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Sample records for b6 status deficiency

  1. Vitamin B6 status, deficiency and its consequences: an overview Estado de vitamina B6, deficiencia y sus consencuencias: una revisión

    OpenAIRE

    A. Spinneker; R. Sola; V. Lemmen; M. J. Castillo; K. Pietrzik; M. González-Gross

    2007-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B6 is thought to be a most versatile coenzyme that participates in more than 100 biochemical reactions. It is involved in amino acid and homocysteine metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism, neurotransmitter production and DNA/RNA synthesis. Vitamin B6 can also be a modulator of gene expression. Nowadays, clinically evident vitamin B6 deficiency is not a common disorder, at least in the general population. Nevertheless, a subclinical, undiagnosed deficiency may be present...

  2. Effects of Vitamin B6 Deficiency on the Composition and Functional Potential of T Cell Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Bingjun; Shen, Shanqi; Zhang, Jianhua; Jing, Pu

    2017-01-01

    The immune system is critical in preventing infection and cancer, and malnutrition can weaken different aspects of the immune system to undermine immunity. Previous studies suggested that vitamin B6 deficiency could decrease serum antibody production with concomitant increase in IL4 expression. However, evidence on whether vitamin B6 deficiency would impair immune cell differentiation, cytokines secretion, and signal molecule expression involved in JAK/STAT signaling pathway to regulate immune response remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of vitamin B6 deficiency on the immune system through analysis of T lymphocyte differentiation, IL-2, IL-4, and INF- γ secretion, and SOCS-1 and T-bet gene transcription. We generated a vitamin B6-deficient mouse model via vitamin B6-depletion diet. The results showed that vitamin B6 deficiency retards growth, inhibits lymphocyte proliferation, and interferes with its differentiation. After ConA stimulation, vitamin B6 deficiency led to decrease in IL-2 and increase in IL-4 but had no influence on IFN- γ . Real-time PCR analysis showed that vitamin B6 deficiency downregulated T-bet and upregulated SOCS-1 transcription. This study suggested that vitamin B6 deficiency influenced the immunity in organisms. Meanwhile, the appropriate supplement of vitamin B6 could benefit immunity of the organism.

  3. Effects of Vitamin B6 Deficiency on the Composition and Functional Potential of T Cell Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjun Qian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune system is critical in preventing infection and cancer, and malnutrition can weaken different aspects of the immune system to undermine immunity. Previous studies suggested that vitamin B6 deficiency could decrease serum antibody production with concomitant increase in IL4 expression. However, evidence on whether vitamin B6 deficiency would impair immune cell differentiation, cytokines secretion, and signal molecule expression involved in JAK/STAT signaling pathway to regulate immune response remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of vitamin B6 deficiency on the immune system through analysis of T lymphocyte differentiation, IL-2, IL-4, and INF-γ secretion, and SOCS-1 and T-bet gene transcription. We generated a vitamin B6-deficient mouse model via vitamin B6-depletion diet. The results showed that vitamin B6 deficiency retards growth, inhibits lymphocyte proliferation, and interferes with its differentiation. After ConA stimulation, vitamin B6 deficiency led to decrease in IL-2 and increase in IL-4 but had no influence on IFN-γ. Real-time PCR analysis showed that vitamin B6 deficiency downregulated T-bet and upregulated SOCS-1 transcription. This study suggested that vitamin B6 deficiency influenced the immunity in organisms. Meanwhile, the appropriate supplement of vitamin B6 could benefit immunity of the organism.

  4. Direct and Functional Biomarkers of Vitamin B6 Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, Per Magne; Ulvik, Arve; Rios-Avila, Luisa; Midttun, Øivind; Gregory, Jesse F

    2015-01-01

    Measures of B6 status are categorized as direct biomarkers and as functional biomarkers. Direct biomarkers measure B6 vitamers in plasma/serum, urine and erythrocytes, and among these plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is most commonly used. Functional biomarkers include erythrocyte transaminase activities and, more recently, plasma levels of metabolites involved in PLP-dependent reactions, such as the kynurenine pathway, one-carbon metabolism, transsulfuration (cystathionine), and glycine decarboxylation (serine and glycine). Vitamin B6 status is best assessed by using a combination of biomarkers because of the influence of potential confounders, such as inflammation, alkaline phosphatase activity, low serum albumin, renal function, and inorganic phosphate. Ratios between substrate-products pairs have recently been investigated as a strategy to attenuate such influence. These efforts have provided promising new markers such as the PAr index, the 3-hydroxykynurenine:xanthurenic acid ratio, and the oxoglutarate:glutamate ratio. Targeted metabolic profiling or untargeted metabolomics based on mass spectrometry allow the simultaneous quantification of a large number of metabolites, which are currently evaluated as functional biomarkers, using data reduction statistics.

  5. Anemia attributed to vitamin B6 deficiency in post-pancreaticoduodenectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Hajime; Fujiwara, Noriko; Ishizaki, Yoichi; Komatsu, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies such as vitamin A, iron, zinc, and selenium have been known to occur as a consequence of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), but vitamin B6 deficiency has not been previously reported. We report two post-PD patients who developed anemias attributed to vitamin B6 deficiency. Oral supplementations of vitamin B6 significantly improved anemias in both cases. Micronutrients including vitamin B6 should be monitored in post-PD patients, and supplementations should be carried out when necessary. Copyright © 2014 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of vitamin B6 deficiency on an antibody production in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doke, S; Inagaki, N; Hayakawa, T; Tsuge, H

    1997-08-01

    To investigate the effects of vitamin B6 (B6) deficiency on an antibody production in BALB/c mice, the production of specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E antibody against dinitrophenylated ovalbumin (DNP-OVA) were measured by the methods of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The mice fed on on a B6 deficient diet for 4 weeks were immunized intraperitoneally with DNP-OVA absorbed to aluminum hydroxide gel. The contents of anti DNP-IgE antibodies in sera of B6 deficient mice significantly increased compared to that of control mice fed on a diet containing B6. In addition, Interleukin-4, which was known to induce IgE production in allergic reactions from splenocytes of B6 deficient mice, was approximately four-fold higher than that in control mice. According to the recovery test to the B6 deficient mice, that is feeding the control diet for 21 days, all values in terms of the body, thymus, and spleen weight, total serum protein, IgG, and anti DNP-IgE content, regained almost the same levels as those of control. These results suggest that B6 deficiency in mice would have relation to the stimulation of specific IgE antibody production against DNP-OVA.

  7. Effects of Vitamin B6 Deficiency on the Composition and Functional Potential of T Cell Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Bingjun; Shen, Shanqi; Zhang, Jianhua; Jing, Pu

    2017-01-01

    The immune system is critical in preventing infection and cancer, and malnutrition can weaken different aspects of the immune system to undermine immunity. Previous studies suggested that vitamin B6 deficiency could decrease serum antibody production with concomitant increase in IL4 expression. However, evidence on whether vitamin B6 deficiency would impair immune cell differentiation, cytokines secretion, and signal molecule expression involved in JAK/STAT signaling pathway to regulate immun...

  8. Vitamin B-6 and colorectal cancer risk: a prospective population-based study using 3 distinct plasma markers of vitamin B-6 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gylling, Björn; Myte, Robin; Schneede, Jörn; Hallmans, Göran; Häggström, Jenny; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ulvik, Arve; Ueland, Per M; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Palmqvist, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Background: Higher plasma concentrations of the vitamin B-6 marker pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) have been associated with reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Inflammatory processes, including vitamin B-6 catabolism, could explain such findings. Objective: We investigated 3 biomarkers of vitamin B-6 status in relation to CRC risk. Design: This was a prospective case-control study of 613 CRC cases and 1190 matched controls nested within the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study ( n = 114,679). Participants were followed from 1985 to 2009, and the median follow-up from baseline to CRC diagnosis was 8.2 y. PLP, pyridoxal, pyridoxic acid (PA), 3-hydroxykynurenine, and xanthurenic acids (XAs) were measured in plasma with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We calculated relative and absolute risks of CRC for PLP and the ratios 3-hydroxykynurenine:XA (HK:XA), an inverse marker of functional vitamin B-6 status, and PA:(PLP + pyridoxal) (PAr), a marker of inflammation and oxidative stress and an inverse marker of vitamin B-6 status. Results: Plasma PLP concentrations were associated with a reduced CRC risk for the third compared with the first quartile and for PLP sufficiency compared with deficiency [OR: 0.60 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.81) and OR: 0.55 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.81), respectively]. HK:XA and PAr were both associated with increased CRC risk [OR: 1.48 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.02) and OR: 1.50 (95% CI: 1.10, 2.04), respectively] for the fourth compared with the first quartile. For HK:XA and PAr, the findings were mainly observed in study participants with y of follow-up between sampling and diagnosis. Conclusions: Vitamin B-6 deficiency as measured by plasma PLP is associated with a clear increase in CRC risk. Furthermore, our analyses of novel markers of functional vitamin B-6 status and vitamin B-6-associated oxidative stress and inflammation suggest a role in tumor progression rather than initiation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Atypical Vitamin B-6 Deficiency A Rare Cause of Unexplained Neonatal and Infantile Epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgart, A.; von Spiczak, S.; Verhoeven-Duif, N. M.

    2014-01-01

    ALDH7A1 and PNPO deficiencies are rare inborn errors of vitamin B-6 metabolism causing perinatal seizure disorders. The phenotypic variability, however, is broad. To assess the frequency of these deficiencies in unexplained infantile epilepsy, we screened 113 patients for mutations in both genes....... We identified 1 patient with an epilepsy phenotype resembling Dravet syndrome and likely pathogenic mutations in ALDH7A1. Presenting features were highly atypical of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, including febrile seizures, response to anticonvulsive drugs, and periods of seizure freedom without...... pyridoxine treatment. "Hidden" vitamin B-6 deficiencies might be rare but treatable causes of unexplained epilepsy extending beyond the classical phenotypes....

  10. Effect of vitamin B6 status of the lactating rat on taurine biosynthesis and availability to the pup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumbo, P.

    1990-01-01

    Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase (CD), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme, is believed to be rate-limiting for taurine biosynthesis in the rat. Although taurine is synthesized by the pup, it is abundant in milk of the lactating rat. CD activity has been shown to be reduced in vitamin B6-deficient, lactating rats and their pups, without much change in taurine concentration of certain tissues. To further understand the effect of B6 status of lactating rats on taurine biosynthesis and availability to their pups, pregnant dams were fed either a B6-deficient or B6-adequate (20 mg/kg) diet during gestation and 10 days postpartum. After this time period, all dams were gavaged 35 S cysteine and 3 H taurine, milk and tissues of the dams and pups collected, and taurine isolated by ion-exchange chromatography. There was no difference in the 35 S/ 3 H ratio in the heart or liver for the adequate and deficient dams. The 35 S/ 3 H ratio was slightly but significantly greater in the liver of the B6-adequate pups compared to the B6-deficient pups without a difference in the level of 3 H taurine (pmol/gram protein) in the milk or pup's liver. Results indicate that a B6 deficiency can influence taurine biosynthesis in the pup without impairing secretion of taurine in milk

  11. Vitamin B6 deficient plants display increased sensitivity to high light and photo-oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumeau Dominique

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin B6 is a collective term for a group of six interconvertible compounds: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine and their phosphorylated derivatives. Vitamin B6 plays essential roles as a cofactor in a range of biochemical reactions. In addition, vitamin B6 is able to quench reactive oxygen species in vitro, and exogenously applied vitamin B6 protects plant cells against cell death induced by singlet oxygen (1O2. These results raise the important question as to whether plants employ vitamin B6 as an antioxidant to protect themselves against reactive oxygen species. Results The pdx1.3 mutation affects the vitamin B6 biosynthesis enzyme, pyridoxal synthase (PDX1, and leads to a reduction of the vitamin B6 concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. Although leaves of the pdx1.3 Arabidopsis mutant contained less chlorophyll than wild-type leaves, we found that vitamin B6 deficiency did not significantly impact photosynthetic performance or shoot and root growth. Chlorophyll loss was associated with an increase in the chlorophyll a/b ratio and a selective decrease in the abundance of several PSII antenna proteins (Lhcb1/2, Lhcb6. These changes were strongly dependent on light intensity, with high light amplifying the difference between pdx1.3 and the wild type. When leaf discs were exposed to exogenous 1O2, lipid peroxidation in pdx1.3 was increased relative to the wild type; this effect was not observed with superoxide or hydrogen peroxide. When leaf discs or whole plants were exposed to excess light energy, 1O2-mediated lipid peroxidation was enhanced in leaves of the pdx1.3 mutant relative to the wild type. High light also caused an increased level of 1O2 in vitamin B6-deficient leaves. Combining the pdx1.3 mutation with mutations affecting the level of 'classical' quenchers of 1O2 (zeaxanthin, tocopherols resulted in a highly photosensitive phenotype. Conclusion This study demonstrates that vitamin B6 has a function in

  12. Folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 status of a group of high socioeconomic status women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyaz, Faiqa; Wang, Flora; Jacobs, René L; O'Connor, Deborah L; Bell, Rhonda C; Field, Catherine J

    2014-12-01

    Folic acid supplementation and food fortification policies have improved folate status in North American women of child bearing age. Recent studies have reported the possible inadequacy of vitamin B12 and B6 in the etiology of neural tube defects in folate-fortified populations. The aims of this study were to describe folate status and its relationship to supplementation and to assess vitamin B12 and B6 status in a cohort of pregnant women. Supplement intake data were collected in each trimester from the first cohort (n = 599) of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. Red blood cell folate (RBCF) and plasma folate, holotranscobalamin, and pyridoxal 5-phosphate were measured. Overt folate deficiency was rare (3%) but 24% of women in their first trimester had suboptimal RBCF concentration (1360 nmol·L(-1)) was observed in approximately half of the women during each pregnancy trimester. Vitamin B12 and B6 deficiencies were rare (supplements above the upper level had significantly higher RBCF and plasma folate concentrations. In conclusion, the prevalence of vitamin B12 and B6 deficiency was very low. A quarter of the women had suboptimal folate status in the first trimester of pregnancy and over half the women had abnormally high RBCF, suggesting that supplementation during pregnancy is not appropriate in a cohort of women considered to be healthy and a low risk for nutritional deficiencies.

  13. Vitamin B6 status of pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yemane Berhane

    alterations, and superimposed fetal metabolism and its needs. Vitamin B6 has been recognized as an essential micronutrient involved in normal fetal development, and positive pregnancy outcomes. It is essential for homocysteine metabolism. Its deficiency may lead to hyperhomocysteinaemia (2), which is an established.

  14. Homocysteine and cysteine loads in patients with homocystinuria due to cystathionine synthase deficiency: effects of vitamin B-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, D K; Longhi, R C; Sternowsky, H J; Sturman, J A; Gaull, G E

    1977-08-15

    The metabolic response of patients with homocystinuria due to cystabhionine synthase deficiency to oral loads of homocysteine indicates: that even severely affected patients with homocystinuria have pools of cystine in their tissues; that control of sulfur amino acid metabolism favors increased concentrations of methionine rather than homocystine in the plasma; and that even patients who apparently are not B-6-responsive respond differently to the loads of homocysteine when challenged during B-6-treatment compared with their response before B-6 treatment. Loading tests with homocysteine indicate that B-6 treatment be of some benefit even in individuals who do not have an obvious biochemical response to such therapy.

  15. Deficiency of PdxR in Streptococcus mutans affects vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S; Bitoun, J P; Nguyen, A H; Bozner, D; Yao, X; Wen, Z T

    2015-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a key etiological agent of the human dental caries, lives primarily on the tooth surface in tenacious biofilms. The SMU864 locus, designated pdxR, is predicted to encode a member of the novel MocR/GabR family proteins, which are featured with a winged helix DNA-binding N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain highly homologous to the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent aspartate aminotransferases. A pdxR-deficient mutant, TW296, was constructed using allelic exchange. PdxR deficiency in S. mutans had little effect on cell morphology and growth when grown in brain heart infusion. However, when compared with its parent strain, UA159, the PdxR-deficient mutant displayed major defects in acid tolerance response and formed significantly fewer biofilms (P mutans is known to require vitamin B6 to grow in defined medium, B6 vitamers, especially pyridoxal, were strongly inhibitory at millimolar concentrations, against S. mutans growth and biofilm formation. Our results suggest that PdxR in S. mutans plays an important role in regulation of vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Pyridoxal phosphate concentrations determined postmortem as an indication of antemortem vitamin B-6 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andon, M B; Reynolds, R D

    1987-03-01

    In anticipation of studies relating vitamin B-6 status determined at autopsy to known pathologic causes of death, the postmortem stability of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) in the plasma, skeletal muscle, and liver of pigs was assessed. Concentrations of plasma K, Mg, Na, and Ca also were examined for postmortem stability using the pig as an experimental model. At 1 hr after death, the mean plasma PLP concentration was essentially unchanged from that observed prior to death. Thereafter, plasma PLP concentration increased with increasing postmortem time interval and was 2.3 times greater than initial by 6 hr postmortem and 7.6 times greater than initial by 12 hr postmortem (P less than 0.01). Skeletal muscle and liver PLP content were 35% lower than initial by 6 hr postmortem (P less than 0.01). Plasma K and Mg were significantly higher by 1 hr postmortem (P less than 0.01) while plasma Na concentration was significantly lower by 1 hr postmortem (P less than 0.01). Plasma Ca concentration was not significantly different at any measured time point. Knowledge of the postmortem time interval appears to be required in order to evaluate the antemortem vitamin B-6 status using pyridoxal phosphate values derived from autopsy samples.

  17. Carnosine content in skeletal muscle is dependent on vitamin B6 status in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofya eSuidasari

    2016-01-01

    or in men. We conclude that adequate dietary vitamin B6 is essential for maintaining carnosine in skeletal muscles of rats. Significantly lower soleus carnosine content among women close to PLP deficiency suggests a similar phenomenon exist in the humans.

  18. Dietary intake of total and glycosylated vitamin B-6 and the vitamin B-6 nutritional status of unsupplemented lactating women and their infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andon, M B; Reynolds, R D; Moser-Veillon, P B; Howard, M P

    1989-11-01

    The mean dietary intakes of total and glycosylated vitamin B-6, determined from analysis of 3-d diet composites collected from 30 lactating women, were 8.63 +/- 4.04 and 1.33 +/- 0.85 mumol/d (mean +/- SD), respectively. A comparison of linear regression models that either included or excluded dietary glycosylated vitamin B-6 content indicates that the intake of glycosylated vitamin B-6 had little, if any, effect upon maternal plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentration and maternal urinary excretion of total vitamin B-6 and 4-pyridoxic acid. On the basis of guidelines from the literature for evaluating biochemical indices of vitamin B-6 nutriture, the women appeared to be consuming adequate amounts of the vitamin. The mean breast-milk concentrations of total and glycosylated vitamin B-6 were 733 and 18 nmol/L, respectively. Infant plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentration was 54 +/- 44 nmol/L (mean +/- SD) and all infants had lengths and weights appropriate for age.

  19. Vitamin B6 and immune competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, L C; Meydani, S N

    1993-08-01

    Animal and human studies suggest that vitamin B6 deficiency affects both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Lymphocyte differentiation and maturation are altered by deficiency, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses are reduced, and antibody production may be indirectly impaired. Although repletion of the vitamin restores these functions, megadoses do not produce benefits beyond those observed with moderate supplementation. Additional human studies indicate that vitamin B6 status may influence tumor growth and disease processes. Deficiency of the vitamin has been associated with immunological changes observed in the elderly, persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and those with uremia or rheumatoid arthritis. Future research efforts should focus on establishing the mechanism underlying the effects of vitamin B6 on immunity and should attempt to establish safe intake levels that optimize immune response.

  20. CORRELATION BETWEEN GUT MICROBIOTA AND DEVELOPMENT OF GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE IN B6.V-Lepob/J LEPTIN DEFICIENT MICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    -Lepob/J leptin deficient mouse, a model of severe obesity and type 2 diabetes, was correlated with development of glucose intolerance. GM composition was analyzed by means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), a culture independent approach, separating PCR-derived DNA amplicons of bacterial 16S r......RNA. Disease development was monitored by weekly weight and blood glucose measurements supplemented with measurements of oral glucose tolerance, HbA1c%, plasma insulin and plasma cytokines. A significant correlation was demonstrated between GM composition and glucose intolerance. Also, a significant...... correlation was found between blood glucose, HbA1c% and glucose intolerance and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12, supporting the correlation found between gut and disease, as IL-12 is secreted after microbial stimulation of immunological cells – e.g. In the gut. Further investigations concerning...

  1. Synthesis of B6 vitamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučijak Nevena Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of vitamin B6 has been known since its discovery in the 1940's. Chemical tests, elestrometric titration determinations, and absorption spectrum studies showed that this vitamin exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine (an alcohol, pyridoxal (an aldehyde, and pyridoxamine (a primary amine. Vitamin B6 is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism, and it is assumed that this vitamin is cofactor of metabolic processes more important than any other substance. A deficiency of vitamin B6 in the human diet leads to severe disorders. Vitamin B6 is necessary for the proper function of the immune and nervous system, and helps the body convert protein to energy. This paper describes the history, properties and applications of vitamin B6, elucidation of chemical structure, and different procedures for synthesis of pyridoxine and pyridoxamine.

  2. A Black Cohosh Extract Causes Hematologic and Biochemical Changes Consistent with a Functional Cobalamin Deficiency in Female B6C3F1/N Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cora, Michelle C; Gwinn, William; Wilson, Ralph; King, Debra; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Kissling, Grace E; Brar, Sukhdev S; Olivera, Dorian; Blystone, Chad; Travlos, Greg

    2017-07-01

    Black cohosh rhizome, available as a dietary supplement, is most commonly marketed as a remedy for dysmenorrhea and menopausal symptoms. A previous subchronic toxicity study of black cohosh dried ethanolic extract (BCE) in female mice revealed a dose-dependent ineffective erythropoiesis with a macrocytosis consistent with the condition known as megaloblastic anemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential mechanisms by which BCE induces these particular hematological changes. B6C3F1/N female mice (32/group) were exposed by gavage to vehicle or 1,000 mg/kg BCE for 92 days. Blood samples were analyzed for hematology, renal and hepatic clinical chemistry, serum folate and cobalamin, red blood cell (RBC) folate, and plasma homocysteine and methylmalonic acid (MMA). Folate levels were measured in liver and kidney. Hematological changes included decreased RBC count; increased mean corpuscular volume; and decreased reticulocyte, white blood cell, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts. Blood smear evaluation revealed increased Howell-Jolly bodies and occasional basophilic stippling in treated animals. Plasma homocysteine and MMA concentrations were increased in treated animals. Under the conditions of our study, BCE administration caused hematological and clinical chemistry changes consistent with a functional cobalamin, and possibly folate, deficiency. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism by which BCE causes increases in homocysteine and MMA.

  3. A Mathematical Model of Tryptophan Metabolism via the Kynurenine Pathway Provides Insights into the Effects of Vitamin B-6 Deficiency, Tryptophan Loading, and Induction of Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase on Tryptophan Metabolites123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Avila, Luisa; Nijhout, H. Frederik; Reed, Michael C.; Sitren, Harry S.; Gregory, Jesse F.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 deficiency is associated with impaired tryptophan metabolism because of the coenzyme role of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) for kynureninase and kynurenine aminotransferase. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we developed a mathematical model of tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway. The model includes mammalian data on enzyme kinetics and tryptophan transport from the intestinal lumen to liver, muscle, and brain. Regulatory mechanisms and inhibition of relevant enzymes were included. We simulated the effects of graded reduction in cellular PLP concentration, tryptophan loads and induction of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) on metabolite profiles and urinary excretion. The model predictions matched experimental data and provided clarification of the response of metabolites in various extents of vitamin B-6 deficiency. We found that moderate deficiency yielded increased 3-hydroxykynurenine and a decrease in kynurenic acid and anthranilic acid. More severe deficiency also yielded an increase in kynurenine and xanthurenic acid and more pronounced effects on the other metabolites. Tryptophan load simulations with and without vitamin B-6 deficiency showed altered metabolite concentrations consistent with published data. Induction of TDO caused an increase in all metabolites, and TDO induction together with a simulated vitamin B-6 deficiency, as has been reported in oral contraceptive users, yielded increases in kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and xanthurenic acid and decreases in kynurenic acid and anthranilic acid. These results show that the model successfully simulated tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway and can be used to complement experimental investigations. PMID:23902960

  4. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefit Vitamin B6 source References Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, ...

  5. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is naturally present in many foods. The body needs vitamin B6 for more than 100 enzyme reactions involved ... immune function . How much vitamin B6 do I need? The amount of vitamin B6 you need depends on your age. Average ...

  6. The effect of vitamin B6 deficiency on cytotoxic immune responses of T cells, antibodies, and natural killer cells, and phagocytosis by macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, C; Miller, L T; Kerkvliet, N I

    1984-05-01

    The effect of vitamin B6 on cytotoxic immune responses of T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, cytotoxic antibody production, and macrophage phagocytosis was assessed in 5-week-old female C57B1/6 mice. Mice were fed 20% casein diets with pyridoxine (PN) added at 7, 1, 0.1, or 0 mg/kg diet, which represents 700, 100, 10, and 0% of requirement, respectively. Compared to mice fed 7 or 1 mg PN diet, animals fed 0 or 0.1 mg PN diet showed significantly reduced primary splenic and peritoneal T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC). Animals fed 0 mg PN diet also showed significantly depressed secondary T CMC of splenic and peritoneal lymphocytes against P815 tumor cells. Complement-dependent antibody-mediated cytotoxicity against P815 cells, phagocytosis of SRBC by macrophages, and native and interferon-induced NK cell activities against YAC cells were not affected by the level of vitamin B6 intake. The percentage of macrophages present in the peritoneal exudate cells was increased in animals fed the 0 mg PN diet. The immune responses were not enhanced or altered by the excess intake of vitamin B6 (7 mg PN). It appears that vitamin B6 is an essential nutrient for maintenance of normal T-cell function in vivo.

  7. Biological Variability and Impact of Oral Contraceptives on Vitamins B6, B12 and Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Samman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins B6, B12 and folate play crucial metabolic roles especially during the reproductive years for women. There is limited reporting of within-subject variability of these vitamins. This study aimed to determine the within and between subject variability in serum vitamins B6, B12, folate and erythrocyte folate concentrations in young women; identify factors that contribute to variability; and determine dietary intakes and sources of these vitamins. Data were obtained from the control group of a trial aimed at investigating the effect of iron on the nutritional status of young women (age 25.2 ± 4.2 year; BMI 21.9 ± 2.2 kg/m2. The coefficients of variability within-subject (CVI and between-subject (CVG for serum vitamins B6, B12 and folate, and erythrocyte folate were calculated. Food frequency questionnaires provided dietary data. CVI and CVG were in the range 16.1%–25.7% and 31.7%–62.2%, respectively. Oral contraceptive pill (OCP use was associated (P = 0.042 with lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. Initial values were 172 ± 16 pmol/L and 318 ± 51 pmol/L for OCP and non-OCP users, respectively; with differences maintained at four time points over 12 weeks. BMI, age, physical activity, alcohol intake and haematological variables did not affect serum or erythrocyte vitamin concentrations. Vitamin B12 intakes were derived from traditional and unexpected sources including commercial energy drinks. Young women using OCP had significantly lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. This should be considered in clinical decision making and requires further investigation.

  8. Magnesium deficiency: What is our status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low magnesium intake has been implicated in a broad range of cardiometabolic conditions, including diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Dietary magnesium and total body magnesium status have a widely-used but imperfect biomarker in serum magnesium. Despite serum magnesium’s limitation...

  9. Vitamin B6 is essential for serine de novo biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, Rúben J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413970590; Pras-Raves, Mia L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413970345; Gerrits, Johan; van der Ham, Maria|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304810533; Willemsen, Marcel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413993833; Prinsen, Hubertus|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/250628228; Burgering, Boudewijn|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/081474547; Jans, Judith J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/256345732; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310926556

    2017-01-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the metabolically active form of vitamin B6, plays an essential role in brain metabolism as a cofactor in numerous enzyme reactions. PLP deficiency in brain, either genetic or acquired, results in severe drug-resistant seizures that respond to vitamin B6

  10. An Assessment of the Selenium Status of Iodine-Deficient and Non-Iodine Deficient Filipino Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Sofia Amarra

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine and compare blood selenium levels in iodine-deficient and non-iodine deficient children. Two groups of children were examined: one group with iodine deficiency (n=31 and the other group with normal iodine status (n=32. Blood was extracted by venipuncture from children aged 6-10 years attending first grade in Commonwealth Elementary School in Quezon City. Whole blood selenium was examined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. Iodine status was determined by goiter palpation and urinary iodine excretion. Mean selenium levels of deficient and non-deficient children were compared using T-test. Using a cut-off value of 60 mg Se/L whole blood, the proportion of children with normal and deficient iodine status who fell below this cut-off was compared using chi-square test. Whole blood selenium values ranged from 17.6 to 133.6 mg/L. There were no significant differences in mean selenium levels between children with normal and deficient iodine status. Children with normal iodine status had a mean blood selenium level of 55.87 ± 26.3 mg/L while children with deficient iodine status had a mean level of 58.76 ± 26.4 mg/L. Sixty percent of children had blood selenium levels below the arbitrary cut-off of 60 mg/L with no significant difference between groups (p = 0.165, indicating that selenium deficiency is prevalent in this group of children regardless of iodine status. Since selenium deficiency limits the response to iodine supplementation, further investigation is needed to determine whether the same situation exists in children from other areas.

  11. Methadone N-Demethylation by the Common CYP2B6 Allelic Variant CYP2B6.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadel, Sarah; Crafford, Amanda; Regina, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The long-acting opioid methadone displays considerable unexplained interindividual pharmacokinetic variability. Methadone metabolism clinically occurs primarily by N-demethylation to 2-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), catalyzed predominantly by CYP2B6. Retrospective studies suggest that the common allele variant CYP2B6*6 may influence methadone plasma concentrations. The catalytic activity of CYP2B6.6, encoded by CYP2B6*6, is highly substrate-dependent. This investigation compared methadone N-demethylation by CYP2B6.6 with that by wild-type CYP2B6.1. Methadone enantiomer and racemate N-demethylation by recombinant-expressed CYP2B6.6 and CYP2B6.1 was determined. At substrate concentrations (0.25–2 µM) approximating plasma concentrations occurring clinically, rates of methadone enantiomer N-demethylation by CYP2B6.6, incubated individually or as the racemate, were one-third to one-fourth those by CYP2B6.1. For methadone individual enantiomers and metabolism by CYP2B6.6 compared with CYP2B6.1, Vmax was diminished, Ks was greater and the in vitro intrinsic clearance was diminished 5- to 6-fold. The intrinsic clearance for R- and S-EDDP formation from racemic methadone was diminished approximately 6-fold and 3-fold for R- and S-methadone, respectively. Both CYP2B6.6 and CYP2B6.1 showed similar stereoselectivity (S>R-methadone). Human liver microsomes with diminished CYP2B6 content due to a CYP2B6*6 allele had lower rates of methadone N-demethylation. Results show that methadone N-demethylation catalyzed by CYP2B6.6, the CYP2B6 variant encoded by the CYP2B6*6 polymorphism, is catalytically deficient compared with wild-type CYP2B6.1. Diminished methadone N-demethylation by CYP2B6.6 may provide a mechanistic explanation for clinical observations of altered methadone disposition in individuals carrying the CYP2B6*6 polymorphism. PMID:23298862

  12. Predicting the conservation status of data-deficient species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Lucie M; Collen, Ben; Orme, C David L; Bielby, Jon

    2015-02-01

    There is little appreciation of the level of extinction risk faced by one-sixth of the over 65,000 species assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Determining the status of these data-deficient (DD) species is essential to developing an accurate picture of global biodiversity and identifying potentially threatened DD species. To address this knowledge gap, we used predictive models incorporating species' life history, geography, and threat information to predict the conservation status of DD terrestrial mammals. We constructed the models with 7 machine learning (ML) tools trained on species of known status. The resultant models showed very high species classification accuracy (up to 92%) and ability to correctly identify centers of threatened species richness. Applying the best model to DD species, we predicted 313 of 493 DD species (64%) to be at risk of extinction, which increases the estimated proportion of threatened terrestrial mammals from 22% to 27%. Regions predicted to contain large numbers of threatened DD species are already conservation priorities, but species in these areas show considerably higher levels of risk than previously recognized. We conclude that unless directly targeted for monitoring, species classified as DD are likely to go extinct without notice. Taking into account information on DD species may therefore help alleviate data gaps in biodiversity indicators and conserve poorly known biodiversity. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Vitamin B-6 metabolism in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, D J; Reynolds, R D; Andon, M B; Robbins, S T; Fletcher, A B

    1991-01-01

    The response of premature infants to intravenous pyridoxine or pyridoxal was studied by measuring serum and erythrocyte pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). In the first study serum PLP was measured in 28 infants periodically through day 28. Infants less than 30 wk gestational age (GA) had no serum PLP response to the administration of pyridoxine. Infants greater than or equal to 30 wk GA had significantly greater concentrations of PLP by day 3. In the second study there was a negligible response of serum PLP in nine infants less than or equal to 28 wk GA to supplementation of pyridoxine or pyridoxal. However, erythrocyte PLP and whole-blood total vitamin B-6 concentrations increased in both groups, indicating the presence of a substantial amount of the vitamin in the circulation of the infants. Whereas the functional significance of these observations is not known, it appears that in premature infants, serum PLP may not be an appropriate indicator of vitamin B-6 status.

  14. Vitamin B6 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Albersen

    Full Text Available Over the past years, the essential role of vitamin B6 in brain development and functioning has been recognized and genetic metabolic disorders resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. However, data on B6 vitamers in children are scarce.B6 vitamer concentrations in simultaneously sampled plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 70 children with intellectual disability were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. For ethical reasons, CSF samples could not be obtained from healthy children. The influence of sex, age, epilepsy and treatment with anti-epileptic drugs, were investigated.The B6 vitamer composition of plasma (pyridoxal phosphate (PLP > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxal (PL differed from that of CSF (PL > PLP > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxamine. Strong correlations were found for B6 vitamers in and between plasma and CSF. Treatment with anti-epileptic drugs resulted in decreased concentrations of PL and PLP in CSF.We provide concentrations of all B6 vitamers in plasma and CSF of children with intellectual disability (±epilepsy, which can be used in the investigation of known and novel disorders associated with vitamin B6 metabolism as well as in monitoring of the biochemical effects of treatment with vitamin B6.

  15. Therapy of side effects of oral contraceptive agents with vitamin B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermond, P

    1982-01-01

    Studies carried out in different countries during the last 15 years have provided evidence that supplementation with (or excess of) estro-progestational hormones may be accompanied by an increased urinary excretion of tryptophan metabolites, as happens in pyridoxine deficiency. Further methods of assessment of vitamin B6 in humans have confirmed an impaired status in women using hormonal contraception. Disturbances in the metabolism of tryptophan have been shown to be responsible for such symptoms as depression, anxiety, decrease of libido and impairment of glucose tolerance occurring in some of the OCA users. Administration of 40 mg of vitamin B6 daily not only restores normal biochemical values but also relieves the clinical symptoms in those vitamin B6 deficient women taking OCA's. Further studies are justified to clarify whether vitamin B6 supplementation may contribute to improving depression also in other situations with hyperoestrogenism (pregnancy, puerperium, estro-progestational treatments, etc.), as well as correcting metabolic impairments, such as a minor alteration of glucose tolerance.

  16. Dietary protein as a factor affecting vitamin B6 requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, M; Shibuya, M; Akazawa, T; Muya, H; Murakami, Y

    1998-02-01

    Rats were fed 20 or 70% casein diets with varying amounts of vitamin B6 (B6), and the B6 content and B6-dependent enzymatic activity in their tissues were examined to determine the minimum requirement of B6 for animals subjected to different levels of dietary protein (i.e., 20%: 0, 1.45, 2.90, 5.80 mg pyridoxine (PN)/kg diet; 70%: 0, 2.90, 5.80, 8.70 mg PN/kg diet). B6 requirements for the rats were almost met in the 1.45 mg PN/kg 20% casein diet and the 2.90 mg PN/kg 70% casein diet when judged from the hepatic B6 content. However, almost twice the PN was required in both 20 and 70% casein diets when judged from PLP-enzymatic activity. The content of B6 vitamers in plasma appeared to be most sensitive to B6 status, though the satisfactory level is not known. It was confirmed that, in any case tested, a high-protein diet increased the requirement of B6.

  17. Zinc Status in Iron Deficient Anaemic Patients in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagob Mohamed, T.I.; Bode, P.; van de Wiel, A.; Ismail, Fadwa; Wolterbeek, H.T.

    2017-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a major health problem worldwide, but may be complicated in underdeveloped nations by deficiencies of other micronutrients with consequences for adequate treatment. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 2 billion people – over 30% of the world’s population –

  18. The Status of Iodine Nutrition and Iodine Deficiency Disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iodine deficiency disorders are serious public health problems in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorders among school children in Metekel Zone. Methods: A cross-sectional school based descriptive study was conducted between February 2011 ...

  19. Supplementation with Vitamin B6 Reduces Side Effects in Cambodian Women Using Oral Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chivorn Var

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal contraceptives may produce side effects that deter women from their use as a method of family planning. In nutritionally vulnerable populations these effects may be more pronounced due to micronutrient deficiencies and health status. Previous studies have been unable to resolve whether micronutrient supplementation may reduce such side effects. Aim: In a longitudinal study, 1011 women obtaining oral contraception through the public health system in rural Cambodia were allocated to either intervention or control groups, receiving either daily Vitamin B6 supplement or care as usual (without placebo. Results: The intervention participants (n = 577 reported fewer side effects in three categories: nausea/no appetite, headache, and depression compared with control group participants (n = 434. Conclusion: Women taking Vitamin B6 supplement were less likely to report side effects in a nutritionally vulnerable population. Underlying nutrition status should be considered by clinicians and reproductive health policy makers in the context of providing contraceptive services. Further investigation into micronutrient supplementation, particularly with B6, in reproductive-aged women using hormonal contraception should be conducted in other settings to determine the potential for widespread adoption.

  20. Supplementation with vitamin B6 reduces side effects in Cambodian women using oral contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Var, Chivorn; Keller, Sheryl; Tung, Rathavy; Freeland, Dylan; Bazzano, Alessandra N

    2014-08-26

    Hormonal contraceptives may produce side effects that deter women from their use as a method of family planning. In nutritionally vulnerable populations these effects may be more pronounced due to micronutrient deficiencies and health status. Previous studies have been unable to resolve whether micronutrient supplementation may reduce such side effects. In a longitudinal study, 1011 women obtaining oral contraception through the public health system in rural Cambodia were allocated to either intervention or control groups, receiving either daily Vitamin B6 supplement or care as usual (without placebo). The intervention participants (n = 577) reported fewer side effects in three categories: nausea/no appetite, headache, and depression compared with control group participants (n = 434). Women taking Vitamin B6 supplement were less likely to report side effects in a nutritionally vulnerable population. Underlying nutrition status should be considered by clinicians and reproductive health policy makers in the context of providing contraceptive services. Further investigation into micronutrient supplementation, particularly with B6, in reproductive-aged women using hormonal contraception should be conducted in other settings to determine the potential for widespread adoption.

  1. Current status of gene therapy for α-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, Heather S; Flotte, Terence R

    2015-03-01

    As a common monogenic disease, α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency has undergone thorough investigation for the development of gene therapy. The most common pathology associated with AAT deficiency occurs in the lung, where the loss of function due to impaired secretion of mutant AAT prevents the inhibition of neutrophil elastase and leads to loss of elastin content from the alveolar interstitium. Current treatment in the USA consists of recurrent intravenous protein replacement therapy to augment serum AAT levels. In an attempt to replace recurring treatments with a single dose of gene therapy, recombinant adenovirus, plasmid, and recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors have been investigated as vectors for transgene delivery. Large strides in gene therapy for AAT deficiency lung disease have led to the development of rAAV1-AAT capable of producing sustained serum AAT levels in clinical trials after intramuscular administration in humans at 3% of the target level. Further increases in levels are anticipated as limb perfusion targets greater muscle mass. The future roles of intrapleural and airway delivery, miRNA-expressing vectors, iPS cell platforms, and genome editing are anticipated.

  2. Vitamin D deficiency and segregation status in prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Zelda; Dearin, John Walton; McGirr, Joe

    2018-03-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate if any exposure to segregation minimal association in a single male prison population had any association with an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. Design/methodology/approach A retrospective case study was undertaken with all inmates who had a 25-hyrdoxy-vitamin D test taken during the study period deemed eligible. Hand searching of the medical records by an independent party identified eligible participants whose data were recorded for analysis. Findings In total, 124 prisoners were deemed eligible for inclusion; 67 were vitamin D sufficient and 57 were vitamin D deficient by Australian standards. Time in segregation minimal association was shown not to be significant, however, smoking (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.27-6.81, p=0.012) and having Asian ethnicity (OR 4.16, 95% CI 1.56-11.10, p=0.004) independently significantly increased the risk of vitamin D deficiency. Research limitations/implications This research is limited by its study design, small sample size and single location. Originality/value This paper presents the first published research into vitamin D levels in a prison population in Australia, and provides a basis for a larger prospective cohort study.

  3. New borohydride anion B6H7-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, I.Yu.; Vinitskij, D.M.; Solntsev, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The [Ni(Bipy) 3 ] (B 6 H 7 ) 2 , (Ph 4 P)B 6 H 7 , [Ni(Phen) 3 ](B 6 H 7 ) 2 crystals (where Bipy = bipyridine, Phen = phenathroline, Ph = phenyl) are obtained via the exchange reaction with a subsequent recrystallization from aqua-acetonic and acetonic solutions. The structure is studied of a new borohydride anion B 6 H 7 - possessing a four-valence bond unique for polyhedral borohydride anions. A triangular face of boride skeleton coordinating a hydrogen atom is considerably larger than other faces, and the electron density on this hydrogen atom is evidently much higher than at the end hydride hydrogen atoms. The trend of B 6 H 7 - anion to form statistically disordered structurs testifies to a rather slight effect of the seventh hydrogen atom position on the structure pattern of the ionic crystal lattice

  4. Education and micronutrient deficiencies: an ecological study exploring interactions between women's schooling and children's micronutrient status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Kassandra L; Aguayo, Victor M; Masters, William A; Webb, Patrick

    2018-04-10

    Formal education can be a nutrition-sensitive intervention that supports the scale-up and impact of nutrition-specific actions. Maternal education has long been linked to child survival, growth, and development while adult earnings and nutrition are tied to years in school as a child. However, less is known about the relationship between maternal education and the micronutrient status of children, women and the general population. Using country-level data and an ecological study design, we explored the global associations between women's educational attainment and: a) anemia and vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in children aged 6-59 months; b) anemia in non-pregnant women; and c) zinc deficiency, urinary iodine excretion (UIE), and the proportion of infants protected against iodine deficiency in the general population Cross-sectional relationships (2005-2013) were assessed using linear regression models. Percentage of women without schooling was negatively associated with all outcomes. Number of years of schooling among women was positively associated with all outcomes except for UIE and the proportion of infants protected against iodine deficiency. Income level was a significant effect modifier of the effect of years of women's schooling on child anemia as well as of the proportion of women without formal education on zinc deficiency in the population. The relationship was strongest in low-income countries for child anemia, and was not significant in upper middle-income countries. For zinc deficiency, the relationship was not significant in low or lower middle income countries, which may suggest that a minimum threshold of resources needs to be reached before education can influence zinc status. While relationships between maternal schooling and micronutrient outcomes vary around the globe, more schooling is generally linked to lower rates of deficiency. These findings draw policy-relevant connections between formal education and anemia and micronutrient status

  5. Status of B-vitamins and homocysteine in diabetic retinopathy: association with vitamin-B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Alleboena; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Pitla, Sujatha; Reddy, Paduru Yadagiri; Mudili, Sivaprasad; Lopamudra, Pratti; Suryanarayana, Palla; Viswanath, Kalluru; Ayyagari, Radha; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common cause of blindness. Although many studies have indicated an association between homocysteine and DR, the results so far have been equivocal. Amongst the many determinants of homocysteine, B-vitamin status was shown to be a major confounding factor, yet very little is known about its relationship to DR. In the present study, we, therefore, investigated the status of B-vitamins and homocysteine in DR. A cross-sectional case-control study was conducted with 100 normal control (CN) subjects and 300 subjects with type-2 diabetes (T2D). Of the 300 subjects with T2D, 200 had retinopathy (DR) and 100 did not (DNR). After a complete ophthalmic examination including fundus fluorescein angiography, the clinical profile and the blood levels of all B-vitamins and homocysteine were analyzed. While mean plasma homocysteine levels were found to be higher in T2D patients compared with CN subjects, homocysteine levels were particularly high in the DR group. There were no group differences in the blood levels of vitamins B1 and B2. Although the plasma vitamin-B6 and folic acid levels were significantly lower in the DNR and DR groups compared with the CN group, there were no significant differences between the diabetes groups. Interestingly, plasma vitamin-B12 levels were found to be significantly lower in the diabetes groups compared with the CN group; further, the levels were significantly lower in the DR group compared with the DNR group. Higher homocysteine levels were significantly associated with lower vitamin-B12 and folic acid but not with other B-vitamins. Additionally, hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamin-B12 deficiency did not seem to be related to subjects' age, body mass index, or duration of diabetes. These results thus suggest a possible association between vitamin-B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia in DR. Further, the data indicate that vitamin-B12 deficiency could be an independent risk factor for DR.

  6. [VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AMONG CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH NORMAL NUTRITIONAL STATUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel; Chueca Guindulain, María Jesús; Berrade-Zubiri, Sara

    2015-09-01

    to analyze the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency throughout a natural year in a pediatric population with normal nutrition status. cross sectional clinical and analytical study (calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, calcidiol and parathyroid hormone) in 413 caucasian individuals (aged 3.1 to 15.4 years): 227 school children (96 males and 131 females) and 186 adolescents (94 males and 92 females), all of them in a normal nutrition status, during the year 2014. Vitamin D deficiency was defined according to the United States Endocrine Society guidelines. calcidiol levels were lower during spring (25.96 ± 6.64 ng/ml) and reached its maximum level in summer (35.33 ± 7.51 ng/ml); PTH levels were lower in summer (27.13 ± 7.89 pg/ml) and reached maximum level in autumn (34.73 ± 15.38 pg/ml). Vitamin D deficiency prevalence was 14.3% in summer and 75.3% in spring. PTH levels were compatible with secondary hyperparathyroidism in 8 individuals (1.9%). There was a negative correlation between calcidol and PTH levels (p nutrition status shows a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency during the months of autumn and winter and, especially, in spring; the addition of vitamin supplements and/ or an increase in the ingestion of their natural dietary sources should be considered. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Methadone pharmacogenetics: CYP2B6 polymorphisms determine plasma concentrations, clearance and metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharasch, Evan D.; Regina, Karen J.; Blood, Jane; Friedel, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Background Interindividual variability in methadone disposition remains unexplained, and methadone accidental overdose in pain therapy is a significant public health problem. Cytochrome P4502B6 (CYP2B6) is the principle determinant of clinical methadone elimination. The CYP2B6 gene is highly polymorphic, with several variant alleles. CYP2B6.6, the protein encoded by the CYP2B6*6 polymorphism, deficiently catalyzes methadone metabolism in vitro. This investigation determined the influence of CYP2B6*6, and other allelic variants encountered, on methadone concentrations, clearance, and metabolism. Methods Healthy volunteers in genotype cohorts CYP2B6*1/*1 (n=21), CYP2B6*1/*6 (n=20), and CYP2B6*6/*6 (n=17), and also CYP2B6*1/*4 (n=1), CYP2B6*4/*6 (n=3), CYP2B6*5/*5 (n=2) subjects received single doses of intravenous and oral methadone. Plasma and urine methadone and metabolite concentrations were determined by tandem mass spectrometry. Results Average S-methadone apparent oral clearance was 35 and 45% lower in CYP2B6*1/*6 and CYP2B6*6/*6 genotypes, respectively, compared with CYP2B6*1/*1, and R-methadone apparent oral clearance was 25 and 30% lower. R- and S-methadone apparent oral clearance was 3- and 4-fold greater in CYP2B6*4 carriers. Intravenous and oral R- and S-methadone metabolism was significantly lower in CYP2B6*6 carriers compared with CYP2B6*1 homozygotes, and greater in CYP2B6*4 carriers. Methadone metabolism and clearance were lower in African-Americans due to the CYP2B6*6 genetic polymorphism. Conclusions CYP2B6 polymorphisms influence methadone plasma concentrations, due to altered methadone metabolism and thus clearance. Genetic influence is greater for oral than intravenous, and S- than R-methadone. CYP2B6 pharmacogenetics explains, in part, interindividual variability in methadone elimination. CYP2B6 genetic effects on methadone metabolism and clearance may identify subjects at risk for methadone toxicity and drug interactions. PMID:26389554

  8. Superhard and Superconducting B6C

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Kang; Ma, Mengdong; Liu, Cong; Gao, Hao; Chen, Qun; He, Julong; Sun, Jian; Wang, Hui-Tian; Tian, Yongjun; Xing, Dingyu

    2017-01-01

    Crystal structure searching and ab initio calculations have been used here to explore low-energy structures of boron carbides under high pressure. Under pressures of 85-110 GPa, a metastable B6C with R-3m symmetry is found to be energetically more stable than the mixture of previous B4C and elemental boron. This B6C is a rhombohedral structure and contains mooncake-like B24 clusters with stuffing of C2 pairs. The mechanical and dynamical stabilities of this structure at ambient pressure are c...

  9. Relationship between vitamin D deficiency, bone remodelling and iron status in iron-deficient young women consuming an iron-fortified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Toxqui, Laura; Zazo, Pilar; de la Piedra, Concepción; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2013-03-01

    Iron and vitamin D deficiencies are two of the most widespread nutritional disorders in the world. Our aim was to know whether the consumption of an iron-fortified fruit juice modifies bone remodelling and the possible influence of baseline vitamin D status on the recovery of iron status in a group of iron-deficient women. Iron biomarkers, 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and dietary intake were measured in 123 iron-deficient menstruating women. A subgroup (n = 41) participated in a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study of 16-weeks during winter. They consumed a placebo fruit juice (P) or iron-fortified fruit juice (F). Dietary intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathormone (PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aminoterminal telopeptide of collagen I (NTX) and iron biomarkers were determined. Ninety-two per cent of the iron-deficient women were vitamin D deficient or insufficient. Transferrin saturation and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were positively correlated. Iron status improved in F, 25-hydroxyvitamin D decreased in F and P, and PTH, ALP and NTX levels were within the normal range and did not vary. Women with 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≥ 50 nmol/L compared with 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 50 nmol/L showed a higher increase in transferrin saturation (a marker of iron supply to tissues) during iron recovery. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is very high in iron-deficient women. The recovery of iron status by consuming an iron-fortified food does not affect 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels; however, the increase in iron supply to tissues is lower if the women also present vitamin D deficiency. Although bone health does not seem to be affected in this group of women, correction of iron and vitamin D deficiencies should be promoted in young women to improve present and future health.

  10. TIDBIT: portable diagnostics of multiplexed nutrition deficiencies: iron, vitamin A and inflammation status (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhengda; Erickson, David

    2017-03-01

    Vitamin A and iron deficiency are common malnutrition affecting billions of people worldwide. However, in infrastructure limited settings, access to blood vitamin A and iron status test is limited because of the complexity and cost of traditional diagnostic methods. Direct measurements of vitamin A and iron level is not easy to perform, and it is necessary to measure approximate marker for obtaining vitamin A and iron deficiency status. Measurement of inflammatory marker is also necessary because the vitamin A and iron level are altered by inflammation status. Here we introduced a multiplex rapid point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices that simultaneously characterize three markers relevant to vitamin A, iron and inflammation status: retinol binding protein 4, ferritin and C-reactive protein with lateral flow immunoassay test strips. Level of retinol binding protein 4, ferritin and C-reactive protein are indicated by excitation intensity of fluorescence tags with three different colors. The test can be done within 15 minutes and a complete sample-answer quantitative results of vitamin A, iron and inflammation status level can be obtained with assists of a smartphone and an external device. We also demonstrated the device is able to perform colorimetric analysis on single test area. which gives the device potential to perform more tests simultaneously at the same time.

  11. Vitamin B6 Supplementation Improves Oxidative Stress and Enhances Serum Paraoxonase/Arylesterase Activities in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Taş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin B6 (Vit B6 on oxidant and antioxidant status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (C, control + Vit B6 group (C + Vit B6, diabetes (D, and diabetes + Vit B6 group (D + Vit B6. Vit B6 (4 mg/kg body weight was administered in drinking water for 4 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Vitamin B6 reduced serum total cholesterol level in the C + Vit B6 (P < 0.01 and D + Vit B6 (P < 0.05 groups. Plasma and tissue malondialdehyde levels were reduced in the C + Vit B6 and D + Vit B6 groups. Whole blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were higher in the D group (P < 0.05. GSH-Px and SOD activities were increased in C + Vit B6 group while these parameters decreased in the D + Vit B6 group. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were decreased in the D group while they were increased in C + Vit B6 and D + Vit B6 groups. The results of present study suggest that vitamin B6 supplementation might be a promising adjunctive agent for improving oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and for preventing diabetic complications including atherogenesis.

  12. Vitamin D deficiency and nutritional status in elderly hospitalized subjects in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramel, Alfons; Jonsson, Palmi V; Bjornsson, Sigurbjorn; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2009-07-01

    Poor nutrition and limited sunlight exposure (season) can be related to reduced serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. Thus, elderly people in the Nordic countries might be at high risk for vitamin D deficiency. The aims of the study were to describe the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in elderly hospitalized patients in Reykjavik, Iceland, and to investigate the effects of nutritional status and season on serum 25(OH)D. Cross-sectional study. Nutritional status was assessed and fasting blood was drawn and analysed for serum 25(OH)D and other clinical routine measurements. Departments of Geriatrics, Landspitali-University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland. Sixty hospitalized patients (mean age 83.0 (SD 7.9) years) were randomly assigned. Of the patients, 12.3% suffered from vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D nutritional status on serum 25(OH)D. Anthropometric variables correlated significantly with serum 25(OH)D, but on stepwise linear regression modelling for the prediction of serum 25(OH)D, BMI remained the only predictor variable (B = -1.454, 95% CI -2.535, -0.373, P = 0.009). BMI was significantly negatively associated with serum 25(OH)D in hospitalized elderly patients. Neither nutritional status nor season significantly affected serum 25(OH)D in our patient group. Higher levels of serum 25(OH)D in elderly subjects with lower BMI are most likely explained by volume of distribution rather than by mobilization of vitamin D from its storage in adipose tissue due to age and disease-related catabolism.

  13. Micronutrient Status among Pregnant Women in Zinder, Niger and Risk Factors Associated with Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessells, K Ryan; Ouédraogo, Césaire T; Young, Rebecca R; Faye, M Thierno; Brito, Alex; Hess, Sonja Y

    2017-04-26

    Anemia and micronutrient (MN) deficiencies in pregnant women are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. In Niger, 58.6% of pregnant women are anemic; however, MN statuses are unknown. The study objectives were to estimate the prevalence of MN deficiencies among pregnant women in Zinder, Niger and explore associated risk factors. Pregnant women living in randomly selected rural villages ( n = 88) were included. Capillary and venous blood samples ( n = 770) were analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb) and plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), zinc (pZn), retinol binding protein (RBP), folate and vitamin B 12 . C-reactive protein and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein were measured to adjust for inflammation. The prevalence of MN deficiencies in pregnant woman was high, indicative of a severe public health problem. Prevalence of iron deficiency was 20.7% and 35.7%, by ferritin (8.3 mg/L), respectively. In total, 40.7% of women had low pZn (women had low folate (pregnant women in this population.

  14. Micronutrient Status among Pregnant Women in Zinder, Niger and Risk Factors Associated with Deficiency

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    K. Ryan Wessells

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Anemia and micronutrient (MN deficiencies in pregnant women are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. In Niger, 58.6% of pregnant women are anemic; however, MN statuses are unknown. The study objectives were to estimate the prevalence of MN deficiencies among pregnant women in Zinder, Niger and explore associated risk factors. Pregnant women living in randomly selected rural villages (n = 88 were included. Capillary and venous blood samples (n = 770 were analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb and plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, zinc (pZn, retinol binding protein (RBP, folate and vitamin B12. C-reactive protein and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein were measured to adjust for inflammation. The prevalence of MN deficiencies in pregnant woman was high, indicative of a severe public health problem. Prevalence of iron deficiency was 20.7% and 35.7%, by ferritin (<15 µg/L and sTfR (>8.3 mg/L, respectively. In total, 40.7% of women had low pZn (<50 µg/dL, 79.7% had marginal RBP (<1.32 µmol/L, 44.3% of women had low folate (<10 nmol/L and 34.8% had low B12 concentrations (<148 pmol/L. Common risk factors associated with MN status included gravidity, mid-upper-arm circumference, geophagy, malaria, and result of the woman’s last pregnancy. Interventions to promote the strengthening of antenatal care, and access and adherence to nutrition and health interventions are critical among pregnant women in this population.

  15. Cobalamin C deficiency in an adolescent with altered mental status and anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmandar, Maria H; Bawcom, Amanda; Romano, Mary E; Hamid, Rizwan

    2014-12-01

    Although cobalamin (cbl) C deficiency is the most common inherited disorder of vitamin B12 metabolism, the late-onset form of the disease can be difficult to recognize because it has a broad phenotypic spectrum. In this report, we describe an adolescent female exposed to unknown illicit substances and sexual abuse who presented with psychosis, anorexia, seizures, and ataxia. The patient's diagnosis was delayed until a metabolic workup was initiated, revealing hyperhomocysteinemia, low normal plasma methionine, and methylmalonic aciduria. Ultimately, cblC deficiency was confirmed when molecular testing showed compound heterozygosity for mutations (c.271dupA and c.482G>A) in the MMACHC gene. This diagnosis led to appropriate treatment with hydroxocobalamin, betaine, and folate, which resulted in improvement of her clinical symptoms and laboratory values. This patient demonstrates a previously unrecognized presentation of late-onset cblC deficiency. Although neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in late-onset disease, seizures and cerebellar involvement are not. Furthermore, anorexia has not been previously described in these patients. This case emphasizes that inborn errors of metabolism should be part of the differential diagnosis for a teenager presenting with altered mental status, especially when the diagnosis is challenging or neurologic symptoms are unexplained. Correct diagnosis of this condition is important because treatment is available and can result in clinical improvement.(1.) Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Effect of dietary vitamin B6 contents on antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inubushi, T; Okada, M; Matsui, A; Hanba, J; Murata, E; Katunuma, N

    2000-01-01

    When mice were placed on diets extreme deficient in vitamin B6, ovalbumin-dependent antibody productions (IgE, IgG1, IgG2a) were significantly suppressed, and alanine aminotransferase activity in the liver was also significantly decreased. In the case of pyridoxine excess (6 mg% = about ten times standard amount) in a 70% casein diet, ovalbumin-dependent antibody productions were also considerably suppressed. These responses were weaker in a low casein (5%) or normal casein (20%) diet than in a 70% casein diet. The administration of high doses of pyridoxine (6 mg%) resulted in the suppression of hepatic cathepsin B activity. Therefore, we conclude that ovalbumin-dependent antibody productions (IgG1, IgE) were suppressed by pyridoxine excess diet (6 mg%), because hepatic cathepsin B activity was suppressed by the excess pyridoxine in diet.

  17. On the influence of ionizing irradiation on the vitamin B6 metabolism in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler-Klosa, G.

    1981-01-01

    In 50 female patients suffering from an endometrium carcinoma in stage I to IV, the vitamin B 6 level was determined by the erythrocytic glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT), and its activation coefficients at different instants before and during radiation therapy were calculated. Simultaneously the haemoglobin content of the blood and the behaviour of the leukocytes and thrombocytes was investigated under the high voltage irradiation. To 49 patients 300 mg pyridoxin were administered perorally every day during the irradiation treatment which lasted several weeks. It resulted that in endometrium carcinomas the vitamin B 6 levels in the blood are decreased, and in proceeded stages more often vitamin B 6 deficits are observed. Even after daily administrations of vitamin B 6 the values of the activation coefficients of the erythrocytic glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase only slowly return to normal. Thus apparently relatively high pyridoxin doses seem to be necessary in order to remove the irradiation-induced vitamin B 6 disorder. After daily oral administration of 300 mg pyridoxin in no case a biochemical vitamin B 6 deficit under radiation therapy was observed. The leukocytes show under radiotherapy the expected decrease. Leukopenia requiring the discontinuation of interruption of the radiation treatment did not occur during vitamin B 6 administration. A careful control of the thrombocytes is also under vitamin B 6 administration necessary, but fatal thrombocytoponia could not be observed. With reference to the haemoglobin content in most cases a decrease was found, which apparently can not be prevented by the application of vitamin B 6 . An influence on the vitamin B 6 level by the patient's age could not be found. Finally it has to be indicated that by determining the activation coefficient of the erythrocytic glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, indirectly the vitamin B 6 deficiency can be detected without any serious disturbance for the patient. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Enzymatic synthesis of vitamin B6 precursor

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    Prlainović Nevena Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 3-Cyano-4-ethoxymethyl-6-methyl-2-pyridone is an important precursor in the synthesis of vitamin B6, obtained in the addition reaction between 2-cyanoacetamide and 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione catalyzed by lipase from Candida rugosa (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases, EC 3.1.1.3. This work shows new experimental data and mathematical modeling of lipase catalyzed synthesis of 3-cyano-4-ethoxymethyl-6-methyl-2-pyridone, starting from 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione and 2-cyanoacetamide. Kinetic measurements were done at 50 oC with enzyme concentration of 1.2 % w/v. Experimental results were fitted with two kinetic models: the ordered bi-ter and ping-pong bi-ter model, and the initial rates of the reaction were found to correlate best with a ping-pong bi-ter mechanism with inhibition by 2-cyanoacetamide. Obtained specificity constants indicated that lipase from C. rugosa had higher affinity towards 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione and less bulky substrates. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013, br. III 46010 and br. 172049

  19. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 predicts pulmonary status declines in α1-antitrypsin deficiency

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    Rames Alexis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 may be important in the progression of emphysema, but there have been few longitudinal clinical studies of MMP-9 including pulmonary status and COPD exacerbation outcomes. Methods We utilized data from the placebo arm (n = 126 of a clinical trial of patients with alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD and emphysema to examine the links between plasma MMP-9 levels, pulmonary status, and COPD exacerbations over a one year observation period. Pulmonary function, computed tomography lung density, incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT, and COPD exacerbations were assessed at regular intervals over 12 months. Prospective analyses used generalized estimating equations to incorporate repeated longitudinal measurements of MMP-9 and all endpoints, controlling for age, gender, race-ethnicity, leukocyte count, and tobacco history. A secondary analysis also incorporated highly-sensitive C-reactive protein levels in predictive models. Results At baseline, higher plasma MMP-9 levels were cross-sectionally associated with lower FEV1 (p = 0.03, FVC (p Conclusions Increased plasma MMP-9 levels generally predicted pulmonary status declines, including worsening transfer factor and lung density as well as greater COPD exacerbations in AATD-associated emphysema.

  20. Status of iodine deficiency among pregnant mothers in Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Umesh; Prakash, Shyam; Sareen, Neha; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh; Khenduja, Preetika; Nigam, Sukirty; Vijay, Jyoti

    2014-09-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient needed for the production of thyroid hormones. Pregnant mothers who are deficient in iodine provide less iodine to the fetal thyroid. This results in low production of thyroid hormones by the fetal thyroid, thereby leading to compromised mental and physical development of the fetus. The current study aimed to assess the current status of iodine nutrition among pregnant mothers in Himachal Pradesh, India, a known endemic region for iodine deficiency. Three districts, namely Kangra, Kullu and Solan, were selected. In each district, thirty clusters (villages) were identified by utilizing the population-proportional-to-size cluster sampling methodology. In each cluster, seventeen pregnant mothers attending the antenatal clinics were included. A total of 1711 pregnant mothers (647 from Kangra, 551 from Kullu and 513 from Solan) were studied. Clinical examination of the thyroid of each pregnant mother was conducted. Spot urine samples were collected from ten pregnant mothers in each cluster. Similarly, salt samples were collected from eleven pregnant mothers in each cluster. Total goitre rate was 42·2 % (Kangra), 42·0 % (Kullu) and 19·9 % (Solan). The median urinary iodine concentration was 200 μg/l (Kangra), 149 μg/l (Kullu) and 130 μg/l (Solan). The percentage of pregnant mothers consuming adequately iodized salt (iodine content of 15 ppm and more) was found to be 68·3 % (Kangra), 60·3 % (Kullu) and 48·5 % (Solan). Pregnant mothers in Kullu and Solan districts had iodine deficiency as indicated by a median urinary iodine concentration less than 150 μg/l.

  1. 29 CFR 2530.200b-6 - Maritime industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime industry. 2530.200b-6 Section 2530.200b-6 Labor... Provisions § 2530.200b-6 Maritime industry. (a) General. Sections 202(a)(3)(D), 203(b)(2)(D) and 204(b)(3)(E... provisions applicable to the maritime industry. In general, those provisions permit statutory standards...

  2. Redox Status, Procoagulant Activity, and Metabolome of Fresh Frozen Plasma in Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency

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    Vassilis L. Tzounakas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTransfusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP helps in maintaining the coagulation parameters in patients with acquired multiple coagulation factor deficiencies and severe bleeding. However, along with coagulation factors and procoagulant extracellular vesicles (EVs, numerous bioactive and probably donor-related factors (metabolites, oxidized components, etc. are also carried to the recipient. The X-linked glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD−, the most common human enzyme genetic defect, mainly affects males. By undermining the redox metabolism, the G6PD− cells are susceptible to the deleterious effects of oxidants. Considering the preferential transfusion of FFP from male donors, this study aimed at the assessment of FFP units derived from G6PD− males compared with control, to show whether they are comparable at physiological, metabolic and redox homeostasis levels.MethodsThe quality of n = 12 G6PD− and control FFP units was tested after 12 months of storage, by using hemolysis, redox, and procoagulant activity-targeted biochemical assays, flow cytometry for EV enumeration and phenotyping, untargeted metabolomics, in addition to statistical and bioinformatics tools.ResultsHigher procoagulant activity, phosphatidylserine positive EVs, RBC-vesiculation, and antioxidant capacity but lower oxidative modifications in lipids and proteins were detected in G6PD− FFP compared with controls. The FFP EVs varied in number, cell origin, and lipid/protein composition. Pathway analysis highlighted the riboflavin, purine, and glycerolipid/glycerophospholipid metabolisms as the most altered pathways with high impact in G6PD−. Multivariate and univariate analysis of FFP metabolomes showed excess of diacylglycerols, glycerophosphoinositol, aconitate, and ornithine but a deficiency in riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide, adenine, and arginine, among others, levels in G6PD− FFPs compared with control.ConclusionOur results point

  3. Effect of two different sublingual dosages of vitamin B12on cobalamin nutritional status in vegans and vegetarians with a marginal deficiency: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Gardana, Claudio; Brusamolino, Antonella; Battezzati, Alberto; Ciappellano, Salvatore

    2018-02-15

    Vegetarians and vegans are more vulnerable to vitamin B 12 deficiency with severe risks of megaloblastic anemia, cognitive decline, neuropathy, and depression. An easy and simple method of supplementation consists of taking one weekly dosage of 2000 μg. However, single large oral doses of vitamin B 12 are poorly absorbed. The present research evaluates the ability of two different sublingual dosages of vitamin B 12 (350 μg/week vs 2000 μg/week) in improving cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12 ) nutritional status in vegans and vegetarians with a marginal deficiency. A 12-week randomized, double-blind, controlled, parallel intervention trial was performed. Forty subjects with marginal vitamin B 12 deficiency were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups: test group Ld (low dose, 350 μg/week) and control group Hd (high dose, 2000 μg/week) vitamin B 12 supplementation. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 15, 30, 60, and 90 days from the intervention for the determination of vitamin B 12 , related metabolic markers, and blood cell counts. Two-way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of time (P < 0.0001) and of time × treatment interaction (P = 0.012) on serum concentration of vitamin B 12 that increased after 90-day supplementation (Ld and Hd) compared to baseline. Both the supplements increased (P < 0.0001, time effect) the levels of holotranscobalamin, succinic acid, methionine and wellness parameter, while decreased (P < 0.0001, time effect) the levels of methylmalonic acid, homocysteine and folate compared to baseline. No difference was observed between groups (LdvsHd). No effect was detected for vitamin B 6 and blood cell count. In our experimental conditions, both supplements were able to restore adequate serum concentrations of vitamin B 12 and to improve the levels of related metabolic blood markers in subjects with a marginal deficiency. The results support the use of a sublingual dosage of 50 μg/day (350

  4. Efeito de deficiência de micronutrientes no estado nutricional da mamoneira cultivar Iris Micronutrient deficiency effect on the nutritional status of the castor bean cultivar Iris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Lange

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram caracterizar os sintomas visuais de deficiência de micronutrientes e avaliar efeitos desses micronutrientes no estado nutricional da mamoeira. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação utilizando-se solução nutritiva, de fevereiro a junho de 2003. Foram utilizadas plantas de mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. do híbrido comercial Íris. Os tratamentos foram: completo, omissão de B, omissão de Cu, omissão de Fe, omissão de Mn, omissão de Mo e omissão de Zn. A omissão de B, Fe e Mn resultou em sintomas característicos de deficiência. Os sintomas se desenvolveram primeiramente em plantas deficientes em Fe ou Mn, seguidas das deficientes em boro. A produção de matéria seca foi afetada na seguinte ordem: Fe>Mn>B. Tanto as folhas superiores como as inferiores refletem o estado nutricional da mamoneira em relação a B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo e Zn. O teor de clorofila nas folhas, medido em unidades SPAD, foi influenciado pela omissão dos micronutrientes.The objectives of this work were to characterize the visual symptoms of micronutrient deficiencies, and their effects on nutricional status of castor beans. A greenhouse experiment with nutrient solutions was carried out from February to June, 2003. The commercial hybrid "Iris" was used. Treatments were as follows: complete, minus B, minus Cu, minus Fe, minus Mn, minus Mo, and minus Zn. Symptoms of deficiency were observed in the treatments with omission of B, Fe, and Mn. The symptoms firstly developed when either Fe or Mn was deficient, and they were followed by those deficient in boron. Dry matter yield was affected in the decreasing order: Fe>Mn>B. Both upper and lower leaves reflect the nutritional status of the castor bean with respect to B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn. Leaf chlorophyll, as measured in units SPAD, was influenced by the treatments.

  5. Haplotypes frequencies of CYP2B6 in Malaysia

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    N Musa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drugs with complex pharmacology are used in the management of drug use disorder (DUD and HIV/AIDS in Malaysia and in parts of South-East Asia. Their multiethnic populations suggest complexity due to the genetic polymorphism, such as CYP2B6 that metabolizes methadone and anti-retroviral. Aims: Our aim was to explore the genetic polymorphism of CYP2B6 among Malays, Chinese, Indians, and opiate-dependent individuals in Malaysia. Settings and Design: The study utilized DNA from our previous studies on CYPs and new recruitments from opiate-dependent individuals. Materials and Methods: For the new recruitment, after obtaining consent and baseline demography, 5 ml blood was obtained from patients attending methadone maintenance therapy (MMT Clinics. Genomic DNA was extracted using standard methods. 10 nucleotide changes associated with CYP2B6FNx0110, CYP2B6FNx012, CYP2B6FNx0117, CYP2B6FNx0111, CYP2B6FNx018, CYP2B6FNx0114, CYP2B6FNx019, CYP2B6FNx014, CYP2B6FNx016, CYP2B6FNx0127, and CYP2B6FNx0120 were determined using multiplex nested allele-specific PCR. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to summarize demographic data. Differences in allele frequencies between populations were tested using Chi-squared test and were corrected using the Bonferroni test. Results: CYP2B6 polymorphism in Malaysia is variable with trends that suggest an ethnic difference. Reduced activity CYP2B6FNx016 occurred in 13% to 26% among Malays, Chinese, Indians and opiate-dependent individuals. Another ′reduced activity′, CYP2B6FNx012 allele, was found at much lower percentages in the groups. Conclusions: The relative commonness of reduced-activity CYP2B6 alleles in our study called for attention in terms of dosage requirements for MMT and ARV in Malaysia. It also implored follow-up association studies to determine its relevance and consequences in personalized medicine for drug use disorder and HIV/AIDS.

  6. Deficiencies Under Plenty of Sun: Vitamin D Status among Adults in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffaha, Marwa; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Daoud, Farah; Al Hussaini, Hessah Abdulla; Alamri, Fahad; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Memish, Ziad A; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Mokdad, Ali H

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been correlated with several diseases and injuries including diabetes, osteoporosis, fractures, and falls. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), current data on vitamin D status are lacking. To inform Saudi public health authorities on the current status of blood levels vitamin D deficiency, we analyzed data from the Saudi Health Interview Survey. The Saudi Health Interview Survey (SHIS) is a cross-sectional national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years and above on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. A total of 10,735 participants completed a health questionnaire and were invited to the local health clinics for biomedical exams. 62.65% of female Saudis and 40.6% of male Saudis aged 15 years and above are deficient in vitamin D. Out of them, less than 1% males and less than 2% females consume vitamin D supplements. Women who have never married and obese individuals are more likely to be deficient in vitamin D, compared to men who were currently married and nonobese individuals. Those consuming vitamin D supplements are less likely to be deficient in vitamin D. Our study showed a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Saudi men and women, and the results call for an increased awareness to ensure adequate levels of vitamin D for better health in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, our findings are certainly relevant for other countries in the Gulf region or countries with similar cultures, clothing, and religions.

  7. Vitamin D status and the prevalence of deficiency in lactating women from eight provinces and municipalities in China.

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    Yao Zhao

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has become prevalent worldwide in recent years. However, less evidence was available for lactating women.The purpose of the study was to understand vitamin D status and prevalence of deficiency in lactating women and associated risk factors for vitamin D deficiency from eight provinces and municipalities in China.Lactating women within 1-10 months postpartum were recruited in 2011-2013 from eight provinces and municipalities in China. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] concentration. Standardized questionnaire was used to collect information on season, living site, ethnicity and socio-demographic characteristics.Totally 2004 lactating women were recruited. The median (p25, p75 of 25(OHD was 15.8 (10.5, 24.0 nmol/L. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 85.3% as 25(OHD <30nmol/L. Serum 25(OHD levels of lactating women were significantly lower during October-January (14.0nmol/L than during February-May (18.0nmol/L (P<0.001, and were significantly higher in Dai ethnicity (22.5nmol/L than in Hui ethnicity (Chinese Muslims (9.0nmol/L (P<0.001. For every 10,000 CNY annual income per capita increasing, serum 25(OHD levels significantly increased 1.04 times (P<0.001. The odds of vitamin D deficiency in winter were 2.56 times higher than that in spring (OR 2.56, 95%CI: 1.91-3.43.Vitamin D deficiency of lactating women was highly prevalent in the eight provinces and municipalities in China. It is urgent to study the strategy and intervention ways for improving vitamin D status of lactating women, especially for certain population groups during low sunlight exposure season.

  8. Homocysteine and vitamin B 12 status and iron deficiency anemia in female university students from Gaza Strip, Palestine

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    Mahmoud Mohammed Sirdah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nutritional deficiencies are very significant to the overall health of humans at all ages and for both genders, yet in infants, children and women of childbearing age these deficiencies can seriously affect growth and development. The present work is aimed to assess homocysteine and vitamin B12 status in females with iron deficiency anemia from the Gaza Strip.METHODS: Venous blood samples were randomly collected from 240 female university students (18-22 years old and parameters of the complete blood count, serum ferritin, homocysteine and vitamin B12 were measured. Statistical analysis included the t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA using the IBM SPSS software (version 18. Statistical significance was set for p-values <0.05.RESULTS: The results revealed that 20.4% of the students have iron deficiency anemia. The mean serum vitamin B12 level in females with iron deficiency anemia (212.9 ± 62.8 pg/mL was significantly lower than in normal controls (286.9 ± 57.1 pg/mL and subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (256.7 ± 71.1 pg/mL. Significantly higher serum homocysteine levels were reported in the iron deficiency anemia group (27.0 ± 4.6 µmol/L compared to normal controls (15.5 ± 2.9 µmol/L and in subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (18.1 ± 2.7 µmol/L. Statistically significant negative correlations were reported for serum homocysteine with serum ferritin, vitamin B12, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels.CONCLUSION: Important associations were found between serum homocysteine and markers of iron deficiency. Monitoring homocysteine levels might be essential to understand the development of different clinical conditions including anemia. It seems necessary to conduct prospective trials to determine whether treating anemia ameliorates homocysteine levels.

  9. Vitamin D deficiency and low bone status in adult female garment factory workers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Zahirul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Kemi, Virpi; Nevanlinna, Antti; Akhtaruzzaman, Mohammad; Laaksonen, Marika; Jehan, Atia H; Jahan, Khurshid; Khan, Habib Ullah; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2008-06-01

    The manufacture of garments is the main industry in Bangladesh and employs 1.6 million female workers. Due to the indoor lifestyle and low dietary intake of calcium, we hypothesised that they are at risk of low vitamin D and bone mineral status. Two hundred female garment workers (aged 18-36 years) were randomly selected. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD), serum intact parathyroid hormone (S-iPTH), serum calcium (S-Ca), serum phosphate (S-P) concentration and serum alkaline phosphatase activity (S-ALP) were measured from fasting samples. Bone indexes of hip and spine were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mean S-25OHD (36.7 nmol/l) was low compared to that recommended for vitamin D sufficiency. About 16% of the subjects were found to be vitamin D-deficient (S-25OHD 21 ng/l) was associated with progressive reduction in bone mineral density at the femoral neck and lumbar spine. According to the WHO criteria, the mean T-score of the femoral neck and lumbar spine of the subjects were within osteopenic range. We observed that subjects with a bone mineral density T-score < -2.5 had a trend of lower values of BMI, waist-hip circumference, mid-upper-arm circumference, S-25OHD and higher S-iPTH and S-ALP. The high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and low bone mineral density among these subjects are indicative of higher risk for osteomalacia or osteoporosis and fracture.

  10. Deficiências de macronutrientes no estado nutricional da mamoneira cultivar Iris Deficiencies of macronutrients on nutritional status of castor bean cultivar Iris

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    José Lavres Junior

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar o efeito da deficiência dos macronutrientes no crescimento e estado nutricional da mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. e a obtenção do quadro sintomatológico das deficiências de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Cultivou-se Ricinus communis L. cultivar Iris em solução nutritiva, tendo como tratamentos soluções completa e deficientes em N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Foram determinadas a concentração indireta de clorofila, a atividade da redutase do nitrato, os teores solúveis de N (NO3-, P (H2PO4- e K+ e realizados testes rápidos para N, P e K. As deficiências de N, Ca, S e Mg foram as que mais restringiram a produção de massa de matéria seca, na ordem decrescente: N>Ca>S>Mg>K>P. Os maiores acúmulos de macronutrientes, no tratamento completo, foram observados nas raízes e no limbo das folhas inferiores. As concentrações críticas para N e Ca, ambas no limbo das folhas superiores e, Mg, no pecíolo das inferiores foram, respectivamente, 46,7, 13,8 e 6,5 g kg-1. As deficiências influenciaram as leituras do clorofilômetro. A atividade da redutase do nitrato guardou relação direta com a determinação da clorofila. Os teores de N (NO3-, P (H2PO4- e K+ foram menores nas folhas deficientes em N, P e K, respectivamente, o mesmo acontecendo quando avaliadas pela análise de toque.The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effect of macronutrient deficiencies on growth and on nutritional status of castor beans (Ricinus communis L., and to obtain the symptoms of the lack of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S. Nutrient solutions containing all macronutrients and those from which one of these elements was omitted were the treatments used. The following determinations were made: chlorophyll (indirectly, nitrate reductase activity, NO3--N, H2PO4--P and K+, both on soluble fractions, and by spot tests. Deficiencies of N, Ca, S and Mg were the most limiting for dry matter production, followed in decreasing order by those of K and

  11. Vitamin B6 and homocysteine levels in carbamazepine treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin B6 and homocysteine levels in carbamazepine treated epilepsy of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Shakirullah Shakir, Niaz Ali, Zia Udin, Haleema Nazish , Muhammad Nabi. Institute of Basic Medical Science, Khyber Medical University. Abstract. Objectives: The study focused on the plasma levels of vitamin B6 and ...

  12. Present status of understanding on the G6PD deficiency and natural selection

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    Tripathy V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available G6PD deficiency is a common hemolytic genetic disorder, particularly in the areas endemic to malaria. Individuals are generally asymptomatic and hemolytic anemia occurs when some anti-malarial drugs or other oxidizing chemicals are administered. It has been proposed that G6PD deficiency provides protection against malaria. Maintaining of G6PD deficient alleles at polymorphic proportions is complicated because of the X-linked nature of G6PD deficiency. A comprehensive review of the literature on the hypothesis of malarial protection and the nature of the selection is being presented. Most of the epidemiological, in vitro and in vivo studies report selection for G6PD deficiency. Analysis of the G6PD gene also reveals that G6PD-deficient alleles show some signatures of selection. However, the question of how this polymorphism is being maintained remains unresolved because the selection/fitness coefficients for the different genotypes in the two sexes have not been established. Prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Indian caste and tribal populations and the different variants reported has also been reviewed.

  13. Age-related changes in prevalence and symptom characteristics in kidney deficiency syndrome with varied health status: a cross-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Prevalence and symptom characteristics of KDS were found to increase consistently with increasing age and deteriorating health status. Kidney deficiency may be an important mechanism of aging in the subhealthy and chronic disease states.

  14. Vitamin D status in the first-trimester: effects of Vitamin D deficiency on pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Seda; Sevket, Osman; Ozcan, Pinar; Ozkal, Fulya; Kaya, Mehmet Onur; Dane, Banu

    2016-03-01

    To assess serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in the first trimester and to determine the factors affecting deficiency levels and its association with pregnancy outcomes. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured at 11-14 weeks' gestation in 229 singleton pregnancies using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 10.8 ng/mL and 45.9% of women had severe vitamin D deficiency with concentrations of vitamin D deficiency was observed in early pregnancy which was related to dress code, use of multi-vitamins and season at sampling. Low 25(OH)D levels were not related with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Women with severe vitamin D deficiency were more likely to deliver vaginally.

  15. Ascorbic acid from lime juice does not improve the iron status of iron-deficient women in rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Olga P; Diaz, Margarita; Rosado, Jorge L; Allen, Lindsay H

    2003-08-01

    Although ascorbic acid (AA) increases dietary iron bioavailability, there has been no food-based community trial of its efficacy in improving iron status. The objective was to assess the efficacy of 25 mg AA as agua de limón (limeade), consumed with each of 2 daily meals, in improving the iron status of iron-deficient women. Two rural Mexican populations were randomly assigned to an AA or a placebo group, each with 18 iron-deficient women. The AA group was given 500 mL limeade containing 25 mg AA twice a day, 6 d/wk, for 8 mo. The placebo group was given a lime-flavored beverage free of AA or citric acid. Beverages were consumed within 30 min of 2 main daily meals. Data were collected on morbidity (3 times/wk), dietary intake (on 6 d), socioeconomic status, parasites (twice), medical history, and response to treatment. Blood samples at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 mo were analyzed for hemoglobin, plasma AA, plasma ferritin, transferrin receptors, and C-reactive protein. AA intake was significantly (P < 0.0001) higher in the AA group, but nonheme iron, heme iron, and phytic acid intakes did not differ significantly. Plasma AA was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in the AA group at 2, 4, 6, and 8 mo. There were no final differences between groups in hemoglobin, plasma ferritin, or transferrin receptor concentrations or in the ratio of transferrin receptors to plasma ferritin after control for initial concentrations. Increasing dietary AA by 25 mg at each of 2 meals/d did not improve iron status in iron-deficient women consuming diets high in phytate and nonheme iron.

  16. [Study on the iodine nutrition and iodine deficiency disorders status in pasturing areas of Tibet-a non-epidemic area of iodine deficiency disorders in serious iodine deficiency district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, Dan; Li, Su-Mei; Li, Xiu-Wei; Wang, Hai-Yan; Li, Shu-Hua; Nima, Cangjue; Danzeng, Sangbu; Zhuang, Guang-Xiu

    2010-08-01

    To explore the status of iodine nutrition and iodine deficiency disorders in the pasturing areas and agricultural regions in Tibet. 30 families were selected respectively in pastoral Dangxiong county and agricultural Qushui county of Lasa. Drinking water and edible salt were collected for testing the iodine contents. In each type of the following populations including children aged 8 - 10, women of child-bearing age and male adults, 50 subjects were randomly sampled to examine their urinary iodine contents. Among them, 50 children and 50 women were randomly selected for goiter examination by palpation. Water iodine content was less than 2 µg/L, both in pasturing area and in agricultural areas. There was no iodized salt used in the families of pasturing areas, while 90% people consumed iodized salt in agricultural areas. The median of urinary iodine in pasturing area was 50.2 µg/L, significantly lower than that of agricultural area (193.2 µg/L). However, the goiter rate of children and women in pasturing area was significantly lower than that in agricultural area. Although iodine intake of populations in pasturing area of Tibet was severely deficient, there was no epidemic of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. This phenomenon noticed by the researchers deserved further investigation.

  17. Iodine Deficiency in Latvia: Current Status and Need for National Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrāde Ilze

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of a mandatory salt iodisation programme, two nationwide cross-sectional cluster surveys revealed persisting iodine deficiency among Latvian schoolchildren during the spring season and a noteworthy iodine deficiency in pregnant women in Latvia; these deficiencies warrant intervention. The consequences of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy and lactation can adversely affect foetal brain development. Data from a Latvian population survey revealed the consumption of approximately 100 μg of iodine per day through foods and iodised salt. Therefore, strategies to increase the consumption of iodine-containing products should be implemented, particularly for children. In addition, to meet the increased iodine requirement during pregnancy, pregnant women should take daily supplements containing 150 μg iodine from the earliest time possible. All women of childbearing age should be advised to increase their dietary iodine intake by using iodised table salt and iodine-rich products: seafood, milk and milk products. For women with pre-existing thyroid pathologies, the medical decision should be considered on a case-by-case basis. Urinary iodine concentration monitoring among schoolchildren and pregnant women and neonatal thyrotropin registry analysis every five years would be an appropriate strategy for maintaining iodine intake within the interval that prevents iodine deficiency disorders.

  18. Polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) in cynomolgus and rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2018-02-22

    Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) is an important drug-metabolizing enzyme and is expressed in liver. Although human CYP2B6 variants account for variable enzyme properties among individuals and populations, CYP2B6 genetic variants have not been investigated in cynomolgus macaques, widely used in drug metabolism studies. CYP2B6 was resequenced in 120 cynomolgus macaques and 23 rhesus macaques by direct sequencing. Twenty-three non-synonymous variants were found, of which 12 and 3 were unique to cynomolgus macaques and rhesus macaques, respectively. By functional characterization using the 14 variant proteins, 8 variants (V114I, R253C, M435I, V459M, L465P, C475S, R487C, and R487H) showed different rate (>1.5-fold) of testosterone 16β-hydroxylation to wild type. However, the four variants (M435I, L465P, C475S, and R487H) were analyzed in liver microsomes, and the catalytic rates were not substantially different from wild type. Macaque CYP2B6 was polymorphic, and the genotype could partly account for variable enzyme activities of macaque CYP2B6. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Severe vitamin D deficiency in children from Punta Arenas, Chile: Influence of nutritional status on the response to supplementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Karin; Le Roy, Catalina; Iñiguez, Germán; Borzutzky, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    There is a high risk of vitamin D (VD) deficiency in the population of southern Chile that can be treated with VD supplements. Weight excess (WE) can influence the response to supplements. To study the prevalence of VD deficiency and the effect of cholecalciferol (VD3) supplements in healthy children from Punta Arenas, Chile, and evaluate a possible association with nutritional status. Demographic and anthropometric data, as well as laboratory assessment of serum 25-hidroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and other bone metabolism parameters were evaluated. After baseline evaluation, children were supplemented with VD3 1600 IU/day for one month, after which 25OHD was retested. Of the 108 children studied, 50% were boys, and had a mean age of 9.6±0.5 years. Nutritional assessment showed that 39% had normal weight, 46% were overweight, and 15% were obese. Median 25OHD was 10.9ng/ml: 96.3% had deficiency (30ng/ml). Children with WE had a significantly lower increase in 25OHD than children with normal weight (5±5.5 vs. 7.7±4.9, p=03). Children with WE may require 32% higher VD dose than normal weight children to attain the same 25OHD concentration. Chilean schoolchildren from Punta Arenas have high prevalence of WE and VD deficiency, with a majority in the range of severe VD deficiency. WE interferes in the response to VD supplementation, leading to a lower increase in 25OHD. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Vitamin B6 prevents cognitive impairment in experimental pneumococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barichello, Tatiana; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Simões, Lutiana R; Ceretta, Renan A; Dominguini, Diogo; Ferrari, Pâmela; Gubert, Carolina; Jornada, Luciano K; Budni, Josiane; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João

    2014-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the relevant cause of bacterial meningitis, with a high-mortality rate and long-term neurological sequelae, affecting up to 50% of survivors. Pneumococcal compounds are pro-inflammatory mediators that induce an innate immune response and tryptophan degradation through the kynurenine pathway. Vitamin B6 acts as a cofactor at the active sites of enzymes that catalyze a great number of reactions involved in the metabolism of tryptophan, preventing the accumulation of neurotoxic intermediates. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of vitamin B6 on memory and on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the brain of adult Wistar rats subjected to pneumococcal meningitis. The animals received either 10 µL of artificial cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) or an equivalent volume of S. pneumoniae suspension. The animals were divided into four groups: control, control treated with vitamin B6, meningitis, and meningitis treated with vitamin B6. Ten days after induction, the animals were subjected to behavioral tests: open-field task and step-down inhibitory avoidance task. In the open-field task, there was a significant reduction in both crossing and rearing in the control group, control/B6 group, and meningitis/B6 group compared with the training session, demonstrating habituation memory. However, the meningitis group showed no difference in motor and exploratory activity between training and test sessions, demonstrating memory impairment. In the step-down inhibitory avoidance task, there was a difference between training and test sessions in the control group, control/B6 group, and meningitis/B6 group, demonstrating aversive memory. In the meningitis group, there was no difference between training and test sessions, demonstrating impairment of aversive memory. In the hippocampus, BDNF expression decreased in the meningitis group when compared to the control group; however, adjuvant treatment with vitamin B6 increased BDNF

  1. Vitamin D status in the first-trimester: effects of Vitamin D deficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in the first trimester and to determine the factors affecting deficiency levels and its association with pregnancy outcomes. Methods: Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured at 11-14 weeks' gestation in 229 singleton pregnancies using liquid ...

  2. Effects of vitamin A supplementation on iron status indices and iron deficiency anaemia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Al-Zabedi, Ebtesam M; Al-Maktari, Mohamed T; Atroosh, Wahib M; Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K; Moktar, Norhayati; Sallam, Atiya A; Abdullah, Wan Ariffin; Jani, Rohana; Surin, Johari

    2013-12-31

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world including developed and developing countries. Despite intensive efforts to improve the quality of life of rural and aboriginal communities in Malaysia, anaemia and IDA are still major public health problems in these communities particularly among children. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 250 Orang Asli (aboriginal) schoolchildren in Malaysia to investigate the effects of a single high-dose of vitamin A supplementation (200,000 IU) on iron status indices, anaemia and IDA status. The effect of the supplement was assessed after 3 months of receiving the supplements; after a complete 3-day deworming course of 400 mg/day of albendazole tablets. The prevalence of anaemia was found to be high: 48.5% (95% CI=42.3, 54.8). Moreover, 34% (95% CI=28.3, 40.2) of the children had IDA, which accounted for 70.1% of the anaemic cases. The findings showed that the reduction in serum ferritin level and the increments in haemoglobin, serum iron and transferrin saturation were found to be significant among children allocated to the vitamin A group compared to those allocated to the placebo group (pvitamin A group compared with only 2.3% reduction among children in the placebo group. In conclusion, vitamin A supplementation showed a significant impact on iron status indices and IDA among Orang Asli children. Hence, providing vitamin A supplementation and imparting the knowledge related to nutritious food should be considered in the efforts to improve the nutritional and health status of these children as a part of efforts to improve the quality of life in rural and aboriginal communities.

  3. Effects of Vitamin A Supplementation on Iron Status Indices and Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world including developed and developing countries. Despite intensive efforts to improve the quality of life of rural and aboriginal communities in Malaysia, anaemia and IDA are still major public health problems in these communities particularly among children. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 250 Orang Asli (aboriginal schoolchildren in Malaysia to investigate the effects of a single high-dose of vitamin A supplementation (200,000 IU on iron status indices, anaemia and IDA status. The effect of the supplement was assessed after 3 months of receiving the supplements; after a complete 3-day deworming course of 400 mg/day of albendazole tablets. The prevalence of anaemia was found to be high: 48.5% (95% CI = 42.3, 54.8. Moreover, 34% (95% CI = 28.3, 40.2 of the children had IDA, which accounted for 70.1% of the anaemic cases. The findings showed that the reduction in serum ferritin level and the increments in haemoglobin, serum iron and transferrin saturation were found to be significant among children allocated to the vitamin A group compared to those allocated to the placebo group (p < 0.01. Moreover, a significant reduction in the prevalence of IDA by almost 22% than prevalence at baseline was reported among children in the vitamin A group compared with only 2.3% reduction among children in the placebo group. In conclusion, vitamin A supplementation showed a significant impact on iron status indices and IDA among Orang Asli children. Hence, providing vitamin A supplementation and imparting the knowledge related to nutritious food should be considered in the efforts to improve the nutritional and health status of these children as a part of efforts to improve the quality of life in rural and aboriginal communities.

  4. Interaction between vitamin B6 metabolism, nitrogen metabolism and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinas, Maite; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B

    2016-01-01

    The essential micronutrient vitamin B6 is best known in its enzymatic cofactor form, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). However, vitamin B6 comprises the amine pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP) and the alcohol pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP) in addition to PLP, as well as their corresponding non-phosphorylated forms. The different B6 forms (called vitamers) are enzymatically interconverted in a ubiquitous salvage pathway. Recently, we have shown that balancing the ratio of the different B6 vitamers in particular PMP by the PMP/PNP oxidase PDX3 is essential for growth and development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Intriguingly, nitrate to ammonium conversion is impaired in pdx3 mutants, such that the mutants become ammonium-dependent, suggesting an interaction between vitamin B6 and nitrogen metabolism. In addition, we found a strong up-regulation of genes related to plant defense. Here, we further show that pdx3 mutants display a temperature-sensitive phenotype that is typical of autoimmune mutants and is possibly connected to the impaired nitrogen metabolism.

  5. Carotenoid status among preschool children with vitamin A deficiency in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Mary V; Palafox, Neal A; Dancheck, Barbara; Ricks, Michelle O; Briand, Kennar; Semba, Richard D

    2004-01-01

    Although carotenoids are known to be important dietary sources of vitamin A, there have been few epidemiological studies that have characterized the serum concentrations of major dietary carotenoids among preschool children with vitamin A deficiency. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study of serum pro-vitamin A carotenoids (alpha -carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin), non-provitamin A carotenoids (lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene), and retinol among 278 children, aged 1-5 y, in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Vitamin A deficiency was defined as serum retinol Marshall Islands have extremely low serum concentrations of provitamin A carotenoids and interventions are needed to improve the dietary intake of provitamin A carotenoids among Marshallese children.

  6. Whey protein isolate improves vitamin B12and folate status in elderly Australians with subclinical deficiency of vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Varinderpal S; Zabaras, Dimitrios; Almond, Theodora; Cavuoto, Paul; James-Martin, Genevieve; Fenech, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Whey protein isolate (WPI) contains vitamin B 12 and folate. However, the efficacy of WPI as a bioavailable source of these vitamins in the elderly with low vitamin B 12 was not previously tested. We investigated the effects of WPI supplementation on vitamin B 12 and folate status in blood and measured changes in homocysteine (HCY), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and genome integrity biomarkers in elderly individuals with low vitamin B 12 status. The effect of WPI was compared to soy protein isolate (SPI). In this randomized controlled cross-over intervention trial, 56 subclinically vitamin B 12 -deficient participants received 50 g WPI or 50 g SPI as a control for 8 wk followed by 16-wk washout phase and then cross-over to alternative supplement for next 8 wk. Consumption of WPI resulted in significant increase in serum active B 12 (p < 0.0001) and serum folate (p = 0.0094). MMA, HCY, and nucleoplasmic bridges increased significantly after SPI intake but not after WPI (p = 0.052; p = 0.028; p = 0.0009, respectively). Results indicate that WPI consumption improves active B 12 and folate status. Unlike SPI, WPI consumption may prevent increase in MMA, HCY, and genome instability in older Australians with low vitamin B 12 status. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Effect of bariatric surgery on the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies and protein status

    OpenAIRE

    Moizé Arcone, Violeta

    2017-01-01

    [eng] BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery (BS) is the most effective long-term therapy for the treatment of severe obesity. Benefits of BS include a reduction of overall and cardiovascular mortality, incidence of first occurrence of fatal- or nonfatal-cardiovascular events, prevention and remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and improved quality of life. Nonetheless, BS is associated with potential complications amongst which micronutrient deficiencies are relevant. AIM: Against this background,...

  8. Oral and Dental Health Status in Patients with Primary Antibody Deficiencies

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasem Meighani; Asghar Aghamohammadi; Honarmand Javanbakht; Hassan Abolhassani; Sina Nikayin; Seyed Mehryar Jafari; Mehdi Ghandehari Motlagh; Ahmad Reza Shamshiri; Nima Rezaei

    2011-01-01

    Primary antibody deficiencies (PAD) are a group of immune system disorders, associated with decreased levels of secretory and protective immunoglobulins. Because of the important role of immunoglobulins in the protection  of oral cavity, patients with PADs  are more susceptible to dental caries or oral manifestations.This study was performed  to investigate the oral and dental manifestations of PADs patients. In this study, 33 patients with PADs (21 common variable immunodeficiency, 8 X- link...

  9. Mathematical modeling of glutathione status in type 2 diabetics with vitamin B12 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun eKaramshetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in vitamin B12 and glutathione (GSH are associated with anumber of diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus. We tested newly diag-nosed Indian diabetic patients for correlation between their vitamin B12 andGSH, and found it to be weak. Here we seek to examine the theoreticaldependence of GSH on vitamin B12 with a mathematical model of 1-carbonmetabolism due to Reed and co-workers. We study the methionine cycleof the Reed-Nijhout model by developing a simple ‘stylized model’ that cap-tures its essential topology and whose kinetics are analytically tractable. Theanalysis shows – somewhat counter-intuitively – that the flux responsible forthe homeostasis of homocysteine is, in fact, peripheral to the methioninecycle. Elevation of homocysteine arises from reduced activity of methioninesynthase, a vitamin B12-dependent enzyme, however, this does not increaseGSH biosynthesis. The model suggests that the lack of vitamin B12–GSHcorrelation is explained by suppression of activity in the trans-sulfurationpathway that limits the synthesis of cysteine and GSH from homocysteine.We hypothesize this ‘cysteine-block’ is an essential consequence of vitaminB12 deficiency. It can be clinically relevant to appreciate that these secondaryeffects of vitamin B12 deficiency could be central to its pathophysiology.

  10. Prebiotic Synthesis of Vitamin B6-type Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Sabrina M.; Waddell, Thomas G.

    1999-05-01

    Heating a dilute solution of NH3 and glycoaldehyde gives a large family of pyridines substituted with the same functional groups as occur in the forms of vitamin B6. Thus, vitamin B6-like molecules could have been present on the early Earth and could have been available for catalysis of primitive transamination reactions. Ethanolamine and N-methylethanolamine are also formed as major products. These are choline-like molecules, the latter of which is apparently formed by a prebiotic methylation process.

  11. HPLC analysis of vitamin B6 in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.-M. OLLILAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the methods for determination of vitamin B6 in foods. To achieve this, the literature review focused on sample treatment and liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamin B6 related compounds. In the experimental part, the chosen sample pretreatment and the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method were validated, and used to produce vitamin B6 data on various food items commonly consumed in Finland. The main emphasis of the sample treatment was on the extraction efficiency and the maintenance of the original concentration profile of the vitamers. Several acid extraction procedures were tested for this purpose. Perchloric acid was chosen as the extraction agent. Routine food analysis was then performed using dilute ice-cold perchloric acid extraction followed by an internally standardized ion-paired reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Food samples were hydrolyzed with takadiastase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes, phosphorylated and glycosylated vitamers were quantitated before and after the enzymatic digestion. This procedure enabled the extraction of vitamin B6 compounds in their intact forms, and the measurement of free, phosphorylated and glycosylated forms. The maintenance of the concentration profile of the vitamers was verified by using 14C -labeled pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in the examination of the extraction procedure. The extraction efficiency and laboratory performance were confirmed by interlaboratory studies. Up-to-date data on vitamin B6 content of about fifty common food items was produced. The data includes the results from meat and poultry, fish and fish product, dairy product, cereal and vegetable, and ready-to-eat food samples. Free and phosphorylated vitamin B6 compounds were measured in all food groups, and the glycosylated vitamer fraction was analyzed in all plant-derived foods. The results obtained in this work showed that vitamin B6 content of nearly all foods of plant

  12. Erythrocyte vitamin B, and B6 dependent enzymes in adult and newborn Thoroughbred horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Cepa Matos

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o propósito de determinar o estado nutricional de cavalos Puro-Sangue Inglês (PSI em relação à riboflavina (vitamina B2 e à piridoxina (vitamina B6, 10 animais adultos e 30 recém-nascidos foram investigados. Foi observado um bom estado nutricional quanto à riboflavina, notando-se moderada deficiência de piridoxina nos animais adultos, mas não nos recém-nascidos. Estes fatos sugerem que os animais adultos devam receber suplementação com piridoxina.

  13. Effects of Vitamin A Supplementation on Iron Status Indices and Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Al-Zabedi, Ebtesam M.; Al-Maktari, Mohamed T.; Atroosh, Wahib M.; Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K.; Moktar, Norhayati; Sallam, Atiya A.; Abdullah, Wan Ariffin; Jani, Rohana; Surin, Johari

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world including developed and developing countries. Despite intensive efforts to improve the quality of life of rural and aboriginal communities in Malaysia, anaemia and IDA are still major public health problems in these communities particularly among children. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 250 Orang Asli (aboriginal) schoolchildren in Malaysia to investigate the effects of a single high-dose of vitamin A supplementation (200,000 IU) on iron status indices, anaemia and IDA status. The effect of the supplement was assessed after 3 months of receiving the supplements; after a complete 3-day deworming course of 400 mg/day of albendazole tablets. The prevalence of anaemia was found to be high: 48.5% (95% CI = 42.3, 54.8). Moreover, 34% (95% CI = 28.3, 40.2) of the children had IDA, which accounted for 70.1% of the anaemic cases. The findings showed that the reduction in serum ferritin level and the increments in haemoglobin, serum iron and transferrin saturation were found to be significant among children allocated to the vitamin A group compared to those allocated to the placebo group (p Orang Asli children. Hence, providing vitamin A supplementation and imparting the knowledge related to nutritious food should be considered in the efforts to improve the nutritional and health status of these children as a part of efforts to improve the quality of life in rural and aboriginal communities. PMID:24384995

  14. The role of endogenous glucocorticoids in glucose metabolism and immune status of MIF-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Ivana; Vujicic, Milica; Saksida, Tamara; Berki, Timea; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2013-08-15

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-deficient mice develop glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia, but remain entirely responsive to exogenous insulin in adult age. Furthermore, as a consequence of MIF deficiency, the immune response in these mice is predominantly anti-inflammatory. Since MIF is a natural counter-regulator of glucocorticoid action, and it is known that excessive concentration of glucocorticoids contribute both to beta cell dysfunction and immunosuppression, we hypothesized that MIF absence enables elevation of glucocorticoids which in turn caused the observed condition. Our results confirm that MIF-knockout (MIF-KO) mice possess higher levels of circulating corticosterone, but lower expression of glucocorticoid receptor in pancreatic islets, liver and adipose tissue to the one observed in wild type (WT) mice. A significant up-regulation of glucocorticoid receptor expression was however noticed in MIF-deficient lymph node cells. The inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor by RU486 improved tolerance to glucose in MIF-KO mice and restored euglycemia. Although RU486 treatment did not alter the level of glucose receptor GLUT2, it enhanced insulin secretion and up-regulated insulin-triggered Akt phosphorylation within hepatic tissue. Finally, inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor changed anti-inflammatory phenotype of MIF-KO lymphocytes toward a physiological profile. Our results indicate that deregulated glucocorticoid secretion and glucocorticoid receptor expression in the absence of MIF possibly contributes to the development of glucose intolerance and immunosuppression in MIF-KO mice. However, since MIF-KO mice respond normally to insulin and their beta cell function is within physiological range, additional cause for glucose intolerance could be sought in the possible malfunction of their insulin. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. ENDF/B-6 fission-product yield sublibraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1994-01-01

    The contents and the documentation of the ENDF/B-6 fission-product yield sublibraries which were released in 1991 and updated in 1993, are summarized. Copies of the data libraries are available on magnetic tape of PC diskettes from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, costfree upon request. (author). 1 tab

  16. 17 CFR 240.16b-6 - Derivative securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16b... Exchange Act of 1934 Exemption of Certain Transactions from Section 16(b) § 240.16b-6 Derivative securities... transaction within the six months prior to the date the price is fixed. (b) The closing of a derivative...

  17. Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Case-control study conducted in Gulu and Amuru districts. ... Healthy children/young adults were recruited as controls from same community as cases. ... We encourage future prospective intervention study to be conducted to assess the effect of low vitamin B6 on the development of nodding syndrome via raised ...

  18. Preparation, characterization, and use of monoclonal antibodies to vitamin B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viceps-Madore, D; Cidlowski, J A; Kittler, J M; Thanassi, J W

    1983-02-25

    Monoclonal antibodies exhibiting various specificities for B6 vitamer forms have been prepared. The antigen preparation employed was a partially purified mixture of human placental proteins that had been derivatized by reaction with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and sodium borohydride. Spleen cells obtained from mice immunized with the phosphopyridoxyl protein preparation were fused with the mouse myeloma cell line designated X63-Ag8.653. The resulting hybridomas were screened for production of antibodies to the haptenic phosphopyridoxyl group using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clones producing such antibodies were isolated by limiting dilution methods. The monoclonal antibodies obtained in this fashion have been characterized with respect to their ability to interact with various forms of vitamin B6. In addition, these antibodies have been shown to be useful in the detection of cellular pyridoxal phosphate binding components using immunoblot techniques. Monoclonal antibodies to vitamin B6 derivatives are potentially powerful tools in the assessment of vitamin B6 nutritional status and in the study of the roles of pyridoxal phosphate binding components in relation to growth, differentiation, carcinogenesis, and steroid hormone action.

  19. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on health status in non-vitamin D deficient people with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westra, S; Krul-Poel, Y H M; van Wijland, H J

    2016-01-01

    both groups was seen concerning the SF-36 domain role limitations due to physical problems in disadvantage of the vitamin D group. CONCLUSIONS: Six months of vitamin D supplementation did not improve HRQOL in non-vitamin D-deficient people with type 2 DM managed on oral antidiabetic therapy.......OBJECTIVE: Increased levels of depressive symptoms, fatigue or pain (all dimensions of reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL)) are common in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Earlier studies have reported associations between low vitamin D status and fatigue and depressive symptoms....... The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of vitamin D supplementation on dimensions of HRQOL in people with type 2 DM. DESIGN: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: The effect of monthly cholecalciferol 50,000 IU vs placebo on HRQOL was assessed in 275 adults...

  20. [Current status of vitamin A deficiency in preschool children in Dongguan, China and the effect of vitamin A on serum ferritin and red blood cell parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Hong; Ni, Ming; Hu, Yuan

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the current status of vitamin A deficiency in preschool children in Dongguan, China, as well as the effect of vitamin A on serum ferritin, red blood cell, and reticulocyte parameters. Cluster sampling was performed from April 2015 to December 2016 to select 2 085 preschool children (3-6 years old) without any disease in Dongguan. Routine blood test, reticulocyte count, serum ferritin measurement, hemoglobin electrophoresis, and vitamin A measurement were performed for all children. The associations of age and sex with vitamin A and serum ferritin concentrations were analyzed. The effect of vitamin A concentration on serum ferritin, red blood cell, and reticulocyte parameters and the effect of reduced iron storage caused by vitamin A deficiency on red blood cell parameters were evaluated. Of the 2 085 children, 140 (6.71%) had reduced iron storage, and 678 (32.52%) had vitamin A deficiency. Among the 678 children with vitamin A deficiency, 647 (95.4%) had subclinical deficiency and 31 (4.6%) had clinical deficiency. There was no significant difference in vitamin A concentration between boys and girls, however girls had a significantly higher serum ferritin concentration than boys (P<0.05). The clinical vitamin A deficiency group had a significantly higher serum ferritin concentration than the subclinical vitamin A deficiency group and the normal group (P<0.05). In cases of vitamin A deficiency, the reduced iron storage group had significant reductions in mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin than the normal iron storage group (P<0.05). Compared with the normal vitamin A group, the vitamin A deficiency group had significantly lower hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit, absolute reticulocyte count, reticulocyte percentage, and reticulocyte hemoglobin content, as well as a significantly higher mean corpuscular volume (P<0.05). Vitamin A deficiency is prevalent in preschool children

  1. Influence of nanosized amorphous silica on assimilation of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmoshinsky, I V; Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Shumakova, A A; Shipelin, V A; Kodentsova, V M; Khotimchenko, S A

    2016-01-01

    Amorphous silica (SiO2) in the form of nanoparticles (NPs) is widely used as a food additive E551 in many enriched foods and food supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of SiO2 NPs on assimilation and metabolism of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in laboratory rats. Amorphous SiO2 «Orisil-300 ®» was used with the size of the primary NPs 20-60 nm according to the electronic, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The experiment was conducted on 8 groups of growing male Wistar rats (with initial body weight 70-80g) number, respectively, 7, 7, 10, 10, 12, 12, 14 and 16 animals. Animals of the 1st, 3rd, 4th and 5th groups received through­out the experiment balanced semi-synthetic diet. Animals of the 2nd group received a diet depleted of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 until day 21; animals of the 6th, 7th and 8th groups -the same diet from the 1st to the 21th day, and then, before the closure of the experiment, the diet provided with the indicated B vitamins at 100% of normal level. From day 22 of experiment and until the end at day 29 the animals of the 3rd and 6th groups received deionized water (placebo) through intragastric gavage; rat of the 4th and 7th groups -aqueous suspension of SiO2 dose of 1 mg/kg body weight /day, and the 5th and 8th group -100 mg/kg/day. Urinary excretion of thiamine, riboflavin, 4-pyridoxilic acid and liver and brain content of vitamins B1 and B2 (after acid and enzyme hydrolysis) were deter­mined by fluorimetric methods. It was found that rats in group 2 lagged in weight gain at day 21 significantly compared to group 1, and developed a marked deficiency of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 according to studied safety parameters. In groups from 6 to 8 at day 29 par­tial recovery was achieved in vitamin status. Administration of SiO2 to animal of groups 4 and 5, with normal consumption of B vitamins, had no significant effect on any param­eters of vitamin status in comparison to group 3. However

  2. Selenium status, thyroid volume, and multiple nodule formation in an area with mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Schomburg, Lutz; Kohrle, Josef

    2011-01-01

    ) introduction of iodine fortification. Serum selenium concentration and urinary iodine were measured, and the thyroid gland was examined by ultrasonography in the same subjects. Associations between serum selenium concentration and thyroid parameters were examined in multiple linear regression models...... or logistic regression models.Results: Serum selenium concentration was found to be significantly, negatively associated with thyroid volume (P=0.006), and a low selenium status significantly increased the risk for thyroid enlargement (P=0.007). Furthermore, low serum selenium status had a tendency...... to increase the risk for development of multiple nodules (P=0.087).Conclusions: Low serum selenium concentration was associated with a larger thyroid volume and a higher prevalence of thyroid enlargement....

  3. Food fortification improves the intake of all fortified nutrients, but fails to meet the estimated dietary requirements for vitamins A and B6, riboflavin and zinc, in lactating South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathakis, Peggy C; Pearson, Kerry E

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the impact of fortification by comparing food records and selected biochemical indicators of nutritional status pre- and post-fortification. Mean intake from 24 h recalls (n 142) was compared with the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) to determine the proportion with inadequate intake. In a subsample (n 34), diet and serum retinol, folate, ferritin and Zn were compared pre- and post-fortification for fortified nutrients vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, Fe and Zn. South Africa. Breast-feeding women (ninety-four HIV-infected, forty eight HIV-uninfected) measured at ~6, 14, 24 weeks, and 9 and 12 months postpartum. Pre-fortification, >80 % of women did not meet the EAR for vitamins A, C, D, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, B12 and folate and minerals Zn, iodine and Ca. Dietary intake post-fortification increased for all fortified nutrients. In post-fortification food records, >70 % did not meet the EAR for Zn and vitamins A, riboflavin and B6. Serum folate and Zn increased significantly post-fortification (P 93 % were retinol replete. There was no change in Fe deficiency (16.7 % pre v. 19.4 % post; P = 0.728). Micronutrient intake improved with fortification, but >70 % of lactating women did not meet the EAR for Zn, vitamins A, riboflavin and B6. Although 100 % exceeded the EAR for Fe after fortification, Fe status did not improve.

  4. Confirmation of mutations in PROSC as a novel cause of vitamin B 6 -dependent epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plecko, Barbara; Zweier, Markus; Begemann, Anaïs; Mathis, Deborah; Schmitt, Bernhard; Striano, Pasquale; Baethmann, Martina; Vari, Maria Stella; Beccaria, Francesca; Zara, Federico; Crowther, Lisa M; Joset, Pascal; Sticht, Heinrich; Papuc, Sorina Mihaela; Rauch, Anita

    2017-12-01

    Vitamin-B 6 -dependent epilepsies are a heterogenous group of treatable disorders due to mutations in several genes ( ALDH7A1, PNPO, ALPL or ALDH4A1 ). In neonatal seizures, defects in ALDH7A1 and PNPO explain a major fraction of cases. Very recently biallelic mutations in PROSC were shown to be a novel cause in five families. We identified four further unrelated patients harbouring a total of six different mutations, including four novel disease mutations. Vitamin B 6 plasma profiles on pyridoxine did not enable the differentiation of patients with PROSC mutations. All four patients were normocephalic and had normal cranial imaging. Pyridoxine monotherapy allowed complete seizure control in one, while two patients had occasional febrile or afebrile seizures and one needed additional valproate therapy for photosensitive seizures. Two patients underwent a controlled pyridoxine withdrawal with signs of encephalopathy within a couple of days. Three had favourable outcome with normal intellectual properties at age 12.5, 15.5 and 30 years, respectively, while one child had marked developmental delay at age 27 months. The clinical and electroencephalographic phenotype in patients with PROSC mutations was indistinguishable from ALDH7A1 and PNPO deficiency. We therefore confirm PROSC as a novel gene for vitamin-B 6 -dependent epilepsy and delineate a non-specific plasma vitamin B 6 profile under pyridoxine treatment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Vitamin D Status in Children with Iron Deficiency and/or Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esraa Arjumand Qader

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Iron and vitamin D inadequacy are both essential wellbeing issues, an extra advancement has been the vitamin D extra skeletal role. Late collecting proof demonstrates that vitamin D inadequacy is pervasive in people with pallor, we meant to recognize a potential relationship between vitamin D lack and iron insufficiency. Materials and Methods A case control study was done in Erbil, Iraq during April 2015 to April 2016, on 160 children aged 1-5 years who referred to Raparin hospital. Blood test was acquired from every kid for measuring hemoglobin, serum iron and vitamin D level. Results The mean estimation of vitamin D was lower 21.3ng/dl in iron deficiency group in contrast with control group and it was essentially lower in gathering that had hemoglobin of under 11gm/dl (19.7ng/dl in contrast with those with more than 11gm/dl. There was a direct relationship between serum iron, hemoglobin and vitamin D levels (r=0.520, PConclusion There was significant moderate positive correlation between vitamin D and serum iron level.

  6. ENDF/B-6 Photon Atomic Interaction Data Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1990-09-01

    The ENDF/B-6 version of the Photo-Atomic Interaction Data Library of the Livermore Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL) contains pair and triplet cross-sections, photoelectric cross-sections, atom form factors, coherent scattering cross-sections and some other data for all the elements from Z=1 to 100. The data library is available on magnetic tape costfree from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. The library supersedes the earlier photo-atomic data library by the US Radiation Shielding Information Center RSIC that was included in the data libraries ENDF/B-5 and JEF-1. (author). Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Vitamin D status and determinants of deficiency in non-supplemented athletes during the winter months in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sghaier-Ayadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports suggest that hypovitaminosis D in athletes is as common as in the general population. This study was devised to examine vitamin D status and determinants of deficiency in athletes living in a sunny country (Tunisia. One hundred and fifty national elite athletes, training outdoors (n=83 or indoors (n=67, were enrolled from January to February 2012. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured by radioimmunoassay. Concentrations were between 50 and 75 nmol · l -1 in 21.3% of participants, between 25 and 50 nmol · l -1 in 55.3% of participants and <25 nmol · l -1 in 14.7% of participants. The concentrations were significantly lower in indoor athletes than outdoor athletes (36.2±19.0 nmol · l -1 vs. 49.1±19.2 nmol · l -1 ; p<0.001. In multivariate analysis, vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D <50 nmol · l -1 was associated with indoor sports [multi-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval, 5.03 (1.64-15.4; p=0.005], female gender [3.72 (1.44-9.65; p=0.007] and age < 18 years [2.40 (1.01-5.85; p=0.05]. Athletes living in sun-rich environments are exposed to a high risk of vitamin D inadequacy. Given the importance of vitamin D in health and athletic ability, targeting sufficient levels of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in athletes is well justified.

  8. Magnetoresistance and magnetization anomalies in CeB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogach, A.V.; Glushkov, V.V.; Demishev, S.V.; Samarin, N.A.; Paderno, Yu.B.; Dukhnenko, A.V.; Shitsevalova, N.Yu.; Sluchanko, N.E.

    2006-01-01

    High precision magnetoresistance (MR) Δρ/ρ(H,T) and magnetization M(H,T) measurements have been carried out for well known and typical strongly correlated electron system-cerium hexaboride. The detailed measurements have been fulfilled on single crystalline samples of CeB 6 over a wide temperature range T>=1.8K in magnetic fields up to 70kOe. It was shown that the MR anomalies in the magnetic heavy fermion compound under investigation can be consistently interpreted in the frameworks of a simple relation between resistivity and magnetization-Δρ/ρ∼M 2 obtained by Yosida [Phys. Rev. 107(1957)396]. A local magnetic susceptibility χ loc (T,H)=(1/H*(d(Δρ/ρ)/dH)) 1/2 was deduced directly from the MR Δρ(H,T) measurements and compared with the experimental data of magnetization M(H,T). The magnetic susceptibility dependences χ loc (T,H) and χ(T,H) obtained in this study for CeB 6 allow us to analyze the complicated H-T magnetic phase diagram of this so-called dense Kondo-system

  9. Magnetotransport in nanocrystalline SmB6 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available SmB6 has been predicted to be a prototype of topological Kondo insulator (TKI but its direct experimental evidence as a TKI is still lacking to date. Here we report on our search for the signature of a topological surface state and investigation of the effect of disorder on transport properties in nanocrystalline SmB6 thin films through longitudinal magnetoresistance and Hall coefficient measurements. The magnetoresistance (MR at 2 K is positive and linear (LPMR at low field and become negative and quadratic at higher field. While the negative part is understood from the reduction of the hybridization gap due to Zeeman splitting, the positive dependence is similar to what is observed in other topological insulators (TI. We conclude that the LPMR is a characteristic of TI and is related to the linear dispersion near the Dirac cone. The Hall resistance shows a sign change around 50K. It peaks and becomes nonlinear around 10 K then decreases below 10 K. This indicates that carriers with opposite signs emerge below 50 K. These properties indicate that the surface states are robust and probably topological in our nanocrystalline films.

  10. Vitamin B12 status in older adults living in Ontario long-term care homes: prevalence and incidence of deficiency with supplementation as a protective factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfisterer, Kaylen J; Sharratt, Mike T; Heckman, George G; Keller, Heather H

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency, although treatable, impacts up to 43% of community-living older adults; long-term care (LTC) residents may be at greater risk. Recommendations for screening require further evidence on prevalence and incidence in LTC. Small, ungeneralizable samples provide a limited perspective on these issues. The purposes of this study were to report prevalence of B12 deficiency at admission to LTC, incidence 1 year post-admission, and identify subgroups with differential risk. This multi-site (8), retrospective prevalence study used random proportionate sampling of resident charts (n = 412). Data at admission extracted included demographics, B12 status, B12 supplementation, medications, diagnoses, functional independence, cognitive performance, and nutrition. Prevalence at admission of B12 deficiency (B12 (>300 pmol/L). One year post-admission incidence was 4%. Better B12 status was significantly associated with supplementation use prior to LTC admission. Other characteristics were not associated with status. This work provides a better estimate of B12 deficiency prevalence than previously available for LTC, upon which to base protocols and policy. Prospective studies are needed to establish treatment efficacy and effect on health related outcomes.

  11. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6 and the Glutathione Peroxidase System; a Link between One-Carbon Metabolism and Antioxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyel Bueno Dalto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B6 (B6 has a central role in the metabolism of amino acids, which includes important interactions with endogenous redox reactions through its effects on the glutathione peroxidase (GPX system. In fact, B6-dependent enzymes catalyse most reactions of the transsulfuration pathway, driving homocysteine to cysteine and further into GPX proteins. Considering that mammals metabolize sulfur- and seleno-amino acids similarly, B6 plays an important role in the fate of sulfur-homocysteine and its seleno counterpart between transsulfuration and one-carbon metabolism, especially under oxidative stress conditions. This is particularly important in reproduction because ovarian metabolism may generate an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS during the peri-estrus period, which may impair ovulatory functions and early embryo development. Later in gestation, placentation raises embryo oxygen tension and may induce a higher expression of ROS markers and eventually embryo losses. Interestingly, the metabolic accumulation of ROS up-regulates the flow of one-carbon units to transsulfuration and down-regulates remethylation. However, in embryos, the transsulfuration pathway is not functional, making the understanding of the interplay between these two pathways particularly crucial. In this review, the importance of the maternal metabolic status of B6 for the flow of one-carbon units towards both maternal and embryonic GPX systems is discussed. Additionally, B6 effects on GPX activity and gene expression in dams, as well as embryo development, are presented in a pig model under different oxidative stress conditions.

  12. Tuning Mazda B6 Engine for Sports Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, E.; Polóni, M.

    2011-12-01

    Improving output parameters of the Mazda B6 combustion engine from the vehicle Mazda 323 for amateur "hill climb" and "rally" competitions has been analysed. Tuning of such an engine for sport competitions means the optimisation of its parameters at the lowest possible economic costs, within the revolution range 4000 - 6000 min-1, where the engine during competition works most often. With the help of the program Lotus Engine Simulations, the construction of the exhaust manifold has been optimised, together with valve timing and other adjustments, listed in the work, on output parameters of the engine. The optimum combinations of parameters were experimentally verified on a chassis dynamometer. Final adaptations have led within the previously specified range of revolutions to an improvement between 5 and 22% in power and torque.

  13. The synthesis of tritium-labelled vitamin B-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babain, V.A.; Kaminskij, Yu.L.; Nagorskij, A.I.; Rozenberg, S.G.

    1992-01-01

    Specimens of pyridoxine (B-6 vitamin) labelled by tritium are obtained due to techniques of liquid-phase and solid-phase heterogeneous isotopic exchange with gaseous tritium over palladium catalysts. [ 3 H] molar activity of the vitamin obtained due to liquid-phase exchange constitutes 925-1295 TBq/mole, due to solid-phase one - 1.85-2.96 PBq/mole. 60 % of tritium are localized in 2-CH 3 -group, 25 % - in 4-C 2 HOH-group, 15 % - in 6H in the vitamin specimen obtained due to liquid-phase exchange, while at solid-phase exchange it is localized respectively as 36, 37 and 25 %

  14. Two-orbital model for CeB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dheeraj Kumar

    2017-05-01

    We describe a two-orbital tight-binding model with bases belonging to the Γ8 quartet. It captures several characteristics of the Fermiology unravelled by the recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopic (ARPES) measurements on cerium hexaboride CeB6 samples cleaved along different high-symmetry crystallographic directions, which includes the ellipsoid-like Fermi surfaces (FSs) with major axes directed along Γ-X. We calculate various multipolar susceptibilities within the model and identify the susceptibility that shows the strongest divergence in the presence of standard onsite Coulomb interactions and discuss its possible implication and relevance with regard to the signature of strong ferromagnetic correlations existent in various phases as shown by the recent experiments.

  15. Hematinic deficiencies and anemia statuses in anti-gastric parietal cell antibody-positive or all autoantibodies-negative erosive oral lichen planus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Julia Yu-Fong; Wang, Yi-Ping; Wu, Yu-Hsueh; Su, Yu-Xuan; Tu, Yu-Kang; Sun, Andy

    2018-03-01

    Approximately 27% of erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP) patients have serum anti-gastric parietal cell antibody (GPCA) positivity. This study assessed whether serum GPCA or EOLP itself was a significant factor that caused hematinic deficiencies and anemia statuses in GPCA-positive or autoantibodies-negative EOLP patients (GPCA + /EOLP and Abs - /EOLP patients). The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean blood hemoglobin (Hb), iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid levels were measured and compared between any two of three groups of 41 GPCA + /EOLP patients, 198 Abs - /EOLP patients, and 184 healthy control subjects. GPCA + /EOLP patients had significantly lower mean Hb, iron (for women only), and vitamin B12 level as well as significantly greater frequencies of Hb, iron, and vitamin B12 deficiencies than healthy control subjects. Moreover, GPCA + /EOLP patients had significantly lower serum vitamin B12 level and significantly higher MCV as well as a significantly greater frequency of vitamin B12 deficiency than Abs - /EOLP patients. Furthermore, Abs - /EOLP patients did have significantly lower mean Hb, MCV, iron (for women only), vitamin B12, and folic acid levels as well as significantly greater frequencies of Hb and iron deficiencies than healthy control subjects. We conclude that serum GPCA is the major factor that causes vitamin B12 deficiency, macrocytosis and pernicious anemia in GPCA + /EOLP patients. Approximately 29-32% GPCA-positive EOLP patients have vitamin B12 deficiency or macrocytosis and about 23-25% vitamin B12 deficiency or macrocytosis EOLP patients have pernicious anemia. ELOP itself does play a significant role in causing anemia and hematinic deficiencies in Abs - /EOLP patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Oxidative stress, hepcidin and nesfatin-I status in childhood iron and vitamin B12 deficiency anemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşkar, Tünay K; Büyükleblebici, Olga; Hismioğulları, Adnan Adil; Hünkerler, Zeynep

    2017-07-01

    Anemia is a disease that is long and often repetitive and can result in a great burden to the national economy. The most frequent nutritional deficiency anemias in children are related with iron and vitamin B12 deficiencies. The aim of this study was to determine the oxidative stress, hepcidin, and nesfatin-I levels in childhood iron and vitamin B12 deficiency anemias. The study had 3 groups of 15 children, iron anemia deficiency group, vitamin B12 deficiency group and a control group. The TBARS and nesfatin-I levels were significantly higher in the iron and vitamin B12 deficiency groups and the total antioxidant levels were significantly lower when compared to the control group. In contrast, the plasma hepcidin levels were significantly lower in the iron deficiency group (p anemias, and we propose that plasma hepcidin and homocycteine levels may be useful in the differential diagnosis of childhood nutritional deficiency anemias. Nesfatin-1 hormone levels were identified for the first time in childhood iron deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency anemias within this study and this hormone may also be useful in the differential diagnosis of anemias.

  17. Effect of consuming zinc-fortified bread on serum zinc and iron status of zinc-deficient women: A double blind, randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Badii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fortification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of consuming zinc-fortified breads on the zinc and iron status in the blood serum. In this study, three types of bread were prepared from non-fortified and fortified flours, with 50 and 100 ppm elemental zinc in the form of sulfate. Eighty zinc-deficient women aged 19 to 49 years were randomly assigned to three groups; The volunteers received, daily, (1 a non-fortified bread, (2 a high-zinc bread, and (3 a low-zinc bread for one month. Serum zinc and iron were measured by Atomic Absorption before and after the study. Results showed a significant increase in serum zinc and iron levels in all groups (p 0.05. Absorption of zinc and iron in the group that consumed high-zinc bread was significantly greater than that in the group that received low-zinc bread (p < 0.01. It was concluded that fortification of flour with 50-100 ppm zinc was an effective way to achieve adequate zinc intake and absorption in zinc-deficient people. It also appeared that consuming zinc-fortified bread improved iron absorption.

  18. The evolution of radiation-induced growth hormone deficiency in adults is determined by the baseline growth hormone status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toogood, A.A.; Ryder, W.D.J.; Beardwell, C.G.; Shalet, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies of GH replacement have suggested several beneficial effects for GH deficient adults. It would therefore be helpful to predict the time of onset of GH deficiency after external pituitary irradiation. We have studied the evolution of GH deficiency with time in patients irradiated for pituitary adenomas and other hypothalamic pituitary tumours. The results provide an insight into the pattern of the decline in GH secretion following radiotherapy in patients with pituitary disease and the factors affecting it. This information will help the clinician predict the frequency and timing of GH deficiency in patients irradiated for pituitary disease and the potential need for GH replacement therapy. (Author)

  19. Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Adulthood: A Potential Diagnosis in a Patient with Mental Status Changes Suspected of Drug Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Morgan; Rolf, Cristin; Gibson, Stephanie Mayfield; Hall, Patricia L; Rinaldo, Piero; Davis, Gregory J

    2015-07-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is a rare but important component of the differential diagnosis for adults with a history of premortem mental status changes and the postmortem finding of hepatic steatosis. This case report describes a 30-year-old white man who, following a period of nausea and vomiting, was admitted to the hospital with sudden mental status deterioration followed rapidly by clinical deterioration and death. Treating physicians in this case suspected acute illicit drug toxicity with synthetic cathinones based on social history. Clinicians and medical examiners should be aware that the presentation, signs, and symptoms described may indicate an underlying inborn error of metabolism such as MCAD deficiency and take action accordingly. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D as a Biomarker of Vitamin D Status and Its Modeling to Inform Strategies for Prevention of Vitamin D Deficiency within the Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kevin D; van den Heuvel, Ellen Ghm; Schoemaker, Ruud Jw; Prévéraud, Damien P; Macdonald, Helen M; Arcot, Jayashree

    2017-11-01

    There is substantial evidence that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is unacceptably high in the population, and this requires action from a public health perspective. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is a robust and reliable marker of vitamin D status and has been used by numerous agencies in the establishment of vitamin D dietary requirements and for population surveillance of vitamin D deficiency or inadequacy. In a wider context, modeling of serum 25(OH)D data and its contributory sources, namely dietary vitamin D supply and UVB availability, can inform our understanding of population vitamin D status. The aim of this review is to provide the current status of knowledge in relation to modeling of such vitamin D-relevant data. We begin by highlighting the importance of the measurement of 25(OH)D and its standardization, both of which have led to new key data on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy in North America and Europe. We then overview how state-of-the-art modeling can be used to inform our understanding of the potential effect of ergocalciferol and 25(OH)D on vitamin D intake estimates and how meteorological data on UVB availability, when coupled with other key data, can help predict population serum 25(OH)D concentration, even accounting for seasonal fluctuations, and lastly, how these in silico approaches can help inform policymakers on strategic options on addressing low vitamin D status through food-based approaches and supplementation. The potential of exemplar food-based solutions will be highlighted, as will the possibility of synergies between vitamin D and other dairy food-based micronutrients, in relation to vitamin D status and bone health. Lastly, we will briefly consider the interactions between season and vitamin D supplements on vitamin D status and health. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. ENDF/B-6 charged-particle sublibraries. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.; McLaughlin, P.K.; Pronyaev, V.G.

    1999-01-01

    This document summarizes the ENDF/B-6 sublibraries for nuclear reaction data of protons, deuterons and tritons. Presently included are complete (double differential) evaluations for the interaction of protons with H-1 and He-3, and evaluated cross-sections for five fusion reactions between d, t, and He-3 particles. The 1998 and 1999 updates includes complete presentation of the nuclear data for H-1,H-2,He-3,C-12,N-14,O-16,Al-27,P-31,Ca40,Nb-93 and Isotopes of Si, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, W, Pb, needed for transport, damage, heating, radioactivity and shielding applications over the incident proton energy range from 1 to 150 MeV. The data library, which has a size of 40.0 Megabytes, is available upon request from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, costfree, on floppy diskette, or CD-ROM. The library is available online within NDIS, the Nuclear Data Information System and also from the WWW pages of the Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  2. Plasma vitamins B2, B6, B12, and related genetic variants as predictors of colorectal cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eussen, Simone JPM; Vollset, Stein Emil; Hustad, Steinar; Midttun, Øivind; Meyer, Klaus; Fredriksen, Åse; Ueland, Per Magne; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Boffetta, Paolo; Overvad, Kim; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Morois, Sophie; Weikert, Cornelia; Pischon, Tobias; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Zilis, Demosthenes; Katsoulis, Michael; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra HM; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel JB; Skeie, Guri; Muñoz, Xavier; Martínez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Ardanaz, Eva; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez, Laudina; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Palmqvist, Richard; Manjer, Jonas; Ericson, Ulrika; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio

    2010-01-01

    Background B-vitamins are essential for one-carbon metabolism and have been linked to colorectal cancer (CRC). Although associations with folate have frequently been studied, studies on other plasma vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and CRC are scarce or inconclusive. Methods Nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, including 1365 incident CRC cases and 2319 controls matched for study center, age, and sex. We measured the sum of B2 species riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide, and the sum of B6 species pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, pyridoxal, and 4-pyridoxic acid as indicators for vitamin B2 and B6 status, as well as vitamin B12 in plasma samples collected at baseline. In addition, we determined eight polymorphisms related to one-carbon metabolism. Relative risks (RRs) for CRC were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for smoking, education, physical activity, BMI, alcohol consumption, and intakes of fiber, red- and processed meat. Results RRs comparing highest to lowest quintile (95% confidence interval, Ptrend) were: 0.71 (0.56–0.91, 0.02) for vitamin B2, 0.68 (0.53–0.87, vitamin B6, and 1.02 (0.80–1.29, 0.19) for vitamin B12. The associations for vitamin B6 were stronger in males who consumed ≥ 30g alcohol/day. The polymorphisms were not associated with CRC. Conclusions Higher plasma concentrations of vitamins B2 and B6 are associated with a lower CRC risk. Impact This European population-based study is the first to indicate that vitamin B2 is inversely associated with CRC, and is in agreement to previously suggested inverse associations of vitamin B6 with CRC. PMID:20813848

  3. Vitamin B-12 Deficiency in Children Is Associated with Grade Repetition and School Absenteeism, Independent of Folate, Iron, Zinc, or Vitamin A Status Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Minh-Cam; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marín, Constanza; Villamor, Eduardo

    2015-07-01

    Micronutrients are essential to neurocognitive development; yet their role in educational outcomes is unclear. We examined the associations of micronutrient status biomarkers with the risk of grade repetition and rates of school absenteeism in a cohort of school children. We recruited 3156 children aged 5-12 y from public schools in Bogota, Colombia. Circulating ferritin, hemoglobin, zinc, vitamin A, and vitamin B-12; erythrocyte folate; and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were measured in blood samples obtained at the beginning of the year. Absenteeism was recorded weekly during the school year, and grade repetition was determined the next year. Risk ratios for grade repetition and rate ratios for absenteeism were estimated by categories of micronutrient status indicators with use of Poisson regression, adjusting for potential confounders. The risk of grade repetition was 4.9%, and the absenteeism rate was 3.8 d per child-year of observation. Vitamin B-12 deficiency (school absenteeism rates. Compared with children with plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations ≥148 pmol/L, vitamin B-12-deficient children had a 1.89-times higher adjusted rate (95% CI: 1.53, 2.34; P school absenteeism rates in school children from Bogota, Colombia. The effects of correcting vitamin B-12 deficiency on educational outcomes and neurocognitive development of school children need to be determined in intervention studies. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Arc-melting preparation of single crystal LaB6 cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, E.D.; Verhoeven, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    A method for preparing single crystals of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB 6 ) by arc melting a rod of compacted LaB 6 powder is discussed. The method is especially suitable for preparing single-crystal LaB 6 cathodes for use in scanning electron microscopes (SEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEM). 1 figure, 1 table

  5. The value of plasma vitamin B6 profiles in early onset epileptic encephalopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, Déborah; Abela, Lucia; Albersen, Monique|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338879250; Bürer, Céline; Crowther, Lisa; Beese, Karin; Hartmann, Hans; Bok, Levinus A; Struys, Eduard; Papuc, Sorina M; Rauch, Anita; Hersberger, Martin; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310926556; Plecko, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent decades have unravelled the molecular background of a number of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) causing vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy. As these defects interfere with vitamin B6 metabolism by different mechanisms, the plasma vitamin B6 profile can give important clues for

  6. Attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens B6 and A. radiobacter K84 to Tomato Root Tips

    OpenAIRE

    Penalver, R.; Serra, M. T.; Duran-Vila, N.; Lopez, M. M.

    1996-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens B6 and the avirulent Agrobacterium radiobacter strain K84 attached to in vitro-cultured tomato root tips, but the binding of strain B6 to root tips was greater than the binding of strain K84. Strain K84 was not able to block the attachment of A. tumefaciens B6 to in vitro-cultured tomato root tips.

  7. Vitamin Status among Breastfed Infants in Bhaktapur, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulak, Manjeswori; Chandyo, Ram K.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Henjum, Sigrun; Ueland, Per M.; Midttun, Øivind; Shrestha, Prakash S.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Graybill, Lauren; Strand, Tor A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin deficiencies are known to be common among infants residing in low- and middle-income countries but relatively few studies have assessed several biochemical parameters simultaneously. The objective of the study was to describe the status of vitamins (A, D, E, B6, B12 and folate) in breastfed infants. We measured the plasma concentrations of trans retinol, 25 hydroxy vitamin D, α-tocopherol, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, cobalamin, folate, methylmalonic acid, homocysteine, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein from 467 randomly selected infants. One in five (22%) was deficient in at least one vitamin. Mean (SD) plasma folate concentration was 73 (35) nmol/L, and no infant in the sample was folate deficient. Vitamin B6 deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 22% and 17% of the infants, respectively. Elevated plasma methylmalonic acid or total homocysteine concentration was found in 82% and 62% of infants, respectively. Fifteen percent of infants were vitamin A deficient and 65% were marginally deficient in vitamin A. Fewer than 5% of infants had low plasma vitamin D concentration or vitamin E concentration (α-tocopherol supplementation campaigns and support the expansion of food fortification and dietary diversification programs that target children and women in Nepal. PMID:27005657

  8. Photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio study of the doubly antiaromatic B(6) (2-) dianion in the LiB(6) (-) cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova, Anastassia N; Boldyrev, Alexander I; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2005-02-01

    A metal-boron mixed cluster LiB(6) (-) was produced and characterized by photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. A number of electronic transitions were observed and used to compare with theoretical calculations. An extensive search for the global minimum of LiB(6) (-) was carried out via an ab initio genetic algorithm technique. The pyramidal C(2v) ((1)A(1)) molecule was found to be the most stable at all levels of theory. The nearest low-lying isomer was found to be a triplet C(2) ((3)B) structure, 9.2 kcal/mol higher in energy. Comparison of calculated detachment transitions from LiB(6) (-) and the experimental photoelectron spectra confirmed the C(2v) pyramidal global minimum structure. Natural population calculation revealed that LiB(6) (-) is a charge-transfer complex, Li(+)B(6) (2-), in which Li(+) and B(6) (2-) interact in a primarily ionic manner. Analyses of the molecular orbitals and chemical bonding of B(6) (2-) showed that the planar cluster is twofold (pi- and sigma-) antiaromatic, which can be viewed as the fusion of two aromatic B(3) (-) units.

  9. Assessing the status of iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) and associated factors in Wolaita and Dawro Zones School Adolescents, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workie, Shimelash Bitew; Abebe, Yemane Gebremariam; Gelaye, Amha Admasie; Mekonen, Tefera Chane

    2017-04-18

    Iodine deficiency is the major preventable cause of irreversible mental retardation in the world. Ethiopia is a country with high prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders which continue to affect a large number of the country's population. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorder in Wolaita and Dawuro zones. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in high school and preparatory students in Wolaita and Dawuro zones between April and May 2012. Data were collected from 718 school adolescents using pre-tested questionnaire through systematic random sampling technique. Data were entered and cleaned using Epi-info version 3.5.3 and then transported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and Multivariable logistic regression were done and the cut off value set was P deficiency disorder was a serious public health concern. Nearly half of adolescent students in Wolaita and Dawuro zones were affected by goiter. Therefore, emphasis on a sustainable iodine intervention program targeted at population level, particularly at females is mandatory. Nutrition education along with adequate Universal Salt Iodization program is urgently required.

  10. [NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS OF DEFICIENCY OR EXCESS OF MICRONUTRIENTS IN 4 TO 14 YEAR-OLD CHILEAN CHILDREN: A CRITICAL REVIEW].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozowski Narkunska, Jaime; Castillo Valenzuela, Oscar; Figari Jullian, Nicole; García-Díaz, Diego F; Cruchet Muñoz, Sylvia; Weisstaub Nuta, Gerardo; Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Gotteland Russel, Martín

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of obesity in Chilean children has been increasing steadily for the last two decades. The first study to determine nutritional status and food intake in a representative sample of this population was carried out in 1960. Recently the National Food Consumption Survey (ENCA) carried out in 2012 was released by the Ministry of Health. However, this study did not include biochemical determinations of micronutrients which would allow a better diagnosis of nutritional status in children. to review the literature available from 2004 to 2014 in food intake and nutritional status in Chilean children aged 4 to 14 years. a total of 362 references published between 2004 and 2014 were obtained through searches in the databases PubMed, Lilacs, Embase and Scielo. From these, 40 articles were selected for a thorough review. food intake by children is characterized by a high-energy intake, a low consumption of fruits and vegetables and a high consumption of bread. The ENCA showed that 95% of the Chilean population has a deficient diet. A high prevalence of obesity is observed from very early in life. There is a dearth of data available on plasma indicators of vitamin and mineral status since 1960, which would provide more reliable information on nutritional assessment. It is imperative to implement a representative nutrition survey of children in Chile that includes biochemical indicators to get reliable information in order to develop strategies aimed to correct micronutrient malnutrition from excess or deficiency. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of polymorphic human CYP2B6 in cyclophosphamide bioactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H-J; Yasar, U; Lundgren, S; Griskevicius, L; Terelius, Y; Hassan, M; Rane, A

    2003-01-01

    The role of polymorphic CYP2B6 in cyclophosphamide (CPA) bioactivation was investigated in human liver microsomes. A total of 67 human liver specimens were first genotyped with respect to the CYP2B6*5 and CYP2B6*6 variant alleles. CYP2B6 apoprotein levels in 55 liver microsomal preparations were assessed by immunoblotting. 4-Hydroxy-CPA and hydroxy-bupropion were quantified by using HPLC and LC-MS, respectively. 7-Ethoxy-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin O-deethylase activity was measured fluorometrically. The frequencies of CYP2B6*5 and CYP2B6*6 mutant alleles were 9.0 and 16.4%, respectively. CYP2B6 protein expression was detected in 80% of the samples, with a large variation (0.003-2.234, arbitrary units). There was a high correlation between CYP2B6 apoprotein content and CPA 4-hydroxylation (n=55, r=0.81, P<0.0001). When based on the CYP2B6 apoprotein levels, the *6 carriers had significantly higher CPA 4-hydroxylation (P<0.05). CPA 4-hydroxylation also correlated significantly with other CYP2B6-specific reactions (n=20, P<0.0001). V(max) and K(m) for CPA 4-hydroxylation in recombinant CYP2B6 enzyme were 338 nmol/min/nmol enzyme and 1.4 mM, respectively. CYP2B6 showed much higher in vitro intrinsic clearance than previously observed in recombinant CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 variants in yeast expression system. Our results demonstrate that the polymorphic CYP2B6 is a major enzyme in the bioactivation of CPA. Moreover, we identified a strong impact of CYP2B6*6 on CPA 4-hydroxylation.

  12. [To the question of rational nutrition, micronutrient status correction, prevention and treatment of iron deficiency in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayupova, I M

    2015-01-01

    In the article the features of healthy nutrition in pregnant women suffering from iron deficiency has been discussed. The criteria for diagnosis of anemia during pregnancy, the stage of the disease development, the specifics of iron deficiency during gestation, the need in this trace element in pregnant women have been defined. The necessity of an adequate selection of a balanced diet during pregnancy complicated with anemia has been based. Iron content in food products along with the extent of absorption depending upon the origin of the product have been considered. The compounds that contribute to a better absorption of iron, as well as medicinal substances that prevent its absorption have been presented. Special attention is paid to the questions of preventative measures in preventing anemia in pregnant women. In addition to a balanced diet and iron preparations for treatment and prevention of anemia, the appointment of vitamin-mineral supplements and specialized foods for pregnant enriched with micronutrients has been substantiated.

  13. Current status of iodine deficiency-related disorders prophylaxis in Slovakia - the life's work of Julian Podoba remained unfinished.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podoba, J; Racova, K; Urbankova, H; Srbecky, M

    2016-01-01

    Prophylaxis of iodine deficiency-related disorders with iodized salt in Slovakia was introduced in 1951. This prophylactic measure yielded remarkably good results. Endemic goiter and endemic cretinism disappeared. Sufficient iodine intake, mainly in children and adolescents, was confirmed in several local and international studies carried out in the period 1991-95. Unfortunately, since seventies, there has been no institution which would have dealt with iodine prophylaxis in such an extent as this important measure of Slovak preventive medicine would require. Neither systematic monitoring of iodine intake nor systematic population epidemiological studies have been carried out. We do not have any data on the iodine intake in pregnant women, the most vulnerable population group in relation to the iodine deficiency. During the period June 2014 - October 2015, we examined iodine excretion in 426 probands from three regions of Slovakia with an emphasis on the pregnant women. Iodine intake was found to be sufficient, even more than adequate, in all age groups of Slovak population. The only population group with iodine intake borderline or very mild iodine deficiency are pregnant women. 1/ Iodine nutrition in Slovakia is generally sufficient, even oversteps the requirement, with the exception of pregnant women. Iodine intake in pregnant women should be fortified by iodine containing multivitamin preparations. 2/ We recommend to include the examination of urinary iodine into the screening of thyropathies in early pregnancy. 3/ It is not enough to implement the iodine deficiency-related disorders prevention programs, it is also necessary to stabilize such programs over time and balance the benefits with possible side effects of this program.

  14. Electronic, thermodynamics and mechanical properties of LaB6 from first-principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashchenko, V. I.; Turchi, P. E. A.; Shevchenko, V. I.; Medukh, N. R.; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Gorb, Leonid

    2018-02-01

    Up to date, the electronic structure properties of amorphous lanthanum hexaboride, a-LaB6, were not yet investigated, and the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of crystalline lanthanum hexaboride (c-LaB6) were studied incompletely. The goal of this work was to fill these gaps in the study of lanthanum hexaborides. The electronic and phonon structures, thermodynamic and mechanical properties of both crystalline and amorphous lanthanum hexaborides (c-LaB6, a-LaB6, respectively) were investigated within the density functional theory. An amorphyzation of c-LaB6 gives rise to the metal - semiconductor transition. The thermal conductivity decreases on going from c-LaB6 to a-LaB6. The elastic moduli, hardness, ideal tensile and shear strengths of a-LaB6 are significantly lower compared to those of the crystalline counterpart, despite the formation of the icosahedron-like boron network in the amorphous phase. For c-LaB6, the stable boron octahedrons are preserved after the failure under tensile and shear strains. The peculiarity in the temperature dependence of heat capacity, Cp(T), at 50 K is explained by the availability of a sharp peak at 100 cm-1 in the phonon density of states of c-LaB6. An analysis of the Fermi surface indicates that this peak is not related to the shape of the Fermi surface, and is caused by the vibration of lanthanum atoms. In the phonon spectrum of a-LaB6, the peak at 100 cm-1 is significantly broader than in the spectrum of c-LaB6, for which reason the anomaly in the Cp(T) dependence of a-LaB6 does not appear. The calculated characteristics are in good agreement with the available experimental data.

  15. The Role of Genetic Polymorphisms as Related to One-Carbon Metabolism, Vitamin B6, and Gene–Nutrient Interactions in Maintaining Genomic Stability and Cell Viability in Chinese Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiayu Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FMOCM is linked to DNA synthesis, methylation, and cell proliferation. Vitamin B6 (B6 is a cofactor, and genetic polymorphisms of related key enzymes, such as serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR, and methionine synthase (MS, in FMOCM may govern the bioavailability of metabolites and play important roles in the maintenance of genomic stability and cell viability (GSACV. To evaluate the influences of B6, genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes, and gene–nutrient interactions on GSACV, we utilized the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP techniques in the lymphocytes from female breast cancer cases and controls. GSACV showed a significantly positive correlation with B6 concentration, and 48 nmol/L of B6 was the most suitable concentration for maintaining GSACV in vitro. The GSACV indexes showed significantly different sensitivity to B6 deficiency between cases and controls; the B6 effect on the GSACV variance contribution of each index was significantly higher than that of genetic polymorphisms and the sample state (tumor state. SHMT C1420T mutations may reduce breast cancer susceptibility, whereas MTRR A66G and MS A2756G mutations may increase breast cancer susceptibility. The role of SHMT, MS, and MTRR genotype polymorphisms in GSACV is reduced compared with that of B6. The results appear to suggest that the long-term lack of B6 under these conditions may increase genetic damage and cell injury and that individuals with various genotypes have different sensitivities to B6 deficiency. FMOCM metabolic enzyme gene polymorphism may be related to breast cancer susceptibility to a certain extent due to the effect of other factors such as stress, hormones, cancer therapies, psychological conditions, and diet. Adequate B6 intake may be good for maintaining genome health and preventing breast cancer.

  16. Synthesis of retinoid vitamin A-vitamin B6 conjugate analogues for antiviral chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesel, Andreas J.

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis of retinoid vitamin A-vitamin B 6 conjugate analogues from a vitamin B 6 coenzyme analogue and putative HIV-1 trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein Tat antagonist (Z)-5 ' -O-phosphono-pyridoxylidenerhodanine (B6PR) monosodium salt hemiheptadecahydrate [(Z)-B6PRNa8.5H 2 O] is discussed here. All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is coupled to B6PR by a modified Stork enamine acylation. It results in a product library of more than eight compounds, each with at least one intact all-trans or 13-cis vitamin A double bond system. This yellow oily concentrate mixture was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry (MS), UV/VIS-spectrophotometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-NMR). The chemical structures of six components of the concentrate mixture could be established by combination of these analytical methods. The two main components are 65% 2 ' C,3O-(all-trans-retinylidyne)B6PT (B6RA) and 25% 2 ' C-(all-trans-retinoyl)B6PT, chemically derived from (5RS)-5-(5 ' -O-phosphono-pyridoxyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (B6PT). This new retinoid selection could be of further interest in antiviral applications, especially treating conditions caused by RNA viruses like HIV

  17. Insights into CYP2B6-mediated drug–drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Hedrich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence demonstrates that CYP2B6 plays a much larger role in human drug metabolism than was previously believed. The discovery of multiple important substrates of CYP2B6 as well as polymorphic differences has sparked increasing interest in the genetic and xenobiotic factors contributing to the expression and function of the enzyme. The expression of CYP2B6 is regulated primarily by the xenobiotic receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR and pregnane X receptor (PXR in the liver. In addition to CYP2B6, these receptors also mediate the inductive expression of CYP3A4, and a number of important phase II enzymes and drug transporters. CYP2B6 has been demonstrated to play a role in the metabolism of 2%–10% of clinically used drugs including widely used antineoplastic agents cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide, anesthetics propofol and ketamine, synthetic opioids pethidine and methadone, and the antiretrovirals nevirapine and efavirenz, among others. Significant inter-individual variability in the expression and function of the human CYP2B6 gene exists and can result in altered clinical outcomes in patients receiving treatment with CYP2B6-substrate drugs. These variances arise from a number of sources including genetic polymorphism, and xenobiotic intervention. In this review, we will provide an overview of the key players in CYP2B6 expression and function and highlight recent advances made in assessing clinical ramifications of important CYP2B6-mediated drug–drug interactions.

  18. Vitamin status in elderly people in relation to the use of nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, E; Bogner, M; Kickinger, A; Wagner, K H; Elmadfa, I

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the status of several vitamins and to investigate the effect of regular individual supplementation on their status in this population. An observational study. State of Burgenland, Austria. A total of 102 non-institutionalized subjects (49% supplementing regularly, 51% without supplementation) aged between 70-90 years were recruited. Plasma levels of vitamins A, D, E, K and C were determined by HPLC. The functional parameters of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, i.e. the activities of the erythrocyte enzymes transketolase, glutathione reductase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, were analyzed photometrically; plasma folate and vitamin B12 were determined by RIA. The status of vitamins A, E and C was generally satisfactory. Eighty-eight percent and 42% of participants were deficient in vitamins D and K, respectively, as were 29% for B6; up to 10% of participants were deficient in vitamins B1, B2, B12 and folate. A considerable percentage of participants was, however, at risk for vitamin deficiencies (vitamins B1, B6, B12, folate: 20-30%, vitamin B2: 60%). Except for vitamins A and K, regular intake of supplements had a significant positive influence on vitamin levels. These results indicate that use of supplements significantly improved the status of several vitamins in elderly people. Due to age-related problems concerning the intake and digestion of nutrients, a moderate, regular supplementation might be a useful option for older people who are otherwise unable to satisfy their micronutrient requirements.

  19. Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies Are Highly Prevalent in Newly Diagnosed Celiac Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ad A. van Bodegraven

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Malabsorption, weight loss and vitamin/mineral-deficiencies characterize classical celiac disease (CD. This study aimed to assess the nutritional and vitamin/mineral status of current “early diagnosed” untreated adult CD-patients in the Netherlands. Newly diagnosed adult CD-patients were included (n = 80, 42.8 ± 15.1 years and a comparable sample of 24 healthy Dutch subjects was added to compare vitamin concentrations. Nutritional status and serum concentrations of folic acid, vitamin A, B6, B12, and (25-hydroxy D, zinc, haemoglobin (Hb and ferritin were determined (before prescribing gluten free diet. Almost all CD-patients (87% had at least one value below the lower limit of reference. Specifically, for vitamin A, 7.5% of patients showed deficient levels, for vitamin B6 14.5%, folic acid 20%, and vitamin B12 19%. Likewise, zinc deficiency was observed in 67% of the CD-patients, 46% had decreased iron storage, and 32% had anaemia. Overall, 17% were malnourished (>10% undesired weight loss, 22% of the women were underweight (Body Mass Index (BMI 25. Vitamin deficiencies were barely seen in healthy controls, with the exception of vitamin B12. Vitamin/mineral deficiencies were counter-intuitively not associated with a (higher grade of histological intestinal damage or (impaired nutritional status. In conclusion, vitamin/mineral deficiencies are still common in newly “early diagnosed” CD-patients, even though the prevalence of obesity at initial diagnosis is rising. Extensive nutritional assessments seem warranted to guide nutritional advices and follow-up in CD treatment.

  20. Vitamin B6 nutriture of children with acute celiac disease, celiac disease in remission, and of children with normal duodenal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinken, L; Zieglauer, H; Berger, H

    1976-07-01

    Patients with adult celiac disease excrete abnormal amounts of tryptophan metabolites after loading with this amino acid, suggesting vitamin B6 deficienty in these patients, In fact, the excretion of tryptophan metabolites returns to normal after administration of vitamin B6. The vitamin B6 nutriture was measured by means of determination of pyridoxal phosphate and activity of pyridoxalkinase in serum and in duodenal mucosa of 14 children with acute celiac disease and of six children with celiac disease in clinical and biochemical remission. Ten children with normal duodenal mucosa were studied as controls. Children with celiac disease had significantly decreased pyridoxal phosphate in serum and in duodenal mucosa when compared both with children in remission and controls. Activity of pyridoxalkinase, however, was significantly increased in serum and in duodenal mucosa when compared with controls but not when compared with children in remission. These children had the same increase in pyridoxalkinase activity as children with acute celiac disease. These data provide a strong evidence for the occurrence of vitamin B6 deficienty in children with acute celiac disease. The children with celiac disease in remission still had an increased activity of pyridoxalkinase which seems to be a compensating mechanism in consequence of vitamin B6 deficiency prior to the gluten-free diet.

  1. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. The 118-B-6 site consisted of 2 concrete pipes buried vertically in the ground and capped by a concrete pad with steel lids. The site was used for the disposal of wastes from the 'metal line' of the P-10 Tritium Separation Project.

  2. Nutritionally relevant supplementation of vitamin B6 in lactating women: effect on plasma prolactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andon, M B; Howard, M P; Moser, P B; Reynolds, R D

    1985-11-01

    Pharmacologic doses of vitamin B6 administered to lactating women have been reported to suppress plasma prolactin. As a result, some physicians have recommended restriction of vitamin B6 intake for lactating women. In the present investigation, 20 lactating women were given supplemental doses of vitamin B6, 0.5 to 4.0 mg/d, beginning 24 hours after delivery. Plasma prolactin, plasma pyridoxal phosphate, and breast milk total vitamin B6 concentrations were determined during the first 9 months postpartum. Women receiving the supplement of 4.0 mg compared with 0.5 mg of vitamin B6 per day had significantly higher plasma pyridoxal phosphate (P less than .01) and breast milk total vitamin B6 concentrations (P less than .05) beginning at 1 month postpartum and continuing through the duration of the study. Plasma prolactin concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups. The percentage of all women, regardless of treatment, in whom lactation persisted at 1 and 2 weeks and 1, 3, 6, and 9 months were 100%, 100%, 100%, 90%, 80%, and 65%, respectively. All women who ceased to lactate during the study reported doing so by choice. Nutritionally relevant doses of vitamin B6 elevated plasma pyridoxal phosphate and breast milk total vitamin B6 concentrations of lactating women without reducing plasma prolactin concentration or halting lactation.

  3. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Proctor

    2006-06-13

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. The 118-B-6 site consisted of 2 concrete pipes buried vertically in the ground and capped by a concrete pad with steel lids. The site was used for the disposal of wastes from the "metal line" of the P-10 Tritium Separation Project.

  4. Ordering and Fluctuation of Quantum Multipoles in CeB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, R.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of multipolar fluctuations on the quadrupolar phase transition in CeB 6 is investigated theoretically. It is shown that the fluctuations become strong and field-dependent, reflecting the competition of coupled multipolar interactions. Some unusual phenomena around the transition in CeB 6 are shown to be reasonably explained within the RKKY model. (author)

  5. The effect of dietary intake of vitamin B6 on sleep quality and insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, L.; Fernstrand, A.M.; Garssen, J.; Verster, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is increased notion that daily diet has an important impact on health and disease. In this context, the relationship between nutrition and sleep is gaining increased research interest, particularly focusing on tryptophan, niacin and Vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 has an important role in the

  6. Effect of African leafy vegetables on the micronutrient status of mildly deficient farm-school children in South Africa: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoeven, Marinka; Faber, Mieke; Osei, Jennifer; Kruger, Annamarie; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2016-04-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effect of African leafy vegetable (ALV) consumption on Fe, Zn and vitamin A status in children. Children were randomly allocated to receive either a 300 g cooked ALV dish and school meal starch (n 86) or the normal school meal (n 81) five times per week for three months. ALV in the dish consisted mainly of Amaranthus cruentus (at least 80 %) and the remainder of Cleome gynandra, Cucurbita maxima or Vigna unguiculata. Nutrient content and consumer acceptance of the ALV dish were also determined. North West Province, South Africa. Grade R to grade 4 children (6-12 years old) of two farm schools. The ALV dish contributed 11·6-15·8 mg Fe and 1·4-3·7 mg Zn. At baseline, prevalence of deficiencies in the intervention group was 16·0 %, 16·3 %, 7·0 % and 75·6 %, respectively, for anaemia (Hb<11·5 g/dl), Fe (serum ferritin<15 µg/l), vitamin A (serum retinol<20 μg/dl) and Zn (serum Zn<65 μg/dl); and in the control group 10·5 %, 18·5 %, 2·5 % and 75·3 %, respectively. No significant estimated intervention effect was found. This randomized controlled trial showed that ALV were unable to improve serum retinol, serum ferritin or Hb if there are only mild deficiencies present. Furthermore, despite the low Zn status in the study population, ALV consumption did not improve serum Zn concentrations either.

  7. Genotype-Specific Changes in Vitamin B6 Content and the PDX Family in Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Mooney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B6 is one of the most versatile cofactors in plants and an essential phytonutrient in the human diet that benefits a variety of human health aspects. Although biosynthesis of the vitamin has been well resolved in recent years, the main research is currently based on Arabidopsis thaliana with very little work done on major crop plants. Here we provide the first report on interactions and expression profiles of PDX genes for vitamin B6 biosynthesis in potato and how vitamin B6 content varies in tubers of different genotypes. The results demonstrate that potato is an excellent resource for this vitamin and that strong natural variation in vitamin B6 content among the tested cultivars indicates high potential to fortify vitamin B6 nutrition in potato-based foods.

  8. Health status and lung function in the Swedish alpha 1-antitrypsin deficient cohort, identified by neonatal screening, at the age of 37-40 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piitulainen E

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Eeva Piitulainen, Behrouz Mostafavi, Hanan A Tanash Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden Background: Severe alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT deficiency (genotype PiZZ is a well-known risk factor for COPD. A cohort of PiZZ and PiSZ individuals was identified by the Swedish national neonatal AAT screening program in 1972–1974 and followed up regularly since birth. Our aim was to study the lung function, respiratory symptoms and health status at the age of 38 years in comparison with a random sample of control subjects selected from the population registry.Methods: The study group included 120 PiZZ, 46 PiSZ and 164 control subjects (PiMM, who answered a questionnaire on smoking habits and symptoms and the Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ on quality of life. A total of 89 PiZZ, 33 PiSZ and 92 PiMM subjects underwent spirometry.Results: Four percent of the PiZZ, 2% of the PiSZ and 12% of the control subjects were current smokers (P=0.008, and 17% of the PiZZ, 9% of the PiSZ and 21% of the control subjects had stopped smoking. The PiZZ current smokers had a significantly higher (ie, poorer median activity score according to the SGRQ than the PiZZ never-smokers (P=0.032. The PiMM current smokers had significantly higher activity score (P<0.001, symptom score (P<0.001, and total score (P=0.001 according to the SGRQ than the PiMM never-smokers. The PiZZ current smokers had a significantly lower postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1% of predicted value (P=0.019 and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC ratio (P=0.032 than the PiZZ never-smokers. The proportion of subjects with a FEV1/FVC ratio of <0.70, indicating COPD, was significantly higher in the PiZZ current smokers than in the PiZZ never-smokers (P=0.001. Among the PiSZ and PiMM subjects, the differences in lung function between the smoking subgroups were insignificant.Conclusion: PiZZ current

  9. Effects of maternal dietary restriction in vitamin B-6 on neocortex development in rats: B-6 vitamer concentrations, volume and cell estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groziak, S M; Kirksey, A

    1987-06-01

    Influence of the time of maternal restriction in dietary vitamin B-6 on vitamer concentrations and morphological development of neocortex was examined. Rats were fed ad libitum a vitamin B-6-free diet supplemented with 0.0 or 0.6 mg pyridoxine X hydrochloride (PN X HCl)/kg diet during gestation followed by a control diet (7.0 mg PN X HCl/kg) during lactation or were supplemented with 0.6 or 7.0 mg PN X HCl/kg diet throughout gestation and lactation. During postweaning offspring received the maternal diets fed during lactation. Neocortices of offspring were examined at 30 d of age by liquid chromatography and light microscopy. Vitamin restriction during gestation and 30 d postnatal was the only vitamin B-6-restricted treatment of the three administered that altered B-6 vitamer levels in neocortex; all vitamers were depressed equally. Brain weight and volume of neocortex were not changed significantly by the maternal restrictions imposed. However, each restriction adversely affected neurogenesis and neuron longevity of the neocortex and when expressed as percent reduction from control, neuron longevity was affected more severely than neurogenesis.

  10. Miocarditis fulminante y enfermedad diarreica aguda por Coxsackie virus B6 Fulminant myocarditis and acute gastroenteritis due to Coxsackie virus B6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Málaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente joven que presentó choque cardiogénico por virus Coxsakie B6. La paciente acudió a una clínica particular con un cuadro clínico compatible con gastroenterocolitis aguda a la que después de una hora de estar recibiendo hidratación y manejo del cuadro diagnosticado, se agregó hipotensión que llegó al estado de choque, hipoxemia severa y compromiso pulmonar bilateral intersticial por lo que ingresó a Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, donde recibió manejo de soporte. Debido al cuadro clínico y elevación de enzimas cardiacas se sospechó de compromiso cardiaco, la ecocardiografía evidenció cambios sugerentes de miocarditis. La evolución fue favorable y se le pudo dar de alta después de una semana. El diagnóstico etiológico del cuadro se hizo en el seguimiento, presentando serología con elevación de títulos para virus Coxsakie B6.We present the case of a young woman who suffered cardiogenic due to by Coxsackie virus B6. The patient attended a private clinic with an acute gastroenteritis and after one hour of receiving hydratation,she developed hypotension and shock, severe hypoxemia and bilateral lung infiltrate. The patient entered the Intensive Care Unit, where she received hemodynamic support. Due to the clinical picture and cardiac enzymes increase, a cardiac failure was suspected and the echocardiographic findings suggested "myocarditis". The evolution was successful and Coxsackie B6 virus infection diagnosis was made during the follow up by increase of the levels of antibodies for virus Coxsackie B6.

  11. Reaction of LaB6 with MoSi2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordan'yan, S.S.; Gardagina, E.N.; Barabanova, S.N.

    1989-01-01

    Investigation results of interaction in LaB 6 -MoSi 2 system within wide concentration and temperature ranges are presented. LaB 6 and MoSi 2 powders were preliminary squeezed out in vacuum at 1470 K. Presence of LaB 6 and MoSi 2 initial phases only is determined using X-ray pahse analysis of sintered and melted specimens of all compositions. Traces of MoB (probably, due to quick crystallization after melting and partial evaporation of silicon from the melt) are detected in some alloys exposed to melting

  12. Genotype-Specific Changes in Vitamin B 6 Content and the PDX Family in Potato

    OpenAIRE

    Mooney, Sutton; Chen, Liyuan; K?hn, Christina; Navarre, Roy; Knowles, N. Richard; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B6 is one of the most versatile cofactors in plants and an essential phytonutrient in the human diet that benefits a variety of human health aspects. Although biosynthesis of the vitamin has been well resolved in recent years, the main research is currently based on Arabidopsis thaliana with very little work done on major crop plants. Here we provide the first report on interactions and expression profiles of PDX genes for vitamin B6 biosynthesis in potato and how vitamin B6 content v...

  13. Local symmetry breaking in Eu1-xLaxB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M.; Yang, In-Sang; Seo, C.W.; Cheong, H.; Kim, J.Y.; Cho, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    We report inelastic light (Raman) scattering study of Eu 1-x La x B 6 (x=0,0.05,0.1,0.2,0.3). As La is doped, the T 2g mode becomes broad and asymmetric, the E g mode splits into doublet, and the A 1g mode shifts to higher frequencies, while the undoped EuB 6 show sharp three phonon peaks, T 2g , E g , and A 1g modes. There are around six possible phonon peaks in the Raman spectra of La-doped EuB 6 . These additional peaks are explained by symmetry lowering of boron octahedra due to tilting/rotating

  14. [Fulminant myocarditis and acute gastroenteritis due to Coxsackie virus B6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Málaga, Germán; Gayoso, Oscar; Lazo, María de Los Angeles; Torres, Nancy

    2011-03-01

    We present the case of a young woman who suffered cardiogenic due to by Coxsackie virus B6. The patient attended a private clinic with an acute gastroenteritis and after one hour of receiving hydratation,she developed hypotension and shock, severe hypoxemia and bilateral lung infiltrate. The patient entered the Intensive Care Unit, where she received hemodynamic support. Due to the clinical picture and cardiac enzymes increase, a cardiac failure was suspected and the echocardiographic findings suggested "myocarditis". The evolution was successful and Coxsackie B6 virus infection diagnosis was made during the follow up by increase of the levels of antibodies for virus Coxsackie B6.

  15. Ascorbate status modulates reticuloendothelial iron stores and response to deferasirox iron chelation in ascorbate-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Casey; Otto-Duessel, Maya; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2012-01-01

    that vitamin C supplementation would improve the availability of transfusional iron to DFX treatment by promoting iron's redox cycling, increasing its soluble ferrous form and promoting its release from reticuloendothelial cells. Osteogenic dystrophy rats (n = 54) were given iron dextran injections for 10......Iron chelation is essential to patients on chronic blood transfusions to prevent toxicity from iron overload and remove excess iron. Deferasirox (DFX) is the most commonly used iron chelator in the United States; however, some patients are relatively refractory to DFX therapy. We postulated...... weeks. Cardiac and liver iron levels were measured after iron loading (n = 18), 12 weeks of sham chelation (n = 18), and 12 weeks of DFX chelation (n = 18) at 75 mg/kg/day. Ascorbate supplementation of 150 ppm, 900 ppm, and 2250 ppm was used in the chow to mimic a broad range of ascorbate status; plasma...

  16. CORRELATION BETWEEN GUT MICROBIOTA AND DEVELOPMENT OF GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE IN B6.V-Lepob/J LEPTIN DEFICIENT MICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    Life style associated diseases such as type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease originate form an adaptive immune response, which can be down regulated by a regulatory immune response and are under heavy stimulation from early life gut microbiota (GM). Today...... correlation was found between blood glucose, HbA1c% and glucose intolerance and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12, supporting the correlation found between gut and disease, as IL-12 is secreted after microbial stimulation of immunological cells – e.g. In the gut. Further investigations concerning...

  17. Vitamin B-6 deficiency is common and associated with poor long-term outcome in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minovic, Isidor; Riphagen, Ineke J.; van den Berg, Else; Kootstra-Ros, Jenny E.; van Faassen, Martijn; Neto, Antonio W. Gomes; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Navis, Gerjan J.; Kema, Ido P.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported low circulating concentrations of pyridoxal-5-phospate (PLP) in renal transplant recipients (RTRs). It is unknown whether this is because of low intake or altered handling, and it is also unknown whether variation in circulating concentrations of PLP

  18. Supramolecular Encapsulation of Vitamin B6 by Macrocyclic Nanocontainer Cucurbit[7]uril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanying Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pharmaceutically and biologically relevant molecule, pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6, was encapsulated inside the cavity of a molecular container, cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7], in aqueous solution. The CB[7] based “nanocapsule” of vitamin B6 has been investigated for the first time, via 1H NMR and UV-visible spectroscopic titrations (including Job’s plot and ab initio molecular modeling. The results have demonstrated that vitamin B6 forms stable host-guest complexes within CB[7] in 1 : 1 stoichiometry, with a binding affinity of (4.0±0.5×103 M−1. Such a nanocapsule could potentially find application in vitamin B6 formulation for the purpose of enhancing the stability, absorption, and delivery of this important vitamin.

  19. Doping-induced redistribution of magnetic spectral weight in the substituted hexaborides Ce1 -xLaxB6 and Ce1 -xNdxB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, S. E.; Portnichenko, P. Y.; Dukhnenko, A. Â. V.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.; Filipov, V. B.; Qiu, Y.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Ollivier, J.; Inosov, D. S.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the doping-induced changes in the electronic structure of CeB6 on a series of substituted Ce1 -xRxB6 samples (R =La , Nd) using diffuse neutron scattering. We observe a redistribution of magnetic spectral weight across the Brillouin zone, which we associate with the changes in the Fermi-surface nesting properties related to the modified charge carrier concentration. In particular, a strong diffuse peak at the corner of the Brillouin zone (R point), which coincides with the propagation vector of the elusive antiferroquadrupolar (AFQ) order in CeB6, is rapidly suppressed by both La and Nd doping, like the AFQ order itself. The corresponding spectral weight is transferred to the X (00 1/2 ) point, ultimately stabilizing a long-range AFM order at this wave vector at the Nd-rich side of the phase diagram. At an intermediate Nd concentration, a broad diffuse peak with multiple local maxima of intensity is observed around the X point, evidencing itinerant frustration that gives rise to multiple ordered phases for which Ce1 -xNdxB6 is known. On the La-rich side of the phase diagram, however, dilution of the magnetic moments prevents the formation of a similar (00 1/2 ) -type order despite the presence of nesting. Our results demonstrate how diffuse neutron scattering can be used to probe the nesting vectors in complex f -electron systems directly, without reference to the single-particle band structure, and emphasize the role of Fermi surface geometry in stabilizing magnetic order in rare-earth hexaborides.

  20. Role of cytochrome P4502B6 in methadone metabolism and clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharasch, Evan D.; Stubbert, Kristi

    2013-01-01

    Methadone N-demethylation in vitro is catalyzed by hepatic cytochrome P4502B6 (CYP2B6) and CYP3A4, but clinical disposition is often attributed to CYP3A4. This investigation tested the hypothesis that CYP2B6 is a prominent CYP isoform responsible for clinical methadone N-demethylation and clearance, using the in vivo mechanism-based CYP2B6 inhibitor ticlopidine, given orally for 4 days. A preliminary clinical investigation with the CYP3A4/5 substrate probe alfentanil established that ticlopidine did not inhibit intestinal or hepatic CYP3A4/5. Subjects received intravenous plus oral (deuterium-labeled) racemic methadone before and after ticlopidine. Ticlopidine significantly and stereoselectively (S>R) inhibited methadone N-demethylation, decreasing plasma metabolite/methadone area under the curve ratios and metabolite formation clearances. Ticlopidine also significantly increased the dose-adjusted plasma area under the curve for R- and S-methadone by 20% and 60%, respectively, after both intravenous and oral dosing. CYP2B6 inhibition reduces methadone N-demethylation and clearance, and alters methadone concentrations, demonstrating a predominant role for CYP2B6 in clinical methadone disposition. PMID:23361846

  1. Molecular evolution of B6 enzymes: Binding of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and Lys41Arg substitution turn ribonuclease A into a model B6 protoenzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Ersilia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP-dependent or vitamin B6-dependent enzymes that catalyze manifold reactions in the metabolism of amino acids belong to no fewer than four evolutionarily independent protein families. The multiple evolutionary origin and the essential mechanistic role of PLP in these enzymes argue for the cofactor having arrived on the evolutionary scene before the emergence of the respective apoenzymes and having played a dominant role in the molecular evolution of the B6 enzyme families. Here we report on an attempt to re-enact the emergence of a PLP-dependent protoenzyme. The starting protein was pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase, in which active-site Lys41 or Lys7 readily form a covalent adduct with PLP. Results We screened the PLP adduct of wild-type RNase and two variant RNases (K7R and K41R for catalytic effects toward L- and D-amino acids. RNase(K41R-PLP, in which the cofactor is bound through an imine linkage to Lys7, qualifies for a model proto-B6 enzyme by the following criteria: (1 covalent linkage of PLP (internal aldimine; (2 catalytic activity toward amino acids that depends on formation of an imine linkage with the substrate (external aldimine; (3 adjoining binding sites for the cofactor and amino acid moiety that facilitate the transimination reaction of the internal to the external aldimine and stabilize the resulting noncovalent complex of the coenzyme-substrate adduct with the protein; (4 reaction specificity, the only detectable reactions being racemization of diverse amino acids and β-decarboxylation of L-aspartate; (5 acceleration factors for racemization and β-decarboxylation of >103 over and above that of PLP alone; (6 ribonuclease activity that is 103-fold lower than that of wild-type RNase, attenuation of a pre-existing biological activity being indispensable for the further evolution as a PLP-dependent protoenzyme. Conclusion A single amino acid substitution (Lys41Arg and covalent

  2. Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study of [Ta2B6]-: a Hexagonal Bipyramdial Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Tian; Li, Weili; Romanescu, Constantin; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-06-01

    It has been a long-sought goal in cluster science to discover stable atomic clusters as building blocks for cluster-assembled nanomaterials, as exemplified by the fullerenes and their subsequent bulk syntheses.[1,2] Clusters have also been considered as models to understand bulk properties, providing a bridge between molecular and solid-state chemistry.[3] Herein we report a joint photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical study on the [Ta2B6]- and [Ta2B6] clusters.[4] The photoelectron spectrum of [Ta2B6]- displays a simple spectral pattern and a large HOMO-LUMO gap, suggesting its high symmetry. Theoretical calculations show that both the neutral and anion are D6h pyramidal. The chemical bonding analyses for [Ta2B6] revealed the nature of the B6 and Ta interactions and uncovered strong covalent bonding between B6 and Ta. The D6h-[TaB6Ta] gaseous cluster is reminiscent of the structural pattern in the ReB6X6Re core in the [(Cp*Re)2B6H4Cl2] and the TiB6Ti motif in the newly synthesized Ti7Rh4Ir2B8 solid-state compound.[5,6] The current work provides an intrinsic link between a gaseous cluster and motifs for solid materials. Continued investigations of the transition-metal boron clusters may lead to the discovery of new structural motifs involving pure boron clusters for the design of novel boride materials. Reference [1] H.W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. OBrien, R. F. Curl, R. E. Smalley, Nature 1985, 318, 162 - 163. [2] W. Krtschmer, L. D. Lamb, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, Nature 1990, 347, 354 - 358. [3] T. P. Fehlner, J.-F. Halet, J.-Y. Saillard, Molecular Clusters: A Bridge to Solid-State Chemitry, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2007. [4] W. L. Li, L. Xie, T. Jian, C. Romanescu, X. Huang, L.-S. Wang, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 126, 1312 - 1316. [5] B. Le Guennic, H. Jiao, S. Kahlal, J.-Y. Saillard, J.-F. Halet, S. Ghosh, M. Shang, A. M. Beatty, A. L. Rheingold, T. P. Fehlner, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 3203 - 3217. [6] B. P. T. Fokwa, M. Hermus, Angew

  3. Evidence-Based Novel Changes in Prevalence and Symptom Characteristics of Spleen Deficiency Syndrome in Persons of Varied Health Status and Different Ages: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of the organs is a vital pathophysiologic characteristic in the elderly. A core TCM aging theory is known as aging caused by spleen deficiency syndrome (SDS that can be found in ancient and modern literature. The key objectives of this study were to establish a full-scale trial to evaluate the prevalence, symptom severity, frequency, and distribution of SDS in different age groups as related to health status (healthy, subhealthy, and chronic disease to elucidate the role of spleen deficiency in the aging process and deterioration of health status. This cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 4 hospitals in China. 1390 participants aged 20–79 were interviewed by investigators who completed questionnaires recording prevalence, severity, and frequency of symptoms as well as other relevant information. The results revealed that prevalence and symptom characteristics of SDS showed regularities with increasing age and deteriorating health status. It supports the TCM concept that spleen deficiency is an important mechanism of aging, subhealth, and chronic diseases. Early recognition of the warning signs and symptoms of SDS may lead to intervention and even prevention strategies for subhealth and chronic diseases as well as promotion of healthy aging.

  4. Effects of wheat flour fortified with different iron fortificants on iron status and anemia prevalence in iron deficient anemic students in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Huang, Jian; Li, Wenxian; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Anxu; Huo, Junsheng; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Chunming

    2007-01-01

    To compare the effects of wheat flours fortified with NaFeEDTA, FeSO4 and elemental iron (electrolytic iron), in improving iron status in anemic students. Four hundreds anemic students (11 to 18 years old) were divided into four groups and given wheat flour fortified with different iron fortificants at different concentrations: control group (no added iron); NaFeEDTA group (20 mg Fe/kg); FeSO4 group (30 mg Fe/kg); and elemental iron group (60 mg Fe/kg). The trial lasted for 6 months and the following parameters were examined every 2 months: whole blood hemoglobin, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and transferrin receptor. The flour consumption in the 4 groups was 300-400 g/person/day, accounted for 70% of total cereal consumption in the diets. There were no significant differences in flour consumption among the 4 groups. Blood hemoglobin level increased in all the 3 intervened groups, but the increment in the NaFeEDTA group was significantly higher and earlier than the other 2 groups; and only 1% of the subjected remained anemic at the end of the trial in the NaFeEDTA group, while 40% and 60% of the subjects in the FeSO4 and electrolytic iron group remained anemic, respectively. The order of improvements in free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, serum ferritin and transferring receptor levels were: NaFeEDTA > FeSO4 > electrolytic iron. No significant changes were found in the control group on all the tested parameters during the trial. The results indicated that even NaFeEDTA was added at a lower level, it has better effects than FeSO4 and elemental iron on controlling iron deficiency anemia and improving iron status in anemic children; while elemental iron was the least effective.

  5. Urinary Hepcidin Levels in Iron-Deficient and Iron-Supplemented Piglets Correlate with Hepcidin Hepatic mRNA and Serum Levels and with Body Iron Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Staroń

    Full Text Available Among livestock, domestic pig (Sus scrofa is a species, in which iron metabolism has been most intensively examined during last decade. The obvious reason for studying the regulation of iron homeostasis especially in young pigs is neonatal iron deficiency anemia commonly occurring in these animals. Moreover, supplementation of essentially all commercially reared piglets with iron entails a need for monitoring the efficacy of this routine practice followed in the swine industry for several decades. Since the discovery of hepcidin many studies confirmed its role as key regulator of iron metabolism and pointed out the assessment of its concentrations in biological fluids as diagnostic tool for iron-related disorder. Here we demonstrate that urine hepcidin-25 levels measured by a combination of weak cation exchange chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (WCX-TOF MS are highly correlated with mRNA hepcidin expression in the liver and plasma hepcidin-25 concentrations in anemic and iron-supplemented 28-day old piglets. We also found a high correlation between urine hepcidin level and hepatic non-heme iron content. Our results show that similarly to previously described transgenic mouse models of iron disorders, young pigs constitute a convenient animal model to explore accuracy and relationship between indicators for assessing systemic iron status.

  6. [Clinical characteristics and prognosis analysis of vitamin B6 responsive infantile spasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiao; Yang, Zhixian; Wu, Ye; Xiong, Hui; Zhang, Yuehua; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2016-02-01

    To analyze clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis in a cohort of children with vitamin B6 responsive infantile spasms. Ten patients were diagnosed as vitamin B6 responsive infantile spasms in Peking University First Hospital between January 2012 and May 2015.The clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment process, video-electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), epilepsy related genes and prognosis were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 10 patients, 5 were male, and 5 were female. Eight of them were normal at birth, and the other 2 patients had intracranial hemorrhage or anoxia.The age of epilepsy onset was from 3.5 to 8.0 months.All patients presented spasms primarily.Interictal electroencephalogram (EEG) showed hypsarrhythmia at seizures onset. MRI showed normal in 8 patients, and subarachnoid hemorrhage or multiple encephalomalacia foci after hemorrhage respectively in the other 2 patients. The results of blood biochemical, cerebrospinal fluid examination and urinary metabolic screening were negative. Epilepsy related genes including ALDH7A1 gene analysis showed wild type in all patients. Two patients were classified as symptomatic and eight might be idiopathic or cryptogenic. The initial dose of vitamin B6 was 10.0 mg/(kg·d). The interval between seizures onset and taking vitamin B6 was 0 to 4.0 months. Seizures disappeared completely within a week after administration of vitamin B6 in 9 patients and in 1.5 months in one patient.Of the 8 patients whose seizures were controlled completely during the follow-up period, 7 patients' EEG recovered within 1.5 to 4.0 months and then continued to be normal. The EEG of the rest of a patient returned to normal, but showed abnormal discharges after stopping taking vitamin B6. Two patients' EEG continued abnormal and seizures recurred due to vitamin B6 withdrawal. At the last follow-up, seizures were controlled in all patients. Drug treatment in one case had stopped. Vitamin B6 was used in 9

  7. Direct observation of surface-state thermal oscillations in SmB6 oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Brian; Stern, Alex; Efimkin, Dmitry K.; Fisk, Zachary; Xia, Jing

    2018-01-01

    SmB6 is a mixed valence Kondo insulator that exhibits a sharp increase in resistance following an activated behavior that levels off and saturates below 4 K. This behavior can be explained by the proposal of SmB6 representing a new state of matter, a topological Kondo insulator, in which a Kondo gap is developed, and topologically protected surface conduction dominates low-temperature transport. Exploiting its nonlinear dynamics, a tunable SmB6 oscillator device was recently demonstrated, where a small dc current generates large oscillating voltages at frequencies from a few Hz to hundreds of MHz. This behavior was explained by a theoretical model describing the thermal and electronic dynamics of coupled surface and bulk states. However, a crucial aspect of this model, the predicted temperature oscillation in the surface state, has not been experimentally observed to date. This is largely due to the technical difficulty of detecting an oscillating temperature of the very thin surface state. Here we report direct measurements of the time-dependent surface-state temperature in SmB6 with a RuO2 microthermometer. Our results agree quantitatively with the theoretically simulated temperature waveform, and hence support the validity of the oscillator model, which will provide accurate theoretical guidance for developing future SmB6 oscillators at higher frequencies.

  8. Effects of Maternal Dietary Restriction of Vitamin B-6 on Neocortex Development in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groziak, Susan Marie

    The aim of this investigation was to quantitate the effects of a dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6 during gestation or gestation and lactation on neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation in the neocortex of rats. Sprague Dawley female rats were fed, ad libitum, a Vitamin B-6 free diet (AIN 76) supplemented with 0.0 or 0.6 mg pyridoxine (PN)/kg diet during gestation followed by a control level of 7.0 mg PN/kg diet during lactation, or were fed the Vitamin B-6 free diet supplemented with 0.6 or 7.0 mg PN/kg diet throughout gestation and lactation. The neocortex of progeny of these animals were examined at 30 days of age employing light and electron microscopy. Analyses of neurogenesis, neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons (size of somata, dendritic arborization and spine density in Golgi Cox preparations, and synaptic density in E.M. preparations) were conducted. Each of the Vitamin B-6 restricted treatments adversely affected neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation. The degree of adverse effects paralleled the severity (dose or duration) of the restriction imposed. Expressed as percentage reduction from control values, the findings indicated that neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons in the neocortex were more severely affected than neurogenesis by a maternal dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6.

  9. Autoclave growth, magnetic, and optical properties of GdB6 nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Wang, Zhen; Li, Qidong; Liu, Huatao; Fan, Qinghua; Dong, Youzhong; Kuang, Quan; Zhao, Yanming

    2017-12-01

    High-quality single crystalline gadolinium hexaboride (GdB6) nanowires have been successfully prepared at very low temperatures of 200-240 °C by a high pressure solid state (HPSS) method in an autoclave with a new chemical reaction route, where Gd, H3BO3, Mg and I2 were used as raw materials. The crystal structure, morphology, valence, magnetic and optical absorption properties were investigated using XRD, FESEM, HRTEM, XPS, SQUID magnetometry and optical measurements. HRTEM images and SAED patterns reveal that the GdB6 nanowires are single crystalline with a preferred growth direction along [001]. The XPS spectrum suggests that the valence of Gd ion in GdB6 is trivalent. The effective magnetic momentum per Gd3+ in GdB6 is about 6.26 μB. The optical properties exhibit weak absorption in the visible light range, but relatively strong absorbance in the NIR and UV range. Low work function and high NIR absorption can make GdB6 nanowires a potential solar radiation shielding material for solar cells or other NIR blocking applications.

  10. A Complex Interplay of Vitamin B1 and B6 Metabolism with Cognition, Brain Structure, and Functional Connectivity in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Jannusch

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with brain atrophy, functional brain network reorganization and decline of cognitive performance, albeit characterized by high interindividual variability. Among environmental influencing factors accounting for this variability, nutrition and particularly vitamin supply is thought to play an important role. While evidence exists that supplementation of vitamins B6 and B1 might be beneficial for cognition and brain structure, at least in deficient states and neurodegenerative diseases, little is known about this relation during healthy aging and in relation to reorganization of functional brain networks. We thus assessed the relation between blood levels of vitamins B1 and B6 and cognitive performance, cortical folding, and functional resting-state connectivity in a large sample of older adults (N > 600; age: 55–85 years, drawn from the population-based 1000BRAINS study. In addition to blood sampling, subjects underwent structural and functional resting-state neuroimaging as well as extensive neuropsychological testing in the domains of executive functions, (working memory, attention, and language. Brain regions showing changes in the local gyrification index as calculated using FreeSurfer in relation to vitamin levels were used for subsequent seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis. For B6, a positive correlation with local cortical folding was found throughout the brain, while only slight changes in functional connectivity were observed. Contrarily, for B1, a negative correlation with cortical folding as well as problem solving and visuo-spatial working memory performance was found, which was accompanied by pronounced increases of interhemispheric and decreases of intrahemispheric functional connectivity. While the effects for B6 expand previous knowledge on beneficial effects of B6 supplementation on brain structure, they also showed that additional effects on cognition might not be recognizable in

  11. Transplanted Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Facilitate Lesion Repair in B6.Fas Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-ping Ruan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multisystem disease that is characterized by the appearance of serum autoantibodies. No effective treatment for SLE currently exists. Methods. We used human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (H-UC-MSC transplantation to treat B6.Fas mice. Results. After four rounds of cell transplantation, we observed a statistically significant decrease in the levels of mouse anti-nuclear, anti-histone, and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies in transplanted mice compared with controls. The percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells in mouse peripheral blood significantly increased after H-UC-MSC transplantation. Conclusions. The results showed that H-UC-MSCs could repair lesions in B6.Fas mice such that all of the relevant disease indicators in B6.Fas mice were restored to the levels observed in normal C57BL/6 mice.

  12. Homocysteine, folate, and vitamins B6 and B12 blood levels in relation to cognitive performance: the Maine-Syracuse study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A; Budge, Marc M; Elias, Penelope K; Brennan, Suzanne L; Johnston, Carole; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Bates, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to examine associations among plasma homocysteine concentrations (tHcy), the tHcy-cofactors (folate, vitamins B6 and B12), and multiple domains of cognitive performance, with statistical adjustment for possible confounds, including cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD-RF) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Subjects were 812 participants (58% women) of the Maine-Syracuse study who were free of dementia and stroke. Employing a cross-sectional design and multiple regression analyses, fasting concentrations of tHcy and its vitamin cofactors (folate, B6, and B12) were related to multiple domains of cognitive performance. With adjustment for age, education, gender, ethnicity, and the vitamins, tHcy was inversely associated with visual-spatial organization, working memory, scanning-tracking, and abstract reasoning. The same results were found with adjustment for age, education, gender, ethnicity, CVD-RF, and CVD. Vitamin cofactors were positively related to cognitive performance, but with adjustment for CVD-RF and CVD, only vitamin B6 was related to multiple cognitive domains. The inverse association of tHcy with multiple domains of cognitive functioning is not necessarily dependent on vitamin levels, vitamin deficiency, prevalent CVD risk factors, and manifest CVD. Serum folate, serum B12, and plasma B6 vitamin concentrations are positively associated with cognitive performance. Investigation of other possible mechanisms (e.g., tHcy neurotoxicity) mediating tHcy associations with cognitive performance is important, as are clinical trials examining the efficacy of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 for maintenance of cognitive functioning.

  13. Radiative decay of 4d94f/sup n+1/ excited states in LaB6 and CeB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, K.; Nisawa, A.; Tsutsumi, K.

    1986-01-01

    The N/sub 4,5/ emission spectra of LaB 6 and CeB 6 were measured to investigate the radiative decay of the 4d 9 4f/sup n+1/ excited states, where n is the number of 4f electrons in the ground state. These spectra show an intense and broad emission peak above the N/sub 4,5/ threshold in addition to sharp peaks below the threshold. The energy positions of these emission peaks are compared with those of the peaks in the absorption spectra and the existing results of resonant photoemission. The comparison shows that the fine structure below the threshold coincides in energy with the multiplet structures in the absorption spectrum, and that the intense emission peak is located in the energy region where the electron-emission peak due to the direct recombination of the 4f electron with the 4d hole has been observed in resonant photoemission. The peaks observed in the energy region below and above the N/sub 4,5/ threshold are attributed to the radiative decay of the 4d 9 4f/sup n+1/ excited states

  14. Supplementing vitamin B6 to a low vitamin B6 diet exaggerates UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis in DMBA-treated hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Xu, Yonghui; Monttinen, Elise Saiz; Kato, Norihisa

    2008-06-01

    7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-treated hairless mice exposed to UVB radiation were used to examine the effect of graded levels of vitamin B(6) [1, 7 or 35 mg pyridoxine (PN) HCl/kg] on skin tumorigenesis for 18 wk. Compared to the 1 mg PN HCl/kg diet, the 35 mg PN HCl/kg diet significantly elevated the incidence and multiplicity of skin tumors, while there was no difference in skin tumorigenesis between the 7 and 35 mg PN HCl/kg diets. Skin levels of oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls) were unaffected by dietary treatment. Compared to the 1 mg PN HCl/kg diet, the 7 and 35 mg PN HCl/kg diets significantly elevated serum pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) without affecting the skin level of PLP. The results suggest that dietary supplemental vitamin B(6) exaggerates UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis in hairless mice without affecting oxidative stress in the skin.

  15. Health status and lung function in the Swedish alpha 1-antitrypsin deficient cohort, identified by neonatal screening, at the age of 37-40 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piitulainen, Eeva; Mostafavi, Behrouz; Tanash, Hanan A

    2017-01-01

    Severe alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (genotype PiZZ) is a well-known risk factor for COPD. A cohort of PiZZ and PiSZ individuals was identified by the Swedish national neonatal AAT screening program in 1972-1974 and followed up regularly since birth. Our aim was to study the lung function, respiratory symptoms and health status at the age of 38 years in comparison with a random sample of control subjects selected from the population registry. The study group included 120 PiZZ, 46 PiSZ and 164 control subjects (PiMM), who answered a questionnaire on smoking habits and symptoms and the Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) on quality of life. A total of 89 PiZZ, 33 PiSZ and 92 PiMM subjects underwent spirometry. Four percent of the PiZZ, 2% of the PiSZ and 12% of the control subjects were current smokers ( P =0.008), and 17% of the PiZZ, 9% of the PiSZ and 21% of the control subjects had stopped smoking. The PiZZ current smokers had a significantly higher (ie, poorer) median activity score according to the SGRQ than the PiZZ never-smokers ( P =0.032). The PiMM current smokers had significantly higher activity score ( P <0.001), symptom score ( P <0.001), and total score ( P =0.001) according to the SGRQ than the PiMM never-smokers. The PiZZ current smokers had a significantly lower postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 )% of predicted value ( P =0.019) and FEV 1 /forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio ( P =0.032) than the PiZZ never-smokers. The proportion of subjects with a FEV 1 /FVC ratio of <0.70, indicating COPD, was significantly higher in the PiZZ current smokers than in the PiZZ never-smokers ( P =0.001). Among the PiSZ and PiMM subjects, the differences in lung function between the smoking subgroups were insignificant. PiZZ current smokers were found to have signs of COPD before 40 years of age. Smoking is less common among the AAT-deficient subjects identified by neonatal screening than among their peers in the general

  16. Prospective cohort studies of vitamin B-6 intake and colorectal cancer incidence: modification by time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Lee, Jung Eun; Ma, Jing; Je, Youjin; Wu, Kana; Willett, Walter C; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2012-10-01

    The relation between vitamin B-6 intake and colorectal cancer risk remains uncertain. We prospectively evaluated whether a higher vitamin B-6 intake in the remote past is more strongly associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer than is an intake in the recent past in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. We assessed vitamin B-6 intake every 4 y by using validated food-frequency questionnaires and followed 86,440 women and 44,410 men for ≤28 y. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable RRs and 95% CIs. The total vitamin B-6 intake was significantly associated with an ∼20-30% lower risk of colorectal cancer in age-adjusted results, but this association became attenuated and nonsignificant after additional adjustment for nondietary and dietary factors. When the highest to lowest quintiles of cumulative total vitamin B-6 intake were compared, RRs (95% CIs) for colorectal cancer were 0.99 (0.80, 1.24; P-trend = 0.55) for women and 0.95 (0.73, 1.23; P-trend = 0.75) for men. For the same comparison, RRs were 0.92 (0.73, 1.16) for total vitamin B-6 intake 0-4 y before diagnosis, 0.99 (0.78, 1.26) for intake 4-8 y before diagnosis, 0.92 (0.71, 1.21) for intake 8-12 y before diagnosis, and 0.93 (0.69, 1.26) for intake 12-16 y before diagnosis in women. Corresponding RRs for men were 0.86 (0.63, 1.17), 0.96 (0.70, 1.32), 0.90 (0.63, 1.29), and 1.16 (0.75, 1.79). Results did not differ by cancer subsite, source of vitamin B-6 (food or supplement), alcohol consumption, or folate intake. Our data do not support a strong role of adulthood vitamin B-6 intake in colorectal carcinogenesis in these US health professionals.

  17. Prospective cohort studies of vitamin B-6 intake and colorectal cancer incidence: modification by time?1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Lee, Jung Eun; Ma, Jing; Je, Youjin; Wu, Kana; Willett, Walter C; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2012-01-01

    Background: The relation between vitamin B-6 intake and colorectal cancer risk remains uncertain. Objective: We prospectively evaluated whether a higher vitamin B-6 intake in the remote past is more strongly associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer than is an intake in the recent past in the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Design: We assessed vitamin B-6 intake every 4 y by using validated food-frequency questionnaires and followed 86,440 women and 44,410 men for ≤28 y. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable RRs and 95% CIs. Results: The total vitamin B-6 intake was significantly associated with an ∼20–30% lower risk of colorectal cancer in age-adjusted results, but this association became attenuated and nonsignificant after additional adjustment for nondietary and dietary factors. When the highest to lowest quintiles of cumulative total vitamin B-6 intake were compared, RRs (95% CIs) for colorectal cancer were 0.99 (0.80, 1.24; P-trend = 0.55) for women and 0.95 (0.73, 1.23; P-trend = 0.75) for men. For the same comparison, RRs were 0.92 (0.73, 1.16) for total vitamin B-6 intake 0–4 y before diagnosis, 0.99 (0.78, 1.26) for intake 4–8 y before diagnosis, 0.92 (0.71, 1.21) for intake 8–12 y before diagnosis, and 0.93 (0.69, 1.26) for intake 12–16 y before diagnosis in women. Corresponding RRs for men were 0.86 (0.63, 1.17), 0.96 (0.70, 1.32), 0.90 (0.63, 1.29), and 1.16 (0.75, 1.79). Results did not differ by cancer subsite, source of vitamin B-6 (food or supplement), alcohol consumption, or folate intake. Conclusion: Our data do not support a strong role of adulthood vitamin B-6 intake in colorectal carcinogenesis in these US health professionals. PMID:22875713

  18. Combined dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake influences plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Wijk Nick

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 are essential nutritional components in one-carbon metabolism and are required for methylation capacity. The availability of these vitamins may therefore modify methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE to phosphatidylcholine (PC by PE-N-methyltransferase (PEMT in the liver. It has been suggested that PC synthesis by PEMT plays an important role in the transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA from the liver to plasma and possibly other tissues. We hypothesized that if B-vitamin supplementation enhances PEMT activity, then supplementation could also increase the concentration of plasma levels of PUFAs such as DHA. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of varying the combined dietary intake of these three B-vitamins on plasma DHA concentration in rats. Methods In a first experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats that had consumed a B-vitamin-poor diet for 4 weeks after which they were either continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet or switched to a B-vitamin-enriched diet for another 4 weeks. In a second experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats after feeding them one of four diets with varying levels of B-vitamins for 4 weeks. The diets provided 0% (poor, 100% (normal, 400% (enriched, and 1600% (high of the laboratory rodent requirements for each of the three B-vitamins. Results Plasma DHA concentration was higher in rats fed the B-vitamin-enriched diet than in rats that were continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet (P = 0.005; experiment A. Varying dietary B-vitamin intake from deficient to supra-physiologic resulted in a non-linear dose-dependent trend for increasing plasma DHA (P = 0.027; experiment B. Plasma DHA was lowest in rats consuming the B-vitamin-poor diet (P > 0.05 vs. normal, P . enriched and high and highest in rats consuming the

  19. Nutritional Status of Bariatric Surgery Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mutawa, Aliaa; Anderson, Alfred Kojo; Alsabah, Salman; Al-Mutawa, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic affecting populations globally. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for morbid obesity, and has increased dramatically. Bariatric surgery candidates frequently have pre-existing nutritional deficiencies that might exacerbate post-surgery. To provide better health care management pre- and post-bariatric surgery, it is imperative to establish the nutritional status of prospective patients before surgery. The aim of this study was to assess and provide baseline data on the nutritional status of bariatric candidates. A retrospective study was conducted on obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery from 2008 to 2015. The medical records of 1538 patients were reviewed for this study. Pre-operatively, the most commonly observed vitamin deficiencies were Vitamin D (76%) and Vitamin B12 (16%). Anemia and iron status parameters were low in a considerable number of patients before surgery, as follows: hemoglobin 20%, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 48%, ferritin 28%, serum iron 51%, and transferrin saturation 60%. Albumin and transferrin were found to be low in 10% and 9% of the patients, respectively, prior to surgery. In addition to deficiencies, a great number of patients had hypervitaminosis pre-operatively. Excess levels of Vitamin B6 (24%) was the most remarkable. The findings in this study advocate a close monitoring and tailored supplementation pre- and post-bariatric surgery. PMID:29324643

  20. Nutritional Status of Bariatric Surgery Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa Al-Mutawa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global epidemic affecting populations globally. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for morbid obesity, and has increased dramatically. Bariatric surgery candidates frequently have pre-existing nutritional deficiencies that might exacerbate post-surgery. To provide better health care management pre- and post-bariatric surgery, it is imperative to establish the nutritional status of prospective patients before surgery. The aim of this study was to assess and provide baseline data on the nutritional status of bariatric candidates. A retrospective study was conducted on obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery from 2008 to 2015. The medical records of 1538 patients were reviewed for this study. Pre-operatively, the most commonly observed vitamin deficiencies were Vitamin D (76% and Vitamin B12 (16%. Anemia and iron status parameters were low in a considerable number of patients before surgery, as follows: hemoglobin 20%, mean corpuscular volume (MCV 48%, ferritin 28%, serum iron 51%, and transferrin saturation 60%. Albumin and transferrin were found to be low in 10% and 9% of the patients, respectively, prior to surgery. In addition to deficiencies, a great number of patients had hypervitaminosis pre-operatively. Excess levels of Vitamin B6 (24% was the most remarkable. The findings in this study advocate a close monitoring and tailored supplementation pre- and post-bariatric surgery.

  1. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) and the Glutathione Peroxidase System; a Link between One-Carbon Metabolism and Antioxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Dalto, Danyel Bueno; Matte, Jean-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B6 (B6) has a central role in the metabolism of amino acids, which includes important interactions with endogenous redox reactions through its effects on the glutathione peroxidase (GPX) system. In fact, B6-dependent enzymes catalyse most reactions of the transsulfuration pathway, driving homocysteine to cysteine and further into GPX proteins. Considering that mammals metabolize sulfur- and seleno-amino acids similarly, B6 plays an important role in the fate of sulfur-homocysteine and...

  2. Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

  3. Magnetic field dependence of the correlation gap in SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, J. C.; Aronson, M. C.; Lacerda, A.; Canfield, P. C.; Fisk, Z.

    1994-06-01

    We have used magnetoresistance measurements to probe the effect of large magnetic fields on the stability of the electronic gap Delta in SmB6. Although the Zeeman splitting in a 18 Telsa field is comparable to the ambient pressure Delta, and even exceeds Delta at 56 kbar, Delta is in both cases almost completely unaffected by the magnetic field.

  4. Pierce-type electron gun with a large concave LaB6 cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintake, Tumoru; Ohba, Kunio; Matoba, Masaru; Katase, Akira

    1981-01-01

    A Pierce-type electron gun with a concave cathode of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB 6 ) 30 mm in diameter is described. At an accelerating voltage of 3 kV and a cathode temperature of 1340 0 C, a focussed electron beam of DC 300 mA was obtained. (author)

  5. 42 CFR 52b.6 - What is the rate of federal financial participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the rate of federal financial participation... GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.6 What is the rate of federal financial participation? (a) Unless otherwise specified by statute, the rate of federal financial participation in a...

  6. Loss of the EPH receptor B6 contributes to colorectal cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo-Lozano, Silvia; Bazzocco, Sarah; Rodrigues, Paulo; Mazzolini, Rocco; Andretta, Elena; Dopeso, Higinio; Fernández, Yolanda; del Llano, Edgar; Bilic, Josipa; Suárez-López, Lucía; Macaya, Irati; Cartón-García, Fernando; Nieto, Rocio; Jimenez-Flores, Lizbeth M.; de Marcondes, Priscila Guimarães; Nuñez, Yaiza; Afonso, Elsa; Cacci, Karina; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Landolfi, Stefania; Abasolo, Ibane; Ramón y Cajal, Santiago; Mariadason, John M.; Schwartz, Simo; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Arango, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Although deregulation of EPHB signaling has been shown to be an important step in colorectal tumorigenesis, the role of EPHB6 in this process has not been investigated. We found here that manipulation of EPHB6 levels in colon cancer cell lines has no effect on their motility and growth on a solid substrate, soft agar or in a xenograft mouse model. We then used an EphB6 knockout mouse model to show that EphB6 inactivation does not efficiently initiate tumorigenesis in the intestinal tract. In addition, when intestinal tumors are initiated genetically or pharmacologically in EphB6+/+ and EphB6−/− mice, no differences were observed in animal survival, tumor multiplicity, size or histology, and proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells or tumor cells. However, reintroduction of EPHB6 into colon cancer cells significantly reduced the number of lung metastasis after tail-vein injection in immunodeficient mice, while EPHB6 knockdown in EPHB6-expressing cells increased their metastatic spread. Consistently, although EPHB6 protein expression in a series of 130 primary colorectal tumors was not associated with patient survival, EPHB6 expression was significantly lower in lymph node metastases compared to primary tumors. Our results indicate that the loss of EPHB6 contributes to the metastatic process of colorectal cancer. PMID:28262839

  7. Coexistence of metallic and insulating channels in compressed YbB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jianjun; Tang, Lingyun; Chen, Fei; Chen, Xianhui; Struzhkin, Viktor V.

    2018-03-01

    It remains controversial whether compressed YbB6 material is a topological insulator or a Kondo topological insulator. We performed high-pressure transport, x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Raman-scattering measurements on YbB6 samples in search for its topological Kondo phase. Both high-pressure powder XRD and Raman measurements show no trace of structural phase transitions in YbB6 up to 50 GPa. The nonmagnetic Yb2 + gradually change to magnetic Yb3 + above 18 GPa concomitantly with the increase in resistivity. However, the transition to the insulating state occurs only around 30 GPa, accompanied by the increase in the shear stress, and anomalies in the pressure dependence of the Raman T2 g mode and in the B atomic position. The resistivity at high pressures can be described by a model taking into account coexisting insulating and metallic channels with the activation energy for the insulating channel about 30 meV. We argue that YbB6 may become a topological Kondo insulator at high pressures above 35 GPa.

  8. Homogeneous fast reactor benchmark testing of CENDL-2 and ENDF/B-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guisheng

    1995-11-01

    How to choose correct weighting spectrum has been studied to produce multigroup constants for fast reactor benchmark calculations. A correct weighting option makes us obtain satisfying results of K eff and central reaction rate ratios for nine fast reactor benchmark testing of CENDL-2 and ENDF/B-6. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  9. 32 CFR 806b.6 - Systems of records operated by a contractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Systems of records operated by a contractor... ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Overview of the Privacy Act Program § 806b.6 Systems of records operated by a contractor. Contractors who are required to operate or maintain a Privacy Act system of records by contract...

  10. Homogeneous fast reactor benchmark testing of CENDL-2 and ENDF/B-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guisheng

    1995-01-01

    How to choose correct weighting spectrum has been studied to produce multigroup constants for fast reactor benchmark calculations. A correct weighting option makes us obtain satisfying results of K eff and central reaction rate ratios for nine fast reactor benchmark testings of CENDL-2 and ENDF/B-6. (4 tabs., 2 figs.)

  11. Prognostic Value of a CYP2B6 Gene Polymorphism in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazhary, Nevin M; Shafik, Roxan E; Shafik, Hanan E; Kamel, Mahmoud M

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study aimed to detect a CYP2B6 polymorphism in de novo cases of acute myeloid leukemia patients and identify any role in disease progression and outcome. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood of 82 newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia cases and the CYP2B6 G15631T gene polymorphism was assayed by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The frequency of the GG genotype (wild type) was 48 (58.5%) and that of the mutant type T allele was 34 (41.9%). GT genotype heterozygous variants were found in 28 (34%), and TT genotype homozygous variants in 6 (7.3%) cases. We found no significant association between the CYP2B6 G15631T polymorphism and complete response (CR) (p-value=0.768), FAB classification (p-value=0.51), cytogenetic analysis (p-value=0.673), and overall survival (p-value=0.325). Also, there were no significant links with early toxic death (p-value=0.92) or progression- free survival (PFS) (p-value=0.245). Our results suggest that the CYP2B6 polymorphism has no role in disease progression, therapeutic outcome, patient free survival, early toxic death and overall survival in acute myeloid leukemia patients.

  12. Interplay between surface and bulk states in the Topological Kondo Insulator SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sangram; Hatnean, Monica Ciomaga; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Bid, Aveek

    Kondo insulator SmB6 is predicted to have topologically protected conducting surface states(TSS). We have studied electrical transport through surface states(SS) at ultra-low temperatures in single crystals of SmB6 using local-nonlocal transport scheme and found a large nonlocal signal at temperatures lower than bulk Kondo gap scale. Using resistance fluctuation spectroscopy, we probed the local and nonlocal transport channels and showed that at low temperatures, transport in this system takes place only through SS. The measured noise in this temperature range arises due to Universal Conductance Fluctuations whose statistics was found to be consistent with theoretical predictions for that of 2D systems in the Symplectic symmetry class. We studied the temperature dependence of noise and found that, unlike the topological insulators of the dichalcogenide family, the noise in surface and bulk conduction channels in SmB6 are uncorrelated - at sufficiently low temperatures, the bulk has no discernible contribution to electrical transport in SmB6 making it an ideal platform for probing the physics of TSS. Nanomission, Department of Science & Technology (DST) and Indian Institute of Scienc and EPSRC, UK, Grant EP/L014963/1.

  13. Differential vulnerability of 3 rapidly conducting somatosensory pathways in the dog with vitamin B6 neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeppi, U; Krinke, G

    1985-09-01

    In anesthetized dogs with chronically implanted cortical electrodes somatic sensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) were produced by electrical stimulation at neural, muscular or cutaneous sites of the contralateral hind leg. Stimulation of the tibial nerve at the calcaneus or of the short flexor muscles of the hind paw caused SEPs having characteristics following activation of rapidly conducting afferents from muscle spindles. Stimulation of the glabrous skin of the central pad resulted in SEPs arriving after a more protracted latency evidently related to activation of afferents from Merkel cells, Krause and Pacinian corpuscles known to be located at these sites. Stimulation of the hairy skin from the dorsal surface of the hindpaw produced a further type of SEP presumably resulting from activation of afferents from receptors of tylotrich hair follicles. Vitamin B6-induced neuropathy involves the selective degeneration of the largest neurons in the spinal ganglia and of associated long peripheral and central neurites performing rapid impulse transmission. In the course of vitamin B6 neuropathy the relatively slow impulse transmission following stimulation of the central pad was more severely impaired than the faster one after activation of afferents from muscle spindles or receptors from hair follicles. This allows us to conclude that in the dog afferents from the glabrous skin of the central pad conduct centrally via the dorsal columns, susceptible to vitamin B6 intoxication, while muscle and hair receptor afferents ascend in the dorsal spinocerebellar and spinocervical tract, respectively, which are vitamin B6 resistant.

  14. Health Deficiencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all health deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection date,...

  15. Pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody B6.2 in patients with metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.F.; Zalutsky, M.R.; Kaplan, W.; Noska, M.; Thor, A.; Colcher, D.; Kufe, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    Thirteen patients with metastatic breast carcinoma were given injections of 50-1593 micrograms of 131 I-monoclonal antibody (MAb) B6.2 immunoglobulin G and F(ab')2 for pharmacokinetic evaluation and radioimmunoimaging. Blood clearance of the 131 I-MAb-B6.2 was biphasic. The mean half-times (t 1/2 alpha, t 1/2 beta) for the immunoglobulin G were 3.5 +/- 1.7 and 20.9 +/- 11.0 h, respectively. The t 1/2 alpha for the F(ab')2 was 1.7 +/- 1.3 h, and the t 1/2 beta was 31.0 +/- 5.7 h. The percentage of protein bound 131 I for the immunoglobulin G and for the F(ab')2 at 72 h was 73.7 +/- 11.4% and 58.2 +/- 14.5%, respectively. In vitro reactivity of MAb B6.2 with granulocytes isolated from normal subjects and patients was demonstrated by cytofluorometric and radioimmunoassays. MAb B6.2 was shown to bind with normal cross-reacting antigen, a cell surface antigen known to be expressed on normal human granulocytes. Reactivity with normal cross-reacting antigen on granulocytes is consistent with the skeletal images obtained during immunoscintigraphy of all 13 patients. A specific tumor image was observed in one patient. No toxicity was encountered. In spite of extensive preclinical data suggesting that 131 I-MAb B6.2 would be a useful agent for radioimmunoimaging, the clinical utility of this reagent is probably limited because of the reactivity with granulocytes

  16. Production of adipic acid by the native-occurring pathway in Thermobifida fusca B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y; Mao, Y

    2015-10-01

    To identify the native-occurring adipate pathway in a previously engineered Thermobifida fusca B6 strain and optimize the adipic acid production of this strain on glucose and corncob. The native-occurring adipate pathway in T. fusca B6 was identified to be the reverse adipate degradation pathway, including five steps: β-ketothiolase (Tfu_0875), 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (Tfu_2399), 3-hydroxyadipyl-CoA dehydrogenase (Tfu_0067), 5-Carboxy-2-pentenoyl-CoA reductase (Tfu_1647) and succinyl-CoA synthetase (Tfu_2576, Tfu_2577). The cell lysates of T. fusca wild-type strain with the addition of the Tfu_1647 protein produced trace adipic acid, while no adipic acid was produced in the absence of this protein. The above results prove that the low expression of Tfu_1647 in the wild-type strain was the reason why it did not produce any adipic acid. We then demonstrated that in T. fusca B6, the maximal titre of adipic acid on 50 g l(-1) glucose was 2·23 g l(-1) with 0·045 g g(-1) -glucose yield and 0·22 g l(-1) adipic acid was produced from 19·38 g l(-1) milled corncob. The reverse adipate degradation pathway was found to be responsible for the adipate synthesis in T. fusca B6 and Tfu_1647 was the regulatory node on this pathway. Thermobifida fusca B6 was the first reported micro-organism using its native-occurring pathway to accumulate adipic acid. It had the highest reported yield and titre of adipic acid so far. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. B-vitamin status and concentrations of homocysteine in Austrian omnivores, vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, D; Singer, I; Männer, M; Rust, P; Genser, D; Wagner, K-H; Elmadfa, I

    2006-01-01

    A vegetarian diet is considered to promote health and longevity and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, a vegetarian diet may be deficient in some nutrients. Exclusion of animal products in vegetarian diets may affect the status of certain B-vitamins, and further cause the rise of plasma homocysteine concentration. The nutritional status of various B-vitamins (B(1), B(2), B(6), B(12), folic acid) and the concentration of homocysteine in blood plasma of omnivores (n = 40), vegetarians (n = 36) and vegans (n = 42) in Austria was evaluated. The evaluation was done using the functional parameters erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), glutathione reductase (EGR) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (EGOT) activation coefficients. Enzyme activity was measured photometrically. The quantity of vitamins B(1), B(2) and B(6) in urine and the concentrations of vitamin B(6) and homocysteine in plasma were determined by HPLC methods with fluorescence detection. Plasma concentration of vitamin B(12) and folic acid were measured with radioimmunoassay. Most of the subjects showed a satisfying vitamin B(1) status. Vegans presented a significantly lower mean plasma vitamin B(12) concentration than omnivores and vegetarians and deficiency in 2.4% of the volunteers but the highest mean value of plasma folate among the investigated groups. A deficient status of folate was found in 18% of omnivores and in approximately 10% of vegans and vegetarians. The status of riboflavin is considered to be deficient in about 10% of omnivores and vegetarians and in over 30% of vegans. According to the activation coefficient of GOT, approximately one third of all subjects showed vitamin B(6) deficiency. Elevated homocysteine concentration in plasma was observed in 66% of the vegans and about 45-50% of the omnivores and vegetarians. Vegan subjects had significantly higher mean plasma homocysteine levels than omnivores. Thiamin and folate need not be a problem in a well

  18. Prolactin rescues and primes autoreactive B cells directly and indirectly through dendritic cells in B6.Sle3 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J; Saha, S; Peeva, E

    2013-01-01

    The lupus susceptibility interval Sle3/5 confers responsiveness to prolactin in C57BL/6 (B6) mice and hyperprolactinaemia induces a lupus-like phenotype in B6.Sel3/5 mice. In this study, the immunostimulatory effects of prolactin in B6 mice containing the Sle3 portion of the Sel3/5 interval (B6.Sle3 mice) were dissected. Because of the Sle3 interval's involvement in activation of myeloid cells, the effect of dendritic cells (DCs) from prolactin-treated B6.Sle3 mice on the phenotype of B6 mice was also evaluated. B cells from prolactin-treated B6 and B6.Sle3 mice and from B6 recipients of prolactin-modulated DCs from B6.Sle3 mice were tested for DNA-reactivity and resistance to B cell receptor (BCR)-mediated apoptosis. The expression of co-stimulatory molecules on lymphocytes and myeloid cells was also evaluated. In prolactin-treated B6.Sle3 mice, transitional type 2 B cells increased while type 1 B cells decreased as a consequence of prolactin-induced resistance to BCR-mediated apoptosis leading to the survival of DNA-reactive B cells. Follicular B cells from prolactin-treated mice expressed increased levels of CD40, B7·2 and IAb, and DCs and monocytes had higher levels of CD44 and B7·2 than placebo-treated mice. Adoptive transfer of DCs from prolactin-treated B6.Sle3 mice to B6 recipients demonstrated the intrinsic ability of prolactin-modulated DCs to induce a development of lupus-like characteristics in B6 mice. Based on these results, prolactin accelerates the breakdown of immune tolerance in B6.Sle3 mice by promoting the survival, maturation and activation of autoreactive B cells, DCs and macrophages. PMID:23574327

  19. Equine cytochrome P450 2B6 — Genomic identification, expression and functional characterization with ketamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, L.M.; Demmel, S. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Pusch, G.; Buters, J.T.M. [ZAUM — Center of Allergy and Environment, Helmholtz Zentrum München/Technische Universität München, Biedersteiner Str. 29, 80802 München (Germany); Thormann, W. [Clinical Pharmacology Laboratory, Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Murtenstrasse 35, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Zielinski, J. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Leeb, T. [Institute of Genetics, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Bremgartenstr. 109, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Mevissen, M. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Schmitz, A., E-mail: andrea.schmitz@vetsuisse.unibe.ch [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-01-01

    Ketamine is an anesthetic and analgesic regularly used in veterinary patients. As ketamine is almost always administered in combination with other drugs, interactions between ketamine and other drugs bear the risk of either adverse effects or diminished efficacy. Since cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play a pivotal role in the phase I metabolism of the majority of all marketed drugs, drug–drug interactions often occur at the active site of these enzymes. CYPs have been thoroughly examined in humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about equine CYPs. The characterization of equine CYPs is essential for a better understanding of drug metabolism in horses. We report annotation, cloning and heterologous expression of the equine CYP2B6 in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. After computational annotation of all CYP2B genes, the coding sequence (CDS) of equine CYP2B6 was amplified by RT-PCR from horse liver total RNA and revealed an amino acid sequence identity of 77% and a similarity of 93.7% to its human ortholog. A non-synonymous variant c.226G>A in exon 2 of the equine CYP2B6 was detected in 97 horses. The mutant A-allele showed an allele frequency of 82%. Two further variants in exon 3 were detected in one and two horses of this group, respectively. Transfected V79 cells were incubated with racemic ketamine and norketamine as probe substrates to determine metabolic activity. The recombinant equine CYP2B6 N-demethylated ketamine to norketamine and produced metabolites of norketamine, such as hydroxylated norketamines and 5,6-dehydronorketamine. V{sub max} for S-/and R-norketamine formation was 0.49 and 0.45 nmol/h/mg cellular protein and K{sub m} was 3.41 and 2.66 μM, respectively. The N-demethylation of S-/R-ketamine was inhibited concentration-dependently with clopidogrel showing an IC{sub 50} of 5.63 and 6.26 μM, respectively. The functional importance of the recorded genetic variants remains to be explored. Equine CYP2B6 was determined to be a CYP

  20. Pulsed laser-deposited nanocrystalline GdB6 thin films on W and Re as field emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Sachin R.; Singh, Anil K.; Phase, Deodatta M.; Late, Dattatray J.; Sinha, Sucharita; More, Mahendra A.

    2016-10-01

    Gadolinium hexaboride (GdB6) nanocrystalline thin films were grown on tungsten (W), rhenium (Re) tips and foil substrates using optimized pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals formation of pure, crystalline cubic phase of GdB6 on W and Re substrates, under the prevailing PLD conditions. The field emission (FE) studies of GdB6/W and GdB6/Re emitters were performed in a planar diode configuration at the base pressure ~10-8 mbar. The GdB6/W and GdB6/Re tip emitters deliver high emission current densities of ~1.4 and 0.811 mA/cm2 at an applied field of ~6.0 and 7.0 V/µm, respectively. The Fowler-Nordheim ( F- N) plots were found to be nearly linear showing metallic nature of the emitters. The noticeably high values of field enhancement factor ( β) estimated using the slopes of the F- N plots indicate that the PLD GdB6 coating on W and Re substrates comprises of high-aspect-ratio nanostructures. Interestingly, the GdB6/W and GdB6/Re planar emitters exhibit excellent current stability at the preset values over a long-term operation, as compared to the tip emitters. Furthermore, the values of workfunction of the GdB6/W and GdB6/Re emitters, experimentally measured using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, are found to be same, ~1.6 ± 0.1 eV. Despite possessing same workfunction value, the FE characteristics of the GdB6/W emitter are markedly different from that of GdB6/Re emitter, which can be attributed to the growth of GdB6 films on W and Re substrates.

  1. Vitamin B1 and B6 in the malaria parasite: requisite or dispensable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wrenger

    Full Text Available Vitamins are essential compounds mainly involved in acting as enzyme co-factors or in response to oxidative stress. In the last two years it became apparent that apicomplexan parasites are able to generate B vitamers such as vitamin B1 and B6 de novo. The biosynthesis pathways responsible for vitamin generation are considered as drug targets, since both provide a high degree of selectivity due to their absence in the human host. This report updates the current knowledge about vitamin B1 and B6 biosynthesis in malaria and other apicomplexan parasites. Owing to the urgent need for novel antimalarials, the significance of the biosynthesis and salvage of these vitamins is critically discussed in terms of parasite survival and their exploitation for drug development.

  2. Thermal field emission observation of single-crystal LaB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, H.; Harada, K.; Shimizu, R.

    1990-01-01

    TFE (thermal field emission) properties of LaB 6 left-angle 100 right-angle and left-angle 310 right-angle single crystals were investigated by emission pattern observation. It was found that field evaporation with the tip temperature held at ∼1500 degree C is very useful to get a clean pattern of fourfold symmetry. Each of four bright spots in the clean pattern was presumed to correspond to left-angle 310 right-angle emission. It is proposed, as the most appropriate operating condition, to use the left-angle 310 right-angle LaB 6 tip at a temperature ∼1000 degree C in vacuum of 10 -9 Torr region, promising a new TF emitter of high brightness and stability for practical use

  3. Radiometric--microbiologic assay of vitamin B-6: application to food analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilarte, T.R.; Shane, B.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay for vitamin B-6 was applied to food analysis. The method was shown to be specific, reproducible and simpler than the standard turbidimetric microbiologic technique. The analysis of seven commercially available breakfast cereals was compared to a high performance liquid chromatography method. Three out of the seven cereals agreed when assayed with both methods (P greater than 0.1). Four cereals, however, differed in value considerably (P less than 0.05). Further studies are required to determine whether these differences were due to different extraction procedures used. The study showed that the new radiometric-microbiologic method can be used to measure total vitamin B-6 or, combined with a column separation procedure, to analyze for specific forms of the vitamin

  4. Vitamin B6 Is Required for Full Motility and Virulence in Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubman, Alexandra; Phillips, Alexandra; Thibonnier, Marie; Kaparakis-Liaskos, Maria; Johnson, Chad; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Radcliff, Fiona J.; Ecobichon, Chantal; Labigne, Agnès; de Reuse, Hilde; Mendz, George L.; Ferrero, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent advances in our understanding of how Helicobacter pylori causes disease, the factors that allow this pathogen to persist in the stomach have not yet been fully characterized. To identify new virulence factors in H. pylori, we generated low-infectivity variants of a mouse-colonizing H. pylori strain using the classical technique of in vitro attenuation. The resulting variants and their highly infectious progenitor bacteria were then analyzed by global gene expression profiling. The gene expression levels of five open reading frames (ORFs) were significantly reduced in low-infectivity variants, with the most significant changes observed for ORFs HP1583 and HP1582. These ORFs were annotated as encoding homologs of the Escherichia coli vitamin B6 biosynthesis enzymes PdxA and PdxJ. Functional complementation studies with E. coli confirmed H. pylori PdxA and PdxJ to be bona fide homologs of vitamin B6 biosynthesis enzymes. Importantly, H. pylori PdxA was required for optimal growth in vitro and was shown to be essential for chronic colonization in mice. In addition to having a well-known metabolic role, vitamin B6 is necessary for the synthesis of glycosylated flagella and for flagellum-based motility in H. pylori. Thus, for the first time, we identify vitamin B6 biosynthesis enzymes as novel virulence factors in bacteria. Interestingly, pdxA and pdxJ orthologs are present in a number of human pathogens, but not in mammalian cells. We therefore propose that PdxA/J enzymes may represent ideal candidates for therapeutic targets against bacterial pathogens. PMID:21151756

  5. Differential amplification of satellite PaB6 in chromosomally hypervariable Prospero autumnale complex (Hyacinthaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Emadzade, K.; Jang, T.S.; Macas, Jiří; Kovařík, Aleš; Novák, Petr; Parker, J.; Weiß-Schneeweiss, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 8 (2014), s. 1597-1608 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : Hyacinthaceae * PaB6 * pericentric satellite DNA * next-generation sequencing * Prospero autumnale Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (BFU-R) Impact factor: 3.654, year: 2014

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis B6, a Rhizobacterium That Can Control Plant Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Han; Guo, Rong-Jun; Li, Shi-Dong

    2018-03-22

    The draft genome of Bacillus velezensis strain B6, a rhizobacterium with good biocontrol performance isolated from soil in China, was sequenced. The assembly comprises 32 scaffolds with a total size of 3.88 Mb. Gene clusters coding either ribosomally encoded bacteriocins or nonribosomally encoded antimicrobial polyketides and lipopeptides in the genome may contribute to plant disease control. Copyright © 2018 Gao et al.

  7. Inverse and normal magnetocaloric effects in LaFe12B6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diop, L. V. B.; Isnard, O.

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect were studied for LaFe 12 B 6 itinerant-electron system, which presents an antiferromagnetic ground state below 36 K. For certain magnetic fields values, LaFe 12 B 6 exhibits a sequence of two successive magnetic transitions: an antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic (AFM-FM) transition at low temperature followed by a ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition, leading to normal and inverse magnetocaloric effects, respectively. At finite temperatures, both antiferromagnetic (AFM) and paramagnetic states can be transformed into a ferromagnetic (FM) state via a field-induced metamagnetic transition accompanied with a huge magnetic hysteresis. Moreover, we reveal that, at low temperatures, the magnetization displays abrupt jumps across the first-order AFM-FM transition, giving rise to an unusual and unique staircase-like behavior. LaFe 12 B 6 exhibits both normal magnetocaloric effect around the Curie temperature and large inverse magnetocaloric effect around the AFM-FM transition temperature; for μ 0 ΔH = 7 T, ΔS M is found to be −6.8 and 19 J kg −1  K −1 around 38 and 8 K, respectively.

  8. Two-dimensional Fermi surfaces in Kondo insulating SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang

    There has been renewed interest in Samarium Hexaboride, which is a strongly correlated heavy Fermion material. Hybridization between itinerant electrons and localized orbitals lead to an opening of charge gap at low temperature. However, the resistivity of SmB6 does not diverge at low temperature. Former studies suggested that this residual conductance is contributed by various origins. Recent theoretical developments suggest that the particular symmetry of energy bands of SmB6 may host a topologically non-trivial surface state, i.e., a topological Kondo insulator. To probe the Fermiology of the possible metallic surface state, we use sensitive torque magnetometry to detect the de Haas van Alphen (dHvA) effect due to Landau level quantization on flux-grown crystals, down to He-3 temperature and up to 45 Tesla. Our angular and temperature dependent data suggest two-dimensional Fermi Surfaces lie in both crystalline (001) and (101) surface planes of SmB6.

  9. The triple synergy of ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate, magnesium, and vitamin B6: Molecular mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gromova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the triple effect of ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate (EMHPS, organic magnesium salt (magnesium lactate, and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine.Material and methods. A systematic analysis of the molecular mechanisms of the triple synergic action of EMHPS, magnesium, and vitamin B6 was carried out. For chemoinformational analysis, the investigators developed a new mathematical method based on the combinatorial theory of solvability, which allows one to obtain quantitative estimates of the affinity constants of proteome proteins.Results. The pharmacological effects of the EMHPS molecule characterized by nootropic and antioxidant properties are shown to work in synergy with magnesium and vitamin B6. A systematic analysis of synergy interactions indicated 46 biological roles, in which the synergy of EMHPS, magnesium, and pyridoxine could be manifested. The main goals of this synergy are to protect neurons from damage, by combating excitotoxicity in the cells and to neutralize excess homocysteine (to reduce the risk of ischemic and thrombotic stroke, myocardial infarction, and coronary heart disease; to improve cognitive functions and neuromuscular transmission, to reduce anxiety, by activating acetylcholine, GABA, and dopamine receptors; to normalize lipid and glucose metabolism, by lowering hyperglycemia and improving the processing of fats.

  10. Tell-Tale SNPs: The Role of CYP2B6 in Methadone Fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Taha; Sabet, Samie; Primerano, Donald A; Richards-Waugh, Lauren L; Rankin, Gary O

    2017-05-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme 2B6 plays a significant role in the stereo-selective metabolism of (S)-methadone to 2-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine, an inactive methadone metabolite. Elevated (S)-methadone can cause cardiotoxicity by prolonging the QT interval of the heart's electrical cycle. Large inter-individual variability of methadone pharmacokinetics causes discordance in the relationship between dose, plasma concentrations and side effects. The purpose of this study was to determine if one or more single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within the CYP2B6 gene contributes to a poor metabolizer phenotype for methadone in these fatal cases. The genetic analysis was conducted on 125 Caucasian methadone-only fatalities obtained from the West Virginia and Kentucky Offices of the Chief Medical Examiner. The frequency of eight exonic and intronic SNPs (rs2279344, rs3211371, rs3745274, rs4803419, rs8192709, rs8192719, rs12721655 and rs35979566) was determined. The frequencies of SNPs rs3745274 (*9, c516G > T, Q172H), and rs8192719 (21563 C > T) were enhanced in the methadone-only group. Higher blood methadone concentrations were observed in individuals who were genotyped homozygous for SNP rs3211371 (*5, c1459C > T, R487C). These results indicate that these three CYP2B6 SNPs are associated with methadone fatalities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. High Pressure Study of Electrical Resistivity of CeB6 to 136 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzani, Neda; Lim, Jinhyuk; Schilling, James; Fabbris, Gilberto; Fisk, Zachary

    2014-03-01

    Since the 1960's the dense Kondo compound cerium hexaboride (CeB6) has attracted a great deal of interest. To investigate whether this material might evolve into a topological insulator under sufficient pressure, we have carried out four-point electrical resistivity measurements on CeB6 over the temperature range 1.3 K to 295 K in a diamond anvil cell to 136 GPa. Although a transition into an insulating phase is not observed, the evolution of the initial dense Kondo state under such extreme pressures is of considerable interest. As reported in earlier studies to 13 GPa, the temperature of the resistivity maximum near 3 K initially increases with pressure. We observe that between 33 and 53 GPa the resistivity maximum disappears and by 83 GPa CeB6 appears to have settled into a Fermi liquid state. The marked changes observed under pressure suggest that a change in valence and/or a structural transition may have occurred. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements are being carried out to investigate possible changes in crystal structure under extreme pressures. Work at Washington Univ. supported by NSF DMR-1104742 and Carnegie/DOE/NNSA DE-FC52-08NA28554.

  12. The lack of effect of a pyridoxine deficiency on the utilization of the hydroxyl analogue of methionine by the chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroka, J M; Combs, G F

    1986-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a vitamin B6 deficiency affects the utilization of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB), an analogue of methionine. The basal diet used for this purpose was based on peas, peanut meal, and glucose monohydrate and was low in both methionine and pyridoxine. Supplemental pyridoxine hydrochloride and L-methionine or HMB resulted in significant increases in growth rate and efficiency of feed utilization; supplemental pyridoxine also produced significant increases in the activity of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (PGOT, EC 2.6.1.1.) in plasma. There was no discernible effect of change in vitamin B6 status on the utilization of HMB as compared with L-methionine.

  13. Causes, Consequences and Public Health Implications of Low B-Vitamin Status in Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty Porter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential protective roles of folate and the metabolically related B-vitamins (vitamins B12, B6 and riboflavin in diseases of ageing are of increasing research interest. The most common cause of folate and riboflavin deficiencies in older people is low dietary intake, whereas low B12 status is primarily associated with food-bound malabsorption, while sub-optimal vitamin B6 status is attributed to increased requirements in ageing. Observational evidence links low status of folate and the related B-vitamins (and/or elevated concentrations of homocysteine with a higher risk of degenerative diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD, cognitive dysfunction and osteoporosis. Deficient or low status of these B-vitamins alone or in combination with genetic polymorphisms, including the common MTHFR 677 C → T polymorphism, could contribute to greater disease risk in ageing by causing perturbations in one carbon metabolism. Moreover, interventions with the relevant B-vitamins to optimise status may have beneficial effects in preventing degenerative diseases. The precise mechanisms are unknown but many have been proposed involving the role of folate and the related B-vitamins as co-factors for one-carbon transfer reactions, which are fundamental for DNA and RNA biosynthesis and the maintenance of methylation reactions. This review will examine the evidence linking folate and related B-vitamins with health and disease in ageing, associated mechanisms and public health implications.

  14. Effect of a 5-mo nutritional intervention on nutritional status and quality of life for patient with 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-coenzyme A hydrolase deficiency: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Wei; Yu, Kang; Xu, Yan; Sun, Xia-Yuan; Li, Rong-Rong; Wang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    3-Hydroxy-isobutyryl-coenzyme A (CoA) hydrolase (HBICH) deficiency is a rare cerebral organic aciduria caused by disturbance of valine catabolism that leads to the accumulation of toxic metabolites, methacrylyl-CoA. The major feature exhibited by a patient with HBICH deficiency includes multiple congenital malformations and abnormal neurologic findings. However, the pathophysiology of this disease remains unknown. The major treatment for HBICH deficiency involves a low-protein diet, especially restricting valine, supplemented with micronutrients and carnitine. To our knowledge, only four patients with HBICH deficiency have been reported. These patients were boys and presented with different clinical, biochemical, and genetic features than our patient. In this report, we described what was to our knowledge the first genetically confirmed girl with HBICH deficiency in China. A 5-mo nutritional intervention was given to the patient by a nutritional support team. On this regimen, the patient's symptoms were alleviated and her quality of life was improved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermal properties of some cerium compounds, particularly CeB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peysson, Y.

    1986-09-01

    Using measurements of specific heat between 0.3 to 250K in the absence of a magnetic field, and from 2 to 250K for magnetic fields between 0 and 8T, it is shown that the γ 8 quadruplet is the fundamental level of the Ce 3+ ion, the γ 8-7 separation energy being of the order of 500K. Detailed analysis suggests a lifting of degeneracy of the multiplet γ 8 in the paramagnetic phase, according to usual processes. Specific heat results obtained at very low temperatures reveal the importance of a significant gap in the spin wave energy spectra. Measurements under a strong magnetic field, around the two magnetic phase transitions of CeB6 show a spectacular reinforcement of the specific heat anomaly at a temperature of the order of T Q . Thermal conductivity of CEB6 is also studied in relation to the possible existence of a Jahn-Teller effect, likely to affect heat transfer by phonons. The problem of the different components of thermal transport prompts the analysis of the Weidemann-Franz law in the Kondo net, and also the study of the thermal conductivity of the compounds CeCu6, CeA12, the alloys Ce 0 . 7 5La 0 . 25 B 6 , Ce x La 1-x Cu 6 , and the fluctuating valence system SmB 6 . In all these bodies, an important contribution of phonons to electron transfer is shown. In the dense incoherent Kondo phase, it is not possible to envisage differences from the Weidemann-Franz law greater than those observed for highly diluted Kondo alloys [fr

  16. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected.

  17. Ferromagnetism and superstructure in Ca1-xLaxB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzykin; Gor'kov

    2000-03-06

    We critically investigate the model of a doped excitonic insulator, which has recently been invoked to explain some experimental properties of the ferromagnetic state in Ca1-xLaxB6. We demonstrate that the ground state of this model is intrinsically unstable towards the appearance of a superstructure. In addition, the model would lead to a phase separation of doped carriers into electron-enriched and neutral domains, which may be prevented by Coulomb forces only. Recent experiments indicate that a superstructure may indeed show up in this material.

  18. Blood homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 levels in psoriasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Uslu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Homocysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is known to be related with autoimmunity-inflammation, cardiovascular disease and DNA methylation. In this case-control study, we aimed to determine plasma homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 levels in patients with psoriasis. Materials and Methods: Smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption habits were recorded in adult patients with plaque-type psoriasis and age- and sex-matched controls. Height and weight measurements were performed and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI scores were calculated. Fasting venous blood samples were collected to determine homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and C-reactive protein (CRP levels. Results: There was no significant difference between psoriasis patients (n=43 and controls (n=47 in body mass index and alcohol and coffee consumption. Smoking rate was significantly high in psoriasis patients. The median PASI score was 10.0 (8.3-12.8. Plasma homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, total cholesterol, triglyseride, ESR and CRP values were not significantly different between patients and the controls. HDL level was low in psoriasis patients (p=0.001. Plasma homocysteine level was higher in males than in females. There was no relationship of homocysteine levels with patient’s age, PASI scores, ESR, CRP values and lipids. Homocysteine levels were inversely related with folic acid and vitamin B12 (p=0.000, r=-0.436, p=0.047, r=-0.204, respectively. We did not find any relationship between homocysteine and vitamin B6 levels. Conclusion: There was no increase in plasma homocysteine levels in psoriasis patients we followed up. Homocysteine level increases in inflammatory disorders and this increase is accepted as a cardiovascular disease marker. Homocysteine homeostasis may be balanced in our

  19. High homocysteine, low vitamin B-6, and increased oxidative stress are independently associated with the risk of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Hsu; Yang, Wen-Ching; Hsiao, Yu-Hua; Huang, Shih-Chien; Huang, Yi-Chia

    2016-02-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia, increased oxidative stress, and decreased antioxidant defense function have been found to be associated with the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Deficiencies of folate and vitamin B-6 (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, PLP) may cause hyperhomocysteinemia and increased oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations among homocysteine, folate, PLP, oxidative stress indicator, and antioxidant capacities in patients with stage 2 to 3 CKD, and to further analyze these relationships with respect to risk for CKD. Ninety-seven patients with CKD and 135 healthy subjects were recruited. Patients with CKD had significantly higher levels of malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacities, but had significantly lower antioxidant enzyme activities compared with healthy subjects. Serum folate but not plasma PLP was significantly negatively associated with plasma homocysteine. There were no significant associations of homocysteine, PLP, and folate with oxidative stress indicator and antioxidant capacities. High homocysteine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.22) and malondialdehyde (OR = 34.24; 95% CI, 4.44-264.40) level increased the risk of CKD, whereas high plasma PLP (OR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.99) and superoxide dismutase activity (OR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.74-0.91) decreased the risk of CKD after adjusting all potential confounders. High homocysteine, low PLP, increased oxidative stress, and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase activity) were independent contributing factors in the development of early stage CKD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The chaperone role of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and its implications for rare diseases involving B6-dependent enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, Barbara; Montioli, Riccardo; Oppici, Elisa; Astegno, Alessandra; Voltattorni, Carla Borri

    2014-02-01

    The biologically active form of the B6 vitamers is pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), which plays a coenzymatic role in several distinct enzymatic activities ranging from the synthesis, interconversion and degradation of amino acids to the replenishment of one-carbon units, synthesis and degradation of biogenic amines, synthesis of tetrapyrrolic compounds and metabolism of amino-sugars. In the catalytic process of PLP-dependent enzymes, the substrate amino acid forms a Schiff base with PLP and the electrophilicity of the PLP pyridine ring plays important roles in the subsequent catalytic steps. While the essential role of PLP in the acquisition of biological activity of many proteins is long recognized, the finding that some PLP-enzymes require the coenzyme for refolding in vitro points to an additional role of PLP as a chaperone in the folding process. Mutations in the genes encoding PLP-enzymes are causative of several rare inherited diseases. Patients affected by some of these diseases (AADC deficiency, cystathionuria, homocystinuria, gyrate atrophy, primary hyperoxaluria type 1, xanthurenic aciduria, X-linked sideroblastic anaemia) can benefit, although at different degrees, from the administration of pyridoxine, a PLP precursor. The effect of the coenzyme is not limited to mutations that affect the enzyme-coenzyme interaction, but also to those that cause folding defects, reinforcing the idea that PLP could play a chaperone role and improve the folding efficiency of misfolded variants. In this review, recent biochemical and cell biology studies highlighting the chaperoning activity of the coenzyme on folding-defective variants of PLP-enzymes associated with rare diseases are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Covalent functionalization of octagraphene with magnetic octahedral B6- and non-planar C6- clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigo-Anota, E.; Cárdenas-Jirón, G.; Salazar Villanueva, M.; Bautista Hernández, A.; Castro, M.

    2017-10-01

    The interaction between the magnetic boron octahedral (B6-) and non-planar (C6-) carbon clusters with semimetal nano-sheet of octa-graphene (C64H24) in the gas phase is studied by means of DFT calculations. These results reveal that non-planar-1 (anion) carbon cluster exhibits structural stability, low chemical reactivity, magnetic (1.0 magneton bohr) and semiconductor behavior. On the other hand, there is chemisorption phenomena when the stable B6- and C6- clusters are absorbed on octa-graphene nanosheets. Such absorption generates high polarity and the low-reactivity remains as on the individual pristine cases. Electronic charge transference occurs from the clusters toward the nanosheets, producing a reduction of the work function for the complexes and also induces a magnetic behavior on the functionalized sheets. The quantum descriptors obtained for these systems reveal that they are feasible candidates for the design of molecular circuits, magnetic devices, and nano-vehicles for drug delivery.

  2. Electron dynamics in CaB6 induced by one- and two-color femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Y.L.; Wang, F.; Hong, X.H.; Su, W.Y.; Chen, Q.H.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    We simulate nonlinear electron dynamics in CaB 6 crystal within the framework of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) under one-color femtosecond laser fields (400 nm, 800 nm) and two-color cases (400 nm+800 nm) with different relative phases of ϕ=0, ϕ=π/4, ϕ=π/2. The time-dependent Kohn–Sham equation (TDKS) is solved in real-time and real-space evolution scheme. We investigate the energy absorption and the electron excitation of CaB 6 crystal in detail. Besides, the electron density distributions and occupations are shown after each external field ends. Computational results indicate that for one-color case, the excitation behaviors are distinct due to the different frequencies; for two-color laser, we adjust the phase and obtain the asymmetric field, which causes the change of the dynamics response comparing with the symmetric field. At the end of laser, the electron occupation is broadly distributed in the energy range of 2.4–42.4 eV, which means a high excitation rate in the narrow-gap semiconductor under intense laser field. The occurrence of the breakdown is also checked for each case in the Letter.

  3. Liquid chromatographic determination with fluorescence detection of B6 vitamers and riboflavin in milk and pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, R.; Gioia, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    A simple, reliable and selective high performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection at different programmed wavelengths has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of B 6 vitamers (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 4-pyridoxic acid, pyridoxal, pyridoxine and pyridoxamine) and Vitamin B 2 in commercial vitaminized milk and in woman milk. The chromatographic separations were performed on a reversed phase octyl column by using a mobile phase consisting of sodium pentanesulfonate in 1% acetic acid-methanol-tetrahydrofuran under gradient elution conditions. The fluorescence intensity of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was enhanced by post-column photochemical conversion, giving significantly different fluorescence spectra by a on-line photoreactor switched OFF and ON under irradiation at 254 nm. In addition, a simple and rapid method in isocratic conditions without the need of photochemical conversion was proposed for the analysis of Vitamin B 6 and Vitamin B 2 in pharmaceuticals. Linearity, precision, recovery, selectivity and sensitivity were found satisfactory for each analysed compound. Quantitation limits ranged from 26 to 240 fmol

  4. Regioselective Synthesis of Procyanidin B6, A 4-6-Condensed (+-Catechin Dimer, by Intramolecular Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Higashino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins or oligomeric flavonoids, are found in many edible plants and exhibit interesting biological activities. Herein, we report a new, simple method for the stereoselective synthesis of procyanidin B6, a (+-catechin-(4-6-(+-catechin dimer, by Lewis acid-catalyzed intramolecular condensation. The 5-O-t-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS group of 5,7,3′4′-tetra-O-TBDMS-(+-catechin was regioselectively removed using trifluoroacetic acid, leading to the “regio-controlled” synthesis of procyanidin B6. The 5-hydroxyl group of the 7,3′,4′-tri-O-TBDMS-(+-catechin nucleophile and the 3-hydroxyl group of 5,7,3′,4′-tetra-O-benzylated-(+-catechin electrophile were connected with an azelaic acid. The subsequent SnCl4-catalyzed intramolecular condensation proceeded smoothly to give the 4-6-condensed catechin dimer. This is the first report on the complete regioselective synthesis of a 4-6-connected oligomer without modifying the 8-position.

  5. Unconventional Fermi surface associated with novel quasiparticles in the Kondo insulator SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Suchitra

    The search for a Fermi surface in the absence of a Fermi liquid has endured for decades. We present evidence for the realisation of such a state in the Kondo Insulator SmB6, which is an extreme example of Fermi liquid breakdown. Experimental results are presented from complementary techniques including quantum oscillations, specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and oscillatory entropy down to low temperatures. An experimental comparison is made with alternative theoretical models that associate novel quasiparticles with the unconventional Fermi surface we uncover in SmB6. A new paradigm for the realisation of a Fermi surface in the absence of conventional quasiparticles is proposed in the vicinity of a Kondo insulator transition. This work was performed in collaboration with M. Hartstein, W. H. Toews, Y.-T. Hsu, B. Zeng, X. Chen, M. Ciomaga Hatnean, Q. R. Zhang, S. Nakamura, A. S. Padgett, G. Rodway-Gant, J. Berk, M. K. Kingston, G. H. Zhang, M. K. Chan, S. Yamashita, T. Sakakibara, Y. Takano, J. -H. Park, L. Balicas, N. Harrison, N. Shitsevalova, G. Balakrishnan, G. G. Lonzarich, R. W. Hill, and M. Sutherland.

  6. Radio Frequency Tunable Oscillator Device Based on a SmB_{6} Microcrystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alex; Efimkin, Dmitry K; Galitski, Victor; Fisk, Zachary; Xia, Jing

    2016-04-22

    Radio frequency tunable oscillators are vital electronic components for signal generation, characterization, and processing. They are often constructed with a resonant circuit and a "negative" resistor, such as a Gunn diode, involving complex structure and large footprints. Here we report that a piece of SmB_{6}, 100  μm in size, works as a current-controlled oscillator in the 30 MHz frequency range. SmB_{6} is a strongly correlated Kondo insulator that was recently found to have a robust surface state likely to be protected by the topology of its electronics structure. We exploit its nonlinear dynamics, and demonstrate large ac voltage outputs with frequencies from 20 Hz to 30 MHz by adjusting a small dc bias current. The behaviors of these oscillators agree well with a theoretical model describing the thermal and electronic dynamics of coupled surface and bulk states. With reduced crystal size we anticipate the device to work at higher frequencies, even in the THz regime. This type of oscillator might be realized in other materials with a metallic surface and a semiconducting bulk.

  7. RKKY interaction between Ce ions in CexLa1-xB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlottmann, P.

    2000-01-01

    Ce ions in (Ce x La 1-x )B 6 have a Γ 8 ground multiplet, which is fourfold degenerate and has orbital and spin content. The interaction between Ce ions is of the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) type, which competes with the Kondo screening. The conduction states of the compound are described by three approximately ellipsoidal pockets centered at the X points of the cubic lattice. The RKKY interaction is calculated considering the interference of the three pockets. The interaction strength strongly depends on the relative position of the ions, as well as on the relative orientation of the line joining two ions to the cubic crystalline field axis. The sixteen states of a pair of Ce ions are split by the RKKY interaction into a singlet, a triplet, and a twelvefold degenerate level. The ground state is always either a singlet or a triplet, depending on the sign of the interaction. Using the exact Bethe ansatz solution of a model for a pair of interacting impurities with Γ 8 ground multiplet, we calculate the occupation of the levels, the magnetic-field susceptibility, the specific-heat γ coefficient, and the Wilson ratio for the ground state as a function of the ratio of the RKKY coupling strength to the Kondo temperature along the main crystallographic directions. As a consequence of the RKKY splitting a pair of impurities always has a quadrupolar moment. The implication of the interactions on the quadrupolar order of CeB 6 is also discussed

  8. Lattice strain accompanying the colossal magnetoresistance effect in EuB6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Rudra Sekhar; Das, Pintu; de Souza, Mariano; Schnelle, Frank; Lang, Michael; Müller, Jens; von Molnár, Stephan; Fisk, Zachary

    2014-08-08

    The coupling of magnetic and electronic degrees of freedom to the crystal lattice in the ferromagnetic semimetal EuB(6), which exhibits a complex ferromagnetic order and a colossal magnetoresistance effect, is studied by high-resolution thermal expansion and magnetostriction experiments. EuB(6) may be viewed as a model system, where pure magnetism-tuned transport and the response of the crystal lattice can be studied in a comparatively simple environment, i.e., not influenced by strong crystal-electric field effects and Jahn-Teller distortions. We find a very large lattice response, quantified by (i) the magnetic Grüneisen parameter, (ii) the spontaneous strain when entering the ferromagnetic region, and (iii) the magnetostriction in the paramagnetic temperature regime. Our analysis reveals that a significant part of the lattice effects originates in the magnetically driven delocalization of charge carriers, consistent with the scenario of percolating magnetic polarons. A strong effect of the formation and dynamics of local magnetic clusters on the lattice parameters is suggested to be a general feature of colossal magnetoresistance materials.

  9. Genetic variability of CYP2B6 polymorphisms in four southern Chinese populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing-Ying; Guo, Li-Ping; Lee, Shui-Shan; Dong, Qing-Ming; Tan, Yi; Yao, Hong; Li, Li-Hua; Lin, Che-Kit; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; He, Ming-Liang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the genotype and allelic frequencies of Cytochrome P450 2B6 polymorphisms in four southern Chinese populations. METHODS: DNA was obtained from blood samples from Han Chinese from Hong Kong and three minority groups, the Wa, Bulang and Lahu from Yunnan in southern China. Genotyping was performed using real-time PCR and confirmed by direct sequencing. RESULTS: A total of 507 subjects from southern China were studied. Results showed there is a high prevalence of 516G > T (34.5%) in ethnic Chinese compared to literature reports on other Asian populations and Caucasians. The frequency of the 516TT genotype is higher in the Han majority (23.1%) than in three other ethnic minority groups (i.e., 7.4%, 9.1% and 15.8%) in southern China. CONCLUSION: This was the first study to document the spectrum of CYP2B6 allelic variants and genotypes in a southern Chinese population. The 516G > T allele is associated with a defective metabolism of efavirenz (EFV), which therefore may predispose to drug toxicity. Treatment regimens for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and heroin addiction may need to be optimized in different populations because of the marked variability of the key metabolizing enzyme. PMID:17465455

  10. Electronic and magnetic phase separation in EuB6. Fluctuation spectroscopy and nonlinear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amyan, Adham

    2013-01-01

    The main topics of this thesis are electrical, stationary, and time-resolved transport measurements on EuB 6 as well as the further development of measuring methods and analysis procedures of the fluctuation spectroscopy. The first part of this thesis was dedicated to the further development of the already known measuring methods under application of a fast data-acquisition card. The second part deals with the electrical transport properties of EuB 6 and the understanding of the coupling between charge and magnetic degrees of freedom. By means of resistance and nonlinear-transport measurements as well as fluctuation spectroscopy hypotheses of other scientists were systematically verified as well as new knowledge obtained. The magnetoresistance was studied as function of the temperature in small external magnetic fields between 1 mT and 700 mT. Measurements of the third harmonic resistance as function of the temperature show maxima at T MI and T C . Electrical-resistance fluctuations were measured without external magnetic field between 5 and 100 K as well in presence of a magnetic field between 18 K and 32 K. At constant temperature measurements of the spectral power density in external magnetic fields were performed in the temperature range from 18 K to 32 K. Highly resolving measurements of the thermal expansion coefficient showed a very strong coupling of the magnetic (polaronic) degrees of freedom to the crystal lattice.

  11. Interactions between copper deficiency, selenium deficiency and adriamycin toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J.; Tackett, R.; Johnson, M.A. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there are interactions between copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) status, and adriamycin (ADR) toxicity. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed Cu,Se adequate; Cu deficient, Se adequate ({minus}Cu); Cu adequate, Se deficient; or Cu,Se deficient diets for 38-41 days. ADR or saline (SAL) were administered weekly for the last 4 weeks of the study. Cu deficiency was confirmed by a 3-fold decrease in liver Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase and liver Cu, and a 5-fold decrease in RBC Cu,Zn-SOD. Se deficiency was confirmed by a 10-fold decrease in liver glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). ADR, Cu deficiency and Se deficiency all caused EKG abnormalities. However, Cu and Se deficiencies did not enhance ADR's influence on EKGs. ADR increased lipid peroxidation in liver by 15% and in heart by 18% (NS). Cu deficiency decreased ADR-induced lipid peroxidation in heart tissue by 25%. ADR influenced Se status by significantly increasing heart GSH-Px, and Cu status by increasing liver Cu, plasma ceruloplasmin and liver Cu, Zn-SOD. These elevations in Cu,Zn-SOD and GSH-Px may be a consequence of the increased lipid peroxidation initiated by ADR. In {minus}Cu rats, ADR caused severe hemolytic anemia characterized by a 19% decrease in hematocrit and a 17-fold increase in splenic Fe. These data suggest that there are numerous interactions between ADR toxicity and Cu and Se status.

  12. Improvement of biological nitrogen removal with nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation bacterium Aquabacterium parvum B6 in an up-flow bioreactor for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxin; Li, Ang; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Ma, Fang

    2016-11-01

    Aquabacterium parvum strain B6 exhibited efficient nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation ability using nitrate as an electron acceptor. A continuous up-flow bioreactor that included an aerobic and an anoxic section was constructed, and strain B6 was added to the bioreactor as inocula to explore the application of microbial nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidizing (NDFO) efficiency in wastewater treatment. The maximum NRE (anoxic section) and TNRE of 46.9% and 79.7%, respectively, could be obtained at a C/N ratio of 5.3:1 in the influent with HRT of 17. Meanwhile, the taxonomy composition of the reactor was assessed, as well. The NDFO metabolism of strain B6 could be expected because of its relatively dominant position in the anoxic section, whereas potential heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification developed into the prevailing status in the aerobic section after 50days of continuous operation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide Status and the Effects of High-Dose Riboflavin Treatment in Short-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maldegem, Bianca T.; Duran, Marinus; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Waterham, Hans R.; Wijburg, Frits A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) is an inborn error, biochemically characterized by increased plasma butyrylcarnitine (C4-C) concentration and increased ethylmalonic acid (EMA) excretion and caused by rare mutations and/or common gene variants in the SCAD encoding gene. Although

  14. Does vitamin D deficiency contribute to post-burn bone loss? [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/QLDkCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon L Klein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury results in the acute loss of bone as well as the development of progressive vitamin D deficiency. Bone loss occurs acutely due to resorption, which is then followed by apoptosis of osteoblasts preventing repair of the bone loss. The acute resorption is due to a combination of the inflammatory response and the stress response to the burn injury. The resultant production of inflammatory cytokines and endogenous glucocorticoids initially stimulate the osteoblasts to produce RANK ligand, which stimulates marrow stem cell differentiation into osteoclasts. As the stress response persists for approximately one year post-burn the glucocorticoids produced by the body will cause osteoblast apoptosis and adynamic bone, impairing the ability of bone to recover its resorptive losses. The vitamin D deficiency is due to the failure to supplement the diet of burn patients with vitamin D on discharge from hospital and to failure of the skin to make normal quantities of vitamin D on sunlight exposure. Because the bone resorption can be prevented by the acute administration of bisphosphonates it is unlikely that vitamin D deficiency is responsible for the early-onset bone loss following burns. However, because a deficit in trabecular bone remains for at least two years post-burn, it is possible that vitamin D deficiency prevents the recovery of trabecular bone density over the long term.

  15. Contrasting effect of silicon on iron, zinc and manganese status and accumulation of metal-mobilizing compounds in micronutrient-deficient cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bityutskii, Nikolai; Pavlovic, Jelena; Yakkonen, Kirill; Maksimović, Vuk; Nikolic, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Although the beneficial role of silicon (Si) in alleviation of abiotic stress is well established, little is known of the relevance of Si nutrition under microelement deficiency. The aim of our work was to investigate the physiological role of Si in relation to micronutrient (Fe, Zn and Mn) deficiencies in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Cucumber (cv. Semkross) plants were grown hydroponically in a complete nutrient solution (control) and in nutrient solutions free from Fe, Zn or Mn, with or without Si supply. Plant tissue concentrations of microelements, organic acids and phenolics were measured. Si supply effectively mitigated the symptoms of Fe deficiency, but only in part, the symptoms of Zn- or Mn deficiency. Leaf Fe concentration significantly increased in plants deprived of Fe but treated with Si, whereas the concentrations of other microelements were not affected by Si supply. The effects of Si supply in increasing accumulation of both organic acids and phenolic compounds in cucumber tissues were exclusively related to Fe nutrition. Enhancement of Fe distribution towards apical shoot parts, along with the tissue accumulation of Fe-mobilizing compounds such as citrate (in leaves and roots) or cathechin (in roots) appears to be the major alleviating effect of Si. Si nutrition, however, was without effect on the mobility and tissue distribution of either Zn or Mn. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in markers of cobalamin status after cessation of oral B-vitamin supplements in elderly people with mild cobalamin deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.J.P.M.; Ueland, P.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Schneede, J.; Blom, H.J.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Staveren, van W.A.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Mildly cobalamin-deficient elderly were supplemented with 1000 g cobalamin (group C, n=34), 1000 g cobalamin with 400 g folic acid (group CF, n=31) or a placebo (n=30) for 6 months. Participants provided one single blood sample 3, 5 or 7 months after cessation of supplementation to monitor early

  17. Methyl-Deficient Diets and Risks of Breast Cancer Among African-American Women: A Case-Control Study by Methylation Status of the ER Gene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Kangmin

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report of our case-control study testing the hypothesis that methyl-deficient diets are more likely to be related to breast cancer with methylated CpG islands of the estrogen-receptor (ER) gene...

  18. Kondo hybridisation and the origin of metallic states at the (001) surface of SmB6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantzeskakis, E.; de Jong, N.; Zwartsenberg, B.; Huang, Y.K.; Pan, Y.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, F.X.; Bao, L.H.; Tegus, O.; Varykhalov, A.; de Visser, A.; Golden, M.

    2013-01-01

    SmB6, a well-known Kondo insulator, has been proposed to be an ideal topological insulator with states of topological character located in a clean, bulk electronic gap, namely, the Kondo-hybridization gap. Since the Kondo gap arises from many-body electronic correlations, SmB6 would be placed at the

  19. Valence, magnetism and conduction in the intermediate valence compounds: the case SmB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derr, J.

    2006-09-01

    In some rare earth based compounds, the 4f level is situated so close to the Fermi level that the valence of the compound can become intermediate between two integer values. The so called 'intermediate valence' compound of Samarium hexaboride (SmB 6 ) is one typical example of the exciting physics which can result from this quantum equilibrium between two valence configurations. The first configuration (Sm 2+ ) corresponds to an insulating and non magnetic state whereas the second one (Sm 3+ ) would theoretically give a magnetic and metallic ground state. This dissertation deals with the influence of pressure on this equilibrium. Specific heat measurements under pressure evidenced a new long range magnetic ordering for pressures higher than p c ∼ 10 GPa. On another hand, transport measurements measured for the first time in good conditions of hydrostatics found a reliable and reproducible critical pressure for the insulator to metal transition equal to p c . The phase diagram of SmB 6 is now well known and the observation for the first time of a magnetic anomaly in the high pressure resistivity curves certifies that the onset of the magnetic phase really coincide with the closure of the gap. This change at the critical pressure p c is discussed in a general frame taking into account the Kondo lattice temperature as a key parameter for the renormalization of the wavefunction from one integer configuration to the other whereas the valence itself is still intermediate. This general idea seems to be valid also for other systems studied in this dissertation like SmS or TmSe and could even be valid for more general cases (Ytterbium, Cerium). In the same time, resistivity measurements under uniaxial stress were undertaken. The result is a strong anisotropy effect observed on the pressure dependence of the residual resistivity in the compound SmB 6 . The comparison with the transport under hydrostatic conditions enables us to consider a new idea for the nature of the gap

  20. Comparison of Monte Carlo simulations of cytochrome b6f with experiment using Latin hypercube sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Mark F; Kramer, David M

    2011-09-01

    We have programmed a Monte Carlo simulation of the Q-cycle model of electron transport in cytochrome b(6)f complex, an enzyme in the photosynthetic pathway that converts sunlight into biologically useful forms of chemical energy. Results were compared with published experiments of Kramer and Crofts (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1183:72-84, 1993). Rates for the simulation were optimized by constructing large numbers of parameter sets using Latin hypercube sampling and selecting those that gave the minimum mean square deviation from experiment. Multiple copies of the simulation program were run in parallel on a Beowulf cluster. We found that Latin hypercube sampling works well as a method for approximately optimizing very noisy objective functions of 15 or 22 variables. Further, the simplified Q-cycle model can reproduce experimental results in the presence or absence of a quinone reductase (Q(i)) site inhibitor without invoking ad hoc side-reactions. © Society for Mathematical Biology 2011

  1. ENDF/B-6 charged-particle sub-libraries. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.; McLaughlin, P.K.; Pronyaev, V.G.

    1998-01-01

    This document summarizes the ENDF/B-6 sublibraries for nuclear reaction data of protons, deuterons and tritons. Presently included are complete (double differential) evaluations for the interaction of protons with H-1 and He-3, and evaluated cross-sections for five fusion reactions between d, t, and He-3 particles. The 1998 update includes complete presentation of the nuclear data for C-12 and O-16 needed for transport, damage, heating, radioactivity and shielding applications over the incident proton energy range from 1 to 150 MeV. The data library, which has a size of 1.60 Megabytes, is available upon request from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, costfree, on floppy diskette, or CD-ROM. The library is available online within NDIS, the Nuclear Data Information System and also from the WWW pages of the Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  2. Pumping experiment of water on B and LaB6 films with electron beam evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takahiro; Hanaoka, Yutaka; Akaishi, Kenya; Kubota, Yusuke; Motojima, Osamu; Mushiaki, Motoi; Funato, Yasuyuki.

    1992-10-01

    Pumping characteristics of water vapor on boron and lanthanum hexaboride films formed with an electron beam evaporator have been investigated in high vacuum of a pressure region between 10 -4 and 10 -3 Pa. Measured initial maximum pumping speeds of water for fresh B and LaB 6 films on substrates with a deposition amount from 2.3 x 10 21 to 6.7 x 10 21 molecules·m -2 are 3.2 ∼ 4.9 m 3 ·s -1 ·m -2 , and maximum saturation amounts of adsorbed water on these films are 2.9 x 10 20 ∼ 1.3 x 10 21 H 2 O molecules·m -2 . (author)

  3. Luminosity effects in the ultraviolet spectrum of B5-B6 stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, A.B.; Silversmith, E.

    1976-01-01

    Copernicus U2 spectral tracings of the ultraviolet spectra of eta CMa (B5 Ia) and zeta Dra (B6 III) have been compared, and four regions: 1330 to 1340 A, 1340 to 1350 A, 1390 to 1396 A, and 1398 to 1405 A: are found to contain differences due to luminosity effects. The observed profiles are interpreted using synthetic spectra predicted with LTE theory. These effects are found: (1) the C ii 1335 blend is shortward-displaced in eta CMa, (2) the P iii and Si iv resonance lines strengthen significantly in the supergiant, and (3) lines of multiplet UV7 of Si ii are strengthened by non-LTE effects in the supergiant

  4. Fibonacci Sequences Quasiperiodic A5B6C7 Ferroelectric Based Photonic Crystal: FDTD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Simsek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present an investigation of the optical properties and band structures for the conventional and Fibonacci photonic crystals (PCs based on some A5B6C7 ferroelectrics (SbSBr and BiTeCl. Here, we use one dimensional SbSBr and BiTeCl based layers in air background. We have theoretically calculated the photonic band structure and transmission spectra of SbSBr and BiTeCl based PC superlattices. The position of minima in the transmission spectrum correlates with the gaps obtained in the calculation. The intensity of the transmission depths is more intense in the case of higher refractive index contrast between the layers. In our simulation, we employed the finite-difference time domain  technique and the plane wave expansion method, which implies the solution of Maxwell equations with centered finite-difference expressions for the space and time derivatives.

  5. Nutritional Risk, Micronutrient Status and Clinical Outcomes: A Prospective Observational Study in an Infectious Disease Clinic

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    Oguzhan Sıtkı Dizdar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional status and micronutrient levels of hospitalized patients in an infectious disease clinic and investigate their association with adverse clinical outcomes. The nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002 and micronutrient levels and routine biochemical parameters were tested within the first 24 h of the patient’s admission. The incidence of zinc, selenium, thiamine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 deficiency were 66.7% (n = 40, 46.6% (n = 29, 39.7% (n = 27, 35.3% (n = 24, 14.1% (n = 9, respectively. Selenium levels were significantly higher in patients with urinary tract infections, but lower in soft tissue infections. Copper levels were significantly higher in patients with soft tissue infections. In the Cox regression models, lower albumin, higher serum lactate dehydrogenase levels and higher NRS-2002 scores were associated with increased death. Thiamine, selenium, zinc and vitamin B6 deficiencies but not chromium deficiencies are common in infectious disease clinics. New associations were found between micronutrient levels and infection type and their adverse clinical outcomes. Hypoalbuminemia and a high NRS-2002 score had the greatest accuracy in predicting death, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis on admission.

  6. Current status of iodine deficiency-related disorders prophylaxis in Slovakia – the life’s work of Julian Podoba remained unfinished

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    Podoba J

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Prophylaxis of iodine deficiency-related disorders with iodized salt in Slovakia was introduced in 1951. This prophylactic measure yielded remarkably good results. Endemic goiter and endemic cretinism disappeared. Sufficient iodine intake, mainly in children and adolescents, was confirmed in several local and international studies carried out in the period 1991–95. Unfortunately, since seventies, there has been no institution which would have dealt with iodine prophylaxis in such an extent as this important measure of Slovak preventive medicine would require. Neither systematic monitoring of iodine intake nor systematic population epidemiological studies have been carried out. We do not have any data on the iodine intake in pregnant women, the most vulnerable population group in relation to the iodine deficiency. During the period June 2014 – October 2015, we examined iodine excretion in 426 probands from three regions of Slovakia with an emphasis on the pregnant women.

  7. Hygienic risk assessment of children with somatic health problems associated with vitamin deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.J. Ustinova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the seasonal provision of children attending pre-school organizations that implement the standard artificial diet fortification with vitamins A, C, D, E, В 6 and B 12 was performed. It was found that 75–85 % of children have a yearround vitamin deficiency and 40 % cases have the status of polyhypovitaminose. In autumn and winter the provision of children with vitamins corresponds to the physiological needs, but in the spring months 70 % of children have a deficit in vitamin C, and 15 % – in vitamin A. Even in autumn, every third child has a deficiency in vitamin B6, and every tenth – in vitamin D; in the spring the number of children with insufficient provision of these vitamins increases in 1.8–6.3 times. Half of the children, who attend pre-school organizations, have year-round vitamin B12 deficiency. Deficiency of vitamins up to 3 times increases the risk of developing disorders of physical development of children, dysfunction processes of vascular tone regulation and autonomic reactivity, and the incidence of chronic diseases of children is increased in 1.3–2.2 times.

  8. Glutamine supplementation in a child with inherited GS deficiency improves the clinical status and partially corrects the peripheral and central amino acid imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häberle Johannes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glutamine synthetase (GS is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian organisms and is a key enzyme in nitrogen metabolism. It is the only known enzyme capable of synthesising glutamine, an amino acid with many critical roles in the human organism. A defect in GLUL, encoding for GS, leads to congenital systemic glutamine deficiency and has been described in three patients with epileptic encephalopathy. There is no established treatment for this condition. Here, we describe a therapeutic trial consisting of enteral and parenteral glutamine supplementation in a four year old patient with GS deficiency. The patient received increasing doses of glutamine up to 1020 mg/kg/day. The effect of this glutamine supplementation was monitored clinically, biochemically, and by studies of the electroencephalogram (EEG as well as by brain magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Treatment was well tolerated and clinical monitoring showed improved alertness. Concentrations of plasma glutamine normalized while levels in cerebrospinal fluid increased but remained below the lower reference range. The EEG showed clear improvement and spectroscopy revealed increasing concentrations of glutamine and glutamate in brain tissue. Concomitantly, there was no worsening of pre-existing chronic hyperammonemia. In conclusion, supplementation of glutamine is a safe therapeutic option for inherited GS deficiency since it corrects the peripheral biochemical phenotype and partially also improves the central biochemical phenotype. There was some clinical improvement but the patient had a long standing severe encephalopathy. Earlier supplementation with glutamine might have prevented some of the neuronal damage.

  9. Strategies for vitamin B6 biofortification of plants: A dual role as a micronutrient and a stress protectant

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    Hervé eVanderschuren

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B6 has an essential role in cells as a cofactor for several metabolic enzymes. It has also been shown to function as a potent antioxidant molecule. The recent elucidation of the vitamin B6 biosynthesis pathways in plants provides opportunities for characterizing their importance during developmental processes and exposure to stress. Humans and animals must acquire vitamin B6 with their diet, with plants being a major source, because they cannot biosynthesize it de novo. However, the abundance of the vitamin in the edible portions of the most commonly consumed plants is not sufficient to meet daily requirements. Genetic engineering has proven successful in increasing the vitamin B6 content in the model plant Arabidopsis. The added benefits associated with the enhanced vitamin B6 content, such as higher biomass and resistance to abiotic stress, suggest that increasing this essential micronutrient could be a valuable option to improve the nutritional quality and stress tolerance of crop plants. This review summarizes current achievements in biofortification of vitamin B6 and considers strategies for increasing vitamin B6 levels in crop plants for human health and nutrition.

  10. Vitamin B1 and B6 method harmonization: comparison of performance between laboratories enrolled in the RCPA Quality Assurance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, Kirsten E; Johnson, Lambro A; Woollard, Gerald A; Walmsley, Trevor A; Briscoe, Scott; Jolly, Lisa M; Gill, Janice P; Greaves, Ronda F

    2013-06-01

    The RCPA Quality Assurance Program (RCPA QAP) offers monthly proficiency testing for vitamins A, B1, B6, β-carotene, C and E to laboratories worldwide. A review of the results submitted for the whole blood vitamin B1/B6 sub-program revealed a wide dispersion. Here we describe the results of a methodology survey for vitamins B1 and B6. A questionnaire was sent to thirteen laboratories. Eleven laboratories were returning QAP results for vitamin B1 (thiamine diphosphate) and five were returning results for vitamin B6 (pyridoxal-5-phosphate). All nine respondents provided a clinical service for vitamins B1 and B6. HPLC with fluorescence detection was the most common method principle. For vitamin B1, six respondents used a commercial assay whilst three used in-house methods; whole blood was the matrix for all. For vitamin B6, five respondents used commercial assays and four used in-house assays. The choice of matrix for vitamin B6 varied with three respondents using whole blood and five using plasma for analysis. Sample preparation incorporated protein precipitation and derivatization steps. An internal standard was employed in sample preparation by only one survey respondent. The immediate result of this survey was the incorporation of plasma vitamin B6 into the RCPA QAP vitamin program. The absence of an internal standard in current vitamin B1 and B6 assays is a likely contributor to the wide dispersion of results seen in this program. We recommend kit manufacturers and laboratories investigate the inclusion of internal standards to correct the variability that may occur during processing. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of micronutrient deficiencies pre- and post-antiretroviral therapy (ART) among a diverse multicountry cohort of HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakoti, Rupak; Christian, Parul; Yang, Wei-Teng; Gupte, Nikhil; Mwelase, Noluthando; Kanyama, Cecilia; Pillay, Sandy; Samaneka, Wadzanai; Santos, Breno; Poongulali, Selvamuthu; Tripathy, Srikanth; Riviere, Cynthia; Berendes, Sima; Lama, Javier R; Cardoso, Sandra W; Sugandhavesa, Patcharaphan; Tang, Alice M; Semba, Richard D; Campbell, Thomas B; Gupta, Amita

    2016-02-01

    HIV-infected adults have increased risk of several individual micronutrient deficiencies. However, the prevalence and risk factors of concurrent and multiple micronutrient deficiencies and whether micronutrient concentrations change after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation have not been well described. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of individual, concurrent and multiple micronutrient deficiencies among ART-naïve HIV-infected adults from nine countries and assess change in micronutrient status 48 weeks post-ART initiation. A random sub-cohort (n = 270) stratified by country was selected from the multinational PEARLS clinical trial (n = 1571 ART-naïve, HIV-infected adults). We measured serum concentrations of vitamins A, D (25-hydroxyvitamin), E, carotenoids and selenium pre-ART and 48 weeks post-ART initiation, and measured vitamins B6, B12, ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor at baseline only. Prevalence of single micronutrient deficiencies, concurrent (2 coexisting) or conditional (a deficiency in one micronutrient given a deficiency in another) and multiple (≥3) were determined using defined serum concentration cutoffs. We assessed mean changes in micronutrient concentrations from pre-ART to week 48 post-ART initiation using multivariable random effects models. Of 270 participants, 13.9%, 29.2%, 24.5% and 32.4% had 0, 1, 2 and multiple deficiencies, respectively. Pre-ART prevalence was the highest for single deficiencies of selenium (53.2%), vitamin D (42.4%), and B6 (37.3%) with 12.1% having concurrent deficiencies of all three micronutrients. Deficiency prevalence varied widely by country. 48 weeks post-ART initiation, mean vitamin A concentration increased (p ART (p ART initiation but vary between countries. Importantly, despite increases in micronutrient concentrations, prevalence of individual deficiencies remains largely unchanged after 48 weeks on ART. Our results suggest that ART alone is

  12. [Metabolic disorders and nutritional status in autoimmune thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena

    2015-01-02

    In recent years, the authors of epidemiological studies have documented that autoimmune diseases are a major problem of modern society and are classified as diseases of civilization. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are caused by an abnormal immune response to autoantigens present in the thyroid gland - they often coexist with other autoimmune diseases. The most common dysfunctions of the thyroid gland are hypothyroidism, Graves-Basedow disease and Hashimoto's disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis can be the main cause of primary hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland. Anthropometric, biochemical and physicochemical parameters are used to assess the nutritional status during the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. Patients with hypothyroidism are often obese, whereas patients with hyperthyroidism are often afflicted with rapid weight loss. The consequence of obesity is a change of the thyroid hormones' activity; however, weight reduction leads to their normalization. The activity and metabolic rate of thyroid hormones are modifiable. ATDs are associated with abnormalities of glucose metabolism and thus increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2. Celiac disease (CD) also increases the risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. Malnutrition or the presence of numerous nutritional deficiencies in a patient's body can be the cause of thyroid disorders. Coexisting deficiencies of such elements as iodine, iron, selenium and zinc may impair the function of the thyroid gland. Other nutrient deficiencies usually observed in patients suffering from ATD are: protein deficiencies, vitamin deficiencies (A, C, B6, B5, B1) and mineral deficiencies (phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium). Proper diet helps to reduce the symptoms of the disease, maintains a healthy weight and prevents the occurrence of malnutrition. This article presents an overview of selected documented studies and scientific reports on the relationship of metabolic

  13. Metabolic disorders and nutritional status in autoimmune thyroid diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kawicka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the authors of epidemiological studies have documented that autoimmune diseases are a major problem of modern society and are classified as diseases of civilization. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs are caused by an abnormal immune response to autoantigens present in the thyroid gland – they often coexist with other autoimmune diseases. The most common dysfunctions of the thyroid gland are hypothyroidism, Graves-Basedow disease and Hashimoto’s disease. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis can be the main cause of primary hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland. Anthropometric, biochemical and physicochemical parameters are used to assess the nutritional status during the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. Patients with hypothyroidism are often obese, whereas patients with hyperthyroidism are often afflicted with rapid weight loss. The consequence of obesity is a change of the thyroid hormones’ activity; however, weight reduction leads to their normalization. The activity and metabolic rate of thyroid hormones are modifiable. ATDs are associated with abnormalities of glucose metabolism and thus increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2. Celiac disease (CD also increases the risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. Malnutrition or the presence of numerous nutritional deficiencies in a patient’s body can be the cause of thyroid disorders. Coexisting deficiencies of such elements as iodine, iron, selenium and zinc may impair the function of the thyroid gland. Other nutrient deficiencies usually observed in patients suffering from ATD are: protein deficiencies, vitamin deficiencies (A, C, B6, B5, B1 and mineral deficiencies (phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium. Proper diet helps to reduce the symptoms of the disease, maintains a healthy weight and prevents the occurrence of malnutrition. This article presents an overview of selected documented studies and scientific reports on the

  14. Internal lipid architecture of the hetero-oligomeric cytochrome b6f complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S Saif; Cramer, William A

    2014-07-08

    The role of lipids in the assembly, structure, and function of hetero-oligomeric membrane protein complexes is poorly understood. The dimeric photosynthetic cytochrome b6f complex, a 16-mer of eight distinct subunits and 26 transmembrane helices, catalyzes transmembrane proton-coupled electron transfer for energy storage. Using a 2.5 Å crystal structure of the dimeric complex, we identified 23 distinct lipid-binding sites per monomer. Annular lipids are proposed to provide a connection for super-complex formation with the photosystem-I reaction center and the LHCII kinase enzyme for transmembrane signaling. Internal lipids mediate crosslinking to stabilize the domain-swapped iron-sulfur protein subunit, dielectric heterogeneity within intermonomer and intramonomer electron transfer pathways, and dimer stabilization through lipid-mediated intermonomer interactions. This study provides a complete structure analysis of lipid-mediated functions in a multi-subunit membrane protein complex and reveals lipid sites at positions essential for assembly and function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanism-Based Inactivation of Cytochrome P450 2B6 by Methadone through Destruction of Prosthetic Heme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amunugama, Hemali T.; Zhang, Haoming

    2012-01-01

    Methadone is a μ-opioid receptor agonist widely used in the treatment of narcotic addiction and chronic pain conditions. Methadone is metabolized predominantly in the liver by cytochromes P450 to its pharmacologically inactive primary metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine. Initial in vitro data suggested that CYP3A4 is the major isoform responsible for the in vivo clearance of methadone in humans. However, recent clinical data have indicated that CYP2B6 is actually the major isoform responsible for methadone metabolism and clearance in vivo. In this study, methadone was shown to act as a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP2B6. Methadone inactivates CYP2B6 in a time-, concentration-, and NADPH-dependent manner with a KI = 10.0 μM and kinact = 0.027 min−1. The loss of CYP2B6 activity in the presence of methadone and NADPH occurred with concomitant loss of the reduced CO spectrum of the P450. Moreover, there was good correlation between the loss of CYP2B6 activity and the loss of the CO-binding spectrum. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the native heme of the inactivated CYP2B6 demonstrated that approximately 75% loss of heme was accompanied by comparable inactivation of CYP2B6. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis did not reveal the formation of a protein adduct during the inactivation. The evidence strongly suggests that destruction of prosthetic heme is the underlying mechanism leading to the inactivation of CYP2B6 by methadone. PMID:22685215

  16. A novel mouse model of creatine transporter deficiency [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4zb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Baroncelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the creatine (Cr transporter (CrT gene lead to cerebral creatine deficiency syndrome-1 (CCDS1, an X-linked metabolic disorder characterized by cerebral Cr deficiency causing intellectual disability, seizures, movement  and behavioral disturbances, language and speech impairment ( OMIM #300352. CCDS1 is still an untreatable pathology that can be very invalidating for patients and caregivers. Only two murine models of CCDS1, one of which is an ubiquitous knockout mouse, are currently available to study the possible mechanisms underlying the pathologic phenotype of CCDS1 and to develop therapeutic strategies. Given the importance of validating phenotypes and efficacy of promising treatments in more than one mouse model we have generated a new murine model of CCDS1 obtained by ubiquitous deletion of 5-7 exons in the Slc6a8 gene. We showed a remarkable Cr depletion in the murine brain tissues and cognitive defects, thus resembling the key features of human CCDS1. These results confirm that CCDS1 can be well modeled in mice. This CrT−/y murine model will provide a new tool for increasing the relevance of preclinical studies to the human disease.

  17. A novel mouse model of creatine transporter deficiency [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4f8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Baroncelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the creatine (Cr transporter (CrT gene lead to cerebral creatine deficiency syndrome-1 (CCDS1, an X-linked metabolic disorder characterized by cerebral Cr deficiency causing intellectual disability, seizures, movement  and behavioral disturbances, language and speech impairment ( OMIM #300352. CCDS1 is still an untreatable pathology that can be very invalidating for patients and caregivers. Only two murine models of CCDS1, one of which is an ubiquitous knockout mouse, are currently available to study the possible mechanisms underlying the pathologic phenotype of CCDS1 and to develop therapeutic strategies. Given the importance of validating phenotypes and efficacy of promising treatments in more than one mouse model we have generated a new murine model of CCDS1 obtained by ubiquitous deletion of 5-7 exons in the Slc6a8 gene. We showed a remarkable Cr depletion in the murine brain tissues and cognitive defects, thus resembling the key features of human CCDS1. These results confirm that CCDS1 can be well modeled in mice. This CrT−/y murine model will provide a new tool for increasing the relevance of preclinical studies to the human disease.

  18. Determination of vitamin B6 bioavailability in animal tissues using intrinsic and extrinsic labeling in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ink, S.L.; Gregory, J.F. III; Sartain, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of thermal processing on the bioavailability of vitamin B 6 in liver and muscle was examined by radioisotopic enrichment of these tissues. Rats were fed a single gelled test meal containing rat liver or muscle intrinsically enriched by vascular perfusion with [ 3 H]vitamin B 6 or a gelled test meal containing [ 3 H]pyridoxine (PN). Diets were extrinsically enriched with [ 14 C]PN to permit a direct comparison of enrichment methods. Absorption and metabolism were examined by analysis of tissues and excreta 24 h after the test meal had been consumed. The bioavailability of [ 3 H]B 6 vitamers in the raw tissues was equivalent to that of [ 3 H]PN in controls. Thermal processing of the tissues (121 0 C, 45 min) induced destruction of 25-30% of the [ 3 H]B 6 vitamers and weakly reduced (≤10%) the utilization of the remaining[ 3 H]B 6 vitamers. The presence of monosodium glutamate (MSG) during thermal processing did not alter the results. The utilization of [ 14 C]PN was unaffected by diet composition. These data demonstrate the high bioavailability of vitamin B 6 in animal-derived foods and support the use of isotopic enrichment methods as an alternative to conventional bioassay procedures

  19. Effects of γ-irradiation and cooking on vitamins B6 and B12 in grass prawns (Penaeus monodon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau, L.-B.; Liew, M.-S.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of radiation doses, irradiation temperature and a combined treatment of irradiation and cooking on the vitamin B 6 and B 12 contents of grass prawns have been studied. Grass prawns were irradiated at refrigerated (4 o C) or frozen (-20 o C) temperatures with different doses. A domestic cooling procedure was followed after irradiation. The changes in vitamins B 6 and B 12 of both raw and cooked grass prawns were evaluated. Results showed no significant changes of vitamin B 6 and B 12 in grass prawns with a radiation dose up to 7 kGy at either 4 o C or -20 o C. Irradiation at 4 o C caused more destruction of vitamin B 12 but not vitamin B 6 than did irradiation at -20 o C in grass prawns. There was significant destruction of both vitamins B 6 and B 12 in unirradiated samples during cooking. The introduction of the irradiation process before cooking had no effect on either vitamin. These results indicate that the loss of vitamins B 6 and B 12 in the combined treatments was caused mainly by thermal destruction. (author)

  20. Effects of γ-irradiation and cooking on vitamins B 6 and B 12 in grass prawns (Penaeus monodon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, L.-B.; Liew, M.-S.

    1993-07-01

    The effects of irradiation doses, irradiation temperature and a combined treatment of irradiation and cooking on the vitamin B 6 and B 12 contents of grass prawns have been studied. Grass prawns were irradiated at refrigerated (4°C) or frozen (-20°C) temperatures with different doses. A domestic cooking procedure was followed after irradiation. The changes in vitamins B 6 and B 12 of both raw and cooked grass prawns were evaluated. Results showed no significant changes of vitamin B 6 and B 12 in grass prawns with a radiation dose up to 7 kGy at either 4°C or -20°C. Irradiation at 4°C caused more destruction of vitamin B 12 but not vitamin B 6 than did irradiation at -20°C in grass prawns. There was significant destruction of both vitamins B 6 and B 12 in unirradiated samples during cooking. The introduction of the irradiation process before cooking had no effect on either vitamin. These results indicate that the loss of vitamins B 6 and B 12 in the combined treatments was caused mainly by thermal destruction.

  1. VLCAD deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boneh, A; Andresen, B S; Gregersen, N

    2006-01-01

    We diagnosed six newborn babies with very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) through newborn screening in three years in Victoria (prevalence rate: 1:31,500). We identified seven known and two new mutations in our patients (2/6 homozygotes; 4/6 compound heterozygotes). Blood sa...

  2. Toward reassessing data-deficient species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Lucie M; Bielby, Jon; Kearney, Stephen; Orme, C David L; Watson, James E M; Collen, Ben

    2017-06-01

    One in 6 species (13,465 species) on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List is classified as data deficient due to lack of information on their taxonomy, population status, or impact of threats. Despite the chance that many are at high risk of extinction, data-deficient species are typically excluded from global and local conservation priorities, as well as funding schemes. The number of data-deficient species will greatly increase as the IUCN Red List becomes more inclusive of poorly known and speciose groups. A strategic approach is urgently needed to enhance the conservation value of data-deficient assessments. To develop this, we reviewed 2879 data-deficient assessments in 6 animal groups and identified 8 main justifications for assigning data-deficient status (type series, few records, old records, uncertain provenance, uncertain population status or distribution, uncertain threats, taxonomic uncertainty, and new species). Assigning a consistent set of justification tags (i.e., consistent assignment to assessment justifications) to species classified as data deficient is a simple way to achieve more strategic assessments. Such tags would clarify the causes of data deficiency; facilitate the prediction of extinction risk; facilitate comparisons of data deficiency among taxonomic groups; and help prioritize species for reassessment. With renewed efforts, it could be straightforward to prevent thousands of data-deficient species slipping unnoticed toward extinction. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Terrestrial chemical spill information system through remote sensing, GIS, and V.B. 6.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarakish, G. S.; Jeba S., Angel; Srinikethan, G.; Natesan, Usha

    2009-01-01

    India has made remarkable progress in creating a modern and diversified industrial base, since its independence. Most of the refineries, petrochemical and fertilizer industries are located in the coastal zone and catered by 12 major ports along the 7500 km length of Indian coastline. Since, transportation of crude oil and POL products from ports to refineries are mostly by pipelines, rail/ road, besides some quantity by barge/ ships along the coast, there will be chances of oil spill/leakage. Managing these events before and during their occurrence is imperative to the protection of people and natural resources. The present study was carried out with a view to develop Terrestrial Chemical Spill Information System [TCSIS], using Remote Sensing [RS], GIS and VB 6.0., for the Mangalore coastal zone industrial area of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka state, along West Coast of India. The study area lies between 74°45'00'' to 74°52'30''E longitude and 12°52'30'' to 13°00'00''N latitude. The database of TCSIS consists of both conventional data and RS data, and analysed using ERDAS Imagine 9.0 and ArcGIS 8.3 software. Different thematic maps prepared include LU/LC map, drainage map, road and pipeline network map, slope map, Digital Elevation Model, relative risk maps and pipeline route for the transportation of hazardous chemicals from port to refinery. The TCSIS module developed using RS, GIS and V.B.6.0, characterizes the ability of a spilled chemical to immediately impact human health, natural resources, and incorporates these into an overall measure of terrestrial chemical risk and aids in planning, preventing and responding to a terrestrial chemical spill.

  4. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of BaB6 from molten melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose T.P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium hexaboride (BaB6 crystals were electrochemically synthesized using molten salt technique. Barium carbonate (BaCO3 and boron trioxide (B2O3 was used as reactants. Lithium fluoride (LiF was used as the supporting electrolyte. The molten electrolyte consisted of 50 wt % BaCO3 and B2O3 with different stiochiometric ratios of Ba and B and 50 wt % lithium fluoride. DTA/TGA studies were made to determine the eutectic point of the melt and it was found to be around 821oC. The electrolytic cell had a high purity graphite crucible, which served as the electrolyte holding vessel and also as the anode for the electrolysis. An electro-polished molybdenum rod was employed as the cathode. The electrolysis was performed at 870ºC under argon atmosphere, at current densities ranging from 0.2-0.5 A/cm2. The electrodeposited crystals were examined for the phase identification using X-ray diffraction technique. The AAS and the chemical analysis were made for the determination of chemical composition of the synthesized crystals. The purity of the crystals was also assessed using ICP-MS, XRF and EDX, which reveal that the crystals were associated with trace amount of impurities like oxygen, carbon and iron. The compound is found to be more than 99 % pure. The morphology of the crystals was examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. From the above studies, it is concluded that the molten salt process is a simple preparative procedure for the synthesis of sub-micron size barium hexaboride crystals.

  5. Iron status in Danish women, 1984-1994: a cohort comparison of changes in iron stores and the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron overload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Byg, K.E.; Ovesen, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Background and objectives: From 1954 to 1986, flour in Denmark was fortified with 30 mg carbonyl iron per kilogram. This mandatory enrichment of cereal products was abolished in 1987. The aim was to evaluate iron status in the Danish female population before and after abolishment of iron...... fortification. Methods: Iron status, serum ferritin and haemoglobin, was assessed in population surveys in 1983-1984 comprising 1221 Caucasian women (1089 non-blood-donors, 130 donors) and in 1993-1994 comprising 1261 women (1155 non-blood-donors, 104 donors) equally distributed in age cohorts of 40, 50, 60......, postmenopausal women had median ferritin of 75 mug/L and in 1994 of 93 mug/L (P iron stores (ferritin iron stores (ferritin less...

  6. Iron status in Danish women, 1984-1994: a cohort comparison of changes in iron stores and the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron overload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Byg, K.E.; Ovesen, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Background and objectives: From 1954 to 1986, flour in Denmark was fortified with 30 mg carbonyl iron per kilogram. This mandatory enrichment of cereal products was abolished in 1987. The aim was to evaluate iron status in the Danish female population before and after abolishment of iron...... in Danish women from 12 to 9 mg/d. Despite the absence of food iron fortification, from 1984 to 1994, body iron stores were unchanged in premenopausal women, whereas iron stores and the prevalence of iron overload in postmenopausal women had increased significantly. The reason appears to be the changes...... fortification. Methods: Iron status, serum ferritin and haemoglobin, was assessed in population surveys in 1983-1984 comprising 1221 Caucasian women (1089 non-blood-donors, 130 donors) and in 1993-1994 comprising 1261 women (1155 non-blood-donors, 104 donors) equally distributed in age cohorts of 40, 50, 60...

  7. Effect of Combined Use of Calcium and Vitamin B6 on Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premenstrual syndrome is one of the most common disorders in women, which includes a group of psychological and physical symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of combined use of calcium and vitamin B6 on premenstrual syndrome symptoms. Methods: This double blind randomized controlled was carried out on 76 students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Students were randomly allocated to two groups. (38 people in each group. Student in intervention groups received calcium tablet (500mg and vitamin B6 (40 mg and student in intervention groups received only vitamin B6 twice a day for two consecutive months. The symptoms were assessed by Beck depression inventory (BDI and daily symptom records (DSR questionnaires. Analyses were carried out by test-retest method, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, Independent t-test, and paired t-test using SPSS software ver.13. Results: The result showed that although the severity of symptoms decreased in both groups, but this reduction was more significant in the combined calcium and vitamin B6 group. Conclusion: According to the result, using of combination of calcium and vitamin B6 leads to better controlling of the premenstrual syndrome symptoms. Therefore it is recommended for women who suffer from these syndromes.

  8. Human cytochrome P450 2B6 genetic variability in Botswana: a case of haplotype diversity and convergent phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Tawe, Leabaneng

    2018-03-14

    Identification of inter-individual variability for drug metabolism through cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) enzyme is important for understanding the differences in clinical responses to malaria and HIV. This study evaluates the distribution of CYP2B6 alleles, haplotypes and inferred metabolic phenotypes among subjects with different ethnicity in Botswana. A total of 570 subjects were analyzed for CYP2B6 polymorphisms at position 516 G > T (rs3745274), 785 A > G (rs2279343) and 983 T > C (rs28399499). Samples were collected in three districts of Botswana where the population belongs to Bantu (Serowe/Palapye and Chobe) and San-related (Ghanzi) ethnicity. The three districts showed different haplotype composition according to the ethnic background but similar metabolic inferred phenotypes, with 59.12%, 34.56%, 2.10% and 4.21% of the subjects having, respectively, an extensive, intermediate, slow and rapid metabolic profile. The results hint at the possibility of a convergent adaptation of detoxifying metabolic phenotypes despite a different haplotype structure due to the different genetic background. The main implication is that, while there is substantial homogeneity of metabolic inferred phenotypes among the country, the response to drugs metabolized via CYP2B6 could be individually associated to an increased risk of treatment failure and toxicity. These are important facts since Botswana is facing malaria elimination and a very high HIV prevalence.

  9. Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies After Biliopancreatic Diversion and Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch--the Rule Rather than the Exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Jens; Betzel, Bark; Aarts, Edo O; Dogan, K; van Laarhoven, Kees J H M; Janssen, Ignace M C; Berends, Frits J

    2015-09-01

    Malabsorptive bariatric procedures, like the biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) and BPD with duodenal switch (BPD/DS), have excellent results in terms of weight loss. However, these malabsorptive techniques are associated with severe malnutrition and vitamin deficiencies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vitamin and mineral status after BPD and BPD/DS in the long term. All patients who underwent BPD or BPD/DS were selected and invited for an additional follow-up (FU) visit, including blood sampling for vitamin and mineral levels. Forty patients completed the blood sampling with a median FU of 42 (range 12-90) months. At that time, all patients used some kind of supplementation. However, 93 % of all patients were diagnosed with a deficiency. There were no significant differences in mean serum level vitamins and minerals between BPD and BPD/DS. Forty-three per cent of the patients were anaemic, and 40 % had an iron deficiency (ID). High deficiency rates for fat-soluble vitamins were present: vitamin A in 28 %, vitamin D in 60 %, vitamin E in 10 % and vitamin K in 60 % of the patients. Hypervitaminosis was found in 43 % of the patients for vitamin B1 and in 50 % for vitamin B6. High numbers of vitamin and mineral deficiencies were found after BPD and BPD/DS despite vitamin supplementation. Anaemia, ID and deficiencies for fat-soluble vitamins are frequently diagnosed. Repeated monitoring is necessary to detect deficiencies at an early stage. Taking all of this into consideration, a stringent multivitamin supplementation regimen should be implemented after malabsorptive procedures.

  10. Pervasive and stochastic changes in the TCR repertoire of regulatory T-cell-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingjie; Sharma, Rahul; Kung, John T; Deshmukh, Umesh S; Jarjour, Wael N; Fu, Shu Man; Ju, Shyr-Te

    2008-04-01

    We hypothesize that regulatory T-cell (Treg)-deficient strains have an altered TCR repertoire in part due to the expansion of autoimmune repertoire by self-antigen. We compared the Vbeta family expression profile between B6 and Treg-lacking B6.Cg-Foxp3(sf)(/Y) (B6.sf) mice using fluorescent anti-Vbeta mAbs and observed no changes. However, while the spectratypes of 20 Vbeta families among B6 mice were highly similar, the Vbeta family spectratypes of B6.sf mice were remarkably different from B6 mice and from each other. Significant spectratype changes in many Vbeta families were also observed in Treg-deficient IL-2 knockout (KO) and IL-2Ralpha KO mice. Such changes were not observed with anti-CD3 mAb-treated B6 mice or B6 CD4+CD25- T cells. TCR transgenic (OT-II.sf) mice displayed dramatic reduction of clonotypic TCR with concomitant increase in T cells bearing non-transgenic Vbeta and Valpha families, including T cells with dual receptors expressing reduced levels of transgenic Valpha and endogenous Valpha. Collectively, the data demonstrate that Treg deficiency allows polyclonal expansion of T cells in a stochastic manner, resulting in widespread changes in the TCR repertoire.

  11. STUDY OF CLINICO- EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS ADMITTED WITH INFANTILE TREMOR SYNDROME (ITS AND STATUS OF TRACE ELEMENTS (ZINC, COPPER DEFICIENCY IN THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Makwana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Under nutrition is one of the major problems in the field of Paediatrics. The greatest risk of malnutrition is in the first two years of life. The effects of this early damage on health, brain development, intelligence, educability and productivity are potentially reversible. The current study was an attempt to find out the clinico epidemiological profile, evaluate them for trace elements deficiency and most appropriate management options in those who are admitted with infantile tremor syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS The current study was a hospital based cross sectional study that was conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, Dr. S. N. Medical College Jodhpur. Duration of study was One Year. Any child up to the age of three years of age admitted in the paediatric wards with typical features of infantile tremor syndrome. RESULTS Maximum numbers of patients were found between 6 months to 12 months of age, there was slight male predominance. The majority of infants in our study (85% were exclusively breast fed, 66% of cases were having low serum Copper level. 9% of cases were having low serum zinc level. 8% of cases were having low serum copper level with tremors. CONCLUSION In our study the fact that NTS is mainly seen in children who are exclusively breast feed for a longer period with delayed introduction of weaning foods. The main presenting features remain developmental delay, hyper pigmentation and anemia. Among nutritional factors, deficiency of copper and zinc in children plays a big role in development of disease. Thus to prevent the development of nutritional tremor syndrome stress should be on early timely introduction of weaning foods, especially rich in copper and zinc. What is already known about this Study- low levels of trace elements like copper and zinc may be responsible for typical clinical manifestations in patients of infantile tremor syndrome. Pronged and Exclusive breast feeding further aggravate these features

  12. Lack of Association between Serum Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, and Vitamin D Levels with Different Types of Glaucoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjie Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although vitamins play a major role in health, and their deficiency may be linked to symptoms of optic-nerve dysfunction, the association between serum vitamin levels and glaucoma in humans remains controversial. In this study, articles in the PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were searched up to 25March 2017. Nine studies on primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, four studies on normal tension glaucoma (NTG, and six studies on exfoliative glaucoma (EXG were retrieved. The combined results showed no differences in the levels of serum vitamin B6 between POAG (p = 0.406 and EXG (p = 0.139 patients and controls. The weighted mean differences (WMDs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were 2.792 ng/mL (−3.793 to 9.377 and 1.342 ng/mL (−3.120 to 0.436, respectively. There was no difference between POAG (p = 0.952, NTG (p = 0.757, or EXG (p = 0.064 patients and controls in terms of serum vitamin B12. The WMDs with 95% CIs were 0.933 pg/mL (−31.116 to 29.249, 6.652 pg/mL (−35.473 to 48.777, and 49.946 pg/mL (−102.892 to 3.001, respectively. The serum vitamin D levels exhibited no differences (p = 0.064 between POAG patients and controls; the WMD with 95% CI was 2.488 ng/mL (−5.120 to 0.145. In conclusion, there was no association found between serum vitamin B6, vitamin B12, or vitamin D levels and the different types of glaucoma.

  13. Iron deficiency among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigas, A S; Pedersen, O B; Magnussen, K

    2017-01-01

    and menopausal status are the strongest predictors of iron deficiency. Only little information on the health effects of iron deficiency in blood donors exits. Possibly, after a standard full blood donation, a temporarily reduced physical performance for women is observed. However, iron deficiency among blood...... donors is not reflected in a reduced self-perceived mental and physical health. In general, the high proportion of iron-deficient donors can be alleviated either by extending the inter-donation intervals or by guided iron supplementation. The experience from Copenhagen, the Capital Region of Denmark......, is that routine ferritin measurements and iron supplementation are feasible and effective ways of reducing the proportion of donors with low haemoglobin levels....

  14. A simple and efficient method to prepare pure dimers and monomers of the cytochrome b6f complex from spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján, María A; Lorente, Patricia; Zazubovich, Valter; Picorel, Rafael

    2017-06-01

    Using a single size-exclusion chromatography we were able to isolate highly pure dimers and monomers of the Cyt b 6 f complex from spinach from a bulk preparation of that protein complex obtained with a standard procedure. At higher protein/detergent ratio during the chromatography most of the Cyt b 6 f complex remained as dimers. In contrast, at lower protein/detergent ratio (around 15 times lower), most dimers became monomerized. As a bonus, this chromatography also allowed the elimination of potential Chl a contaminant to the Cyt b 6 f preparations. SDS-PAGE protein analysis with 18% (w/v) acrylamide revealed the loss of the ISP subunit in our monomeric preparation. However, it fully retained the content of Chl a, a prerequisite to perform any spectroscopic study involving this unique pigment.

  15. Evaluation of single crystal LaB6 cathodes for use in a high frequency backward wave oscillator tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, L. W.; Davis, P. R.; Schwind, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of thermionic emission and evaporation studies of single crystal LaB6 cathodes are given. A comparison between the (100), (210) and (310) crystal planes shows the (310) and (210) planes to possess a work function approx 0.2 eV lower than (100). This translates into a significant increase in current density, J, at a specified temperature. Comparison with a state-of-the-art impregnated dispenser cathode shows that LaB6 (310) is a superior cathode in nearly all respects except operating temperature at j 10 A/sq cm. The 1600 K thermionic and room temperature retarding potential work functions for LaB6 (310) are 2.42 and 2.50 respectively.

  16. Dosimetry of 99mTc-DD-3B6/22 Fab' for use in staging ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, E.; Smith, S.V.; Schmidt, P.F.; Di Bartolo, N.M.; Prabakaran, K.; Femandes, V.; Donaghy, T.; Clingan, P.; Bundesen, P.; Hillyard, C.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The diagnostic utility of 99 mTc-DD-3B6/22 Fab'' for staging ovarian cancer in a phase 11 trial is under way. The dose due to 99 mTc- DD-3B6/22 Fab'' was used to estimate the dose for the analogous 188 Re compound for therapy of ovarian cancer. The new agent, 99 mTc-DD-3B6/22 Fab'' (600 mBq) was found to clear rapidly from the blood via the renal system. A ''kidney'' phantom was used to calibrate renal activity. The dose to selected organs was estimated using the MlRDose 2 adult female model. In most cases the kidney uptake accounted for 30% of activity administered. Urine activity was measured directly and the dose calculated assuming a mean volume of 300 mL. All remaining activity was assumed to be uniformly distributed throughout the body. Results show the dose to kidneys, bladder wall and whole body were 4.5-9.1; 1.2-6.3; 0.2-0.3 cGy, respectively. The biological distribution of the 188 Re-DD-3B6/22 Fab'' was assumed to be similar to that of 99 mTc-DD-3B6/22 Fab''. The activity/time data was adjusted for the relative t 1/2 of 99 mTc and 188 Re. The calculated kidney dose due to 188 Re was approx. 800 cGy. As kidney damage from acute radiation nephritis is thought to occur at doses >1000 cGy, this study indicates that provided uptake at tumor site is adequate 188 Re-DD-3B6/22 Fab'' may have a role in therapy of ovarian cancer

  17. Clinical Significance of EphB4 and EphB6 Expression in Human Malignant and Benign Thyroid Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaginis, Constantinos; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Poulaki, Elpida; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Troungos, Constantinos; Patsouris, Efstratios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2016-04-01

    Ephrin receptors (Ephs) are frequently overexpressed in a wide variety of human malignant tumors, being associated with tumor growth, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of EphB4 and EphB6 protein expression in human malignant and benign thyroid lesions. EphB4 and EphB6 protein expression was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues obtained from 127 patients with benign (n = 71) and malignant (n = 56) thyroid lesions. Enhanced EphB4 and EphB6 expression was more frequently observed in malignant compared to benign thyroid lesions (p = 0.0508 and p = 0.0006, respectively). EphB4 and EphB6 expression also provided a distinct discrimination between papillary carcinoma and hyperplastic nodules (p = 0.0302 and p = 0.0013, respectively). In malignant thyroid lesions, enhanced EphB4 expression was significantly associated with larger tumor size (p = 0.0366). Enhanced EphB6 expression was significantly associated with larger tumor size (p = 0.0366), the presence of lymph node metastases (p = 0.0023), the presence of capsular (p = 0.0038), lymphatic (p = 0.0053) and vascular invasion (p = 0.0018) and increased risk of recurrence rate (p = 0.0038). The present study supported evidence that EphB4 and mainly EphB6 may participate in the malignant thyroid transformation, reinforcing their utility as useful biomarkers and possible therapeutic targets in this type of neoplasia.

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  19. Supply with the vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in carcinomas before and after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, U.; Wulff, K.; Schmidt, W.

    1983-01-01

    In 108 breast cancer, 63 cervix carcinoma, 35 corpus carcinoma and 15 ovarial cancer patients the erythrocyte transketolase, gluthathione reductase and aspartate aminotransferase activity were determined as parameters for the supply with vitamin B 1 , B 2 and B 6 before and after radiotherapy. The effects of thiamine pyrophosphate determined in cancer patients were normal but the effects of flavin adenine dinucleotide and pyridoxal-5-phosphate were significantly increased compared to the controls. These results revealed radiation-induced disorders in the B 2 metabolism and tumor-induced disorders in the B 6 metabolism. Both disorders can be avoided by treatment with vitamin B complex. (author)

  20. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  1. Protein and vitamin B6 intake are associated with liver steatosis assessed by transient elastography, especially in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Yvelise; Carè, Ilaria; Mazza, Elisa; Provenzano, Francesco; Colica, Carmela; Torti, Carlo; Romeo, Stefano; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana

    2017-09-01

    Although the detrimental effects of several dietary components on the promotion of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are well known, no studies have assessed the role of dietary vitamin B6. Moreover, studies on the associations between dietary components or body composition indices and liver steatosis assessed by transient elastography are rare. Our aim was to identify the nutritional factors and anthropometric parameters associated with liver steatosis. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 168 individuals (35% obese) who underwent a liver steatosis assessment by Controlled Attenuation Parameter measurement and nutritional assessment. Tertiles of vitamin B6 intake were positively associated with hepatic steatosis (B=1.89, P =0.026, confidence interval [CI] 0.03-0.80) as well as with triglycerides, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and body mass index . In obese individuals, after multivariable analysis, the Controlled Attenuation Parameter score was still associated with triglycerides, ALT, and total protein intake (B=0.56, P =0.01, CI 0.10-1.02). Participants in tertile I (low intake) had a lower Controlled Attenuation Parameter than those in tertile III ( P =0.01). We found a positive association between hepatic steatosis or Controlled Attenuation Parameter score and vitamin B6/total protein intake, probably related to the high intake of meat. Vitamin B6 might have a pathogenic role related to the increase of hepatic steatosis.

  2. Efficiency of PBN to Trap 3-CAR in B6C3F1 Mouse Liver Slices: An EPR Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steel-Goodwin, Linda

    1995-01-01

    ...) in the soil and ground water. TCE causes liver tumors in B6C3F1 mice. As part of the process to develop an environmental health effects criteria for base clean up a study of the effects of TCE induced free radicals in liver slices had been performed...

  3. Adsorption and possible dissociation of glucose by the [BN fullerene-B6]- magnetic nanocomposite. In silico studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anota, E. Chigo; Villanueva, M. Salazar; Shakerzadeh, E.; Castro, M.

    2018-02-01

    The adsorption, activation and possible dissociation of the glucose molecule on the magnetic [BN fullerene-B6]- system is performed by means of density functional theory calculations. Three models of magnetic nanocomposites were inspected: i) pristine BN fullerene, BN fullerene functionalized with a magnetic B6 cluster which generates two structures: ii) pyramidal (P) and iii) triangular (T). Chemical interactions of glucose appear for all these cases; however, for the BNF:B6(T)—glucose system, the interaction generates an effect of dissociation on glucose, due to the magnetic effects, since it has high spin multiplicity. The latter nanocomposite shows electronic behavior like-conductor and like-semi-conductor for the P and T geometries, respectively. Intrinsic magnetism associated to values of 1.0 magneton bohr (µB) for the pyramidal and 5.0 µB for the triangular structure, high polarity, and low-chemical reactivity are found for these systems. These interesting properties make these functionalized fullerenes a good option for being used as nano-vehicles for drug delivery. These quantum descriptors remain invariant when the [BN]-fullerene and [BNF:B6 (P) or (T)]- nanocomposites are interacting with the glucose molecule. According to the determined adsorption energy, chemisorption regimes occur in both the phases: gas and aqueous medium.

  4. HPLC analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6) in in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximum amount with a linear increase in B1 (thiamine HCl), B2 (riboflavin), and B3 (nicotinamide) contents was noticed up to 9 days old ex vitro grown seedlings. However, B5 (pantothenic acid) and B6 (pyridoxine HCl) were higher in in vitro germinated seedlings. Thus, vitamin production was age and culture conditions ...

  5. Third EU MAT intercomparison on methods for the determination of vitamins B-1, B-2 and B-6 in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van den; Schaik, F. van; Finglas, P.M.; Froidmont-Görtz, I. de

    1996-01-01

    An intercomparison study on the determination of vitamin B-1, B-2 and B-6 was performed as part of the EU MAT project involving 16 laboratories. Each laboratory was requested to analyse three different food samples (lyophilized pig's liver, mixed vegetables and wholemeal flour, respectively) using

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Caffeine and Vitamin B6 in Energy Drinks by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leacock, Rachel E.; Stankus, John J.; Davis, Julian M.

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography experiment to determine the concentration of caffeine and vitamin B6 in sports energy drinks has been developed. This laboratory activity, which is appropriate for an upper-level instrumental analysis course, illustrates the standard addition method and simultaneous determination of two species. (Contains 1…

  7. 26 CFR 1.7872-16 - Loans to an exchange facilitator under § 1.468B-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7872-16 Loans to....468B-6(b). (b) Treatment as demand loans. For purposes of section 7872, except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, an exchange facilitator loan is a demand loan. (c) Treatment as compensation...

  8. Effect of diurnal variation, CYP2B6 genotype and age on the pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bienczak, A.; Cook, A.; Wiesner, L.; Mulenga, V.; Kityo, C.; Kekitiinwa, A.; Walker, A.S.; Owen, A.; Gibb, D.M.; Burger, D.M.; McIlleron, H.; Denti, P.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To characterize the effects of CYP2B6 polymorphisms, diurnal variation and demographic factors on nevirapine pharmacokinetics in African children. METHODS: Non-linear mixed-effects modelling conducted in NONMEM 7.3 described nevirapine plasma concentration-time data from 414 children

  9. 29 CFR 2550.408b-6 - Statutory exemption for ancillary services by a bank or similar financial institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....408b-6 Statutory exemption for ancillary services by a bank or similar financial institution. (a) In... service is consistent with sound banking and financial practice, as determined by Federal or State... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statutory exemption for ancillary services by a bank or...

  10. In situ synthesis and strengthening of powder metallurgy high speed steel in addition of LaB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weijun; Yu, Linping; Li, Zhi; He, Yuehui; Zhang, Qiankun; Zhang, Huibin; Jiang, Yao; Lin, Nan

    2017-11-01

    A novel technology which was characterized by the vacuum solid state sintering was developed for powder metallurgy high speed steels production. During sintering, both the WC and Mo2C reacted with Fe and transformed to W and Mo rich M6C carbides which were the common hard phases in high speed steels. Also, a high number of W, Mo and Fe were dissolved in VC, forming the MC carbides. The densification of the material mainly relied on the solubility effect during the M6C and MC carbides formation. By alloying with a 0.1 wt% of LaB6 to the steel, the bending strength and the fracture toughness were improved from 3290 MPa and 25.6 MPam1/2 to 4018 MPa and 29.4 MPam1/2, respectively. The TEM analysis demonstrated three types of reaction products by the LaB6 addition: the amorphous phase, the core-shell structure and the La2O3 phase. The impurity elements such as the Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, and O were absorbed following the LaB6 addition. Moreover, the deoxidization effect caused by the LaB6 addition promoted the sintering at a high-temperature period which contributed to the bending strength and fracture toughness improvement.

  11. Investigation of suppression of lactation with vit B6 after induced abortion in the second trimester of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lin; Zhu Chuanrong; Fu Wen; Xue Gaiqing; Xin Yu; Zhang Weijie; Sun Lijing; Chen Aiqun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the action of suppressing lactation with Vit B 6 after induced abortion in second trimester of pregnancy and its clinical application. Methods: 60 Subjects in the second trimester of pregnancy were induced abortion with intra-amniotic injection of 100 mg rivanol. 30 subjects were not given any drug after the procedure (serving as controls) and the another 30 subjects started Vit B 6 2h after operation. With a dose of 60 mg tid x 5 days P.o. Serum levels of PRL, E 2 , P Were determines with RIA before and on the 4 th day post-abortion. Presence or absence of lactation after abortion was observed by squeezing the breast in all subjects. Results: In both groups the post-operative serum levels of the three tested hormones were significantly lower than those before operation. The decrease of PRL was especially marked in the Vit B 6 group (P 6 group (6.66%, 2/30); while it was present in 9 controls (30%, 9/30). Conclusion: Starting Vit B 6 treatment with in 2h after terminal of pregnancy would very effectively suppress milk secretion (93.3%) and could satisfactorily replace the conventional stilbestrol treatment. Marked decrease in serum PRL level (42.85%) reflected a solid laboratory evidence

  12. Different levels of testicular organization during gonadal differentiation in B6.Y(Tir) mice manifesting sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Rubio, Nivia Rocio; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma

    2012-09-01

    B6.Y(Tir) (mice with Y chromosome from a strain in Tirano, Italy, and autosomes and X-chromosomes from the B6 strain) mice provide an excellent model for analysing sex development that occurs during gonadal differentiation; however, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to sex reversal are unclear. Our aim has been to establish which molecular events participate in this sex reversal. The pattern of gene expression related to testicular [Sry (sex-determining region of the Y chromosome), Sox9 (Sry-related high-mobility group box gene 9) and Mis (Müllerian-inhibiting substance)] and ovarian [Wnt4 (Wingless-type MMTV (murine-mammary-tumour virus) integration site family, member 4), Rspo1 (cysteine-rich secretory protein containing a thrombospondin type 1 repeat) and Stra8 (stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8)] differentiation was analysed by applying immunofluorescence and real-time RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR), focusing on XY gonads from the B6.Y(Tir) mouse, but also analysing the normal strains CD-1 and C57BL/6J (B6). The expression of genes related to the process of sexual differentiation was altered in the case of the B6.Y(Tir) strain, both at the transcript and protein level, inducing differentiation of ovaries and ovotestes, but not the formation of the testes, which were normal. Our results indicate that the expression of testicular genes is inhibited at various levels, permitting the expression of ovarian genes such as Wnt4, Stra8 and Rspo1. However, their activity was not clear when the data were averaged. Correlation analysis indicated that an ovary differentiation pathway is activated when the testicular differentiation pathway is inhibited. © The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2012 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Leer en español What Is Iron-deficiency anemia ... cases, surgery may be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  15. Quantification of vitamin B6 vitamers in human cerebrospinal fluid by ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, M. van der; Albersen, M.; Koning, T.J. de; Visser, G.; Middendorp, A.; Bosma, M.; Verhoeven-Duif, N.M.; Sain-van der Velden, M.G.M. de

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present a sensitive UPLC–MS/MS method for quantification of B6 vitamers in human CSF. ► Our method is very accurate since stable isotope labeled internal standards are used. ► We present data on light sensitivity, temperature dependence and rostrocaudal gradient. ► With PN supplementation, concentrations of PL, PM, PN and PA in CSF are increased. ► Our fully validated method is suitable for implementation in a diagnostic setting. - Abstract: Since vitamin B6 is essential for normal functioning of the central nervous system, there is growing need for sensitive analysis of B6 vitamers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This manuscript describes the development and validation of a rapid, sensitive and accurate method for quantification of the vitamin B6 vitamers pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxamine (PM), pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxic acid (PA), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxamine 5′-phosphate (PMP) and pyridoxine 5′-phosphate (PNP) in human CSF. The method is based on ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) with a simple sample preparation procedure of protein precipitation using 50 g L −1 trichloroacetic acid containing stable isotope labeled internal standards: PL-D 3 for PL and PM, PN- 13 C 4 for PN, PA-D 2 for PA and PLP-D 3 for the phosphorylated vitamers. B6 vitamers were separated (Acquity HSS-T3 UPLC column) with a buffer containing acetic acid, heptafluorobutyric acid and acetonitrile. Positive electrospray ionization was used to monitor transitions m/z 168.1 → 150.1 (PL), 169.1 → 134.1 (PM), 170.1 → 134.1 (PN), 184.1 → 148.1 (PA), 248.1 → 150.1 (PLP), 249.1 → 232.1 (PMP) and 250.1 → 134.1 (PNP). The method was validated at three concentration levels for each B6 vitamer in CSF. Recoveries of the internal standards were between 93% and 96%. Intra- and inter-assay variations were below 20%. Accuracy tests showed deviations from 3% (PN) to 39% (PMP). Limits of quantification were

  16. Quantification of vitamin B6 vitamers in human cerebrospinal fluid by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, M. van der, E-mail: M.vanderHam-3@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Albersen, M., E-mail: M.Albersen@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Koning, T.J. de, E-mail: T.deKoning@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Pediatric Metabolic Diseases, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC03.063.0, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Visser, G., E-mail: G.Visser-4@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Pediatric Metabolic Diseases, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC03.063.0, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Middendorp, A., E-mail: Alfred_Middendorp@waters.com [Waters Chromatography B.V., Florijnstraat 19, Postbus 379, 4870 AJ Etten-Leur (Netherlands); Bosma, M., E-mail: M.Bosma@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Verhoeven-Duif, N.M., E-mail: N.Verhoeven@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Sain-van der Velden, M.G.M. de, E-mail: M.G.deSain@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of B6 vitamers in human CSF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our method is very accurate since stable isotope labeled internal standards are used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present data on light sensitivity, temperature dependence and rostrocaudal gradient. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With PN supplementation, concentrations of PL, PM, PN and PA in CSF are increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our fully validated method is suitable for implementation in a diagnostic setting. - Abstract: Since vitamin B6 is essential for normal functioning of the central nervous system, there is growing need for sensitive analysis of B6 vitamers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This manuscript describes the development and validation of a rapid, sensitive and accurate method for quantification of the vitamin B6 vitamers pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxamine (PM), pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxic acid (PA), pyridoxal 5 Prime -phosphate (PLP), pyridoxamine 5 Prime -phosphate (PMP) and pyridoxine 5 Prime -phosphate (PNP) in human CSF. The method is based on ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) with a simple sample preparation procedure of protein precipitation using 50 g L{sup -1} trichloroacetic acid containing stable isotope labeled internal standards: PL-D{sub 3} for PL and PM, PN-{sup 13}C{sub 4} for PN, PA-D{sub 2} for PA and PLP-D{sub 3} for the phosphorylated vitamers. B6 vitamers were separated (Acquity HSS-T3 UPLC column) with a buffer containing acetic acid, heptafluorobutyric acid and acetonitrile. Positive electrospray ionization was used to monitor transitions m/z 168.1 {yields} 150.1 (PL), 169.1 {yields} 134.1 (PM), 170.1 {yields} 134.1 (PN), 184.1 {yields} 148.1 (PA), 248.1 {yields} 150.1 (PLP), 249.1 {yields} 232.1 (PMP) and 250.1 {yields} 134.1 (PNP). The method was validated at three concentration levels for each B6 vitamer in CSF

  17. Predictors of Vitamin D Deficiency in Predialysis Patients with Stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Vitamin D status and risk factors of Vitamin D deficiency in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in China have been seldom reported before. In this study, we aim to investigate serum 25‑hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status and find the predictors of Vitamin D deficiency in predialysis patients with Stage 3–5 CKDs ...

  18. Vitamin D deficiency and heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Drechsler, Christiane; de Boer, Rudolf A.

    Vitamin D deficiency is present in the vast majority of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and correcting a poor vitamin D status is recommended as a treatment of CKD-mineral and bone disorders. In this review, we summarize the molecular and clinical data on the role of vitamin D status for

  19. Fermi surface in the absence of a Fermi liquid in the Kondo insulator SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartstein, M.; Toews, W. H.; Hsu, Y.-T.; Zeng, B.; Chen, X.; Hatnean, M. Ciomaga; Zhang, Q. R.; Nakamura, S.; Padgett, A. S.; Rodway-Gant, G.; Berk, J.; Kingston, M. K.; Zhang, G. H.; Chan, M. K.; Yamashita, S.; Sakakibara, T.; Takano, Y.; Park, J.-H.; Balicas, L.; Harrison, N.; Shitsevalova, N.; Balakrishnan, G.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Hill, R. W.; Sutherland, M.; Sebastian, Suchitra E.

    2018-02-01

    The search for a Fermi surface in the absence of a conventional Fermi liquid has thus far yielded very few potential candidates. Among promising materials are spin-frustrated Mott insulators near the insulator-metal transition, where theory predicts a Fermi surface associated with neutral low-energy excitations. Here we reveal another route to experimentally realize a Fermi surface in the absence of a Fermi liquid by the experimental study of a Kondo insulator SmB6 positioned close to the insulator-metal transition. We present experimental signatures down to low temperatures (thermal conductivity well below the charge gap energy scale. Thus, the weight of evidence indicates that despite an extreme instance of Fermi liquid breakdown in Kondo insulating SmB6, a Fermi surface arises from novel itinerant low-energy excitations that couple to magnetic fields, but not weak DC electric fields.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Cellulomonas sp. Strain B6 Isolated from Subtropical Forest Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinni, Florencia; Murua, Yanina; Ghio, Silvina; Talia, Paola; Rivarola, Máximo

    2016-01-01

    Cellulomonas sp. strain B6 was isolated from a subtropical forest soil sample and presented (hemi)cellulose-degrading activity. We report here its draft genome sequence, with an estimated genome size of 4 Mb, a G+C content of 75.1%, and 3,443 predicted protein-coding sequences, 92 of which are glycosyl hydrolases involved in polysaccharide degradation. PMID:27563050

  1. Radiation damage in SmS, SmSsub(1-x)Psub(x) and SmB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morillo, J.; Bordier, G.; de Novion, C.H.; Senateur, J.P.; Jun, J.

    1984-08-01

    Large conductivity increases under 21 K electron or neutron irradiations are observed in SmS and SmSsub(1-x)Psub(x). It is shown that they are related to Sm defects. A possible mechanism is 4f electron delocalization around radiation defects. In SmB 6 , the low temperature resistivity increase desappears under 21 K irradiation. The thermal stability of the defects is also investigated up to room temperature

  2. Transthoracic contrast echocardiography using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents for the diagnosis of patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang-Chun; Zheng, Jian-Yong; Li, Xin; Yang, Ye; Zhang, Bo-Yang; Chen, Yu; Li, Xian-Feng; Liu, Ying-Ming; Cao, Yi; Zhao, Li; Li, Tian-Chang

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the utility of transthoracic contrast echocardiography (cTTE) using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents for diagnosing right-to-left shunt (RLS) caused by patent foramen ovale (PFO) compared to that of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). We investigated 125 patients admitted to our neurology department with unexplained cerebral infarction and migraine. All patients underwent cTTE using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents, after which they underwent transthoracic echocardiography. The Doppler signal was recorded during the Valsalva maneuver, and TEE examinations were performed. The feasibility, diagnostic sensitivity, and safety of cTTE and TEE for PFO recognition were compared. Evidence of PFO was found in 49 (39.20%) patients with cTTE, more than were detected with TEE (39, 31.20%) (χ 2 =5.0625, P=0.0244). cTTE had a sensitivity of 92.31% and a specificity of 84.88% for diagnosing PFO, showing high concordance with TEE for PFO recognition (κ=0.72). Further, results of a semi-quantitative evaluation of PFO-RLS by cTTE were better than those with TEE (Z=-2.011, P=0.044). No significant adverse reaction was discovered during cTTE examination. cTTE using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents has relatively good sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing RLS caused by PFO when compared with those for TEE. Using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents to perform cTTE is recommended for detecting and diagnosing the PFO due to its simplicity, non-invasive character, low cost, and high feasibility.

  3. Kondo Hybridization and the Origin of Metallic States at the (001 Surface of SmB_{6}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Frantzeskakis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SmB_{6}, a well-known Kondo insulator, has been proposed to be an ideal topological insulator with states of topological character located in a clean, bulk electronic gap, namely, the Kondo-hybridization gap. Since the Kondo gap arises from many-body electronic correlations, SmB_{6} would be placed at the head of a new material class: topological Kondo insulators. Here, for the first time, we show that the k-space characteristics of the Kondo-hybridization process is the key to unraveling the origin of the two types of metallic states experimentally observed by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES in the electronic band structure of SmB_{6}(001. One group of these states is essentially of bulk origin and cuts the Fermi level due to the position of the chemical potential 20 meV above the lowest-lying 5d-4f hybridization zone. The other metallic state is more enigmatic, being weak in intensity, but represents a good candidate for a topological surface state. However, before this claim can be substantiated by an unequivocal measurement of its massless dispersion relation, our data raise the bar in terms of the ARPES resolution required, as we show there to be a strong renormalization of the hybridization gaps by a factor 2–3 compared to theory, following from the knowledge of the true position of the chemical potential and a careful comparison with the predictions from recent local-density-approximation (LDA+Gutzwiller calculations. All in all, these key pieces of evidence act as triangulation markers, providing a detailed description of the electronic landscape in SmB_{6} and pointing the way for future, ultrahigh-resolution ARPES experiments to achieve a direct measurement of the Dirac cones in the first topological Kondo insulator.

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to moderate iron-deficiency anemia, or red blood cell transfusion for severe iron-deficiency anemia. You may ... body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because ...

  7. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer can interfere with the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack ... vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia called pernicious anemia. Vitamin C deficiency anemia risk factors include: Smoking. Smoking ...

  8. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are unique to specific vitamin deficiencies. Folate-deficiency anemia risk factors include: Undergoing hemodialysis for kidney failure. ... the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack of intrinsic factor. Most ...

  9. In situ vitrification of a mixed-waste contaminated soil site: The 116-B-6A crib at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luey, J.; Koegler, S.S.; Kuhn, W.L.; Lowery, P.S.; Winkelman, R.G.

    1992-09-01

    The first large-scale mixed-waste test of in situ vitrification (ISV) has been completed. The large-scale test was conducted at an actual contaminated soil site, the 116-B-6A crib, on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The large-scale test was a demonstration of the ISV technology and not an interim action for the 116-B-6A crib. This demonstration has provided technical data to evaluate the ISV process for its potential in the final disposition of mixed-waste contaminated soil sites at Hanford. Because of the test's successful completion. technical data on the vitrified soil are available on how well the process incorporates transuranics and heavy metals into the waste form. how well the form resists leaching of transuranics and heavy metals. how well the process handles sites with high combustible loadings, and the important site parameters which may affect the achievable process depth. This report describes the 116-B-6A crib site, the objectives of the ISV demonstration, the results in terms of the objectives, and the overall process performance.

  10. [Efficacy and safety of heptral, vitamin B6 and folic acid during toxic hepatitis induced by CCL4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antelava, N A; Gogoluari, M I; Gogoluari, L I; Pirtskhalaĭshvili, N N; Okudzhava, M V

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate of efficacy and safety of complex Heptral, Vitamin B6 and Folic Acid in experimental hepatitis therapy compared with monotherapy. Experiments were carried out on pubertal rats. Eperimental hepatitis models were induced by Tetrachlormethane. The tetrachlormethane intoxication was reproduced by subcutaneous injection of CCL(4) 1ml/kg dissolved in 1ml of olive oil. Cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, reduced glutation,activity of glutationetranspherase and content of ATP in hepatocytes were measured by the spectrophotometric techniques,but content of homocysteine by chromophtography techniques. Under CCL(4) intoxication disturbance of liver detoxication function, energy deficit and surplus of homocysteine were observed. Treatment of the toxic hepatitis with heptral increased the level of cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, glutation activity of glutationetranspherase glutathione and reduced content of homocysteine. Complex therapy with Heptral and B6 and folic acid reveal more expressive hepatoprotective effect and safety than monotherapy with Heptral. Complex therapy improves not only the parameters of biotransformation (metabolic and conjugation phase), but also normalizes the level of ATP and homocystein. Vitamins B6 and folic acid increases the efficacy and safety of Heptral. This complex was recomended for treatment of hepatitis.

  11. An ionization pressure gauge with LaB6 emitter for long-term operation in strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, U.; Pedersen, T. S.; Marquardt, M.; Singer, M.

    2018-03-01

    We report here on a potentially significant improvement in the design of neutral pressure gauges of the so-called ASDEX-type which were first used in the Axially Symmetric Divertor EXperiment (ASDEX). Such gauges are considered state-of-the-art and are in wide use in fusion experiments, but they nonetheless suffer from a relatively high failure rate when operated at high magnetic field strengths for long times. This is therefore a significant concern for long-pulse, high-field experiments such as Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and ITER. The new design is much more robust. The improvement is to use a LaB6 crystal instead of a tungsten wire as the thermionic emitter of electrons in the gauge. Such a LaB6 prototype gauge was successfully operated for a total of 60 h in B = 3.1 T, confirming the significantly improved robustness of the new design and qualifying it for near-term operation in W7-X. With the LaB6 crystal, an order of magnitude reduction in heating current is achieved, relative to the tungsten filament based gauges, from 15-20 A to 1-2 A. This reduces the Lorenz forces and the heating power by an order of magnitude also and is presumably the reason for the much improved robustness. The new gauge design, test environment setup at the superconducting magnet, and results from test operation are described.

  12. and Epigenetic Dysregulation in Diabetes-prone Bicongenic B6.NODC11bxC1tb Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Garrigan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Type 1 diabetic (T1D human monocytes, STAT5 aberrantly binds to epigenetic regulatory sites of two proinflammatory genes, CSF2 (encoding granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor and PTGS2 (encoding prostaglandin synthase 2/cyclooxygenase 2. Bicongenic B6.NOD C11bxC1tb mice re-create this phenotype of T1D monocytes with only two nonobese diabetic (NOD Idd subloci (130.8 Mb–149.7 Mb, of Idd5 on Chr 1 and 32.08–53.85 Mb of Idd4.3 on Chr11 on C57BL/6 genetic background. These two Idd loci interact through STAT5 binding at upstream regulatory regions affecting Csf2 ( Chr 11 and Ptgs2 ( Chr 1 expression. B6.NODC11bxC1tb mice exhibited hyperglycemia and immune destruction of pancreatic islets between 8 and 30 weeks of age, with 12%–22% penetrance. Thus, B6.NODC11bxC1tb mice embody NOD epigenetic dysregulation of gene expression in myeloid cells, and this defect appears to be sufficient to impart genetic susceptibility to diabetes in an otherwise genetically nonautoimmune mouse.

  13. [Effect of pharmacologic treatment of the nutritional status of neurologic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro Corrales, Guadalupe; Vázquez López, Cristina; Álvarez Payero, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Clinical manifestations accompanying neurological diseases are diverse and affect multiple organs. Nutritional status of patients with certain neurological diseases such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Epilepsy and Multiple Sclerosis can be altered because of symptoms associated with disease course, including certain micronutrient deficiency (folic acid, zinc, vitamin B6 and B12, vitamin D, vitamin E and vitamin C), changes in energy expenditure, intake decreased, gastrointestinal disorders and dysfunction of the bone mass. Also, we have to take in account other factors as: advanced age, multiple co morbidities, polypharmacy, the use of herbal products, social habits, diet and pharmacological treatments effect. An assessment of the factors related to neurological treatment that cause alterations in metabolic and nutritional status was performed: side effects of anti-Parkinson drugs, antiepileptic drugs, and multiple sclerosis drugs; drug-nutrient interactions; and nutrient-drug interactions.

  14. Nutrient deficiencies before and after sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rutte, P W J; Aarts, E O; Smulders, J F; Nienhuijs, S W

    2014-10-01

    Obesity is associated with nutritional deficiencies. Bariatric surgery could worsen these deficiencies. Fewer nutritional deficiencies would be seen after sleeve gastrectomy compared to the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, but sleeve gastrectomy would also cause further deterioration of the deficiencies. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of pre-operative nutrient deficiencies in sleeve gastrectomy patients and assess the evolution of the nutritional status during the first post-operative year. Four hundred seven sleeve gastrectomy patients were assigned to a standardized follow-up program. Data of interest were weight loss, pre-operative nutrient status and evolution of nutrient deficiencies during the first post-operative year. Deficiencies were supplemented when found. Two hundred patients completed blood withdrawal pre-operatively and in the first post-operative year. pre-operatively, 5 % of the patients were anemic, 7 % had low serum ferritin and 24 % had low folic acid. Hypovitaminosis D was present in 81 %. Vitamin A had excessive levels in 72 %. One year post-operatively, mean excess weight loss was 70 %. Anemia was found in 6 %. Low-ferritin levels were found in 8 % of the patients. Folate deficiency decreased significantly and hypovitaminosis D was still found in 36 %. In this study, a considerable amount of patients suffered from a deficient micronutrient status pre-operatively. One year after surgery, micronutrient deficiencies persisted or were found de novo in a considerable amount of patients, despite significant weight loss and supplementation. Significant reductions were seen only for folate and vitamin D.

  15. Iron deficiency in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Augusto Naoum

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anemia is a frequent complication in cancer patients, both at diagnosis and during treatment, with a multifactorial etiology in most cases. Iron deficiency is among the most common causes of anemia in this setting and can develop in nearly half of patients with solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Surprisingly, this fact is usually neglected by the attending physician in a way that proper and prompt investigation of the iron status is either not performed or postponed. In cancer patients, functional iron deficiency is the predominant mechanism, in which iron availability is reduced due to disease or the therapy-related inflammatory process. Hence, serum ferritin is not reliable in detecting iron deficiency in this setting, whereas transferrin saturation seems more appropriate for this purpose. Besides, lack of bioavailable iron can be further worsened by the use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents that increase iron utilization in the bone marrow. Iron deficiency can cause anemia or worsen pre-existing anemia, leading to a decline in performance status and adherence to treatment, with possible implications in clinical outcome. Due to its frequency and importance, treatment of this condition is already recommended in many specialty guidelines and should be performed preferably with intravenous iron. The evidences regarding the efficacy of this treatment are solid, with response gain when combined with erythropoiesis stimulating agents and significant increments in hemoglobin as monotherapy. Among intravenous iron formulations, slow release preparations present more favorable pharmacological characteristics and efficacy in cancer patients.

  16. Folate and vitamin B12 status and dietary intake of anaemic adolescent schoolgirls in the delta region of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htet, Min Kyaw; Fahmida, Umi; Thurnham, David I; Hlaing, Lwin Mar; Akib, Arwin; Utomo, Budi; Houghton, Lisa A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of deficiency of folate and vitamin B12 and, simultaneously, the nutrient intake adequacy of folate, vitamin B12, iron, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B6 and calcium in 391 adolescent anaemic (Hbcalcium, ranging from 60 to 100 %. Red meat or poultry was rarely consumed, but fish was consumed on a daily basis. Green leafy vegetables were also consumed frequently but consumption of dairy products was uncommon. Folate deficiency was high, and the prevalence of inadequate intake of folate among other key micronutrients was relatively common in this sample of anaemic adolescent schoolgirls. Appropriate strategies such as food fortification and dietary diversification are needed to improve the micronutrient status of these young women to ensure optimal health and future reproductive success.

  17. Mortality and GH deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Laursen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the mortality in Denmark in patients suffering from GH deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: Mortality was analyzed in 1794 GHD patients and 8014 controls matched on age and gender. All records in GHD patients were studied and additional morbidity noted. Patients were divided into chil......OBJECTIVE: To estimate the mortality in Denmark in patients suffering from GH deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: Mortality was analyzed in 1794 GHD patients and 8014 controls matched on age and gender. All records in GHD patients were studied and additional morbidity noted. Patients were divided...... in CO and AO GHD in both genders, when compared with controls. The hazard ratio (HR) for CO males was 8.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.5-15.1) and for females 9.4 (CI 4.6-19.4). For AO males, HR was 1.9 (CI 1.7-2.2) and for females 3.4 (CI 2.9-4.0). We found a significantly higher HR in AO females...... a significantly increased mortality in GHD patients when compared with controls, possibly due to their hypopituitary status. Mortality was increased in AO female patients when compared with males. For CO and AO GHD, different causes of significantly increased mortality were identified...

  18. Marginal Biotin Deficiency Is Teratogenic in ICR Mice1,2

    OpenAIRE

    Mock, Donald M.; Mock, Nell I.; Stewart, Christopher W.; LaBorde, James B.; Hansen, Deborah K.

    2003-01-01

    The incidence of marginal biotin deficiency in normal human gestation is approximately one in three. In ICR mice, maternal biotin deficiency results in cleft palate, micrognathia, microglossia and limb hypoplasia. However, the relationships among the severity of maternal biotin deficiency, fetal biotin status and malformations have not been reported. This study utilized validated indices of biotin status to investigate the relationships among maternal biotin status, fetal biotin status and th...

  19. Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Link Vitamin B6 Catabolism and Lung Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hui; Ueland, Per M; Midttun, Øivind; Vollset, Stein E; Tell, Grethe S; Theofylaktopoulou, Despoina; Travis, Ruth C; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fournier, Agnès; Severi, Gianluca; Kvaskoff, Marina; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M; Fortner, Renée T; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Grankvist, Kjell; Johansson, Mikael; Agudo, Antonio; Garcia, Jose Ramon Quiros; Larranaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Gallo, Valentina; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Ulvik, Arve

    2018-01-01

    Circulating pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) has been linked to lung cancer risk. The PAr index, defined as the ratio 4-pyridoxic acid/(pyridoxal + PLP), reflects increased vitamin B6 catabolism during inflammation. PAr has been defined as a marker of lung cancer risk in a prospective cohort study, but analysis of a larger numbers of cases are needed to deepen the significance of this study. Here, we conducted a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, n = 521,330), which included 892 incident lung cancer cases and 1,748 controls matched by center, gender, date of blood collection, and date of birth. The association of PAr with risk of lung cancer was evaluated by using conditional logistic regression. Study participants with elevated PAr experienced higher risk of lung cancer in a dose-response fashion, with a doubling in PAr levels associated with 52% higher odds of lung cancer after adjustment for tobacco smoking, serum cotinine levels, educational attainment, and BMI [OR, 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-1.81; P < 0.001]. Additional adjustment for intake of vegetables and fruits and physical activity did not materially affect risk association. The association of PAr with lung cancer risk was similar in both genders but slightly stronger in former smokers and in participants diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma. This study provides robust evidence that increased vitamin B6 catabolism is independently associated with a higher risk of future lung cancer. Significance: This large cohort study firmly establishes an association between an index of vitamin B6 levels with lung cancer risk. Cancer Res; 78(1); 302-8. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. MexiB 6 AS A RESULT OF FORTIFICATION OF ETHYLMETHYLHYDROXYPYRIDINE SUCCINATE WITH MAGNESIUM AND PYRIDOXINE: PROTEOME EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gromova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate (EMHPS  depends on the concentration and activity of proteomic proteins. To provide the body with magnesium and pyridoxine is an important condition for the efficacy of EMHPS because these micronutrients are essential for maintaining neuronal function.Objective: to analyze the biological effects of pyridoxineand magnesium-dependent proteins providing the molecular mechanisms of multi-targeted action of EMHPS,  pyridoxine, and magnesium.Material and methods. Proteins that interact with both pyridoxine and magnesium were found in the genomic and proteomic databases. A list of 78 vitamin B6-dependent proteins, which is based on the available human genome records in NCBIPROTEIN, EMBL,  UNIPROT,  and HumanProteomeMap databases, was analyzed using a functional binding assay. The same assay was also applied to analyze a list 720 magnesium-dependent proteins.Results. The analysis has shown that 78 pyridoxine-dependent proteomic proteins are necessary for: 1 the synthesis and processing of amino acids; 2 cell energy metabolism (ATP synthesis, and 3 the synthesis of neurotransmitters and neuronal membranes. MexiB 6 has numerous synergistic interactions between the molecules of EMHPS,  pyridoxine, and magnesium. The combination of the components of EMHPS,  pyridoxine and magnesium in MexiB 6 (triple synergism allows prediction that the drug has more pronounced clinical effects than the molecules of EMHPS,  which emerges in its antihypoxic and antioxidant activities, the improvement of synaptic transmission of a signal, the neutralization of homocysteine, and the regulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism (restoration of cell sensitivity to insulin and carbohydrates in patients with atherosclerosis and in those at risk for diabetes mellitus or obesity. Pyridoxineand magnesium-induced potentiation of the effects of EMHPS may enhance its activity.

  1. RP-HPLC Determination of vitamins B1, B3, B6, folic acid and B12 in multivitamin tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOTE VLADIMIROV

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Asimple and sensitive reversed-phase, ion-pair HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of B-group vitamins, thiamine chloride hydrochloride (B1, nicotinamide (B3, pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6 and folic acid in Pentovit® coated tablets. The cyanocobalamine (B12 was determined separately, because of its low concentration in the investigated multivitamin preparation. RP-HPLC analysis was performed with a LKB 2150 HPLC system, equipped with a UV/VIS Waters M484 detector. The procedures for the determination of B1, B2, B6 and folic acid were carried out on a Supelcosil ABZ+ (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column with methanol-5mM heptanesulphonic acid sodium salt 0.1%triethylamine TEA(25:75 V/V; pH 2.8 as themobile phase. For the determination of B12 a Suplex pKb-100 (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column andmethanol–water (22:78 V/V as themobile phase were used. The column effluentsweremonitored at 290 nm for B 1, B3, B6 and folic acid, and at 550 nm for B12. The obtained results and statistical parameters for all the investigated vitamins of the B-group in Pentovit® coated tablets were satisfactory and ranged from 90.4 % to 108.5 % (RSD. from 0.5% to 4.1 %. The parameters for the validation of the methods are given.

  2. Internal friction of metallic glass Ni74P16B6Al4 near T/sub x/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiao-Guang; He Yizhen

    1986-01-01

    The internal friction of metallic glass Ni 74 P 16 B 6 Al 4 near the crystallization temperature T/sub x/ is investigated using a conventional torsion pendulum. Two internal friction peaks, P 1 and P 2 , are observed and the dependence of the peak positions on heating rate is described by the Kissinger equation. Pre-crystallization reduces the height of the peaks (P 1 and P 2 ) and shifts the positions of these peaks but in opposite directions. A formula showing the dependence of apparent internal friction on volume fraction transformed is derived. The variation of internal friction with annealing corresponds to the variation of the fraction transformed. (author)

  3. Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in royal jelly

    OpenAIRE

    Presoto,Ana Elisa F; Rios,Magda D. G; Almeida-Muradian,Ligia B. de

    2004-01-01

    Royal jelly is used as a food supplement, popularly known as rich in B vitamins. The present work has two objectives: firstly, to apply simultaneous quantitative determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography of thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2) and pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and secondly to compare the obtained data with the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) values. The values obtained showed no thiamin, a range from 20 to 171 ng g-1 of riboflavin and from 408 to 2 188 ng g-1 ...

  4. Isolation and NMR Characterization of Fumonisin B-2 and a New Fumonisin B-6 from Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Klejnstrup, Marie Louise; Phipps, Richard Kerry

    2010-01-01

    A new fumonisin, fumonisin B-6 (1), has been isolated by cation-exchange and reverse-phase chromatography, together with fumonisin B-2 (2), from,stationary cultures of the fungus Aspergillus niger NRRL 326. Analysis of mass spectrometric and NMR data determined that FB6 is a positional isomer...... of FBI and iso-FB1, having hydroxyl functions at C3, C4, and C5. Analysis of the NMR data for FB2 showed very similar chemical shift values when compared to an authentic Fusarium FB2 standard, strongly indicating identical molecules despite that an absolute stereochemical assignment of FB2 from A. niger...

  5. Development of doxorubicin-induced chronic cardiotoxicity in the B6C3F{sub 1} mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Varsha G., E-mail: varsha.desai@fda.hhs.gov [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Herman, Eugene H. [Division of Drug Safety Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20993 (United States); Moland, Carrie L.; Branham, William S. [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Lewis, Sherry M. [Office of Scientific Coordination, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Davis, Kelly J. [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); George, Nysia I. [Division Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Lee, Taewon [Department of Information and Mathematics, Korea University, Jochiwon, Chungnam 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kerr, Susan [Arkansas Heart Hospital, Little Rock, AR 72211 (United States); Fuscoe, James C. [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Serum levels of cardiac troponins serve as biomarkers of myocardial injury. However, troponins are released into the serum only after damage to cardiac tissue has occurred. Here, we report development of a mouse model of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced chronic cardiotoxicity to aid in the identification of predictive biomarkers of early events of cardiac tissue injury. Male B6C3F{sub 1} mice were administered intravenous DOX at 3 mg/kg body weight, or an equivalent volume of saline, once a week for 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 weeks, resulting in cumulative DOX doses of 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 42 mg/kg, respectively. Mice were sacrificed a week following the last dose. A significant reduction in body weight gain was observed in mice following exposure to a weekly DOX dose for 1 week and longer compared to saline-treated controls. DOX treatment also resulted in declines in red blood cell count, hemoglobin level, and hematocrit compared to saline-treated controls after the 2nd weekly dose until the 8th and 9th doses, followed by a modest recovery. All DOX-treated mice had significant elevations in cardiac troponin T concentrations in plasma compared to saline-treated controls, indicating cardiac tissue injury. Also, a dose-related increase in the severity of cardiac lesions was seen in mice exposed to 24 mg/kg DOX and higher cumulative doses. Mice treated with cumulative DOX doses of 30 mg/kg and higher showed a significant decline in heart rate, suggesting drug-induced cardiac dysfunction. Altogether, these findings demonstrate the development of DOX-induced chronic cardiotoxicity in B6C3F{sub 1} mice. -- Highlights: ► 24 mg/kg was a cumulative cardiotoxic dose of doxorubicin in male B6C3F{sub 1} mice. ► Doxorubicin-induced hematological toxicity was in association with splenomegaly. ► Doxorubicin induced severe testicular toxicity in B6C3F{sub 1} male mice.

  6. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... boosting the immune system, eye infections, bladder infections, tooth decay, and preventing polyps, cancer, and kidney stones. Vitamin ... birth. However, it may reduce the risk of tooth decay. Seizures caused by a high fever. Early research ...

  7. Vitamin B-6, Independent of Homocysteine, Is a Significant Factor in Relation to Inflammatory Responses for Chronic Kidney Disease and Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP and homocysteine were dependent on or independent of each other in order to be associated with inflammatory markers in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD or those receiving hemodialysis treatment. This was a cross-sectional study. Sixty-eight stage 2–5 CKD patients and 68 hemodialysis patients had one time fasting blood drawn for measurements of plasma PLP, pyridoxal (PL, homocysteine, and several inflammatory markers. Early CKD stage (stages 2-3 patients showed significantly lower plasma PLP levels and homocysteine concentrations than patients in an advanced CKD stage (stages 4-5 and those undergoing hemodialysis. Plasma PLP significantly correlated with CRP levels (partial rs = −0.21, p<0.05 and plasma PL significantly correlated with IL-10 levels (partial rs = −0.24, p<0.01, while plasma PLP plus PL significantly correlated with both CRP levels (partial rs = −0.20, p<0.05 and interleukin-1β (partial rs = 0.22, p<0.05 levels after adjusting for plasma homocysteine and other potential confounders. Plasma homocysteine displayed no significant correlations with any inflammatory markers. Vitamin B-6 status, rather than homocysteine, appeared to be a significant factor in relation to inflammatory responses for CKD and hemodialysis patients.

  8. Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in royal jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Presoto Ana Elisa F

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly is used as a food supplement, popularly known as rich in B vitamins. The present work has two objectives: firstly, to apply simultaneous quantitative determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography of thiamin (vitamin B1, riboflavin (vitamin B2 and pyridoxine (vitamin B6 and secondly to compare the obtained data with the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI values. The values obtained showed no thiamin, a range from 20 to 171 ng g-1 of riboflavin and from 408 to 2 188 ng g-1 of pyridoxine in royal jelly. According to the Food and Nutrition Board (2000, the DRI of these vitamins varies from 0.2-1.4 mg for thiamin; 0.3-1.6 mg for riboflavin and 0.1-2.0 mg for pyridoxine, depending on age and sex. According to these recommendations, royal jelly is not a good source of vitamins B1, B2 or B6 as these vitamins appear only on order of ng g-1. The proposed method can be used in routine analysis for royal jelly, having the advantage of being simple, fast and reliable.

  9. EFFET DES VITAMINES B12, B9 ET B6 ET LEURS INTERACTIONS SUR LA FRAGILITE OSMOTIQUE DES ERYTHROCYTES HUMAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B HOUCHER

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available L’effet des vitamines B12, B9 et B6 sur la fragilité osmotique des érythrocytes humains a été exploré in vitro. De fortes concentrations de vitamines B12 et B6 ont protégé les érythrocytes de l’hémolyse hypotonique, avec une protection maxima atteinte respectivement à 10 et 500 µg/ml. A concentrations plus faibles, cependant, ces vitamines ont favorisé grandement l’hémolyse hypotonique. Par contre, la vitamine B9 a montré uniquement un effet hémolytique de 4 à 200 µg/ml. Cet effet peut être expliqué par la nature acide de la molécule. L’effet nul sur la fragilité osmotique de deux vitamines antagonistes, peut probablement être expliqué par l’antagonisme partiel ou par la présence de ces deux vitamines simultanément: ces dernières se lient en quantités appréciables à la cellule intacte de même qu’à l’hémolysat et il y’ a compétition mutuelle entre ces vitamines et leur transport.

  10. The soluble loop BC region guides, but not dictates, the assembly of the transmembrane cytochrome b6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Tome-Stangl

    Full Text Available Studying folding and assembly of naturally occurring α-helical transmembrane proteins can inspire the design of membrane proteins with defined functions. Thus far, most studies have focused on the role of membrane-integrated protein regions. However, to fully understand folding pathways and stabilization of α-helical membrane proteins, it is vital to also include the role of soluble loops. We have analyzed the impact of interhelical loops on folding, assembly and stability of the heme-containing four-helix bundle transmembrane protein cytochrome b6 that is involved in charge transfer across biomembranes. Cytochrome b6 consists of two transmembrane helical hairpins that sandwich two heme molecules. Our analyses strongly suggest that the loop connecting the helical hairpins is not crucial for positioning the two protein "halves" for proper folding and assembly of the holo-protein. Furthermore, proteolytic removal of any of the remaining two loops, which connect the two transmembrane helices of a hairpin structure, appears to also not crucially effect folding and assembly. Overall, the transmembrane four-helix bundle appears to be mainly stabilized via interhelical interactions in the transmembrane regions, while the soluble loop regions guide assembly and stabilize the holo-protein. The results of this study might steer future strategies aiming at designing heme-binding four-helix bundle structures, involved in transmembrane charge transfer reactions.

  11. Determination of Cinchona alkaloids and Vitamin B6 by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, R.; Gioia, M.G.; Cavrini, V.

    2004-01-01

    A simple and specific method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the four major Cinchona alkaloids and their dihydroderivatives and pyridoxine hydrochloride (Vitamin B 6 ) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (λ em =420 nm with λ ex =330 nm). The chromatographic separation was performed on a Phenomenex Prodigy ODS column (5 μm, 250 mmx3.2 mm i.d.), recommended for basic compounds, under isocratic reversed-phase conditions. The method allowed a good peak shape and an effective resolution of the tested compounds. The extraction of alkaloids from the Cinchona succirubra bark was carried out in mild and fast conditions (ambient temperature, 20 min) by ultrasonication. The procedure showed to be advantageous respect to a reference method, which involved Soxhlet extraction. The results were compared statistically by means of the Student's t-test and the variance ratio F-test; no significant difference was found. The method was reproducible (relative standard deviations in the range of 1.0-5.0% for the different alkaloids) and gave quantitative recovery of alkaloids added to bark samples (97.8-105%). For additional informations a photoreactor was arranged between the analytical column and the detector and the online post-column photochemical conversion (irradiation=254 nm) was investigated. Vitamin B 6 was shown to be highly photosensitive, giving significantly different fluorescence spectra with and without UV irradiation. The proposed method was successfully applied to the quality control of Cinchona bark, liquid extract and cosmetics

  12. Placing of monobore wells in the B6 LL 370 oil deposit, Tía Juana Lago field, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso G. Castro-Cerrada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The angular discordance of the Eocene that puts B sands of the Misoa Formation in contact with the La Rosa Formation affects, structure up, the thickness of the B6 member truncating it until eroding it in a northwesterly direction, with the presence of facies changes and local faults. With the objective of contributing to the recovery of gas reserves, a geological review was initiated to locate drainage points; the present investigation had the purpose of identifying the favorable stratigraphic and structural framework to locate in the upper part of the structure, monobore wells to drain the remaining reserves of gas from reservoir B6 LL 370, from the Tia Juana Lago field. It was established that plot A-226 is the most prospective for the establishment of drainage points for the drilling of monobore wells due to the best geological and reservoir conditions. Two locations are proposed (LL-Z-AB-AC-306-A4 and LL-AC-6-C5A1 to complete monobore with 5-1/2” pipe for a production potential of 2,8 MMPCND.

  13. Associations between Intake of Folate, Methionine, and Vitamins B-12, B-6 and Prostate Cancer Risk in American Veterans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, A.C.; Hoyo, C.; Grant, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Recent reports suggest that excess of nutrients involved in the one-carbon metabolism pathway increases PC risk; however, empirical data are lacking. Veteran American men (272 controls and 144 PC cases) who attended the Durham Veteran American Medical Center between 2004-2009 were enrolled into a case-control study. Intake of folate, vitamin B12, B6, and methionine were measured using a food frequency questionnaire. Regression models were used to evaluate the association among one-carbon cycle nutrients, MTHFR genetic variants, and prostate cancer. Higher dietary methionine intake was associated with PC risk (OR = 2.1; 95 % CI 1.1-3.9) The risk was most pronounced in men with Gleason sum <7 (OR = 2.75; 95%CI 1.32-5.73). The association of higher methionine intake and PC risk was only apparent in men who carried at least one MTHFR A1298C allele (OR=6.7 ; 95% CI=1.6-27.8), compared to MTHFR A1298A noncarrier men (OR = 0 . 9 ; 95 % CI=0.24-3.92) (p-interaction=0.045). There was no evidence for associations between B vitamins (folate, B12, and B6) and PC risk. Our results suggest that carrying the MTHFR A1298C variants modifies the association between high methionine intake and PC risk. Larger studies are required to validate these findings.

  14. Micronutrient Deficiencies among Breastfeeding Infants in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra L. Bellows

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Infant mortality accounts for the majority of child deaths in Tanzania, and malnutrition is an important underlying cause. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to describe the micronutrient status of infants in Tanzania and assess predictors of infant micronutrient deficiency. We analyzed serum vitamin D, vitamin B12, folate, and ferritin levels from 446 infants at two weeks of age, 408 infants at three months of age, and 427 mothers three months post-partum. We used log-Poisson regression to estimate relative risk of being deficient in vitamin D and vitamin B12 for infants in each age group. The prevalence of vitamin D and vitamin B12 deficiency decreased from 60% and 30% at two weeks to 9% and 13% at three months respectively. Yet, the prevalence of insufficiency at three months was 49% for vitamin D and 17% for vitamin B12. Predictors of infant vitamin D deficiency were low birthweight, urban residence, maternal education, and maternal vitamin D status. Maternal vitamin B12 status was the main predictor for infant vitamin B12 deficiency. The majority of infants had sufficient levels of folate or ferritin. Further research is necessary to examine the potential benefits of improving infants’ nutritional status through vitamin D and B12 supplements.

  15. Plasma Riboflavin and Vitamin B-6, but Not Homocysteine, Folate, or Vitamin B-12, Are Inversely Associated with Breast Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Varese Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Krogh, Vittorio; Pala, Valeria; Allione, Alessandra; Matullo, Giuseppe; Di Gaetano, Cornelia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Pedraglio, Samuele; Garrone, Giulia; Cancarini, Ilaria; Cavalleri, Adalberto; Sieri, Sabina

    2016-06-01

    One-carbon metabolism-important for DNA stability and integrity-may play a role in breast carcinogenesis. However, epidemiologic studies addressing this issue have yielded inconsistent results. We prospectively investigated associations between breast cancer and plasma folate, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine in women recruited to the Varese (Italy) cohort of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. We performed a nested case-control study on women aged 35-65 y at recruitment with a median body mass index of 25.3 kg/m(2) who gave blood samples in 1987-1992 and again in 1993-1998. Breast cancer cases identified by 31 December 2009 were individually matched to controls. RRs of breast cancer (and subtypes defined by hormone receptor status) with 95% CIs were estimated by unconditional logistic regression, controlling for matching factors and breast cancer risk factors. After a median of 14.9 y, 276 breast cancer cases were identified and matched to 276 controls. Increasing plasma vitamin B-6 was associated with decreased risk of overall (RR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.96 for 1-SD increase), premenopausal (RR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.92 for 1-SD increase), estrogen receptor-positive (RR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63, 1.00 for 1-SD increase), and progesterone receptor-positive (RR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.95 for 1-SD increase) breast cancers. Increased plasma vitamin B-6 was also associated with decreased breast cancer risk in alcohol consumers (≥7 g/d) compared with consumption of breast cancer risk. High plasma vitamin B-6 and riboflavin may lower breast cancer risk, especially in premenopausal women. Additional research is necessary to further explore these associations. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Oral and fecal Campylobacter concisus strains perturb barrier function by apoptosis induction in HT-29/B6 intestinal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Linde Nielsen

    Full Text Available Campylobacter concisus infections of the gastrointestinal tract can be accompanied by diarrhea and inflammation, whereas colonization of the human oral cavity might have a commensal nature. We focus on the pathophysiology of C. concisus and the effects of different clinical oral and fecal C. concisus strains on human HT-29/B6 colon cells. Six oral and eight fecal strains of C. concisus were isolated. Mucus-producing HT-29/B6 epithelial monolayers were infected with the C. concisus strains. Transepithelial electrical resistance (R(t and tracer fluxes of different molecule size were measured in Ussing chambers. Tight junction (TJ protein expression was determined by Western blotting, and subcellular TJ distribution was analyzed by confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Apoptosis induction was examined by TUNEL-staining and Western blot of caspase-3 activation. All strains invaded confluent HT-29/B6 cells and impaired epithelial barrier function, characterized by a time- and dose-dependent decrease in R(t either after infection from the apical side but even more from the basolateral compartment. TJ protein expression changes were sparse, only in apoptotic areas of infected monolayers TJ proteins were redistributed. Solely the barrier-forming TJ protein claudin-5 showed a reduced expression level to 66±8% (P<0.05, by expression regulation from the gene. Concomitantly, Lactate dehydrogenase release was elevated to 3.1±0.3% versus 0.7±0.1% in control (P<0.001, suggesting cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, oral and fecal C. concisus strains elevated apoptotic events to 5-fold. C. concisus-infected monolayers revealed an increased permeability for 332 Da fluorescein (1.74±0.13 vs. 0.56±0.17 10(-6 cm/s in control, P<0.05 but showed no difference in permeability for 4 kDa FITC-dextran (FD-4. The same was true in camptothecin-exposed monolayers, where camptothecin was used for apoptosis induction.In conclusion, epithelial barrier dysfunction by oral and

  17. Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice can be induced by diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Tai L.; Wang, Yunbiao; Xiong, Tao; Ling, Xiao; Zheng, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Diet and phytoestrogens affect the development and progression of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to determine if oral exposure to phytoestrogen genistein (GE) by gavage changed blood glucose levels (BGL) through immunomodulation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets. These three diets were: NTP-2000 diet (NTP), soy- and alfalfa-free 5K96 diet (SOF) and high fat diet (HFD) with 60% of kcal from fat, primarily rendered fat of swine. The dosing regimen for STZ consisted of three 100 mg/kg doses (i.p.): the first dose was administered at approximately 2 weeks following the initiation of daily GE (20 mg/kg) gavage, and the second dose was on day 19 following the first dose, and the third dose was on day 57 following the first dose. In mice on the NTP diet, GE treatment decreased BGL with statistical significances observed on days 33 and 82 following the first STZ injection. In mice fed the HFD diet, GE treatment produced a significant decrease and a significant increase in BGL on days 15 and 89 following the first STZ injection, respectively. In mice fed the SOF diet, GE treatment had no significant effects on BGL. Although GE treatment affected phenotypic distributions of both splenocytes (T cells, B cells, natural killer cells and neutrophils) and thymocytes (CD4/CD8 and CD44/CD25), and their mitochondrial transmembrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species, indicators of cell death (possibly apoptosis), GE modulation of neutrophils was more consistent with its diabetogenic or anti-diabetic potentials. The differential effects of GE on BGL in male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets with varied phytoestrogen contents suggest that the estrogenic properties of this compound may contribute to its modulation of diabetes. - Highlights: • Diets affected streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice. • Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes can be induced by diet.

  18. Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice can be induced by diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Tai L., E-mail: tlguo1@uga.edu [Department of Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7382 (United States); Wang, Yunbiao [Department of Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7382 (United States); Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102 (China); Xiong, Tao [College of Animal Science, Yangtze University, Jingzhou City, Hubei Province 434025 (China); Ling, Xiao [Institute for Food and Drug Control of Shandong Province, Jinan City, Shandong 250012 (China); Zheng, Jianfeng [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0613 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Diet and phytoestrogens affect the development and progression of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to determine if oral exposure to phytoestrogen genistein (GE) by gavage changed blood glucose levels (BGL) through immunomodulation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets. These three diets were: NTP-2000 diet (NTP), soy- and alfalfa-free 5K96 diet (SOF) and high fat diet (HFD) with 60% of kcal from fat, primarily rendered fat of swine. The dosing regimen for STZ consisted of three 100 mg/kg doses (i.p.): the first dose was administered at approximately 2 weeks following the initiation of daily GE (20 mg/kg) gavage, and the second dose was on day 19 following the first dose, and the third dose was on day 57 following the first dose. In mice on the NTP diet, GE treatment decreased BGL with statistical significances observed on days 33 and 82 following the first STZ injection. In mice fed the HFD diet, GE treatment produced a significant decrease and a significant increase in BGL on days 15 and 89 following the first STZ injection, respectively. In mice fed the SOF diet, GE treatment had no significant effects on BGL. Although GE treatment affected phenotypic distributions of both splenocytes (T cells, B cells, natural killer cells and neutrophils) and thymocytes (CD4/CD8 and CD44/CD25), and their mitochondrial transmembrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species, indicators of cell death (possibly apoptosis), GE modulation of neutrophils was more consistent with its diabetogenic or anti-diabetic potentials. The differential effects of GE on BGL in male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets with varied phytoestrogen contents suggest that the estrogenic properties of this compound may contribute to its modulation of diabetes. - Highlights: • Diets affected streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice. • Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes can be induced by diet.

  19. Post-operative bariatric surgery complications: Deficiency of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Abdul Majid Mufaqam1, Soni Dhwani Satishkumar2, Patel Palak Arvindkumar2

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since more than half of the population in America falls under the category of obesity, scientists have discovered a surgical technique to reduce the weight of the obese patients. Bariatric surgery or gastric bypass surgery is a procedure that has been successful in reducing the weight for obese people. This technique requires a permanent gastric bypass (Roux-en-Y where part of the stomach and duodenum is removed. Since the size of the stomach is reduced to 20% of its original size along with the removal of duodenum – this may lead to improper absorption of several vitamins and minerals. This review showed that several vitamins and mineral deficiencies are observed in patients, post-operative bariatric surgery. Thiamin, folate, and B12 deficiencies were most commonly observed, and Vitamin A, D, C and B6 deficiencies were also seen in some cases. Iron and calcium deficiencies were also reported by some of the studies.

  20. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey -- the OTAP2009 study. III. Vitamin intake of the Hungarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugasi, Andrea; Bakacs, Márta; Zentai, Andrea; Kovács, Viktória Anna; Martos, Eva

    2012-07-15

    For the healthy status the adequate intake of vitamins is essential. The Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey - joining to the European Health Interview Survey - studied the dietary habits of the Hungarian population. This work presents the vitamins intake. The intake of all water soluble vitamins, vitamin E and D were significantly higher in men than in women. Favourable phenomena were the increased β-carotene and vitamin C intakes in men and women compared to the earlier data. Intakes of vitamin C, B1-, B2-, B6- and B12, and niacin meet the recommendations. Crucially low intakes of vitamin D and folate were calculated in both genders, particularly in the elders, mainly in case of vitamin D. Imperfect intakes of panthotenic acid and biotin were also observed. For maintaining the adequate vitamin supply and for prevention of vitamin deficiency, diversified nutrition, information of the population on the basic principles of healthy nutrition and availability of healthy food are essential.

  1. Is SmB6 a failed superconductor? \\x9DPart I: long-wave length action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten, Onur; Chang, Po-Yao; Coleman, Piers; Tsvelik, Alexei

    The theory of superfluids and superconductors is founded on London's idea of ``wavefunction rigidity'', in which gradients of the condensate phase carry a persistent superflow. However, the theory of neutral superfluids reveals that a stable superflow also requires the topological quantization of circulation: when this is absent, as in the case of 3He-A, the superflow is unstable. Motivated with the controversial experimental results on SmB6, we generalize this idea to charged superfluids, in which a higher dimensional order parameter manifold topologically destabilizes vortices, causing the rapid decay of supercurrents into a novel diamagnetic insulator. I will present a Ginzburg-Landau type long wavelength action of a `failed' superconductor and discuss how supercurrents decay through formation of space-time skyrmions. This work is done in collaboration with Po-Yao Chang, Piers Coleman and Alexei M. Tsvelik. This work is supported by Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02- 99ER45790.

  2. Comparative studies on detergent-assisted apocytochrome b6 reconstitution into liposomal bilayers monitored by Zetasizer instruments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał A Surma

    Full Text Available The present paper is a systematic, comparative study on the reconstitution of an apocytochrome b6 purified from a heterologous system using a detergent-free method and reconstitution into liposomes performed using three different detergents: SDS, Triton X-100 and DM, and two methods of detergent removal by dialysis and using Bio-Beads. The product size, its distribution and zeta potential, and other parameters were monitored throughout the process. We found that zeta potential of proteoliposomes is correlated with reconstitution efficiency and, as such, can serve as a quick and convenient quality control for reconstitution experiments. We also advocate using detergent-free protein purification methods as they allow for an unfettered choice of detergent for reconstitution, which is the most crucial factor influencing the final product parameters.

  3. Cardiovascular effects of fission neutron or 60Co γ exposure in the B6CF1 mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, David G; Carnes, Bruce A

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the B6CF 1 mice from the JANUS program at the Argonne National Laboratory were analyzed for increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality from 60 Co γ ray or fission neutron exposures administered in either a single dose or protracted weekly doses. The data used for this study represent the last studies conducted at Argonne and have been archived for at least 15 years. CVD mortality increased in a dose-dependent manner from γ rays as well as from neutron exposures. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for neutrons is about 4 or 5. CVD mortality appeared to be enhanced when the dose was protracted, with a DDREF (dose and dose rate effectiveness factor) in the range of 0.4-0.45 for neutron and gamma ray exposure, respectively.

  4. Bulk growth and magneto-optical property of K3B6O10Br polar crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mingjun; Li, Changsheng; Li, R. K.

    2017-06-01

    A series of K3B6O10Br (KBB) polar crystals have been grown along , and seed directions by top seeded solution growth (TSSG) method. By optimizing the growth condition, transparent KBB crystal with the sizes of 52×29×25 mm3 was successfully grown by using seed -orientation from KF-PbO flux. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) and optical homogeneity were measured as 0.0038° and 3.3×10-5 from the rocking curve and optical interferometry measurements, respectively, indicating high optical quality of the as-grown crystals. The Verdet coefficient of KBB crystal was obtained as 5.3 rad T-1 m-1 at 635 nm by comparative method.

  5. Kinetic Study of Crystallization Process in Fe32Ni36Cr14P12B6 Metallic Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lad, Kirit; Pratap, Arun; Rao, T. L. Shanker

    2010-01-01

    Kinetics of crystallization process in a Fe-based metallic glass 2826A (Fe 32 Ni 36 Cr 14 P 12 B 6 ) has been studied with the help of differential scanning calorimetry(DSC). It is found that the 2826A metallic glass exhibits two overlapping crystallization peaks. The activation energy for crystallization (E) and the Avrami exponent (n) for the two crystallization peaks have been obtained using the Kolmogorov-Jhonson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) equation. The so-obtained values of E and n have been utilized to derive normalized heat flow curves. It has been observed that the theoretical heat flow curves obtained using KJMA equation show large deviations from the experimental curves for the first peak whereas the curves are in very close agreement for the second peak. This suggests that kinetics of crystallization process during the first peak cannot be described correctly in KJMA formalism.

  6. Kinetic Study of Crystallization Process in Fe32Ni36Cr14P12B6 Metallic Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, Kirit; Rao, T. L. Shanker; Pratap, Arun

    2010-06-01

    Kinetics of crystallization process in a Fe-based metallic glass 2826A (Fe32Ni36Cr14P12B6) has been studied with the help of differential scanning calorimetry(DSC). It is found that the 2826A metallic glass exhibits two overlapping crystallization peaks. The activation energy for crystallization (E) and the Avrami exponent (n) for the two crystallization peaks have been obtained using the Kolmogorov-Jhonson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) equation. The so-obtained values of E and n have been utilized to derive normalized heat flow curves. It has been observed that the theoretical heat flow curves obtained using KJMA equation show large deviations from the experimental curves for the first peak whereas the curves are in very close agreement for the second peak. This suggests that kinetics of crystallization process during the first peak cannot be described correctly in KJMA formalism.

  7. Study of corrosion resistance of chromium-nickel steel in calcium - hypochlorite solution. Part 1. Steels uranus b6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošković D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion resistance of Cr - Ni (special steels specimen is tested by electrochemical methods, numerical method of linear polarization and polarization resistance method in calcium-hypochlorite (Ca(OCl2 solutions. With increasing of Ca(OCl2 concentration, pH value of the solution increases, as well as active chlorine concentration and corrosion activity of the medium. According to the quantitative method of the corrosion resistance determination it can be concluded that the steels tested in 1 wt % Ca(OCl2 solution are resistant, in 10 wt % solution constant, and in 50 wt % suspension less resistant. URANUS B6 showed the best corrosion resistance of all tested chromium - nickel steels in all tested corrosion mediums.

  8. Exchange and crystal field effects in the ESR spectra of Eu2+ in LaB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, J. G. S.; Urbano, R. R.; Venegas, P. A.; Pagliuso, P. G.; Rettori, C.; Fisk, Z.; Oseroff, S. B.

    2007-09-01

    Electron spin resonance of Eu2+ ( 4f7 , S=7/2 ) in a La hexaboride (LaB6) single crystal shows a single anisotropic Dysonian resonance. From the observed negative g shift of the resonance, it is inferred that the Eu2+ ions are covalent exchange coupled to the B2p -like host conduction electrons. From the anisotropy of the spectra (linewidth and field for resonance), we found that the S ground state of Eu2+ ions experience a cubic crystal field of a negative fourth order crystal field parameter (CFP), b4=-11.5(2.0)Oe , in agreement with the negative fourth order CFP, A4 , found for the non- S ground state R hexaborides. These results support covalency as the dominant contribution to the fourth order CFP for the whole R hexaboride family.

  9. Folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 in adolescence: serum concentrations, prevalence of inadequate intakes and sources in food

    OpenAIRE

    Steluti, Josiane; Martini, Lígia A.; Peters, Barbara S. E.; Marchioni, Dirce M. L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Investigar os níveis séricos e a prevalência de inadequação da ingestão dietética de folato e das vitaminas B6 e B12, identificando os alimentos contribuintes para a ingestão desses nutrientes. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal, em adolescentes de 16 a 19 anos, de ambos os sexos, conduzido em Indaiatuba (SP). Coletou-se o registro alimentar de 3 dias não consecutivos. A dieta habitual foi estimada pela remoção da variabilidade intrapessoal, e a prevalência de inadequação da...

  10. Hematopoiesis and aging. V. A decline in hematocrit occurs in all aging female B6D2F1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggs, D.R.; Patrene, K.

    1986-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of hematocrits were done in aging B6D2F1 female mice at 54, 64, 91, 105 and 115 weeks of age. A modest decline in hematocrit was observed in 41/42 mice; we have previously shown that the decreased hematocrit of aged as compared to young mice is due to an expansion of plasma volume. Mice which died spontaneously after 91 weeks had lower hematocrits at 91 weeks and 105 weeks than did those which survived to 115 weeks. At each time interval, a sub-group of mice was killed and uptake of 59 Fe into blood, foreleg, spleen and liver was studied and total nucleated cells per humerus was determined. The results were generally compatible with the thesis that aging mice maintain normal rates of erythropoiesis under basal conditions. Thus, it would appear that a decrease in hematocrit can be considered an expected part of the aging process in this mouse

  11. Understanding Free Radicals: Isolating Active Thylakoid Membranes and Purifying the Cytochrome b6f Complex for Superoxide Generation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Stofleth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All life persists in an environment that is rich in molecular oxygen. The production of oxygen free radicals, or superoxide, is a necessary consequence of the biogenesis of energy in cells. Both mitochondrial and photosynthetic electron transport chains have been found to produce superoxide associated with cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell death, thereby contributing to the effects of aging. Aerobic respiration in mitochondria consumes oxygen, whereas photosynthesis in chloroplasts or cyanobacteria produces oxygen. The increased concentration of molecular oxygen may serve to allow greater availability for the production of superoxide by cytochrome bc complexes in photosynthetic membranes compared to those of mitochondrial membranes. The isolation of well-coupled chloroplasts, containing the cytochrome b6f complex of oxygenic photosynthesis, is a vital initial step in the process of comparing the rate of production of superoxide to those of the homologous cytochrome bc1 complex of aerobic respiration. It is necessary to determine if the isolated chloroplasts have retained their oxygengenerating capability after isolation by an oxygen evolution assay with a Clark-type electrode. A necessary second step, which is the isolation of cytochrome b6f from spinach, has yet to be successfully performed. Oxygen measurements taken from chloroplasts in the presence of the uncoupler, NH4Cl, exhibited a rate of oxygen evolution over three times greater at 344 +/- 18 μmol O2/mg Chlorophyll a/hr than the rate of oxygen evolution without uncoupler at 109 +/- 29 μmol O2/mg Chlorophyll a/hr. These data demonstrate that the technique used to isolate spinach chloroplasts preserves their light-driven electron-transport activity, making them reliable for future superoxide assays.

  12. Effects of isolated vitamin B6 supplementation on oxidative stress and heart function parameters in experimental hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Hack Mendes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isolated vitamin B6 (VB6 supplementation on experimental hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhe induced by homocysteine thiolactone (HcyT. Methods: Fifteen male Wistar rats were divided into three groups according to their treatment. Animals received water and food ad libitum and an intragastric probe was used to administer water for 60 days (groups: CB6, HcyT, and HB6. On the 30th day of treatment, two groups were supplemented with VB6 in the drinking water (groups: CB6 and HB6. After 60 days of treatment, homocysteine (Hcy, cysteine, and hydrogen peroxide concentration, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NRF2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST immunocontent, and superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and GST activities were measured. Results: The HcyT group showed an increase in Hcy concentration (62% in relation to the CB6 group. Additionally, GST immunocontent was enhanced (51% in the HB6 group compared to the HcyT group. Also, SOD activity was lower (17% in the HB6 group compared to the CB6 group, and CAT activity was higher in the HcyT group (53% compared to the CB6 group. Ejection fraction (EF was improved in the HB6 group compared to the HcyT group. E/A ratio was enhanced in the HB6 group compared to the CB6 group. Correlations were found between CAT activity with myocardial performance index (MPI (r = 0.71; P = 0.06 and E/A ratio (r = 0.6; P = 0.01, and between EF and GST activity (r = 0.62; P = 0.02. Conclusions: These findings indicate that isolated VB6 supplementation may lead to the reduction of Hcy concentration and promotes additional benefits to oxidative stress and heart function parameters.   Keywords: Homocysteine; oxidative stress; vitamin B6.

  13. Effect of magnesium chloride on psychomotor activity, emotional status, and acute behavioural responses to clonidine, d-amphetamine, arecoline, nicotine, apomorphine, and L-5-hydroxytryptophan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezhitsa, Igor N; Spasov, Alexander A; Kharitonova, Maria V; Kravchenko, Maria S

    2011-01-01

    The beneficial effects of magnesium (Mg) salts on central manifestations of Mg deficiency are well known. Mg replacement therapy can be effective to prevent some of the serious depression-like and anxiety-related behaviour sequelae of Mg deficiency. However, few experimental studies have been undertaken on Mg-deficiency-induced behavioural changes. Even fewer studies have been carried out on acute behavioural responses to clonidine, D-amphetamine, arecoline, nicotine, apomorphine, and L-5-hydroxytryptophan (HTP), which might characterize possible neuromediator changes in Mg deficiency. The effects of correcting Mg deficiency by magnesium chloride (MgCl₂ · 6H₂O) and the combination of this salt with vitamin B₆, on the behavioural manifestations of Mg deficiency have never been described as well. The aims of this study were: to estimate effect of MgCl₂ · 6H₂O alone and in combination with vitamin B6 on acute behavioural responses to agonists or blockers of the main neurotransmitter systems in CNS, psychomotor activity and emotional status of rats fed with Mg-deficient diet for 49 days. In our study open field test has shown that in Mg-deficient rats locomotor activity and vertical activity, number of visiting and residence time in central squares were decreased significantly. In the elevated plus maze test, the number of visiting open arms and residence time of rats were significantly less as compared with the control group. In the forced swimming test, time immobile was significantly increased by 44.29% and time of swimming was decreased by 52.79% compared to control. In our study Mg-deficient rats were more sensitive to d-amphetamine-induced motor stereotypes. Mg deficiency antagonized 5-hydroxytryptophan-induced head-twitch response and arecoline-induced tremor. Supplement of MgCl₂ · 6H₂O with vitamin B₆ administered to a Mg-deficient rat increased the Mg level in plasma and erythrocytes. Furthermore, this increase was in relation to vitamin B

  14. Vitamin supplementation and nutritional status in homeless men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnton-Hill, I; Sriskandarajah, N; Stewart, P M; Craig, G; Truswell, A S

    1993-09-01

    Homeless men and women are both physically and socially disadvantaged. Their nutritional status is also often compromised. In this sample of 107 homeless men in Sydney, about half reported taking vitamin supplements (with varying duration and regularity), usually a regimen consisting of thiamin, vitamin C, folic acid and a multivitamin-B-complex capsule. In this cross-sectional study, little effect could be seen on clinical health between those reporting taking vitamin supplementation and those not doing so. However, biochemical measurements showed significant differences. The numbers of men classified as deficient were higher by about 20 per cent for those reporting not taking vitamins. The mean biochemical levels were significantly better for the supplemented group for thiamin, as assessed by TPP per cent effect (P = 0.04), vitamin B6, as assessed by P5'P per cent effect (P = 0.002), vitamin C (P status, the supplemented group were better off and it is reasonable to presume that in the long term this would be reflected in improved clinical status.

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron in your body causes iron-deficiency anemia. Lack of iron usually is due to blood loss, ... can help prevent overdosing in children. Because recent research supports concerns that iron deficiency during infancy and ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... at 1 year of age. Women and Girls Women of childbearing age may be tested for iron-deficiency anemia, especially if they have: A history of iron-deficiency anemia Heavy blood loss during ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... condition. Women Women of childbearing age are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of blood ... iron-deficiency anemia. Pregnant women also are at higher risk for the condition because they need twice ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, you lose iron. ... other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ... and is recruiting by invitation only. View more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and young children and women are the two groups at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Outlook Doctors usually can successfully treat iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment ... ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. People ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... drawings also can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Poor Diet The best sources of iron are meat, poultry, ... more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat the ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Health Topics Health Topics A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science ... deficiency anemia. Endurance activities and athletes. Athletes, especially young females, are at risk for iron deficiency. Endurance ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... risk for the condition. Women Women of childbearing age are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia ... periods. About 1 in 5 women of childbearing age has iron-deficiency anemia. Pregnant women also are ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in children, and ... of the mouth, an enlarged spleen, and frequent infections. People who have iron-deficiency anemia may have ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... have iron-deficiency anemia, you'll have a high level of transferrin that has no iron. Other ... may include dietary changes and supplements, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require a blood ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and paler than normal when viewed under a microscope. Different tests help your doctor diagnose iron-deficiency ... if you have iron-deficiency anemia or another type of anemia. You may be diagnosed with iron- ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and other symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and ... Internal bleeding (bleeding inside the body) also may lead to iron-deficiency anemia. This type of blood ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also may help treat iron-deficiency anemia. Medical History Your doctor will ask about your signs and ... much of the transferrin in your blood isn't carrying iron. If you have iron-deficiency anemia, ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ... Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in a clinical trial . ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... fatigue or tiredness, shortness of breath, or chest pain. If your doctor diagnoses you with iron-deficiency ... Common symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include: Chest pain Coldness in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia may require treatment in a hospital, blood transfusions , iron injections, or intravenous iron therapy. ... Treatment may need to be done in a hospital. The goals of treating iron-deficiency anemia are ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... more information about diet and supplements, go to "How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated?" Infants and young ... who should be screened for iron deficiency, and how often: Girls aged 12 to 18 and women ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... less hemoglobin than normal. Iron-deficiency anemia can cause fatigue (tiredness), shortness of breath, chest pain, and ... iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the condition. Treatments may include ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is severe, you may get a transfusion of red blood cells. A blood transfusion is ...

  18. Folate-deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000551.htm Folate-deficiency anemia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Folate-deficiency anemia is a decrease in red blood cells (anemia) ...

  19. LaB6 nanoparticles with carbon-doped silica coating for fluorescence imaging and near-IR photothermal therapy of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, B-H; Chen, D-H

    2013-07-01

    In this study, LaB6 nanoparticles are used as a novel nanomaterial for near-infrared (NIR) photothermal therapy because they are cheaper than nanostructured gold, are easy to prepare and have an excellent NIR photothermal conversion property. Furthermore, the surface of LaB6 nanoparticles is coated with a carbon-doped silica (C-SiO2) shell to introduce a fluorescent property and improve stability and biocompatibility. The resulting LaB6@C-SiO2 nanoparticles retain the excellent NIR photothermal conversion property and exhibit a bright blue emission under UV irradiation or a green emission under visible irradiation. Using a HeLa cancer cell line, it is demonstrated that LaB6@C-SiO2 nanoparticles have no significant cytotoxicity, but their presence leads to remarkable cell death after NIR irradiation. In addition, from the observation of cellular uptake, the fluorescence labeling function of LaB6@SiO2 (LaB6 core/SiO2 shell) nanoparticles is also confirmed. These results suggest that LaB6@C-SiO2 nanoparticles may potentially serve as an efficient multifunctional nano-platform for simultaneous fluorescent imaging and NIR-triggered photothermal therapy of cancer cells. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Leer en español What Is Iron-deficiency anemia ... all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common symptom of all types of ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... if you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  5. How common is vitamin B-12 deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2009-02-01

    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification. This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers whether fortification would improve the status of deficient subgroups of the population. In large surveys in the United States and the United Kingdom, approximately 6% of those aged > or =60 y are vitamin B-12 deficient (plasma vitamin B-12 life. In developing countries, deficiency is much more common, starting in early life and persisting across the life span. Inadequate intake, due to low consumption of animal-source foods, is the main cause of low serum vitamin B-12 in younger adults and likely the main cause in poor populations worldwide; in most studies, serum vitamin B-12 concentration is correlated with intake of this vitamin. In older persons, food-bound cobalamin malabsorption becomes the predominant cause of deficiency, at least in part due to gastric atrophy, but it is likely that most elderly can absorb the vitamin from fortified food. Fortification of flour with vitamin B-12 is likely to improve the status of most persons with low stores of this vitamin. However, intervention studies are still needed to assess efficacy and functional benefits of increasing intake of the amounts likely to be consumed in flour, including in elderly persons with varying degrees of gastric atrophy.

  6. Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in adulthood. The disease is refractory to oral iron treatment but shows a slow response to intravenous iron injections and partial correction of the anemia. To date, 40 different Matriptase-2 mutations have been reported, affecting all the functional domains of the large ectodomain of the protein. In vitro experiments on transfected cells suggest that Matriptase-2 cleaves Hemojuvelin, a major regulator of hepcidin expression and that this function is altered in this genetic form of anemia. In contrast to the low/undetectable hepcidin levels observed in acquired iron deficiency, in patients with Matriptase-2 deficiency, serum hepcidin is inappropriately high for the low iron status and accounts for the absent/delayed response to oral iron treatment. A challenge for the clinicians and pediatricians is the recognition of the disorder among iron deficiency and other microcytic anemias commonly found in pediatric patients. The current treatment of iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is based on parenteral iron administration; in the future, manipulation of the hepcidin pathway with the aim of suppressing it might become an alternative therapeutic approach. PMID:23729726

  7. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk de Bruyn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, supplementation with carnitine is advised. This supplementation should be continued throughout pregnancy according to plasma concentrations.

  8. Simultaneous Determination of Underivatized Vitamin B1 and B6 in Whole Blood by Reversed Phase Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Puts

    Full Text Available Vitamin B1 (thiamine-diphosphate and B6 (pyridoxal-5'phosphate are micronutrients. Analysis of these micronutrients is important to diagnose potential deficiency which often occurs in elderly people due to malnutrition, in severe alcoholism and in gastrointestinal compromise due to bypass surgery or disease. Existing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC based methods include the need for derivatization and long analysis time. We developed an Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS assay with internal standards for simultaneous measurement of underivatized thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate without use of ion pairing reagent.Whole blood, deproteinized with perchloric acid, containing deuterium labelled internal standards thiamine-diphosphate(thiazole-methyl-D3 and pyridoxal-5'phosphate(methyl-D3, was analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS. The method was validated for imprecision, linearity, recovery and limit of quantification. Alternate (quantitative method comparisons of the new versus currently used routine HPLC methods were established with Deming regression.Thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate were measured within 2.5 minutes instrumental run time. Limits of detection were 2.8 nmol/L and 7.8 nmol/L for thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate respectively. Limit of quantification was 9.4 nmol/L for thiamine-diphosphate and 25.9 nmol/L for pyridoxal-5'phosphate. The total imprecision ranged from 3.5-7.7% for thiamine-diphosphate (44-157 nmol/L and 6.0-10.4% for pyridoxal-5'phosphate (30-130 nmol/L. Extraction recoveries were 101-102% ± 2.5% (thiamine-diphosphate and 98-100% ± 5% (pyridoxal-5'phosphate. Deming regression yielded slopes of 0.926 and 0.990 in patient samples (n = 282 and national proficiency testing samples (n = 12 respectively, intercepts of +3.5 and +3 for thiamine-diphosphate (n = 282 and n = 12 and slopes of 1.04 and 0.84, intercepts of -2.9 and +20 for

  9. Behavior of Infants with Iron-Deficiency Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoff, Betsy; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Compared behavior of 52 Costa Rican 12- to 23-month-olds with iron-deficiency anemia to that of 139 infants with better iron status. Found that iron-deficient infants maintained closer contact with caregivers; showed less pleasure and playfulness; were more wary, hesitant, and easily tired; made fewer attempts at test items; and attended less to…

  10. Iron Deficiency Anaemia In Reproductive Age Women Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder in the world. The aim of this questionnaire based survey study was to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in reproductive age women, and their relation to variables such as age, marital status, education with those attending obstetrics and ...

  11. Evaluation of iron and folate deficiencies as possible causes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since experience shows that iron and folate deficiencies are common causes of anaemia in the population, it is desirable to investigate the iron and folate status of prospective donors who fail the blood donor fitness test to confirm whether or not, iron and folate deficiencies are part of the reasons for failure. AIM AND ...

  12. Iodine deficiency in primary school children and knowledge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: More than two billion individuals worldwide have inadequate iodine intake and the adverse consequences of iodine deficiency are widely observed. Objective: To assess the iodine status of primary school children and the knowledge of iodine deficiency disorders among their caretakers. Methods: A ...

  13. Managing vitamin D deficiency in children

    OpenAIRE

    Michie, Colin; Bangalore, Sathish

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been identified in many British children. This condition has many deleterious effects on their health. Taking vitamin D status into account needs to become a daily element of primary care practice, both in antenatal and postnatal situations. It is probable that a significant improvement in reducing chronic diseases in adulthood will result from a more proactive approach in children.

  14. VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY IN NIGERIAN CHILDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a global problem of public health significance in many under-privileged communities of the world. No national data is available on the vitamin A status in Nigeria. A population-based, cross-sectional study, using a two-staged stratified cluster sampling method was conducted. The national ...

  15. Prevalence of nutrient deficiencies in bariatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Seok Yee; Zarshenas, Nazy; Jorgensen, John

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of nutrient deficiencies in patients who present for bariatric surgery, assess nutritional status after surgery, and compare these with preoperative levels. A retrospective study was conducted to identify preoperative and 1-year postoperative nutrition deficiencies in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. The screening included serum ferritin, vitamin D, vitamin B(12), homocysteine, folate, red blood cell folate, and hemoglobin. Results were available for 232 patients preoperatively and 149 patients postoperatively. Two-tailed chi(2) tests and paired-sample t tests were used. Preoperatively, vitamin D deficiency was noted at 57%. The prevalence of abnormalities 1 year after roux-en-Y gastric bypass was higher compared with preoperative levels (P surgery, anemia was detected in 17%, elevated homocysteine levels (women only) in 29%, low ferritin in 15%, low vitamin B(12) in 11%, and low RBC folate in 12%. Mean hemoglobin, ferritin, and RBC folate levels deteriorated significantly but remained well within normal ranges. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiencies decreased, but not significantly. In sleeve gastrectomy patients, mean ferritin levels decreased (P deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency is common among morbidly obese patients seeking bariatric surgery. Because the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies persists or worsens postoperatively, routine nutrition screening, recommendation of appropriate supplements, and monitoring adherence are imperative in this population.

  16. The role of the pyridoxine (vitamin B6) biosynthesis enzyme PDX1 in ultraviolet-B radiation responses in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristilä, Mikael; Strid, Hilja; Eriksson, Leif A; Strid, Ake; Sävenstrand, Helena

    2011-03-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation regulates plant growth and morphology at low and ambient fluence rates but can severely impact on plants at higher doses. Some plant UV-B responses are related to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)) has been reported to be a quencher of ROS. UV-B irradiation of Arabidopsis Col-0 plants resulted in increased levels of PDX1 protein, compared with UV-A-exposed plants. This was shown by immunoblot analysis using specific polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant PDX1.3 protein and confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis of immunoprecipitated PDX1. The protein was located mainly in the cytosol but also to a small extent in the membrane fraction of plant leaves. Immunohistochemical analysis performed in pea revealed that PDX1 is present in UV-B-exposed leaf mesophyll and palisade parenchyma but not in epidermal cells. Pyridoxine production increased in Col-0 plants exposed to 3 days of UV-B, whereas in an Arabidopsis pdx1.3 mutant UV-B did not induce pyridoxine biosynthesis. In gene expression studies performed after UV-B exposure, the pdx1.3 mutant showed elevated transcript levels for the LHCB1*3 gene (encoding a chlorophyll a/b-binding protein of the photosystem II light-harvesting antenna complex) and the pathogenesis-related protein 5 (PR-5) gene, compared with wild type. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B6 content in two varieties of Brazilian beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.; Bognár, A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macaçar beans (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macaçar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B 1 , B 2 and B 6 was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B6 content in two varieties of Brazilian beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincee, H.; Bognar, A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macacar beans (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macacar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B 1 , B 2 and B 6 was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology

  19. Vitamin B6 contributes to disease resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yafen; Jin, Xiaoyi; Ouyang, Zhigang; Li, Xiaohui; Liu, Bo; Huang, Lei; Hong, Yongbo; Zhang, Huijuan; Song, Fengming; Li, Dayong

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin B6 (VB6) is an important cofactor for numerous enzymatic reactions and plays an important role in abiotic stress tolerance. However, direct molecular evidence supporting a role for VB6 in plant disease resistance remains lacking. In this study, we explored the possible function of VB6 in disease resistance by analyzing disease phenotypes of Arabidopsis mutants with defects in de novo biosynthetic pathway and salvage pathway of VB6 biosynthesis against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 and Botrytis cinerea. Mutations in AtPDX1.2 and AtPDX1.3 genes involved in the de novo pathway, and in AtSOS4 gene involved in the salvage pathway led to increased levels of diseases caused by Pst DC3000 and B. cinerea. The pdx1.2 and pdx1.3 plants had reduced VB6 contents and showed a further reduction in VB6 contents after infection by Pst DC3000 or B. cinerea. Our preliminary results suggest an important role for VB6 in plant disease resistance against different types of pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Age on Skeletal Muscle Proteolysis in Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscles of B6C3F1 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Thomas H.; Krajewski, Katherine M.; Larkin, Lisa M.; Reid, Pamela; Halter, Jeffrey B.; Supiano, Mark A.; Dengel, Donald R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if age-related muscle atrophy is associated with an increased rate of protein degradation in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from young (YG; 2–4 months), middle-aged (MA; 12–17 months), and aged (AG; 22–24 months) B6C3F1 mice. EDL muscles from AG mice weighed less than EDL muscles from MA mice (p = .01). EDL muscles from MA mice weighed more than EDL muscles from YG mice (p = .02). The rate of protein degradation, as assessed by tyrosine release during in vitro incubations, was higher in EDL muscles from AG mice than it was in those from MA mice (p = .03). The rate of protein degradation was higher in EDL muscles from YG mice than it was in those from MA mice (p = .04). An inverse relationship existed between muscle mass and protein degradation (r = −.67; p = .0001). We conclude that skeletal muscle protein degradation rates decrease with maturation and increase with advancing age. PMID:11983717

  1. Electronic configurations of Sm2+ in SmS and SmB6, and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudet, X.

    1977-01-01

    In Dirac's theory the 4f shell is divided into two subshells: 4f/sub 5/2/ with six quantum states and 4f/sub 7/2/ with eight quantum states. Assuming that these two subshells can be filled up successively, we had successfully obtained the saturation magnetic moment of the garnets Ln 3 Fe 5 O 12 . This study is devoted to establish the role of the subshells in the case of SmS phase transformation under pressure P. Particularly for Sm 2+ the low spin configuration 4f/sub 5/2/ 6 4f/sub 7/2/ 0 which with six 4f electrons has a filled subshell 4f/sub 5/2/ leading to a zero magnetic moment. But as the insulator in equilibrium metal I in equilibrium M transition exhibited with this phase transition, is explained through a valence change, we first consider the localized electron model proposed in the case of Fe 3 O 4 to show that large variations of electrical resistivity of SmS and SmB 6 also can be understood through this model. A result which allows us to consider the ion Sm 2+ in both phases of SmS. 1 figure

  2. Radiation effects in amorphous Fe/sub x/Ni/sub 80-x/P14B6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, W.T.; Steck, G.; Kramer, J.J.; Murray, R.B.; Onn, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    Changes in the Curie temperature and magnetic saturation of the amorphous ferromagnetic series Fe/sub x/Ni/sub 80-x/P 14 B 6 for 20 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 34 induced by proton bombardment have been studied, and correlated with small angle x-ray scattering measurements performed for x = 20 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Both the Curie temperature and the low temperature saturation magnetization increase with proton fluence up to 10 16 cm -2 but are constant for higher fluences. Protons of energy 2.25 MeV (range much greater than the sample thickness) are more effective at producing changes than protons of energy 0.25 MeV (range much less than sample thickness). Thus, hydrogen implantation is eliminated as the principal source of the observed changes. In addition, careful attention to sample temperature during irradiation excludes thermal annealing as the origin of the effect. Proton bombardment at the same fluences produces scattering centers that are observed by small angle x-ray scattering. The concentration of scattering centers increases with proton fluence up to 10 16 cm -2 , but remains constant thereafter. The size of the centers remains constant at about 16 to 30 A. Possible structural changes to account for these observations are incipient recrystallization, void formation, and phosphorous segregation

  3. Identification of new metabolic pathways in the enantioselective fungicide tebuconazole biodegradation by Bacillus sp. 3B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youness, Mohamed; Sancelme, Martine; Combourieu, Bruno; Besse-Hoggan, Pascale

    2018-02-24

    The use of triazole fungicides in various fields ranging from agriculture to therapy, can cause long-term undesirable effects on different organisms from various environmental compartments and lead to resistance phenomena (even in humans) due to their extensive use and persistence. Their occurrence in various water bodies has increased and tebuconazole, in particular, is often detected, sometimes in high concentration. Only a few bacterial and fungal strains have been isolated and found to biotransform this fungicide, described as not easily biodegradable. Nevertheless, the knowledge of efficient degrading-strains and metabolites potentially formed could improve bioremediation process and global overview of risk assessment. Therefore, a broad screening of microorganisms, isolated from various environmental compartments or from commercially-available strain collections, allowed us to find six bacterial strains able to biotransform tebuconazole. The most efficient one was studied further: this environmental strain Bacillus sp. 3B6 biotransforms the fungicide enantioselectively (ee = 18%) into two hydroxylated metabolites, one of them being transformed in its turn to alkene by a biotic dehydration reaction. This original enantioselective pathway shows that racemic pesticides should be treated by the environmental risk assessment authorities as a mixture of two compounds because persistence, biodegradation, bioaccumulation and toxicity often show chiral dependence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolism and disposition of phenolphthalein in male and female F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, R J; Godfrey, V B; Burka, L T

    1998-04-01

    A recent 2-year carcinogenicity/toxicology study determined that phenolphthalein (PHTH) is a multisite carcinogen in both mice and rats at all doses evaluated. In response to this finding the metabolism and disposition of PHTH has been evaluated in both F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice at a single oral dose of 800 mg/kg. This dose fell within the range previously found to be carcinogenic in rats and mice. Studies were also performed using 1 and 50 mg/kg doses. At 800 mg/kg recovery of [14C]PHTH after 72 h was near 100% in females but closer to 75% in males. Radioactivity was primarily recovered in the feces in rats (> 90%), while mice excreted 30-40% of administered activity in the urine. There was no significant retention of radioactivity in tissues by 72 h and no significant accumulation of radioactivity in any tissue at any time point. Covalent binding to protein in target tissues, bone marrow and ovary, was at or less than the pmol/mg protein range. The major metabolite was PHTH glucuronide. Three minor metabolites were detected. A sulfate conjugate and and a hydroxylated metabolite were identified by comparison of retention times and 1H NMR and/or mass spectra with synthetic standards. A diglucuronide conjugate was tentatively identified. Biliary elimination was extensive in rats (35% of dose within 6 h); the only product detected in bile was phenolphthalein glucuronide.

  5. Temperature dependence of the Moessbauer spectra of amorphous and nanocrystallized Fe86Zr7Cu1B6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orue, I.; Gorria, P.; Plazaola, F.; Fernandez-Gubieda, M.L.; Barandiaran, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Moessbauer measurements have been performed on amorphous and nanocrystalline alloy ribbons of nominal composition Fe 86 Zr 7 Cu 1 B 6 . The nanocrystalline samples were obtained by annealing the as-quenched alloy at different temperatures in the range between 650 and 870 K. Moessbauer spectra of the as-quenched amorphous sample have been recorded at 77 K, room temperature and above the Curie temperature (∼ 330 K) at 360 K. We have also performed Moessbauer measurements at room temperature in the nanocrystalline alloys to characterize the phases that appear after the annealing and their relative concentration. The as-quenched sample spectra reveal the existence of two inequivalent sites for Fe. Such a feature is also observed in the remaining amorphous phase of the annealed samples. In the first steps of crystallization, α-Fe precipitates and its concentration increases with the annealing temperature. The experimental results suggest that the composition of the whole amorphous phase does not suffer large changes during crystallization. (orig.)

  6. Investigation of pentacene growth on SiO2 gate insulator after photolithography for nitrogen-doped LaB6 bottom-contact electrode formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yasutaka; Hiroki, Mizuha; Ohmi, Shun-ichiro

    2018-04-01

    Nitrogen-doped (N-doped) LaB6 is a candidate material for the bottom-contact electrode of n-type organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). However, the formation of a N-doped LaB6 electrode affects the surface morphology of a pentacene film. In this study, the effects of surface treatments and a N-doped LaB6 interfacial layer (IL) were investigated to improve the pentacene film quality after N-doped LaB6 electrode patterning with diluted HNO3, followed by resist stripping with acetone and methanol. It was found that the sputtering damage during N-doped LaB6 deposition on a SiO2 gate insulator degraded the crystallinity of pentacene. The H2SO4 and H2O2 (SPM) and diluted HF treatments removed the damaged layer on the SiO2 gate insulator surface. Furthermore, the N-doped LaB6 IL improved the crystallinity of pentacene and realized dendritic grain growth. Owing to these surface treatments, the hole mobility improved from 2.8 × 10‑3 to 0.11 cm2/(V·s), and a steep subthreshold swing of 78 mV/dec for the OFET with top-contact configuration was realized in air even after bottom-contact electrode patterning.

  7. Mycobacterial WhiB6 Differentially Regulates ESX-1 and the Dos Regulon to Modulate Granuloma Formation and Virulence in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenkang Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available During the course of infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb is exposed to diverse redox stresses that trigger metabolic and physiological changes. How these stressors are sensed and relayed to the Mtb transcriptional apparatus remains unclear. Here, we provide evidence that WhiB6 differentially regulates the ESX-1 and DosR regulons through its Fe-S cluster. When challenged with NO, WhiB6 continually activates expression of the DosR regulons but regulates ESX-1 expression through initial activation followed by gradual inhibition. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of the holo- and reduced apo-WhiB6 complemented strains confirms these results and also reveals that WhiB6 controls aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, cell division, and virulence. Using the Mycobacterium marinum zebrafish infection model, we find that holo- and apo-WhiB6 modulate levels of mycobacterial infection, granuloma formation, and dissemination. These findings provide fresh insight into the role of WhiB6 in mycobacterial infection, dissemination, and disease development.

  8. Comparison of tumorigenesis between accelerated heavy ion and X-ray in B6C3F1 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Masaoka, Yoshiyuki; Korosumi, Masako; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Oguri, Tetsuya; Shoji, Shuneki; Katoh, Osamu [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine; Ogiu, Toshiaki; Nishimura, Mayumi

    1998-06-01

    The effects of heavy ion and X-ray irradiation on tumorigenesis in B6C3F1 mice were compared. Six-week-old animals were divided into 6 groups and exposed to 0.426 Gy heavy ion irradiation of 290 MeV/u carbon-ion beam (LET 60-210 KeV/{mu}m) at the dose rate of 0.4{+-}0.2 Gy/min; 0.5 Gy of X-ray irradiation at 0.1 Gy/min or 5 Gy of X-ray irradiation at 1 Gy/min. The mice were killed and an autopsy performed 13.5 months after the whole body irradiation. Body weights were heaviest for both sexes in the 0.5 Gy group and lightest in the 5 Gy one. Total tumor incidences in the males were 30, 56 and 13% respectively in the heavy ion, 5 Gy and 0.5 Gy X-irradiated groups, stomach tumors, lymphomas and adrenal tumors being the most common outcome of the high dose X-rays. Liver tumor induction did not differ significantly among the groups. In the females tumorigenicity was significantly lower for heavy ion than for 0.5 Gy and 5 Gy X-ray irradiation (p<0.05), the respective incidences, mainly ovary one, being 73%, 17% and 41%. Non-cancerous lesions, such as graying of the hair, glomerular sclerosis and amyloidosis appeared in the 5 Gy group. These findings indicate that 0.426 Gy of heavy ion irradiation induced lower carcinogenicity than 5 Gy of X-irradiation and higher carcinogenicity than that of 0.5 Gy X-irradiation in male mice. (author)

  9. Tracing hepatitis B virus (HBV genotype B5 (formerly B6 evolutionary history in the circumpolar Arctic through phylogeographic modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco Bouckaert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Indigenous populations of the circumpolar Arctic are considered to be endemically infected (>2% prevalence with hepatitis B virus (HBV, with subgenotype B5 (formerly B6 unique to these populations. The distinctive properties of HBV/B5, including high nucleotide diversity yet no significant liver disease, suggest virus adaptation through long-term host-pathogen association. Methods To investigate the origin and evolutionary spread of HBV/B5 into the circumpolar Arctic, fifty-seven partial and full genome sequences from Alaska, Canada and Greenland, having known location and sampling dates spanning 40 years, were phylogeographically investigated by Bayesian analysis (BEAST 2 using a reversible-jump-based substitution model and a clock rate estimated at 4.1 × 10−5 substitutions/site/year. Results Following an initial divergence from an Asian viral ancestor approximately 1954 years before present (YBP; 95% highest probability density interval [1188, 2901], HBV/B5 coalescence occurred almost 1000 years later. Surprisingly, the HBV/B5 ancestor appears to locate first to Greenland in a rapid coastal route progression based on the landscape aware geographic model, with subsequent B5 evolution and spread westward. Bayesian skyline plot analysis demonstrated an HBV/B5 population expansion occurring approximately 400 YBP, coinciding with the disruption of the Neo-Eskimo Thule culture into more heterogeneous and regionally distinct Inuit populations throughout the North American Arctic. Discussion HBV/B5 origin and spread appears to occur coincident with the movement of Neo-Eskimo (Inuit populations within the past 1000 years, further supporting the hypothesis of HBV/host co-expansion, and illustrating the concept of host-pathogen adaptation and balance.

  10. Trichloroethylene-induced gene expression and DNA methylation changes in B6C3F1 mouse liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiang

    Full Text Available Trichloroethylene (TCE, widely used as an organic solvent in the industry, is a common contaminant in air, soil, and water. Chronic TCE exposure induced hepatocellular carcinoma in mice, and occupational exposure in humans was suggested to be associated with liver cancer. To understand the role of non-genotoxic mechanism(s for TCE action, we examined the gene expression and DNA methylation changes in the liver of B6C3F1 mice orally administered with TCE (0, 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w. per day for 5 days. After 5 days TCE treatment at a dose level of 1000 mg/kg b.w., a total of 431 differentially expressed genes were identified in mouse liver by microarray, of which 291 were up-regulated and 140 down-regulated. The expression changed genes were involved in key signal pathways including PPAR, proliferation, apoptosis and homologous recombination. Notably, the expression level of a number of vital genes involved in the regulation of DNA methylation, such as Utrf1, Tet2, DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, were dysregulated. Although global DNA methylation change was not detected in the liver of mice exposed to TCE, the promoter regions of Cdkn1a and Ihh were found to be hypo- and hypermethylated respectively, which correlated negatively with their mRNA expression changes. Furthermore, the gene expression and DNA methylation changes induced by TCE were dose dependent. The overall data indicate that TCE exposure leads to aberrant DNA methylation changes, which might alter the expression of genes involved in the TCE-induced liver tumorgenesis.

  11. Trichloroethylene-induced gene expression and DNA methylation changes in B6C3F1 mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Chen, Jiahong; Tong, Jian; Chen, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE), widely used as an organic solvent in the industry, is a common contaminant in air, soil, and water. Chronic TCE exposure induced hepatocellular carcinoma in mice, and occupational exposure in humans was suggested to be associated with liver cancer. To understand the role of non-genotoxic mechanism(s) for TCE action, we examined the gene expression and DNA methylation changes in the liver of B6C3F1 mice orally administered with TCE (0, 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w. per day) for 5 days. After 5 days TCE treatment at a dose level of 1000 mg/kg b.w., a total of 431 differentially expressed genes were identified in mouse liver by microarray, of which 291 were up-regulated and 140 down-regulated. The expression changed genes were involved in key signal pathways including PPAR, proliferation, apoptosis and homologous recombination. Notably, the expression level of a number of vital genes involved in the regulation of DNA methylation, such as Utrf1, Tet2, DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, were dysregulated. Although global DNA methylation change was not detected in the liver of mice exposed to TCE, the promoter regions of Cdkn1a and Ihh were found to be hypo- and hypermethylated respectively, which correlated negatively with their mRNA expression changes. Furthermore, the gene expression and DNA methylation changes induced by TCE were dose dependent. The overall data indicate that TCE exposure leads to aberrant DNA methylation changes, which might alter the expression of genes involved in the TCE-induced liver tumorgenesis.

  12. First research co-ordination meeting of the thematic co-ordinated research project on 'Isotopic and complementary tools for the study of micronutrient status and interactions in developing country populations exposed to multiple micronutrient deficiencies'. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    From a global perspective and in spite of decades of nutrition programmes, micronutrients deficiency is at alarming proportions in many developing societies today. It affects millions of people worldwide, and includes consequences that potentially compromise morbidity, mortality, cognitive development, and growth, reproductive and work capacity. Recent estimates by the WHO are that deficiencies of iron (Fe), iodine (I), and vitamin A continue to influence the health of 2000 million, 740 million, and 250 million persons respectively. In addition to these three micronutrients, the possible negative consequences of deficiencies of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) are now also being increasingly recognized as important health concerns. As a result of the increasing recognition of the co-existence of multiple micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries, United Nations Agencies have urged that supplementation, fortification and dietary modification/diversification programmes are designed to combat multiple micronutrient deficiencies simultaneously. Fortificant levels for fortification, like supplementation, must be carefully selected to minimize risk of antagonistic nutrient interactions and to take into account the toxic threshold level for normal individuals. Possible antagonistic interactions that may interfere with the utilisation of trace elements in the supplements or fortificants per se, and/or with the utilization of elements intrinsic to the food or the meal include those between Cu-Zn, Cu-Fe, Fe-Zn, Mn-Fe, Ca-Zn. Stable isotope techniques play an important role in quantifying the optimal levels and the bioavailability of micronutrient supplements and fortificants for a range of indigenous meals consumed in developing countries, especially those containing potent absorption inhibitors. This Capacity building CRP or Thermatic CRP (T-CRP) addresses the need to develop effective strategies to combat micro-nutrient malnutrition in developing countries

  13. Colour vision deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, M P

    2010-05-01

    Colour vision deficiency is one of the commonest disorders of vision and can be divided into congenital and acquired forms. Congenital colour vision deficiency affects as many as 8% of males and 0.5% of females--the difference in prevalence reflects the fact that the commonest forms of congenital colour vision deficiency are inherited in an X-linked recessive manner. Until relatively recently, our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of colour vision deficiency largely rested on behavioural data; however, modern molecular genetic techniques have helped to elucidate its mechanisms. The current management of congenital colour vision deficiency lies chiefly in appropriate counselling (including career counselling). Although visual aids may be of benefit to those with colour vision deficiency when performing certain tasks, the evidence suggests that they do not enable wearers to obtain normal colour discrimination. In the future, gene therapy remains a possibility, with animal models demonstrating amelioration following treatment.

  14. [Meta-analysis of clinical trials of folic acid, vitamin B12 and B6 supplementation on plasma homocysteine level and risk of cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Li, Bin; Qi, Juanfei; Shen, Bo

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of folic acid, vitamin B(6) and B(12) supplementation on plasma homocysteine level and risk of cardiovascular disease. The databases, including Embase, Pubmed, Ovid, Biosis, China National Knowledge Infra-structure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodical (VIP), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CMB), were searched to identify random control trials between February 1994 to February 2014 on the effect of folic acid, vitamin B(6) and B(12) supplementation on plasma homocysteine level and risk of cardiovascular disease. The screening, data extraction and quality assessment were conducted in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria by two reviewers independently. The software Review Manager 5.2 was used. Funnel plots and Egger's regression test were applied to evaluate the publication bias. Data from 12 studies including 34 481 patients were analyzed using a fixed-effects model. Funnel plot and Egger's test (P > 0.10) confirmed the absence of publication bias. No statistically significant heterogeneity was detected on testing after excluding the sources of heterogeneity (chi-square test, I folic acid, vitamin B(6) and B(12) groups (all P > 0.05). Mean homocysteine levels were significantly lower with folic acid, vitamin B(6) and B(12) therapy compared with placebo during follow-up (all P folic acid, vitamin B(6) and B(12) supplementation compared with placebo were 0.98 (0.93-1.03) for cardiovascular event, 0.97 (0.87-1.07) for coronary artery disease, 1.00 (0.92-1.08) for myocardial infarction and 0.92 (0.82-1.03) for cardiovascular death. Folic aicd combined with vitamin B(6) and B(12) treatment significantly reduced plasma homocysteine level, but did not affect the risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus, folic acid combined with vitamin B(6) and B(12) should not be recommended as secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  15. LACTASE DEFICIENCY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Shcherbak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the article is the lactase deficiency in children. The most frequent clinical manifestations — diarrhea and flatulence —are not specific to this pathology. Symptoms, typical for the majority of the diseases nosologies of the digestive system, lack of timely laboratory diagnosis, and, often, lack of pediatricians awareness about the specifics of this disease are the cause of lactase deficiency under-diagnostics. The article describes in detail the physiopathological mechanisms, clinical picture, diagnosis and dietary correction of lactase deficiency, the data concerning the prevalence of this disease are cited.Key words: lactose, lactase deficiency, children, health food.

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and ... Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may ...

  17. Iodine deficiency disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (IDD) is one of the common problem in the diet. Iodine deficiency as prevalence of goiter in population occurs in the mountainous areas. There is consensus that 800 million people are at risk of IDD from living in iodine deficient area and 190 million from goiter. Very high prevalence of IDD in different parts of the world are striking. It has generally observed that in iodine-deficient areas about 50% are affected with goiter, 1-5% from cretinsim and 20% from impaired mental and/or mortor function. (A.B.)

  18. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ralph; Allen, Lindsay H; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2017-01-01

    , subclinical deficiency affects between 2.5% and 26% of the general population depending on the definition used, although the clinical relevance is unclear. B12 deficiency can affect individuals at all ages, but most particularly elderly individuals. Infants, children, adolescents and women of reproductive age...... are also at high risk of deficiency in populations where dietary intake of B12-containing animal-derived foods is restricted. Deficiency is caused by either inadequate intake, inadequate bioavailability or malabsorption. Disruption of B12 transport in the blood, or impaired cellular uptake or metabolism...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Our ... more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  20. Study Exploring the Effects of Daily Supplementation with 400 μg of Folic Acid on the Nutritional Status of Folate in Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Laidy D; Parra, Beatriz E; Muñoz, Angélica M; Cárdenas, Diana L; Duque, Tiffany G; Manjarrés, Luz M

    2017-05-01

    This investigation determines the nutritional state of serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentration and their relation with intake of folate, B 6 ,and B 12 , with serum vitamin B 12 , and with genetic variants after provision of 400 μg/day of folic acid for 3 months to a group of 34 Colombian women of reproductive age. We evaluated nutrient intake using 24-hr recall, assessing the levels of serum folate, RBC folate, serum B 12 , and homocysteine, as well as determining genetic variants of the enzyme MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) and CβS (844ins68pb). The results show that following intake of 400 μg/day of folic acid, the risk of folate deficiency as seen in regular dietary intake disappears and the nutritional status of this nutrient is increased (p supplementation also had decreased levels of serum homocysteine. Genetic factors did not influence the nutritional status of folate, although an association was found between the intake of nutrients and biochemical indicators. Given the results of our study, subsequent studies evaluating folic acid supplementation should also consider evaluating the status of B 12 and B 6 , and serum and RBC folate, as they participate interdependently in the cycle of folate and methionine and in homocysteine metabolism.Birth Defects Research 109:564-573, 2017.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Neurologic Manifestations of Vitamin B Deficiency after Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punchai, Suriya; Hanipah, Zubaidah Nor; Meister, Katherine M; Schauer, Philip R; Brethauer, Stacy A; Aminian, Ali

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, clinical presentation, and outcomes of neurologic disorders secondary to vitamin B deficiencies following bariatric surgery. Patients at a single academic institution who underwent bariatric surgery and developed neurologic complications secondary to low levels of vitamins B1, B2, B6, and B12 between the years 2004 and 2015 were studied. In total, 47 (0.7%) bariatric surgical patients (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass n = 36, sleeve gastrectomy n = 9, and duodenal switch n = 2) developed neurologic manifestations secondary to vitamin B deficiencies. Eleven (23%) patients developed postoperative anatomical complications contributed to poor oral intake. Median duration to onset of neurologic manifestation following surgery was 12 months (IQR, 5-32). Vitamin deficiencies reported in the cohort included B1 (n = 30), B2 (n = 1), B6 (n = 12), and B12 (n = 12) deficiency. The most common manifestations were paresthesia (n = 31), muscle weakness (n = 15), abnormal gait (n = 11), and polyneuropathy (n = 7). Four patients were diagnosed with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) which was developed after gastric bypass (n = 3) and sleeve gastrectomy (n = 1). Seven patients required readmission for management of severe vitamin B deficiencies. Overall, resolution of neurologic symptoms with nutritional interventions and pharmacotherapy was noted in 40 patients (85%). The WKS was not reversible, and all four patients had residual mild ataxia and nystagmus at the last follow-up time. Nutritional neurologic disorders secondary to vitamin B deficiency are relatively uncommon after bariatric surgery. While neurologic disorders are reversible in most patients (85%) with vitamin replacements, persistent residual neurologic symptoms are common in patients with WKS.

  2. Carcinogenicity of inhaled vanadium pentoxide in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ress, N B; Chou, B J; Renne, R A; Dill, J A; Miller, R A; Roycroft, J H; Hailey, J R; Haseman, J K; Bucher, J R

    2003-08-01

    Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is a slightly soluble compound found in airborne particle emissions from metallurgical works and oil and coal burning. Because the carcinogenic potential of V2O5 was not known, F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (N=50/sex/species) were exposed to V2O5 at concentrations of 0, 0.5 (rats only), 1, 2, or 4 (mice only) mg/m3, by whole-body inhalation for 2 years. The survival and body weights of rats were minimally affected by exposure to V2O5. The survival and body weights of male mice exposed to 4 mg/m3 and body weights of all exposed groups of female mice were lower than the controls. Alveolar/bronchiolar (A/B) neoplasms occurred in male rats exposed to 0.5 and 2 mg/m3 at incidences exceeding the National Toxicology Program (NTP) historical control ranges. A marginal increase in A/B neoplasms was also observed in female rats exposed to 0.5 mg/m3. Increases in chronic inflammation, interstitial fibrosis, and alveolar and bronchiolar hyperplasia/metaplasia and squamous metaplasia were observed in exposed male and female rats. A/B neoplasms were significantly increased in all groups of exposed mice. As with rats, increases in chronic inflammation, interstitial fibrosis, and alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia were observed in mice exposed to V2O5. Thus, V2O5 exposure was a pulmonary carcinogen in male rats and male and female mice. The marginal tumor response in the lungs of female rats could not be attributed conclusively to exposure to V2O5. These responses were noted at and slightly above the OSHA permissible occupational exposure limit of 0.5 mg/m3 (dust) (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC, 1997, p. 328).

  3. The de novo biosynthesis of vitamin B6 is required for disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yafen; Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaohui; Ouyang, Zhigang; Huang, Lei; Hong, Yongbo; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2014-07-01

    Vitamin B6 (VB6), an essential cofactor for numerous metabolic enzymes, has recently been shown to act as a potent antioxidant and play important roles in developmental processes and stress responses. However, little is known about the possible function of VB6 in plant disease resistance response against pathogen infection. In the present study, we explored the possible involvement of VB6 in defense response against Botrytis cinerea through functional analysis of tomato VB6 biosynthetic genes. Three de novo VB6 biosynthetic genes (SlPDX1.2, SlPDX1.3, and SlPDX2) and one salvage pathway gene (SlSOS4) were identified and the SlPDX1.2, SlPDX1.3, and SlPDX2 genes were shown to encode functional enzymes involved in de novo biosynthesis of VB6, as revealed by complementation of the VB6 prototrophy in yeast snz1 and sno1 mutants. Expression of SlPDX1.2, SlPDX1.3, and SlSOS4 genes was induced by infection with B. cinerea. Virus-induced gene silencing-mediated knockdown of SlPDX1.2 or SlPDX1.3 but not SlPDX2 and SlSOS4 led to increased severity of disease caused by B. cinerea, indicating that the VB6 de novo biosynthetic pathway but not the salvage pathway is involved in tomato defense response against B. cinerea. Furthermore, the SlPDX1.2- and SlPDX1.3-silenced tomato plants exhibited reduced levels of VB6 contents and reactive oxygen species scavenging capability, increased levels of superoxide anion and H2O2 generation, and increased activity of superoxide dismutase after infection by B. cinerea. Our results suggest that VB6 and its de novo biosynthetic pathway play important roles in regulation of defense response against B. cinerea through modulating cellular antioxidant capacity.

  4. Biochemical effects of manufactured gas plant residue following ingestion by B6C3F1 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyand, E.H.; Wu, Yun; Patel, S. (State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States)); Goldstein, L. (Electric Power Research Institute, Palto Alto, CA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    The toxic potential of manufactured gas plant residue (MGP) given in the diet to male and female B6C3F1 mice was evaluated. In addition, the bioavailability of chemical components of MGP were also investigated by monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites in urine and DNA adduct formation in forestomach and lung tissue. Basal gel diets containing 0.05, 0.25, 0.50% benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were fed to animals for 94 and 185 d. Mice readily consumed adulterated diets without any evidence of acute toxicity. The total amount of MGP and BaP consumed by mice ranged from 118 to 2604 mg and from 12 to 29 mg, respectively. Male mice fed a control or BaP diet and female mice fed a 0.05% MGP diet had the highest body weight gains. Male and female mice fed a 0.50% MGP diet had the lowest body weight gains. the bioavailability of chemical components of MGP was evaluated by monitoring the urinary excretion of PAH metabolites by male mice fed a 0.25% MGP diet. 1-Hydroxypyrene was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis to be the major fluorescent metabolite excreted by mice throughout the 185 d of diet administration. At necropsy, no chemical-related gross lesions were detected. In addition, no treatment-related microscopic lesions were evident in tissues obtained from animals fed a 0.50% MGP- or BaP-adulterated diet. The [sup 32]P-postlabeling assay was used to evaluate MGP- and BaP-induced DNA adduct formation in lung and forestomach tissue. The level of DNA adducts formed from the chemical components of MGP paralleled the amount of material ingested by animals. Lung DNA adduct levels were considerably higher than forestomach levels when mice ingested a 0.25% or 0.50% MGP diet. These studies demonstrate that the continuous ingestion of MGP or BaP for 185 d does not result in acute toxicity or chemical-related lesions at doses up to 0.50% MGP or 0.005% BaP. 36 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Local structure evolution of FexNi77-xCu(1-)Nb2P14B6 soft magnetic materials by mechanical alloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, S; Wei, S; Bian, Q; Li, Z

    2001-03-01

    Mechanically alloyed Fe(x)Ni77-xCu1Nb2P14B6 soft magnetic materials have been prepared with different atomic compositions. The alloy structures are investigated by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The results show that mechanical alloying (MA) can drive the Fe(x)Ni77-xCu1Nb2P14B6 powder mixture to produce amorphous alloy while the atomic concentration of Fe element is about and over 40%. On the contrary, the MA Fe(x)Ni77 xCu1Nb2P14B6 is a solid solution with a fcc-like structure in the region of lower Fe atomic concentration (<22%), preserving a medium-range order around Ni and Fe atoms. Moreover, we have found that the local structure geometry of Fe atom is similar to that of Ni atom for all the MA Fe(x)Ni77-xCu1NbP14B6 samples. It indicates that the local structures of Fe and Ni atoms in a Fe(x)Ni77-xCu1Nb2P14B6 sample only depend on the x value of element Ni after ball milling.

  6. Can breakfast tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake and morning exposure to sunlight promote morning-typology in young children aged 2 to 6 years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakade Miyo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study tried to examine, from epidemiological and physiologic anthropological (Japanese culture on breakfast points of view, the integrated effects of the amount of tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake and the following exposure to sunlight on the circadian typology and sleep habits in young Japanese children aged 2 to 6 years, using the newly-evaluated calculating system of tryptophan (Tryptophan Index 2009 and vitamin B6 intake (VitaminB6 Index 2009 at breakfast. The positive and significant correlation was shown between the Morningness-Eveningness (M-E score and the Tryptophan Index and also the Vitamin B6 Index. This positive correlation between M-E score and amount of tryptophan intake was shown only by children who were exposed to sunlight for longer than 10min after breakfast. These results might support the following hypothesis: higher tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake at breakfast could promote the synthesis of serotonin via light stimulation in the morning in children.

  7. Dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, genetic polymorphism of related enzymes, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Solange

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have determined that dietary intake of B vitamins may be associated with breast cancer risk as a result of interactions between 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR and methionine synthase (MTR in the one-carbon metabolism pathway. However, the association between B vitamin intake and breast cancer risk in Brazilian women in particular has not yet been investigated. Methods A case-control study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil, with 458 age-matched pairs of Brazilian women. Energy-adjusted intakes of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 were derived from a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Genotyping was completed for MTHFR A1298C and C677T, and MTR A2756G polymorphisms. A logistical regression model was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs. Results Neither dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, or vitamin B12 nor MTHFR polymorphisms were independently associated with breast cancer risk. Analysis stratified by menopausal status showed a significant association between placement in the highest tertile of folate intake and risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women (OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.23–3.83; Ptrend = 0.010. The MTR 2756GG genotype was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer than the 2756AA genotype (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.01–3.92; Ptrend = 0.801, and statistically significant interactions with regard to risk were observed between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and folate (P = 0.024 or vitamin B6 (P = 0.043, and between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and folate (P = 0.043 or vitamin B12 (P = 0.022. Conclusion MTHFR polymorphisms and dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 had no overall association with breast cancer risk. However, increased risk was observed in total women with the MTR 2756GG genotype and in premenopausal women with high folate intake. These findings, as well as significant interactions between MTHFR

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... when used properly, can help prevent iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children. Talk with your child's doctor ... and supplements, go to "How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated?" Infants and young children and women are the two ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... term but can't take iron supplements by mouth. This therapy also is given to people who need immediate treatment for iron-deficiency anemia. Living With If you have iron-deficiency anemia, get ongoing care to make sure your iron levels are improving. ...

  10. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  11. Iron deficiency in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijterschout, L.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Iron is involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism, immune response, and plays an important role in brain development. In infancy, ID is associated with adverse effects on cognitive, motor, and behavioral development

  12. MENTAL DEFICIENCY. SECOND EDITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.

    REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... of growth and development. Inability To Absorb Enough Iron Even if you have enough iron in your ...

  15. G6PD Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a genetic disorder that is most common in males. About 1 in 10 African American males in the United States has it. G6PD deficiency mainly affects red blood cells, which carry oxygen ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other conditions to prevent you from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried ... patterns. Increase your daily intake of iron-rich foods to help treat your iron-deficiency anemia. See Prevention strategies to learn about foods ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español What Is ... all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common symptom of all types of ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how we are using current research and advancing research to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials will explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  19. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart- ... infections Motor or cognitive development delays in ... with chronic conditions, iron-deficiency anemia can make their condition worse or result ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Are you curious about how inflammation from chronic diseases can cause iron-deficiency anemia? Read more When there is ... DBDR) is a leader in research on the causes, prevention, and treatment of blood diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... women of childbearing age has iron-deficiency anemia. Pregnant women also are at higher risk for the condition ... for the fetus' growth. About half of all pregnant women develop iron-deficiency anemia. The condition can increase ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. Read more New treatments for disorders that lead to iron-deficiency anemia. We are ... and other pathways. This could help develop new therapies for conditions that ... behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... check the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia . The term "anemia" usually refers to a condition ... symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia apply to all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common ...

  7. Iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is severe, you ... get a transfusion of red blood cells. A blood transfusion is a safe, common procedure in which blood ...

  9. CYP2B6 genotype-based efavirenz dose recommendations during rifampicin-based antituberculosis cotreatment for a sub-Saharan Africa population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukonzo, Jackson K; Bisaso, Ronald K; Ogwal-Okeng, Jasper; Gustafsson, Lars L; Owen, Joel S; Aklillu, Eleni

    2016-04-01

    To assess genotype effect on efavirenz (EFV) pharmacokinetics, treatment outcomes and provide genotype-based EFV doses recommendations during for tuberculosis (TB)-HIV-1 cotreatment. EFV concentrations from 158 HIV-TB co-infected patients treated with EFV/lamivudine/zidovidine and rifampicin were analyzed. Genotype and CD4 and viral load data were analyzed using a population PK model. Simulated AUCs for 600 mg EFV dose were 1.2- and 2.4-times greater than the product label for Ugandans in general and CYP2B6*6/*6 genotypes respectively. EFV daily doses of 450 and 250 mg for Ugandans and CYP2B6*6/*6 genotypes, respectively, yielded simulated exposures comparable to the product label. Around 450 and 250 mg daily doses might meet EFV dosing needs of HIV-TB infected Ugandans in general and CYP2B6*6/*6 genotypes, respectively.

  10. Fabrication of an Fe80.5Si7.5B6Nb5Cu Amorphous-Nanocrystalline Powder Core with Outstanding Soft Magnetic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongyang; Liu, Xiansong; Feng, Shuangjiu; Rehman, Khalid Mehmood Ur

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the melt spinning method was used to develop Fe80.5Si7.5B6Nb5Cu amorphous ribbons in the first step. Then, the Fe80.5Si7.5B6Nb5Cu amorphous-nanocrystalline core with a compact microstructure was obtained by multiple processes. The main properties of the magnetic powder core, such as micromorphology, thermal behavior, permeability, power loss and quality factor, have been analyzed. The obtained results show that an Fe80.5Si7.5B6Nb5Cu amorphous-nanocrystalline duplex core has high permeability (54.8-57), is relatively stable at different frequencies and magnetic fields, and the maximum power loss is only 313 W/kg; furthermore, it has a good quality factor.

  11. Historical aspects of iodine deficiency control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderpas, Jean-Baptiste; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2017-04-01

    In 1895, iodine was characterized as an essential element of thyroid tissue by Baumann. The efficacy of iodine to prevent goiter was demonstrated by Marine in Northern USA in 1916-1920. Severe endemic goiter and cretinism had been almost entirely eliminated from continental Western Europe and Northern America before the 1930's; however large populations elsewhere and even some places in Western Europe (Sicily) were still affected up to the 2000's. Public health consequences of iodine deficiency are not limited to endemic goiter and cretinism. Iodine deficiency disorders include also increased neonatal death rate and decreased intellectual development, although these consequences are not included in the current estimation of the Global Burden Disease related to iodine deficiency. Severe iodine deficiency as a public health problem is now largely under control worldwide, but can still affect isolated places, in hard-to-reach and/or politically neglected populations. We emphasize the importance of maintaining international cooperation efforts, in order to monitor iodine status where iodine deficiency is now adequately controlled, and identify at-risk population where it is not. The goal should be now global eradication of severe iodine deficiency. Commercial distribution of iodized salt remains the most appropriate strategy. A randomized clinical trial in New Guinea clearly showed in the 1970's that correcting severe iodine deficiency early in pregnancy prevents endemic neurological cretinism. This supports the essential role of thyroid hormones of maternal origin on the normal fetal development, during the first trimester of pregnancy (i.e. when fetal thyroid is still not functional). A randomized clinical trial in Congo (RD) in the 1970's also showed that correcting severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy prevents myxœdematous cretinism, particularly prevalent in affected Congolese areas.

  12. Iron deficiency and anemia in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çavuşoğlu, Yüksel; Altay, Hakan; Çetiner, Mustafa; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Temizhan, Ahmet; Ural, Dilek; Yeşilbursa, Dilek; Yıldırım, Nesligül; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2017-03-01

    Heart failure is an important community health problem. Prevalence and incidence of heart failure have continued to rise over the years. Despite recent advances in heart failure therapy, prognosis is still poor, rehospitalization rate is very high, and quality of life is worse. Co-morbidities in heart failure have negative impact on clinical course of the disease, further impair prognosis, and add difficulties to treatment of clinical picture. Therefore, successful management of co-morbidities is strongly recommended in addition to conventional therapy for heart failure. One of the most common co-morbidities in heart failure is presence of iron deficiency and anemia. Current evidence suggests that iron deficiency and anemia are more prevalent in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, as well as those with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction. Moreover, iron deficiency and anemia are referred to as independent predictors for poor prognosis in heart failure. There is strong relationship between iron deficiency or anemia and severity of clinical status of heart failure. Over the last two decades, many clinical investigations have been conducted on clinical effectiveness of treatment of iron deficiency or anemia with oral iron, intravenous iron, and erythropoietin therapies. Studies with oral iron and erythropoietin therapies did not provide any clinical benefit and, in fact, these therapies have been shown to be associated with increase in adverse clinical outcomes. However, clinical trials in patients with iron deficiency in the presence or absence of anemia have demonstrated considerable clinical benefits of intravenous iron therapy, and based on these positive outcomes, iron deficiency has become target of therapy in management of heart failure. The present report assesses current approaches to iron deficiency and anemia in heart failure in light of recent evidence.

  13. Solid-liquid stable phase equilibria of the ternary systems MgCl2 + MgB6O10+ H2O AND MgSO4 + MgB6O10 + H2O at 308.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingzong Meng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The solubilities and the relevant physicochemical properties of the ternary systems MgCl2 + MgB6O10 + H2O and MgSO4 + MgB6O10 + H2O at 308.15 K were investigated using an isothermal dissolution method. It was found that there is one invariant point, two univariant curves, and two crystallization regions of the systems. The systems belong to a simple co-saturated type, and neither double salts nor solid solutions were found. Based on the extended HW model and its temperature-dependent equations, the single-salt Pitzer parameters β(0, β(1, β(2 and CØ for MgCl2, MgSO4, and Mg(B6O7(OH6, the mixed ion-interaction parameters θCl,B6O10, θSO4,B6O10, ΨMg,Cl,B6O10, ΨMg,SO4,B6O10 of the systems at 308.15 K were fitted, In addition, the average equilibrium constants of the stable equilibrium solids at 308.15 K were obtained by a method using the activity product constant. Then the solubilities of the ternary systems are calculated. The calculated solubilities agree well with the experimental values.

  14. Nutritional deficiencies after sleeve gastrectomy: can they be predicted preoperatively?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Porat, Tair; Elazary, Ram; Yuval, Jonathan B; Wieder, Ariela; Khalaileh, Abed; Weiss, Ram

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional deficiencies are common among morbidly obese patients. Data are scarce for patients who have undergone laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). The aim of the study is to clarify the prevalence of deficiencies and to identify risk factors for postoperative deficiencies. Hebrew University, Israel. Preoperative and 1-year postoperative data were collected. We included anthropometric parameters, obesity-related co-morbidities, and laboratory findings. There were 192 candidates. Seventy-seven of them completed follow-ups at 12 months. Before surgery, 15% had anemia. Deficiencies of iron, folate, and B12 were 47%, 32%, and 13%, respectively. Women were more deficient in iron (56% women, 26% men, Psurgery, low levels of vitamin D and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) were 99% and 41%, respectively. One year postsurgery, the deficiencies of hemoglobin and vitamin B12 worsened (20% and 17%, Pdeficiencies of iron, folate, vitamin D, and PTH improved (28%, 21%, 94%, and 10%, respectively). Deficiencies of hemoglobin, folate, and B12 before surgery were predictors for deficiencies 1 year after surgery (P = .006 OR = .090; P = .012 OR = .069; P = .062 OR = .165, respectively). LSG had a modest effect on nutritional deficiencies in our patients at 1-year postsurgery. Focusing on the preoperative nutritional status and tailoring a specific supplemental program for each individual should prevent postoperative deficiencies. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Zinc deficiency among a healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Timimi, D.; Al-Najjar, F.; Al-Sharbatti, Shatha S.

    2005-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency and the current zinc status among a sample selected from the healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq. We carried out a community-based study in Baghdad City, Iraq from November through June 2002. We selected a sample of 2090 healthy subjects (aged 1 month to 85 years). We used a pre-tested questionnaire, designed to obtain information on gender, birth dates, height, weight, residence, habitual food consumption patterns, and social status. We performed laboratory assessment of serum zinc level, dietary assessment of food frequency and usual zinc intake. We considered subjects with serum zinc concentration of /-7.7 to 12.3 umol/l mild to moderately zinc deficient. The prevalence of zinc deficiency among the studied sample was 2.7%. We found mild to moderate zinc deficiency among 55.7% of the study sample. Dietary zinc intake assessment showed that 74.8% of the studied sample consumed less than the recommended intake, and in 62.3%, the intakes were deficient and grossly deficient. Mean daily zinc ranged from 5.2 mg in children to 8.5 mg in adults. We observed a high prevalence of mild to moderate zinc deficiency, with inadequate dietary zinc intake among a considerable proportion of the studied sample. Zinc supplementation may be an effective public health intervention means to improve the zinc status of the population. (author)

  16. Nutritional status of renal transplant patients | du Plessis | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 0.0001) during the post-transplant period. Conclusions. Several nutritional abnormalities were observed, which primarily reflect the side-effects of immunosuppressive therapy. The causes, consequences and treatment of the vitamin B6 and vitamin C deficiencies in renal transplant recipients need further investigation.

  17. BROMOETHANE, CHLOROETHANE AND ETHYLENE OXIDE INDUCED UTERINE NEOPLASMS IN B6C3F1 MICE FROM 2-YEAR NTP INHALATION BIOASSAYS: PATHOLOGY AND INCIDENCE DATA REVISITED

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUMMARY: Chloroethane, bromoethane and etjulene oxide represent a unique set of three chemicals that induce endometrial neoplasms in the uterus of B6C3F1 mice following an inhalation route of exposure. The results of the NTP's chronic bioassays with these three compounds resu...

  18. 26 CFR 1.468B-6 - Escrow accounts, trusts, and other funds used during deferred exchanges of like-kind property...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Escrow accounts, trusts, and other funds used...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.468B-6 Escrow accounts, trusts, and other funds... provides rules under section 468B(g) relating to the current taxation of escrow accounts, trusts, and other...

  19. SID tryptophan levels and B6 vitamin supplementation do not change blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and meat quality of barrows (70-100kg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilha, L D; Huepa, L M D; Fachinello, M R; Pozza, M S S; Vasconcellos, R S; Bonagurio, L P; Marcato, S M; Pozza, P C

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of standardized ileal digestible (SID) tryptophan and B6 on blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and longissimus lumborum quality of barrows (70-100kg). Sixty-four crossbred barrows averaging 70.77±2.07kg were distributed in a 4×2 factorial with four SID tryptophan levels (0.130, 0.155, 0.180, and 0.205%) and two B6 levels (1 and 5mg/kg) in eight replicates of one animal each. The meat lightness degree answered linearly (P=0.015) to SID tryptophan levels and the shear force answered quadratically (P=0.050), with estimates of a higher value (31.67N) at 0.163% SID tryptophan. Although B6 showed positive effects (Ptryptophan requirement for barrows (70-100kg) was not higher than 0.130% (4.07g/day) and did not change due to B6. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of vitamin B6 vitamers and pyridoxic acid in plasma: development and evaluation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Marianne R; Bor, Mustafa Vakur; Heinsvig, Else-Marie

    2002-01-01

    vitamers pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP), pyridoxine (PN), and pyridoxamine (PM) and the degradation product 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA). The separation was accomplished using a C18 (ODS) analytical column and an ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography. B6 vitamers...

  1. Insights from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on the metallic states of YbB6(001): E(k) dispersion, temporal changes, and spatial variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantzeskakis, E.; de Jong, N.; Zhang, J.X.; Zhang, X.; Li, Z.; Liang, C.L.; Wang, Y.; Varykhalov, A.; Huang, Y.K.; Golden, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    We report high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) results on the (001) cleavage surface of YbB6, a rare-earth compound that has been recently predicted to host surface electronic states with topological character. We observe two types of well-resolved metallic states, whose

  2. The Effect of CYP2B6, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 Alleles on Methadone Binding: A Molecular Docking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nur Syazana Bt Nik Mohamed Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current methadone maintenance therapy (MMT is yet to ensure 100% successful treatment as the optimum dosage has yet to be determined. Overdose leads to death while lower dose causes the opioid withdrawal effect. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in cytochrome P450s (CYPs, the methadone metabolizers, have been showen to be the main factor for the interindividual variability of methadone clinical effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of SNPs in three major methadone metabolizers (CYP2B6, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 on methadone binding affinity. Results showed that CYP2B6*11, CYP2B6*12, CYP2B6*18, and CYP3A4*12 have significantly higher binding affinity to R-methadone compared to wild type. S-methadone has higher binding affinity in CYP3A4*3, CYP3A4*11, and CYP3A4*12 compared to wild type. R-methadone was shown to be the active form of methadone; thus individuals with CYP alleles that binds better to R-methadone will have higher methadone metabolism rate. Therefore, a higher dosage of methadone is necessary to obtain the opiate effect compared to a normal individual and vice versa. These results provide an initial prediction on methadone metabolism rate for individuals with mutant type CYP which enables prescription of optimum methadone dosage for individuals with CYP alleles.

  3. Review of fortified food and beverage products for pregnant and lactating women and their impact on nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L

    2011-10-01

    Fortified beverages and supplementary foods, when given during pregnancy, have been shown to have positive effects on preventing maternal anaemia and iron deficiency. Studies show that use of micronutrient fortified supplementary foods, especially those containing milk and/or essential fatty acids during pregnancy, increase mean birthweight by around 60-73 g. A few studies have also shown that fortified supplementary foods have impacts on increasing birth length and reducing preterm delivery. Fortification levels have ranged generally from 50% to 100% of the recommended nutrient intake (RNI). Iron, zinc, copper, iodine, selenium, vitamins A, D, E, C, B1, B2, B6, and B12, folic acid, niacin and pantothenic acid are important nutrients that have been included in fortified beverages and supplemental foods for pregnant and lactating women. While calcium has been shown to reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia and maternal mortality, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and manganese can have negative impacts on organoleptic properties, so many products tested have not included these nutrients or have done so in a limited way. Fortified food supplements containing milk and essential fatty acids offer benefits to improving maternal status and pregnancy outcome. Fortified beverages containing only multiple micronutrients have been shown to reduce micronutrient deficiencies such as anaemia and iron deficiency. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such ... explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Blood Loss When you lose blood, you lose ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and naproxen Certain rare genetic conditions such as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, which causes bleeding in the bowels ... iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Look for Treatment will discuss medicines and eating pattern changes that your doctors may recommend if you ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... is caused by strong muscle contractions and the impact of feet repeatedly striking the ground, such as ... Treatment will explain treatment-related complications or side effects. Diagnosis Iron-deficiency anemia may be detected during ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also can cause internal bleeding. Other At-Risk Groups People who get kidney dialysis treatment may develop ... and young children and women are the two groups at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Special ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, ... symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ... is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may order a blood test called a complete blood count ( ... your risk factors , do a physical exam, or order blood tests or other diagnostic tests. Physical exam ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... the first prenatal visit. For pregnant women, medical care during pregnancy usually includes screening for anemia. Also, ... while checking for other problems. Specialists Involved Primary care doctors often diagnose and treat iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Heavy blood loss during their monthly periods Other risk factors for iron-deficiency anemia The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed guidelines for ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... in which your blood has a lower than normal number of red blood cells. Red blood cells ... cells it does make have less hemoglobin than normal. Iron-deficiency anemia can cause fatigue (tiredness), shortness ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... to improve health through research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ... donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency before potentially ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... apply to all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common symptom of all ... growth and development, and behavioral problems. Signs and Symptoms of Iron Deficiency Signs and symptoms of iron ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... For this treatment, iron is injected into a muscle or an IV line in one of your ... body can damage your organs. You may have fatigue (tiredness) and other symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... the body. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time if your body doesn't have enough iron ... because your need for iron increases during these times of growth and development. Inability To Absorb Enough ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... tests, especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming ... iron-deficiency anemia from trauma, surgery, or heavy menstrual periods. Individuals with a gene for hemophilia, including ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Search Form Search the NHLBI, use the drop down list to select: the entire site, the Health ... who have iron-deficiency anemia develop restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS is a disorder that causes a ...

  2. Manganese deficiency in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant micronutrient with an indispensable function as a catalyst in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Even so, Mn deficiency frequently occurs without visual leaf symptoms, thereby masking the distribution and dimension of the problem...... restricting crop productivity in many places of the world. Hence, timely alleviation of latent Mn deficiency is a challenge in promoting plant growth and quality. We describe here the key mechanisms of Mn deficiency in plants by focusing on the impact of Mn on PSII stability and functionality. We also address...... the mechanisms underlying the differential tolerance towards Mn deficiency observed among plant genotypes, which enable Mn-efficient plants to grow on marginal land with poor Mn availability....

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... more. Read less Reminders Return to Causes to review how blood loss, not consuming the recommended amount ... iron-deficiency anemia. Return to Risk Factors to review family history, lifestyle, unhealthy environments, or other factors ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency ... National Institute of Health Department of Health and Human Services OIG USA.gov

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... lead in their blood from their environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make ... explain tests and procedures that your doctor may use to diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. Living With will ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause ... as complete blood count and iron studies. Prevent complications over your lifetime To prevent complications from iron- ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed guidelines for who ... heavy menstrual flow, your doctor may prescribe birth control pills to help reduce your monthly blood flow. ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... iron-deficiency anemia may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and ... may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... need for iron increases during these periods of growth and development, and it may be hard to get the ... iron-deficiency anemia, red blood cells will be small in size with an MCV of less than ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Special measures can help prevent the condition in these groups. ... is a complete blood count (CBC). The CBC measures many parts of your blood. This test checks ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... test called a complete blood count (CBC) to see if you have lower than normal red blood ... iron-deficiency anemia: Check for bleeding. Look to see whether your tongue, nails, or inner lining of ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Treatment will explain treatment-related complications or side effects. Diagnosis Iron-deficiency anemia may be detected during ... to your doctor if you are experiencing side effects such as a bad metallic taste, vomiting, diarrhea, ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron in your body causes iron-deficiency anemia. Lack of iron usually is due to blood loss, ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Learn more about participating in a clinical ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting less than the recommended daily ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Grants & Training Grants and Training Home Policies and Guidelines Funding Opportunities and Contacts Training and Career Development ... Study - Red Blood Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. Living With will discuss what your doctor may recommend to prevent your iron- ... colon under sedation to view the colon directly. What if my doctor thinks something else is causing ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming less ... deficiency anemia from trauma, surgery, or heavy menstrual periods. Individuals with a gene for hemophilia, including symptomatic ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... people who have iron-deficiency anemia develop restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move the legs. This urge to move often occurs with strange ...