical regions that lead to economic losses in these animals. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) is a reliable molecular diagnostic tool for discriminating Theileria or Babesia species in the same host. In this study, the DNA sequences of a ribosomal protein S8 (RPS8) gene from four species of piroplasms in China were used to develop a species-specific PCR-RFLP diagnostic tool. The sensitivity of the PCR assays was 0.1 pg DNA for B. motasi and 1 pg DNA for T. uilenbergi and 10 pg DNA for Babesia sp. Xinjiang-2005 and T. luwenshuni. The clear size difference of the PCR products allowed for a direct discrimination for B. motasi, Babesia sp. Xinjiang-2005 and ovine Theileria species (T. uilenbergi and T. luwenshuni), except that the mixed infection between T. uilenbergi and T. luwenshuni may be difficult to distinguish, simply after the electrophoretic separation of the amplification products. Further T. uilenbergi and T. luwenshuni diagnoses were made by digesting the PCR product with SacI. The established method could be applicable for the survey of parasite dynamics, and epidemiological studies as well as prevention and control of the disease.
The present review deals with the representative research papers on human parasites and parasitic diseases in China over the past hundred years (1871-2006). As the views focused on the development of the medical parasitology, the historical background and progressive characters in the period of fermentation, origination, and expansion have been discussed. The check list of the first cases of human parasitic diseases reported in China during 1871-2006 contained 128 species of parasitic pathogens, and among them 38 species were the newly revisional records. The citation from Faust's paper (1923) proved that previous record of "the first case of Eurytrema pancreaticum from Hongkong" was an absurdly mistake. The human infections of Diphyllobothrium latum, Toxocara canis, and Triodontophorus minor discovered by Lin (1924) from Beijing were the first records in the country. A doubtful malaria case reported from Chongqing by Hung (1944) should be revised as the first case of babesiosis in China. The above-presented examples suggest that the truthful record of parasitic pathogens is an important base for the discovery history of parasitic diseases. With comments on the research progress of human parasitic diseases in different historical stages, it seems that the trends of medical parasitology development in China have been synchronous with the research activities in the area.
Ohmori, Shiho; Nagano-Fujii, Motoko; Saito-Ito, Atsuko
Babesia microti, a rodent babesia, is known as a pathogen of zoonosis, human babesiosis, is composed of several genotypes of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSUrDNA) and different genotypes have been suggested to have different infectivity and pathogenicity to humans. We established a real-time PCR assay using SYBR Green I, which allows specific detection and absolute quantification for each SSUrDNA-type-B. microti of four SSUrDNA-types found in Japanese rodents even in mixed infection. In this assay, four genotype-specific primer pairs targeted on internal transcribed spacer 1 or 2 sequences were used. Primer pairs have the characteristics for a high specificity for homologous genotype DNA. The calibration curves of cycle threshold (Ct) values versus log concentrations of DNA for all four genotypes were linear over 10(7) fold range of DNA concentrations with correlation coefficient from 0.95 to 1 and sufficient amplification efficiency from 90% to 110%. The standard curves for all four genotypes were not changed even in the presence of heterologous DNA. In this paper, we introduce how to establish and perform the genotype-specific real-time PCR and our practical experimental tips to be recommended.
Full Text Available Wild ruminants and wild boar belong to the order Artiodactyla, the suborders Ruminantia and Nonruminantia and are classified as wild animals for big game hunting, whose breeding presents a very important branch of the hunting economy. Diseases caused by protozoa are rarely found in wild ruminants in nature. Causes of coccidiosis, cryptosporidiosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystiosis, giardiasis, babesiosis, and theileriosis have been diagnosed in deer. The most significant helminthoses in wild ruminants are fasciosis, dicrocoeliasis, paramphistomosis, fascioloidosis, cysticercosis, anoplocephalidosis, coenurosis, echinococcosis, pulmonary strongyloidiasis, parasitic gastroenteritis, strongyloidiasis and trichuriasis, with certain differences in the extent of prevalence of infection with certain species. The most frequent ectoparasitoses in wild deer and doe are diseases caused by ticks, mites, scabies mites, and hypoderma. The most represented endoparasitoses in wild boar throughout the world are coccidiosis, balantidiasis, metastrongyloidiasis, verminous gastritis, ascariasis, macracanthorhynchosis, trichinelosis, trichuriasis, cystecercosis, echinococcosis, and less frequently, there are also fasciolosis and dicrocoeliasis. The predominant ectoparasitoses in wild boar are ticks and scabies mites. Knowledge of the etiology and epizootiology of parasitic infections in wild ruminants and wild boar is of extreme importance for the process of promoting the health protection system for animals and humans, in particular when taking into account the biological and ecological hazard posed by zoonotic infections.
Gayo, V; Romito, M; Nel, L H; Solari, M A; Viljoen, G J
Bovine babesiosis is responsible for serious economic losses in Uruguay. Haemovaccines play an important role in disease prevention, but concern has been raised about their use. It is feared that the attenuated Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina vaccine strains may be transmitted by the local tick vector Boophilus microplus, and that reversion to virulence could occur. We therefore investigated the possibility that these strains could be transmitted via the transovarial route in ticks using a Babesia species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. DNA was extracted from the developmental stages of the tick vector that had fed on calves immunized with the haemovaccine. It was possible to detect Babesia DNA not only in adult ticks, but also in their eggs and larvae. In addition, it was shown that calves infested with larvae derived from eggs laid by ticks fed on acutely infected calves, were positive for Babesia using PCR. Caution should therefore be shown with the distribution of the haemovaccine in marginal areas. It is still advisable that suitable tick control measures be used to prevent transovarial transmission and the potential risk of attenuated Babesia reverting to virulence.
Schneider, D A; Yan, H; Bastos, R G; Johnson, W C; Gavin, P R; Allen, A J; Barrington, G M; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M; Knowles, D P; Goff, W L
The spleen is a critical organ in defence against haemoparasitic diseases like babesiosis. Many in vitro and ex vivo studies have identified splenic cells working in concert to activate mechanisms required for successful resolution of infection. The techniques used in those studies, however, remove cells from the anatomical context in which cell interaction and trafficking take place. In this study, an immunohistological approach was used to monitor the splenic distribution of defined cells during the acute response of naïve calves to Babesia bovis infection. Splenomegaly was characterized by disproportionate hyperplasia of large versus small leucocytes and altered distribution of several cell types thought to be important in mounting an effective immune response. In particular, the results suggest that the initial crosstalk between NK cells and immature dendritic cells occurs within the marginal zone and that immature dendritic cells are first redirected to encounter pathogens as they enter the spleen and then mature as they process antigen and migrate to T-cell-rich areas. The results of this study are remarkably similar to those observed in a mouse model of malarial infection, suggesting these dynamic events may be central to the acute response of naïve animals to haemoparasitic infection.
Iseki, Hiroshi; Zhou, Lijia; Kim, Chulmin; Inpankaew, Tawin; Sununta, Chainirun; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Xuan, Xuenan; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Igarashi, Ikuo
The present study was conducted to demonstrate the epidemiological distribution of bovine babesiosis in the northern regions of Thailand. A total of 700 serum samples of dairy cows in the northern provinces (Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai, Lumpang, and Mae Hong Sorn) were tested for antibodies against Babesia bovis and B. bigemina. Species-specific enzyme-linked (rRAP-1/CTs) were performed. According to the results, 517 (73.8%) and 484 (69.1%) were positive for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. In addition, 370 (52.9%) were positive for mixed infections by both ELISAs. On the other hand, all samples were also examined by the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFAT) with B. bovis- and B. bigemina-infected blood smears. According to the IFAT, 482 (68.8%) and 531 (75.8%) were positive for these infections, respectively. The overall concordances between the ELISA and IFAT techniques were 93.6% and 90.7% for B. bovis and B. bigemina infections, respectively. These results indicated that babesia infections are widespread in the northern parts of Thailand. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the epidemiology of Babesia infections using rRAP-1/CT-based ELISAs in these areas.
吴永红; 刘玲; 王真; 巴音查汗
[ Objective ] Piropiasmosis often occurred in the scattered feeding cattie farm in Southern Xinjiang. This disease is a tick - borne endemic biood protozoai disease with high mortaiity rate. This research aimed to investigate the prevaience rate of piropiasmosis and vector tick in some cattie farms better prevent and controi piropiasmosis and reduce the ioss that was caused by this disease to the raisers. [ method ] The author coiiected materiais with iocai veterinarians and owners, took them back to the schooi iaboratory, identified and anaiyzed the vector ticks and pathogen by microscope and the data about piropiasmosis. [ Result ] Bovine tropicai theiieriosis and bovine babesiosis were judged by comprehensive judgment, and the main vector ticks were Hyalomma detritum Hyalomma asiaticum and Boophilus microplus. The infection rate of biood protozoa was 84% : bovine theiieria annuiata 71. 4% ; Babesia bigemina 40. 5% ; babesia bovis 29%. [ Conclusion ] Through this survey we detaiied the occurrence and epidemic status of piropiasmosis in some cattie farms and the predominant distributive species of the iocai vector ticks, and found that there were severai piropiasmosis cross - infection. The resuit provides some scientific basis for the prevention of piropiasmosis.
Prevalence Rates of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and Babesia microti (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) in Host-Seeking Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) from Pennsylvania.
Hutchinson, M L; Strohecker, M D; Simmons, T W; Kyle, A D; Helwig, M W
The etiological agents responsible for Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), human granulocytic anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), and babesiosis (Babesia microti) are primarily transmitted by the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say. Despite Pennsylvania having in recent years reported the highest number of Lyme disease cases in the United States, relatively little is known regarding the geographic distribution of the vector and its pathogens in the state. Previous attempts at climate-based predictive modeling of I. scapularis occurrence have not coincided with the high human incidence rates in parts of the state. To elucidate the distribution and pathogen infection rates of I. scapularis, we collected and tested 1,855 adult ticks statewide from 2012 to 2014. The presence of I. scapularis and B. burgdorferi was confirmed from all 67 Pennsylvania counties. Analyses were performed on 1,363 ticks collected in the fall of 2013 to avoid temporal bias across years. Infection rates were highest for B. burgdorferi (47.4%), followed by Ba. microti (3.5%) and A. phagocytophilum (3.3%). Coinfections included B. burgdorferi+Ba. microti (2.0%), B. burgdorferi+A. phagocytophilum (1.5%) and one tick positive for A. phagocytophilum+Ba. microti. Infection rates for B. burgdorferi were lower in the western region of the state. Our findings substantiate that Lyme disease risk is high throughout Pennsylvania.
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to carry out a genetic analysis of Babesia canis isolates detected in dogs in eastern Poland and to study the correlation of the protozoa variant with a specific geographical region. Material and Methods: PCR was used to identify strains of B. canis from naturally infected animals (240 dogs from four provinces: Mazowieckie, Lublin, Podlasie, and Podkarpacie by amplifying and sequencing a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene. Results: Sequencing the PCR products led to the identification of four variants of B. canis. Two previously described protozoa variants (18S rRNA-A and 18S rRNA-B were observed in all provinces. Additionally, in the Mazowieckie and Lublin provinces a B. canis variant which contributed to the development of acute or atypical babesiosis was observed. The fourth variant of B. canis was detected only in dogs from the Lublin province, and the course of the disease was subclinical in all dogs infected with this variant. Conclusion: These results indicate the appearance of a new fourth B. canis genotype in Poland and confirm that it is still necessary to study the relationships between the genetic structure of protozoa, geographical distribution of the parasites, and clinical course of the disease.
Heile, Cornelia; Heydorn, Alfred-Otto; Schein, Eberhard
This work deals with occurrence, distribution as well as biology and vectorial capacity of the ornate dog tick (Dermacentor (D.) reticulatus). Until 30 years ago this tick has only been described in a few natural foci in southern Germany. Its distribution has however expanded in the course of the last years. With the exception of northern Germany it is now covering large areas of Germany. This is particularly the case in the Upper Rhine Valley, Saarland and the Mark Brandenburg. However, it is endemic in many other areas of Germany as well. The transformation of agricultural land into fallow land, an increase in host reservoirs and climatic changes are discussed as main contributors to this change. Little is known about the role of this species as a vector for virus, rickettsia, bacteria and protozoa as well as its medical and veterinary importance. D. reticulatus is a vector for Babesia canis canis. It is reported here about a case of autochthonous babesiosis in a dog from Berlin/Brandenburg.
Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and Babesia microti (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from recreational lands in the Hudson Valley Region, New York State.
Prusinski, M A; Kokas, J E; Hukey, K T; Kogut, S J; Lee, J; Backenson, P B
ABSTRACT Blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, were collected from 27 sites in eight New York State counties from 2003 to 2006 to determine the prevalence and distribution of tick-borne pathogens in public-use areas over a 4-yr period. In total, 11,204 I. scapularis (3,300 nymphs and 7,904 adults) were individually analyzed using polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi (causative agent of Lyme disease), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophila, causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis), and Babesia microti (causative agent of human babesiosis). Overall prevalence of B. burgdorferi, A. phagocytophilum, and B. microti was 14.4, 6.5, and 2.7% in nymphs and 45.7, 12.3, and 2.5% in adult ticks, respectively. Rates varied geographically and temporally during the time period examined, and were related to measurements of tick density. Average rate ofpolymicrobial infection for nymphs and adults, respectively, was 1.5 and 8.5% overall, with 0.5 and 6.3% coinfection of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum, 1.0 and 1.5% B. burgdorferi and B. microti, and 0.05 and 0.6% A. phagocytophilum and B. microti. Thirty-three individual adult ticks from seven study sites in Westchester, Putnam, Dutchess, and Rockland counties tested positive for simultaneous infection with all three agents by multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay.
Wright, Alice; Thrusfield, Michael
Humans living in and around forest areas are at increased risk of zoonotic disease transmission. The transhumant Van Gujjars of North India are one such population, but there is an absence of health data, including evidence of zoonotic diseases, in this community. Pastoral communities can have a wide breadth of knowledge of livestock diseases, but not necessarily of human diseases. This study investigated the perceptions that the Van Gujjars have specifically of zoonotic diseases, using participatory epidemiological methods, including semi-structured interviews, ranking, proportional piling, transect walks and direct observation, triangulated by informal interviews with local veterinarians. The community did not have a wide appreciation of zoonotic diseases, apart from rabies and potentially zoonotic skin diseases. In contrast, animal diseases were of much greater concern to the community; the locally-named surra (trypanosomiasis), ajar, khuriya (foot-and-mouth disease), dakhutra, gheru, taku, and 'blood in urine' (possibly babesiosis), being of most concern. A participatory epidemiological approach was found to be an effective method of data collection and analysis; and the findings suggest that access to health services, particularly veterinary health services, should be improved for Van Gujjars.
Esch, Kevin J; Petersen, Christine A
Over 77 million dogs and 93 million cats share our households in the United States. Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of pets in their owners' physical and mental health. Given the large number of companion animals in the United States and the proximity and bond of these animals with their owners, understanding and preventing the diseases that these companions bring with them are of paramount importance. Zoonotic protozoal parasites, including toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease, babesiosis, giardiasis, and leishmaniasis, can cause insidious infections, with asymptomatic animals being capable of transmitting disease. Giardia and Toxoplasma gondii, endemic to the United States, have high prevalences in companion animals. Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi are found regionally within the United States. These diseases have lower prevalences but are significant sources of human disease globally and are expanding their companion animal distribution. Thankfully, healthy individuals in the United States are protected by intact immune systems and bolstered by good nutrition, sanitation, and hygiene. Immunocompromised individuals, including the growing number of obese and/or diabetic people, are at a much higher risk of developing zoonoses. Awareness of these often neglected diseases in all health communities is important for protecting pets and owners. To provide this awareness, this review is focused on zoonotic protozoal mechanisms of virulence, epidemiology, and the transmission of pathogens of consequence to pet owners in the United States.
Puraite, Irma; Rosef, Olav; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Lipatova, Indre; Paulauskas, Algimantas
Babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease and various wildlife species are reservoir hosts for zoonotic species of Babesia Starcovici, 1893. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and prevalence of Babesia spp. in moose Alces alces (Linnaeus) in two regions of Norway. A total of 99 spleen samples were collected from animals of various ages from an area with the occurrence of the tick Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758), and from an area where the ticks are known to be absent. Infection was detected by the amplification of different regions of the 18S rRNA gene by using two different PCR primer sets specific of Babesia. Babesia spp. were found in the spleen samples of four moose. All Babesia-infected animals were from an area where ticks occur, with an infection rate of 6% (4 of 70). Babesia-positive samples were obtained from a five-month old moose calf and three adults. Two Babesia species, Babesia capreoli (Enigk et Friedhoff, 1962) and a B. odocoilei-like, were identified. Co-infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum was obtained in two animals. This is the first report of the occurrence of B. capreoli and B. odocoilei-like species in moose.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to describe the clinicopathological findings in dogs naturally infected with Babesia. During the period of February 2011-February 2012 twenty-nine cases of Babesia Canis were diagnosed in the clinic of Small Animal at the Veterinary Faculty of Tirana. The animal was considered infected when pear shaped babesia was observed inside infected erythrocytes in Wright-Giemsa stained blood smears. The animal stay for one week in our clinic and during this period we evaluated the canine babesiosis cases by means of clinical history, physical examination, hematological and biochemical tests. Based in the clinical sing of babesia the animal was divided in two groups with uncomplicated and complicate babesia. The duration of clinical signs ranged from 1 to 5 days prior to the arrival at the clinic and all the animals were positive with B. c. canis infections. The main clinical signs were dehydration and anemia in (79%, apathy (74%, anorexia or decrease appetite (70% and fever (68%. The anemia was present in the dogs and classified severe (13% as mild (45%, and moderate (52% of all the cases. In conclusion, the main clinicopathological findings were a mild to moderate hemolytic anemia and mild to severe thrombocytopenia.
Kundu F. Shima
Full Text Available In Nigeria, knowledge on the epidemiology of diseases of dogs is limited. A retrospective study of data from clinical records of six veterinary clinics was undertaken to determine the incidence of disease in owned dogs in Delta State, Nigeria from 2012 to 2014. Association between the diagnosed diseases and the studied variables was explored using Chi-Squared test statistics. This study revealed that most of the conditions presented to the veterinary clinics were preventable. Thirty-one (31 clinical conditions were diagnosed from 571 cases recorded, involving nonspecific (21.6%, infectious (70.9%; P=0.001 and non-infectious (7.5% diseases. The most occurring clinical conditions comprised helminthoses (21.4%, mange (10.5%, parvovirosis (8.4%, babesiosis (7.9%, septicemia (7.2%, gastroenteritis (7.0%, myiasis (7.0%, trauma (6.3%, poisoning (6.0%, ectoparasitism (3.7%, ascites (2.5%, dermatitis (2.3%, aural hematoma (1.2%, and orchitis (1.1%. Disease incidence was highest in Alsatian (40.3%, mixed/cross (33.1%, Rottweiler (7.0% and toy breeds (4.6%. Details on the least occurring diseases and the association between disease and the studied variables are given. The outcomes demonstrate the prevalence of the clinical conditions diagnosed, inadequate husbandry and veterinary care accorded to owned dogs in the State. Education of dog owners on preventive measures is paramount in alleviating some of these health problems.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes ricinus ticks transmit Babesia species to vertebrate hosts. Using molecular tools we were able to detect the presence of this piroplasmid in its vector. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and identity of Babesia species in questing ticks collected in various areas of Norway. Methods DNA from questing l. ricinus ticks were examined with a realtime PCR for the presence of Babesia. Positive samples of tick DNA were identified to species using PCR, and sequence analysis. Results From a total of 1908 questing l. ricinus ticks, 17 (0.9% indicated the presence of Babesia spp. after realtime-PCR screening. Ixodes ricinus harbouring Babesia spp. was detected in 9 out of 22 localities. Further molecular analyses of DNA from these positive ticks indicate the presence of Babesia venatorum, B. divergens, B. capreoli and a currently undescribed Babesia in Norwegian ticks. The most prevalent was B. venatorum found in 71% of the positive ticks. Conclusions A total of 17 out of 1908 (0.9% ticks were positive for Babesia. Our data confirm that there are several Babesia species in ticks in Norway. Babesia venatorum was the most prevalent. This species has a zoonotic potential and may cause human babesiosis following a tick bite.
To solve the world-wide problems of famine, malnutrition and environmental pollution it is imperative that all techniques and resources for the protection of animals and plants be mobilized. N'gana (animal trypansomiasis) alone profoundly affects the socio-economic development of Africa. Its vector, the tsetse fly, is widespread and prevents agricultural development over much of this continent of 7 million square kilometres. To discuss these problems the symposium was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency from 7 to 11 May 1979. It was an integral part of the IAEA and FAO's effort to promote a greater awareness of the actual and potential application of nuclear techniques in the resolution of problems in the control of arthropod vectors of animal diseases and of animal pathogens, and in pesticide management. A total of 58 participants from 19 countries attended, and 37 papers were presented, which covered a variety of topics, including the sterile insect technique as applied to tsetse flies. Several papers were presented covering its various aspects such as mass rearing, sterility induction, ecology, behavior and computer modelling. Other topics emphasized were pathogenesis and immunology of vector-borne diseases such as trypanosomiasis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and leishmaniasis. Also included were presentations of insect repellents and the biotransformation and degradation of labelled pesticides.
Arisue, Nobuko; Hashimoto, Tetsuo
The phylum Apicomplexa includes many parasitic genera of medical and veterinary importance including Plasmodium (causative agent of malaria), Toxoplasma (toxoplasmosis), and Babesia (babesiosis). Most of the apicomplexan parasites possess a unique, essential organelle, the apicoplast, which is a plastid without photosynthetic ability. Although the apicoplast is considered to have evolved through secondary endosymbiosis of a red alga into the common ancestral cell of apicomplexans, its evolutionary history has been under debate until recently. The apicoplast has a genome around 30-40 kb in length. Repertoire and arrangement of the apicoplast genome-encoded genes differ among apicomplexan genera, although within the genus Plasmodium these are almost conserved. Genes in the apicoplast genome may be useful markers for Plasmodium phylogeny, because these are single copy (except for the inverted repeat region) and may have more phylogenetic signal than the mitochondrial genome that have been most commonly used for Plasmodium phylogeny. This review describes recent studies concerning the evolutionary origin of the apicoplast, presents evolutionary comparison of the primary structures of apicoplast genomes from apicomplexan parasites, and summarizes recent findings of malaria phylogeny based on apicoplast genome-encoded genes.
Johnson, T L; Bjork, J K H; Neitzel, D F; Dorr, F M; Schiffman, E K; Eisen, R J
Ixodes scapularis Say, the black-legged tick, is the primary vector in the eastern United States of several pathogens causing human diseases including Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and babesiosis. Over the past two decades, I. scapularis-borne diseases have increased in incidence as well as geographic distribution. Lyme disease exists in two major foci in the United States, one encompassing northeastern states and the other in the Upper Midwest. Minnesota represents a state with an appreciable increase in counties reporting I. scapularis-borne illnesses, suggesting geographic expansion of vector populations in recent years. Recent tick distribution records support this assumption. Here, we used those records to create a fine resolution, subcounty-level distribution model for I. scapularis using variable response curves in addition to tests of variable importance. The model identified 19% of Minnesota as potentially suitable for establishment of the tick and indicated with high accuracy (AUC = 0.863) that the distribution is driven by land cover type, summer precipitation, maximum summer temperatures, and annual temperature variation. We provide updated records of established populations near the northwestern species range limit and present a model that increases our understanding of the potential distribution of I. scapularis in Minnesota.
Yabsley, Michael J; Parsons, Nola J; Horne, Elizabeth C; Shock, Barbara C; Purdee, Michaelle
The African penguin, Spheniscus demersus, the only penguin species that breeds in Africa, is endangered, and several diseases including avian malaria, babesiosis, and aspergillosis are common in some populations. From 2002 to 2010, spirochetes morphologically consistent with Borrelia were observed on thin blood smears from 115 of 8,343 (1.4%) African penguins admitted to rehabilitation centers in the Western Cape and Eastern Cape provinces of South Africa. Prevalence rates were significantly higher among chicks and juveniles compared with adults and for birds sampled during the summer months of October to February compared with winter months. The majority of infected birds were ultimately released, despite lack of antibiotic treatment; however, at least one bird is believed to have died of borreliosis based on characteristic gross and microscopic lesions. Analysis of partial flaB gene sequences indicated this was a relapsing fever Borrelia most similar to a Borrelia sp. detected in soft ticks from a seabird colony in Japan. This represents the fourth report of a relapsing fever Borrelia sp. in an avian species and highlights the need for additional studies of potentially pathogenic organisms infecting the African penguin in South Africa.
Aguirre, Marcelino; Flores, Adriana E; Alvarez, Genoveva; Molina, Alberto; Rodriguez, Iram; Ponce, Gustavo
Resistance acquired by the tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini) to different types of ixodicides in Mexico has had a negative impact on national and local livestock, mainly due to the transmission of diseases such as babesiosis and anaplasmosis, among others. The technique used for the diagnosis of resistance was that in the bioassays noted in the Norma Oficial Mexicana (NOM-006-ZOO-1994). The purpose of this investigation was the determination of resistance to pyrethroids through isoleucine-phenylalanine mutation in the gene KDR, in a population of ticks from Montemorelos, NL, Mexico. Preliminary bioassays demonstrated resistance to cypermethrin and deltamethrin (27.4%) and flumethrin (36.7-34.7%). To identify the mutation, DNA was extracted from 100 mg of larvae (pools), 10 pools were assessed by PCR, in which a pair of primers designed with the program Oligo 2.0 and Amplify 1.2 amplified a 136 bp fragment containing the mutation. The PCR product was subsequently sequenced to confirm the presence of the mutation. A strain susceptible to pyrethroid insecticides (Mora strain) was used as control, but it did not show the mutation. However, the mutation was detected in 4 out of 10 samples of the strain Montemorelos.
Pruritic dermatitis associated with Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens microfilariae in the blood was diagnosed in 22 dogs from Fermo (Central Italy). According to the history, previous unsuccessful treatments with corticosteroids, antibiotics, restricted diet, flea control, levamisole and ivermectin were recorded in 17 dogs (77.3%). The combined filtration tests and antigen tests, performed during the study, were negative for Dirofilaria immitis and Acanthocheilonema reconditum in each case. Dermatological lesions included erythema, papules, single or multifocal alopecia, eczema, lichenification, crusting and nodules. All dogs had pruritus. Concurrent babesiosis was diagnosed in the blood smears of each case (100%), and 60% of the dogs were found to be carriers of canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis (CGE). Three dogs (13.6%) were positive for leishmaniosis. Eradication of the concurrent infections followed by specific macro- and microfilaricide treatment led to complete recovery from the dermatological syndrome. The main conclusion of the study is that D. repens infection can be more pathogenic than is currently considered, and it is apparently an opportunistic disease with serious dermatological consequences.
Full Text Available The use of new, highly sensitive diagnostic methods has revealed persistent infections to be a common feature of different tick-borne diseases, such as babesiosis, anaplasmosis and heartwater. Antigenic variation can contribute to disease persistence through the continual elaboration of new surface structures, and we know in several instances how this is achieved. Known or suspected mechanisms of persistence in babesial parasites include cytoadhesion and rapid variation of the adhesive ligand in Babesia bovis and genetic diversity in several merozoite stage proteins of different Babesia spp. In Anaplasma, extensive variation in the pfam01617 gene family accompanies cycling of organism levels in chronic infection. One result from the pioneering research at Onderstepoort is the definition of a related polymorphic gene family that is likely involved in immunity against heartwater disease. We are beginning to understand the sizes of the antigenic repertoires and full definition is close, with the possibility of applying simultaneous high-throughput sequencing to the order of 1 000 small genomes. We also, for the first time, can consider modifying these genomes and looking at effects on persistence and virulence. However, important biological questions remain unanswered; for example, why we are seeing a new emerging Anaplasma infection of humans and is infection of endothelial cells by Anaplasma significant to persistence in vivo.
Youssef, Ahmed I; Uga, Shoji
This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoonoses are confined to specific geographic areas in Egypt, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis and zoonotic babesiosis in the Sinai. Other areas have a past history of a certain parasitic zoonoses, such as visceral leishmaniasis in the El-Agamy area in Alexandria. As a result of the implementation of control programs, a marked decrease in the prevalence of other zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis has been observed. Animal reservoirs of parasitic zoonoses have been identified in Egypt, especially in rodents, stray dogs and cats, as well as vectors, typically mosquitoes and ticks, which constitute potential risks for disease transmission. Prevention and control programs against sources and reservoirs of zoonoses should be planned by public health and veterinary officers based on reliable information from systematic surveillance.
João Ricardo Martins
Full Text Available Espiroquetas da espécie Borrelia theileri identificadas em uma estirpe de carrapatos Boophilus microplus provenientes do município de Guaíba, RS. A observação ocorreu no exame de hemolinfa de fêmeas adultas com 10 dias pós-repleçâo, corada por Giemsa. Não foram observadas espiroquetas em ovos provenientes de teleóginas infectadas. A detecção da estirpe infectada sugere a presença de borreliose em rebanhos bovinos, fato que eventualmente pode interferir em resultados de diagnóstico ou tornar-se motivo de preocupação em produtos derivados de sangue bovino tais como vacinas vivas contra anaplasmose e babesiose bovina.Spirochetes of species Borrelia theileri were identifica in afield-strain of the caule tick Boophilus microplus, in Guaíba, RS, Brazil. Hemolymph smears from females 10 days post-repletion were collected by gentty section of the tarsal-metatarsaijoint, and dropped onto a microscope slide, and stained by Giemsa. No spirochetes were observed in eggs squashed and stained by Giemsa from the same infected strain. The detection of B. microplus adult females infected with Borrelia theileri suggesfs the likely presence of borreliosis in bovine heras what might eventually interfere with the interpretation of diagnosis results or become cause for concern in blood products such as anaplasmosis and babesiosis live vaccines.
Full Text Available This prospective longitudinal study investigated the progression of haematological changes in 32 transfused and 54 non-transfused dogs naturally infected with Babesia rossi over the 1st 6 days following diagnosis and treatment. The effect of patient age on the results of complete blood counts was determined. Haematology data were analysed at presentation and at 24 hours, 3 days and 6 days after presentation. Dogs were treated with diminazene aceturate at diagnosis and a blood transfusion was given if deemed clinically required. Mildly to moderately regenerative normocytic normochromic anaemia was observed in all dogs throughout the study period. Transfused dogs more often had an inflammatory leukogram at presentation and at 24 hours, than dogs that were not transfused. In dogs with a left shift, a concurrent normal or decreased segmented neutrophil count was found more commonly than neutrophilia. Severe thrombocytopenia that resolved within a week was common. Blood transfusion alleviated the anaemia, but had no significant effect on white blood cell or platelet responses. Blood cell responses were not significantly influenced by age. In conclusion, the red blood cell and white blood cell responses were less than expected in dogs with babesiosis, given the degree of anaemia and inflammation present. The magnitude of thrombocytopenia and rapid return of the platelet count to normal suggested a possible immune-mediated mechanism for the thrombocytopenia.
Heekin, Andrew M; Guerrero, Felix D; Bendele, Kylie G; Saldivar, Leo; Scoles, Glen A; Dowd, Scot E; Gondro, Cedric; Nene, Vishvanath; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Brayton, Kelly A
As it feeds upon cattle, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is capable of transmitting a number of pathogenic organisms, including the apicomplexan hemoparasite Babesia bovis, a causative agent of bovine babesiosis. The R. microplus female gut transcriptome was studied for two cohorts: adult females feeding on a bovine host infected with B. bovis and adult females feeding on an uninfected bovine. RNA was purified and used to generate a subtracted cDNA library from B. bovis-infected female gut, and 4,077 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were sequenced. Gene expression was also measured by a microarray designed from the publicly available R. microplus gene index: BmiGI Version 2. We compared gene expression in the tick gut from females feeding upon an uninfected bovine to gene expression in tick gut from females feeding upon a splenectomized bovine infected with B. bovis. Thirty-three ESTs represented on the microarray were expressed at a higher level in female gut samples from the ticks feeding upon a B. bovis-infected calf compared to expression levels in female gut samples from ticks feeding on an uninfected calf. Forty-three transcripts were expressed at a lower level in the ticks feeding upon B. bovis-infected female guts compared with expression in female gut samples from ticks feeding on the uninfected calf. These array data were used as initial characterization of gene expression associated with the infection of R. microplus by B. bovis.
Simking, Pacharathon; Saengow, Sinsamuth; Bangphoomi, Kunan; Sarataphan, Nachai; Wongnarkpet, Sirichai; Inpankaew, Tawin; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Munkhjargal, Tserendorj; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo
Bovine babesiosis is an economically significant disease that affects dairy farming operations in Thailand. In the present study, 1824 blood-DNA samples prepared from cattle bred in 4 different regions of the country (North, Northeast, Central, and South) were screened using a nested PCR for the specific detection of Babesia bovis. While the overall prevalence of B. bovis was 8.8%, the Central region of Thailand was found to be a high-risk area of the country, as the prevalence of the parasite was 15.0%. The positive rate was relatively higher among the animals of 1-5 years of age. The genetic diversity among the B. bovis parasites was also studied based on their MSA-2b gene, and the findings showed that the Thai sequences were dispersed across 8 of 13 total clades observed in the phylogram. Three of these clades were formed only of Thai sequences. Similarity among the deduced MSA-2b amino acid sequences determined in the present study was 68.3-100%. In conclusion, the present study found that all the locations surveyed were infected with B. bovis and that the parasite populations in Thailand were genetically diverse. Our findings highlight the need for further studies in Thailand to generate more information before a sound control strategy could be implemented against B. bovis.
Sabrina Castilho Duarte
Full Text Available The genus Babesia comprises protozoa that cause diseases known as babesiosis. Dogs are commonly affected by Babesia canis or Babesia gibsoni. Babesia canis is divided into the subspecies Babesia canis canis, Babesia canis vogeli and Babesia canis rossi. Among these, Babesia canis vogeli predominates in Brazil. The objective of this study was to conduct a phylogenetic analysis on Babesia isolates from dogs in Goiânia, Goiás. Blood samples were obtained from 890 dogs presenting clinical signs suggestive of canine babesiosis that were attended at a veterinary hospital of Goiás. Only samples presenting typical intraerythrocytic parasites were used in the study. These were subjected to DNA extraction and amplification of a fragment of the 18S rRNA, by means of PCR. The PCR products were purified and sequenced. Sequences were obtained from 35 samples but only 17 of these were kept after quality assessment. Similarity analysis using BLASTn demonstrated that all 17 sequences corresponded to B. canis vogeli. Analysis using the Mega4 software showed that the isolates of B. canis vogeli from dogs in Goiânia present a high degree of molecular similarity (99.2 to 100% in comparison with other reference isolates from other regions of Brazil and worldwide, deposited in GenBank.O gênero Babesia compreende protozoários causadores de enfermidades denominadas babesioses. Cães geralmente são acometidos por Babesia canis ou Babesia gibsoni, sendo a primeira classificada em subespécies Babesia canis canis, Babesia canis vogeli e Babesia canis rossi. Entre essas, Babesia canis vogeli predomina no Brasil. O objetivo desse trabalho foi realizar estudo filogenético de amostras de Babesia em cães, em Goiânia, Goiás. Amostras de sangue foram obtidas de 890 cães atendidos no Hospital Veterinário de Goiás, apresentando sinais clínicos de babesiose. Somente amostras com presença de parasitos intraeritrocitários típicos foram utilizadas. Estas foram
Current Surveys of the Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs in Bulgaria.
Pantchev, Nikola; Schnyder, Manuela; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Schaper, Roland; Tsachev, Ilia
Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of interest in recent years. Some of the CVBDs are zoonotic and may therefore also represent a risk for the human population. Different factors are in discussion to explain the expansion of vectors and pathogens into formerly unaffected areas. Knowledge of the prevalence and distribution of CVBDs in Bulgaria is scant overall and most data rely on single case descriptions. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of important CVBDs in 167 dogs from central-southern Bulgaria (Stara Zagora), with special emphasis on hitherto uninvestigated babesiosis and angiostrongylosis, on poorly investigated Lyme borreliosis and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis, and on the potentially zoonotic dirofilariosis and leishmaniosis. Relatively high prevalence rates were documented for anti-Babesia canis antibodies, Dirofilaria immitis antigen (16.2 %; 27/167 each), anti-Ehrlichia canis (21 %; 35/167) and anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum antibodies (30.5 - 46.1 %; 51 - 77/167), while Borrelia burgdorferi seroprevalence was low (2.4 %; 4/167). All samples were negative for Leishmania infantum antibodies and Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and antibodies. In total, 64.7 % (108/167) of the samples indicated infection or exposure to at least one agent and a high proportion of dual infections (39.8 %; 43/108) was demonstrated. Multiple infections with up to four different organisms were also detected. Our data underline the importance of CVBDs and especially of co-infections which could influence the clinical outcome in dogs.
Cao, Shinuo; Aboge, Gabriel Oluga; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Yu, Longzheng; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Luo, Yuzi; Li, Yan; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Yamagishi, Junya; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Maeda, Ryuichiro; Inpankaew, Tawin; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Xuan, Xuenan
Although Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina infections cause economic losses in the cattle industry in northern Thailand, there is inadequate information on Babesia isolates present in the area. Therefore, to determine the prevalence and genetic relationship between Babesia isolates, we screened 200 blood samples of cattle from Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai, and Lumpang provinces of northern Thailand. A nested polymerase chain reaction using primers targeting B. bovis spherical body protein 2 (BboSBP2) and B. bigemina rhoptry-associated protein 1a (BbiRAP-1a) genes revealed a prevalence of 12 and 21 % for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively, while that of mixed infections was 6.5 % samples. The prevalences of B. bovis in Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai, and Lumpang were 9.5, 3.7, and 25.5 %, respectively. For B. bigemina, the prevalences were 15.8, 12.9, and 39.2 % in Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai, and Lumpang, respectively. Mixed infections with B. bovis and B. bigemina were 6.3 % in Chiang Rai, 1.9 % in Chiang Mai, and 13.7 % in Lumpang. The identical sequences of either BboSBP2 gene or BbiRAP-1a gene were shared among the Babesia isolates in the three provinces of northern Thailand. Further analysis using the internal transcribed spacer gene revealed at least four genotypes for B. bovis and five genotypes for B. bigemina in northern Thailand, while the sequences present great genetic diversities in the different isolates. Overall, we have demonstrated a high prevalence and polymorphism of Babesia parasites in northern Thailand calling for the need to design effective control programs for bovine babesiosis.
Mandal, M; Banerjee, P S; Garg, Rajat; Ram, Hira; Kundu, K; Kumar, Saroj; Kumar, G V P P S Ravi
Canine babesiosis is a vector borne disease caused by intra-erythrocytic apicomplexan parasites Babesia canis (large form) and Babesia gibsoni (small form), throughout the globe. Apart from few sporadic reports on the occurrence of B. gibsoni infection in dogs, no attempt has been made to characterize Babesia spp. of dogs in India. Fifteen canine blood samples, positive for small form of Babesia, collected from northern to eastern parts of India, were used for amplification of 18S rRNA gene (∼1665bp) of Babesia sp. and partial ITS1 region (∼254bp) of B. gibsoni Asian genotype. Cloning and sequencing of the amplified products of each sample was performed separately. Based on sequences and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and ITS1 sequences, 13 were considered to be B. gibsoni. These thirteen isolates shared high sequence identity with each other and with B. gibsoni Asian genotype. The other two isolates could not be assigned to any particular species because of the difference(s) in 18S rRNA sequence with B. gibsoni and closer identity with Babesiaoccultans and Babesiaorientalis. In the phylogenetic tree, all the isolates of B. gibsoni Asian genotype formed a separate major clade named as Babesia spp. sensu stricto clade with high bootstrap support. The two unnamed Babesia sp. (Malbazar and Ludhiana isolates) clustered close together with B. orientalis, Babesia sp. (Kashi 1 isolate) and B. occultans of bovines. It can be inferred from this study that 18S rRNA gene and ITS1 region are highly conserved among 13 B. gibsoni isolates from India. It is the maiden attempt of genetic characterization by sequencing of 18S rRNA gene and ITS1 region of B. gibsoni from India and is also the first record on the occurrence of an unknown Babesia sp. of dogs from south and south-east Asia.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Babesia bovis is an apicomplexan intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite that induces babesiosis in cattle after transmission by ticks. During specific stages of the apicomplexan parasite lifecycle, such as the sporozoites of Plasmodium falciparum and tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii, host cells are targeted for invasion using a unique, active process termed "gliding motility". However, it is not thoroughly understood how the merozoites of B. bovis target and invade host red blood cells (RBCs, and gliding motility has so far not been observed in the parasite. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gliding motility of B. bovis merozoites was revealed by time-lapse video microscopy. The recorded images revealed that the process included egress of the merozoites from the infected RBC, gliding motility, and subsequent invasion into new RBCs. The gliding motility of B. bovis merozoites was similar to the helical gliding of Toxoplasma tachyzoites. The trails left by the merozoites were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay using antiserum against B. bovis merozoite surface antigen 1. Inhibition of gliding motility by actin filament polymerization or depolymerization indicated that the gliding motility was driven by actomyosin dependent process. In addition, we revealed the timing of breakdown of the parasitophorous vacuole. Time-lapse image analysis of membrane-stained bovine RBCs showed formation and breakdown of the parasitophorous vacuole within ten minutes of invasion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of the gliding motility of B. bovis. Since merozoites of Plasmodium parasites do not glide on a substrate, the gliding motility of B. bovis merozoites is a notable finding.
Yamasaki, Masahiro; Harada, Eriko; Tamura, Yu; Lim, Sue Yee; Ohsuga, Tatsuyuki; Yokoyama, Nozomu; Morishita, Keitaro; Nakamura, Kensuke; Ohta, Hiroshi; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi
Babesia gibsoni is a causative pathogen of canine babesiosis, which is commonly treated with anti-babesial drugs; however, the development of novel, more effective anti-babesial drugs is necessary because the currently used drugs cannot remove the parasites from dogs. Therefore we investigated the anti-babesial effect of amphotericin B (AmB), a membrane-active polyene macrolide antibiotic. The interaction of such compounds with sterols in bilayer cell membranes can lead to cell damage and ultimately cell lysis. AmB exhibits in vitro activity against B. gibsoni in normal canine erythrocytes within 12h. We also studied liposomal AmB (L-AmB), a liposomal formulation of AmB that required a longer incubation period to reduce the number of parasites. However, L-AmB completely inhibited the invasion of free parasites into erythrocytes. These results indicated that free parasites failed to invade erythrocytes in the presence of L-AmB. Both AmB and L-AmB induced mild hemolysis of erythrocytes. Moreover, the methemoglobin level and the turbidity index of erythrocytes were significantly increased when erythrocytes were incubated with AmB, suggesting that AmB induced oxidative damage in erythrocytes. Finally, the anti-babesial activity of AmB in vivo was observed. When experimentally B. gibsoni-infected dogs were administered 0.5 and 1mg/kg AmB by the intravenous route, the number of parasites decreased; however, recurrence of parasitemia was observed, indicating that AmB did not eliminate parasites completely. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine of dogs were abnormally elevated after the administration of 1mg/kg AmB. These results indicate that AmB has in vivo activity against B. gibsoni; however, it does not eliminate parasites from infected dogs and affects kidney function at a high dose.
Liza S. Köster
Full Text Available Babesia rossi is the cause of a highly virulent multisystemic disease with a variable outcome, which is a reliable model of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of canine pancreatic-specific lipase (cPL in a population of dogs with naturally acquired B. rossi infection. In addition, the associations between serum cPL and death and SIRS status were examined. An observational study recruited 87 dogs diagnosed with B. rossi infection and serum cPL concentrations were measured daily until discharge or death. The median concentration of serum cPL was 124.0 µg/L (interquartile range: 51.0 µg/L – 475.5 µg/L on admission (n = 87 and 145.5 µg/L (62.3 µg/L – 434.0 µg/L on day two of hospitalisation (n = 40. Twenty-four dogs (28% had a serum cPL concentration within the diagnostic range for pancreatitis (> 400 µg/L at admission with 13 dogs (32.5% presenting as such on the second day of hospitalisation. The median concentration of serum cPL in dogs with SIRS was 158 µg/L (interquartile range: 52.5 µg/L – 571.5 µg/L; n = 53, which was significantly higher than in those without SIRS (75 µg/L; 50.3 µg/L – 131.8 µg/L; n = 32 (P = 0.018. This study demonstrated that an unexpectedly high number of dogs diagnosed with naturally acquired canine babesiosis had a serum cPL concentration within the diagnostic range for acute pancreatitis and a significantly higher serum cPL concentration was found in dogs that were classified as having SIRS.
Perez, J; Javier Perez, J; Vargas, P; Antonio Alvarez, J; Rojas, C; Figueroa, J V
The 12D3 antigen present in Babesia bovis has been evaluated as a recombinant vaccine candidate and the 12d3 coding sequence has been reported for an Australian and an USA (Texas) isolate of B. bovis. However, no approach has been conducted to perform analysis of 12d3 sequence conservation on a larger number of B. bovis isolates. This could provide important information to determine whether a recombinant vaccine containing this antigen could be widely used. This study reports the cloning and sequencing analysis of the 12d3 coding region in 20 different B. bovis isolates collected from various geographical regions in the tropics and subtropics of Mexico. Comparative analysis of the consensus nucleotide sequences obtained for each isolate revealed a high degree of conservation (94-99% sequence identity) among the 12d3 alleles present in the Mexican isolates when compared with the 12d3 ORF sequences from the Texan (T2Bo) B. bovis isolate. Similarly, BLASTX sequence homology search showed a high percent identity (93-99%) of the deduced amino acid 12D3 sequence as compared with the T2Bo isolate sequence. The high level of sequence conservation in 12d3 among the 20 B. bovis isolates collected from geographically distant locations in Mexico suggests that there exists a minimal bovine-host immunological pressure which could be translated into antigenic diversity or variation, and most probably this is reflected in the non-inmunodominant characteristic of the 12D3 antigen as it has been previously described in the literature. 12D3 antigen can be considered as a viable candidate for inclusion in a recombinant vaccine for cattle babesiosis caused by B. bovis in Mexico.
Maria Dolores Esteve-Gasent
Full Text Available Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus, and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only millions of people live in this transboundary region but also a substantial movement of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border, along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders.
Full Text Available Abstract The human-animal bond has been a fundamental feature of mankind's history for millennia. The first, and strongest of these, man's relationship with the dog, is believed to pre-date even agriculture, going back as far as 30,000 years. It remains at least as powerful today. Fed by the changing nature of the interactions between people and their dogs worldwide and the increasing tendency towards close domesticity, the health of dogs has never played a more important role in family life. Thanks to developments in scientific understanding and diagnostic techniques, as well as changing priorities of pet owners, veterinarians are now able, and indeed expected, to play a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of canine disease, including canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs. The CVBDs represent a varied and complex group of diseases, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, leishmaniosis, rickettsiosis and thelaziosis, with new syndromes being uncovered every year. Many of these diseases can cause serious, even life-threatening clinical conditions in dogs, with a number having zoonotic potential, affecting the human population. Today, CVBDs pose a growing global threat as they continue their spread far from their traditional geographical and temporal restraints as a result of changes in both climatic conditions and pet dog travel patterns, exposing new populations to previously unknown infectious agents and posing unprecedented challenges to veterinarians. In response to this growing threat, the CVBD World Forum, a multidisciplinary group of experts in CVBDs from around the world which meets on an annual basis, gathered in Nice (France in 2011 to share the latest research on CVBDs and discuss the best approaches to managing these diseases around the world. As a result of these discussions, we, the members of the CVBD Forum have developed the following recommendations to veterinarians
Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Cao, Shinuo; Iguchi, Aiko; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Zhou, Mo; Vudriko, Patrick; Changbunjong, Tanasak; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Moonarmart, Walasinee; Sedwisai, Poonyapat; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Wongsawang, Witsanu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan
Beef cattle production represents the largest cattle population in Thailand. Their productivity is constrained by tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis and theileriosis. In this study, we determined the prevalence of Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Theileria orientalis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic markers that were used for detection of the above parasites were sequenced to determine identities and similarity for Babesia spp. and genetic diversity of T. orientalis. Furthermore the risk factors for the occurrence of the above protozoan parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern parts of Thailand were assessed. A total of 329 blood samples were collected from beef cattle in 6 provinces. The study revealed that T. orientalis was the most prevalent (30.1%) parasite in beef cattle followed by B. bigemina (13.1%) and B. bovis (5.5%). Overall, 78.7% of the cattle screened were infected with at least one of the above parasites. Co-infection with Babesia spp. and T. orientalis was 30.1%. B. bigemina and T. orientalis were the most prevalent (15.1%) co-infection although triple infection with the three parasites was observed in 3.0% of the samples. Sequencing analysis revealed that B. bigemina RAP1 gene and B. bovis SBP2 gene were conserved among the parasites from different cattle samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the T. orientalis MPSP gene from parasites isolated from cattle in north and northeast Thailand was classified into types 5 and 7 as reported previously. Lack of tick control program was the universal risk factor of the occurrence of Babesia spp. and T. orientalis infection in beef cattle in northern and northeastern Thailand. We therefore recommend training of farmers on appropriate tick control strategies and further research on potential vectors for T. orientalis and elucidate the effect of co-infection with Babesia spp. on the pathogenicity of T. orientalis infection on beef in northern and northeastern Thailand.
Seifollahi, Zeinab; Sarkari, Bahador; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein; Asgari, Qasem; Ranjbar, Mohammad Javad; Abdolahi Khabisi, Samaneh
Backgrounds. Wild rodents are reservoirs of various zoonotic diseases, such as toxoplasmosis, babesiosis, and leishmaniasis. The current study aimed to assess the protozoan infection of rodents in Boyer-Ahmad district, southwestern Iran. Materials and Methods. A total of 52 rodents were collected from different parts of Boyer-Ahmad district, in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province, using Sherman live traps. Each rodent was anesthetized with ether, according to the ethics of working with animals, and was dissected. Samples were taken from various tissues and stool samples were collected from the contents of the colon and small intestines. Moreover, 2 to 5 mL of blood was taken from each of the rodents and the sera were examined for anti-Leishmania antibodies, by ELISA, or anti-T. gondii antibodies, by modified agglutination test (MAT). DNA was extracted from brain tissue samples of each rodent and PCR was used to identify the DNA of T. gondii. Results. Of the 52 stool samples of rodents studied by parasitological methods, intestinal protozoa infection was seen in 28 cases (53.8%). From 52 rodents, 19 (36.5%) were infected with Trichomonas, 10 (19.2%) with Giardia muris, and 11 (21.2%) with Entamoeba spp. Also, 10 cases (19.2%) were infected with Blastocystis, 3 (5.8%) were infected with Chilomastix, 7 (13.5%) were infected with Endolimax, 1 (1.9%) was infected with Retortamonas, 3 (5.77%) were infected with T. gondii, and 6 (11.54%) were infected with Trypanosoma lewisi. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in the sera of 5 (9.61%) cases. Results of the molecular study showed T. gondii infection in 3 (5.77%) of the rodents. Findings of this study showed that rodents in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province, southwestern Iran, are infected with several blood and intestinal parasites; some of them might be potential risks to residents and domestic animals in the region.
Bednarska, Malgorzata; Bajer, Anna; Drozdowska, Anna; Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Tolkacz, Katarzyna; Welc-Falęciak, Renata
Babesia spp. (Apicomplexa, Piroplasmida) are obligate parasites of many species of mammals, causing a malaria-like infection- babesiosis. Three routes of Babesia infection have been recognized to date. The main route is by a tick bite, the second is via blood transfusion. The third, vertical route of infection is poorly recognized and understood. Our study focused on vertical transmission of B. microti in a well-established mouse model. We assessed the success of this route of infection in BALB/c mice with acute and chronic infections of B. microti. In experimental groups, females were mated on the 1st day of Babesia infection (Group G0); on the 28th day post infection (dpi) in the post- acute phase of the parasite infection (G28); and on the 90th and 150th dpi (G90 and G150 group, respectively), in the chronic phase of the parasite infection. Pups were obtained from 58% of females mated in the post-acute phase (G28) and from 33% of females in groups G90 and G150. Mice mated in the pre-acute phase of infection (G0) did not deliver pups. Congenital B. microti infections were detected by PCR amplification of Babesia 18S rDNA in almost all pups (96%) from the experimental groups G28, G90 and G150. Parasitaemia in the F1 generation was low and varied between 0.01-0.001%. Vertical transmission of B. microti was demonstrated for the first time in BALB/c mice.
Full Text Available Babesia spp. (Apicomplexa, Piroplasmida are obligate parasites of many species of mammals, causing a malaria-like infection- babesiosis. Three routes of Babesia infection have been recognized to date. The main route is by a tick bite, the second is via blood transfusion. The third, vertical route of infection is poorly recognized and understood. Our study focused on vertical transmission of B. microti in a well-established mouse model. We assessed the success of this route of infection in BALB/c mice with acute and chronic infections of B. microti. In experimental groups, females were mated on the 1st day of Babesia infection (Group G0; on the 28th day post infection (dpi in the post- acute phase of the parasite infection (G28; and on the 90th and 150th dpi (G90 and G150 group, respectively, in the chronic phase of the parasite infection. Pups were obtained from 58% of females mated in the post-acute phase (G28 and from 33% of females in groups G90 and G150. Mice mated in the pre-acute phase of infection (G0 did not deliver pups. Congenital B. microti infections were detected by PCR amplification of Babesia 18S rDNA in almost all pups (96% from the experimental groups G28, G90 and G150. Parasitaemia in the F1 generation was low and varied between 0.01-0.001%. Vertical transmission of B. microti was demonstrated for the first time in BALB/c mice.
Lobetti, R G; Reyers, F; Nesbit, J W
Renal pathology associated with haemoglobinaemia resulting from Babesia canis infection is ascribed to haemoglobinuria, with or without a contribution from anaemic hypoxia. This study was undertaken to investigate the relative roles of haemoglobinaemia and hypoxia in renal function and pathology in the dog. Three groups of 6 dogs each were used over a 4-day period. The dogs in the 1st group were infused with homologous canine haemoglobin, anaemic hypoxia was induced in the 2nd group, and both treatments were applied in the 3rd group. Full urinalyses, serum urea and creatinine concentrations, fractional clearance of sodium and the activity of urine enzymes, were assessed daily. At the end of the trial period, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined and kidney specimens collected for light and electron microscopy. In the group with hypoxia only, the urine sediment contained more casts and a greater number of renal tubular epithelial (RTE) cells than in either of the other groups. Hypoxia resulted in greater enzymuria, suggestive of RTE cell pathology, whereas haemoglobinuria did not appear to have any effect on urine enzyme activity. Hypoxia resulted in a decreased GFR. Histological examination revealed a mild, single-cell tubular necrosis in the majority of the animals (all 3 groups), with granular casts in the hypoxic groups. There appeared to be a large individual variation in the ability of the kidney to handle infused haemoglobin. It was concluded that severe haemoglobinaemia did not induce a significant nephropathy, anaemic hypoxia appeared to cause a very mild nephropathy, and the combination of haemoglobinaemia and anaemic hypoxia did not exacerbate this change. These lesions were very different from those described in canine babesiosis.
In Lyme disease concurrent infections frequently occur. The clinical and pathological impact of co-infections was first recognized in the 1990th, i.e. approximately ten years after the discovery of Lyme disease. Their pathological synergism can exacerbate Lyme disease or induce similar disease manifestations. Co-infecting agents can be transmitted together with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick bite resulting in multiple infections but a fraction of co-infections occur independently of tick bite. Clinically relevant co-infections are caused by Bartonella species, Yersinia enterocolitica, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In contrast to the USA, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and babesiosis are not of major importance in Europe. Infections caused by these pathogens in patients not infected by Borrelia burgdorferi can result in clinical symptoms similar to those occurring in Lyme disease. This applies particularly to infections caused by Bartonella henselae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Chlamydia trachomatis primarily causes polyarthritis. Chlamydophila pneumoniae not only causes arthritis but also affects the nervous system and the heart, which renders the differential diagnosis difficult. The diagnosis is even more complex when co-infections occur in association with Lyme disease. Treatment recommendations are based on individual expert opinions. In antibiotic therapy, the use of third generation cephalosporins should only be considered in cases of Lyme disease. The same applies to carbapenems, which however are used occasionally in infections caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. For the remaining infections predominantly tetracyclines and macrolides are used. Quinolones are for alternative treatment, particularly gemifloxacin. For Bartonella henselae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae the combination with rifampicin is recommended. Erythromycin is the drug of choice for
Arthropod-borne diseases are a major problem whenever outdoor activities bring arthropods and people into contact. The arthropods discussed here include arachnids (ticks) and insects. Most arthropod bites and stings are minor, with the notable exception being bee-sting anaphylaxis. Ticks cause the most disease transmission. Key hard tick vectors include black-legged (Ixodes), dog (Dermacentor), and lone star (Amblyomma) ticks, which transmit Lyme and various rickettsial diseases. Insect repellents, permethrin sprays, and proper tick inspection reduce this risk significantly. Lyme disease and the milder southern-tick-associated rash illness (STARI) are characterized by the erythema migrans rash followed, in the case of Lyme disease, by early, disseminated, and late systemic symptoms. Treatment is with doxycycline or ceftriaxone. Indefinite treatment of "chronic Lyme disease" based on subjective symptoms is not beneficial. Rickettsial diseases include ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever, which are characterized by fever, headache, and possible rash and should be empirically treated with doxycycline while awaiting laboratory confirmation. Tularemia is a bacterial disease (Francisella) spread by ticks and rabbits and characterized by fever and adenopathy. Treatment is with gentamicin or streptomycin. Babesiosis is a protozoal disease, mimicking malaria, that causes a self-limited flu-like disease in healthy hosts but can be life threatening with immune compromise. Treatment is with atovaquone and azithromycin. Other tick-related conditions include viral diseases (Powassan, Colorado tick fever, heartland virus), tick-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia), and tick paralysis (toxin). Mosquitoes, lice, fleas, and mites are notable for their annoying bites but are increasingly significant disease vectors even in the United States.
Knowles Donald P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is an economically important tick of cattle involved in the transmission of Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Commercial anti-tick vaccines based on the R. microplus Bm86 glycoprotein have shown some effect in controlling tick infestation; however their efficacy as a stand-alone solution for tick control has been questioned. Understanding the role of the Bm86 gene product in tick biology is critical to identifying additional methods to utilize Bm86 to reduce R. microplus infestation and babesia transmission. Additionally, the role played by Bm86 in R. microplus fitness during B. bovis infection is unknown. Results Here we describe in two independent experiments that RNA interference-mediated silencing of Bm86 decreased the fitness of R. microplus females fed on cattle during acute B. bovis infection. Notably, Bm86 silencing decreased the number and survival of engorged females, and decreased the weight of egg masses. However, gene silencing had no significant effect on the efficiency of transovarial transmission of B. bovis from surviving female ticks to their larval offspring. The results also show that Bm86 is expressed, in addition to gut cells, in larvae, nymphs, adult males and ovaries of partially engorged adult R. microplus females, and its expression was significantly down-regulated in ovaries of ticks fed on B. bovis-infected cattle. Conclusion The R. microplus Bm86 gene plays a critical role during tick feeding and after repletion during blood digestion in ticks fed on cattle during acute B. bovis infection. Therefore, the data indirectly support the rationale for using Bm86-based vaccines, perhaps in combination with acaricides, to control tick infestation particularly in B. bovis endemic areas.
Iana Carolina Pordeus Uchôa
Full Text Available Descrevem-se os achados clínicos, laboratoriais e histopatológicos de feo-hifomicose sistêmica em um cão. Clinicamente observou-se cansaço, ascite, apatia, hiporexia, perda de peso e polidipsia. O animal estava sendo tratado para erliquiose e babesiose. Após 11 dias, o cão retornou com hepatopatia grave e veio a óbito em 48 horas. Na necropsia, observaram-se nódulos enegrecidos em vários órgãos da cavidade abdominal. Histologicamente, havia reação granulomatosa necrosante com hemorragia, associada a miríades de hifas fúngicas pigmentadas intralesionais em múltiplos órgãos, caracterizando feo-hifomicose sistêmica. Ressalta-se a importância de incluir esta doença no diagnóstico diferencial de hepatopatias graves em cães com ascite.The objective of this study was to describe clinical, laboratorial and histopathological findings of systemic phaeohyphomycosis in a dog. The animal was presented with a history of fatigue, ascites, lethargy, weight and appetite loss and polydipsia. The therapy for erliquiose and babesiosis was started. After 11 days, the dog returned with severe liver disease and died after forty-eight hours. At necropsy, there were black nodules in various abdominal organs. Histologically, necrotizing granulomatous reaction with hemorrhage associated with myriads of intralesional pigmented fungal hyphae was observed in multiple organs, characterizing systemic phaeohyphomycosis. Thus, it is important to include this illness in the differential diagnosis of severe liver diseases in dogs with ascites.
Full Text Available Rhipicephalus microplus, better known as the Asiatic cattle tick, is a largely invasive ectoparasite of great economic importance due to the negative effect it has on agricultural livestock on a global scale, particularly cattle. Tick-borne diseases (babesiosis and anaplasmosis transmitted by R. microplus are alarming as they decrease the quality of livestock health and production. In sub-Saharan Africa, cattle represent a major source of meat and milk, but this region of the world is severely affected by the Rhipicephalus microplus tick. The principal method for tick control is the use of chemical acaricides, notably amitraz, which was implemented in the 1990's after resistance to other acaricides surfaced. However, the efficiency of chemical control is hindered by an increase in the frequency of mutant resistance alleles to amitraz in tick populations. Presently, the only way to assess amitraz resistance is by means of larval packet tests, but this technique is time-consuming and not particularly cost effective. The main aims of this study were three-fold. First, we attempted to correlate two known SNPs in the octopamine/tyramine (OCT/Tyr receptor with amitraz resistance in South African field samples of R. microplus. Second, we calculated gametic disequilibrium for these SNPs to determine whether they are randomly associated. Lastly, we conducted a study to assess the evolutionary effects of recombination within the OCT/Tyr receptor. Our results confirmed that the two SNPs are associated with amitraz resistance in the South African tick strain, and that they are in gametic disequilibrium. Additionally, recombination was detected in the OCT/Tyr receptor generating two recombinant haplotypes. These results are of concern to farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, and the emergence of amitraz resistance should be closely monitored in future. Therefore, we present a quick and affordable RFLP based diagnostic technique to assess amitraz resistance in field
Aman Dev Moudgil
Full Text Available Being a tropical country, India provides an ideal environment for the development of parasites as well as for vector populations resulting in a high degree of parasitism in animals and humans. But only a few detailed studies and sporadic case reports are available on the prevalence of parasites in captive wild animals, and the knowledge of parasites and parasitic diseases in wild animals is still in its infancy. The family felidae comprises the subfamily felinae and pantherinae, and within those are all large and small cats. Most of the available reports on parasites in felids describe helminthic infections, which caused morbidities and occasional mortalities in the infected animals. The parasites most frequently found include the nematodes Toxocara, Toxascaris, Baylisascaris, Strongyloides, Gnathostoma, Dirofilaria and Galonchus, the trematode Paragonimus and the cestodes Echinococcus and Taenia. Almost all the studies identified the parasitic stages by classical parasitological techniques and only a few new studies confirmed the species using molecular techniques. Amongst the protozoan parasitic infections reported in felids: babesiosis, trypanosomiasis and coccidiosis are most commonly found. Most of the parasite species found in felids are transmissible to humans (zoonosis and therefore have public health significance. Routine monitoring of the presence of parasites in captive wild felids is imperative for the formulation and implementation of measures to prevent and control parasitic infections and the transmission of these parasites to humans. This review summarizes the available reports and highlights deficient areas, which require further systematic investigation.
Nayel, Mohamed; El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Aboulaila, Mahmoud; Elsify, Ahmed; Hassan, Hany; Ibrahim, Elsayed; Salama, Akram; Yanai, Tokuma
Bovine piroplasmosis is caused by tick-borne hemoprotozoans of the genera Babesia and Theileria and is the most prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, causing a major economic impact worldwide. In the current study, a total of 405 cattle of different ages, sexes, and breeds were randomly sampled for surveying and diagnosis of babesiosis and theileriosis using three methods: direct microscopy (blood smears), indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed that, out of 405 examined cattle, 33 (8.15 %) were infected with Babesia sp. and 65 (16.05 %) with Theileria sp. (total number of infected cattle was 98). Mixed infection was seen in 11 (2.72 %) animals. Moreover, application of the three diagnostic assays on 158 randomly sampled cattle indicated that 17 (10.76 %) and 33 (20.89 %) were positive for Babesia and Theileria spp. by the direct smear technique, 25 (15.82 %) and 33 (20.89 %) by IFAT (fluorescence was greenish yellow for Babesia and yellowish for Theileria), and 20 (12.66 %) and 38 (24.05 %) by PCR. Using primers specific for Babesia and Theileria spp., we found that diagnostic bands appeared at ~350 and ~370 bp, respectively indicating the presence of these piroplasms. Statistically, there was a non-significant difference of the positivity in response to the three techniques; thus, any of these methods can be described as useful for diagnosing blood parasites in both domesticated animals and birds. On the basis of the obtained results, it could be concluded that direct microscopy can be used in acute infections, whereas IFAT and PCR are useful in chronicity.
Silva, M G; Marques, P X; Oliva, A
Babesiosis and Theileriosis are tick-borne diseases widespread in tropical and sub-tropical regions with high economic impact worldwide. In Portugal there are at least 4 tick vectors known to be competent for the transmission of Babesia and Theileria sp. identified: Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, Ixodes ricinus and Haemaphysalis punctata. All these potential Babesia and Theileria tick vectors are widely distributed in Portugal, although they are predominant in the Southern region. In this study, 1104 cattle blood samples were randomly collected from Central and Southern regions of Portugal and analyzed by PCR-reverse line blotting (RLB) for the detection of Babesia and Theileria sp. Testing indicated that 74.7% of the bovines tested were positive for either Babesia and/or Theileria sp. In addition, five different apicomplexan species, namely, Theileria buffeli, Theileria annulata, Babesia divergens, Babesia bovis, and Babesia bigemina were detected by RLB among the bovines tested. T. buffeli was the most frequently found species, being present in 69.9% of the positive samples either as single infections (52.4%), or as mixed infections (17.5%). The Babesia specie most frequently found was B. divergens, detected in 4.2% of the infected bovines. Overall, infected bovines were found in all regions tested; however the highest number of infected bovines was observed in Évora district (96.2%) and in cattle from Limousin breeds (81.7%). The results indicate widespread Babesia and Theileria infections in Portuguese bovines, suggesting the need for improved control of ticks and tick-borne diseases.
Paparini, Andrea; Ryan, Una M; Warren, Kris; McInnes, Linda M; de Tores, Paul; Irwin, Peter J
Piroplasms, which include the genera Theileria and Babesia, are blood-borne parasites transmitted mainly by tick vectors. Relatively little is known about their prevalence and clinical impact in Australian marsupials. In the present study the occurrence and molecular phylogeny of these parasites were studied in both wild and captive marsupials from Western Australia (WA) and Queensland (QLD). Blood samples were screened by microscopy and molecular methods, using PCR and DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA). Overall, 7.1% of the blood samples (8/113) were positive for piroplasm 18S rDNA. Theileria and Babesia rDNA was detected in 0.9% (1/113) and 6.2% (7/113) of the animals, respectively. The single Theileria positive was identified in one of three boodies (Bettongia lesueur) screened from a wildlife rehabilitation centre in WA, while all seven Babesia positives were detected in WA in wild captured woylies (Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi). Small intraerythrocytic inclusions were observed in blood films made from six of these individuals. This is the first report of a Babesia sp. in woylies, and Theileria sp. in boodies. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the woylie-derived Babesia was genetically distinct and most closely related to Babesia occultans, the causative agent of a benign form of cattle babesiosis (genetic similarity 98.4%). The Theileria identified was most closely related to the marsupial-derived species Theileria penicillata from the woylie, Theileria brachyuri from the quokka (Setonix brachyurus), and Theileria sp. from the long-nosed potoroo (Potorous tridactylus).
Full Text Available Abstract Background In The Netherlands, the incidence of Lyme borreliosis is on the rise. Besides its causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., other potential pathogens like Rickettsia, Babesia and Ehrlichia species are present in Ixodes ricinus ticks. The risk of disease associated with these microorganisms after tick-bites remains, however, largely unclear. A prospective study was performed to investigate how many persons with tick-bites develop localized or systemic symptoms and whether these are associated with tick-borne microorganisms. Results In total, 297 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from 246 study participants who consulted a general practitioner on the island of Ameland for tick bites. Ticks were subjected to PCR to detect DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. or Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp.. Sixteen percent of the collected ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., 19% for Rickettsia spp., 12% for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and 10% for Babesia spp.. At least six months after the tick bite, study participants were interviewed on symptoms by means of a standard questionnaire. 14 out of 193 participants (8.3% reported reddening at the bite site and 6 participants (4.1% reported systemic symptoms. No association between symptoms and tick-borne microorganisms was found. Attachment duration ≥24 h was positively associated with reddening at the bite site and systemic symptoms. Using logistic regression techniques, reddening was positively correlated with presence of Borrelia afzelii, and having 'any symptoms' was positively associated with attachment duration. Conclusion The risk of contracting acute Lyme borreliosis, rickettsiosis, babesiosis or ehrlichiosis from a single tick bite was
Hornok, Sándor; Kartali, Kitti; Takács, Nóra; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina
It has been reported from cities in Central Europe that clinical cases of canine babesiosis are most frequent in spring time, despite the fact that the peak activity of Dermacentor reticulatus (the vector of Babesia canis) is during autumn. The present study was initiated to evaluate the seasonal distribution of B. canis-infected D. reticulatus ticks in this context. In two habitats of Budapest 852 D. reticulatus adults were collected between August, 2014 and June, 2015. Among the molecularly analysed 413 ticks 8.2% were PCR positive for piroplasms. Both formerly reported 18S rDNA genotypes of B. canis: ("A" and "B") were identified. In habitat-1 B. canis-infected ticks were detected only in spring. Similarly, in habitat-2 B. canis-infected ticks occurred significantly more frequently during winter and spring than in the autumn (24.6% vs. 1.4%), and their monthly distribution showed significant negative correlation with tick size. The prevalence of infected ticks was the highest (43.5%) in late February. In addition, a month-dependent time-shift was noted in the appearance of the two B. canis 18S rDNA genotypes: the less pathogenic "A" predominating earlier, and the more pathogenic "B" later. It is known from literature that D. reticulatus individuals that moult to adult in the spring are smaller in size. Thus, the above results suggest that in urban habitats the occurrence of B. canis-infected ticks (or their questing activity) is more likely, when there are freshly emerged adults in the population, i.e. early in the questing season. It was also observed that the temporal distribution of D. reticulatus ticks carrying different B. canis genotypes was not random.
Mtshali, Phillip Senzo; Tsotetsi, Ana Mbokeleng; Thekisoe, Matlhahane Molifi Oriel; Mtshali, Moses Sibusiso
Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina are tick-borne hemoparasites causing babesiosis in cattle worldwide. This study was aimed at providing information about the occurrence and geographical distribution of B. bovis and B. bigemina species in cattle from Gauteng province, South Africa. A total of 268 blood samples collected from apparently healthy animals in 14 different peri-urban localities were tested using previously established nested PCR assays for the detection of B. bovis and B. bigemina species-specific genes encoding rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1) and SpeI-AvaI restriction fragment, respectively. Nested PCR assays revealed that the overall prevalence was 35.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]=± 5.73) and 76.1% (95% CI=± 5.11) for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. PCR results were corroborated by sequencing amplicons of randomly selected samples. The neighbor-joining trees were constructed to study the phylogenetic relationship between B. bovis and B. bigemina sequences of randomly selected isolates. Analysis of phylogram inferred with B. bovis RAP-1 sequences indicated a close relationship between our isolates and GenBank strains. On the other hand, a tree constructed with B. bigemina gp45 sequences revealed a high degree of polymorphism among the B. bigemina isolates investigated in this study. Taken together, the results presented in this work indicate the high incidence of Babesia parasites in cattle from previously uncharacterised peri-urban areas of the Gauteng province. These findings suggest that effective preventative and control measures are essential to curtail the spread of Babesia infections among cattle populations in Gauteng.
Tabara, Kenji; Arai, Satoru; Kawabuchi, Takako; Itagaki, Asao; Ishihara, Chiaki; Satoh, Hiroshi; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Tsuji, Masayoshi
A significant number of patients are diagnosed with "fevers of unknown origin" (FUO) in Shimane Prefecture in Japan where tick-borne diseases are endemic. We conducted molecular surveys for Babesia microti, Ehrlichia species, and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in 62 FUO cases and 62 wild rodents from Shimane Prefecture, Japan. PCR using primers specific for the Babesia 18S small-subunit rRNA (rDNA) gene and Anaplasmataceae groESL amplified products from 45% (28/62) and 25.8% (16/62) of captured mice, respectively. Of the 28 18S rDNA PCR positives, 23 and five samples were positive for Hobetsu- and Kobe-type B. microti, respectively. In contrast, of the 16 groESL PCR positives, eight, one and seven samples were positive for Ehrlichia muris, Ehrlichia sp. HF565 and Candidatus N. mikurensis, respectively. Inoculation of selected blood samples into Golden Syrian hamsters indicated the presence of Hobetsu- and Kobe-type B. microti in four and one sample, respectively. Isolation of the latter strain was considered important as previous studies suggested that the distribution of this type was so far confined to Awaji Island in Hyogo Prefecture, where the first case of transfusion-associated human babesiosis originated. DNA samples from 62 FUO human cases tested negative for B. microti 18S rDNA gene, Anaplasmataceae groESL gene, Rickettsia japonica 17K genus-common antigen gene and Orientia tsutsugamushi 56K antigen gene by PCRs. We also conducted seroepidemiological surveys on 62 human sera collected in Shimane Prefecture from the FUO patients who were suspected of carrying tick-borne diseases. However, indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests using B. microti- and E. muris-infected cells detected IgG against E. muris in only a single positive sample. This study demonstrates the presence of several potentially important tick-borne pathogens in Shimane Prefecture and suggests the need for further study on the causative agents of FUOs.
Niu, Qingli; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Yu, Peifa; Pan, Yuping; Zhai, Bintao; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong
Ovine babesioses, an important tick-borne disease of sheep and goats in China, is caused by the reproduction of intraerythrocytic protozoa of the Babesia genus. Babesia motasi-like is a Babesia parasite that infects small ruminant in China, and two sub-groups of B. motasi-like can be subdivided based on differences in the rhoptry-associated-protein-1 gene. This study aimed to characterize the distribution, epidemiology and genetics of B. motasi-like in animals and ticks. A molecular investigation was carried out from 2009 to 2015 in 16 provinces in China. In total, 1081 blood samples were collected from sheep and goats originating from 27 different regions, and 778 ixodid tick samples were collected from 8 regions; the samples were tested for the presence of B. motasi-like using a specific nested PCR assay based on the rap-1b gene. The results indicated that 139 (12.9%), 91 (8.4%), 48 (4.4%) and 6 (0.7%) of the blood samples were positive for general B. motasi-like, Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan and Ningxian), Babesia sp. Tianzhu and Babesia sp. Hebei sub-groups, mixed infections, respectively. Among the collected 778 ixodid ticks (including Haemaphysalis longicornis, Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, Dermacentor silvarum, Ixodes persulcatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus), the most frequently infected with Babesia were D. silvarum and I. persulcatus (35.7%), followed by H. longicornis (26.8%), H. qinghaiensis (24.8%) and R. sanguineus (9.3%). The PCR results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. The positive rates of B. motasi-like infection in ticks were found to be higher in China, compared with previous studies in other countries. B. motasi-like infections have not previously been reported in D. silvarum, I. persulcatus or R. sanguineus. The findings obtained in this study could be used for planning effective control strategies against babesiosis in China.
Smith, Faith D; Wall, Lauren Ellse Richard
Ticks are important vectors of disease in companion animals and transmit an extensive range of viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens to dogs and cats. They may also be vectors of zoonotic pathogens which affect the health of in-contact owners. In recent years, babesiosis, and anaplasmosis have all shown signs of increased prevalence and distribution in various parts of Europe. Here, the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. pathogens in Ixodes ticks, collected from dogs in the UK in 2009, were evaluated using PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA or 18S rDNA regions respectively. Species identification was performed by alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. After sequencing, 5 out of 677 tick samples (0.74%) contained rDNA which shared 97-100%% sequence homology with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Of these, three samples came from Ixodes ricinus and two from Ixodes hexagonus. Sixteen out of 742 ticks (2.4%) were positive for Babesia and of these 11 showed 97-100% homology with B. gibsoni. All of these 11 samples were derived from I. ricinus. One sample, again from I. ricinus, showed 99% homology for B. divergens. Four of the Babesia spp sequences were of the "venatorum" or EU1 type, three of which came from I. ricinus and one from an Ixodes canisuga. This strain has been associated with severe human cases of babeisiosis. A further 246 positive results, which appeared to show the presence of Anaplasma following PCR, were shown by sequence analysis to be derived from the bacterium Candidatus "Midichloria mitochondrii", which to date has been assumed to be non-pathogenic. The results are of interest because the presence of B. gibsoni in the UK further confirms the worldwide distribution of this piroplasm and supports the inference that I. ricinus may act as a vector for Babesia of the gibsoni-complex.
Zamoto-Niikura, Aya; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Qiang, Wei; Nakao, Minoru; Hirata, Haruyuki; Ishihara, Chiaki
The species Babesia microti, commonly found in rodents, demonstrates a high degree of genetic diversity. Three lineages, U.S., Kobe, and Hobetsu, are known to have zoonotic potential, but their tick vector(s) in Japan remains to be elucidated. We conducted a field investigation at Nemuro on Hokkaido Island and at Sumoto on Awaji Island, where up to two of the three lineages occur with similar frequencies in reservoirs. By flagging vegetation at these spots and surrounding areas, 4,010 ticks, comprising six species, were collected. A nested PCR that detects the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia species revealed that Ixodes ovatus and I. persulcatus alone were positive. Lineage-specific PCR for rRNA-positive samples demonstrated that I. ovatus and I. persulcatus carried, respectively, the Hobetsu and U.S. parasites. No Kobe-specific DNA was detected. Infected I. ovatus ticks were found at multiple sites, including Nemuro and Sumoto, with minimum infection rates (MIR) of ∼12.3%. However, all I. persulcatus ticks collected within the same regions, a total of 535, were negative for the Hobetsu lineage, indicating that I. ovatus, but not I. persulcatus, was the vector for the lineage. At Nemuro, U.S. lineage was detected in 2 of 139 adult I. persulcatus ticks (MIR, 1.4%), for the first time, while 48 of I. ovatus ticks were negative for that lineage. Laboratory experiments confirmed the transmission of Hobetsu and U.S. parasites to hamsters via I. ovatus and I. persulcatus, respectively. Differences in vector capacity shown by MIRs at Nemuro, where the two species were equally likely to acquire either lineage of parasite, may explain the difference in distribution of Hobetsu throughout Japan and U.S. taxa in Nemuro. These findings are of importance in the assessment of the regional risk for babesiosis in humans.
Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Aktas, Munir; Dumanli, Nazir
This study was carried out to investigate presence and distribution of Theileria and Babesia species via microscopic examination and reverse line blotting (RLB) techniques in sheep and goats in the Black Sea region of Turkey. For this purpose, 1,128 blood samples (869 sheep and 259 goats) were collected by active surveillance from sheep and goats in different provinces of various cities in the region in the years 2010 and 2011. Smears were prepared from the blood samples, stained with Giemsa, and examined under the light microscope for Theileria and Babesia piroplasms. The genomic DNAs were extracted from blood samples. The length of 360-430-bp fragment in the variable V4 region of 18S SSU rRNA gene of Theileria and Babesia species was amplified using the gDNAs. The polymerase chain reaction products were hybridized to the membrane-connected species-specific probes. A total of 38 animals (3.37%) including 34 sheep (3.91%) and 4 goats (1.54%) were found to be positive for Theileria spp. piroplasms in microscopic examination of smears while Babesia spp. piroplasm could not detected. Infection rates were 34.64% in sheep, 10.04% in goats, and totally 28.99% for Theileria ovis while 0.58% in sheep and totally 0.44% for Babesia ovis. However, Theileria sp. OT3 was detected in 2.65% of sheep and 2.04% of all animals; besides Theileria sp., MK had 0.58% prevalence in sheep and 0.77% in goats, with a total 0.62% with RLB. Although T. ovis and Theileria sp. MK were determined in both sheep and goats, B. ovis and Theileria sp. OT3 were observed only in the sheep. These results provide the first detailed molecular data for sheep and goat theileriosis and babesiosis in the region.
Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo
Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders.
Bouchard, C; Leighton, P A; Beauchamp, G; Nguon, S; Trudel, L; Milord, F; Lindsay, L R; Bélanger, D; Ogden, N H
Due to recent establishment of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, in southeastern Canada, tick-borne zoonoses (Lyme disease, human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis) are of growing concern for public health. Using white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) culled in southwestern Quebec during 2007-2008, we investigated whether hunter-killed deer could act as sentinels for early establishing tick populations and for tick-borne pathogens. Accounting for environmental characteristics of culling sites, and age and sex of deer, we investigated whether their tick infestation levels could identify locations of known tick populations detected in active surveillance, presumed tick populations detected by passive surveillance, or both. We also used spatial cluster analyses to identify spatial patterns of tick infestation and occurrence of tick-borne zoonoses infection in ticks collected from the deer. Adult ticks were found on 15% of the 583 deer examined. Adult male deer had the greatest number (approximately 90%) of adult ticks. Overall, 3, 15, and 0% of the ticks collected were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti, respectively. Our statistical analyses suggest that sex and age of deer, temperature, precipitation, and an index of tick dispersion by migratory birds were significantly associated with tick infestation levels. Cluster analysis identified significant clusters of deer carrying ticks PCR-positive for A. phagocytophilum, and for deer carrying two or more I. scapularis. Our study suggests that hunter-killed deer may be effective as sentinels for emerging areas of tick-borne anaplasmosis. They may have limited use as sentinels for early emerging I. scapularis tick populations and emerging Lyme disease risk.
Full Text Available Berenil® (diminazene aceturate is a chemotrypanocide and commonly used for treatment of protozoa infections as Babesiosis, Leishmaniasis and Trypanosomiasis in large animals. Indonesian government explained that the drug was never used before. Since 1999, Directorate of Livestock Services, Department of Agriculture, Republic of Indonesia recommended that the drug could be used for treatment of Trypanosomes cases. In contrast, the dosage level for the treatment of Trypanosomes was never determined before. In the late 2005, Indonesian researchers have investigated the new dosage of Berenil® for trypanosomes treatment. Base on the problem described above, the study was carried out to evaluate toxic effect of Berenil® to kidneys and livers. The objective of this study was to obtain the new data of toxic effect at multiple dosages. Ten Etawa breed goats were infected by Trypanosoma evansi Bangkalan isolate at more than 3.108 Trypanosoma/ml during the week. Five of ten subjects were treated by intramuscularly of Berenil® at multiple doses or superimpose dose (initial dosage 10.44 mg/kg body weight and four times of 7 mg/kg body weight every 31 minutes. Forty five days post treatment; the subjects were killed and the kidneys and livers were removed and preserved in 20% formalin. The histological specimens of their organs stained by haematoxylline eosin (HE were examined by light microscope. There were no breakage on the histology structure of the Etawa breed goat kidneys and livers after treatment. It could be concluded that the Berenil® at multiple dosages was effective dose for treatment (P<0.05 of Trypanosomes.
Birkenheuer, Adam J; Levy, Michael G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B
Canine babesiosis has recently been recognized as an emerging infectious disease of dogs in North America. We sought to develop a seminested PCR to detect and differentiate Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype), B. canis subsp. vogeli, B. canis subsp. canis, and B. canis subsp. rossi DNA in canine blood samples. An outer primer pair was designed to amplify an approximately 340-bp fragment of the 18S rRNA genes from B. gibsoni (Asian genotype), B. canis subsp. vogeli, B. canis subsp. rossi, and B. canis subsp. canis but not mammalian DNA. Forward primers were designed that would specifically amplify a smaller fragment from each organism in a seminested PCR. The practical limit of detection was 50 organisms/ml of mock-infected EDTA anticoagulated whole blood. The primer pair also amplified an approximately 370-bp fragment of the B. gibsoni (USA/California genotype) 18S rRNA gene from the blood of an experimentally infected dog with a high percentage of parasitemia. Amplicons were not detected when DNA extracted from the blood of a dog that was naturally infected with Theileria annae at a low percentage of parasitemia was amplified. Due to limited sensitivity, this test is not recommended for the routine diagnosis of B. gibsoni (USA/California genotype) or T. annae. The PCR test did not amplify Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Leishmania infantum, Cryptosporidium parvum, or canine DNA under any of the conditions tested. The seminested PCR test was able to detect and discriminate B. gibsoni (Asian genotype), B. canis subsp. vogeli, B. canis subsp. canis, and B. canis subsp. rossi DNA in blood samples from infected dogs.
Michael P. Combrink
Full Text Available The use of 1.16 mg/kg (one third of the recommended dose of diminazene aceturate, administered indiscriminately to cattle on day seven of the unfrozen Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina bivalent live blood vaccine reaction, was an infection and block treatment method of immunisation used successfully with no known adverse effect on the parasites or the development of protective immunity. Continuing with this practice after replacement of the unfrozen vaccine with deep-frozen monovalent B. bovis and B. bigemina live blood vaccines resulted in reports of vaccine failure. Laboratory investigation indicated the harmful effect of block treatment in preventing the development of durable immunity against B. bigemina as opposed to the much lesser effect it had on B. bovis. Consequently the practice was no longer recommended. A B. bovis vaccination attempt aimed at controlling the disease of dairy cows in milk (n = 30 resulted in 20% fatalities during the expected vaccine reaction period. The practice of block treating B. bovis was therefore reinvestigated, this time in a field trial using dairy cattle in milk (n = 11. Using 0.88 mg/kg (one quarter of the recommended dose of diminazene administered on day 12 of the B. bovis vaccine reaction resulted in only two animals (n = 5 testing ≥ 1/80 positive with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT although parasites could be demonstrated in three. In the untreated control group, by contrast, five of the vaccinated animals (n = 6 tested ≥ 1/80 positive with IFAT and parasites could be demonstrated in all. The unsatisfactory outcome obtained in this study, combined with that of the earlier investigation, indicated that there are more factors that influence successful vaccination than previously considered. It is therefore concluded that block treatment of the live frozen South African cattle babesiosis vaccines reactions is not recommended.
Petričević Saša M.
Full Text Available Economic, social and expert-scientific factors determine activities in connection with the development of the control of parasitic infections in the upcoming period of the 21st century. The primary research activities are directed at studies of the physiological functions of parasites and the ecological relations between the parasite and the host, and all that is undertaken with the objective of securing adequate pharmacotherapy/pharmacoprophylaxis and immunoprophilaxis. As there is a huge expansion in the synthesis of chemical compounds, there is a great number of potential substances for use in the form of a medicine. Along these lines, activities concerning the development of new antiparasitics and/or modification of existing ones are primarily based on securing a quality target spot for its action. Another possibility in the area of research is connected to the problem of resistance of parasites and intensive studies of the biochemical-physiological characteristics of parasites, as well as the development of an active epidemiological-episootiological network for monitoring resistance. In parallel with the development of medicines, the results of investigations of physiological functions of parasites and their mutual relations with their host, are intensely used for the development of immunological control, and the development of vaccines (for example, the development of vaccines for the control of coccidiosis, babesiosis, echinococcosis. The second important approach is related to studies of parasitic zoonoses, the effect of global warming on the epidemiological-episootiological characteristics of parasitic diseases and the selection of resistant animal breeds/hybrids. Animal welfare is also of importance, the perfecting of reliable, rapid and less-costly methods for diagnosing parasitic diseases and the development of in vitro methods for the examination of resistance to antiparasitics.
Valbonesi, M; Bruni, R
Therapeutic erythrocytapheresis (TEA) has been used in different diseases such as polycythemia vera (PV), secondary erythrocytosis or hemochromatosis as a process of the less cumbersome but more expensive phlebotomy. TEA is preferred in emergency conditions such as thrombocytosis or in conditions such as porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) or erythropoietic porphyria when plasma exchange (PEX) is often combined with TEA to reduce extracellular levels of uroporphyrin which contribute to plasma hyperviscosity. TEA is often combined with drug therapy that varies from etoposide in PV to EPO and desferoxamine which are used to mobilize and reduce iron stores in hemochromatosis. Benefits from this combination may be more long lasting than expected. Nonetheless for TEA, there is no standard protocol and, clinical experience with this therapy remains highly anecdotal. Therapeutic red cell-exchange (TREX) has been used with much interest over the years, starting with the management of hemolytic disease of the newborn and later used to correct severe anemia in thalassemia patients thereby preventing iron overload. It has also been used for the management of complications of sickle cell disease such as priapism, chest syndrome, stroke, retinal, bone, splenic and hepatic infarction or in preparation for surgery by reducing HbS to less than 30%. Automated apheresis has also favored the use of TREX in conditions such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and aniline poisoning, arsenic poisoning, Na chlorate intoxications and CO intoxications, hemoglobinopathies, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, reactions due to ABO incompatibility, in preparation for ABO incompatible bone marrow transplantation or for preventing anti-D immunization after the transfusion of D(+) cells to D(-) recipients. Another field of application has been in the emergency management of intraerythrocytic parasite infections such as malaria and babesiosis. Application of TREX may be wide but its real use remains limited
Molad, T; Fleiderovitz, L; Leibovich, B; Wolkomirsky, R; Erster, O; Roth, A; Mazuz, M L; Markovics, A; Shkap, V
This study demonstrated the genetic diversity among MSA-2c, MSA-2a1 and MSA-2b proteins of Babesia bovis isolates obtained from bovine blood and Rhipicephalus annulatus tick samples. The least identities that were observed among the deduced amino acid sequences of MSA-2c, MSA-2a1 and MSA-2b were 55, 63, and 71%, respectively. During the study four B. bovis calves, aged about 1 month, were found to be infected with virulent field strains and developed babesiosis. Probably, the calves had received insufficient antibodies, or the antibodies raised against the vaccine strain did not cross-protect against virulent field isolates. The complete msa-2 locus from the Israeli B. bovis vaccine strain and two field isolates were characterized. Similarly to the Australian strains and isolates, the msa-2 loci of the examined Israeli strain and isolates had only two msa-2 genes - msa-2c and msa-2a/b - located between msa-2c and orfB. Several of the examined samples, contained different MSA-2 genotypes concurrently. No obvious geographical relationships among isolates from various regions of Israel were established. Moreover, in the phylogenetic analyses, the Israeli deduced MSA-2 amino acid sequences of the three examined genes were clustered together with sequences derived from other countries, proving that the msa-2 gene sequences of B. bovis shared the same genetic characters worldwide. The present study clearly showed that the MSA-2 proteins of B. bovis isolates from Israel were genetically distinct from the vaccine strains. Thus, further research will be needed in order to understand the genetic diversity mechanisms of B. bovis, and the immunological responses of the infected animals.
Full Text Available Ticks are vectors of very harmful diseases in humans and animals. Nine arbovirus, two rickettsia, two protozoa and one helminthic diseases are transmitted by ticks in different climatic and geographical zones. Twenty six tick species have been determined in Turkey until now. These tick species transmit tropical theileriosis and babesiosis, which are cause of important economical loses especially in farm animals, and lyme disease and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in humans. The control of ticks is getting more important due to appearance of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fewer (CCHF in Turkey in recent years. However, the control of ticks is a very difficult and expensive procedure and generally chance of success is very low. The main aims of tick control are acaricidal control of ticks on animals, making different applications for elimination of tick-born diseases in humans and reduction of the contact risk between humans, domestic animals and ticks. The repellent is a common name of the compounds, which are applied on directly skin, clothes and sometimes curtains and nets, and prevent the humans and domestic animals against attacks of harmful organisms such as mosquitoes, flies and ticks. Although repellent compounds are applied for the organisms which annoy and suck blood at outdoor, some products used in indoor areas (houses, offices and animal shelters, such as mosquito nets, coils and thermal vaporised liquid and mat formulations, are also evaluated in this frame. Repellents are very beneficial products for prevent attack by ticks. But, it should be known that these compounds are not completely harmless and sometimes they can cause toxic effects in humans and domestic animals. In this review, definition and history of the repellent compounds, the action mechanisms and features of an ideal repellent, important repellent compounds and their toxicological importance and safety usage principles of repellents were evaluated.
Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P.; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo
Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas–Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico–US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders. PMID:25453027
Full Text Available In last time Babesiosis as a tick-borne hemoprotozoans human disease have a very important role in differentil diagnostics of modern infectious medicine. It caused by protozon of the genus Babesia, which invade and destory erythrocytes. Babesiosis olso has been called tick fever. So, Babesia has been known by other genus names, including Nuttallia, Microbabesia, Babesialla, and Gonderia. Because all Babesia species are piroplasms, a more inclusive term for anthropozoonotic infections caused by these organisms would be piroplasmosis.They detective complicacy are bild that, tick-borne disease agents from prolongate life cycles involving arthropod and vertebrate host. The complexity is enhanced by the diversity of hosts in different biotopes, which depends on factors life type of vegetation, climate and/or human influence, such as restoration of former industrial sites, which leads to the development of new biotopes. So, on the one hand, new habitats for plants and animals including ticks, and nature are created. About the first case of babesiosis infection was reported as a cause of human sickness in 1969 in northeastern United State. Several hundred cases are now reported from this region each year. The disease is characterized by a grandual oncet of malaise with anorexia, fever, headaches, myalgia, and other vague symptoms, which may persist for long period. Occasionally dangerous fulminating infections occur particularly in immunocompromised or aged individuals. The purpose of the present research was to study of the cytological diagnostic of blood smears from object’s with the Babesia infection. Materials and methods. Blood smears (by Romanovsky- Gimze (standart, Wright’s standart and staining, the author’s modification, 2014 of domestic dogs (n = 31 of both sexes with Babesia infection at the age from 3 months to 6 years served as the material for the study. The preparations were fixed during 1-2 seconds with 96 % ethyl alcohol. Then
Study of cross-reactivity in serum samples from dogs positive for Leishmania sp., Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect fluorescent antibody test Estudo da reatividade cruzada em amostras de soro de cães positivos para Leishmania sp., Babesia canis e Ehrlichia canis, pelo ensaio imunoenzimático indireto e pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta
Trícia Maria F. de Sousa Oliveira
Full Text Available To verify the presence of cross-reaction among leishmaniosis, ehrlichiosis and babesiosis in serological diagnostics used in human visceral leishmaniasis control programs, serum samples from leishmaniasis endemic and non-endemic areas were collected and tested by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFAT and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. All serum samples from endemic areas were positive for Leishmania sp., by ELISA and IFAT, 51% positive for Babesia canis and 43% for Ehrlichia canis by IFAT. None of the serum samples from non-endemic areas were positive for Leishmania sp., by IFAT, but 67% were positive for B. canis and 78% for E. canis using the same test. When tested by ELISA for Leishmania sp., four samples from non-endemic area were positive. These dogs were then located and no clinical signs, parasites or antibody was detected in new tests for a six month period. Only one of these 4 samples was positive for B. canis by IFAT and ELISA and three for E. canis by IFAT. The results of the work suggest a co-infection in the endemic area and no serological cross-reaction among these parasites by IFAT and ELISA.Para verificar a existência de reação cruzada entre leishmaniose visceral, erliquiose e babesiose, nos testes sorológicos utilizados em programas de controle da leishmaniose visceral humana, amostras de soro canino provenientes de áreas endêmicas e não endêmicas para essa enfermidade, foram testadas pela Reação de Imunofluorescência (RIFI e Ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA. Todos os soros provenientes de área endêmica foram positivos para Leishmania sp pelo ELISA e RIFI, 51% para Babesia canis e 43% para Ehrlichia canis pela RIFI. Pela RIFI, nenhum dos soros provenientes de área não endêmica foi positivo para Leishmania sp, sendo 67% positivos para B. canis e 78% para E. canis pelo mesmo teste. Quando testados pelo ELISA para Leishmania sp., quatro soros da área não endêmica foram positivos. Os cães foram localizados
Liesner, Jana M; Krücken, Jürgen; Schaper, Roland; Pachnicke, Stefan; Kohn, Barbara; Müller, Elisabeth; Schulze, Christoph; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg
N. mikurensis for the second time. In spleen samples of red foxes with 47.5% a high prevalence of piroplasms was found. Sequencing of 11 samples identified 10 as Theileria annae. Despite the high prevalence of this pathogen in its reservoir host, it was absent in dog samples. In one dog (0.1%), Babesia canis was detected but there was no further information about the dog's origin. Evaluation of the questionnaire identified a high proportion of dogs (74.2%, n=233) which was not protected by ectoparasiticides. Moreover, 21.2% (n=236) of the dogs originated from inland or abroad shelters, and therefore might potentially come from areas endemic for dirofilariosis or babesiosis.
Joel de Souza Montello Neto
Full Text Available One horse, snakebite victim and carrier of Babesia caballi, was met with intense dermal hemorrhage in the medial region of the fore and hindlimbs, face, jugular groove and ventral thorax and abdomen, and swelling in the area between the kneecap and the pastern of the left hind limb. Was made support medicine, dressing and bandage on site identified as snake-bite site. The next day, there was a marked decrease in packed cell volume, where it was decided to blood transfusion; After 12 hours the packed cell volume level is 14%, and it increased gradually, reaching 26% in the sixth day of hospitalization. The next day, there was a marked decrease in packed cell volume, where it was decided to blood transfusion; After 12 hours the hematocrit level is 14%, and it increased gradually, reaching 26% in the sixth day of hospitalization. The animal was discharged after 27 days of hospitalization. We conclude that clinical babesiosis was an enhancer factor in anemia in patients. The Synergy hemolytic action of hemoparasite as well as vascular toxic action the venom aggravate circulatory disease of the patient. Um equino vitima de acidente ofídico e portador de Babesia caballi foi atendido apresentando hemorragia dérmica intensa na região medial dos membros torácicos e pélvicos, face, sulco jugular e região ventral do tórax e abdômen, e edema na região compreendida entre a rótula e a quartela do membro pélvico esquerdo. Foi feito medicamento de suporte, curativo e bandagem no local identificado como sítio da picada. No dia seguinte, observou-se diminuição acentuada do volume globular, onde optou-se pela realização de transfusão sanguínea; decorridas 12 horas o volume globular encontrava-se em 14%, e apresentou aumento gradativo, chegando a 26% no sexto dia de internação. O animal obteve alta após 27 dias de internação. Concluímos que a babesiose clínica foi um fator intensificador na anemia apresentada pelo paciente. A sinergia da a
Sungirai, Marvelous; Moyo, Doreen Zandile; De Clercq, Patrick; Madder, Maxime
Tick borne diseases (TBDs) are responsible for huge economic losses in cattle production in most African countries where the majority of cattle owners are the resource poor communal farmers. Governments have initiated and co-ordinate tick control programs with farmers required to contribute funds for their sustenance. The success of these programs will hinge upon the involvement of communal farmers in their design, implementation and evaluation. To this end, 313 communal farmers (approximately 8.4% response rate) were interviewed and 3 focus group discussions were carried out in the southern low-veld part of Zimbabwe with the objectives of investigating communal farmers' perceptions on TBDs affecting cattle, level of participation in government initiated tick control programs, other tick control methods practiced, types of acaricides used and their perceived effectiveness. There was a general awareness of TBDs with 67.7% (n=212) farmers being able to describe tick diseases with names or clinical and post-mortem signs. The diseases or problems frequently associated with ticks were cowdriosis (38%, n=119), mastitis (36.7%, n=115), anaplasmosis (36.1%, n=113), body damage (28.4%, n=89), babesiosis (24.6%, n=77) and poor body condition (16.6%, n=52). Cattle mortalities due to TBDs were reported by 23.8% (n=74) of the farmers. The plunge dip was consistently used by farmers (70.3%, n=220) to control ticks. Other tick control methods practiced were the hand spraying (67.4%, n=211), hand dressing (16.6%, n=52), traditional methods (5.4%, n=17), use of pour-ons (4.5%, n=14) and smearing (2.2%, n=7). The formamidines were the most common class of acaricide used (59.4%, n=186), followed by synthetic pyrethroids (29.1%, n=91), macro cyclic lactones (12.8%, n=40) and organophosphates (4.5%, n=14). Most farmers (75.2%, n=231) perceived these acaricides to be effective in controlling ticks. The results of focus group discussions showed that a number of factors influenced the
Siński, Edward; Bajer, Anna; Welc, Renata; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Behnke, Jerzy M
Infections of Babesia microti (Apicomplexa, Piroplasmida), a common erythroparasitic protozoon of Holarctic rodents, are not widely acknowledged in Poland. The presence of this parasite in various species of wild rodents has been well documented throughout the northern temperate zone of North America, Europe, and Eurasia. However, human babesiosis attributable to infection with B. microti has been reported only from the north-eastern and upper midwestern United States and Japan. We recently carried out an epizootiological survey investigating the prevalence of B. microti both in the tick Ixodes ricinus and in wild rodents in North-Eastern Poland. Blood samples were collected from a total of 483 animals comprising three species: Apodemus flavicollis, Microtus arvalis, and Microtus oeconomus trapped at Urwitałt near Mikołajki in the Mazury Lakes District. Questing adult I. ricinus ticks were collected in the study sites by blanket dragging of vegetation in heterogeneous, deciduous woodland, and, in addition, rodents were carefully examined for feeding larvae and nymphs. Altogether, B. microti was detected in 9 out of 1513 I. ricinus ticks (0.6%) examined by PCR. This included 163 adults (92 females and 71 males), 50 nymphs, and 1300 larvae 3%, 8%, and 0% of which were PCR-positive, respectively. Of 85 A. flavicollis, 374 M. arvalis and 24 M. oeconomus, 1%, 12.8%, and 42% were parasitaemic, respectively, as determined by microscopic examination of blood smears stained with Giemsa. B. microti DNA, extracted from 53 M. arvalis and 5 M. oeconomus and examined by nested PCR, targeting a piroplasm-specific portion of the 18S ribosomal DNA, revealed 72% and 40%, respectively, to be PCR positive. Sequence analysis showed that all PCR-positive samples had rDNA sequences identical (100% homology) to that of the Munich B. microti strain isolated from Mus musculus. The results of this study indicate that the B. microti commonly encountered among Microtus spp. rodents is
Bajer, Anna; Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Rodo, Anna; Bednarska, Malgorzata; Kowalec, Maciej; Welc-Falęciak, Renata
The achievements of sled dogs in competitions depend both on their training and on their health. Vector-borne infections may lead to anaemia, affect joints or heart muscle or even cause death. Between December 2009 and October 2010, one hundred and twenty six individual blood samples were collected from 26 sled dog kennels situated in different regions of Poland. The majority of samples were taken during the racing season (winter 2009/10). The prevalences of 3 vector-borne infections- including 2 'old pathogens' Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis, and 'new pathogen' Hepatozoon canis-were estimated in sled dogs using PCR and nested PCR. Additionally, 25 serum samples originating from a subset of 3 kennels situated in a tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) endemic area (Mazowiecki region), were tested for antibodies against the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Because of the recently reported occurrence of Dirofilaria repens in Central Poland and that of fatal cases of unknown aetiology in two of the kennels, blood samples collected from dogs at these kennels in 2010 and in February-May 2013 and from two unaffected kennels were checked for evidence of presence of this parasite. Babesia canis DNA was detected in 11 sled dogs (4 with clinical babesiosis, 7 asymptomatic; 8.7%) inhabiting mainly endemic regions of Poland (9/11 cases). Three serum samples originating from one location tested positive for TBEV antibodies (total seroprevalence: 3/25=12%, local seroprevalence: 3/12=25%). The risk of TBEV infection was associated with previous B. canis infections. Dirofilaria repens DNA was detected in 15 dogs (44%). Prevalence was especially high in two sled dog kennels situated near Grodzisk Mazowiecki (50-57%). No blood samples tested positive for A. phagocytophilum or H. canis DNA. The present study has established that the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in working sled dogs is significant in the endemic regions and has justified the important role of
Laurenti, M D; de Santana Leandro, M V; Tomokane, T Y; De Lucca, H R L; Aschar, M; Souza, C S F; Silva, R M; Marcondes, M; da Matta, V L R
We investigated the performance of the DPP(®) canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) rapid test, a novel immunochromatographic assay launched by BioManguinhos (Brazil), which was recently included in the new Brazilian protocol for screening CVL in serological surveys. The present study compared the DPP(®) with the ELISA and IFA produced by BioManguinhos (Brazil) both with L. major-like antigens and with in-house tests using Leishmania infantum chagasi (in-house ELISA and in-house IFA). We analyzed the sera from clinically symptomatic (n=47) and asymptomatic (n=38) infected dogs from an endemic area of CVL, as well as from healthy (n=18) dogs, in addition to the sera of dogs (n=81) infected with other pathogens. The DPP(®) and the in-house ELISA showed a sensitivity of 90.6% and 94.1%, respectively, and specificity of 95.1% and 97.5%, respectively, and both presented cross-reactivity only with the sera of dogs with babesiosis, 44% for the DPP(®) and 22% for the in-house ELISA. The clinical groups were detected equally by the two assays. The ELISA BioManguinhos, IFA BioManguinhos, and in house-IFA showed a good sensitivity, 90.6%, 96.5% and 89.4%, respectively, but very low specificity, 77.8%, 69.1% and 65.8%, respectively, due to the high cross-reactivity with the sera from the animals harboring other pathogens. The in-house ELISA provided the highest accuracy (95.8%), followed by the DPP(®) (92.7%), ELISA BioManguinhos (84.3%), IFA BioManguinhos (83.1%), and in-house IFA (78.0%). The simultaneous use of the DPP(®) and ELISA BioManguinhos reached a sensitivity of 99.1% and 82.1% when used sequentially. In conclusion, the DPP(®) performed well as serological test for CVL, and detected both asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs in equal proportions. Although its sensitivity is not ideal yet, discarding the IFA and including the DPP(®) improved the accuracy of the new Brazilian CVL diagnostic protocol, particularly of detecting truly infected dogs. Moreover
Lira, R A; Cavalcanti, M Paiva; Nakazawa, M; Ferreira, A G P; Silva, E D; Abath, F G C; Alves, L C; Souza, W V; Gomes, Y M
This study evaluated the performance of the EIE-leishmaniose-visceral-canina-Bio-Manguinhos (EIE-LVC) kit and to compare it with that of the IFI-leishmaniose-visceral-canina-Bio-Manguinhos (IFI-LVC) kit. Four groups of dogs were studied: group 1 (G1), dogs with clinical signs indicative of CVL and testing positive for the parasite (n = 25); group 2 (G2), dogs with only a presumed diagnosis of CVL (n = 62); group 3 (G3), dogs that had never lived in an area where CVL is endemic and never received a blood transfusion (n = 16); group 4 (G4), dogs carrying other parasites: such as babesiosis (n = 4), ehrlichiosis (n = 6) and demodicosis (n = 1). G1 and G3 were used for the calculation of sensitivity and specificity, respectively. The EIE-LVC showed a sensitivity of 72% (IC 95%: 50.4-87.1%) and a specificity of 87.5% (IC 95%: 60.4-97.8%). The value of the kappa index was 0.975 (CI 95%: 0.926-1.024), which represents an excellent fit. For IFI-LVC, the sensitivity was 68.0% (CI 95%: 46.4-84.3%) and the specificity 87.5% (CI 95%: 60.4-97.8%). When the tests were conducted in parallel, sensitivity was 92.0% (CI 95%: 72.5-98.6%) and specificity 75.0% (CI 95%: 47.4-91.7%). However, when conducted consecutively, the tests showed a sensitivity of 48.0% (CI 95%: 28.3-68.2%) and a specificity of 100.0% (CI 95%: 75.9-99.4%). The analysis of clinically suspected dogs using IFI-LVC and EIE-LVC kits in parallel, revealed that 26/62 animals were positive. Cross-reaction was observed in a dog with demodicosis. These results lead to the following conclusions: (1) the performance of the EIE-LVC kit is not statistically different from the IFI-LVC and (2) the kits must be used in parallel if higher sensitivity is required, reducing the number of false-negative results.
Full Text Available Wastage is the term used to describe the phenomenon of the loss of racehorses from conception to adulthood due to death or injuries (i.e. they never reach a race-track, or the days lost by racehorses due to not training or being withdrawn from a race. This epizoological study was conducted to investigate wastage in Thoroughbred horses used for flat racing in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. Data from 6 racing stables were recorded from 1 March 1993 to 28 February 1994. Each trainer completed a daily training record of the horses in his stable. This questionnaire included reasons why a horse failed to train on a specific day, or was withdrawn from a race. During the year, 8480 days (8.1 % of the 105 108 total potential training days were lost by horses in the stables investigated. Of the days lost, 72.1 % were due to lameness, 8.6 % to respiratory problems, and 19.3 % to other causes. The lost training days for the individual trainers ranged from 5.4 to 12.6 %. Of the 579 horses included in the study, 291 horses (50.3 % lost one or more training days; 541 problems resulting in wastage were found in these 291 horses; 263 (48.6 % cases were due to lameness and 49 (9.0 % were caused by coughing. The balance were caused by poor weather conditions (11.3 %, vaccinations (7.2 %, wounds (4.6 %, abnormal haematology results (1.8 %, inappetence (2.2 %, nasal discharge (2.0 %, epistaxis (1.8 %, babesiosis (1.8 %, miscellaneous other conditions (7.9 % and unknown causes (1.8 %. An attempt was made to continue the study for a 2nd year but too few questionnaires were returned. However, it was evident that the percentage of lost training days (8.2 % was similar to that of the previous year. The training days lost due to lameness (66.9 % and respiratory problems (8.4 % were also similar to those of the previous year. From the findings of the present study, it was concluded that lameness and respiratory disorders were the major causes of wastage in
Heekin Andrew M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cattle babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle that has severe economic impact on cattle producers throughout the world’s tropical and subtropical countries. The most severe form of the disease is caused by the apicomplexan, Babesia bovis, and transmitted to cattle through the bite of infected cattle ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus, with the most prevalent species being Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. We studied the reaction of the R. microplus larval transcriptome in response to infection by B. bovis. Methods Total RNA was isolated for both uninfected and Babesia bovis-infected larval samples. Subtracted libraries were prepared by subtracting the B. bovis-infected material with the uninfected material, thus enriching for expressed genes in the B. bovis-infected sample. Expressed sequence tags from the subtracted library were generated, assembled, and sequenced. To complement the subtracted library method, differential transcript expression between samples was also measured using custom high-density microarrays. The microarray probes were fabricated using oligonucleotides derived from the Bmi Gene Index database (Version 2. Array results were verified for three target genes by real-time PCR. Results Ticks were allowed to feed on a B. bovis-infected splenectomized calf and on an uninfected control calf. RNA was purified in duplicate from whole larvae and subtracted cDNA libraries were synthesized from Babesia-infected larval RNA, subtracting with the corresponding uninfected larval RNA. One thousand ESTs were sequenced from the larval library and the transcripts were annotated. We used a R. microplus microarray designed from a R. microplus gene index, BmiGI Version 2, to look for changes in gene expression that were associated with infection of R. microplus larvae. We found 24 transcripts were expressed at a statistically significant higher level in ticks feeding upon a B. bovis-infected calf contrasted to ticks
简子健; 马素贞; 袁江玲; 沈炯玉; 吕伟; 孙其喆; 苗中秋
[目的与方法]在优化表达牛巴贝斯虫GST-MSA-2c融合蛋白和建立ELISA反应条件的基础上,进-步探讨牛巴贝斯虫GST-MSA-2c融合蛋白及其所建立的ELISA检测方法的特异性,从而建立牛巴贝斯虫GST-MSA-2c融合蛋白间接ELISA血清学检测方法.[结果]牛巴贝斯虫GST-MSA-2c融合蛋白间接ELISA检测方法能排除GST的干扰,与其它梨形虫病无交叉反应,与牛巴贝斯虫巢式PCR检测方法的阳性符合率为96%.[结论]所建立的GST-MSA-2c融合蛋白间接ELISA血清学检测方法重复性好、特异性强、灵敏度高.这是国内首次利用重组蛋白抗原建立的牛巴贝斯病血清学诊断方法,为大规模地进行牛巴贝斯虫病的流行病学调查和血清学诊断提供有效的技术手段.%[ Objective and Method ] The optimal exprssion of CST - MSA - 2C fusion protein and reaction conditions of CST - MSA - 2c indirect ELISA assay were studied in the previous paper. The purposes of this paper were to further discuss the specificity of CST - MSA - 2C fusion protein and GST - MSA - 2c indirect ELISA assay and to establish the standard procedure for this method . [ Result] The positive interference of murine GST antiserum and nested PCR could be eliminated and no cross reactions were found among; the piroplasms. The coincidence precentage of identified positive serum samples for bovine piroplasmosis in indirect MSA - 2c ELISA were 96％.. [ Conclusion]The established CST - MSA - 2c indirect ELISA obtained highly sensitive, specific and reproducible characteristics .which characteristics was the first case to establish an indirect MSA - 2c ELISA assay method for detection of specific antibody against Babesia bovis in China. This test provided a new effective technical method for the large - scale epidemiological survey and serological dignosis of bovine babesiosis infected with Babesia bovis .
Muddegowda, Prakash H; Chezhiansubash; Lingegowda, Jyothi B; Gopal, Niranjan; Prasad, Krishna
Introduction Red Cell Exchange (RCE) is removal of a patient’s red blood cells while replacing with donor red blood cells either manually or using automated systems. RCE is beneficial in patients with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) either during sickling crisis or prior to major surgical procedures to bring down the sickling percentage as high sickling percentage during prolonged anaesthesia may lead to vaso-occlusive crisis. It is also employed in patients infested with malaria and babesiosis where parasitic index remain high despite medical management. RCE is also tried as an adjuvant therapy in certain poisons like nitrobenzene and carbon monoxide when first line management fails. Aim To study the effectiveness, clinical outcome, challenges and complications of RCE in various clinical scenario and to understand how this procedure can be effectively utilized in the management of patients in Indian scenario. Materials and Methods This retro prospective study was conducted in tertiary care center in southern India which analyzed 21 RCE procedures performed on patients with different clinical conditions. Of the 21 RCE performed, 18 procedures were performed on patients with case of sickle cell disease, Two procedures were performed on patients infested with severe falciparum malaria and one procedure was performed on a patient with nitrobenzene poisoning. All procedures were performed using Spectra Optia® Apheresis System - Terumo BCT. Results All the 18 patients who underwent the RCE for sickle cell anaemia were admitted for hemi-arthroplasty for avascular necrosis of the head of femur. The average initial HbS levels were between 73-85% and post RCE it was brought down to 22-29% and was achieved in a single sitting in all the cases. Among the two patients infested with severe falciparum malaria, RCE helped in reducing the infestation rate. In case of nitrobenzene poisoning, RCE helped in improvement of oxygen saturation and patient showed significant improvement
叶莉; 白杰英; 马帅; 王昱佳; 郑珺文; 王冬平; 李桂军; 范君文; 时彦胜; 张小飞
Objective To establish a Chinese hamster model of babesia infection, to find the changing pattern of organs and biochemical parameters in Chinese hamster infected with Babesia, and to promote the detection and treatment of babesiosis.Methods Healthy 5-week old Chinese hamsters were infected by intraperitoneal injection of blood containing Babesia.Blood samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 23, 30, and 37 days after infection from 5 hamsters at each time point.Blood smears were prepared to detect the parasites using Giemsa staining.ELISA assay was employed to test the IL-2 concentration.The blood biochemical indexes were detected using an automatic biochemical analyzer.DNA was extracted from the whole blood and REAL-TIME RCR was performed to determine the reproduction of Babesia.Aftert the animals were sacrificed, the heart, lung, spleen, liver, and kidney were taken to analyze the changes of organ coefficients.Results The highest level of Babesia in the hamsters occurred on day 4 after the Babesia injection, and then showing a decreasing tendency.However, there was a transient increase on the 12th day after infection.The liver and spleen displayed most extensive response to the infection showing hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, but the variation of heart and kidneys coefficients was within the norm.There were prominent changes of blood cells, especially leucocytes, with two peaks at day 10 and 23 after the Babesia infection.The peak changes of blood biochemical indexes occurred at day 12 after infection.The concentration of serum IL-2 reached a peak on the 10th day after infection.Conclusions The Chinese hamsters display typical characteristics of tick-borne diseases such as hepatomegaly and splenomegaly.The immunological system is activated along with the infection and reaches a highest stage in the second week.Afterwards the Babesia can live in the hamster body for a long period of time.The results of this study provide useful information
Mariana Granziera Spolidorio
Full Text Available Canine ehrlichiosis and babesiosis are the most prevalent tick-borne diseases in Brazilian dogs. Few studies have focused attention in surveying tick-borne diseases in the Brazilian Amazon region. A total of 129 blood samples were collected from dogs living in the Brazilian eastern Amazon. Seventy-two samples from dogs from rural areas of 19 municipalities and 57 samples from urban stray dogs from Santarém municipality were collected. Serum samples were submitted to Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA with antigens of Babesia canis vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, and six Rickettsia species. The frequency of dogs containing anti-B. canis vogeli, anti-E. canis, and anti-Rickettsia spp. antibodies was 42.6%, 16.2%, and 31.7%, respectively. Anti-B. canis vogeli antibodies were detected in 59.6% of the urban dogs, and in 29.1% of the rural dogs (P Ehrliquiose canina e babesiose canina são as doenças parasitárias transmitidas por carrapatos de maior prevalência em cães do Brasil. Poucos estudos pesquisaram doenças transmitidas por carrapatos na região da Amazônia brasileira. Um total de 129 amostras de sangue foram colhidas de cães da Amazônia oriental brasileira. Setenta e dois cães eram de áreas rurais de 19 municípios do Estado do Pará, e 57 amostras foram colhidas de cães errantes vadios da área urbana do município de Santarém-PA. As amostras de soro foram submetidas ao ensaio de imunofluorescência indireta, com antígenos de Babesia canis vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, e seis espécies de Rickettsia. A frequência de cães com anticorpos anti-B. canis vogeli, anti-E. canis, e anti-Rickettsia spp. foi de 42,6%, 16,2% e 31,7%, respectivamente. Anticorpos anti-B. canis vogeli foram detectados em 59,6% dos cães urbanos, e em 29,1% dos cães rurais (P < 0.05. Para E. canis, a soroprevalência foi parecida entre os cães urbanos (15,7% e rurais (16,6%. Para Rickettsia spp., cães rurais apresentaram prevalência (P < 0.05 significativamente
Comparison between a soluble antigen-based ELISA and IFAT in detecting antibodies against Babesia canis in dogs Comparação entre ELISA feito com antígeno solúvel e imunofluorescência na detecção de anticorpos anti-Babesia canis em cães
Patrícia Iriê Furuta
Full Text Available An available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was studied for the detection of anti-B. canis antibodies in the sera of dogs using, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT as a reference test. ELISA uses a soluble antigenic preparation of B. canis and the optimal dilutions of the antigen, serum and conjugate were determined by check board titration, using positive and negative reference serum. The soluble antigen preparation of B. canis merozoites was 10 µg.mL-1, with reference sera from positive and negative in a single dilution of 1:100, and conjugated to 1:4.000. A total of 246 serum samples were collected from dogs during the rabies vaccination campaign in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil and examined for the presence of antibodies against B. canis by ELISA and IFAT. Under these conditions, the average absorbance of negative serum was 0.129 ± 0.025, resulting in a cut-off value of 0.323 (ELISA level 3 and the average absorbance of positive reference serum was 2.156 ± 1.187. The serological positive samples tested for B. canis by ELISA and IFAT were 67.89% (n = 167 and 59.35% (n = 146, respectively. These results suggest that ELISA described may prove to be an effective serological test to diagnose canine babesiosis.O presente trabalho estudou um ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA indireto para a detecção de anticorpos anti-Babesia canis no soro de cães, tendo a Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI, como teste de referência O antígeno utilizado no ELISA do presente estudo consistiu em uma preparação antigênica solúvel de merozoítas B. canis e as diluições ótimas do antígeno, soros e conjugado foram determinadas por titulação em bloco, utilizando soros de referência positivos e negativos. A preparação antigênica solúvel de B. canis ótima foi de 10 µg.mL-1, com soros de referência positivos e negativos em uma única diluição de 1:100, e conjugado a 1:4.000. Um total de 246 amostras séricas foram
Glauco J.N. Galiza
pituitary abscesses, malignant catarrhal fever (6.3%, botulism (6.3%, congenital malformations (4.5%, trauma (4.5%, tuberculosis (2.7%, tetanus (2.7%, infection by bovine hervesvirus-5 (2.7%, non-suppurative encephalomyelitis (2.7%, intoxication by Prosopis juliflora (2.7%, congenital status spongiosus of unknown etiology (1.8%, and polioencephalomalacia (1.8%. Other diseases diagnosed only once (0.9% were cryptococcosis, listeriosis, thromboembolic encephalitis, lymphosarcoma, trypanosso-miasis, and babesiosis by Babesia bovis.
Orlando Augusto Melo JR
Full Text Available A babesiose canina é transmitida pelo carrapato Rhipicephalus sanguineus e causada por protozoários intra-eritrocitários do gênero Babesia, sendo a B. canis e a B. gibsoni os agentes etiológicos. Comumente há quadros de anemia hemolítica, febre e letargia, anorexia, hematúria e esplenomegalia, com a patogenia relacionada principalmente à multiplicação destes parasitos nas hemácias dos hospedeiros. Tendo em vista a pesquisa de hemoparasitos, no presente trabalho foram realizados exames microscópicos de 2.031 esfregaços sangüíneos delgados, preparados com sangue capilar colhido por perfuração da orelha. Baseou-se o diagnóstico na pesquisa direta, visualizando-se os agentes etiológicos. Trinta cães (1,47% foram considerados infectados por Babesia spp., confirmando, assim, a presença destes parasitos na cidade de Campos dos Goytacazes, onde o clima é favorável ao desenvolvimento do vetor natural
PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Babesia spp., cão, hemoparasito, ocorrência The canine babesiosis is transmitted by the Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick and caused by the intracytoplasmatic protozoa of the Babesia genus, being the B. canis and the B. gibsoni the etiologic agents. Normally there are hemolytic anemia, fever and lethargy, anorexy, hematuria and splenomegaly, with the pathogenesis related mainly to the multiplication of these parasites in the erythrocytes of the hosts. In the present work 2
刘相叶; 郑辰; 李向阳; 颜超; 华慧; 汤仁仙; 郑葵阳
目的：了解山东省沂源县境内寄生于山羊体表的长角血蜱携带病原体的情况。方法2014年9月—2015年7月从该地区山羊体表采集不同生活史时期的长角血蜱。利用PCR扩增特异性基因的方法，分别检测长角血蜱感染嗜吞噬细胞无形体、巴贝斯虫、伯氏疏螺旋体以及巴尔通体的情况。结果山东沂源地区长角血蜱中嗜吞噬细胞无形体的感染率为48．1％，巴贝斯虫的感染率为40．7％，其中24．1％的长角血蜱存在嗜吞噬细胞无形体和巴贝斯虫的双重感染，但所有长角血蜱体内未检测到伯氏疏螺旋体和巴尔通体。结论山东沂源羊体寄生的长角血蜱存在较高的嗜吞噬细胞无形体和巴贝斯虫感染率。因此，该地区应加强对人粒细胞无形体病和巴贝斯虫病的防控。%Objective To investigate the tick-borne pathogens transmitted by Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks par-asitizing goats in Yiyuan County, Shandong province.Methods H.longicornis ticks were collected from goats from Sep-tember 2014 to July 2015.Through amplification of specific genes by PCR, tick-borne pathogens including Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia species, Borellia burgdorferi and Bartonella species were detected.Results The infection rates of A.phagocytophilum and Babesia sp.in H.longicornis ticks were 48.1%and 40.7%, respectively.Meanwhile, 24.1% of H.longicornis ticks were infected with both A.phagocytophilum and Babesia sp.However, neither Borellia burgdorferi nor Bartonella sp.was detected in the ticks.Conclusion High infection rates of A.phagocytophilum and Babesia sp.were found in H.longicornis ticks parasitizing in goats in Yiyuan County.Therefore, urgent measures should be promptly taken to enhance the prevention and control of human granulocytic anaplasmosis and babesiosis.
Pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Borrelia e anti-Babesia em soro de crianças com manifestações clínicas e epidemiologia compatíveis com a doença de Lyme-Simile no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul Detection of anti-Borrelia and anti-Babesia antibodies in the serum of children with clinical manifestations and compatible epidemiology with Lyme-Like disease in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul
Erica Naomi Naka
Full Text Available A ocorrência de manifestações clínicas e laboratoriais semelhantes às encontradas na doença de Lyme e da coinfecção com a babesiose já foi demonstrada em trabalhos anteriores em adultos, porém não existem estudos desta natureza em crianças. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar o perfil clínico-epidemiológico da síndrome de Lyme-Símile em crianças do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul e avaliar a prevalência dos anticorpos anti-Borrelia burgdorferi e anti-Babesia bovis no soro de pacientes que preencheram os critérios estabelecidos. MÉTODOS: 100 pacientes entre 9 meses e 16 anos de idade foram submetidos à pesquisa dos anticorpos pela técnica de ELISA e a soroprevalência foi comparada com um grupo-controle. RESULTADOS: Positividade para anticorpos anti-B. burgdorferi ocorreu em 27% dos pacientes com suspeita clínica, sendo 17% IgM e 12% IgG. As manifestações articulares ocorreram em 21 pacientes, as manifestações cutâneas em três pacientes e as manifestações neurológicas em três pacientes. A prevalência de anticorpos contra B. burgdorferi nos pacientes do grupo-controle foi de 15% (p The occurence of clinical and laboratory manifestations similar to the Lyme disease and the coinfection with babesiosis was already demonstraded in previous researches with adult patients. However, there are no studies in children. OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical-epidemiological profile of the Lyme Simile Syndrome in children of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia bovis in the serum of patients that had fulfilled the established criteria. METHODS: One hundred patients (age range: 9 months and 16 years-old were screened for the presence of those antibodies, using ELISA, comparing to a control group. RESULTS: Antibodies against B. burgdoferi were found in 27% of the patients with a clinical picture. The articular manifestations occurred in 21 patients, cutaneous in 3
Ricardo B. Lucena
exams 29.9% were necropsies performed at the LPV-UFSM and 79.1% were mailed-in organ fragments from necropsies performed at the field by veterinary practitioners. Autolysis and non-representative sampling o mailed in organs were the main reasons for non-conclusive diagnosis. Poisoning by Senecio spp. was the main cause of death in cattle in this study and poisonous plants together with toxi-infections accounted for 22.8% of the cases with conclusive diagnosis. Inflammatory diseases together with parasitic diseases accounted for more than 30% of cattle diseases and babesiosis and anaplasmosis were the main diseases in this category. Other categories were distributed in the following order: neoplasms and tumor-like lesions (13.87%, diseases caused by physical agents (2.7%, metabolic and nutritional diseases (2.46%, circulatory disturbances (1.4%, degenerative diseases (1.1%, developmental disorders (0.54%, iatrogenic diseases and sundry lesions. The high prevalence of tumors in cattle in this study was attributed to the chronic ingestion of Pteridium aquilinum, a common toxicosis in the region. The main diseases in cattle from the studied region are related to environmental factors associated to the predominantly husbandry practices adopted in the region.
Frequency of antibodies to Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax and Borrelia burdgorferi in cattle from the northeastern region of the state of Pará, Brazil Freqüência de anticorpos para Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax e Borrelia burgdorferi em bovinos do nordeste do Estado do Pará, Brasil
Daniel S. Guedes Junior
Full Text Available Babesiosis, anaplasmosis, and trypanosomosis are relevant diseases, potentially causing morbidity in cattle, leading to economic losses. Borreliosis is import as a potential zoonosis. The objective of this study was to determine, by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, the frequency of seropositive cattle to Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax and Borrelia burgdorferi in cattle from the Northeastern region of Pará, Brazil. Sera samples from 246 female adult cattle from municipalities of Castanhal and São Miguel do Guamá were used. Crude antigens ELISAs were used to detect antibodies to all agents, except to A. marginale, to which an indirect ELISA with recombinant major surface 1a protein (MSP1a antigen was used. Overall frequencies of seropositive animals were: B. bigemina - 99.2%; B. bovis - 98.8%; A. marginale - 68.3%; T. vivax - 93.1% and B. burgdorferi - 54.9%. The frequencies of seropositive cattle to B. bovis and B. bigemina suggest a high rate of transmission of these organisms by tick in the studied region, which can be classified as enzootically stable to these hemoprotozoans. The low frequency of seropositive cattle to A. marginale may be attributed to a lower sensitivity of the recombinant antigen ELISA utilized or a distinct rate of inoculation of this rickettsia by ticks, as compared with Babesia sp. transmission. The high frequency of seropositive cattle to T. vivax indicates that this hemoprotozoan is prevalent in herds from the Northeastern region of Pará. The rate of animal that showed homologues antibodies to B. burgdorferi indicates the presence of the tickborne spirochaetal agent in the cattle population in the studied region.A babesiose, a anaplasmose e a tripanossomose são enfermidades relevantes, potencialmente causadoras de morbidade em bovinos, levando a perdas econômicas. A borreliose assume importância como zoonose potencial. O objetivo desse estudo foi determinar
Nathalia D. Assis-Brasil
ência do LRD e sua ocorrência pode ser influenciada por fatores ambientais e pelo manejo. As encefalites/meningoencefalites foram também importantes como causa de mortalidade em bezerros até os três meses de idade.The aim of this study was to report the frequency of diseases affecting cattle under one year of age in the area of influence of the Regional Diagnostic Laboratory (LRD of the Veterinary School of the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel, establishing the main epidemiological factors associated with the occurrence of these diseases. The necropsy protocols and protocols of mailed in tissues from cattle under one year of age, submitted during 2000-2011 to LRD/UFPel for diagnosis, were reviewed. In 35.6% of the cases, the calves were of dairy breeds, 33.9% were beef calves, 18.3% were of mixed breed, and in 12.1% of the cases the breed was not informed. The organ systems most affected were the central nervous system (22.7%, digestive tract (18.6% and respiratory system (16.8%. The diagnoses were divided by age groups: 88 calves were 1-90 days of age, 42 were 4-6 months, 32 were 7-9 months, and 44 cattle were 10-12 months of age. The disease most often diagnosed in 1 to 90-day-old calves were pneumonia, malformations and encephalitis/meningoencephalitis, with 19.3%, 15.9% and 11.3% of cases respectively. In 4 to 6-month-old calves, pneumonia occurred in 16.5% of cases, and blackleg and diarrhea accounted for 7.1% of diagnoses each. In 7 to 9-month-old calves the most frequent diseases were pneumonia and tetanus with 9.3% of cases, and babesiosis and gastrointestinal parasitosis with 6.2% each. In 10 to 12-month-old calves, infection by BoHV-5 represented 13.6% of cases, and pneumonia, rabies and parasitosis was observed in 9% of cases each. Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that infectious diseases related to the respiratory system were important causes of mortality in calves of all ages until 12 months in the area of influence of LRD and