Sample records for b6 status deficiency

  1. Vitamin B6 status, deficiency and its consequences: an overview Estado de vitamina B6, deficiencia y sus consencuencias: una revisión

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    A. Spinneker


    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B6 is thought to be a most versatile coenzyme that participates in more than 100 biochemical reactions. It is involved in amino acid and homocysteine metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism, neurotransmitter production and DNA/RNA synthesis. Vitamin B6 can also be a modulator of gene expression. Nowadays, clinically evident vitamin B6 deficiency is not a common disorder, at least in the general population. Nevertheless, a subclinical, undiagnosed deficiency may be present in some subjects, particularly in the elderly.Objective: This review gives a complete overview over the metabolism and interactions of vitamin B6. Further, we show which complications and deficiency symptoms can occur due to a lack of vitamin B6 and possibilities for public health and supplemental interventions. Methods: The database Medline ( was searched for terms like "vitamin B6", "pyridoxal", "cancer", "homocysteine", etc. For a complete understanding, we included studies with early findings from the forties as well as recent results from 2006. These studies were summarised and compared in different chapters. Result and conclusion: In fact, it has been proposed that suboptimal vitamin B6 status is associated with certain diseases that particularly afflict the elderly population: impaired cognitive function, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, and different types of cancer. Some of these problems may be related to the elevated homocysteine concentrations associated to vitamin B6 deficiency, but there is also evidence for other mechanisms independent of homocysteine by which a suboptimal vitamin B6 status could increase the risk for these chronic diseases.Antecedentes: se piensa que la vitamina B6 es la coenzima más versátil que participa en más de 100 reacciones bioquímicas. Está implicada en el metabolismo de los aminoácidos y de la homocisteína, el metabolismo de la glucosa y los lípidos, en la producción de

  2. Experimental model of pyridoxine (B6) deficiency-induced neuropathy. (United States)

    Dellon, A L; Dellon, E S; Tassler, P L; Ellefson, R D; Hendrickson, M


    A pyridoxine (B6) dietary deficiency was studied in female adult Sprague-Dawley rats by hind-limb walking-track analysis. Serum levels of pyridoxine and three metabolites were quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence measurement. Morphometric analysis of the sciatic and posterior tibial nerves (from within the tarsal tunnel) was performed after 1 year on a diet deficient in vitamin B6. The B6-deficient rats developed abnormal walking-track patterns by 8 months, and these track parameters were different from age- and sex-matched normal diet control rats at the p neuropathy.

  3. Vitamin B6 deficiency and anemia in pregnancy. (United States)

    Hisano, M; Suzuki, R; Sago, H; Murashima, A; Yamaguchi, K


    Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia in pregnancy. Pregnant women with anemia are, in general, exclusively treated with iron supplementation. We observed that several pregnant women with anemia who were nonresponsive to iron supplementation also had vitamin B6 deficiency, and that anemia in these cases improved with the administration of vitamin B6. Our prospective study in healthy pregnant women showed that blood levels of iron, ferritin and vitamin B6, in particular, fell to the lower limit of the nonpregnant reference range by the third trimester. We conclude that it is important to take into account the deficiency of vitamin B6 besides iron in the evaluation of anemia during pregnancy.

  4. Seizures Related to Vitamin B6 Deficiency in Adults



    Vitamin B6 is closely associated with functions of the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems. Its deficiency may result in neurological disorders including convulsions and epileptic encephalopathy. Until today, this has only been reported in infants, children, and critically ill adult patients. We report a case of a 36year-old man with chronic alcoholism who presented with seizures after gastrointestinal disturbance. His seizures persisted even after treatment with antiepileptic drugs, but e...

  5. Prevalence and Predictors of Low Vitamin B6 Status in Healthy Young Adult Women in Metro Vancouver

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    Chia-ling Ho


    Full Text Available Low periconceptional vitamin B6 (B6 status has been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth and early pregnancy loss. Given many pregnancies are unplanned; it is important for women to maintain an adequate B6 status throughout reproductive years. There is limited data on B6 status in Canadian women. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of B6 deficiency and predictors of B6 status in young adult women in Metro Vancouver. We included a convenience sample of young adult non-pregnant women (19–35 years; n = 202. Vitamin B6 status was determined using fasting plasma concentrations of pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP. Mean (95% confidence interval plasma PLP concentration was 61.0 (55.2, 67.3 nmol/L. The prevalence of B6 deficiency (plasma PLP < 20 nmol/L was 1.5% and that of suboptimal B6 status (plasma PLP = 20–30 nmol/L was 10.9%. Body mass index, South Asian ethnicity, relative dietary B6 intake, and the use of supplemental B6 were significant predictors of plasma PLP. The combined 12.4% prevalence of B6 deficiency and suboptimal status was lower than data reported in US populations and might be due to the high socioeconomic status of our sample. More research is warranted to determine B6 status in the general Canadian population.

  6. Metabolomic analysis reveals extended metabolic consequences of marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency in healthy human subjects.

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    Jesse F Gregory

    Full Text Available Marginal deficiency of vitamin B-6 is common among segments of the population worldwide. Because pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP serves as a coenzyme in the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, and neurotransmitters, as well as in aspects of one-carbon metabolism, vitamin B-6 deficiency could have many effects. Healthy men and women (age: 20-40 y; n = 23 were fed a 2-day controlled, nutritionally adequate diet followed by a 28-day low-vitamin B-6 diet (<0.5 mg/d to induce marginal deficiency, as reflected by a decline of plasma PLP from 52.6±14.1 (mean ± SD to 21.5±4.6 nmol/L (P<0.0001 and increased cystathionine from 131±65 to 199±56 nmol/L (P<0.001. Fasting plasma samples obtained before and after vitamin B6 restriction were analyzed by (1H-NMR with and without filtration and by targeted quantitative analysis by mass spectrometry (MS. Multilevel partial least squares-discriminant analysis and S-plots of NMR spectra showed that NMR is effective in classifying samples according to vitamin B-6 status and identified discriminating features. NMR spectral features of selected metabolites indicated that vitamin B-6 restriction significantly increased the ratios of glutamine/glutamate and 2-oxoglutarate/glutamate (P<0.001 and tended to increase concentrations of acetate, pyruvate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (adjusted P<0.05. Tandem MS showed significantly greater plasma proline after vitamin B-6 restriction (adjusted P<0.05, but there were no effects on the profile of 14 other amino acids and 45 acylcarnitines. These findings demonstrate that marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency has widespread metabolic perturbations and illustrate the utility of metabolomics in evaluating complex effects of altered vitamin B-6 intake.

  7. Vitamin B6: deficiency diseases and methods of analysis. (United States)

    Ahmad, Iqbal; Mirza, Tania; Qadeer, Kiran; Nazim, Urooj; Vaid, Faiyaz Hm


    Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) is closely associated with the functions of the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. It also participates in the metabolic processes of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Pyridoxine deficiency may result in neurological disorders including convulsions and epileptic encephalopathy and may lead to infant abnormalities. The Intravenous administration of pyridoxine to patients results in a dramatic cessation of seizures. A number of analytical methods were developed for the determination of pyridoxine in different dosage forms, food materials and biological fluids. These include UV spectrometric, spectrofluorimetric, mass spectrometric, thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatographic, electrophoretic, electrochemical and enzymatic methods. Most of these methods are capable of determining pyridoxine in the presence of other vitamins and complex systems in µg quantities. The development and applications of these methods in pharmaceutical and clinical analysis mostly during the last decade have been reviewed.

  8. Morning sickness and vitamin B6 status of pregnant women. (United States)

    Schuster, K; Bailey, L B; Dimperio, D; Mahan, C S


    The relationship between the vitamin B6 status of 180 pregnant women and the incidence and degree of morning sickness experienced during the first trimester was investigated. There were no significant differences in plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) activity, and stimulation of erythrocyte AspAT activity by exogenous PLP between subjects who experienced morning sickness and those who did not. No relationship was found between these indicators of vitamin B6 status and the degree of morning sickness experienced by this group during early pregnancy. There were no differences in the number of women who experienced morning sickness or in the number with different degrees of sickness when plasma levels of PLP, erythrocyte AspAT activity or stimulation by PLP were divided into upper and lower 50th percentile groups and compared. Therefore these data show no relationship between vitamin B6 status and the incidence or degree of morning sickness.

  9. Effects of Vitamin B6 Deficiency on the Composition and Functional Potential of T Cell Populations (United States)

    Qian, Bingjun; Shen, Shanqi; Zhang, Jianhua


    The immune system is critical in preventing infection and cancer, and malnutrition can weaken different aspects of the immune system to undermine immunity. Previous studies suggested that vitamin B6 deficiency could decrease serum antibody production with concomitant increase in IL4 expression. However, evidence on whether vitamin B6 deficiency would impair immune cell differentiation, cytokines secretion, and signal molecule expression involved in JAK/STAT signaling pathway to regulate immune response remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of vitamin B6 deficiency on the immune system through analysis of T lymphocyte differentiation, IL-2, IL-4, and INF-γ secretion, and SOCS-1 and T-bet gene transcription. We generated a vitamin B6-deficient mouse model via vitamin B6-depletion diet. The results showed that vitamin B6 deficiency retards growth, inhibits lymphocyte proliferation, and interferes with its differentiation. After ConA stimulation, vitamin B6 deficiency led to decrease in IL-2 and increase in IL-4 but had no influence on IFN-γ. Real-time PCR analysis showed that vitamin B6 deficiency downregulated T-bet and upregulated SOCS-1 transcription. This study suggested that vitamin B6 deficiency influenced the immunity in organisms. Meanwhile, the appropriate supplement of vitamin B6 could benefit immunity of the organism.

  10. Seizures caused by pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency in adults: A case report and literature review. (United States)

    Tong, Yisha


    Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency is a recognised cause of intractable seizures in neonates. However, pyridoxine deficiency related seizures in adults were rarely reported. This article reports a case of a 79 year old lady who suffered from new-onset seizures and was successfully treated with vitamin B6. The patient had chronic renal disease and weight loss due to anepithymia following a pelvic fracture. This article also reviews literatures of seizures caused by pyridoxine deficiency in adults. Seizures caused by vitamin B6 deficiency in adults may result from dietary deficiency, liver disease, pregnancy and certain medications and can be easily treated by vitamin B6 with excellent outcome. Clinicians should consider vitamin B6 deficiency as a potential aetiology of seizures, even in patients who suffer from other underlying diseases which can cause seizures.

  11. Seizures caused by pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency in adults: A case report and literature review



    Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency is a recognised cause of intractable seizures in neonates. However, pyridoxine deficiency related seizures in adults were rarely reported. This article reports a case of a 79 year old lady who suffered from new-onset seizures and was successfully treated with vitamin B6. The patient had chronic renal disease and weight loss due to anepithymia following a pelvic fracture. This article also reviews literatures of seizures caused by pyridoxine deficiency in adu...

  12. Choline and betaine ameliorate liver lipid accumulation induced by vitamin B6 deficiency in rats. (United States)

    Kitagawa, Erina; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Fujishita, Mayuko; Ota, Yuki; Yamamoto, Kohei; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Hayakawa, Takashi


    We investigated the efficacy of supplementing the diet with choline or betaine in ameliorating lipid accumulation induced by vitamin B6 (B6) deficiency in rat liver. Male Wistar rats were fed a control, B6-deficient, choline-supplemented (2, 4, or 6 g choline bitartrate/kg diet) B6-deficient diet or betaine-supplemented (1, 2, or 4 g betaine anhydrous/kg diet) B6-deficient diet for 35 d; all diets contained 9 g L-methionine (Met)/kg diet. Choline or betaine supplementation attenuated liver lipid deposition and restored plasma lipid profiles to control levels. These treatments restored the disruptions in Met metabolism and the phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) ratio induced by B6 deficiency in liver microsomes. These results suggest that choline and betaine ameliorated liver lipid accumulation induced by B6 deficiency via recovery of Met metabolism and very low-density lipoprotein secretion by restoring the supply of PC derived from PE.

  13. Vitamin B-6 and colorectal cancer risk: a prospective population-based study using 3 distinct plasma markers of vitamin B-6 status. (United States)

    Gylling, Björn; Myte, Robin; Schneede, Jörn; Hallmans, Göran; Häggström, Jenny; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ulvik, Arve; Ueland, Per M; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Palmqvist, Richard


    Background: Higher plasma concentrations of the vitamin B-6 marker pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) have been associated with reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Inflammatory processes, including vitamin B-6 catabolism, could explain such findings.Objective: We investigated 3 biomarkers of vitamin B-6 status in relation to CRC risk.Design: This was a prospective case-control study of 613 CRC cases and 1190 matched controls nested within the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (n = 114,679). Participants were followed from 1985 to 2009, and the median follow-up from baseline to CRC diagnosis was 8.2 y. PLP, pyridoxal, pyridoxic acid (PA), 3-hydroxykynurenine, and xanthurenic acids (XAs) were measured in plasma with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We calculated relative and absolute risks of CRC for PLP and the ratios 3-hydroxykynurenine:XA (HK:XA), an inverse marker of functional vitamin B-6 status, and PA:(PLP + pyridoxal) (PAr), a marker of inflammation and oxidative stress and an inverse marker of vitamin B-6 status.Results: Plasma PLP concentrations were associated with a reduced CRC risk for the third compared with the first quartile and for PLP sufficiency compared with deficiency [OR: 0.60 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.81) and OR: 0.55 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.81), respectively]. HK:XA and PAr were both associated with increased CRC risk [OR: 1.48 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.02) and OR: 1.50 (95% CI: 1.10, 2.04), respectively] for the fourth compared with the first quartile. For HK:XA and PAr, the findings were mainly observed in study participants with B-6 deficiency as measured by plasma PLP is associated with a clear increase in CRC risk. Furthermore, our analyses of novel markers of functional vitamin B-6 status and vitamin B-6-associated oxidative stress and inflammation suggest a role in tumor progression rather than initiation.

  14. Vitamin B6 deficient plants display increased sensitivity to high light and photo-oxidative stress

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    Rumeau Dominique


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin B6 is a collective term for a group of six interconvertible compounds: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine and their phosphorylated derivatives. Vitamin B6 plays essential roles as a cofactor in a range of biochemical reactions. In addition, vitamin B6 is able to quench reactive oxygen species in vitro, and exogenously applied vitamin B6 protects plant cells against cell death induced by singlet oxygen (1O2. These results raise the important question as to whether plants employ vitamin B6 as an antioxidant to protect themselves against reactive oxygen species. Results The pdx1.3 mutation affects the vitamin B6 biosynthesis enzyme, pyridoxal synthase (PDX1, and leads to a reduction of the vitamin B6 concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. Although leaves of the pdx1.3 Arabidopsis mutant contained less chlorophyll than wild-type leaves, we found that vitamin B6 deficiency did not significantly impact photosynthetic performance or shoot and root growth. Chlorophyll loss was associated with an increase in the chlorophyll a/b ratio and a selective decrease in the abundance of several PSII antenna proteins (Lhcb1/2, Lhcb6. These changes were strongly dependent on light intensity, with high light amplifying the difference between pdx1.3 and the wild type. When leaf discs were exposed to exogenous 1O2, lipid peroxidation in pdx1.3 was increased relative to the wild type; this effect was not observed with superoxide or hydrogen peroxide. When leaf discs or whole plants were exposed to excess light energy, 1O2-mediated lipid peroxidation was enhanced in leaves of the pdx1.3 mutant relative to the wild type. High light also caused an increased level of 1O2 in vitamin B6-deficient leaves. Combining the pdx1.3 mutation with mutations affecting the level of 'classical' quenchers of 1O2 (zeaxanthin, tocopherols resulted in a highly photosensitive phenotype. Conclusion This study demonstrates that vitamin B6 has a function in

  15. Atypical Vitamin B-6 Deficiency A Rare Cause of Unexplained Neonatal and Infantile Epilepsies

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    Baumgart, A.; von Spiczak, S.; Verhoeven-Duif, N. M.;


    . We identified 1 patient with an epilepsy phenotype resembling Dravet syndrome and likely pathogenic mutations in ALDH7A1. Presenting features were highly atypical of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, including febrile seizures, response to anticonvulsive drugs, and periods of seizure freedom without...... pyridoxine treatment. "Hidden" vitamin B-6 deficiencies might be rare but treatable causes of unexplained epilepsy extending beyond the classical phenotypes....

  16. Connective tissue integrity is lost in vitamin B-6-deficient chicks (United States)

    Masse, P. G.; Yamauchi, M.; Mahuren, J. D.; Coburn, S. P.; Muniz, O. E.; Howell, D. S.


    The objective of the present investigation was to characterize further the connective tissue disorder produced by pyridoxine (vitamin B-6) deficiency, as previously evidenced by electron microscopy. Following the second post-natal week, fast growing male chicks were deprived of pyridoxine for a 1-mo period. Six weeks post-natally, blood concentrations in the experimental deficiency group had declined to deficiency levels as registered by low concentrations of pyridoxal phosphate (coenzyme form) in erythrocytes, but did not reach levels associated with neurological symptoms. Light microscopic study showed abnormalities in the extracellular matrix of the connective tissues. Collagen cross-links and the aldehyde contents were not significantly lower in cartilage and tendon collagens of vitamin B-6-deficient animals than in age-matched controls; also, their proteoglycan degrading protease and collagenase activities measured in articular cartilages were not greater. Thus, proteolysis was an unlikely alternative mechanism to account for the loss of connective tissue integrity. These results point to the need for further investigation into adhesive properties of collagen associated proteoglycans or other proteins in vitamin B-6-deficient connective tissue.

  17. Pharmacorefractory status epilepticus due to low vitamin B6 levels during pregnancy. (United States)

    Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Kurthen, Martin; Walger, Peter; Elger, Christian E


    We report a patient with pyridoxine-dependent epileptic seizures during early childhood. She had been completely seizure free for 23 years until she became pregnant. During the week 14 of her pregnancy, status epilepticus developed and was refractory to antiepileptic drugs but responded to intravenous administration of vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 levels were found to be decreased during pregnancy, although the patient reported continued and regular oral supplementation. Possible reasons for decreased vitamin B6 levels leading to status epilepticus are discussed.

  18. Sugar and chromosome stability: clastogenic effects of sugars in vitamin B6-deficient cells.

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    Antonio Marzio


    Full Text Available Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP, the active form of vitamin B6, has been implicated in preventing human pathologies, such as diabetes and cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of PLP are still unclear. Using Drosophila as a model system, we show that PLP deficiency, caused either by mutations in the pyridoxal kinase-coding gene (dPdxk or by vitamin B6 antagonists, results in chromosome aberrations (CABs. The CAB frequency in PLP-depleted cells was strongly enhanced by sucrose, glucose or fructose treatments, and dPdxk mutant cells consistently displayed higher glucose contents than their wild type counterparts, an effect that is at least in part a consequence of an acquired insulin resistance. Together, our results indicate that a high intracellular level of glucose has a dramatic clastogenic effect if combined with PLP deficiency. This is likely due to an elevated level of Advanced Glycation End-products (AGE formation. Treatment of dPdxk mutant cells with α-lipoic acid (ALA lowered both AGE formation and CAB frequency, suggesting a possible AGE-CAB cause-effect relationship. The clastogenic effect of glucose in PLP-depleted cells is evolutionarily conserved. RNAi-mediated silencing of PDXK in human cells or treatments with PLP inhibitors resulted in chromosome breakage, which was potentiated by glucose and reduced by ALA. These results suggest that patients with concomitant hyperglycemia and vitamin B6 deficiency may suffer chromosome damage. This might impact cancer risk, as CABs are a well-known tumorigenic factor.

  19. Folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 status of a group of high socioeconomic status women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort. (United States)

    Fayyaz, Faiqa; Wang, Flora; Jacobs, René L; O'Connor, Deborah L; Bell, Rhonda C; Field, Catherine J


    Folic acid supplementation and food fortification policies have improved folate status in North American women of child bearing age. Recent studies have reported the possible inadequacy of vitamin B12 and B6 in the etiology of neural tube defects in folate-fortified populations. The aims of this study were to describe folate status and its relationship to supplementation and to assess vitamin B12 and B6 status in a cohort of pregnant women. Supplement intake data were collected in each trimester from the first cohort (n = 599) of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. Red blood cell folate (RBCF) and plasma folate, holotranscobalamin, and pyridoxal 5-phosphate were measured. Overt folate deficiency was rare (3%) but 24% of women in their first trimester had suboptimal RBCF concentration (1360 nmol·L(-1)) was observed in approximately half of the women during each pregnancy trimester. Vitamin B12 and B6 deficiencies were rare (pregnancy and over half the women had abnormally high RBCF, suggesting that supplementation during pregnancy is not appropriate in a cohort of women considered to be healthy and a low risk for nutritional deficiencies.

  20. Deficiency of PdxR in Streptococcus mutans affects vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation. (United States)

    Liao, S; Bitoun, J P; Nguyen, A H; Bozner, D; Yao, X; Wen, Z T


    Streptococcus mutans, a key etiological agent of the human dental caries, lives primarily on the tooth surface in tenacious biofilms. The SMU864 locus, designated pdxR, is predicted to encode a member of the novel MocR/GabR family proteins, which are featured with a winged helix DNA-binding N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain highly homologous to the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent aspartate aminotransferases. A pdxR-deficient mutant, TW296, was constructed using allelic exchange. PdxR deficiency in S. mutans had little effect on cell morphology and growth when grown in brain heart infusion. However, when compared with its parent strain, UA159, the PdxR-deficient mutant displayed major defects in acid tolerance response and formed significantly fewer biofilms (P < 0.01). When analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, PdxR deficiency was found to drastically reduce expression of an apparent operon encoding a pyridoxal kinase (SMU865) and a pyridoxal permease (SMU866) of the salvage pathway of vitamin B6 biosynthesis. In addition, PdxR deficiency also altered the expression of genes for ClpL protease, glucosyltransferase B and adhesin SpaP, which are known to play important roles in stress tolerance and biofilm formation. Consistently, PdxR-deficiency affected the growth of the deficient mutant when grown in defined medium with and without vitamin B6 . Further studies revealed that although S. mutans is known to require vitamin B6 to grow in defined medium, B6 vitamers, especially pyridoxal, were strongly inhibitory at millimolar concentrations, against S. mutans growth and biofilm formation. Our results suggest that PdxR in S. mutans plays an important role in regulation of vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation.

  1. Carnosine content in skeletal muscle is dependent on vitamin B6 status in rats

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    Sofya eSuidasari


    or in men. We conclude that adequate dietary vitamin B6 is essential for maintaining carnosine in skeletal muscles of rats. Significantly lower soleus carnosine content among women close to PLP deficiency suggests a similar phenomenon exist in the humans.

  2. Vitamin B-6 status of breast-fed neonates: influence of pyridoxine supplementation on mothers and neonates. (United States)

    Kang-Yoon, S A; Kirksey, A; Giacoia, G; West, K


    Vitamin B-6 concentrations in human milk are known to respond rapidly to changes in maternal vitamin B-6 intake. In this study, mothers were supplemented during the first 28 d of lactation with 2 or 27 mg pyridoxine (PN)-HCl/d and a subgroup of breast-fed infants of the 2-mg/d-supplemented mothers were supplemented with 0.4 mg PN-HCl/d. Vitamin B-6 intakes of breast-fed infants reflected the amount of their mother's supplement; intakes were highest for the vitamin-supplemented infants. Vitamin B-6 intake of mothers was a strong indicator of infant vitamin B-6 status. Vitamin intake of infants correlated significantly with five measures of vitamin B-6 status. Plasma pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) concentrations and birth weight were the strongest predictors of infant growth that were examined. Alkaline phosphatase activity in the mother's milk and infant plasma reflected pyridoxal-PLP ratios in these fluids, suggesting that the enzyme acts in regulating circulating vitamer concentrations.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    Life style associated diseases such as type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease originate form an adaptive immune response, which can be down regulated by a regulatory immune response and are under heavy stimulation from early life gut microbiota (GM). Today...... may therefore be able to produce animals with a more standardized response and less variation. This would lead to more precise results and a reduced number of animals needed for statistical significance. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the composition of the GM of B6.V......-Lepob/J leptin deficient mouse, a model of severe obesity and type 2 diabetes, was correlated with development of glucose intolerance. GM composition was analyzed by means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), a culture independent approach, separating PCR-derived DNA amplicons of bacterial 16S r...

  4. Synthesis of B6 vitamin

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    Vučijak Nevena Ž.


    Full Text Available The importance of vitamin B6 has been known since its discovery in the 1940's. Chemical tests, elestrometric titration determinations, and absorption spectrum studies showed that this vitamin exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine (an alcohol, pyridoxal (an aldehyde, and pyridoxamine (a primary amine. Vitamin B6 is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism, and it is assumed that this vitamin is cofactor of metabolic processes more important than any other substance. A deficiency of vitamin B6 in the human diet leads to severe disorders. Vitamin B6 is necessary for the proper function of the immune and nervous system, and helps the body convert protein to energy. This paper describes the history, properties and applications of vitamin B6, elucidation of chemical structure, and different procedures for synthesis of pyridoxine and pyridoxamine.

  5. A mathematical model of tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway provides insights into the effects of vitamin B-6 deficiency, tryptophan loading, and induction of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase on tryptophan metabolites. (United States)

    Rios-Avila, Luisa; Nijhout, H Frederik; Reed, Michael C; Sitren, Harry S; Gregory, Jesse F


    Vitamin B-6 deficiency is associated with impaired tryptophan metabolism because of the coenzyme role of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) for kynureninase and kynurenine aminotransferase. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we developed a mathematical model of tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway. The model includes mammalian data on enzyme kinetics and tryptophan transport from the intestinal lumen to liver, muscle, and brain. Regulatory mechanisms and inhibition of relevant enzymes were included. We simulated the effects of graded reduction in cellular PLP concentration, tryptophan loads and induction of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) on metabolite profiles and urinary excretion. The model predictions matched experimental data and provided clarification of the response of metabolites in various extents of vitamin B-6 deficiency. We found that moderate deficiency yielded increased 3-hydroxykynurenine and a decrease in kynurenic acid and anthranilic acid. More severe deficiency also yielded an increase in kynurenine and xanthurenic acid and more pronounced effects on the other metabolites. Tryptophan load simulations with and without vitamin B-6 deficiency showed altered metabolite concentrations consistent with published data. Induction of TDO caused an increase in all metabolites, and TDO induction together with a simulated vitamin B-6 deficiency, as has been reported in oral contraceptive users, yielded increases in kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and xanthurenic acid and decreases in kynurenic acid and anthranilic acid. These results show that the model successfully simulated tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway and can be used to complement experimental investigations.

  6. Micronutrients and women of reproductive potential: required dietary intake and consequences of dietary deficiency or excess. Part I--Folate, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6. (United States)

    Simpson, Joe Leigh; Bailey, Lynn B; Pietrzik, Klaus; Shane, Barry; Holzgreve, Wolfgang


    This two-part review highlights micronutrients for which either public health policy has been established or for which new evidence provides guidance as to recommended intakes during pregnancy. One pivotal micronutrient is folate, the generic name for different forms of a water-soluble vitamin essential for the synthesis of thymidylate and purines and, hence, DNA. For non-pregnant adult women the recommended intake is 400 μg/day dietary folate equivalent. For women capable of becoming pregnant an additional 400 μg/day of synthetic folic acid from supplements or fortified foods is recommended to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTD). The average amount of folic acid received through food fortification (grains) in the US is only 128 μg/day, emphasising the need for the supplemental vitamin for women of reproductive age. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a cofactor required for enzyme reactions, including generation of methionine and tetrahydrofolate. B12 is found almost exclusively in foods of animal origin (meats, dairy products); therefore, vegetarians are at greatest risk for dietary vitamin B12 deficiency and should be supplemented. Vitamin B6 is required for many reactions, primarily in amino acid metabolism. Meat, fish and poultry are good dietary sources. Supplementation beyond routine prenatal vitamins is not recommended.

  7. High incidence of lipid deposition in the liver of rats fed a diet supplemented with branched-chain amino acids under vitamin B6 deficiency. (United States)

    Kaimoto, Tae; Shibuya, Mayumi; Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Maeda, Hideo


    Male Wistar rats were fed four diets composed of purified 20% vitamin-free casein diet with (+) or without (-) vitamin B(6) (7.0 mg of pyridoxine HCl/kg of diet) and with (+) or without (-) branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) of valine, leucine, and isoleucine (4.75%): B(6)(+)BCAA(-); B(6)(+)BCAA(+); B(6)(-)BCAA(-); and B(6)(-)BCAA(+) for 21 d. Among rats fed the B(6)(-)BCAA(+) diet, about a half showed lipid deposition in the liver. On the other hand, serum triacylglycerol levels in the B(6)(-)BCAA(+) group tended to be decreased. Hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels tended to increase in the B(6)(-)BCAA(+) group compared with the other three groups. Serum apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein E (apo E) levels in the B(6)(-)BCAA(+) group were the lowest among the three groups. In contrast, hepatic apo E levels in the B(6)(-)BCAA(+) group were the highest among the three groups. High-performance liquid chromatography of pooled serum of rats with lipid deposits revealed that triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) were decreased compared with other diet groups. These results strongly suggest that one of the mechanisms of lipid deposition in rats fed a B(6)(-)BCAA(+) diet is due to impaired secretion of VLDL.

  8. Vitamin B6 (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B6? Disclaimer What is vitamin B6 and what does it do? Vitamin B6 ...

  9. Adequacy of maternal pyridoxine supplementation during pregnancy in relation to the vitamin B6 status and growth of neonates at birth. (United States)

    Chang, S J


    To evaluate the adequacy of maternal pyridoxine supplementation during pregnancy for both maternal and neonatal status at birth, vitamin B6 status, assessed by plasma pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), pyridoxal (PL) and total aldehyde vitamer (PLP + PL) concentrations, and the growth of neonates, including weight, length, head and chest circumferences, were examined for 209 neonates whose mothers were supplemented with 0, 1, 2 or 3 mg pyridoxine.HCl (PN.HCl)/d during pregnancy. Maternal PN.HCl supplementations were positively correlated to both maternal (r = 0.62) and cord (r = 0.78) plasma PLP concentrations (p neonates whose mothers had maternal and cord plasma PLP concentrations > or = 40 nM was revealed by the maternal supplementation of 2 mg PN.HCl/d during pregnancy. Thus, in healthy pregnant women, according to our study, a daily supplement of 2 mg PN.HCl provides the adequacy of maternal and neonatal vitamin B6 status and the satisfactory growth of neonates at birth.

  10. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) (United States)

    ... B6 (pyridoxine) and a sleep-inducing antihistamine called doxylamine. The makers of Bendectin took it off the ... by pregnancy. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) plus the medication doxylamine is recommended for women who do not get ...

  11. Biological Variability and Impact of Oral Contraceptives on Vitamins B6, B12 and Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age

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    Samir Samman


    Full Text Available Vitamins B6, B12 and folate play crucial metabolic roles especially during the reproductive years for women. There is limited reporting of within-subject variability of these vitamins. This study aimed to determine the within and between subject variability in serum vitamins B6, B12, folate and erythrocyte folate concentrations in young women; identify factors that contribute to variability; and determine dietary intakes and sources of these vitamins. Data were obtained from the control group of a trial aimed at investigating the effect of iron on the nutritional status of young women (age 25.2 ± 4.2 year; BMI 21.9 ± 2.2 kg/m2. The coefficients of variability within-subject (CVI and between-subject (CVG for serum vitamins B6, B12 and folate, and erythrocyte folate were calculated. Food frequency questionnaires provided dietary data. CVI and CVG were in the range 16.1%–25.7% and 31.7%–62.2%, respectively. Oral contraceptive pill (OCP use was associated (P = 0.042 with lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. Initial values were 172 ± 16 pmol/L and 318 ± 51 pmol/L for OCP and non-OCP users, respectively; with differences maintained at four time points over 12 weeks. BMI, age, physical activity, alcohol intake and haematological variables did not affect serum or erythrocyte vitamin concentrations. Vitamin B12 intakes were derived from traditional and unexpected sources including commercial energy drinks. Young women using OCP had significantly lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. This should be considered in clinical decision making and requires further investigation.

  12. Iron deficiency predicts poor maternal thyroid status during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Burgi, H.; Hurrell, R.F.


    Context: Pregnant women are often iron deficient, and iron deficiency has adverse effects on thyroid metabolism. Impaired maternal thyroid function during pregnancy may cause neurodevelopmental delays in the offspring. Objective: Our objective was to investigate whether maternal iron status is a det

  13. Vitamin B6 related epilepsy during childhood. (United States)

    Wang, Huei-Shyong; Kuo, Meng-Fai


    In some patients without vitamin B6 deficiency, epilepsy can not be controlled without an extra supplement of vitamin B6. The therapeutic role of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6, may not be replaced with other forms of vitamin B6 sometimes. Until now, four inborn errors of metabolism are known to affect vitamin B6 concentrations in the brain. Three of them are hyperprolinemia type 2, antiquitin deficiency, and pyridoxine phosphate oxidase deficiency. The fourth disorder occurs in neonates with hypophosphatasia and congenital rickets. All patients with these conditions present with early-onset epilepsy that is resistant to conventional antiepileptic medications. Patients with three of the conditions respond to any form of vitamin B6. Only those with pyridoxine phosphate oxidase deficiency respond to PLP instead of pyridoxine. Interestingly, the authors have successfully treated many patients without the above four disorders using vitamin B6, and have found that the treatment was more effective with PLP than with pyridoxine, though the mechanism is not known. Since PLP is as inexpensive as pyridoxine, we suggest replacing PLP for pyridoxine when treating children with epilepsy.

  14. Vitamin B6 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albersen, Monique; Bosma, M.; Jans, Judith J M; Hofstede, FC; van Hasselt, PM; De Sain-van Der Velden, Monique G M; Visser, Gepke; Verhoeven-Duif, NM


    Background Over the past years, the essential role of vitamin B6 in brain development and functioning has been recognized and genetic metabolic disorders resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. However, data on B6 vitamers in children are scarce. Materials and Methods B6

  15. Magnesium deficiency: What is our status (United States)

    Low magnesium intake has been implicated in a broad range of cardiometabolic conditions, including diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Dietary magnesium and total body magnesium status have a widely-used but imperfect biomarker in serum magnesium. Despite serum magnesium’s limitation...

  16. Vitamin B6 and cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Friso, Simonetta; Lotto, V; Corrocher, R; Choi, Sang Woon


    While overt vitamin B6 deficiency is not a frequent finding nowadays in medical practice, evidence suggests that insufficiency of this vitamin is rather widespread in a quite large portion of the population such as the elderly or in not unusual conditions such as that of alcohol addiction. Moreover, a mild deficiency in B6 vitamin is a state that may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic evidence from case control and prospective studies have suggested that low dietary intake or reduced blood concentrations of vitamin B6 is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, although most recent trials demonstrated the ineffectiveness of vitamin B6 supplementation on the prevention of cardiovascular events recurrence. Due to limited and somewhat inconsistent data together with the ample variety of critical functions in which vitamin B6 is involved in the human body, it is very challenging to attempt at establishing a cause and effect relationship between vitamin B6 and risk of cardiovascular disease as it is to delineate the exact mechanism(s) by which vitamin B6 may modulate such risk. In the present chapter we review the currently available knowledge deriving from both epidemiological and mechanistic studies designed to define potential candidate mechanisms for the association of vitamin B6 impairment and risk of cardiovascular disease development.

  17. Pyridoxine deficiency in adult patients with status epilepticus. (United States)

    Dave, Hina N; Eugene Ramsay, Richard; Khan, Fawad; Sabharwal, Vivek; Irland, Megan


    An 8-year-old girl treated at our facility for superrefractory status epilepticus was found to have a low pyridoxine level at 5 μg/L. After starting pyridoxine supplementation, improvement in the EEG for a 24-hour period was seen. We decided to look at the pyridoxine levels in adult patients admitted with status epilepticus. We reviewed the records on patients admitted to the neurological ICU for status epilepticus (SE). Eighty-one adult patients were identified with documented pyridoxine levels. For comparison purposes, we looked at pyridoxine levels in outpatients with epilepsy (n=132). Reported normal pyridoxine range is >10 ng/mL. All but six patients admitted for SE had low normal or undetectable pyridoxine levels. A selective pyridoxine deficiency was seen in 94% of patients with status epilepticus (compared to 39.4% in the outpatients) which leads us to believe that there is a relationship between status epilepticus and pyridoxine levels.

  18. Predicting the conservation status of data-deficient species. (United States)

    Bland, Lucie M; Collen, Ben; Orme, C David L; Bielby, Jon


    There is little appreciation of the level of extinction risk faced by one-sixth of the over 65,000 species assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Determining the status of these data-deficient (DD) species is essential to developing an accurate picture of global biodiversity and identifying potentially threatened DD species. To address this knowledge gap, we used predictive models incorporating species' life history, geography, and threat information to predict the conservation status of DD terrestrial mammals. We constructed the models with 7 machine learning (ML) tools trained on species of known status. The resultant models showed very high species classification accuracy (up to 92%) and ability to correctly identify centers of threatened species richness. Applying the best model to DD species, we predicted 313 of 493 DD species (64%) to be at risk of extinction, which increases the estimated proportion of threatened terrestrial mammals from 22% to 27%. Regions predicted to contain large numbers of threatened DD species are already conservation priorities, but species in these areas show considerably higher levels of risk than previously recognized. We conclude that unless directly targeted for monitoring, species classified as DD are likely to go extinct without notice. Taking into account information on DD species may therefore help alleviate data gaps in biodiversity indicators and conserve poorly known biodiversity.

  19. The metabolism of vitamin B6 in relation to genetic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albersen, M.


    Over the past years, interest in vitamin B6 has increased, since its essential role in the brain has been recognized and specific inborn errors of metabolism resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. Patients suffering from vitamin B6 deficiency present with epilepsy and, f

  20. Therapy of side effects of oral contraceptive agents with vitamin B6. (United States)

    Bermond, P


    Studies carried out in different countries during the last 15 years have provided evidence that supplementation with (or excess of) estro-progestational hormones may be accompanied by an increased urinary excretion of tryptophan metabolites, as happens in pyridoxine deficiency. Further methods of assessment of vitamin B6 in humans have confirmed an impaired status in women using hormonal contraception. Disturbances in the metabolism of tryptophan have been shown to be responsible for such symptoms as depression, anxiety, decrease of libido and impairment of glucose tolerance occurring in some of the OCA users. Administration of 40 mg of vitamin B6 daily not only restores normal biochemical values but also relieves the clinical symptoms in those vitamin B6 deficient women taking OCA's. Further studies are justified to clarify whether vitamin B6 supplementation may contribute to improving depression also in other situations with hyperoestrogenism (pregnancy, puerperium, estro-progestational treatments, etc.), as well as correcting metabolic impairments, such as a minor alteration of glucose tolerance.

  1. Vitamin B6 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children.

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    Monique Albersen

    Full Text Available Over the past years, the essential role of vitamin B6 in brain development and functioning has been recognized and genetic metabolic disorders resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. However, data on B6 vitamers in children are scarce.B6 vitamer concentrations in simultaneously sampled plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 70 children with intellectual disability were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. For ethical reasons, CSF samples could not be obtained from healthy children. The influence of sex, age, epilepsy and treatment with anti-epileptic drugs, were investigated.The B6 vitamer composition of plasma (pyridoxal phosphate (PLP > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxal (PL differed from that of CSF (PL > PLP > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxamine. Strong correlations were found for B6 vitamers in and between plasma and CSF. Treatment with anti-epileptic drugs resulted in decreased concentrations of PL and PLP in CSF.We provide concentrations of all B6 vitamers in plasma and CSF of children with intellectual disability (±epilepsy, which can be used in the investigation of known and novel disorders associated with vitamin B6 metabolism as well as in monitoring of the biochemical effects of treatment with vitamin B6.

  2. Calcidiol deficiency in end-stage organ failure and after solid organ transplantation: status quo. (United States)

    Thiem, Ursula; Olbramski, Bartosz; Borchhardt, Kyra


    Among patients with organ failure, vitamin D deficiency is extremely common and frequently does not resolve after transplantation. This review crystallizes and summarizes existing data on the status quo of vitamin D deficiency in patients with organ failure and in solid organ transplant recipients. Interventional studies evaluating different treatment strategies, as well as current clinical practice guidelines and recommendations on the management of low vitamin D status in these patients are also discussed.

  3. Calcidiol Deficiency in End-Stage Organ Failure and after Solid Organ Transplantation: Status quo

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    Bartosz Olbramski


    Full Text Available Among patients with organ failure, vitamin D deficiency is extremely common and frequently does not resolve after transplantation. This review crystallizes and summarizes existing data on the status quo of vitamin D deficiency in patients with organ failure and in solid organ transplant recipients. Interventional studies evaluating different treatment strategies, as well as current clinical practice guidelines and recommendations on the management of low vitamin D status in these patients are also discussed.

  4. Vitamin A status affects the efficacy of iron repletion in rats with mild iron deficiency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, A.J.C.; West, C.E.; Beynen, A.C.


    In populations with vitamin A deficiency, vitamin A administration in addition to supplemental iron has been shown to further improve blood indicators of iron status. To obtain clues to associated changes at the level of organ indicators of iron status, we have attempted to mimic previous human stud

  5. Current Iodine Nutrition Status and Awareness of Iodine Deficiency in Tuguegarao, Philippines

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    Bu Kyung Kim


    Full Text Available The Philippines is one of the countries where adequate iodine status has been achieved. However, iodine deficiency still remains an important public health problem in this country. In this study, we evaluated iodine nutrition status and investigated an awareness status of iodine deficiency targeting high school students of Tuguegarao, Philippines. A total of 260 students provided samples for urinary iodine analysis, among which 146 students completed thyroid volume measurement by ultrasonography and answering the questionnaires. The median urinary iodine level was 355.3 µg/L and only 3.8% of the students were in the range of iodine deficiency status according to the ICCIDD criteria. Although 62.3% of students answered that they can list problems resulting from iodine deficiency, a majority of students (70.5% were unable to identify problems other than goiter. They did not appreciate that adequate iodine levels are important during pregnancy and for development of children. 33.6% of students answered that they did not use iodized salt and the biggest reason was that they did not find it necessary. Based on these results, we suggest that a future strategy should be focused on vulnerable groups to completely eliminate iodine deficiency, including women at their reproductive ages and during pregnancy.

  6. Supplementation with Vitamin B6 Reduces Side Effects in Cambodian Women Using Oral Contraception

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    Chivorn Var


    Full Text Available Hormonal contraceptives may produce side effects that deter women from their use as a method of family planning. In nutritionally vulnerable populations these effects may be more pronounced due to micronutrient deficiencies and health status. Previous studies have been unable to resolve whether micronutrient supplementation may reduce such side effects. Aim: In a longitudinal study, 1011 women obtaining oral contraception through the public health system in rural Cambodia were allocated to either intervention or control groups, receiving either daily Vitamin B6 supplement or care as usual (without placebo. Results: The intervention participants (n = 577 reported fewer side effects in three categories: nausea/no appetite, headache, and depression compared with control group participants (n = 434. Conclusion: Women taking Vitamin B6 supplement were less likely to report side effects in a nutritionally vulnerable population. Underlying nutrition status should be considered by clinicians and reproductive health policy makers in the context of providing contraceptive services. Further investigation into micronutrient supplementation, particularly with B6, in reproductive-aged women using hormonal contraception should be conducted in other settings to determine the potential for widespread adoption.

  7. Depression of vitamin B6 levels due to dopamine. (United States)

    Weir, M R; Keniston, R C; Enriquez, J I; McNamee, G A


    Dopamine is a commonly used pressor agent. Frequently recognized side effects other than occasional reports of pedal gangrene respond to reduction of dose. Because a number of compounds interfere with vitamin B6 and dopamine toxicity in animals is modified by B6, we studied the dopamine-vitamin B6 interaction in rabbits. Six animals received 40 mg dopamine/kg and 10 mg pyridoxine injections; 6 received dopamine and saline. Dopamine administration led to an average fall of 20% (p = 0.04) in plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) levels, which declined 42% by day 5. Three days later, a 25% decrease persisted (p = 0.03). Dopamine with pyridoxine caused a PLP rise of 65% (p = 0.007), but the post-study level was 28% lower than baseline (p = 0.04). We interpret our data to mean that dopamine reduced PLP levels during and 3 days after the study, and that dopamine appeared to increase the requirements for B6. We worry that dopamine given with other drugs, ie gentamicin, digoxin and theophylline which are frequently used in critical care settings, could aggravate alterations of requirements for or body stores of vitamin B6, creating B6 deficiency.

  8. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  9. Status of B-vitamins and homocysteine in diabetic retinopathy: association with vitamin-B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia. (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Alleboena; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Pitla, Sujatha; Reddy, Paduru Yadagiri; Mudili, Sivaprasad; Lopamudra, Pratti; Suryanarayana, Palla; Viswanath, Kalluru; Ayyagari, Radha; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash


    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common cause of blindness. Although many studies have indicated an association between homocysteine and DR, the results so far have been equivocal. Amongst the many determinants of homocysteine, B-vitamin status was shown to be a major confounding factor, yet very little is known about its relationship to DR. In the present study, we, therefore, investigated the status of B-vitamins and homocysteine in DR. A cross-sectional case-control study was conducted with 100 normal control (CN) subjects and 300 subjects with type-2 diabetes (T2D). Of the 300 subjects with T2D, 200 had retinopathy (DR) and 100 did not (DNR). After a complete ophthalmic examination including fundus fluorescein angiography, the clinical profile and the blood levels of all B-vitamins and homocysteine were analyzed. While mean plasma homocysteine levels were found to be higher in T2D patients compared with CN subjects, homocysteine levels were particularly high in the DR group. There were no group differences in the blood levels of vitamins B1 and B2. Although the plasma vitamin-B6 and folic acid levels were significantly lower in the DNR and DR groups compared with the CN group, there were no significant differences between the diabetes groups. Interestingly, plasma vitamin-B12 levels were found to be significantly lower in the diabetes groups compared with the CN group; further, the levels were significantly lower in the DR group compared with the DNR group. Higher homocysteine levels were significantly associated with lower vitamin-B12 and folic acid but not with other B-vitamins. Additionally, hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamin-B12 deficiency did not seem to be related to subjects' age, body mass index, or duration of diabetes. These results thus suggest a possible association between vitamin-B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia in DR. Further, the data indicate that vitamin-B12 deficiency could be an independent risk factor for DR.

  10. Deficiencies (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection date,...

  11. Pharmacogenetics of Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6: Advances on Polymorphisms, Mechanisms, and Clinical Relevance

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    Ulrich M Zanger


    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6 belongs to the minor drug metabolizing P450s in human liver. Expression is highly variable both between individuals and within individuals, owing to nongenetic factors, genetic polymorphisms, inducibility and irreversible inhibition by many compounds. Drugs metabolized mainly by CYP2B6 include artemisinin, bupropion, cyclophosphamide, efavirenz, ketamine, and methadone. CYP2B6 is one of the most polymorphic CYP genes in humans and variants have been shown to affect transcriptional regulation, splicing, mRNA and protein expression, and catalytic activity. Some variants appear to affect several functional levels simultaneously, thus, combined in haplotypes, leading to complex interactions between substrate-dependent and -independent mechanisms. The most common functionally deficient allele is CYP2B6*6 [Q172H, K262R], which occurs at frequencies of 15 to over 60% in different populations. The allele leads to lower expression in liver due to erroneous splicing. Recent investigations suggest that the amino acid changes contribute complex substrate-dependent effects at the activity level, although data from recombinant systems used by different researchers are not well in agreement with each other. Another important variant, CYP2B6*18 [I328T], occurs predominantly in Africans (4 to 12% and does not express functional protein. A large number of uncharacterized variants are currently emerging from different ethnicities in the course of the 1000 Genomes Project. The CYP2B6 polymorphism is clinically relevant for HIV-infected patients treated with the reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz, but it is increasingly being recognized for other drug substrates. This review summarizes recent advances on the functional and clinical significance of CYP2B6 and its genetic polymorphism, with particular emphasis on the comparison of kinetic data obtained with different substrates for variants expressed in different recombinant

  12. B6-responsive disorders: a model of vitamin dependency. (United States)

    Clayton, Peter T


    Pyridoxal phosphate is the cofactor for over 100 enzyme-catalysed reactions in the body, including many involved in the synthesis or catabolism of neurotransmitters. Inadequate levels of pyridoxal phosphate in the brain cause neurological dysfunction, particularly epilepsy. There are several different mechanisms that lead to an increased requirement for pyridoxine and/or pyridoxal phosphate. These include: (i) inborn errors affecting the pathways of B(6) vitamer metabolism; (ii) inborn errors that lead to accumulation of small molecules that react with pyridoxal phosphate and inactivate it; (iii) drugs that react with pyridoxal phosphate; (iv) coeliac disease, which is thought to lead to malabsorption of B(6) vitamers; (v) renal dialysis, which leads to increased losses of B(6) vitamers from the circulation; (vi) drugs that affect the metabolism of B(6) vitamers; and (vii) inborn errors affecting specific pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzymes. The last show a very variable degree of pyridoxine responsiveness, from 90% in X-linked sideroblastic anaemia (delta-aminolevulinate synthase deficiency) through 50% in homocystinuria (cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency) to 5% in ornithinaemia with gyrate atrophy (ornithine delta-aminotransferase deficiency). The possible role of pyridoxal phosphate as a chaperone during folding of nascent enzymes is discussed. High-dose pyridoxine or pyridoxal phosphate may have deleterious side-effects (particularly peripheral neuropathy with pyridoxine) and this must be considered in treatment regimes. None the less, in some patients, particularly infants with intractable epilepsy, treatment with pyridoxine or pyridoxal phosphate can be life-saving, and in other infants with inborn errors of metabolism B(6) treatment can be extremely beneficial.

  13. Depression of vitamin B6 levels due to gentamicin. (United States)

    Weir, M R; Keniston, R C; Enriquez, J I; McNamee, G A


    The renal toxicity of gentamicin is altered by dietary protein modifications, bicarbonate and acetazolamide administration, magnesium supplementation, polyaspartic acid, piperacillin, hypercalcemia and calcium channel blockers. Renal tissue gentamicin levels have an undetermined role. Reduction of renal pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP- by gentamicin has been shown, as has protection from nephrotoxicity by administration of vitamin B6. To explore an interaction between gentamicin and vitamin B6, gentamicin (5 mg/kg) was given to rabbits by ip injection, with either pyridoxine (10 mg) or isovolemic saline for 3 weeks. There was not a difference between gentamicin levels for animals given gentamicin and pyridoxine versus those given gentamicin and saline. Gentamicin administration led to a 47% fall (p = .0001) in plasma PLP levels. Three days after the last gentamicin administration, the animals maintained a 32% decrease from the pre-gentamicin baseline values (p = 0.02). When pyridoxine was administered concurrently with gentamicin, the PLP rise of 49% was significant (p = 0.001). The mean level after the study (6%) was not significantly lower than baseline (p = .6). We believe that gentamicin interfers with vitamin B6 metabolism, but that vitamin B6 status does not affect levels of gentamicin. A number of drugs affect B6 levels, creating the potential for hypovitaminosis B6 to be an important mechanism of drug-drug interaction in seriously ill patients, particularly in sick newborns or the elderly with lower average PLP levels.

  14. Association between magnesium-deficient status and anthropometric and clinical-nutritional parameters in posmenopausal women

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    Beatriz López-González


    Full Text Available Background: During menopause occurs weight gain and bone loss occurs due to the hormone decline during this period and other factors such as nutrition. Magnesium deficiency suggests a risk factor for obesity and osteoporosis. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and nutritional magnesium status in a population of postmenopausal women, assessing intake and serum levels of magnesium in the study population and correlation with anthropometric parameters such as body mass index (BMI and body fat, and biochemical parameters associated. Subjects and Method: The study involved 78 healthy women aged 44-76, with postmenopausal status, from the province of Grenade, Spain. The sample was divided into two age groups: group 1, aged 58. Anthropometric parameters were recorded and nutritional intake was assessed by 72-hour recall, getting the RDAs through Nutriber® program. To assess the biochemical parameters was performed a blood sample was taken. Magnesium was analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS in erythrocyte and plasma wet-mineralized samples. Results: Our results show that 37.85% of the total subjects have an overweight status. Magnesium intake found in our population is insufficient in 36% of women, while plasma magnesium deficiency corresponds to 23% of the population and 72% of women have deficient levels of magnesium in erythrocyte. Positive correlations were found between magnesium intake and dietary intake of calcium, of phosphorus, and with prealbumin plasma levels, as well as with a lower waist / hip ratio. Magnesium levels in erythrocyte were correlated with lower triglycerides and urea values. Conclusion: It is important to control and monitor the nutritional status of magnesium in postmenopausal -women to prevent nutritional alterations and possible clinical and chronic degenerative diseases associated with magnesium deficiency and with menopause.

  15. Association between magnesium-deficient status and anthropometric and clinical-nutritional parameters in posmenopausal women


    L??pez-Gonz??lez, Beatriz; Molina-L??pez, Jorge; Florea, Daniela Ioana; Quintero Osso, Bartolom??; P??rez de la Cruz, Antonio; Planells del Pozo, Elena Mar??a


    Background: During menopause occurs weight gain and bone loss occurs due to the hormone decline during this period and other factors such as nutrition. Magnesium deficiency suggests a risk factor for obesity and osteo porosis. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and nutritional magnesium status in a population of postmenopausal women, assessing intake and serum levels of magnesium in the study population and correlation with anthropometric parameters such as body mass index ...

  16. Effect of intermittent supplementation with selenate on selenium status of rats fed selenium-deficient diet. (United States)

    Sugihara, Satoru; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro


    To examine the selenium (Se) status of rats intermittently supplemented with Se, we measured tissue Se contents and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in rats fed a Se-deficient diet intermittently supplemented with selenate. In experiment 1, four groups of male 4-wk-old Wistar rats were fed a Torula yeast-based Se-deficient diet (Se content, diet of each group was supplemented with sodium selenate (0.17 microg Se/g) for 0, 1, 2 or 7 d/wk. The tissue Se contents and GPx activities both increased gradually with an increase in frequency of the selenate supplementation, and significant linear regressions were observed between the frequency and these Se indices. In particular, the correlation coefficient in the liver and plasma indices was nearly equal to a value of 1.0. In experiment 2, three groups of rats were fed the Se-deficient basal diet for 28 d. Among these, one group was daily supplemented with sodium selenate to the Se-deficient diet at a level of 0.17 microg Se/g, and another group was intermittently supplemented with the selenate at a level of 1.19 microg Se/g for 1 d/wk. The tissue Se contents and GPx activities both were increased by the selenate supplementation and no significant difference was observed between daily and weekly supplementation in the Se indices except in erythrocyte Se. These results indicate that Se status in the growth period is dependent on total Se intake in this period and that weekly intermittent supplementation with Se can maintain adequate Se status.

  17. Nutritional zinc status in weaning infants: association with iron deficiency, age, and growth profile. (United States)

    Park, Jeong Su; Chang, Ju Young; Hong, Jeana; Ko, Jae Sung; Seo, Jeong Kee; Shin, Sue; Lee, Eun Hee


    In the present study, we evaluated the correlation between iron deficiency (ID) and zinc deficiency (ZD) and explored the demographic, anthropometric, and feeding-related factors associated with hypozincemia and hair zinc content in weaning infants. Infants aged 6-24 months were recruited, their feeding history was recorded, and their heights and weights were measured. Hemoglobin content, serum iron/total iron-binding capacity, and ferritin and zinc concentrations of serum and hair (using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy) were assessed. Among 101 infants, 64 (63.4 %) infants exhibited ID. The median serum zinc concentration in iron-deficient infants was lower than that in non-iron-deficient infants, respectively, 73.5 μg/dL (interquartile range [IQR], 65.0-83.8) vs. 87.0 μg/dL (IQR, 77.5-97.0; p = 0.001). The frequency of hypozincemia was also significantly higher in the iron-deficient group than in the non-iron-deficient group (21 out of 64 [32.8 %] vs. 4 out of 37 [10.8 %], respectively; p = 0.014). In multiple regression analysis, the risk of hypozincemia was significantly increased in infants with ID (p = 0.026), mildly underweight infants (weight-for-age Z score status (p > 0.1); however, there was an inverse relationship between hair zinc concentrations and age of infants (r = -0.250; p = 0.024). In weaning infants, ID is a risk factor for hypozincemia. Hair zinc concentrations appeared to decrease as the age of infants increased during late infancy. Further large-scale studies are needed to validate the relationship between hypozincemia and mild degrees of weight gain impairment in this age group.

  18. Depression of vitamin B6 levels due to theophylline. (United States)

    Weir, M R; Keniston, R C; Enriquez, J I; McNamee, G A


    Theophylline overdosage can cause life-threatening symptoms, that include seizures and cardiac arrhythmias, and can be fatal. Neither the onset of toxicity nor the severity of symptoms is well predicted by serum theophylline concentrations. Since depressed vitamin B6 plasma levels can occur in patients receiving theophylline, we explored a B6-theophylline interaction in a rabbit model. Administration of theophylline preparations intraperitoneally (aminophylline) or orally (sustained release anhydrous theophylline) resulted in a 47% depression of plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) levels. The 87% increase in PLP with pyridoxine administration was only 18% when aminophylline was also given. The mechanism of the theophylline-B6 interaction is obscure. Ethylenediamine in some theophylline preparations binds directly to PLP, potentially increasing the less direct theophylline effect. Pyridoxine supplementation resulted in higher average PLP levels but did not prevent death in animals with profoundly low PLP levels. If these data apply to humans, B6 deficiency may contribute to chronic theophylline toxicity; however, pyridoxine administration in the dosage used may not prevent toxicity. Larger doses may prove beneficial after further investigation.

  19. [Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)--excessive dosage in food supplements and OTC medications]. (United States)

    Barak, Nir; Huminer, David; Stahl, Bracha


    Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) is sold in Israel as a supplement and is available over-the-counter (OTC) without regulation. High intake of this vitamin is found in patients with premenstrual syndrome, carpal tunnel syndrome, pregnancy associated nausea and vomiting, decreasing homocysteine levels and improving cognitive function. Mega-doses of this vitamin may result in intoxication. In this review we will outline vitamin B6 function, daily recommended intake, deficiency signs and patients in deficiency risk, and the clinical spectrum of vitamin B6 intoxication.

  20. Elevated B6 levels and peripheral neuropathies. (United States)

    Scott, K; Zeris, S; Kothari, M J


    Polyneuropathy related to decreased levels of Vitamin B6 are well known. In contrast, the association between elevated levels of pyridoxine and neuropathy is not well described. This study is a retrospective review of patients in our neuromuscular clinic that were found to have elevated B6 levels. Twenty-six patients were found to have elevated serum B6 levels. The mean B6 level was 68.8 ng/ml. Twenty patients (76.9%) reported daily vitamin use. Twenty-one patients (80.8%) reported only sensory complaints. The most common symptoms reported were numbness (96%), burning pain (49.9%), tingling (57.7%), balance difficulties (30.7%), and weakness (7.8%). Nine (out of 26) had an abnormal EMG/NCS. Eight patients had an abnormal quantitative sensory study. We conclude that elevated pyridoxine levels should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy.

  1. Nutritional status of iron in children from 6 to 59 months of age and its relation to vitamin A deficiency

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    Marcia Cristina Sales


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the iron nutritional status of children from 6 to 59 months of age and its relation to vitamin A deficiency. Method: Cross-sectional study involving 100 children, living in nine cities in the state of Paraiba, which were selected for convenience to form two study groups: children with vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol 0.70 μmol/L; n = 50. The iron nutritional status was evaluated by biochemical, hematological and hematimetric indices. The cases of subclinical infection (C-Reactive Protein > 6 mg/L were excluded. Results: Children with vitamin A deficiency had serum iron values statistically lower than the corresponding values in children without deficiency. The other iron nutritional status indices showed no statistical difference according to presence/absence of vitamin A deficiency. Conclusion: The interaction between iron and vitamin A deficiencies was evidenced in the case of circulating iron deficiency (serum iron, suggesting failure in the transport mechanisms of the mineral in children with vitamin A deficiency.

  2. Cobalamin C deficiency in an adolescent with altered mental status and anorexia. (United States)

    Rahmandar, Maria H; Bawcom, Amanda; Romano, Mary E; Hamid, Rizwan


    Although cobalamin (cbl) C deficiency is the most common inherited disorder of vitamin B12 metabolism, the late-onset form of the disease can be difficult to recognize because it has a broad phenotypic spectrum. In this report, we describe an adolescent female exposed to unknown illicit substances and sexual abuse who presented with psychosis, anorexia, seizures, and ataxia. The patient's diagnosis was delayed until a metabolic workup was initiated, revealing hyperhomocysteinemia, low normal plasma methionine, and methylmalonic aciduria. Ultimately, cblC deficiency was confirmed when molecular testing showed compound heterozygosity for mutations (c.271dupA and c.482G>A) in the MMACHC gene. This diagnosis led to appropriate treatment with hydroxocobalamin, betaine, and folate, which resulted in improvement of her clinical symptoms and laboratory values. This patient demonstrates a previously unrecognized presentation of late-onset cblC deficiency. Although neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in late-onset disease, seizures and cerebellar involvement are not. Furthermore, anorexia has not been previously described in these patients. This case emphasizes that inborn errors of metabolism should be part of the differential diagnosis for a teenager presenting with altered mental status, especially when the diagnosis is challenging or neurologic symptoms are unexplained. Correct diagnosis of this condition is important because treatment is available and can result in clinical improvement.(1.)

  3. Retinol status and expression of retinol-related proteins in methionine-choline deficient rats. (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Takitani, Kimitaka; Koh, Maki; Inoue, Akiko; Kishi, Kanta; Tamai, Hiroshi


    Retinol and its derivative, retinoic acid, have pleiotropic functions including vision, immunity, hematopoiesis, reproduction, cell differentiation/growth, and development. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common diseases in developed countries and encompasses a broad spectrum of forms, ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis, which develops further to cirrhosis. Retinol status has an important role in liver homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the retinol status and expression of retinol-related proteins, including enzymes and binding proteins, in methionine-choline deficient (MCD) rats as a model of NAFLD. We examined retinol levels in the plasma and liver and gene expression for β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (BCMO), lecithIn: retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), ALDH1A2, and cellular retinol binding protein (CRBP)-I in MCD rats. The plasma retinol levels in MCD rats were lower than those in the controls, whereas hepatic retinol levels in MCD rats were higher. BCMO expression in the intestine and liver in MCD rats was lower, whereas that in the testes and the kidneys was higher than in control rats. Expression of LRAT, CRBP-I, ALDH1A1, and ALDH1A2 in the liver of MCD rats was also higher. Altered expression of retinol-related proteins may affect retinol status in NAFLD.

  4. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 predicts pulmonary status declines in α1-antitrypsin deficiency

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    Rames Alexis


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 may be important in the progression of emphysema, but there have been few longitudinal clinical studies of MMP-9 including pulmonary status and COPD exacerbation outcomes. Methods We utilized data from the placebo arm (n = 126 of a clinical trial of patients with alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD and emphysema to examine the links between plasma MMP-9 levels, pulmonary status, and COPD exacerbations over a one year observation period. Pulmonary function, computed tomography lung density, incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT, and COPD exacerbations were assessed at regular intervals over 12 months. Prospective analyses used generalized estimating equations to incorporate repeated longitudinal measurements of MMP-9 and all endpoints, controlling for age, gender, race-ethnicity, leukocyte count, and tobacco history. A secondary analysis also incorporated highly-sensitive C-reactive protein levels in predictive models. Results At baseline, higher plasma MMP-9 levels were cross-sectionally associated with lower FEV1 (p = 0.03, FVC (p Conclusions Increased plasma MMP-9 levels generally predicted pulmonary status declines, including worsening transfer factor and lung density as well as greater COPD exacerbations in AATD-associated emphysema.

  5. Effects of vitamin B-6 nutrition on benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor binding in the developing rat brain

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    Borek, J.P.; Guilarte, T.R. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States))


    A dietary deficiency of vitamin B-6 promotes seizure activity in neonatal animals and human infants. Previous studied have shown that neonatal vitamin B-6 deprivation results in reduced levels of brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and increased binding at the GABA site of the GABA/BDZ receptor complex. Since the GABA and BDZ receptors are allosterically linked, this study was undertaken to determine if vitamin B-6 deprivation had an effect on BDZ receptor binding. Benzodiazepine receptor binding isotherms using {sup 3}H-flunitrazepam as ligand were performed in the presence and absence of 10 {mu}M GABA. The results indicate a significant increase in the binding affinity (Kd) in the presence of GABA in cerebellar membranes from deficient rat pups at 14 days of age with no effect on receptor number (Bmax). By 28 days of age, the increase in Kd was no longer present. No change in Kd or Bmax was observed in cortical tissue from deficient animals at 14 or 28 days of age. Preliminary studies of GABA-enhancement of {sup 3}H-flunitrazepam binding indicate that vitamin B-6 deficiency also induces alterations in the ability of GABA to enhance BZD receptor binding. In summary, these results indicate that the effects of vitamin B-6 deprivation on BDZ receptor binding are region specific and age related.

  6. GH deficiency status combined with GH receptor polymorphism affects response to GH in children. (United States)

    Valsesia, Armand; Chatelain, Pierre; Stevens, Adam; Peterkova, Valentina A; Belgorosky, Alicia; Maghnie, Mohamad; Antoniazzi, Franco; Koledova, Ekaterina; Wojcik, Jerome; Farmer, Pierre; Destenaves, Benoit; Clayton, Peter


    Meta-analysis has shown a modest improvement in first-year growth response to recombinant human GH (r-hGH) for carriers of the exon 3-deleted GH receptor (GHRd3) polymorphism but with significant interstudy variability. The associations between GHRd3 and growth response to r-hGH over 3 years in relation to severity of GH deficiency (GHD) were investigated in patients from 14 countries. Treatment-naïve pre-pubertal children with GHD were enrolled from the PREDICT studies (NCT00256126 and NCT00699855), categorized by peak GH level (peak GH) during provocation test: ≤4 μg/l (severe GHD; n=45) and >4 to GH level. GH peak level (higher vs lower) and GHRd3 (fl/fl vs d3 carriers) combined status was associated with height change over 3 years (PGH had lower growth than subjects with fl/fl (median difference after 3 years -3.3 cm; -0.3 SDS). Conversely, GHRd3 carriers with higher peak GH had better growth (+2.7 cm; +0.2 SDS). Similar patterns were observed for GH-dependent biomarkers. GE profiles were significantly different between the groups, indicating that the interaction between GH status and GHRd3 carriage can be identified at a transcriptomic level. This study demonstrates that responses to r-hGH depend on the interaction between GHD severity and GHRd3 carriage.

  7. Regulation of NR4A by nutritional status, gender, postnatal development and hormonal deficiency. (United States)

    Pérez-Sieira, S; López, M; Nogueiras, R; Tovar, S


    The NR4A is a subfamily of the orphan nuclear receptors (NR) superfamily constituted by three well characterized members: Nur77 (NR4A1), Nurr1 (NR4A2) and Nor 1 (NR4A3). They are implicated in numerous biological processes as DNA repair, arteriosclerosis, cell apoptosis, carcinogenesis and metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated the role of this subfamily on glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and energy balance. These studies have focused mainly in liver and skeletal muscle. However, its potential role in white adipose tissue (WAT), one of the most important tissues involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is not well-studied. The aim of this work was to elucidate the regulation of NR4A in WAT under different physiological and pathophysiological settings involved in energy balance such as fasting, postnatal development, gender, hormonal deficiency and pregnancy. We compared NR4A mRNA expression of Nur77, Nurr1 and Nor 1 and found a clear regulation by nutritional status, since the expression of the 3 isoforms is increased after fasting in a leptin-independent manner and sex steroid hormones also modulate NR4A expression in males and females. Our findings indicate that NR4A are regulated by different physiological and pathophysiological settings known to be associated with marked alterations in glucose metabolism and energy status.

  8. Efficacy of oral iodised oil is associated with anthropometric status in severely iodine-deficient schoolchildren in rural Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furnee, C.A.; West, C.E.; Haar, van der F.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.


    The effect of anthropometric status on the efficacy of an oral supplement of iodised oil (1 ml Lipiodol Ultrafluide, 490 mg I; Laboratoire Guerbet, Aulnay-sous-Bois, France) was examined in 8–10-year-old schoolchildren (n 197) of Ntcheu, a severely I-deficient district of Malawi. The study was a con

  9. Properties of Zip4 accumulation during zinc deficiency and its usefulness to evaluate zinc status: a study of the effects of zinc deficiency during lactation. (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ayako; Nakagawa, Miki; Tsujimura, Natsuki; Miyazaki, Shiho; Kizu, Kumiko; Goto, Tomoko; Komatsu, Yusuke; Matsunaga, Ayu; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Narita, Hiroshi; Kambe, Taiho; Komai, Michio


    Systemic and cellular zinc homeostasis is elaborately controlled by ZIP and ZnT zinc transporters. Therefore, detailed characterization of their expression properties is of importance. Of these transporter proteins, Zip4 functions as the primarily important transporter to control systemic zinc homeostasis because of its indispensable function of zinc absorption in the small intestine. In this study, we closely investigated Zip4 protein accumulation in the rat small intestine in response to zinc status using an anti-Zip4 monoclonal antibody that we generated and contrasted this with the zinc-responsive activity of the membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP). We found that Zip4 accumulation is more rapid in response to zinc deficiency than previously thought. Accumulation increased in the jejunum as early as 1 day following a zinc-deficient diet. In the small intestine, Zip4 protein expression was higher in the jejunum than in the duodenum and was accompanied by reduction of ALP activity, suggesting that the jejunum can become zinc deficient more easily. Furthermore, by monitoring Zip4 accumulation levels and ALP activity in the duodenum and jejunum, we reasserted that zinc deficiency during lactation may transiently alter plasma glucose levels in the offspring in a sex-specific manner, without affecting homeostatic control of zinc metabolism. This confirms that zinc nutrition during lactation is extremely important for the health of the offspring. These results reveal that rapid Zip4 accumulation provides a significant conceptual advance in understanding the molecular basis of systemic zinc homeostatic control, and that properties of Zip4 protein accumulation are useful to evaluate zinc status closely.



    Mörke, I.; Wachter, P.


    We have measured the Raman spectrum of a SmB6 single crystal and compared it to LaB6 and EuB6. Beside the three high energy Raman active phonons we found additional excitations in these compounds. Most prominent is a peak at 172 cm-1 for SmB6, 214 cm-1 for LaB6 and 220 cm-1 for EuB6. The spectra are analysed in terms of defect induced phonon scattering. The softening of the line in intermediate valent (IV) SmB6 is explained in analogy with the phonon anomalies found in other IV compounds.

  11. Evaluation for magnesium and vitamin B6 supplementation among Polish elite athletes. (United States)

    Czaja, Jakub; Lebiedzińska, Anna; Marszałł, Marcin; Szefer, Piotr


    Contemporary sport requires a lot of effort from sportsmen, frequently exceeding their maximum physical and mental efficiency. Athletes often report poor dietary habits and reach for magnesium and vitamin B supplements to avoid dietary deficiencies. The aim of this study was to determine magnesium and vitamin B6 content in daily food rations of Polish athletes and to verify the justification of diet supplementation. Magnesium and vitamin B6 concentrations were determined in 62 collected and 12 reconstructed daily food rations of elite Polish runners. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry and HPLC methods were used for quantification of magnesium and vitamin B6, respectively. The analyzed female diets provided daily 256 +/- 111 mg of magnesium and 2.04 +/- 0.63 mg of vitamin B6 whereas male diets provided 284 +/- 58 mg of magnesium and 2.12 +/- 0.68 mg of vitamin B6. Computer analysis calculated 159-181% higher content o magnesium and vitamin B6 comparing to determined laboratory values. The results of this study indicate that in the analyzed daily food rations of athletes low magnesium intake was observed, thus diet supplementation with this mineral may be justified. Daily food rations fulfilled RDA for vitamin B6, thus supplementation with this vitamin was not justified.

  12. Identification and molecular characterization of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant that shows a light intensity dependent progressive chlorophyll deficiency [v1; ref status: indexed,

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    Phillip B Grovenstein


    Full Text Available The green micro-alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an elegant model organism to study all aspects of oxygenic photosynthesis. Chlorophyll (Chl and heme are major tetrapyrroles that play an essential role in energy metabolism in photosynthetic organisms. These tetrapyrroles are synthesized via a common branched pathway that involves mainly nuclear encoded enzymes. One of the enzymes in the pathway is Mg chelatase (MgChel which inserts Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX (PPIX, proto to form Magnesium-protoporphyrin IX (MgPPIX, Mgproto, the first biosynthetic intermediate in the Chl branch. The GUN4 (genomes uncoupled 4 protein is not essential for the MgChel activity but has been shown to significantly stimulate its activity. We have isolated a light sensitive mutant, 6F14, by random DNA insertional mutagenesis. 6F14 cannot tolerate light intensities higher than 90-100 μmol photons m-2 s-1. It shows a light intensity dependent progressive photo-bleaching. 6F14 is incapable of photo-autotrophic growth under light intensity higher than 100 μmol photons m-2 s-1. PCR based analyses show that in 6F14 the insertion of the plasmid outside the GUN4 locus has resulted in a genetic rearrangement of the GUN4 gene and possible deletions in the genomic region flanking the GUN4 gene. Our gun4 mutant has a Chl content very similar to that in the wild type in the dark and is very sensitive to fluctuations in the light intensity in the environment unlike the earlier identified Chlamydomonas gun4 mutant. Complementation with a functional copy of the GUN4 gene restored light tolerance, Chl biosynthesis and photo-autotrophic growth under high light intensities in 6F14. 6F14 is the second gun4 mutant to be identified in C. reinhardtii. Additionally, we show that our two gun4 complements over-express the GUN4 protein and show a higher Chl content per cell compared to that in the wild type strain.

  13. Deficiencies under plenty of sun: Vitamin D status among adults in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013

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    Marwa Tuffaha


    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been correlated with several diseases and injuries including diabetes, osteoporosis, fractures, and falls. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, current data on vitamin D status are lacking. Aims: To inform Saudi public health authorities on the current status of blood levels vitamin D deficiency, we analyzed data from the Saudi Health Interview Survey. Materials and Methods: The Saudi Health Interview Survey (SHIS is a cross-sectional national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years and above on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. A total of 10,735 participants completed a health questionnaire and were invited to the local health clinics for biomedical exams. Results: 62.65% of female Saudis and 40.6% of male Saudis aged 15 years and above are deficient in vitamin D. Out of them, less than 1% males and less than 2% females consume vitamin D supplements. Women who have never married and obese individuals are more likely to be deficient in vitamin D, compared to men who were currently married and nonobese individuals. Those consuming vitamin D supplements are less likely to be deficient in vitamin D. Conclusions: Our study showed a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Saudi men and women, and the results call for an increased awareness to ensure adequate levels of vitamin D for better health in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, our findings are certainly relevant for other countries in the Gulf region or countries with similar cultures, clothing, and religions.

  14. Dietary phosphate supplementation delays the onset of iron deficiency anemia and affects iron status in rats. (United States)

    Nakao, Mari; Yamamoto, Hironori; Nakahashi, Otoki; Ikeda, Shoko; Abe, Kotaro; Masuda, Masashi; Ishiguro, Mariko; Iwano, Masayuki; Takeda, Eiji; Taketani, Yutaka


    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) plays critical roles in bone metabolism and is an essential component of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). It has been reported that animals fed a low-iron diet modulate Pi metabolism, whereas the effect of dietary Pi on iron metabolism, particularly in iron deficiency anemia (IDA), is not fully understood. In this study, we hypothesized the presence of a link between Pi and iron metabolism and tested the hypothesis by investigating the effects of dietary Pi on iron status and IDA. Wistar rats aged 4 weeks were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental dietary groups: normal iron content (Con Fe)+0.5% Pi, low-iron (Low Fe)+0.5% Pi, Con Fe+1.5% Pi, and Low Fe+1.5% Pi. Rats fed the 1.5% Pi diet for 14 days, but not for 28 days, maintained their anemia state and plasma erythropoietin concentrations within the reference range, even under conditions of low iron. In addition, plasma concentrations of 2,3-DPG were significantly increased by the 1.5% Pi diets and were positively correlated with plasma Pi concentration (r=0.779; Piron-regulated genes, including divalent metal transporter 1, duodenal cytochrome B, and hepcidin. Furthermore, iron concentration in liver tissues was increased by the 1.5% Pi in Con Fe diet. These results suggest that dietary Pi supplementation delays the onset of IDA and increases plasma 2,3-DPG concentration, followed by modulation of the expression of iron-regulated genes.

  15. Homocysteine and vitamin B 12 status and iron deficiency anemia in female university students from Gaza Strip, Palestine

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    Mahmoud Mohammed Sirdah


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nutritional deficiencies are very significant to the overall health of humans at all ages and for both genders, yet in infants, children and women of childbearing age these deficiencies can seriously affect growth and development. The present work is aimed to assess homocysteine and vitamin B12 status in females with iron deficiency anemia from the Gaza Strip.METHODS: Venous blood samples were randomly collected from 240 female university students (18-22 years old and parameters of the complete blood count, serum ferritin, homocysteine and vitamin B12 were measured. Statistical analysis included the t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA using the IBM SPSS software (version 18. Statistical significance was set for p-values <0.05.RESULTS: The results revealed that 20.4% of the students have iron deficiency anemia. The mean serum vitamin B12 level in females with iron deficiency anemia (212.9 ± 62.8 pg/mL was significantly lower than in normal controls (286.9 ± 57.1 pg/mL and subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (256.7 ± 71.1 pg/mL. Significantly higher serum homocysteine levels were reported in the iron deficiency anemia group (27.0 ± 4.6 µmol/L compared to normal controls (15.5 ± 2.9 µmol/L and in subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (18.1 ± 2.7 µmol/L. Statistically significant negative correlations were reported for serum homocysteine with serum ferritin, vitamin B12, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels.CONCLUSION: Important associations were found between serum homocysteine and markers of iron deficiency. Monitoring homocysteine levels might be essential to understand the development of different clinical conditions including anemia. It seems necessary to conduct prospective trials to determine whether treating anemia ameliorates homocysteine levels.

  16. Age-related changes in prevalence and symptom characteristics in kidney deficiency syndrome with varied health status: a cross-sectional observational study

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    Yin Zhang


    Conclusion: Prevalence and symptom characteristics of KDS were found to increase consistently with increasing age and deteriorating health status. Kidney deficiency may be an important mechanism of aging in the subhealthy and chronic disease states.

  17. Deficiências de macronutrientes no estado nutricional da mamoneira cultivar Iris Deficiencies of macronutrients on nutritional status of castor bean cultivar Iris

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    José Lavres Junior


    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar o efeito da deficiência dos macronutrientes no crescimento e estado nutricional da mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. e a obtenção do quadro sintomatológico das deficiências de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Cultivou-se Ricinus communis L. cultivar Iris em solução nutritiva, tendo como tratamentos soluções completa e deficientes em N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Foram determinadas a concentração indireta de clorofila, a atividade da redutase do nitrato, os teores solúveis de N (NO3-, P (H2PO4- e K+ e realizados testes rápidos para N, P e K. As deficiências de N, Ca, S e Mg foram as que mais restringiram a produção de massa de matéria seca, na ordem decrescente: N>Ca>S>Mg>K>P. Os maiores acúmulos de macronutrientes, no tratamento completo, foram observados nas raízes e no limbo das folhas inferiores. As concentrações críticas para N e Ca, ambas no limbo das folhas superiores e, Mg, no pecíolo das inferiores foram, respectivamente, 46,7, 13,8 e 6,5 g kg-1. As deficiências influenciaram as leituras do clorofilômetro. A atividade da redutase do nitrato guardou relação direta com a determinação da clorofila. Os teores de N (NO3-, P (H2PO4- e K+ foram menores nas folhas deficientes em N, P e K, respectivamente, o mesmo acontecendo quando avaliadas pela análise de toque.The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effect of macronutrient deficiencies on growth and on nutritional status of castor beans (Ricinus communis L., and to obtain the symptoms of the lack of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S. Nutrient solutions containing all macronutrients and those from which one of these elements was omitted were the treatments used. The following determinations were made: chlorophyll (indirectly, nitrate reductase activity, NO3--N, H2PO4--P and K+, both on soluble fractions, and by spot tests. Deficiencies of N, Ca, S and Mg were the most limiting for dry matter production, followed in decreasing order by those of K and

  18. Present status of understanding on the G6PD deficiency and natural selection

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    Tripathy V


    Full Text Available G6PD deficiency is a common hemolytic genetic disorder, particularly in the areas endemic to malaria. Individuals are generally asymptomatic and hemolytic anemia occurs when some anti-malarial drugs or other oxidizing chemicals are administered. It has been proposed that G6PD deficiency provides protection against malaria. Maintaining of G6PD deficient alleles at polymorphic proportions is complicated because of the X-linked nature of G6PD deficiency. A comprehensive review of the literature on the hypothesis of malarial protection and the nature of the selection is being presented. Most of the epidemiological, in vitro and in vivo studies report selection for G6PD deficiency. Analysis of the G6PD gene also reveals that G6PD-deficient alleles show some signatures of selection. However, the question of how this polymorphism is being maintained remains unresolved because the selection/fitness coefficients for the different genotypes in the two sexes have not been established. Prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Indian caste and tribal populations and the different variants reported has also been reviewed.

  19. The effect of humic acids and their complexes with iron on the functional status of plants grown under iron deficiency (United States)

    Abros'kin, D. P.; Fuentes, M.; Garcia-Mina, J. M.; Klyain, O. I.; Senik, S. V.; Volkov, D. S.; Perminova, I. V.; Kulikova, N. A.


    The effect of humic acids (HAs) and their iron complexes (Fe-HAs) on the input of the main mineral elements into wheat seedlings, as well as on the efficiency of photosynthesis and the lipid profile of plants, under iron deficiency has been studied. The input of iron from Fe-HA complexes and its predominant accumulation in roots are demonstrated. It is found that HAs increase the efficiency of photosynthesis due to enhanced electron transport in photosystem II. It is shown that the application of HAs and Fe-HAs is accompanied by an enhanced input of Zn into plants, which could increase the antioxidant status of plants under iron deficiency conditions. In addition, a pronounced increase in the content of lipids in plants is revealed, which is indicative of the effect of HAs on plant metabolism. The obtained results suggest that the positive effect of Fe-HAs and HAs on plants under iron deficiency conditions is due to a combination of factors, among which the effect of HAs on the antioxidant status of plants and the plant lipid metabolism predominates.

  20. Vitamin B6 in clinical neurology. (United States)

    Bernstein, A L


    Many conditions in clinical neurology may be responsive to pyridoxine as a therapeutic agent. The current difficulty is in trying to isolate the conditions that are most likely to respond. Treating seizures is a major part of a neurologic practice. Our current therapeutic agents are only partially successful and limited by multiple side effects. One problem is that patients often have to take these agents for an entire lifetime, further raising the risk of toxicity. If pyridoxine supplementation can improve the efficacy of currently used medications, it will be gladly accepted into our therapeutic arsenal. Headache, chronic pain, and depression all appear to run together in many of our patients. The observations that serotonin deficiency is a common thread between them and that pyridoxine can raise serotonin levels open a wide range of therapeutic options. Small studies have been carried out with mixed success. Comparison with amitriptyline in the treatment of headache appears to show about equal efficacy, although side effects would be expected to be more of a problem with the amitriptyline. Behavioral disorders are relatively common and continue to be a major problem, disrupting the lives of the patients and their families. Current treatments are not acceptable to most people because of the risk of side effects with long-term usage. If, as Dr. Feingold suggests, many of these problems are caused by "toxic" exposures to chemicals that are pyridoxine antagonists, supplementation at early ages may reduce the incidence of hyperactivity and aggressive behavior. This raises the question of safety. Is pyridoxine safe for long-term use in large segments of the population, including children? The studies on children with Down's syndrome and autism, utilizing much higher doses than are used for other therapeutic purposes, seem to indicate relative safety if carefully monitored. Studies involving large population groups with carpal tunnel syndrome, all adults, using 100

  1. [Iodine deficiency in the world and in the Czech Republic--current status and perspectives]. (United States)

    Zamrazil, V; Bílek, R; Cerovská, J; Dvoráková, M; Nemecek, J


    Iodopenia is importance world-wide problem--the cause of spectrum of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). The "simple" way for its compensation is iodine supplementation--preferably by iodinization of salt: in the Czech Republic prevalence of IDD was very high in the past. The complex program for compensation of iodine deficiency realized in the CR includes improvement of salt iodization, supplementation of pregnant and lactating women, fortification of products for babies' nutrition and increasing use of iodinized salt in general population incl. food industry. Thus CR is country with compensated iodine deficiency according to criteria WHO, UNICEF, ICCIDD. In future, however, systematic interest should be focused on optimalization of iodine saturation, esp. in pregnant women and evaluation of possible risk of supranormal iodine intake (impairment of thyroid function, activation of thyroid autoimmunity). Taking in account, the changes of nutrition and life style systematic monitoring of quality of iodine supplementation seems to be essential.

  2. Haplotypes frequencies of CYP2B6 in Malaysia

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    N Musa


    Full Text Available Background: Drugs with complex pharmacology are used in the management of drug use disorder (DUD and HIV/AIDS in Malaysia and in parts of South-East Asia. Their multiethnic populations suggest complexity due to the genetic polymorphism, such as CYP2B6 that metabolizes methadone and anti-retroviral. Aims: Our aim was to explore the genetic polymorphism of CYP2B6 among Malays, Chinese, Indians, and opiate-dependent individuals in Malaysia. Settings and Design: The study utilized DNA from our previous studies on CYPs and new recruitments from opiate-dependent individuals. Materials and Methods: For the new recruitment, after obtaining consent and baseline demography, 5 ml blood was obtained from patients attending methadone maintenance therapy (MMT Clinics. Genomic DNA was extracted using standard methods. 10 nucleotide changes associated with CYP2B6FNx0110, CYP2B6FNx012, CYP2B6FNx0117, CYP2B6FNx0111, CYP2B6FNx018, CYP2B6FNx0114, CYP2B6FNx019, CYP2B6FNx014, CYP2B6FNx016, CYP2B6FNx0127, and CYP2B6FNx0120 were determined using multiplex nested allele-specific PCR. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to summarize demographic data. Differences in allele frequencies between populations were tested using Chi-squared test and were corrected using the Bonferroni test. Results: CYP2B6 polymorphism in Malaysia is variable with trends that suggest an ethnic difference. Reduced activity CYP2B6FNx016 occurred in 13% to 26% among Malays, Chinese, Indians and opiate-dependent individuals. Another ′reduced activity′, CYP2B6FNx012 allele, was found at much lower percentages in the groups. Conclusions: The relative commonness of reduced-activity CYP2B6 alleles in our study called for attention in terms of dosage requirements for MMT and ARV in Malaysia. It also implored follow-up association studies to determine its relevance and consequences in personalized medicine for drug use disorder and HIV/AIDS.

  3. Crystallography, semiconductivity, thermoelectricity, and other properties of boron and its compounds, especially B6O (United States)

    Slack, G. A.; Morgan, K. E.


    Electron deficient and non-deficient boron compounds are discussed as potential thermoelectric generator materials. Particular attention is paid to carbon-doped beta-boron, high-carbon boron carbide, and the alpha-boron derivative compound boron suboxide. Stoichiometric B6O shows some promise, and may have a higher ZT than the other two compounds. Carbon saturated beta-boron appears to have a higher ZT than undoped samples. Carbon saturated boron carbide at B12C3 does exist. Its thermoelectric behavior is unknown.

  4. Biogenesis of cytochrome b6 in photosynthetic membranes. (United States)

    Saint-Marcoux, Denis; Wollman, Francis-André; de Vitry, Catherine


    In chloroplasts, binding of a c'-heme to cytochrome b(6) on the stromal side of the thylakoid membranes requires a specific mechanism distinct from the one at work for c-heme binding to cytochromes f and c(6) on the lumenal side of membranes. Here, we show that the major protein components of this pathway, the CCBs, are bona fide transmembrane proteins. We demonstrate their association in a series of hetero-oligomeric complexes, some of which interact transiently with cytochrome b(6) in the process of heme delivery to the apoprotein. In addition, we provide preliminary evidence for functional assembly of cytochrome b(6)f complexes even in the absence of c'-heme binding to cytochrome b(6). Finally, we present a sequential model for apo- to holo-cytochrome b(6) maturation integrated within the assembly pathway of b(6)f complexes in the thylakoid membranes.

  5. Effects of Vitamin A Supplementation on Iron Status Indices and Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi


    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world including developed and developing countries. Despite intensive efforts to improve the quality of life of rural and aboriginal communities in Malaysia, anaemia and IDA are still major public health problems in these communities particularly among children. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 250 Orang Asli (aboriginal schoolchildren in Malaysia to investigate the effects of a single high-dose of vitamin A supplementation (200,000 IU on iron status indices, anaemia and IDA status. The effect of the supplement was assessed after 3 months of receiving the supplements; after a complete 3-day deworming course of 400 mg/day of albendazole tablets. The prevalence of anaemia was found to be high: 48.5% (95% CI = 42.3, 54.8. Moreover, 34% (95% CI = 28.3, 40.2 of the children had IDA, which accounted for 70.1% of the anaemic cases. The findings showed that the reduction in serum ferritin level and the increments in haemoglobin, serum iron and transferrin saturation were found to be significant among children allocated to the vitamin A group compared to those allocated to the placebo group (p < 0.01. Moreover, a significant reduction in the prevalence of IDA by almost 22% than prevalence at baseline was reported among children in the vitamin A group compared with only 2.3% reduction among children in the placebo group. In conclusion, vitamin A supplementation showed a significant impact on iron status indices and IDA among Orang Asli children. Hence, providing vitamin A supplementation and imparting the knowledge related to nutritious food should be considered in the efforts to improve the nutritional and health status of these children as a part of efforts to improve the quality of life in rural and aboriginal communities.

  6. Effects of vitamin A supplementation on iron status indices and iron deficiency anaemia: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Al-Zabedi, Ebtesam M; Al-Maktari, Mohamed T; Atroosh, Wahib M; Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K; Moktar, Norhayati; Sallam, Atiya A; Abdullah, Wan Ariffin; Jani, Rohana; Surin, Johari


    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world including developed and developing countries. Despite intensive efforts to improve the quality of life of rural and aboriginal communities in Malaysia, anaemia and IDA are still major public health problems in these communities particularly among children. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 250 Orang Asli (aboriginal) schoolchildren in Malaysia to investigate the effects of a single high-dose of vitamin A supplementation (200,000 IU) on iron status indices, anaemia and IDA status. The effect of the supplement was assessed after 3 months of receiving the supplements; after a complete 3-day deworming course of 400 mg/day of albendazole tablets. The prevalence of anaemia was found to be high: 48.5% (95% CI=42.3, 54.8). Moreover, 34% (95% CI=28.3, 40.2) of the children had IDA, which accounted for 70.1% of the anaemic cases. The findings showed that the reduction in serum ferritin level and the increments in haemoglobin, serum iron and transferrin saturation were found to be significant among children allocated to the vitamin A group compared to those allocated to the placebo group (pchildren in the vitamin A group compared with only 2.3% reduction among children in the placebo group. In conclusion, vitamin A supplementation showed a significant impact on iron status indices and IDA among Orang Asli children. Hence, providing vitamin A supplementation and imparting the knowledge related to nutritious food should be considered in the efforts to improve the nutritional and health status of these children as a part of efforts to improve the quality of life in rural and aboriginal communities.

  7. Selenium status, thyroid volume, and multiple nodule formation in an area with mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Schomburg, Lutz; Köhrle, Josef;


    The objective was to study the associations between serum selenium concentration and thyroid volume, as well as the association between serum selenium concentration and risk for an enlarged thyroid gland in an area with mild iodine deficiency before and after iodine fortification was introduced....... Another objective was to examine the association between serum selenium concentration and prevalence of thyroid nodules....

  8. [Depression, contraceptive pills and pyridoxine (vitamin B6)]. (United States)

    Bergsjo, P


    Women who use oral contraceptives experience depression and loss of libido in about 7% of the cases in various studies. This may be due to a lack of pyridoxine (Vitamin-B6). Dosage of Vitamin-B6 from 20-50 mg given daily to women suffering from depression helped in many cases.

  9. 26 CFR 1.410(b)-6 - Excludable employees. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excludable employees. 1.410(b)-6 Section 1.410(b... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.410(b)-6 Excludable employees. (a) Employees—(1) In general. For purposes of applying section 410(b) with respect to employees,...

  10. 12 CFR 261b.6 - Public announcement of meetings. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public announcement of meetings. 261b.6 Section... SYSTEM RULES REGARDING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF MEETINGS § 261b.6 Public announcement of meetings. (a) Except as otherwise provided by the Act, public announcement of meetings open to public observation...

  11. Mathematical Modeling of Glutathione Status in Type 2 Diabetics with Vitamin B12 Deficiency. (United States)

    Karamshetty, Varun; Acharya, Jhankar D; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Goel, Pranay


    Deficiencies in vitamin B12 and glutathione (GSH) are associated with a number of diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus. We tested newly diagnosed Indian diabetic patients for correlation between their vitamin B12 and GSH, and found it to be weak. Here we seek to examine the theoretical dependence of GSH on vitamin B12 with a mathematical model of 1-carbon metabolism due to Reed and co-workers. We study the methionine cycle of the Reed-Nijhout model by developing a simple "stylized model" that captures its essential topology and whose kinetics are analytically tractable. The analysis shows-somewhat counter-intuitively-that the flux responsible for the homeostasis of homocysteine is, in fact, peripheral to the methionine cycle. Elevation of homocysteine arises from reduced activity of methionine synthase, a vitamin B12-dependent enzyme, however, this does not increase GSH biosynthesis. The model suggests that the lack of vitamin B12-GSH correlation is explained by suppression of activity in the trans-sulfuration pathway that limits the synthesis of cysteine and GSH from homocysteine. We hypothesize this "cysteine-block" is an essential consequence of vitamin B12 deficiency. It can be clinically relevant to appreciate that these secondary effects of vitamin B12 deficiency could be central to its pathophysiology.

  12. Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 from rat diets containing wheat bran or cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.A.; Betschart, A.A.; Oace, S.M.


    Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 (B-6) in the total diet was studied in male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats fed fiber-free (FF) diets with 0.2 or 6.9 mg pyridoxine/kg diet (0-, 2- or 6.9-PYR), 20% wheat bran (WB) diets with 3.9- or 5.5-PYR or 7% cellulose (C) diets with 0- or 2-PYR for 28 d. Body weight gain (mean +/- SEM) with 0-PYR was 70 +/- 9.0 and 81.2 +/- 4.2 g for FF and C, respectively. All other groups gained 170-180 g. Urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA), a major B-6 metabolite, for FF groups was 1.31 +/- 0.22, 2.26 +/- 0.28 and 6.39 +/- 1.73 micrograms/24 h, at 0-, 2- and 6.9-PYR, respectively. Rats fed WB diets excreted 4.99 +/- 0.58 and 9.81 +/- 0.76 micrograms/24 h (3.9- and 5.5-PYR, respectively) and those fed C diets excreted 1.46 +/- 0.34 and 2.69 +/- 0.72 micrograms/24 h (0- and 2-PYR). There was increasing turnover and shorter biological half-life of (/sup 14/C)pyridoxine (1 mu Ci injected on d 1) with increasing dietary B-6. Growth, 4-PA and /sup 14/C turnover data indicated that WB contributed to B-6 intake of these rats. Cellulose acted as a simple dietary diluent and had no effect on indices of B-6 status. These data suggest that dietary fiber, as cellulose or the indigestible component of wheat bran, does not adversely affect the bioavailability of vitamin B-6.

  13. Effect of sulfite treatment on total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide, and total free sulfydryl groups contents in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient rat plasma. (United States)

    Herken, Emine Nur; Kocamaz, Erdogan; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Kucukatay, Vural


    Sulfites, which are commonly used as preservatives, are continuously formed in the body during the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sulfite oxidase (SOX) is an essential enzyme in the pathway of the oxidative degradation of sulfite to sulfate protecting cells from sulfite toxicity. This article investigated the effect of sulfite on total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and total free sulfydryl groups (-SH) levels in normal and SOX-deficient male albino rat plasma. For this purpose, rats were divided into four groups: control, sulfite-treated, SOX-deficient, and sulfite-treated SOX-deficient groups. SOX deficiency was established by feeding rats a low molybdenum diet and adding to their drinking water 200 ppm tungsten. Sulfite (70 mg/kg) was administered to the animals via their drinking water. SOX deficiency together with sulfite treatment caused a significant increase in the plasma LOOH and total oxidant status levels. -SH content of rat plasma significantly decreased by both sulfite treatment and SOX deficiency compared to the control. There was also a significant decrease in plasma TAC level by sulfite treatment. In conclusion, sulfite treatment affects the antioxidant/oxidant balance of the plasma cells of the rats toward oxidants in SOX-deficient groups.

  14. [Health and nutritional status of 'alternatively' fed infants and young children, facts and uncertainties. II. Specific nutritional deficiencies; discussion]. (United States)

    Dagnelie, P C; Van Staveren, W A; Hautvast, J G


    This article, which is the second in a series of two articles, discusses available scientific information on the nutritional status of infants and preschool children on alternative diets with regard to calcium, iron, vitamin B12 and D. Some favourable aspects of alternative food habits in such children are also mentioned. Most studies report low intakes of vitamin D and in vegan and macrobiotic children also of calcium and vitamin B12, but it cannot be excluded that some alternative sources of these nutrient may have been missed. Deficiencies have been described for vitamin D and B12 but the evidence is often unconvincing. For example, exposure to sunlight has not been measured in most of the studies on rickets. From the literature available, it would appear that there is a need for longitudinal research on the growth and development of alternatively fed infants and preschool children and for information on the nutrient composition of alternative foods.

  15. Selenium status, thyroid volume, and multiple nodule formation in an area with mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Schomburg, Lutz; Kohrle, Josef;


    Objective: The objective was to study the associations between serum selenium concentration and thyroid volume, as well as the association between serum selenium concentration and risk for an enlarged thyroid gland in an area with mild iodine deficiency before and after iodine fortification......) introduction of iodine fortification. Serum selenium concentration and urinary iodine were measured, and the thyroid gland was examined by ultrasonography in the same subjects. Associations between serum selenium concentration and thyroid parameters were examined in multiple linear regression models...... was introduced. Another objective was to examine the association between serum selenium concentration and prevalence of thyroid nodules.Design: Cross-sectional study.Methods: We studied participants of two similar cross-sectional studies carried out before (1997-1998, n=405) and after (2004-2005, n=400...

  16. Association between iron status, iron deficiency anaemia, and severe early childhood caries: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroth Robert J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe tooth decay is known to affect the health and well-being of young children. However, little is known about the influence of Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC on childhood nutritional status. The purpose of this study was to contrast ferritin and haemoglobin levels between preschoolers with S-ECC and caries-free controls. Methods Children were recruited as part of a larger case–control study examining differences in nutritional status between those with and without S-ECC. Preschoolers with S-ECC were recruited on the day of their dental surgery, while caries-free controls were recruited from the community. Parents completed a questionnaire and the child underwent venipuncture. The study was approved by the University’s Health Research Ethics Board. Statistics included descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses. A p value ≤ .05 was significant. A total of 266 children were recruited; 144 with S-ECC and 122 caries-free. Results The mean age was 40.8 ± 14.1 months. The mean ferritin concentration for all children was 29.6 ± 17.9 μg/L while the mean haemoglobin level was 115.1 ± 10.1 g/L. Children with S-ECC were significantly more likely to have low ferritin (p=.033 and low haemoglobin levels (p>.001. Logistic regression analyses revealed that children with S-ECC were nearly twice as likely to have low ferritin levels and were over six times more likely to have iron deficiency anaemia than caries-free controls. Conclusions Children with S-ECC appear to be at significantly greater odds of having low ferritin status compared with caries-free children and also appear to have significantly lower haemoglobin levels than the caries-free control group. Children with S-ECC also appear to be at significantly greater odds for iron deficiency anaemia than cavity-free children.

  17. Vitamin D Status in Children with Iron Deficiency and/or Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esraa Arjumand Qader


    Full Text Available Background Iron and vitamin D inadequacy are both essential wellbeing issues, an extra advancement has been the vitamin D extra skeletal role. Late collecting proof demonstrates that vitamin D inadequacy is pervasive in people with pallor, we meant to recognize a potential relationship between vitamin D lack and iron insufficiency. Materials and Methods A case control study was done in Erbil, Iraq during April 2015 to April 2016, on 160 children aged 1-5 years who referred to Raparin hospital. Blood test was acquired from every kid for measuring hemoglobin, serum iron and vitamin D level. Results The mean estimation of vitamin D was lower 21.3ng/dl in iron deficiency group in contrast with control group and it was essentially lower in gathering that had hemoglobin of under 11gm/dl (19.7ng/dl in contrast with those with more than 11gm/dl. There was a direct relationship between serum iron, hemoglobin and vitamin D levels (r=0.520, PConclusion There was significant moderate positive correlation between vitamin D and serum iron level.

  18. Oral and Dental Health Status in Patients with Primary Antibody Deficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Meighani


    Full Text Available Primary antibody deficiencies (PAD are a group of immune system disorders, associated with decreased levels of secretory and protective immunoglobulins. Because of the important role of immunoglobulins in the protection  of oral cavity, patients with PADs  are more susceptible to dental caries or oral manifestations.This study was performed  to investigate the oral and dental manifestations of PADs patients. In this study, 33 patients with PADs (21 common variable immunodeficiency, 8 X- linked agammaglobulinemia and 4 hyper IgM syndrome and 66 controls were examined; the number of decayed, missed and filled teeth (DMFT were investigated.Aphthous  was the most frequent manifestation in PADs patients (38.7%, which wassignificantly16.7% higher than  the  controls  (p=0.03. The  patients  with  PADs  showed significantly higher presentation of other oral and dental manifestations, including herpes sores, candidiasis tonsillitis, gingivitis, calculus, enamel hypoplasia and other ulcerations. The mean DMFT scores were 6.15±3.6 and 1.93±0.4 in PADs patients and controls, respectively (p<0.001. Although the patients with common variable immunodeficiency had higher means of DMFT in comparison with other groups of PADs, this difference was not statistically significant.This study showed significantly higher frequency of oral and dental manifestations in the patients with PADs  compared to controls. Therefore, regular examination of oral cavity could be suggested in this group of immunodeficient patients.

  19. Alterations of Bio-elements, Oxidative, and Inflammatory Status in the Zinc Deficiency Model in Rats. (United States)

    Doboszewska, Urszula; Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Sowa-Kućma, Magdalena; Noworyta-Sokołowska, Karolina; Misztak, Paulina; Gołębiowska, Joanna; Młyniec, Katarzyna; Ostachowicz, Beata; Krośniak, Mirosław; Wojtanowska-Krośniak, Agnieszka; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Lankosz, Marek; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Nowak, Gabriel


    Our previous study showed that dietary zinc restriction induces depression-like behavior with concomitant up-regulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Because metal ions, oxidative stress, and inflammation are involved in depression/NMDAR function, in the present study, bio-elements (zinc, copper, iron, magnesium, and calcium), oxidative (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances; protein carbonyl content), and inflammatory (IL-1α, IL-1β) factors were measured in serum, hippocampus (Hp), and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to a zinc-adequate (ZnA) (50 mg Zn/kg) or a zinc-deficient (ZnD) (3 mg Zn/kg) diet for 4 or 6 weeks. Both periods of dietary zinc restriction reduced serum zinc and increased serum iron levels. At 4 weeks, lowered zinc level in the PFC and Hp as well as lowered iron level in the PFC of the ZnD rats was observed. At 6 weeks, however, iron level was increased in the PFC of these rats. Although at 6 weeks zinc level in the PFC did not differ between the ZnA and ZnD rats, extracellular zinc concentration after 100 mM KCl stimulation was reduced in the PFC of the ZnD rats and was accompanied by increased extracellular iron and glutamate levels (as measured by the in vivo microdialysis). The examined oxidative and inflammatory parameters were generally enhanced in the tissue of the ZnD animals. The obtained data suggest dynamic redistribution of bio-elements and enhancement of oxidative/inflammatory parameters after dietary zinc restriction, which may have a link with depression-like behavior/NMDAR function/neurodegeneration.

  20. Prognostic impact of vitamin B6 metabolism in lung cancer. (United States)

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vitale, Ilio; Senovilla, Laura; Olaussen, Ken André; Pinna, Guillaume; Eisenberg, Tobias; Goubar, Aïcha; Martins, Isabelle; Michels, Judith; Kratassiouk, Gueorgui; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Scoazec, Marie; Vacchelli, Erika; Schlemmer, Frederic; Kepp, Oliver; Shen, Shensi; Tailler, Maximilien; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Morselli, Eugenia; Criollo, Alfredo; Adjemian, Sandy; Jemaà, Mohamed; Chaba, Kariman; Pailleret, Claire; Michaud, Mickaël; Pietrocola, Federico; Tajeddine, Nicolas; de La Motte Rouge, Thibault; Araujo, Natalia; Morozova, Nadya; Robert, Thomas; Ripoche, Hugues; Commo, Frederic; Besse, Benjamin; Validire, Pierre; Fouret, Pierre; Robin, Angélique; Dorvault, Nicolas; Girard, Philippe; Gouy, Sébastien; Pautier, Patricia; Jägemann, Nora; Nickel, Ann-Christin; Marsili, Sabrina; Paccard, Caroline; Servant, Nicolas; Hupé, Philippe; Behrens, Carmen; Behnam-Motlagh, Parviz; Kohno, Kimitoshi; Cremer, Isabelle; Damotte, Diane; Alifano, Marco; Midttun, Oivind; Ueland, Per Magne; Lazar, Vladimir; Dessen, Philippe; Zischka, Hans; Chatelut, Etienne; Castedo, Maria; Madeo, Frank; Barillot, Emmanuel; Thomale, Juergen; Wistuba, Ignacio Ivan; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Zitvogel, Laurence; Soria, Jean-Charles; Harel-Bellan, Annick; Kroemer, Guido


    Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are routinely treated with cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin. Through a genome-wide siRNA-based screen, we identified vitamin B6 metabolism as a central regulator of cisplatin responses in vitro and in vivo. By aggravating a bioenergetic catastrophe that involves the depletion of intracellular glutathione, vitamin B6 exacerbates cisplatin-mediated DNA damage, thus sensitizing a large panel of cancer cell lines to apoptosis. Moreover, vitamin B6 sensitizes cancer cells to apoptosis induction by distinct types of physical and chemical stress, including multiple chemotherapeutics. This effect requires pyridoxal kinase (PDXK), the enzyme that generates the bioactive form of vitamin B6. In line with a general role of vitamin B6 in stress responses, low PDXK expression levels were found to be associated with poor disease outcome in two independent cohorts of patients with NSCLC. These results indicate that PDXK expression levels constitute a biomarker for risk stratification among patients with NSCLC.

  1. Prognostic Impact of Vitamin B6 Metabolism in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Galluzzi


    Full Text Available Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC are routinely treated with cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin. Through a genome-wide siRNA-based screen, we identified vitamin B6 metabolism as a central regulator of cisplatin responses in vitro and in vivo. By aggravating a bioenergetic catastrophe that involves the depletion of intracellular glutathione, vitamin B6 exacerbates cisplatin-mediated DNA damage, thus sensitizing a large panel of cancer cell lines to apoptosis. Moreover, vitamin B6 sensitizes cancer cells to apoptosis induction by distinct types of physical and chemical stress, including multiple chemotherapeutics. This effect requires pyridoxal kinase (PDXK, the enzyme that generates the bioactive form of vitamin B6. In line with a general role of vitamin B6 in stress responses, low PDXK expression levels were found to be associated with poor disease outcome in two independent cohorts of patients with NSCLC. These results indicate that PDXK expression levels constitute a biomarker for risk stratification among patients with NSCLC.

  2. Vitamin B12 status in older adults living in Ontario long-term care homes: prevalence and incidence of deficiency with supplementation as a protective factor. (United States)

    Pfisterer, Kaylen J; Sharratt, Mike T; Heckman, George G; Keller, Heather H


    Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency, although treatable, impacts up to 43% of community-living older adults; long-term care (LTC) residents may be at greater risk. Recommendations for screening require further evidence on prevalence and incidence in LTC. Small, ungeneralizable samples provide a limited perspective on these issues. The purposes of this study were to report prevalence of B12 deficiency at admission to LTC, incidence 1 year post-admission, and identify subgroups with differential risk. This multi-site (8), retrospective prevalence study used random proportionate sampling of resident charts (n = 412). Data at admission extracted included demographics, B12 status, B12 supplementation, medications, diagnoses, functional independence, cognitive performance, and nutrition. Prevalence at admission of B12 deficiency (B12 (>300 pmol/L). One year post-admission incidence was 4%. Better B12 status was significantly associated with supplementation use prior to LTC admission. Other characteristics were not associated with status. This work provides a better estimate of B12 deficiency prevalence than previously available for LTC, upon which to base protocols and policy. Prospective studies are needed to establish treatment efficacy and effect on health related outcomes.

  3. Genomic lesions and colorectal carcinogenesis: the effects of protein-calorie restriction and inulin supplementation on deficiency statuses. (United States)

    Cantero, W B; Takahachi, N A; Mauro, M O; Pesarini, J R; Rabacow, A P M; Antoniolli, A C M B; Oliveira, R J


    The present study investigated the effects of restricting protein and calories and supplementation of inulin, a fiber comprising a linear type of polydisperse carbohydrates composed primarily of fructil-fructose bonds (β-(2→1), on the deficiency statuses of animals in which genomic lesion development and colorectal carcinogenesis had been induced. This experiment involved adult male Swiss mice (N = 11/group). The experimental groups were as follows: Negative Control (vehicle), Positive Control, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), Inulin, and Associate. DMH, which promoted colorectal cancer, was administered intraperitoneally in 4 20-mg/kg body weight (bw) doses during a 2-week period; inulin was administered orally at a daily dose of 50 mg/kg bw. Each group was bifurcated; half of each group was fed a normal protein diet and the other half was fed a low-protein diet. The results indicated that a correlation existed between malnutrition and an increased frequency of genomic lesions but that malnutrition did not predispose animals to colorectal cancer development. Inulin exhibited genotoxic activity, which requires further investigation, and low anti-genotoxic activity. Moreover, inulin reduced the levels of intestinal carcinogenesis biomarkers in both malnourished and healthy animals. These data suggest that inulin holds therapeutic potential and is a strong candidate for inclusion among the functional foods used for cancer prevention in both properly nourished and malnourished individuals.

  4. Status epilepticus in a neonate treated with pyridoxine because of a familial recurrence risk for antiquitin deficiency: pyridoxine toxicity? (United States)

    Hartmann, Hans; Fingerhut, Michael; Jakobs, Cornelis; Plecko, Barbara


    Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) is a treatable inborn error of metabolism with autosomal recessive inheritance. Antenatal and postnatal prophylactic administration of pyridoxine has been recommended to improve the developmental outcome in possible future pregnancies. We report on a male offspring of a second pregnancy at risk for PDE. While on prophylactic treatment with oral pyridoxine, the newborn developed encephalopathy and status epilepticus at age 14 days. Seizures did not respond to parenteral pyridoxine and additional treatment with folinic acid. After treatment was changed to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, the infant's condition improved. Antiquitin deficiency was excluded by biochemical and molecular genetic testing, and cofactor treatment was stopped on day 26. He has since remained seizure-free with normal psychomotor development. In healthy newborns, high-dose treatment with pyridoxine may result in increased rather than decreased neuroexcitability. Postnatal prophylactic pyridoxine treatment of fetuses and neonates at risk for PDE should be limited to the shortest possible time, by either prenatal diagnosis or immediate postnatal biochemical and genetic testing.

  5. Changes in barrier health status of the gill for grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) during valine deficiency: Regulation of tight junction protein transcript, antioxidant status and apoptosis-related gene expression. (United States)

    Feng, Lin; Luo, Jian-Bo; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu


    This study investigated the effects of dietary valine on tight junction protein transcription, antioxidant status and apoptosis on grass carp gills (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed six different experimental diets containing graded levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.7, 19.1 g/kg). The results indicated that valine deficiency decreased Claudin b, Claudin 3, Occludin and ZO-1 transcription and increased Claudin 15 expression in the fish gill (P valine deficiency and valine supplementation did not have a significant effect on Claudin c and Claudin 12 expression in grass carp gills (P > 0.05). Valine deficiency also disrupted antioxidant status in the gill by decreasing anti-superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radical capacity, glutathione contents and the activities and mRNA levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (P valine deficiency induced DNA fragmentation via the up-regulation of Caspase 3, Caspase 8 and Caspase 9 expressions (P valine deficiency impaired the structural integrity of fish gill by disrupted fish antioxidant defenses and regulating the expression of tight junction protein, cytokines, antioxidant enzymes, NF-κB p65, IκBα, TOR, Nrf2, Keap1 and apoptosis-related genes in the fish gill.

  6. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) and the Glutathione Peroxidase System; a Link between One-Carbon Metabolism and Antioxidation (United States)

    Dalto, Danyel Bueno; Matte, Jean-Jacques


    Vitamin B6 (B6) has a central role in the metabolism of amino acids, which includes important interactions with endogenous redox reactions through its effects on the glutathione peroxidase (GPX) system. In fact, B6-dependent enzymes catalyse most reactions of the transsulfuration pathway, driving homocysteine to cysteine and further into GPX proteins. Considering that mammals metabolize sulfur- and seleno-amino acids similarly, B6 plays an important role in the fate of sulfur-homocysteine and its seleno counterpart between transsulfuration and one-carbon metabolism, especially under oxidative stress conditions. This is particularly important in reproduction because ovarian metabolism may generate an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the peri-estrus period, which may impair ovulatory functions and early embryo development. Later in gestation, placentation raises embryo oxygen tension and may induce a higher expression of ROS markers and eventually embryo losses. Interestingly, the metabolic accumulation of ROS up-regulates the flow of one-carbon units to transsulfuration and down-regulates remethylation. However, in embryos, the transsulfuration pathway is not functional, making the understanding of the interplay between these two pathways particularly crucial. In this review, the importance of the maternal metabolic status of B6 for the flow of one-carbon units towards both maternal and embryonic GPX systems is discussed. Additionally, B6 effects on GPX activity and gene expression in dams, as well as embryo development, are presented in a pig model under different oxidative stress conditions. PMID:28245568

  7. Vitamin B6 metabolism influences the intracellular accumulation of cisplatin. (United States)

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Marsili, Sabrina; Vitale, Ilio; Senovilla, Laura; Michels, Judith; Garcia, Pauline; Vacchelli, Erika; Chatelut, Etienne; Castedo, Maria; Kroemer, Guido


    Vitamin B6 metabolism influences the adaptive response of non-small lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells to distinct, potentially lethal perturbations in homeostasis, encompassing nutrient deprivation, hyperthermia, hypoxia, irradiation as well as the exposure to cytotoxic chemicals, including the DNA-damaging agent cisplatin (CDDP). Thus, the siRNA-mediated downregulation of pyridoxal kinase (PDXK), the enzyme that generates the bioactive form of vitamin B6, protects NSCLC cells (as well as a large collection of human and murine malignant cells of distinct histological derivation) from the cytotoxic effects of CDDP. Accordingly, the administration of pyridoxine, one of the inactive precursors of vitamin B6, exacerbates cisplatin-induced cell death, in vitro and in vivo, but only when PDXK is expressed. Conversely, antioxidants such as non-oxidized glutathione (GSH) are known to protect cancer cells from CDDP toxicity. Pyridoxine increases the amount of CDDP-DNA adducts formed upon the exposure of NSCLC cells to CDDP and aggravates the consequent DNA damage response. On the contrary, in the presence of GSH, NSCLC cells exhibit near-to-undetectable levels of CDDP-DNA adducts and a small fraction of the cell population activates the DNA damage response. We therefore wondered whether vitamin B6 metabolism and GSH might interact with CDDP in a pharmacokinetic fashion. In this short communication, we demonstrate that GSH inhibits the intracellular accumulation of CDDP, while pyridoxine potentiates it in a PDXK-dependent fashion. Importantly, such pharmacokinetic effects do not involve plasma membrane transporters that mediate a prominent fraction of CDDP influx, i.e., solute carrier family 31, member 1 (SLC31A1, best known as copper transporter 1, CTR1) and efflux, i.e., ATPase, Cu ( 2+) transporting, β polypeptide (ATP7B).

  8. Constant drug dose in human immuno-deficiency virus-infected patients to induce long-term non-progressor status: bifurcation and controllability approach. (United States)

    Kim, Wonhee; Chung, Han Byul; Chung, Chung Choo


    The authors propose a therapy consisting of a constant dosage of reverse transcription inhibitor and protease inhibitor to achieve long-term non-progressor (LTNP) status in human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) patients. Based on the authors analyses of cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursor (CTLp) concentration at several equilibrium points and the bifurcation of these equilibrium points, they find that administration of drugs with an efficacy lower than a certain level induces a higher CTLp concentration. As a result, drug doses of moderate efficacy result in more patients with LTNP status than doses with high efficacy. In analyses of controllability, they show that a treatment of moderate efficacy is more efficient than one of very high efficacy in terms of controlling the immune system. Using simulations, they demonstrate that their proposed method results in LTNP status in HIV patients.

  9. Progress in the effect of vitamin B6 on human genome health%维生素B6与人类基因组健康研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴暇玉; 汪旭


    Vitamin B6 is a cofactor for the serine hydroxymethyltransferase ( SHMT ), cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and betaine hydroxymethyltransferase (BHMT) in folate metabolism. SHMT catalyzes the reversible interconversion of serine and tetrahydrofolate ( THF ) to glycine and 5,10- methylene THF. The metabolism of homocysteine to methionine and cysteine is initiated by the enzymes CBS and BHMT. So the evidence indicates that vitamin B6 plays an important role in the maintenance of genome,epigenetics stability and homocysteine metabolism, suggesting vitamin B6' s critical role in the prevention of tumour, cancer and cardiovascular disease. This article will review and discuss the metabolic functions of vitamin B6, some associated diseases due to vitamin B6 deficiency, and new insights from recently published studies regarding prevention and treatment potentials.%维生素B6作为叶酸代谢途径中丝氨酸羟甲基转移酶(serine hydroxymethyltransferase,SHMT)、胱硫醚β-合成酶(cystathionineβ-synthase,CBS)、甜菜碱羟甲基转移酶(betaine hydroxymethyltransferase,BHMT)等酶的辅酶,一方面涉及丝氨酸、四氢叶酸到甘氨酸、5,10-甲基四氢叶酸的可逆转化,另一方面协助完成同型半胱氨酸到甲硫氨酸和胱硫醚的代谢.因此维生素B6对于维持基因组、表基因组稳定性以及促进同型半胱氨酸代谢可能具有一定作用,从而在肿瘤、癌症、心脑血管疾病的防范上可能起到积极作用.本文综述了维生素B6代谢功能研究进展、维生素B6缺乏临床表征及引发的并发症和营养缺陷症,为人类基因组健康、公共卫生健康和饮食供给提供参考.

  10. Reversal of psychopathology in adult coeliac disease with the aid of pyridoxine (vitamin B6). (United States)

    Hallert, C; Aström, J; Walan, A


    Signs of mental depression are typical in adults presenting with coeliac disease. The response to treatment was evaluated in 12 consecutive patients by means of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), with surgical patients serving as controls. The coeliacs reported no change in depressive symptoms after 1 year's gluten withdrawal despite evidence of improvement in the small intestine. When retested after 3 years, however, after 6 months of 80 mg/day of oral pyridoxine (vitamin B6) therapy, they showed a fall in the score of scale 2 ('depression') from 70 to 56 (p less than 0.01), which became normalized like other pretreatment abnormalities in the MMPI. Cholecystectomy in the control subjects produced no alterations in the MMPI profile. The results indicate a causal relationship between adult coeliac disease and concomitant depressive symptoms which seems to implicate metabolic effects from pyridoxine deficiency influencing central mechanisms regulating mood.

  11. Magnetotransport in nanocrystalline SmB6 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yong


    Full Text Available SmB6 has been predicted to be a prototype of topological Kondo insulator (TKI but its direct experimental evidence as a TKI is still lacking to date. Here we report on our search for the signature of a topological surface state and investigation of the effect of disorder on transport properties in nanocrystalline SmB6 thin films through longitudinal magnetoresistance and Hall coefficient measurements. The magnetoresistance (MR at 2 K is positive and linear (LPMR at low field and become negative and quadratic at higher field. While the negative part is understood from the reduction of the hybridization gap due to Zeeman splitting, the positive dependence is similar to what is observed in other topological insulators (TI. We conclude that the LPMR is a characteristic of TI and is related to the linear dispersion near the Dirac cone. The Hall resistance shows a sign change around 50K. It peaks and becomes nonlinear around 10 K then decreases below 10 K. This indicates that carriers with opposite signs emerge below 50 K. These properties indicate that the surface states are robust and probably topological in our nanocrystalline films.

  12. The Parkinson's disease death rate: carbidopa and vitamin B6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinz M


    Full Text Available Marty Hinz,1 Alvin Stein,2 Ted Cole31Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc., Cape Coral, FL, USA; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL, USA; 3Cole Center for Healing, Cincinnati, OH, USAAbstract: The only indication for carbidopa and benserazide is the management of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa-induced nausea. Both drugs irreversibly bind to and permanently deactivate pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP, the active form of vitamin B6, and PLP-dependent enzymes. PLP is required for the function of over 300 enzymes and proteins. Virtually every major system in the body is impacted directly or indirectly by PLP. The administration of carbidopa and benserazide potentially induces a nutritional catastrophe. During the first 15 years of prescribing L-dopa, a decreasing Parkinson's disease death rate was observed. Then, in 1976, 1 year after US Food and Drug Administration approved the original L-dopa/carbidopa combination drug, the Parkinson's disease death rate started increasing. This trend has continued to the present, for 38 years and counting. The previous literature documents this increasing death rate, but no hypothesis has been offered concerning this trend. Carbidopa is postulated to contribute to the increasing Parkinson's disease death rate and to the classification of Parkinson's as a progressive neurodegenerative disease. It may contribute to L-dopa tachyphylaxis.Keywords: L-dopa, levodopa, vitamin B6, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate

  13. Vitamin Status among Breastfed Infants in Bhaktapur, Nepal

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    Manjeswori Ulak


    Full Text Available Vitamin deficiencies are known to be common among infants residing in low- and middle-income countries but relatively few studies have assessed several biochemical parameters simultaneously. The objective of the study was to describe the status of vitamins (A, D, E, B6, B12 and folate in breastfed infants. We measured the plasma concentrations of trans retinol, 25 hydroxy vitamin D, α-tocopherol, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, cobalamin, folate, methylmalonic acid, homocysteine, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein from 467 randomly selected infants. One in five (22% was deficient in at least one vitamin. Mean (SD plasma folate concentration was 73 (35 nmol/L, and no infant in the sample was folate deficient. Vitamin B6 deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 22% and 17% of the infants, respectively. Elevated plasma methylmalonic acid or total homocysteine concentration was found in 82% and 62% of infants, respectively. Fifteen percent of infants were vitamin A deficient and 65% were marginally deficient in vitamin A. Fewer than 5% of infants had low plasma vitamin D concentration or vitamin E concentration (α-tocopherol <9.3 µmol/L. Our results illustrate the importance of continued supplementation campaigns and support the expansion of food fortification and dietary diversification programs that target children and women in Nepal.

  14. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status. (United States)

    Bath, Sarah C; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Wright, John; Rayman, Margaret P


    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones which are crucial for brain development. Adequate intake of iodine in pregnancy is important as in utero deficiency may have lifelong consequences for the offspring. Data on the iodine status of UK pregnant women are sparse, and there are no such data for pregnant women in the South East of the UK. A total of 100 pregnant women were recruited to a cross-sectional study carried out at the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, at their first-trimester visit for an ultrasound scan. The participants provided a spot-urine sample (for the measurement of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and creatinine concentration) and 24 h iodine excretion was estimated from the urinary iodine:creatinine ratio. Women completed a general questionnaire and a FFQ. The median UIC (85·3 μg/l) indicated that the group was iodine deficient by World Health Organisation criteria. The median values of the iodine:creatinine ratio (122·9 μg/g) and of the estimated 24 h iodine excretion (151·2 μg/d) were also suggestive of iodine deficiency. UIC was significantly higher in women taking an iodine-containing prenatal supplement (n 42) than in those not taking such a supplement (Pwomen gives cause for concern. We suggest that women of childbearing age and pregnant women should be given advice on how to improve their iodine status through dietary means. A national survey of iodine status in UK pregnant women is required.

  15. Electrical transport properties of CaB6 (United States)

    Stankiewicz, Jolanta; Sesé, Javier; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Fisk, Zachary


    We report results from a systematic electron-transport study in a broad temperature range on 12 CaB6 single crystals. None of the crystals were intentionally doped. The different carrier densities observed presumably arise from slight variations in the Ca:B stoichiometry. In these crystals, the variation of the electrical resistivity and of the Hall effect with temperature can be consistently accounted for by the model we propose, in which B-antisite defects (B atom replacing Ca atom) are "amphoteric." The magnetotransport measurements reveal that most of the samples we have studied are close to a metal-insulator transition at low temperatures. The magnetoresistance changes smoothly from negative—for weakly metallic samples—to positive values—for samples in a localized regime.

  16. A case of McArdle disease: efficacy of vitamin B6 on fatigability and impaired glycogenolysis. (United States)

    Izumi, Rumiko; Suzuki, Naoki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Warita, Hitoshi; Tateyama, Maki; Nakashima, Ichiro; Itoyama, Yasuto


    McArdle disease is a glycogenetic myopathy caused by a deficit of myophosphorylase inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Here, we report a case of McArdle disease in which fatigability was the only subjective complaint. Objective neurological findings were normal except for very mild muscle weakness in limbs and an elevated serum creatine kinase level. Ischemic forearm exercise test showed deficient glycogenolysis. In the muscle biopsy specimen, periodic acid Schiff (PAS) stained subsarcolemmal glycogen was increased and the muscle phosphorylase A activity was decreased. After administration of vitamin B6, fatigability was diminished and ischemic forearm exercise test showed improved glycogenolysis. Vitamin B6 may be beneficial for McArdle disease, especially for its easy fatigability.

  17. The influence of high dietary protein, energy and mineral intake on deficient young camel (Camelus dromedarius)--II. Changes in mineral status. (United States)

    Faye, B; Saint-Martin, G; Cherrier, R; Ruffa, A


    1. Mangrove Avicennia marina is poor in some trace elements such as copper, zinc and manganese. In a trial we used 32 young camels divided into four groups. 2. Groups 1 and 3 were supplemented with copper and zinc in drinking water after 1 month of mangrove feeding. 3. Groups 2 and 3 received concentrate rich in protein and energy. The supplementation was stopped after 2 months. 4. All the camels were deficient in trace elements at the beginning of mineral supplementation. 5. The plasma concentration of copper increased significantly up to normal levels (less than 70 micrograms/100 ml) in energy protein supplemented groups, but the quantity supplied (100 mg of copper sulphate/day) was not sufficient to maintain this level after the end of supplementation. 6. The original zinc deficiency was too severe to observe a significant effect of the mineral supplementation. 7. Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus levels were improved during the supplementation period in protein-energy supplemented groups. 8. A high interaction between mineral absorption and quality of the diet was observed. A well-balanced diet seems essential to avoid deficient mineral status.

  18. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) toxicity: enhancement by uremia in rats. (United States)

    Levine, S; Saltzman, A


    Pyridoxine is not completely innocuous. Large doses can cause a peripheral neuropathy despite renal excretion of this water-soluble vitamin. Renal failure patients are treated with pyridoxine to prevent a deficiency. The safety of pyridoxine treatment in the presence of renal dysfunction has not been studied. Our experiments on anephric rats show that the uremic state, in a mere 3 or 4 days, causes a 5- to 10-fold increase in susceptibility to pyridoxine-induced neuronopathy. These results suggest a need for caution in prescribing pyridoxine to uremic patients who will probably take the vitamin daily for many years.

  19. Potassium deficiency affects water status and photosynthetic rate of the vegetative sink in green house tomato prior to its effects on source activity. (United States)

    Kanai, Synsuke; Moghaieb, Reda E; El-Shemy, Hany A; Panigrahi, R; Mohapatra, Pravat K; Ito, J; Nguyen, Nguyen T; Saneoka, Hirofumi; Fujita, Kounosuke


    The potassium requirement of green house tomatoes is very high for vegetative growth and fruit production. Potassium deficiency in plants takes long time for expression of visible symptoms. The objective of this study is to detect the deficiency early during the vegetative growth and define the roles of aquaporin and K-channel transporters in the process of regulation of water status and source-sink relationship. The tomato plants were grown hydroponically inside green house of Hiroshima University, Japan and subjected to different levels of K in the rooting medium. Potassium deficiency stress decreased photosynthesis, expansion and transport of ¹⁴C assimilates of the source leaf, but the effects became evident only after diameter expansion of the growing stem (sink) was down-regulated. The depression of stem diameter expansion is assumed to be associated with the suppression of water supply more than photosynthate supply to the organ. The stem diameter expansion is parameterized by root water uptake and leaf transpiration rates. The application of aquaporin inhibitor (AgNO₃) decreased leaf water potential, stem expansion and root hydraulic conductance within minutes of application. Similar results were obtained for application of the K-channel inhibitors. These observations suggested a close relationship between stem diameter expansion and activities of aquaporins and K-channel transporters in roots. The deficiency of potassium might have reduced aquaporin activity, consequently suppressing root hydraulic conductance and water supply to the growing stem for diameter expansion and leaf for transpiration. We conclude that close coupling between aquaporins and K-channel transporters in water uptake of roots is responsible for regulation of stem diameter dynamics of green house tomato plants.

  20. [To the question of rational nutrition, micronutrient status correction, prevention and treatment of iron deficiency in pregnancy]. (United States)

    Tayupova, I M


    In the article the features of healthy nutrition in pregnant women suffering from iron deficiency has been discussed. The criteria for diagnosis of anemia during pregnancy, the stage of the disease development, the specifics of iron deficiency during gestation, the need in this trace element in pregnant women have been defined. The necessity of an adequate selection of a balanced diet during pregnancy complicated with anemia has been based. Iron content in food products along with the extent of absorption depending upon the origin of the product have been considered. The compounds that contribute to a better absorption of iron, as well as medicinal substances that prevent its absorption have been presented. Special attention is paid to the questions of preventative measures in preventing anemia in pregnant women. In addition to a balanced diet and iron preparations for treatment and prevention of anemia, the appointment of vitamin-mineral supplements and specialized foods for pregnant enriched with micronutrients has been substantiated.

  1. [Depression-like and anxiety-related behaviour of rats fed with magnesium-deficient diet]. (United States)

    Spasov, A A; Iezhitsa, I N; Kharitonova, M V; Kravchenko, M S


    The aims of this study were to estimate of psychomotor activity, emotional status and magnesium (Mg) content in blood of rats fed with Mg-deficient diet for 49 days; and to find out whether the combination of vitamin B6 with Mg will reveal antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity and reduce the length of the treatment needed to recover rats from Mg-deficient condition. To induce hypomagnesemia, seventy-nine rats were placed on a Mg-deficient diet (Mg content pyridoxine, MgCl2 x 6H2O alone and in combination with pyridoxine, Magne B6 (Mg lactate with pyridoxine) and Mg sulfate (50 mg Mg and 5 mg vitamin B6 per kg). In our study Mg-deficiency was associated with depleted intraerythrocytic (0.748 +/- 0.036 vs. 1.83 +/- 0.026 mmol/l, p depression-like and anxiety-related behavior in rats. Open field test result in rats including locomotor activity (number of crossed squares) and vertical activity (number of standing on hind paws), number of visiting in central squares were decreased significantly. In the elevated plus maze test, the number of visiting open arms (by 63.6%) and residence time (by 78.5%) of rats were significantly less as compared with the control group. In the forced swimming test, time immobile was significantly increased (by 70.2%) and time of swimming was decreased (by 15%) compared to control. Mg salts alone and in combination with vitamin B6 administered to Mg-deficient rats increased the Mg level in plasma and erythrocytes. Furthermore, this increase was in relation to vitamin B6 given to the animal. It was established, that the application of Mg L-aspartate and MgCl2 x 6H2O in combinations with pyridoxine led to correction of behavioural disturbances of Mg-deficient animals. Antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity of studied salts was comparable with those observed in Magne B6 treatment and significantly higher than in Mg sulfate treatment.

  2. Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies Are Highly Prevalent in Newly Diagnosed Celiac Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ad A. van Bodegraven


    Full Text Available Malabsorption, weight loss and vitamin/mineral-deficiencies characterize classical celiac disease (CD. This study aimed to assess the nutritional and vitamin/mineral status of current “early diagnosed” untreated adult CD-patients in the Netherlands. Newly diagnosed adult CD-patients were included (n = 80, 42.8 ± 15.1 years and a comparable sample of 24 healthy Dutch subjects was added to compare vitamin concentrations. Nutritional status and serum concentrations of folic acid, vitamin A, B6, B12, and (25-hydroxy D, zinc, haemoglobin (Hb and ferritin were determined (before prescribing gluten free diet. Almost all CD-patients (87% had at least one value below the lower limit of reference. Specifically, for vitamin A, 7.5% of patients showed deficient levels, for vitamin B6 14.5%, folic acid 20%, and vitamin B12 19%. Likewise, zinc deficiency was observed in 67% of the CD-patients, 46% had decreased iron storage, and 32% had anaemia. Overall, 17% were malnourished (>10% undesired weight loss, 22% of the women were underweight (Body Mass Index (BMI 25. Vitamin deficiencies were barely seen in healthy controls, with the exception of vitamin B12. Vitamin/mineral deficiencies were counter-intuitively not associated with a (higher grade of histological intestinal damage or (impaired nutritional status. In conclusion, vitamin/mineral deficiencies are still common in newly “early diagnosed” CD-patients, even though the prevalence of obesity at initial diagnosis is rising. Extensive nutritional assessments seem warranted to guide nutritional advices and follow-up in CD treatment.

  3. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on health status in non-vitamin D deficient people with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westra, S; Krul-Poel, Y H M; van Wijland, H J;


    both groups was seen concerning the SF-36 domain role limitations due to physical problems in disadvantage of the vitamin D group. CONCLUSIONS: Six months of vitamin D supplementation did not improve HRQOL in non-vitamin D-deficient people with type 2 DM managed on oral antidiabetic therapy........ The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of vitamin D supplementation on dimensions of HRQOL in people with type 2 DM. DESIGN: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: The effect of monthly cholecalciferol 50,000 IU vs placebo on HRQOL was assessed in 275 adults...

  4. The value of plasma vitamin B6 profiles in early onset epileptic encephalopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, Déborah; Abela, Lucia; Albersen, Monique; Bürer, Céline; Crowther, Lisa; Beese, Karin; Hartmann, Hans; Bok, Levinus A; Struys, Eduard; Papuc, Sorina M; Rauch, Anita; Hersberger, Martin; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Plecko, Barbara


    BACKGROUND: Recent decades have unravelled the molecular background of a number of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) causing vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy. As these defects interfere with vitamin B6 metabolism by different mechanisms, the plasma vitamin B6 profile can give important clues for furthe

  5. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on health status in non-vitamin D deficient people with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westra, S; Krul-Poel, Y H M; van Wijland, H J;


    OBJECTIVE: Increased levels of depressive symptoms, fatigue or pain (all dimensions of reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL)) are common in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Earlier studies have reported associations between low vitamin D status and fatigue and depressive symptoms...

  6. Micronutrient deficiencies in South African infants and the effect of a micronutrient-fortified complementary food on their nutritional status, growth and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oelofse, A.


    Consequences of micronutrient deficiencies in infants often include linear growth retardation, impaired psychomotor development and reduced appetite. Fortification of complementary food is one way of addressing micronutrient deficiencies in this age group. Knowledge about these deficiencies, food co

  7. Central hemodynamics and androgen status in men with coronary heart disease, and androgen deficiency in its correction of prolonged administration of testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Gaivoronskaya


    Full Text Available This work was designed to study the dynamic of the central hemodynamic disorders symptoms at men with coronary heart disease, stable angina, obesity and androgen deficiency under replacement short-term therapy by Testosterone undecanoate (TU. The comparative assessment of central hemodynamic indicators and total and sub-scale AMS score at two groups of men who receiving (the main group and not receiving (control group replacement therapy of TU is carried out. Results showed that in the main group, unlike control group the positive tendency in a number of indicators (stroke volume, left ventricular end- diastolic volume, left ventricular end- systolic volume of the central hemodynamic and indicators of the androgenic status is observed. Positive dynamics of some parameters of the central hemodynamic even at short-term replacement therapy of TU indicates the therapeutic potential of testosterone at cardiovascular pathology which full realization may require longer period of testosterone administration.

  8. Apparent zinc absorption and zinc status of weanling rats fed moderately zinc-deficient diets enriched with beef tallow or sunflower oil. (United States)

    Weigand, E; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C


    The aim of the study was to compare apparent Zn absorption and Zn status of weanling rats fed diets that differed in Zn level, fat level and fat source. Semi-synthetic diets, which were about isoenergetic and contained 3% soyabean oil, were supplemented with 7 or 100 mg Zn/kg to create a mild Zn deficiency (LZ) or a high Zn supply (HZ) and with 0 (LF), 22% beef tallow (BT) or 22% sunflower oil (SF) according to a 2 × 3 factorial design of treatments. They were fed ad libitum to 6 × 8 rats for 28 days. Energy intake and growth rates were comparable among the HZ groups. Weight gains in the LZ-LF, LZ-BT and LZ-SF groups averaged 5.54, 4.95 and 4.15 g/day, and apparent Zn absorption averaged 79.4, 60.3 and 48.0 μg Zn/day, respectively, whereas faecal Zn excretion was comparable among these groups. Apparent Zn absorption, and plasma and femur Zn concentrations were lower in the high-fat groups than in the LF group, possibly due to the high cellulose content of the BT and SF diets. Plasma Zn concentrations were higher in the animals fed the BT-based than in the SF-based diets, whereas femur and soft tissue Zn concentrations were comparable among these groups. The differences between the LZ-BT and LZ-SF groups in growth rate, Zn absorption rate and Zn status were confirmed in a second experiment. The results indicate that moderately Zn-deficient diets enriched with SF in relation to BT affect Zn metabolism of weanling rats by a yet unknown mechanism.

  9. The Role of Genetic Polymorphisms as Related to One-Carbon Metabolism, Vitamin B6, and Gene–Nutrient Interactions in Maintaining Genomic Stability and Cell Viability in Chinese Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiayu Wu


    Full Text Available Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FMOCM is linked to DNA synthesis, methylation, and cell proliferation. Vitamin B6 (B6 is a cofactor, and genetic polymorphisms of related key enzymes, such as serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR, and methionine synthase (MS, in FMOCM may govern the bioavailability of metabolites and play important roles in the maintenance of genomic stability and cell viability (GSACV. To evaluate the influences of B6, genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes, and gene–nutrient interactions on GSACV, we utilized the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP techniques in the lymphocytes from female breast cancer cases and controls. GSACV showed a significantly positive correlation with B6 concentration, and 48 nmol/L of B6 was the most suitable concentration for maintaining GSACV in vitro. The GSACV indexes showed significantly different sensitivity to B6 deficiency between cases and controls; the B6 effect on the GSACV variance contribution of each index was significantly higher than that of genetic polymorphisms and the sample state (tumor state. SHMT C1420T mutations may reduce breast cancer susceptibility, whereas MTRR A66G and MS A2756G mutations may increase breast cancer susceptibility. The role of SHMT, MS, and MTRR genotype polymorphisms in GSACV is reduced compared with that of B6. The results appear to suggest that the long-term lack of B6 under these conditions may increase genetic damage and cell injury and that individuals with various genotypes have different sensitivities to B6 deficiency. FMOCM metabolic enzyme gene polymorphism may be related to breast cancer susceptibility to a certain extent due to the effect of other factors such as stress, hormones, cancer therapies, psychological conditions, and diet. Adequate B6 intake may be good for maintaining genome health and preventing breast cancer.

  10. 维生素B6对1~21日龄北京鸭生产性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢明; 唐静; 闻治国; 黄苇; 侯水生


    An completely randomized one-factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of vitamin B6 on growth performance of White Pekin ducks from 1 to 21 d of age and to estimate vitamin B6 requirement of these birds during this period.Seven supplemental vitamin B6 levels(0,0.66,1.32,1.98,2.64,3.30,3.96 mg/kg)were used and pyridox-ine hydrochloride was used as vitamin B6 source. A total of 336 one-day-old male White Pekin ducks were divided into 7 experimental treatments and each treatment contained 8 replicate pens with 6 birds per pen.These birds were raised from 1 to 21 d of age.In this study,vitamin B6 deficiency could reduce duck growth markedly and the daily weight gain in-creased significantly with the increase of supplemental vitamin B6 level (P 0.05).According to broken-line regression,the supplemental vitamin B6 requirement of Pekin ducks from 1 to 21 days of age was 1.24 mg/kg for optimum weight gain.Considering the vitamin in basal diets,total vita-min B6 requirement for the birds during this period was 3.17 mg/kg.%本试验采用单因子完全随机试验设计研究维生素B6对1~21日龄雄性北京鸭生产性能的影响,进而探讨1~21日龄北京鸭维生素B6需要量。试验设7个维生素B6添加水平(0、0.66、1.32、1.98、2.64、3.30、3.96 mg/kg),维生素B6添加形式为盐酸吡哆醇。336只1日龄雄性北京鸭随机分为7组,每组8个重复,每重复6只,饲养至21日龄。试验结果表明,维生素B6缺乏会显著抑制肉鸭生长,随维生素B6添加水平升高,北京鸭日增重显著增加(P<0.05),而采食量和料重比未发生显著变化(P>0.05)。以日增重为评价指标,依据折线模型,1~21日龄北京鸭维生素B6适宜添加量为1.24 mg/kg。当考虑到基础日粮中维生素B6含量时,1~21日龄北京鸭维生素B6总需要量为3.17 mg/kg。

  11. Vitamin D deficiency and reduced bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis: effect of ambulatory status and functional capacity. (United States)

    Ozgocmen, Salih; Bulut, Serpil; Ilhan, Nevin; Gulkesen, Arif; Ardicoglu, Ozge; Ozkan, Yusuf


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease and a major cause of disability in young adults. The aims of this study were to assess bone mass in patients with MS in comparison to healthy age- and sex-matched controls, and to evaluate factors influencing bone mineral density (BMD), and the relationship of the pain threshold at peripheral and axial sites with BMD in MS. Thirty-one patients with MS and 30 matched healthy controls participated in the study. The Kurtzke expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and the functional independence measure (FIM) were used to scale disability, mobility, and functional status. Serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels were measured. BMD was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). MS patients had significantly lower BMD at the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and femur trochanter compared to the matched controls. BMD of the lumbar spine was nearly 1 SD lower in MS patients compared with the healthy reference population (Z scores). MS patients had significantly lower vitamin D levels (17.3 ng/ml vs 43.1 ng/ml; P sunlight exposure and to increase their mobility. Specific strengthening exercises for hip and back muscles in MS patients would have a substantial impact on bone density, osteoporosis, fracture risk, and mobility.

  12. Synthesis and optical characterization of LiKB4O7, Li2B6O10, and LiCsB6O10 glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamiv, V.; Teslyuk, I.; Dyachok, Ya.; Romanyuk, G.; Krupych, O.; Mys, O.; Martynyuk-Lototska, I.; Burak, Ya.; Vlokh, R.


    In the current work we report on the synthesis of LiKB4O7, Li2B6O10, and LiCsB6O10 borate glasses. The results for their piezo-optic, acousto-optic, acoustic, elastic, refractive, optical transmission, and optical resistance properties are also presented. It is shown that some of these glasses represent efficient acousto-optic materials that are transparent down to the vacuum ultraviolet range and highly resistant to laser radiation.

  13. Synthesis and optical characterization of LiKB4O7, Li2B6O10, and LiCsB6O10 glasses. (United States)

    Adamiv, V; Teslyuk, I; Dyachok, Ya; Romanyuk, G; Krupych, O; Mys, O; Martynyuk-Lototska, I; Burak, Ya; Vlokh, R


    In the current work we report on the synthesis of LiKB(4)O(7), Li(2)B(6)O(10), and LiCsB(6)O(10) borate glasses. The results for their piezo-optic, acousto-optic, acoustic, elastic, refractive, optical transmission, and optical resistance properties are also presented. It is shown that some of these glasses represent efficient acousto-optic materials that are transparent down to the vacuum ultraviolet range and highly resistant to laser radiation.

  14. Ascorbate status modulates reticuloendothelial iron stores and response to deferasirox iron chelation in ascorbate-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Casey; Otto-Duessel, Maya; Lykkesfeldt, Jens


    Iron chelation is essential to patients on chronic blood transfusions to prevent toxicity from iron overload and remove excess iron. Deferasirox (DFX) is the most commonly used iron chelator in the United States; however, some patients are relatively refractory to DFX therapy. We postulated...... that vitamin C supplementation would improve the availability of transfusional iron to DFX treatment by promoting iron's redox cycling, increasing its soluble ferrous form and promoting its release from reticuloendothelial cells. Osteogenic dystrophy rats (n = 54) were given iron dextran injections for 10...... 12 weeks of sham chelation. Most importantly, ascorbate supplementation at 2250 ppm improved DFX efficiency, allowing DFX to remove 21% more hepatic iron than ascorbate supplementation with 900 ppm or 150 ppm (p vitamin C status modulates the release of iron from...

  15. Genetic associations with plasma B12, B6, and folate levels in an ischemic stroke population from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) trial


    Keene, Keith L; Wei-Min eChen; Fang eChen; Stephen Richardson Williams; Elkhatib, Stacey D.; Fang-Chi eHsu; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Doheny, Kimberley F.; Pugh, Elizabeth W.; Hua eLing; Cathy C Laurie; Stephanie M Gogarten; Madden, Ebony B.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Sale, Michele M.


    B vitamins play an important role in homocysteine metabolism, with vitamin deficiencies resulting in increased levels of homocysteine and increased risk for stroke. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 2,100 stroke patients from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) trial, a clinical trial designed to determine whether the daily intake of high dose folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12 reduce recurrent cerebral infarction. Extensive quality control (QC) measures re...

  16. Genetic Associations with Plasma B12, B6, and Folate Levels in an Ischemic Stroke Population from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) Trial


    Keene, Keith L; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Stephen R Williams; Elkhatib, Stacey D.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Pugh, Elizabeth W.; Ling, Hua; Cathy C Laurie; Stephanie M Gogarten; Madden, Ebony B.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Sale, Michele M.


    Background: B vitamins play an important role in homocysteine metabolism, with vitamin deficiencies resulting in increased levels of homocysteine and increased risk for stroke. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 2,100 stroke patients from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) trial, a clinical trial designed to determine whether the daily intake of high-dose folic acid, vitamins B6, and B12 reduce recurrent cerebral infarction. Methods: Extensive quality...

  17. Allele and genotype frequencies of CYP2B6 in a Turkish population. (United States)

    Yuce-Artun, Nazan; Kose, Gulcin; Suzen, H Sinan


    Increasing interest in cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) genetic polymorphism was stimulated by revelations of a specific CYP2B6 genotype significantly affecting the metabolism of various drugs in common clinical use in terms of increasing drug efficacy and avoiding adverse drug reactions. The present study aimed to determine the frequencies of CYP2B6*4 CYP2B6*5, CYP2B6*6, CYP2B6*7 and CYP2B6*9 alleles in healthy Turkish individuals (n = 172). Frequencies of three single nucleotide polymorphisms were 516G>T (28%), 785A>G (33%), and 1459C>T (12%). The frequencies of CYP2B6*1, *4, *5, *6, *7, and *9 alleles were 54.3 (95% CI 49.04-59.56), 6.4% (95% CI 3.81-8.99), 11% (95% CI 7.69-14.31), 25.3% (95% CI 20.71-29.89), 0.87% (95% CI -0.11-1.85) and 2.0% (95% CI 0.52-3.48), respectively. Allele *6 was more frequent (25.3%) than the other variant alleles in Turkish subjects. The frequencies of CYP2B6*4, *5, *6, *7, and *9 alleles were similar to European populations but significantly different from that reported for Asian populations. This is the first study to document the frequencies of the CYP2B6*4, *5, *6, *7, *9 alleles in the healthy Turkish individuals and our results could provide clinically useful information on drug metabolism by CYP2B6 in Turkish population.

  18. Insights into CYP2B6-mediated drug–drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Hedrich


    Full Text Available Mounting evidence demonstrates that CYP2B6 plays a much larger role in human drug metabolism than was previously believed. The discovery of multiple important substrates of CYP2B6 as well as polymorphic differences has sparked increasing interest in the genetic and xenobiotic factors contributing to the expression and function of the enzyme. The expression of CYP2B6 is regulated primarily by the xenobiotic receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR and pregnane X receptor (PXR in the liver. In addition to CYP2B6, these receptors also mediate the inductive expression of CYP3A4, and a number of important phase II enzymes and drug transporters. CYP2B6 has been demonstrated to play a role in the metabolism of 2%–10% of clinically used drugs including widely used antineoplastic agents cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide, anesthetics propofol and ketamine, synthetic opioids pethidine and methadone, and the antiretrovirals nevirapine and efavirenz, among others. Significant inter-individual variability in the expression and function of the human CYP2B6 gene exists and can result in altered clinical outcomes in patients receiving treatment with CYP2B6-substrate drugs. These variances arise from a number of sources including genetic polymorphism, and xenobiotic intervention. In this review, we will provide an overview of the key players in CYP2B6 expression and function and highlight recent advances made in assessing clinical ramifications of important CYP2B6-mediated drug–drug interactions.

  19. Evidence-Based Novel Changes in Prevalence and Symptom Characteristics of Spleen Deficiency Syndrome in Persons of Varied Health Status and Different Ages: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhang


    Full Text Available Deficiency of the organs is a vital pathophysiologic characteristic in the elderly. A core TCM aging theory is known as aging caused by spleen deficiency syndrome (SDS that can be found in ancient and modern literature. The key objectives of this study were to establish a full-scale trial to evaluate the prevalence, symptom severity, frequency, and distribution of SDS in different age groups as related to health status (healthy, subhealthy, and chronic disease to elucidate the role of spleen deficiency in the aging process and deterioration of health status. This cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 4 hospitals in China. 1390 participants aged 20–79 were interviewed by investigators who completed questionnaires recording prevalence, severity, and frequency of symptoms as well as other relevant information. The results revealed that prevalence and symptom characteristics of SDS showed regularities with increasing age and deteriorating health status. It supports the TCM concept that spleen deficiency is an important mechanism of aging, subhealth, and chronic diseases. Early recognition of the warning signs and symptoms of SDS may lead to intervention and even prevention strategies for subhealth and chronic diseases as well as promotion of healthy aging.

  20. A sulphur deficiency-induced gene, sdi1, involved in the utilization of stored sulphate pools under sulphur-limiting conditions has potential as a diagnostic indicator of sulphur nutritional status. (United States)

    Howarth, Jonathan R; Parmar, Saroj; Barraclough, Peter B; Hawkesford, Malcolm J


    A sulphate deficiency-induced gene, sdi1, has been identified by cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis utilizing field-grown, nutrient-deficient wheat (Triticum aestivum var. Hereward). The expression of sdi1 was specifically induced in leaf and root tissues in response to sulphate deficiency, but was not induced by nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium or magnesium deficiency. Expression was also shown to increase in plant tissues as the external sulphate concentration in hydroponically grown plants was reduced from 1.0 to 0.0 mm. On this basis, sdi1 gene expression has potential as a sensitive indicator of sulphur nutritional status in wheat. Genome-walking techniques were used to clone the 2.7-kb region upstream of sdi1 from genomic DNA, revealing several cis-element motifs previously identified as being associated with sulphur responses in plants. The Arabidopsis thaliana gene most highly homologous to sdi1 is At5g48850, which was also demonstrated to be induced by sulphur deficiency, an observation confirmed by the analysis of microarray data available in the public domain. The expression of Atsdi1 was induced more rapidly than previously characterized sulphur-responsive genes in the period immediately following the transfer of plants to sulphur-deficient medium. Atsdi1 T-DNA 'knockout' mutants were shown to maintain higher tissue sulphate concentrations than wild-type plants under sulphur-limiting conditions, indicating a role in the utilization of stored sulphate under sulphur-deficient conditions. The structural features of the sdi1 gene and its application in the genetic determination of the sulphur nutritional status of wheat crops are discussed.

  1. The Study of HFE Genotypes and Its Expression Effect on Iron Status of Iranian Haemochromatosis, Iron Deficiency Anemia Patients, Iron-Taker and Non Iron-Taker Controls. (United States)

    Beiranvand, Elham; Abediankenari, Saeid; Rostamian, Mosayeb; Beiranvand, Behnoush; Naazeri, Saeed


    The role of HFE gene mutations or its expression in regulation of iron metabolism of hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) patients is remained controversial. Therefore here the correlation between two common HFE genotype (p.C282Y, p.H63D) and HFE gene expression with iron status in HH, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and healthy Iranian participants was studied. For this purpose genotype determination was done by polymerase chain reaction--restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Real-Time PCR was applied for evaluation of HFE gene expression. Biochemical parameters and iron consumption were also assessed. Homozygote p.H63D mutation was seen in all HH patients and p.C282Y was not observed in any member of the population. A significant correlation was observed between serum ferritin (SF) level and gender or age of HH patients. p.H63D homozygote was seen to be able to significantly increase SF and transferrin saturation (TS) level without affecting on liver function. Our results also showed that iron consumption affects on TS level increasing. HFE gene expression level of IDA patients was significantly higher than other groups. Also the HFE gene expression was negatively correlated with TS. Finally, the main result of our study showed that loss of HFE function in HH is not derived from its gene expression inhibition and much higher HFE gene expression might lead to IDA. However we propose repeating of the study for more approval of our finding.

  2. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1BEDA-2B6MA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  3. Mechanical properties of SiB6 addition of carbon sintered body (United States)

    Tanaka, Samon; Fukushima, Noriyuki; Matsushita, Jun-ichi; Akatsu, T.; Niihara, K.; Yasuda, E.


    Boride material is said as the useful material, which has high melting point and high strength. B4C in carbide is very hard at the next of the diamond and cubic-BN in the Mohs hardness and B4C has excellent chemical stability and high strength. B4C is being used as the polishing material from the hardness. However, it is difficult to make sintered body from high melting point (2623 K). Several silicon boride phases such as SiB4, SiB6, SiB6-x, SiB6+x, and Si11B31, were previously reported. Silicon hexaboride (SiB6) has proved to be a potentially useful material because of its high degree of hardness, moderate melting point (2123 K), and low specific gravity. We studied the preparation of SiB6-B4C-SiC sintered body in this report. We knew experientially that SiB6 reacts with carbon at the high temperature, and forms B4C or SiC. Carbon addition SiB6 sintered body produced by hot pressing and reaction sintering that sintering condition was 1973 K for 3.6 ks in vacuum under a pressure of 25 MPa. The relative density of sintered bodies (SiB6-0,5,10,15 wt%C) was approximately 100%. Characterization of mechanical properties was used indentation, Vickers hardness and thermal

  4. Interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C in pregnancy (United States)

    The water-soluble vitamins B6, B12 and C play important roles in maternal health as well as fetal development and physiology during gestation. This systematic review evaluates the risks and benefits of interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C during pregnancy on maternal, neonatal and child health ...

  5. 12 CFR 264b.6 - Requirements for gifts of more than minimal value. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for gifts of more than minimal value. 264b.6 Section 264b.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF... gifts of more than minimal value. (a) Tangible gifts. Board employees must deposit tangible gifts...

  6. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Proctor


    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. The 118-B-6 site consisted of 2 concrete pipes buried vertically in the ground and capped by a concrete pad with steel lids. The site was used for the disposal of wastes from the "metal line" of the P-10 Tritium Separation Project.

  7. Electrooptic Effect in Non-Centrosymmetric CsLiB6O10 Borate Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Mys, O; Martunyuk-Lototska, I; Vlokh, R


    Electrooptic coefficient of CsLiB6O10 crystals has been experimentally determined as r63=3.3*10-12m/V. The half-wave voltage for CsLiB6O10 (Ul/2=26 kV) is three orders of magnitude larger than that of the known KDP crystals.

  8. The effect of dietary intake of vitamin B6 on sleep quality and insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, L.; Fernstrand, A.M.; Garssen, J.; Verster, J.C.


    Purpose: There is increased notion that daily diet has an important impact on health and disease. In this context, the relationship between nutrition and sleep is gaining increased research interest, particularly focusing on tryptophan, niacin and Vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 has an important role in the

  9. The B6 database: a tool for the description and classification of vitamin B6-dependent enzymatic activities and of the corresponding protein families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peracchi Alessio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Enzymes that depend on vitamin B6 (and in particular on its metabolically active form, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, PLP are of great relevance to biology and medicine, as they catalyze a wide variety of biochemical reactions mainly involving amino acid substrates. Although PLP-dependent enzymes belong to a small number of independent evolutionary lineages, they encompass more than 160 distinct catalytic functions, thus representing a striking example of divergent evolution. The importance and remarkable versatility of these enzymes, as well as the difficulties in their functional classification, create a need for an integrated source of information about them. Description - The B6 database contains documented B6-dependent activities and the relevant protein families, defined as monophyletic groups of sequences possessing the same enzymatic function. One or more families were associated to each of 121 PLP-dependent activities with known sequences. Hidden Markov models (HMMs were built from family alignments and incorporated in the database. These HMMs can be used for the functional classification of PLP-dependent enzymes in genomic sets of predicted protein sequences. An example of such analyses (a census of human genes coding for PLP-dependent enzymes is provided here, whereas many more are accessible through the database itself. Conclusion - The B6 database is a curated repository of biochemical and molecular information about an important group of enzymes. This information is logically organized and available for computational analyses, providing a key resource for the identification, classification and comparative analysis of B6-dependent enzymes.

  10. The hydrogen storage properties of Na decorated small boron cluster B6Na8 (United States)

    Tang, Chunmei; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xue; Wen, Ninghua


    The binding energy of the Na atoms to the hollow sites of the B6 cage is larger than the experimental cohesive energy of bulk Na, so the clustering of Na atoms can be avoided. The polarization interaction dominates the adsorption of H2 by the B6Na8 cluster. The Na-coated B6Na8sbnd B8sbnd B6Na8 complex with the dispersive Na atoms and four H2 molecules adsorbed per Na can serve as better building blocks of polymers than the (B6Na8)2 dimer. These findings suggest a new route to design cluster-assembled hydrogen storage materials based on sp2-terminated boron chains.

  11. Improvement of biological nitrogen removal with nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation bacterium Aquabacterium parvum B6 in an up-flow bioreactor for wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxin; Li, Ang; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Ma, Fang


    Aquabacterium parvum strain B6 exhibited efficient nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation ability using nitrate as an electron acceptor. A continuous up-flow bioreactor that included an aerobic and an anoxic section was constructed, and strain B6 was added to the bioreactor as inocula to explore the application of microbial nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidizing (NDFO) efficiency in wastewater treatment. The maximum NRE (anoxic section) and TNRE of 46.9% and 79.7%, respectively, could be obtained at a C/N ratio of 5.3:1 in the influent with HRT of 17. Meanwhile, the taxonomy composition of the reactor was assessed, as well. The NDFO metabolism of strain B6 could be expected because of its relatively dominant position in the anoxic section, whereas potential heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification developed into the prevailing status in the aerobic section after 50days of continuous operation.

  12. Long-Term Vitamin D Supplementation Affects Metabolic Status in Vitamin D-Deficient Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Coronary Artery Disease. (United States)

    Farrokhian, Alireza; Raygan, Fariba; Bahmani, Fereshteh; Talari, Hamid Reza; Esfandiari, Reza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Asemi, Zatollah


    Background: Vitamin D might be beneficial in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) through its favorable effects on metabolic profiles and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.Objective: This study was performed to examine the effects of 6 mo of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic status in diabetic patients with CAD.Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 60 vitamin D-deficient diabetic patients with CAD aged 40-85 y. Subjects were randomly assigned into 2 groups to take either 50,000-IU vitamin D supplements (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) every 2 wk for 6 mo. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning of the study and after the 6-mo intervention to quantify glycemic indicators, lipid concentrations, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.Results: Compared with placebo, vitamin D supplementation resulted in significant reductions in fasting plasma glucose (-14.9 ± 7.1 compared with +19.3 ± 7.1 mg/dL; P = 0.001), serum insulin (-2.7 ± 1.1 compared with +1.8 ± 1.1 μIU/mL; P = 0.006), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (-0.7 ± 0.3 compared with +0.5 ± 0.3; P = 0.01), and β cell function (-9.1 ± 4.2 compared with +5.7 ± 4.2; P = 0.01) and a significant increase in serum vitamin D (+6.8 ± 0.9 compared with +0.1 ± 0.9 ng/mL; P D supplementation among vitamin D-deficient diabetic patients with CAD had beneficial effects on glycemic control and serum hs-CRP, NO, GSH, and malondialdehyde concentrations. This trial was registered on the Iranian website ( for registration of clinical trials as IRCT201510315623N56.

  13. Smoking, alcoholism and genetic polymorphisms alter CYP2B6 levels in human brain. (United States)

    Miksys, Sharon; Lerman, Caryn; Shields, Peter G; Mash, Deborah C; Tyndale, Rachel F


    CYP2B6 metabolizes drugs such as nicotine and bupropion, and many toxins and carcinogens. Nicotine induces CYP2B1 in rat brain and in humans polymorphic variation in CYP2B6 affects smoking cessation rates. The aim of this study was to compare CYP2B6 expression in brains of human smokers and non-smokers and alcoholics and non-alcoholics (n=26). CYP2B6 expression was brain region-specific, and was observed in both neurons and astrocytes. CYP2B6 levels were higher in brains of smokers and alcoholics, particularly in cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal pyramidal neurons, cells known to be damaged in alcoholics. Significantly more (penzyme levels, stability and activity. Preliminary genotyping of this small sample (n=24) suggested that individuals with the CC genotype had higher brain CYP2B6 than those with the CT or TT genotype. Higher brain CYP2B6 activity in smokers and alcoholics may cause altered sensitivity to centrally acting drugs, increased susceptibility to neurotoxins and carcinogenic xenobiotics and contribute to central tolerance to nicotine.

  14. The genome of Streptococcus mitis B6--what is a commensal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Denapaite

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mitis is the closest relative of the major human pathogen S. pneumoniae. The 2,15 Mb sequence of the Streptococcus mitis B6 chromosome, an unusually high-level beta-lactam resistant and multiple antibiotic resistant strain, has now been determined to encode 2100 genes. The accessory genome is estimated to represent over 40%, including 75 mostly novel transposases and IS, the prophage phiB6 and another seven phage related regions. Tetracycline resistance mediated by Tn5801, and an unusual and large gene cluster containing three aminoglycoside resistance determinants have not been described in other Streptococcus spp. Comparative genomic analyses including hybridization experiments on a S. mitis B6 specific microarray reveal that individual S. mitis strains are almost as distantly related to the B6 strain as S. pneumoniae. Both species share a core of over 900 genes. Most proteins described as pneumococcal virulence factors are present in S. mitis B6, but the three choline binding proteins PcpA, PspA and PspC, and three gene clusters containing the hyaluronidase gene, ply and lytA, and the capsular genes are absent in S. mitis B6 and other S. mitis as well and confirm their importance for the pathogenetic potential of S. pneumoniae. Despite the close relatedness between the two species, the S. mitis B6 genome reveals a striking X-alignment when compared with S. pneumoniae.

  15. EphB6 overexpression and Apc mutation together promote colorectal cancer. (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Yuan, Liang; Liu, Xin; Li, Mingqi; Zhang, Fubin; Gu, Xin Yue; Zhang, Dongwei; Yang, Youlin; Cui, Binbin; Tong, Jinxue; Zhou, Jin; Yu, Zhiwei


    The erythropoietin-producing hepatocyte (Eph) family tyrosine kinases play important roles in tumorigenesis and cancer aggression. In this study, we investigated the role of EphB6 in oncogenic transformation of colorectal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. EphB6 is upregulated in human colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues as compared to normal tissues, and its overexpression promotes proliferation, migration and invasion by IMCE colorectal adenoma cells, in which one Apc allele is mutated. EphB6 overexpression together with Apc mutation leads to the development of colorectal tumors in vivo. Expression microarrays using mRNAs and lncRNAs isolated from EphB6-overexpresssing IMCE and control cells revealed a large number of dysregulated genes involved in cancer-related functions and pathways. The present study is the first to demonstrate that EphB6 overexpression together with Apc gene mutations may enhance proliferation, invasion and metastasis by colorectal epithelial cells. Microarray data and pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes provided insight into possible EphB6-regulated mechanisms promoting tumorigenesis and cancer progression. EphB6 overexpression may represent a novel, effective biomarker predictive of cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis patterns in CRC tumors.

  16. Causes, Consequences and Public Health Implications of Low B-Vitamin Status in Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty Porter


    Full Text Available The potential protective roles of folate and the metabolically related B-vitamins (vitamins B12, B6 and riboflavin in diseases of ageing are of increasing research interest. The most common cause of folate and riboflavin deficiencies in older people is low dietary intake, whereas low B12 status is primarily associated with food-bound malabsorption, while sub-optimal vitamin B6 status is attributed to increased requirements in ageing. Observational evidence links low status of folate and the related B-vitamins (and/or elevated concentrations of homocysteine with a higher risk of degenerative diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD, cognitive dysfunction and osteoporosis. Deficient or low status of these B-vitamins alone or in combination with genetic polymorphisms, including the common MTHFR 677 C → T polymorphism, could contribute to greater disease risk in ageing by causing perturbations in one carbon metabolism. Moreover, interventions with the relevant B-vitamins to optimise status may have beneficial effects in preventing degenerative diseases. The precise mechanisms are unknown but many have been proposed involving the role of folate and the related B-vitamins as co-factors for one-carbon transfer reactions, which are fundamental for DNA and RNA biosynthesis and the maintenance of methylation reactions. This review will examine the evidence linking folate and related B-vitamins with health and disease in ageing, associated mechanisms and public health implications.

  17. Effects of induced optical tunable and ferromagnetic behaviors of Ba doped nanocrystalline LaB6. (United States)

    Bao, Lihong; Qi, Xiaoping; Tana; Chao, Lumen; Tegus, O


    Multiple nanocrystalline rare-earth hexaborides La1-xBaxB6 have been synthesized via a single step solid-state reaction. The Ba doping effects on crystal structure, grain morphology, magnetic and optical absorption properties were investigated using XRD, FESEM, HRTEM, SQUID magnetometry and optical measurements. The results show that all the Ba-doped hexaborides crystallize in the CsCl-type single phase, indicating the Ba atoms occupied the lattice sites of LaB6. The optical absorption results indicate that the absorption valleys of LaB6 are red-shifted from 622 nm to 780 nm when the Ba doping content increases to x = 0.8. The first-principle calculation results reveal that Ba doping reduces the total kinetic energy of the electrons of LaB6, which lead to the absorption valleys moving toward a higher wavelength. Meanwhile, the band gap of BaB6 obtained from optical absorption is in good agreement with the theoretical calculation results. The magnetic measurements results showed that Ba doping lead to room-temperature ferromagnetism of LaB6 due to the different ionic radii of La(3+) and Ba(2+) causing intrinsic crystal defects, which is directly observed experimentally by HRTEM. This is the first time that we have found the tunable optical and ferromagnetic behavior of Ba doped nanocrystalline LaB6. Thus, nanocrystalline La1-xBaxB6, as multi-functional materials, should open up a new route to extend the optical and magnetic applications of LaB6 nanopowder.

  18. Miocarditis fulminante y enfermedad diarreica aguda por Coxsackie virus B6 Fulminant myocarditis and acute gastroenteritis due to Coxsackie virus B6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Málaga


    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente joven que presentó choque cardiogénico por virus Coxsakie B6. La paciente acudió a una clínica particular con un cuadro clínico compatible con gastroenterocolitis aguda a la que después de una hora de estar recibiendo hidratación y manejo del cuadro diagnosticado, se agregó hipotensión que llegó al estado de choque, hipoxemia severa y compromiso pulmonar bilateral intersticial por lo que ingresó a Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, donde recibió manejo de soporte. Debido al cuadro clínico y elevación de enzimas cardiacas se sospechó de compromiso cardiaco, la ecocardiografía evidenció cambios sugerentes de miocarditis. La evolución fue favorable y se le pudo dar de alta después de una semana. El diagnóstico etiológico del cuadro se hizo en el seguimiento, presentando serología con elevación de títulos para virus Coxsakie B6.We present the case of a young woman who suffered cardiogenic due to by Coxsackie virus B6. The patient attended a private clinic with an acute gastroenteritis and after one hour of receiving hydratation,she developed hypotension and shock, severe hypoxemia and bilateral lung infiltrate. The patient entered the Intensive Care Unit, where she received hemodynamic support. Due to the clinical picture and cardiac enzymes increase, a cardiac failure was suspected and the echocardiographic findings suggested "myocarditis". The evolution was successful and Coxsackie B6 virus infection diagnosis was made during the follow up by increase of the levels of antibodies for virus Coxsackie B6.

  19. Modulation Schemes for Single-Phase B6 Converters With Two Asymmetrical Terminal Voltages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede


    B6 converter uses six switches divided equally among three phase-legs. It has commonly been used as a three-phase rectifier or inverter, mostly under balanced conditions. Three-phase conversion is however not the only area, where B6 converter has been used. The same topology has been tried...... asymmetrical. How these asymmetrical references should be formulated to meet various performance specifications of a single-phase B6 converter is the theme of this paper. Simulation and experimental results have been obtained for verifying the modulation schemes proposed....

  20. A novel pathway of cytochrome c biogenesis is involved in the assembly of the cytochrome b6f complex in arabidopsis chloroplasts. (United States)

    Lezhneva, Lina; Kuras, Richard; Ephritikhine, Geneviève; de Vitry, Catherine


    We recently characterized a novel heme biogenesis pathway required for heme c(i)' covalent binding to cytochrome b6 in Chlamydomonas named system IV or CCB (cofactor assembly, complex C (b6f), subunit B (PetB)). To find out whether this CCB pathway also operates in higher plants and extend the knowledge of the c-type cytochrome biogenesis, we studied Arabidopsis insertion mutants in the orthologs of the CCB genes. The ccb1, ccb2, and ccb4 mutants show a phenotype characterized by a deficiency in the accumulation of the subunits of the cytochrome b6f complex and lack covalent heme binding to cytochrome b6. These mutants were functionally complemented with the corresponding wild type cDNAs. Using fluorescent protein reporters, we demonstrated that the CCB1, CCB2, CCB3, and CCB4 proteins are targeted to the chloroplast compartment of Arabidopsis. We have extended our study to the YGGT family, to which CCB3 belongs, by studying insertion mutants of two additional members of this family for which no mutants were previously characterized, and we showed that they are not functionally involved in the CCB system. Thus, we demonstrate the ubiquity of the CCB proteins in chloroplast heme c(i)' binding.

  1. A Novel Pathway of Cytochrome c Biogenesis Is Involved in the Assembly of the Cytochrome b6f Complex in Arabidopsis Chloroplasts*S⃞ (United States)

    Lezhneva, Lina; Kuras, Richard; Ephritikhine, Geneviève; de Vitry, Catherine


    We recently characterized a novel heme biogenesis pathway required for heme ci′ covalent binding to cytochrome b6 in Chlamydomonas named system IV or CCB (cofactor assembly, complex C (b6f), subunit B (PetB)). To find out whether this CCB pathway also operates in higher plants and extend the knowledge of the c-type cytochrome biogenesis, we studied Arabidopsis insertion mutants in the orthologs of the CCB genes. The ccb1, ccb2, and ccb4 mutants show a phenotype characterized by a deficiency in the accumulation of the subunits of the cytochrome b6f complex and lack covalent heme binding to cytochrome b6. These mutants were functionally complemented with the corresponding wild type cDNAs. Using fluorescent protein reporters, we demonstrated that the CCB1, CCB2, CCB3, and CCB4 proteins are targeted to the chloroplast compartment of Arabidopsis. We have extended our study to the YGGT family, to which CCB3 belongs, by studying insertion mutants of two additional members of this family for which no mutants were previously characterized, and we showed that they are not functionally involved in the CCB system. Thus, we demonstrate the ubiquity of the CCB proteins in chloroplast heme ci′ binding. PMID:18593701

  2. Effect of pyridoxine on vitamin B6 concentrations and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase activity in whole blood of tuberculous patients receiving high-dosage isoniazid. (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, D V; Selkon, J B; Ramachandran, K; Devadatta, S; Mitchison, D A; Radhakrishna, S; Stott, H


    An earlier report from the Tuberculosis Chemotherapy Centre, Madras, showed that, in tuberculous patients receiving high-dosage isoniazid (12.5-15.6 mg/kg body-weight), the concomitant administration of 6 mg of pyridoxine prevented peripheral neuropathy. In that study, biochemical determinations of B(6) concentrations and GOT activity in whole blood had been routinely undertaken on all patients on admission to treatment, and at 6, 12, 24 and 52 weeks thereafter; in addition, extra determinations were undertaken for patients who developed peripheral neuropathy. The present paper reports the findings of these investigations, which are: (a) peripheral neuropathy developed predominantly among slow inactivators of isoniazid, and was associated with a substantial reduction in GOT activity but no apparent change in B(6) concentration; (b) the reduction in GOT activity appeared to be due to deficiency of both the coenzyme (pyridoxal phosphate) and the apoenzyme; (c) the concomitant administration of pyridoxine (6 mg or 48 mg) with high-dosage isoniazid to 3 patients with peripheral neuropathy, 1 of whom had convulsions also, resulted in increased B(6) concentrations and GOT activity, and no further convulsions; and (d) the concomitant administration of pyridoxine 6 mg daily, as a prophylactic, resulted in a significant increase in B(6) concentrations and GOT activity and prevention of the neuropathy.These findings establish the existence of a definite association between the occurrence of isoniazid-induced toxicity and diminished pyridoxine function.

  3. Supramolecular Encapsulation of Vitamin B6 by Macrocyclic Nanocontainer Cucurbit[7]uril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanying Li


    Full Text Available A pharmaceutically and biologically relevant molecule, pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6, was encapsulated inside the cavity of a molecular container, cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7], in aqueous solution. The CB[7] based “nanocapsule” of vitamin B6 has been investigated for the first time, via 1H NMR and UV-visible spectroscopic titrations (including Job’s plot and ab initio molecular modeling. The results have demonstrated that vitamin B6 forms stable host-guest complexes within CB[7] in 1 : 1 stoichiometry, with a binding affinity of (4.0±0.5×103 M−1. Such a nanocapsule could potentially find application in vitamin B6 formulation for the purpose of enhancing the stability, absorption, and delivery of this important vitamin.

  4. Dietary folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 and risk of sporadic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S. de; Dindore, V.; Engeland, M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.


    Adequate intake of folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 may prevent aberrant DNA methylation and thereby protect against colorectal cancer (CRC). However, previous epidemiological studies investigating associations between dietary intakes of these nutrients and CRC have been inconsistent.

  5. Study on Band Structure of YbB6 and Analysis of Its Optical Conductivity Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The electronic structure of YbB6 crystal was studied by means of density functional (GGA+U) method.The calculations were performed by FLAPW method.The high accurate band structure was achieved.The correlation between the feature of the band structure and the Yb-B6 bonding in YbB6 was analyzed.On this basis, some optical constants of YbB6 such as reflectivity, dielectric function, optical conductivity, and energy-loss function were calculated.The results are in good agreement with the experiments.The real part of the optical conductivity spectrum and the energy-loss function spectrum were analyzed in detail.The assignments of the spectra were carried out to correlate the spectral peaks with the interband electronic transitions, which justify the reasonable part of previous empirical assignments and renew the missed or incorrect ones.

  6. Determination of vitamin B6 vitamers and pyridoxic acid in plasma: development and evaluation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Marianne R; Bor, Mustafa Vakur; Heinsvig, Else-Marie


    Marginal deficiency of vitamin B6 has recently been related to cardiovascular diseases. Because of that there is an increasing interest in a suitable and reliable method for quantifying this vitamin in routine laboratory medicine. We have developed a HPLC-based method able to quantify the B6...... were eluted with a gradient of acetonitrile (0.5-15%) in a potassium phosphate buffer with 1-octanesulfonic acid and triethylamine, pH 2.16. The concentration of the vitamers was determined with fluorescence detector (328 nm excitation, 393 nm emission) after postcolumn derivatization with phosphate...... buffer containing 1 g/L sodium bisulfite. The performance of the assay was evaluated by analyzing six plasma samples with interrelated concentration and two control samples (unspiked and vitamer spiked) over a 3-months period. The HPLC method was able to identify PLP, 4-PA, PM, PL, PN, and PMP from all...

  7. DAC is involved in the accumulation of the cytochrome b6/f complex in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Xiao, Jianwei; Li, Jing; Ouyang, Min; Yun, Tao; He, Baoye; Ji, Daili; Ma, Jinfang; Chi, Wei; Lu, Congming; Zhang, Lixin


    The biogenesis and assembly of photosynthetic multisubunit protein complexes is assisted by a series of nucleus-encoded auxiliary protein factors. In this study, we characterize the dac mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which shows a severe defect in the accumulation of the cytochrome b(6)/f complex, and provide evidence suggesting that the efficiency of cytochrome b(6)/f complex assembly is affected in the mutant. DAC is a thylakoid membrane protein with two predicted transmembrane domains that is conserved from cyanobacteria to vascular plants. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation analyses revealed a specific interaction between DAC and PetD, a subunit of the cytochrome b(6)/f complex. However, DAC was found not to be an intrinsic component of the cytochrome b(6)/f complex. In vivo chloroplast protein labeling experiments showed that the labeling rates of the PetD and cytochrome f proteins were greatly reduced, whereas that of the cytochrome b(6) protein remained normal in the dac mutant. DAC appears to be a novel factor involved in the assembly/stabilization of the cytochrome b(6)/f complex, possibly through interaction with the PetD protein.

  8. Involvement of CYP2B6 in the biotransformation of propofol by human liver microsomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Bing; WANG Jun-ke; FENG Wan-yu


    Objective To determine whether the cytochrome P4502B6 (CYP2B6) is involved in the oxidation of propofol by human liver microsomes. Methods The change of propofol concentration in an incubation mixture with human liver microsomes was monitored by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), in order to calculate the rate constants of metabolism of propofol. The correlation between the rate constants and the rate of metabolism of CYP2B6 selective substrate bupropion, and the effect of two different CYP2B6 specific inhibitors on the propofol metabolism were examined. Results The mean rate constant of propofol metabolism by liver microsomes obtained from twelve individuals was 3.9 (95 % confidence intervals 3.3, 4.5) nmol·min-1·mg-1 protein. The rate constants of propofol metabolism by liver microsomes were significantly correlated with bupropion hydroxylation (r=0.888, P<0.001). Both selective chemical inhibitors of CYP2B6, orphenadrine and N, N′, N″-triethylenethiophosphoramide (thioTEPA), reduced the rate constants of propofol metabolism by 37.596 (P<0.001) and 42.796 (P<0.001)in liver microsomes, respectively. Conclusions CYP2B6 is predominantly involved in the oxidation of propofol by human liver microsomes.

  9. [Peripheral sensory neuropathy produced by a megadose of vitamin B6]. (United States)

    Ohnishi, A; Ishibashi, H; Ohtani, K; Matsunaga, K; Yamamoto, T


    Clinical cases of sensory neuropathy produced by a megadose of vitamin B6 have been reported in English literatures. We investigated the ordinary daily dosage and maximal dose of vitamin B6 widely adopted in Japan, and the amount of vitamin B6 per unit (per tablet, capsule or ampule) available in our medical practice. We concluded that in Japan it is very rare to administer such a large dose of vitamin B6 that produced sensory neuropathy described in the literatures. In our experimental study, Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally given a total amount of 14,000 mg/kg of body weight of pyridoxine hydrochloride in ten separate doses. They developed an ataxic gait. The occurrence of the degeneration of nerve cell bodies and peripheral axons of lumbar primary sensory neurons were histologically demonstrated. Although in Japan no clinical cases of neuropathy produced by a megadose of vitamin B6 have been reported to our knowledge, it is necessary to be aware of the possible occurrence of such neuropathy among patients with polyneuropathy of unknown etiology or who have been receiving vitamin B6 for a long time.

  10. Effect of a 5-mo nutritional intervention on nutritional status and quality of life for patient with 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-coenzyme A hydrolase deficiency: A case report. (United States)

    Li, Chun-Wei; Yu, Kang; Xu, Yan; Sun, Xia-Yuan; Li, Rong-Rong; Wang, Fang


    3-Hydroxy-isobutyryl-coenzyme A (CoA) hydrolase (HBICH) deficiency is a rare cerebral organic aciduria caused by disturbance of valine catabolism that leads to the accumulation of toxic metabolites, methacrylyl-CoA. The major feature exhibited by a patient with HBICH deficiency includes multiple congenital malformations and abnormal neurologic findings. However, the pathophysiology of this disease remains unknown. The major treatment for HBICH deficiency involves a low-protein diet, especially restricting valine, supplemented with micronutrients and carnitine. To our knowledge, only four patients with HBICH deficiency have been reported. These patients were boys and presented with different clinical, biochemical, and genetic features than our patient. In this report, we described what was to our knowledge the first genetically confirmed girl with HBICH deficiency in China. A 5-mo nutritional intervention was given to the patient by a nutritional support team. On this regimen, the patient's symptoms were alleviated and her quality of life was improved.

  11. Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study of [Ta2B6]-: a Hexagonal Bipyramdial Cluster (United States)

    Jian, Tian; Li, Weili; Romanescu, Constantin; Wang, Lai-Sheng


    It has been a long-sought goal in cluster science to discover stable atomic clusters as building blocks for cluster-assembled nanomaterials, as exemplified by the fullerenes and their subsequent bulk syntheses.[1,2] Clusters have also been considered as models to understand bulk properties, providing a bridge between molecular and solid-state chemistry.[3] Herein we report a joint photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical study on the [Ta2B6]- and [Ta2B6] clusters.[4] The photoelectron spectrum of [Ta2B6]- displays a simple spectral pattern and a large HOMO-LUMO gap, suggesting its high symmetry. Theoretical calculations show that both the neutral and anion are D6h pyramidal. The chemical bonding analyses for [Ta2B6] revealed the nature of the B6 and Ta interactions and uncovered strong covalent bonding between B6 and Ta. The D6h-[TaB6Ta] gaseous cluster is reminiscent of the structural pattern in the ReB6X6Re core in the [(Cp*Re)2B6H4Cl2] and the TiB6Ti motif in the newly synthesized Ti7Rh4Ir2B8 solid-state compound.[5,6] The current work provides an intrinsic link between a gaseous cluster and motifs for solid materials. Continued investigations of the transition-metal boron clusters may lead to the discovery of new structural motifs involving pure boron clusters for the design of novel boride materials. Reference [1] H.W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. OBrien, R. F. Curl, R. E. Smalley, Nature 1985, 318, 162 - 163. [2] W. Krtschmer, L. D. Lamb, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, Nature 1990, 347, 354 - 358. [3] T. P. Fehlner, J.-F. Halet, J.-Y. Saillard, Molecular Clusters: A Bridge to Solid-State Chemitry, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2007. [4] W. L. Li, L. Xie, T. Jian, C. Romanescu, X. Huang, L.-S. Wang, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 126, 1312 - 1316. [5] B. Le Guennic, H. Jiao, S. Kahlal, J.-Y. Saillard, J.-F. Halet, S. Ghosh, M. Shang, A. M. Beatty, A. L. Rheingold, T. P. Fehlner, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 3203 - 3217. [6] B. P. T. Fokwa, M. Hermus, Angew

  12. Subchronic toxicity of triethylenetetramine dihydrochloride in B6C3F1 mice and F344 rats. (United States)

    Greenman, D L; Morrissey, R L; Blakemore, W; Crowell, J; Siitonen, P; Felton, P; Allen, R; Cronin, G


    Triethylenetetramine dihydrochloride (trien-2HCl; CAS No. 38260-01-04), a chelating agent used to treat Wilson's disease patients who are intolerant of the drug of choice, was tested for subchronic toxicity in B6C3F1 mice and F344 rats. Mice and rats received trien-2HCl in the drinking water at concentrations of 0, 120, 600, or 3000 ppm for up to 92 days. Twenty mice and 18 rats of each sex were assigned to each dose group fed either a cereal-based (NIH-31) or a purified (AIN-76A) diet, both containing nutritionally adequate levels of copper. An additional control group of rats and mice received a Cu-deficient AIN-76A diet. This low copper diet resulted in Cu-deficiency symptoms, such as anemia, liver periportal cytomegaly, pancreatic atrophy and multifocal necrosis, spleen hematopoietic cell proliferation, and increased heart weight, together with undetectable levels of plasma copper in rats but not in mice. Trien-2HCl lowered plasma copper levels some-what (at 600 and 3000 ppm) in rats fed the AIN-76A diet, but did not induce the usual signs of copper deficiency. Trien-2HCl caused an increased frequency of uterine dilatation at 3000 ppm in rats fed AIN-76A diet that was not noted in females fed the Cu-deficient diet. Trien-2HCl toxicity occurred only in mice in the highest dose group fed an AIN-76A diet. Increased frequencies of inflammation of the lung interstitium and liver periportal fatty infiltration were seen in both sexes, and hematopoietic cell proliferation was seen in the spleen of males. Kidney and body weights were reduced in males as was the incidence of renal cytoplasmic vacuolization. There were no signs of copper deficiency in mice exposed to trien-2HCl. The only effect of trien-2HCl in animals fed the NIH-31 diet was a reduced liver copper level in both rat sexes, noted at 3000 ppm.

  13. Molecular evolution of B6 enzymes: Binding of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and Lys41Arg substitution turn ribonuclease A into a model B6 protoenzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Ersilia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP-dependent or vitamin B6-dependent enzymes that catalyze manifold reactions in the metabolism of amino acids belong to no fewer than four evolutionarily independent protein families. The multiple evolutionary origin and the essential mechanistic role of PLP in these enzymes argue for the cofactor having arrived on the evolutionary scene before the emergence of the respective apoenzymes and having played a dominant role in the molecular evolution of the B6 enzyme families. Here we report on an attempt to re-enact the emergence of a PLP-dependent protoenzyme. The starting protein was pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase, in which active-site Lys41 or Lys7 readily form a covalent adduct with PLP. Results We screened the PLP adduct of wild-type RNase and two variant RNases (K7R and K41R for catalytic effects toward L- and D-amino acids. RNase(K41R-PLP, in which the cofactor is bound through an imine linkage to Lys7, qualifies for a model proto-B6 enzyme by the following criteria: (1 covalent linkage of PLP (internal aldimine; (2 catalytic activity toward amino acids that depends on formation of an imine linkage with the substrate (external aldimine; (3 adjoining binding sites for the cofactor and amino acid moiety that facilitate the transimination reaction of the internal to the external aldimine and stabilize the resulting noncovalent complex of the coenzyme-substrate adduct with the protein; (4 reaction specificity, the only detectable reactions being racemization of diverse amino acids and β-decarboxylation of L-aspartate; (5 acceleration factors for racemization and β-decarboxylation of >103 over and above that of PLP alone; (6 ribonuclease activity that is 103-fold lower than that of wild-type RNase, attenuation of a pre-existing biological activity being indispensable for the further evolution as a PLP-dependent protoenzyme. Conclusion A single amino acid substitution (Lys41Arg and covalent

  14. Deficient selenium status of a healthy adult Spanish population Deficiencia de selenio en una población adulta sana española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Millán Adame


    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an essential micronutrient for human health, being a cofactor for enzymes with antioxidant activity that protect the organism from oxidative damage. An inadequate intake of this mineral has been associated with the onset and progression of chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, coronary diseases, asthma, and cancer. For this reason, knowledge of the plasma and erythrocyte selenium levels of a population makes a relevant contribution to assessment of its nutritional status. Objetive: The objective of the present study was to determine the nutritional status of selenium and risk of seleniumdeficiency in a healthy adult population in Spain by examining food and nutrient intake and analyzing biochemical parameters related to selenium metabolism, including plasma and erythrocyte levels and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPx enzymatic activity. Material and methods: We studied 84 healthy adults (31 males and 53 females from the province of Granada, determining their plasma and erythrocyte selenium concentrations and the association of these levels with the enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx and with life style factors. We also gathered data on their food and nutrient intake and the results of biochemical analyses. Correlations were studied among all of these variables. Results: The mean plasma selenium concentration was 76.6 ± 17.3 μg/L (87.3 ± 17.4 μg/L in males, 67.3 ± 10.7 μg/L in females, whereas the mean erythrocyte selenium concentration was 104.6 μg/L (107.9 ± 26.1 μg/L in males and 101.7 ± 21.7 μg/L in females. The nutritional status of selenium was defined by the plasma concentration required to reach maximum GPx activity, establishing 90 μg/L as reference value. According to this criterion, 50% of the men and 53% of the women were selenium deficient. Conclusions: Selenium is subjected to multiple regulation mechanisms. Erythrocyte selenium is a good marker of

  15. Effect of diurnal variation, CYP2B6 genotype and age on the pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in African children (United States)

    Bienczak, Andrzej; Cook, Adrian; Wiesner, Lubbe; Mulenga, Veronica; Kityo, Cissy; Kekitiinwa, Addy; Walker, A. Sarah; Owen, Andrew; Gibb, Diana M.; Burger, David; McIlleron, Helen; Denti, Paolo


    Objectives To characterize the effects of CYP2B6 polymorphisms, diurnal variation and demographic factors on nevirapine pharmacokinetics in African children. Methods Non-linear mixed-effects modelling conducted in NONMEM 7.3 described nevirapine plasma concentration–time data from 414 children aged 0.3–15 years. Results Nevirapine pharmacokinetics was best described using a one-compartment disposition model with elimination through a well-stirred liver model accounting for a first-pass effect and transit-compartment absorption. Intrinsic clearance was affected by diurnal variation (characterized using a cosine function with peak amplitude 29% at 12 noon) and CYP2B6 metabolizer status [extensive metabolizer (EM) 516GG|983TT, reference; intermediate metabolizer (IM) 516GT|983TT or 516GG|983TC, 17% lower; slow metabolizer (SM) 516TT|983TT or 516GT|983TC, 50% lower; ultra-slow metabolizer (USM) 516GG|983CC, 68% lower]. Age was found to affect pre-hepatic bioavailability: 31.7% lower at birth and increasing exponentially. Median (90% CI) evening Cmin values in the different metabolizer groups were 5.01 (3.01–7.47), 6.55 (3.65–13.32), 11.59 (5.44–22.71) and 12.32 (12.32–27.25) mg/L, respectively. Evening Cmin values were 8 mg/L. Cmin was not markedly affected by administration time, but was altered by unequal splitting of the daily dose. Conclusions Diurnal variation does not greatly affect nevirapine exposure. However, when daily doses cannot be split equally, the larger dose should be given in the morning. To achieve homogeneous exposures, nevirapine doses for SM and USM should be reduced by 50%, and children weighing <6 kg with EM or IM metabolizer status should receive the same dose as children weighing 6–10 kg. PMID:27707991

  16. Iodine Deficiency (United States)

    ... 2017 By ATA | Featured , Iodine Deficiency , News Releases , Potassium Iodide (KI) | No Comments IDD NEWSLETTER – February 2017 VOLUME ... 2016 By ATA | Featured , Iodine Deficiency , News Releases , Potassium Iodide (KI) | No Comments IDD NEWSLETTER – November 2015 (PDF ...

  17. Effects of nationwide addition of selenium to fertilizers on foods, and animal and human health in Finland: From deficiency to optimal selenium status of the population. (United States)

    Alfthan, Georg; Eurola, Merja; Ekholm, Päivi; Venäläinen, Eija-Riitta; Root, Tarja; Korkalainen, Katja; Hartikainen, Helinä; Salminen, Pirjo; Hietaniemi, Veli; Aspila, Pentti; Aro, Antti


    Despite different geological features the Nordic countries are generally selenium-poor areas. In each country various factors such as food importation and life-style determine the selenium (Se) intake. Due to an extremely low Se intake in the 1970s in Finland, 0.025 mg/day, an official decision was made in 1984 to supplement multinutrient fertilizers with Se in the chemical form of sodium selenate. Almost all fertilizers used in Finland since 1985 have contained Se. Currently all crop fertilizers contain 15 mg Se/kg. Finland is still the only country to take this country-wide measure. In a national monitoring programme, sampling of cereals, basic foodstuffs, feeds, fertilizers, soils, and human tissues has been carried out annually since 1985 by four governmental research organizations. Sampling of foods has been done four times per year and human blood has been obtained annually from the same (n=60) adults. The accuracy of analyses has been verified by annual interlaboratory quality control. During this programme the selenium concentration of spring cereals has increased on average 15-fold compared with the level before the Se fertilization. The mean increase in the Se concentration in beef, pork and milk was 6-, 2- and 3-fold. In terms of Se, organically grown foods of plant origin are generally comparable to products produced before the Se supplementation of fertilizers. Milk from organically fed cows is 50% lower in Se than the usual milk. The average dietary human intake increased from 0.04 mg Se/day/10 MJ in 1985 to a present plateau of 0.08 mg Se/day/10 MJ, which is well above the current nutrition recommendations. Foods of animal origin contribute over 70% of the total daily Se intake. The mean human plasma Se concentration increased from 0.89 μmol/L to a general level of 1.40 μmol/L that can be considered to be an optimal status. The absence of Se deficiency diseases and a reference population have made conclusions on the impact on human health difficult

  18. Production of truncated MBD4 protein by frameshift mutation in DNA mismatch repair-deficient cells enhances 5-fluorouracil sensitivity that is independent of hMLH1 status. (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Iwaizumi, Moriya; Tseng-Rogenski, Stephanie; Hamaya, Yasushi; Miyajima, Hiroaki; Kanaoka, Shigeru; Sugimoto, Ken; Carethers, John M


    Methyl-CpG binding domain protein 4 (MBD4) is a DNA glycosylase that can remove 5-fluorodeoxyuracil from DNA as well as repair T:G or U:G mismatches. MBD4 is a target for frameshift mutation with DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency, creating a truncated MBD4 protein (TruMBD4) that lacks its glycosylase domain. Here we show that TruMBD4 plays an important role for enhancing 5-fluorouracil (5FU) sensitivity in MMR-deficient colorectal cancer cells. We found biochemically that TruMBD4 binds to 5FU incorporated into DNA with higher affinity than MBD4. TruMBD4 reduced the 5FU affinity of the MMR recognition complexes that determined 5FU sensitivity by previous reports, suggesting other mechanisms might be operative to trigger cytotoxicity. To analyze overall 5FU sensitivity with TruMBD4, we established TruMBD4 overexpression in hMLH1-proficient or -deficient colorectal cancer cells followed by treatment with 5FU. 5FU-treated TruMBD4 cells demonstrated diminished growth characteristics compared to controls, independently of hMLH1 status. Flow cytometry revealed more 5FU-treated TruMBD4 cells in S phase than controls. We conclude that patients with MMR-deficient cancers, which show characteristic resistance to 5FU therapy, may be increased for 5FU sensitivity via secondary frameshift mutation of the base excision repair gene MBD4.

  19. The impaired intestinal mucosal immune system by valine deficiency for young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is associated with decreasing immune status and regulating tight junction proteins transcript abundance in the intestine. (United States)

    Luo, Jian-Bo; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu


    This study investigated the effects of dietary valine on the growth, intestinal immune response, tight junction proteins transcript abundance and gene expression of immune-related signaling molecules in the intestine of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Six iso-nitrogenous diets containing graded levels of valine (4.3-19.1 g kg(-)(1) diet) were fed to the fish for 8 weeks. The results showed that percentage weight gain (PWG), feed intake and feed efficiency of fish were the lowest in fish fed the valine-deficient diet (P valine deficiency decreased lysozyme, acid phosphatase activities and complement 3 content in the intestine (P valine deficiency significantly decreased transcript of Occludin, Claudin b, Claudin c, Claudin 3, and ZO-1 (P valine did not have a significant effect on expression of Claudin 12 in the intestine of grass carp (P > 0.05). In conclusion, valine deficiency decreased fish growth and intestinal immune status, as well as regulated gene expression of tight junction proteins, NF-κB P65, IκBα and TOR in the fish intestine. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of lysozyme activity or PWG, the dietary valine requirement of young grass carp (268-679 g) were established to be 14.47 g kg(-1) diet (4.82 g 100 g(-1) CP) or 14.00 g kg(-1) diet (4.77 g 100 g(-1) CP), respectively.

  20. Functional implications of pigments bound to a cyanobacterial cytochrome b6f complex. (United States)

    Wenk, Stephan-Olav; Schneider, Dirk; Boronowsky, Ute; Jäger, Cornelia; Klughammer, Christof; de Weerd, Frank L; van Roon, Henny; Vermaas, Wim F J; Dekker, Jan P; Rögner, Matthias


    A highly purified cytochrome b(6)f complex from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 selectively binds one chlorophyll a and one carotenoid in analogy to the recent published structure from two other b(6)f complexes. The unknown function of these pigments was elucidated by spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis. Low-temperature redox difference spectroscopy showed red shifts in the chlorophyll and carotenoid spectra upon reduction of cytochrome b(6), which indicates coupling of these pigments with the heme groups and thereby with the electron transport. This is supported by the correlated kinetics of these redox reactions and also by the distinct orientation of the chlorophyll molecule with respect to the heme cofactors as shown by linear dichroism spectroscopy. The specific role of the carotenoid echinenone for the cytochrome b(6)f complex of Synechocystis 6803 was elucidated by a mutant lacking the last step of echinenone biosynthesis. The isolated mutant complex preferentially contained a carotenoid with 0, 1 or 2 hydroxyl groups (most likely 9-cis isomers of beta-carotene, a monohydroxy carotenoid and zeaxanthin, respectively) instead. This indicates a substantial role of the carotenoid - possibly for strucure and assembly - and a specificity of its binding site which is different from those in most other oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. In summary, both pigments are probably involved in the structure, but may also contribute to the dynamics of the cytochrome b(6)f complex.

  1. Efficacy of Vitamin B6 in the Treatment of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Maaroofi


    Full Text Available Background: Many etiological factors have been proposed for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PDD and different drugs and techniques have been suggested for its treatment. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of vitamin B6 in the treatment of PDD. Methods: In a randomized double-blind placebo controlled study, 121 Women, aged 20-45 years, who according to DSM-4 criteria, had PDD were randomly divided into two groups to receive orally either vitamin B6 (group A 40 mg twice daily during luteal phase of their menstrual cycle or starch as placebo. Vitamin B6 and starch both were prepared in gelatin capsules with the same shape and color. Emotional and somatic scores for the severity of PDD symptoms were determined and compared between the two groups. Results: Emotional score decreased significantly in group A compared to group B and basal value. No changes in somatic scores were observed. Conclusion: It seems that vitamin B6 is an effective drug for relief of emotional symptoms in PDD. Keywords: Premenstrual Dysphric Disorder, Vitamin B6, Premenstrual Tension.

  2. Inhibitory Effects of Garcinia cambogia Extract on CYP2B6 Enzyme Activity. (United States)

    Yu, Jun Sang; Choi, Min Sun; Park, Jong Suk; Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Nakamura, Katsunori; Yoo, Hye Hyun


    This study assessed the inhibitory effects of Garcinia cambogia extract on the cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro. G. cambogia extract was incubated with cytochrome P450 isozyme-specific substrates in human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP2B6 isozyme, and the formation of the marker metabolites was measured to investigate the inhibitory potential on cytochrome P450 enzyme activities. The results showed that G. cambogia extract has significant inhibitory effects on CYP2B6 activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the inhibition was potentiated following preincubation with NADPH, indicating that G. cambogia extract is a time-dependent inhibitor of CYP2B6. Meanwhile, hydroxycitric acid, the major bioactive ingredient of G. cambogia extract, did not exhibit significant inhibition effects on cytochrome P450 enzyme activities. G. cambogia extract could modulate the pharmacokinetics of CYP2B6 substrate drugs and lead to interactions with those drugs. Therefore, caution may be required with respect to concomitant intake of dietary supplements containing G. cambogia extract with CYP2B6 substrates.

  3. Effects of Maternal Dietary Restriction of Vitamin B-6 on Neocortex Development in Rats (United States)

    Groziak, Susan Marie

    The aim of this investigation was to quantitate the effects of a dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6 during gestation or gestation and lactation on neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation in the neocortex of rats. Sprague Dawley female rats were fed, ad libitum, a Vitamin B-6 free diet (AIN 76) supplemented with 0.0 or 0.6 mg pyridoxine (PN)/kg diet during gestation followed by a control level of 7.0 mg PN/kg diet during lactation, or were fed the Vitamin B-6 free diet supplemented with 0.6 or 7.0 mg PN/kg diet throughout gestation and lactation. The neocortex of progeny of these animals were examined at 30 days of age employing light and electron microscopy. Analyses of neurogenesis, neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons (size of somata, dendritic arborization and spine density in Golgi Cox preparations, and synaptic density in E.M. preparations) were conducted. Each of the Vitamin B-6 restricted treatments adversely affected neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation. The degree of adverse effects paralleled the severity (dose or duration) of the restriction imposed. Expressed as percentage reduction from control values, the findings indicated that neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons in the neocortex were more severely affected than neurogenesis by a maternal dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6.

  4. Transplanted Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Facilitate Lesion Repair in B6.Fas Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-ping Ruan


    Full Text Available Background. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multisystem disease that is characterized by the appearance of serum autoantibodies. No effective treatment for SLE currently exists. Methods. We used human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (H-UC-MSC transplantation to treat B6.Fas mice. Results. After four rounds of cell transplantation, we observed a statistically significant decrease in the levels of mouse anti-nuclear, anti-histone, and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies in transplanted mice compared with controls. The percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells in mouse peripheral blood significantly increased after H-UC-MSC transplantation. Conclusions. The results showed that H-UC-MSCs could repair lesions in B6.Fas mice such that all of the relevant disease indicators in B6.Fas mice were restored to the levels observed in normal C57BL/6 mice.

  5. Solid-state reaction synthesis and characterization of PrB6 nanocrystals (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Lihong, Bao; Yingjie, Li; Luomeng, Chao; Tegus, O.


    Crystalline PrB6 nanoparticles with the sizes ranging from 100~300 nm were synthesized by a solid-state reaction of Pr6O11/PrCl3 and NaBH4 in the temperature range of 1100~1200 °C. The crystal structure, component and morphology of the PrB6 nanoparticles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the particles crystallize in the CsCl structure type. The selected-area electron diffraction patterns reveal the particles have single-crystalline nature. XANES study shows that the Pr atoms in the PrB6 particles are in trivalent state even if the Pr atoms possess the mixed valence state in the raw material Pr6O11.

  6. Field emission from one-dimensional single-crystalline NdB6 nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Qinghua; ZHANG Qinyuan; ZHAO Yanming; DING Qiwei


    A facile catalysis-free method was utilized to synthesize functional neodymium hexaboride (NdB6) nanowires of single crystal using Nd powders and BCl3 as starting materials.The XRD pattern confirmed that a single phase NdB6 could be obtained.Raman-spectra elucidated the active vibrational modes of the hexaborides.The TEM images clearly showed that the hexaborides were submicron in size with a cubic morphology.The field emission of these one-dimensional NdB6 nanowires showed a low field emission turn-on (5.55 V/μm at a current density of 10 μA/cm2),and high current density with a field enhancement factor of 1037.The emission current density and the electric field followed the Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) relationship.The good performance for field emission was attributed to the single-crystalline structure and the nanowire geometry.

  7. Thermoelectric signals of state transition in polycrystalline SmB6 (United States)

    Yue, Z. J.; Chen, Q. J.; Wang, X. L.


    Topological Kondo insulator SmB6 has attracted quite a lot of attention from the condensed matter physics community. A number of unique electronic properties, including low-temperature resistivity anomaly, 1D electronic transport and 2D Fermi surfaces have been observed in SmB6. Here, we report on thermoelectric transport properties of polycrystalline SmB6 over a broad temperature from 300 to 2 K. An anomalous transition in the temperature-dependent Seebeck coefficient S from S(T) \\propto T -1 to S(T) \\propto T was observed around 12 K. Such a transition demonstrates a transition of conductivity from 3D metallic bulk states to 2D metallic surface states with insulating bulk states. Our results suggest that the thermotransport measurements could be used for the characterization of state transition in topological insulators.

  8. Intrinsic fluorescence spectra characteristics of vitamin B1, B2, and B6 (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Xiao, Xue; Zhao, Xuesong; Hu, Lan; Lv, Caofang; Yin, Zhangkun


    This paper presents the intrinsic fluorescence characteristics of vitamin B1, B2 and B6 measured with 3D fluorescence Spectrophotometer. Three strong fluorescence areas of vitamin B2 locate at λex/λem=270/525nm, 370/525nm and 450/525nm, one fluorescence areas of vitamin B1 locates at λex/λem=370/460nm, two fluorescence areas of vitamin B6 locates at λex/λem=250/370nm and 325/370nm were found. The influence of pH of solution to the fluorescence profile was also discussed. Using the PARAFAC algorithm, 10 vitamin B1, B2 and B6 mixed solutions were successfully decomposed, and the emission profiles, excitation profiles, central wavelengths and the concentration of the three components were retrieved precisely through about 5 iteration times.

  9. Surface functionalization of nanostructured LaB6-coated Poly Trilobal fabric by magnetron sputtering (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Zhang, Lin; Min, Guanghui; Yu, Huashun; Gao, Binghuan; Liu, Huihui; Xing, Shilong; Pang, Tao


    Nanostructured LaB6 films were deposited on flexible Poly Trilobal substrates (PET textiles) through direct current magnetron sputtering in order to broaden its applications and realize surface functionalization of polyester fabrics. Characterizations and performances were investigated by employing a scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer. Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) conducted by the integral conversion was employed to measure the ultraviolet protection ability. As expected, the growth of LaB6 film depending on the pressure variation enhanced UV-blocking ability (UPF rating at 30.17) and absorption intensity of the textiles.

  10. Pulsed magnetic field study of the spin gap in intermediate valence compound SmB 6 (United States)

    Flachbart, K.; Bartkowiak, M.; Demishev, S.; Gabani, S.; Glushkov, V.; Herrmannsdorfer, T.; Moshchalkov, V.; Shitsevalova, N.; Sluchanko, N.


    In this work, we report the behavior of electrical resistivity of SmB 6 at temperatures between 2.2 and 70 K in pulsed magnetic fields up to 54 T. A strong negative magnetoresistance was detected with increasing magnetic field, when lowering the temperature in the range T30 K is discussed within the framework of exciton-polaron model of local charge fluctuations in SmB 6 proposed by Kikoin and Mishchenko. It seems that these exciton-polaron in-gap states are influenced both by temperature and magnetic field.

  11. Severe sensorimotor neuropathy after intake of highest dosages of vitamin B6. (United States)

    Gdynia, Hans-Jürgen; Müller, Timo; Sperfeld, Anne-Dorte; Kühnlein, Peter; Otto, Markus; Kassubek, Jan; Ludolph, Albert C


    We illustrate a white caucasian patient with a severe sensorimotor neuropathy due to vitamin B6 hypervitaminosis. The patient used the pendulum to calculate his daily metabolic demands and ingested 9.6g pyridoxine/day. To our knowledge, this is the highest dosage of vitamin B6 administered to humans over prolonged periods of time ever reported in the medical literature. The unique aspect of this case is the muscle weakness and motor findings on electrophysiological testing in what is suggested by the literature to be a pure sensory neuronopathy.

  12. 22 CFR 9b.6 - Grounds for denial, revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes. (United States)


    ... of Department of State press building passes. 9b.6 Section 9b.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.6 Grounds for denial, revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes. In consultation with the Bureau...

  13. Nutritional Risk, Micronutrient Status and Clinical Outcomes: A Prospective Observational Study in an Infectious Disease Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguzhan Sıtkı Dizdar


    Full Text Available Malnutrition has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional status and micronutrient levels of hospitalized patients in an infectious disease clinic and investigate their association with adverse clinical outcomes. The nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002 and micronutrient levels and routine biochemical parameters were tested within the first 24 h of the patient’s admission. The incidence of zinc, selenium, thiamine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 deficiency were 66.7% (n = 40, 46.6% (n = 29, 39.7% (n = 27, 35.3% (n = 24, 14.1% (n = 9, respectively. Selenium levels were significantly higher in patients with urinary tract infections, but lower in soft tissue infections. Copper levels were significantly higher in patients with soft tissue infections. In the Cox regression models, lower albumin, higher serum lactate dehydrogenase levels and higher NRS-2002 scores were associated with increased death. Thiamine, selenium, zinc and vitamin B6 deficiencies but not chromium deficiencies are common in infectious disease clinics. New associations were found between micronutrient levels and infection type and their adverse clinical outcomes. Hypoalbuminemia and a high NRS-2002 score had the greatest accuracy in predicting death, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis on admission.

  14. CYP2B6*6 and CYP2B6*18 Predict Long-Term Efavirenz Exposure Measured in Hair Samples in HIV-Positive South African Women. (United States)

    Röhrich, Carola R; Drögemöller, Britt I; Ikediobi, Ogechi; van der Merwe, Lize; Grobbelaar, Nelis; Wright, Galen E B; McGregor, Nathaniel; Warnich, Louise


    Long-term exposure to efavirenz (EFV) measured in hair samples may predict response to antiretroviral treatment (ART). Polymorphisms in CYP2B6 are known to alter EFV levels. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between CYP2B6 genotype, EFV levels measured in hair, and virological outcomes on ART in a real-world setting. We measured EFV levels in hair from HIV-positive South African females who had been receiving EFV-based treatment for at least 3 months from the South African Black (SAB) (n = 81) and Cape Mixed Ancestry (CMA) (n = 53) populations. Common genetic variation in CYP2B6 was determined in 15 individuals from each population using bidirectional Sanger sequencing. Prioritized variants (n = 16) were subsequently genotyped in the entire patient cohort (n = 134). The predictive value of EFV levels in hair and selected variants in CYP2B6 on virological treatment outcomes was assessed. Previously described alleles (CYP2B6*2, CYP2B6*5, CYP2B6*6, CYP2B6*17, and CYP2B6*18), as well as two novel alleles (CYP2B6*31 and CYP2B6*32), were detected in this study. Compared to noncarriers, individuals homozygous for CYP2B6*6 had ∼109% increased EFV levels in hair (p = .016) and CYP2B6*18 heterozygotes demonstrated 82% higher EFV hair levels (p = .0006). This study confirmed that alleles affecting CYP2B6 metabolism and subsequent EFV exposure are present at significant frequencies in both the SAB and CMA populations. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the use of hair samples for testing EFV concentrations may be a useful tool in determining long-term drug exposure in resource-limited countries.

  15. Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma (United States)

    Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

  16. Recycling of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) by PUP1 in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Szydlowski, Nicolas; Bürkle, Lukas; Pourcel, Lucille; Moulin, Michael; Stolz, Jürgen; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B


    Vitamin B6 is a cofactor for more than 140 essential enzymatic reactions and was recently proposed as a potent antioxidant, playing a role in the photoprotection of plants. De novo biosynthesis of the vitamin has been described relatively recently and is derived from simple sugar precursors as well as glutamine. In addition, the vitamin can be taken up from exogenous sources in a broad range of organisms, including plants. However, specific transporters have been identified only in yeast. Here we assess the ability of the family of Arabidopsis purine permeases (PUPs) to transport vitamin B6. Several members of the family complement the growth phenotype of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain impaired in both de novo biosynthesis of vitamin B6 as well as its uptake. The strongest activity was observed with PUP1 and was confirmed by direct measurement of uptake in yeast as well as in planta, defining PUP1 as a high affinity transporter for pyridoxine. At the tissue level the protein is localised to hydathodes and here we use confocal microscopy to illustrate that at the cellular level it is targeted to the plasma membrane. Interestingly, we observe alterations in pyridoxine recycling from the guttation sap upon overexpression of PUP1 and in a pup1 mutant, consistent with the role of the protein in retrieval of pyridoxine. Furthermore, combining the pup1 mutant with a vitamin B6 de novo biosynthesis mutant (pdx1.3) corroborates that PUP1 is involved in the uptake of the vitamin.

  17. Ab initio calculations of the electronic structure and bonding characteristics of LaB6 (United States)

    Hossain, Faruque M.; Riley, Daniel P.; Murch, Graeme E.


    Lanthanum hexaboride ( LaB6 , NIST SRM-660a) is widely used as a standard reference material for calibrating the line position and line shape parameters of powder diffraction instruments. The accuracy of this calibration technique is highly dependent on how completely the reference material is characterized. Critical to x-ray diffraction, this understanding must include the valence of the La atomic position, which in turn will influence the x-ray form factor (f) and hence the diffracted intensities. The electronic structure and bonding properties of LaB6 have been investigated using ab initio plane-wave pseudopotential total energy calculations. The electronic properties and atomic bonding characteristics were analyzed by estimating the energy band structure and the density of states around the Fermi energy level. The calculated energy band structure is consistent with previously reported experimental findings; de Haas-van Alphen and two-dimensional angular correlation of electron-positron annihilation radiation. In addition, the bond strengths and types of atomic bonds in the LaB6 compound were estimated by analyzing the Mulliken charge density population. The calculated result revealed the coexistence of covalent, ionic, and metallic bonding in the LaB6 system and partially explains its high efficiency as a thermionic emitter.

  18. Loss of the EPH receptor B6 contributes to colorectal cancer metastasis (United States)

    Mateo-Lozano, Silvia; Bazzocco, Sarah; Rodrigues, Paulo; Mazzolini, Rocco; Andretta, Elena; Dopeso, Higinio; Fernández, Yolanda; del Llano, Edgar; Bilic, Josipa; Suárez-López, Lucía; Macaya, Irati; Cartón-García, Fernando; Nieto, Rocio; Jimenez-Flores, Lizbeth M.; de Marcondes, Priscila Guimarães; Nuñez, Yaiza; Afonso, Elsa; Cacci, Karina; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Landolfi, Stefania; Abasolo, Ibane; Ramón y Cajal, Santiago; Mariadason, John M.; Schwartz, Simo; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Arango, Diego


    Although deregulation of EPHB signaling has been shown to be an important step in colorectal tumorigenesis, the role of EPHB6 in this process has not been investigated. We found here that manipulation of EPHB6 levels in colon cancer cell lines has no effect on their motility and growth on a solid substrate, soft agar or in a xenograft mouse model. We then used an EphB6 knockout mouse model to show that EphB6 inactivation does not efficiently initiate tumorigenesis in the intestinal tract. In addition, when intestinal tumors are initiated genetically or pharmacologically in EphB6+/+ and EphB6−/− mice, no differences were observed in animal survival, tumor multiplicity, size or histology, and proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells or tumor cells. However, reintroduction of EPHB6 into colon cancer cells significantly reduced the number of lung metastasis after tail-vein injection in immunodeficient mice, while EPHB6 knockdown in EPHB6-expressing cells increased their metastatic spread. Consistently, although EPHB6 protein expression in a series of 130 primary colorectal tumors was not associated with patient survival, EPHB6 expression was significantly lower in lymph node metastases compared to primary tumors. Our results indicate that the loss of EPHB6 contributes to the metastatic process of colorectal cancer. PMID:28262839

  19. Studying the antiemetic effect of vitamin B6 for morning sickness: pyridoxine and pyridoxal are prodrugs. (United States)

    Matok, Ilan; Clark, Shannon; Caritis, Steve; Miodovnik, Menachem; Umans, Jason G; Hankins, Gary; Mattison, Donald R; Koren, Gideon


    Vitamin B6 has been known to possess antiemetic effects since 1942. This water soluble compound has several forms in the circulation including pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxal phosphate. The active antiemetic form of vitamin B6 is unknown. This was a pre-specified substudy of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing the antiemetic effect of the doxylamine-vitamin B6 combination (Diclectin®) (n = 131) to placebo (n = 126) in women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Serum concentrations of pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxal 5' phosphate (PLP) and doxylamine were measured on Days 4, 8, and 15. With Diclectin® exhibiting a significant antiemetic effect in pregnancy, serum concentrations of pyridoxine were unmeasurable in almost all patients and those of pyridoxal were undetectable in half of patients. In contrast, PLP was measurable at sustained, stable steady-state levels in all patients. Our data suggest that there is a correlation between PLP levels and PUQE score of morning sickness symptoms when pyridoxine and pyridoxal levels are undetectable, and hence they might be prodrugs of PLP, which may be the active antiemetic form of vitamin B6.

  20. 32 CFR 806b.6 - Systems of records operated by a contractor. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Systems of records operated by a contractor... ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Overview of the Privacy Act Program § 806b.6 Systems of records operated by a contractor. Contractors who are required to operate or maintain a Privacy Act system of records by...

  1. Disaccharidase deficiency. (United States)

    Bayless, T M; Christopher, N L


    This review of the literature and current knowledge concerning a nutritional disorder of disaccharidase deficiency discusses the following topics: 1) a description of disorders of disaccharide digestion; 2) some historical perspective on the laboratory and bedside advances in the past 10 years that have helped define a group of these digestive disorders; 3) a classification of conditions causing disaccharide intolerance; and 4) a discussion of some of the specific clinical syndromes emphasizing nutritional consequences of these syndromes. The syndromes described include congenital lactase deficiency, acquired lactase deficiency in teenagers and adults, acquired generalized disaccharidase deficiency secondary to diffuse mucosal damage, acquired lactose intolerance secondary to alterations in the intestinal transit, sucrase-isomaltase deficiencies, and other disease associations connected with lactase deficiency such as colitis.

  2. Genetic mapping of social interaction behavior in B6/MSM consomic mouse strains. (United States)

    Takahashi, Aki; Tomihara, Kazuya; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Koide, Tsuyoshi


    Genetic studies are indispensable for understanding the mechanisms by which individuals develop differences in social behavior. We report genetic mapping of social interaction behavior using inter-subspecific consomic strains established from MSM/Ms (MSM) and C57BL/6J (B6) mice. Two animals of the same strain and sex, aged 10 weeks, were introduced into a novel open-field for 10 min. Social contact was detected by an automated system when the distance between the centers of the two animals became less than approximately 12 cm. In addition, detailed behavioral observations were made of the males. The wild-derived mouse strain MSM showed significantly longer social contact as compared to B6. Analysis of the consomic panel identified two chromosomes (Chr 6 and Chr 17) with quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for lengthened social contact in MSM mice and two chromosomes (Chr 9 and Chr X) with QTL that inhibited social contact. Detailed behavioral analysis of males identified four additional chromosomes associated with social interaction behavior. B6 mice that contained Chr 13 from MSM showed more genital grooming and following than the parental B6 strain, whereas the presence of Chr 8 and Chr 12 from MSM resulted in a reduction of those behaviors. Longer social sniffing was observed in Chr 4 consomic strain than in B6 mice. Although the frequency was low, aggressive behavior was observed in a few pairs from consomic strains for Chrs 4, 13, 15 and 17, as well as from MSM. The social interaction test has been used as a model to measure anxiety, but genetic correlation analysis suggested that social interaction involves different aspects of anxiety than are measured by open-field test.

  3. N,N′-Bis(2-cyclohexylethylnaphtho[2,3-b:6,7-b′]dithiophene Diimides: Effects of Substituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Nakano


    Full Text Available Naphtho[2,3-b:6,7-b′]dithiophene-4,5,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (NDTI is a promising electron-deficient building block for n-type organic conductors, and the performance of NDTI-based field-effect transistors (FETs is largely dependent on the substituents that alter the supramolecular organization in the solid state and, in turn, the intermolecular orbital overlap. For this reason, the rational selection of substituent on imide nitrogen atoms and/or thiophene α-positions is the key to developing superior n-type organic semiconductors. We here report new NDTI derivatives having N-(2-cyclohexylethyl groups. Despite their one-dimensional packing structures in the solid state regardless of the presence or absence of chlorine groups at the thiophene α-positions, their FETs show promising performance with electron mobilities higher than 0.1 cm2·V−1·s−1 under ambient conditions. We also discuss how the cyclohexylethyl groups affect the packing structure in comparison with analogous n-octyl derivatives having the same number of carbon atoms.

  4. Attenuated pain response of obese mice (B6.Cg-lep(ob)) is affected by aging and leptin but not sex. (United States)

    Rodgers, Helen M; Liban, Suadi; Wilson, Linda M


    Genetically obese mice (B6.Cg-lep(ob)) manifest decreased responses to noxious thermal stimuli (hotplate test) suggesting endogenous analgesia (Roy et al., 1981). To examine further the analgesic response of these mice, we conducted 4 experiments. Experiment 1 assessed the response of ob/ob mice to tail flick, another noxious thermal test. Tail-flick testing was performed on B6.Cg-lep(ob) mice (n=14) and B6.Cg-lep(OB/?) (n=12) across a range of temperatures. Ob/ob mice exhibited longer latencies than control mice at all temperatures tested. In Experiment 2, potential sex differences were examined. Tail-flick latencies in male and female ob/ob mice (n=6/group) did not differ. The final 2 experiments examined factors that could modulate endogenous analgesia. Experiment 3 assessed the effects of aging in ob/ob mice (n=10/group). Older mice displayed longer tail-flick latencies than did younger mice. Experiment 4 examined the effect of leptin administration in the leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Two groups (n=10/group) of ob/ob mice received osmotic pump implants filled with either leptin or vehicle, and were tail-flick tested at days 7 and 14 post-implantation. Ob/ob mice receiving leptin showed shorter latencies than did vehicle-receiving ob/ob mice. Taken together, these results support earlier reports of heightened analgesia in ob/ob mice and suggest that aging further reduces the already impaired pain response. Furthermore, leptin deficiency partially contributes to decreased pain sensation of ob/ob mice.

  5. Pulsed laser-deposited nanocrystalline GdB6 thin films on W and Re as field emitters (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Sachin R.; Singh, Anil K.; Phase, Deodatta M.; Late, Dattatray J.; Sinha, Sucharita; More, Mahendra A.


    Gadolinium hexaboride (GdB6) nanocrystalline thin films were grown on tungsten (W), rhenium (Re) tips and foil substrates using optimized pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals formation of pure, crystalline cubic phase of GdB6 on W and Re substrates, under the prevailing PLD conditions. The field emission (FE) studies of GdB6/W and GdB6/Re emitters were performed in a planar diode configuration at the base pressure ~10-8 mbar. The GdB6/W and GdB6/Re tip emitters deliver high emission current densities of ~1.4 and 0.811 mA/cm2 at an applied field of ~6.0 and 7.0 V/µm, respectively. The Fowler-Nordheim ( F- N) plots were found to be nearly linear showing metallic nature of the emitters. The noticeably high values of field enhancement factor ( β) estimated using the slopes of the F- N plots indicate that the PLD GdB6 coating on W and Re substrates comprises of high-aspect-ratio nanostructures. Interestingly, the GdB6/W and GdB6/Re planar emitters exhibit excellent current stability at the preset values over a long-term operation, as compared to the tip emitters. Furthermore, the values of workfunction of the GdB6/W and GdB6/Re emitters, experimentally measured using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, are found to be same, ~1.6 ± 0.1 eV. Despite possessing same workfunction value, the FE characteristics of the GdB6/W emitter are markedly different from that of GdB6/Re emitter, which can be attributed to the growth of GdB6 films on W and Re substrates.

  6. Does vitamin D deficiency contribute to post-burn bone loss? [v1; ref status: indexed,

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    Gordon L Klein


    Full Text Available Burn injury results in the acute loss of bone as well as the development of progressive vitamin D deficiency. Bone loss occurs acutely due to resorption, which is then followed by apoptosis of osteoblasts preventing repair of the bone loss. The acute resorption is due to a combination of the inflammatory response and the stress response to the burn injury. The resultant production of inflammatory cytokines and endogenous glucocorticoids initially stimulate the osteoblasts to produce RANK ligand, which stimulates marrow stem cell differentiation into osteoclasts. As the stress response persists for approximately one year post-burn the glucocorticoids produced by the body will cause osteoblast apoptosis and adynamic bone, impairing the ability of bone to recover its resorptive losses. The vitamin D deficiency is due to the failure to supplement the diet of burn patients with vitamin D on discharge from hospital and to failure of the skin to make normal quantities of vitamin D on sunlight exposure. Because the bone resorption can be prevented by the acute administration of bisphosphonates it is unlikely that vitamin D deficiency is responsible for the early-onset bone loss following burns. However, because a deficit in trabecular bone remains for at least two years post-burn, it is possible that vitamin D deficiency prevents the recovery of trabecular bone density over the long term.

  7. Brain docosahexaenoic acid status and learning in young rats submitted to dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency and supplementation limited to lactation. (United States)

    García-Calatayud, Salvador; Redondo, Carlos; Martín, Eva; Ruiz, José Ignacio; García-Fuentes, Miguel; Sanjurjo, Pablo


    N-3 fatty acid deficiency has been related to decreased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and increased docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) levels in brain and to learning disadvantages. The influence of n-3 deficiency and supplementation on brain fatty acids and learning were investigated in young rats. Newborn Wistar rats were assigned to three groups of cross-foster mothers. The control group (C) was nursed by mothers that received essential fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation, and the deficient group (D) was nursed by mothers that did not receive those fatty acids. The supplemental group (S) had the same conditions as D, receiving an additional DHA and arachidonic acid supplement during lactation. Cerebral cortex and hippocampus fatty acid composition was examined using thin-layer and capillary column gas chromatography, and learning was measured by passive-avoidance procedure. D brains showed low DHA and high DPA levels, but S brain composition was similar to C. Learning in the S group was unaffected, but in the D group, it was poorer than C. Learning was directly correlated with DHA levels and inversely with DPA levels in brain. Low DHA and high DPA brain levels both were correlated with poor learning. DPA seems not to be a suitable brain functional analogue of DHA, and DHA supplementation reversed both biochemical and learning adverse effects observed in n-3 deficiency.

  8. Equine cytochrome P450 2B6 — Genomic identification, expression and functional characterization with ketamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, L.M.; Demmel, S. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Pusch, G.; Buters, J.T.M. [ZAUM — Center of Allergy and Environment, Helmholtz Zentrum München/Technische Universität München, Biedersteiner Str. 29, 80802 München (Germany); Thormann, W. [Clinical Pharmacology Laboratory, Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Murtenstrasse 35, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Zielinski, J. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Leeb, T. [Institute of Genetics, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Bremgartenstr. 109, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Mevissen, M. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Schmitz, A., E-mail: [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)


    Ketamine is an anesthetic and analgesic regularly used in veterinary patients. As ketamine is almost always administered in combination with other drugs, interactions between ketamine and other drugs bear the risk of either adverse effects or diminished efficacy. Since cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play a pivotal role in the phase I metabolism of the majority of all marketed drugs, drug–drug interactions often occur at the active site of these enzymes. CYPs have been thoroughly examined in humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about equine CYPs. The characterization of equine CYPs is essential for a better understanding of drug metabolism in horses. We report annotation, cloning and heterologous expression of the equine CYP2B6 in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. After computational annotation of all CYP2B genes, the coding sequence (CDS) of equine CYP2B6 was amplified by RT-PCR from horse liver total RNA and revealed an amino acid sequence identity of 77% and a similarity of 93.7% to its human ortholog. A non-synonymous variant c.226G>A in exon 2 of the equine CYP2B6 was detected in 97 horses. The mutant A-allele showed an allele frequency of 82%. Two further variants in exon 3 were detected in one and two horses of this group, respectively. Transfected V79 cells were incubated with racemic ketamine and norketamine as probe substrates to determine metabolic activity. The recombinant equine CYP2B6 N-demethylated ketamine to norketamine and produced metabolites of norketamine, such as hydroxylated norketamines and 5,6-dehydronorketamine. V{sub max} for S-/and R-norketamine formation was 0.49 and 0.45 nmol/h/mg cellular protein and K{sub m} was 3.41 and 2.66 μM, respectively. The N-demethylation of S-/R-ketamine was inhibited concentration-dependently with clopidogrel showing an IC{sub 50} of 5.63 and 6.26 μM, respectively. The functional importance of the recorded genetic variants remains to be explored. Equine CYP2B6 was determined to be a CYP

  9. [Metabolic disorders and nutritional status in autoimmune thyroid diseases]. (United States)

    Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena


    In recent years, the authors of epidemiological studies have documented that autoimmune diseases are a major problem of modern society and are classified as diseases of civilization. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are caused by an abnormal immune response to autoantigens present in the thyroid gland - they often coexist with other autoimmune diseases. The most common dysfunctions of the thyroid gland are hypothyroidism, Graves-Basedow disease and Hashimoto's disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis can be the main cause of primary hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland. Anthropometric, biochemical and physicochemical parameters are used to assess the nutritional status during the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. Patients with hypothyroidism are often obese, whereas patients with hyperthyroidism are often afflicted with rapid weight loss. The consequence of obesity is a change of the thyroid hormones' activity; however, weight reduction leads to their normalization. The activity and metabolic rate of thyroid hormones are modifiable. ATDs are associated with abnormalities of glucose metabolism and thus increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2. Celiac disease (CD) also increases the risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. Malnutrition or the presence of numerous nutritional deficiencies in a patient's body can be the cause of thyroid disorders. Coexisting deficiencies of such elements as iodine, iron, selenium and zinc may impair the function of the thyroid gland. Other nutrient deficiencies usually observed in patients suffering from ATD are: protein deficiencies, vitamin deficiencies (A, C, B6, B5, B1) and mineral deficiencies (phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium). Proper diet helps to reduce the symptoms of the disease, maintains a healthy weight and prevents the occurrence of malnutrition. This article presents an overview of selected documented studies and scientific reports on the relationship of metabolic

  10. Potent inhibition of cytochrome P450 2B6 by sibutramine in human liver microsomes. (United States)

    Bae, Soo Hyeon; Kwon, Min Jo; Choi, Eu Jin; Zheng, Yu Fen; Yoon, Kee Dong; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Bae, Soo Kyung


    The present study was performed to evaluate the potency and specificity of sibutramine as an inhibitor of the activities of nine human CYP isoforms in liver microsomes. Using a cocktail assay, the effects of sibutramine on specific marker reactions of the nine CYP isoforms were measured in human liver microsomes. Sibutramine showed potent inhibition of CYP2B6-mediated bupropion 6-hydroxylation with an IC50 value of 1.61μM and Ki value of 0.466μM in a competitive manner at microsomal protein concentrations of 0.25mg/ml; this was 3.49-fold more potent than the typical CYP2B6 inhibitor thio-TEPA (Ki=1.59μM). In addition, sibutramine slightly inhibited CYP2C19 activity (Ki=16.6μM, noncompetitive inhibition) and CYP2D6 activity (Ki=15.7μM, noncompetitive inhibition). These observations indicated 35.6- and 33.7-fold decreases in inhibition potency, respectively, compared with that of CYP2B6 by sibutramine. However, no inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, or CYP2E1 activities was observed. In addition, the CYP2B6 inhibitory potential of sibutramine was enhanced at a lower microsomal protein concentration of 0.05mg/ml. After 30min preincubation of human liver microsomes with sibutramine in the presence of NADPH, no shift in IC50 was observed in terms of inhibition of the activities of the nine CYPs, suggesting that sibutramine is not a time-dependent inactivator. These observations suggest that sibutramine is a selective and potent inhibitor of CYP2B6 in vitro, whereas inhibition of other CYPs is substantially lower. These in vitro data support the use of sibutramine as a well-known inhibitor of CYP2B6 for routine screening of P450 reversible inhibition when human liver microsomes are used as the enzyme source.

  11. Antepartum Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Nakajima


    Full Text Available Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD is the most common type urea cycle enzyme deficiencies. This syndrome results from a deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme ornithine transcarbamylase, which catalyzes the conversion of ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate to citrullin. Our case was a 28-year-old female diagnosed with OTCD following neurocognitive deficit during her first pregnancy. Although hyperammonemia was suspected as the cause of the patient's mental changes, there was no evidence of chronic liver disease. Plasma amino acid and urine organic acid analysis revealed OTCD. After combined modality treatment with arginine, sodium benzoate and hemodialysis, the patient's plasma ammonia level stabilized and her mental status returned to normal. At last she recovered without any damage left.

  12. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.


    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected. Howeve

  13. Hygienic risk assessment of children with somatic health problems associated with vitamin deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.J. Ustinova


    Full Text Available A study of the seasonal provision of children attending pre-school organizations that implement the standard artificial diet fortification with vitamins A, C, D, E, В 6 and B 12 was performed. It was found that 75–85 % of children have a yearround vitamin deficiency and 40 % cases have the status of polyhypovitaminose. In autumn and winter the provision of children with vitamins corresponds to the physiological needs, but in the spring months 70 % of children have a deficit in vitamin C, and 15 % – in vitamin A. Even in autumn, every third child has a deficiency in vitamin B6, and every tenth – in vitamin D; in the spring the number of children with insufficient provision of these vitamins increases in 1.8–6.3 times. Half of the children, who attend pre-school organizations, have year-round vitamin B12 deficiency. Deficiency of vitamins up to 3 times increases the risk of developing disorders of physical development of children, dysfunction processes of vascular tone regulation and autonomic reactivity, and the incidence of chronic diseases of children is increased in 1.3–2.2 times.

  14. Magnetic Properties of Nd8Fe83Co3B6 Nanocomposite Magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The influence of quenching technology, annealing temperature and time on the structures and magnetic properties of Nd8Fe83Co3B6 nanocomposite magnets was investigated. The results show that the α-Fe/Nd2Fe14B nanocomposite magnet containing a small amount of B is difficult to form amorphous state. The magnetic properties of 26 m/s quenched Nd8Fe83Co3B6 powders annealed at 640℃×480 s reach iHc=513 kA/m, Br=1.05 T and (BH)max=92.0 kJ/m3. The grain size is Dα-Fe=21.5 nm and DNd2Fe14B=30.2 nm.

  15. Vitamin B1 and B6 in the malaria parasite: requisite or dispensable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wrenger


    Full Text Available Vitamins are essential compounds mainly involved in acting as enzyme co-factors or in response to oxidative stress. In the last two years it became apparent that apicomplexan parasites are able to generate B vitamers such as vitamin B1 and B6 de novo. The biosynthesis pathways responsible for vitamin generation are considered as drug targets, since both provide a high degree of selectivity due to their absence in the human host. This report updates the current knowledge about vitamin B1 and B6 biosynthesis in malaria and other apicomplexan parasites. Owing to the urgent need for novel antimalarials, the significance of the biosynthesis and salvage of these vitamins is critically discussed in terms of parasite survival and their exploitation for drug development.

  16. Pressure effect on the long-range order in CeB6 (United States)

    Sera, M.; Ikeda, S.; Iwakubo, H.; Uwatoko, Y.; Hane, S.; Kosaka, M.; Kunii, S.


    The pressure effect of CeB6 was investigated. The pressure dependence of the Néel temperature, TN and the critical field from the antiferro-magnetic phase III to antiferro-quadrupolar phase II, HcIII-II of CeB6 exhibits the unusual pressure dependence that the suppression rate of HcIII-II is much larger than that of TN. In order to explain this unusual result, we have performed the mean field calculation for the 4-sublattice model assuming that the pressure dependence of TN, the antiferro-octupolar and quadrupolar temperatures, Toct and TQ as follows; dTN/dPdTQ/dP>0 and could explain the unusual pressure dependence of TN and HcIII-II.

  17. Electronic structure and optical properties of boron suboxide B6O system: First-principles investigations (United States)

    Wang, Jinjin; Wang, Zhanyu; Jing, Yueyue; Wang, Songyou; Chou, Che-Fu; Hu, Han; Chiou, Shan-Haw; Tsoo, Chia-Chin; Su, Wan-Sheng


    The structural, mechanical, electronic, and optical properties of B6O were explored by means of first-principles calculations. Such a system is mechanically stable and also a relatively hard material which are derived from obtained elastic constants and bulk moduli. Bulk B6O is a direct-gap semiconductor with a bandgap of about 2.93 eV within G0W0 approximation. Furthermore, the optical properties, such as real and imaginary parts of dielectric functions, refractive index and extinction coefficient, and the comparison of optical properties between the density-functional theory (DFT) and G0W0 Bethe-Salpeter equation (G0W0-BSE) results, were computed and discussed. The results obtained from our calculations open a possibility for expanding its use in device applications.

  18. Preventive Effect of Vitamin B6 on Developmental Toxicity of Carbamazepine in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Afshar


    Full Text Available Objective(sCarbamazepine (CBZ is an antiepileptic drug that is used widely for the treatment of epileptic seizures. Neural tube defects (NTDs, growth retardation, and nail hypoplasia are the most common features of teratogenic effects of this drug. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin B6 on the developmental toxicity of CBZ on mice.Materials and MethodsSixty BALB/c pregnant mice were divided into four experimental and two control groups. Two experimental groups received daily intraperitoneal injection (IP of 30 mg/kg (I or 60 mg/kg (II of CBZ on gestational days (GD 6 to 15. Two other experimental groups received daily IP injection of 30 mg/kg (III or 60 mg/kg (IV of CBZ with 10 mg/kg/day vitamin B6 by gavage 10 days prior to gestation and on GD 6 to 15. Two control groups received normal saline or Tween 20. Dams underwent Cesarean section on GD 18 and embryos were harvested. External/macroscopic observation of fetuses was done by stereomicroscope and external examination for malformations was recorded. Data analyzed by ANOVA and X2 test using SPSS software.ResultsThe mean weight and crown-rump of the fetuses in both CBZ-treated experimental groups were significantly reduced compared with those of the control groups. Various malformations were detected such as brachygnathia, eye malformations, NTDs, vertebral deformity, brachydactyly and growth retardation. Vitamin B6 treatment significantly reduced various CBZ-induced malformations.ConclusionThis study showed that vitamin B6 has a preventive effect on the developmental toxicity of CBZ in mice that can be pursued further for clinical research.

  19. Concise review: transplantation of cultured oral mucosal epithelial cells for treating limbal stem cell deficiency-current status and future perspectives. (United States)

    Utheim, Tor Paaske


    A number of diseases and external factors can deplete limbal stem cells, causing pain and visual loss. Ten years have passed since the first transplantation of cultured oral mucosal epithelial cells in humans, representing the first autologous cell-based therapy for severe bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency. Its steady increase in popularity since then can be attributed to the accumulating evidence of its efficacy in reverting limbal stem cell deficiency. In this review, the focus is on clinical, and to a lesser degree laboratory, features of cultured oral mucosal epithelial transplants over the past 10 years. Comparisons with other available technologies are made. Avenues for research to stimulate further improvements in clinical results and allow worldwide distribution of limbal stem cell therapy based on oral mucosal cells are discussed. These include storage and transportation of cultured oral mucosal epithelial sheets and in vivo culture of oral mucosal epithelial cells.

  20. Additional energy scale in SmB6 at low-temperature (United States)

    Jiao, L.; Rößler, S.; Kim, D. J.; Tjeng, L. H.; Fisk, Z.; Steglich, F.; Wirth, S.


    Topological insulators give rise to exquisite electronic properties because of their spin-momentum locked Dirac-cone-like band structure. Recently, it has been suggested that the required opposite parities between valence and conduction band along with strong spin-orbit coupling can be realized in correlated materials. Particularly, SmB6 has been proposed as candidate material for a topological Kondo insulator. Here we observe, by utilizing scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy down to 0.35 K, several states within the hybridization gap of about +/-20 meV on well characterized (001) surfaces of SmB6. The spectroscopic response to impurities and magnetic fields allows to distinguish between dominating bulk and surface contributions to these states. The surface contributions develop particularly strongly below about 7 K, which can be understood in terms of a suppressed Kondo effect at the surface. Our high-resolution data provide insight into the electronic structure of SmB6, which reconciles many current discrepancies on this compound.

  1. Magnetic and nonmagnetic doping dependence of the conducting surface states in Sm B6 (United States)

    Kang, B. Y.; Min, Chul-Hee; Lee, S. S.; Song, M. S.; Cho, K. K.; Cho, B. K.


    Kondo insulator Sm B6 has attracted attention because it can realize new topological phenomena driven by the interplay between strong correlation effect and topology. However, its topological nature is still under debate. To examine the topological aspect, we demonstrate the nonmagnetic La and magnetic Ce doping dependence of the resistance of Sm B6 . Moreover, the resistance ratios of different thicknesses are analyzed to confirm the surface contribution. Lightly doped La samples show a purely conducting surface region at low temperature, whereas the lightly doped Ce samples do not have any conducting region at low temperature. Furthermore, based on the analysis of the electrical transport data of S m1 -xL axB6 (0.0 ≤x ≤1.0 ), an electronic phase diagram was found, composed of four regions: region I (0.0 ≤x ≤0.06 ), II (0.1 ≤x ≤0.15 ), III (x ≈0.2 ) , and IV (0.25 ≤x ≤1.0 ). Region I is characterized by the presence of conducting surface states, region II is characterized by the insulating phase due to the d -f hybridization gap without the conducting surface state, region III is characterized by the disappearance of the d -f hybridization gap and the existence of valence fluctuation, and region IV is a typical metallic state.

  2. High pressure structural and magnetic studies of LaFe12B6 (United States)

    Diop, L. V. B.; Isnard, O.; Arnold, Z.; Itié, J. P.; Kastil, J.; Kamarad, J.


    The study of the structural and magnetic properties of LaFe12B6 under high pressure has been performed by combining angle-dispersive x-ray powder diffraction at room temperature up to 14 GPa and magnetization measurements up to 1 GPa. At ambient pressure, the itinerant-electron compound LaFe12B6 exhibits an antiferromagnetic ground state below TN=36 K. It is demonstrated that the antiferromagnetic state can be transformed into a ferromagnetic state via a field-induced first-order metamagnetic transition accompanied with a large magnetic hysteresis. The x-ray diffraction measurements under pressure reveal that the ambient pressure crystal structure of LaFe12B6 is preserved up to 14 GPa with a decrease of the unit cell parameters. A compressibility value of κ=4.90 10-3 GPa-1 has been determined. The application of an external pressure leads also to the progressive decrease of the Néel temperature dTN/dP=-4.5 K GPa-1. In addition a large pressure effect on the critical field μ0Hcr of the metamagnetic transition, dμ0Hcr/dP=24 T GPa-1, was discovered. This clearly indicates the crucial role of volume effect on the itinerant-electron metamagnetic transition.

  3. Characterization of the estrogen receptor transfected MCF10A breast cell line 139B6. (United States)

    Pilat, M J; Christman, J K; Brooks, S C


    There has been increasing evidence which suggests that abnormal expression of the estrogen receptor (ER) protein in nonmalignant breast tissue may be important in the carcinogenic process. To examine the effects of ER expression in immortalized nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells, an expression vector containing human ER cDNA was transfected into the ER negative human breast cells, MCF10A. Characterization of a clone stably expressing ER, 139B6, provided evidence for the regulated synthesis of a functional ER capable of binding estradiol-17 beta (E2) and undergoing processing. Expression of the ER gene did not enable E2 to stimulate endogenous genes [progesterone receptor (PgR), pS2, cathepsin D and TGF alpha] which normally respond to estrogens in breast cancer cells. The ER in 139B6 cells was, however, capable of inducing expression of an ERE-regulated reporter gene, indicating its ability to interact with transcriptional machinery. Furthermore, cultures in log growth displayed a slight increase in doubling time in the presence of E2. These results indicate that ER expression alone is not sufficient to induce a transformed phenotype. Thus, the 139B6 cell line should provide a new model for determining what additional changes lead to increased growth potential in response to E2 and for exploring how E2 itself may help bring about changes leading to progression of preneoplastic breast epithelial cells.

  4. Dependence of characteristics of LaB6 films on DC magnetron sputtering power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing; MIN Guang-hui; HU Li-jie; ZHAO Xiao-hua; YU Hua-shun


    Lanthanum hexaboride(LaB6) thin films were deposited on glass substrate by DC magnetron sputtering technology, and the AFM, XRD and scratch tests were used to characterize the deposited films. Influences of sputtering power on the microstructure and the bonding strength between the film and substrate were investigated. AFM observation proves that the dense films are obtained, and the surface roughness is below 4.3 nm. The LaB6 film shows the crystalline structure with the grain less than 100 nm. The XRD pattern identifies that the crystal structure of the films is in accordance with that of bulk LaB6, and the (100) crystal face is dominated. The average grain size decreases firstly and then increases with increasing power, and reaches the minimum of 40 nm when the sputtering power is 44 W. Moreover, the intensity of peaks in XRD pattern increases firstly and decreases afterward with increasing power. When the sputtering power is 50 W, the peak intensity reaches the maximum, showing an intense relationship between the power and crystal structures. The scratch test shows that interface bonding strength of the film/substrate is higher at the power of 44 W than the others, due to the formation of the nanosized crystals and their improved surface energy.

  5. The energy spread of a LaB6 cathode operated in the virtual source mode (United States)

    Wells, T.; El-Gomati, M.


    The LaB6 cathode has been the brightest thermionic source used in microprobe applications requiring longer lifetime [1-2]. It is x100 lower in brightness than thermal field emitters (TFE) ca Zr/W (100) [3]. There are attractive similarities between these cathodes in terms of work function and operating temperature that are worth considering. Major differences include their respective source sizes (>10μm vs 30nm) and energy spread of 1-2 eV vs 0.6-0.7eV for the LaB6 and TFE, respectively [4,3]. We report here on the experimental measurement of the energy spread of a LaB6 cathode operated in the virtual source mode. The cathode used has an end-form measuring 15μm. Total energy spread values obtained using a dedicated electron energy analyser shows values of 0.4eV-0.7eV, significantly lower than typical values in the thermionic mode of 1-2eV.

  6. PLP and PMP radicals: a new paradigm in coenzyme B6 chemistry. (United States)

    Agnihotri, G; Liu, H W


    Enzymes frequently rely on a broad repertoire of cofactors to perform chemically challenging transformations. The B6 coenzymes, composed of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP), are used by many transaminases, racemases, decarboxylases, and enzymes catalyzing alpha,beta and beta,gamma-eliminations. Despite the variety of reactions catalyzed by B6-dependent enzymes, the mechanism of almost all such enzymes is based on their ability to stabilize high-energy anionic intermediates in their reaction pathways by the pyridinium moiety of PLP/PMP. However, there are two notable exceptions to this model, which are discussed in this article. The first enzyme, lysine 2,3-aminomutase, is a PLP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of L-lysine to L-beta-lysine using a one-electron-based mechanism utilizing a [4Fe-4S] cluster and S-adenosylmethionine. The second enzyme, CDP-6-deoxy-L-threo-D-glycero-4-hexulose-3-dehydrase, is a PMP-dependent enzyme involved in the formation of 3,6-dideoxysugars in bacteria. This enzyme also contains an iron-sulfur cluster and uses a one-electron based mechanism to catalyze removal of a C-3 hydroxy group from a 4-hexulose. In both cases, the participation of free radicals in the reaction pathway has been established, placing these two B6-dependent enzymes in an exclusive class by themselves.

  7. The CYP2B6*6 allele significantly alters the N-demethylation of ketamine enantiomers in vitro. (United States)

    Li, Yibai; Coller, Janet K; Hutchinson, Mark R; Klein, Kathrin; Zanger, Ulrich M; Stanley, Nathan J; Abell, Andrew D; Somogyi, Andrew A


    Ketamine is primarily metabolized to norketamine by hepatic CYP2B6 and CYP3A4-mediated N-demethylation. However, the relative contribution from each enzyme remains controversial. The CYP2B6*6 allele is associated with reduced enzyme expression and activity that may lead to interindividual variability in ketamine metabolism. We examined the N-demethylation of individual ketamine enantiomers using human liver microsomes (HLMs) genotyped for the CYP2B6*6 allele, insect cell-expressed recombinant CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 enzymes, and COS-1 cell-expressed recombinant CYP2B6.1 and CYP2B6.6 protein variant. Effects of CYP-selective inhibitors on norketamine formation were also determined in HLMs. The two-enzyme Michaelis-Menten model best fitted the HLM kinetic data. The Michaelis-Menten constants (K(m)) for the high-affinity enzyme and the low-affinity enzyme were similar to those for the expressed CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, respectively. The intrinsic clearance for both ketamine enantiomers by the high-affinity enzyme in HLMs with CYP2B6*1/*1 genotype were at least 2-fold and 6-fold higher, respectively, than those for CYP2B6*1/*6 genotype and CYP2B6*6/*6 genotype. The V(max) and K(m) values for CYP2B6.1 were approximately 160 and 70% of those for CYP2B6.6, respectively. N,N'N'-triethylenethiophosphoramide (thioTEPA) (CYP2B6 inhibitor, 25 μM) and the monoclonal antibody against CYP2B6 but not troleandomycin (CYP3A4 inhibitor, 25 μM) or the monoclonal antibody against CYP3A4 inhibited ketamine N-demethylation at clinically relevant concentrations. The degree of inhibition was significantly reduced in HLMs with the CYP2B6*6 allele (gene-dose P < 0.05). These results indicate a major role of CYP2B6 in ketamine N-demethylation in vitro and a significant impact of the CYP2B6*6 allele on enzyme-ketamine binding and catalytic activity.

  8. Glutamine supplementation in a child with inherited GS deficiency improves the clinical status and partially corrects the peripheral and central amino acid imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häberle Johannes


    Full Text Available Abstract Glutamine synthetase (GS is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian organisms and is a key enzyme in nitrogen metabolism. It is the only known enzyme capable of synthesising glutamine, an amino acid with many critical roles in the human organism. A defect in GLUL, encoding for GS, leads to congenital systemic glutamine deficiency and has been described in three patients with epileptic encephalopathy. There is no established treatment for this condition. Here, we describe a therapeutic trial consisting of enteral and parenteral glutamine supplementation in a four year old patient with GS deficiency. The patient received increasing doses of glutamine up to 1020 mg/kg/day. The effect of this glutamine supplementation was monitored clinically, biochemically, and by studies of the electroencephalogram (EEG as well as by brain magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Treatment was well tolerated and clinical monitoring showed improved alertness. Concentrations of plasma glutamine normalized while levels in cerebrospinal fluid increased but remained below the lower reference range. The EEG showed clear improvement and spectroscopy revealed increasing concentrations of glutamine and glutamate in brain tissue. Concomitantly, there was no worsening of pre-existing chronic hyperammonemia. In conclusion, supplementation of glutamine is a safe therapeutic option for inherited GS deficiency since it corrects the peripheral biochemical phenotype and partially also improves the central biochemical phenotype. There was some clinical improvement but the patient had a long standing severe encephalopathy. Earlier supplementation with glutamine might have prevented some of the neuronal damage.

  9. Glutamine supplementation in a child with inherited GS deficiency improves the clinical status and partially corrects the peripheral and central amino acid imbalance. (United States)

    Häberle, Johannes; Shahbeck, Noora; Ibrahim, Khalid; Schmitt, Bernhard; Scheer, Ianina; O'Gorman, Ruth; Chaudhry, Farrukh A; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg


    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian organisms and is a key enzyme in nitrogen metabolism. It is the only known enzyme capable of synthesising glutamine, an amino acid with many critical roles in the human organism. A defect in GLUL, encoding for GS, leads to congenital systemic glutamine deficiency and has been described in three patients with epileptic encephalopathy. There is no established treatment for this condition.Here, we describe a therapeutic trial consisting of enteral and parenteral glutamine supplementation in a four year old patient with GS deficiency. The patient received increasing doses of glutamine up to 1020 mg/kg/day. The effect of this glutamine supplementation was monitored clinically, biochemically, and by studies of the electroencephalogram (EEG) as well as by brain magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy.Treatment was well tolerated and clinical monitoring showed improved alertness. Concentrations of plasma glutamine normalized while levels in cerebrospinal fluid increased but remained below the lower reference range. The EEG showed clear improvement and spectroscopy revealed increasing concentrations of glutamine and glutamate in brain tissue. Concomitantly, there was no worsening of pre-existing chronic hyperammonemia.In conclusion, supplementation of glutamine is a safe therapeutic option for inherited GS deficiency since it corrects the peripheral biochemical phenotype and partially also improves the central biochemical phenotype. There was some clinical improvement but the patient had a long standing severe encephalopathy. Earlier supplementation with glutamine might have prevented some of the neuronal damage.

  10. Plasma Levels of Folates, Riboflavin, Vitamin B6, and Ascorbate in Severely Disturbed Children. (United States)

    Sankar, D. V. Siva


    The plasma levels of folic acid, ascorbic acid, pyridoxine, and riboflavin were studied in 125 severely emotionally disturbed children (ages 5-16 years) to determine whether they had overt vitamin deficiencies. (Author/DLS)

  11. High-throughput screening assays for CYP2B6 metabolism and inhibition using fluorogenic vivid substrates. (United States)

    Marks, Bryan D; Goossens, Tony A; Braun, Heidi A; Ozers, Mary S; Smith, Ronald W; Lebakken, Connie; Trubetskoy, Olga V


    CYP2B6 is a highly polymorphic P450 isozyme involved in the metabolism of endo- and xenobiotics with known implications for the activation of many procarcinogens resulting in carcinogenesis. However, lack of validated high-throughput screening (HTS) CYP2B6 assays has limited the current understanding and full characterization of this isozyme's involvement in human drug metabolism. Here, we have developed and characterized a fluorescence-based HTS assay employing recombinant human CYP2B6 and 2 novel fluorogenic substrates (the Vivid CYP2B6 Blue and Cyan Substrates). Assay validation included testing the inhibitory potency of a panel of drugs and compounds known to be metabolized by this isozyme, including CYP2B6 substrates, inhibitors, and known inducers. Compound rankings based on inhibitory potency in the Vivid CYP2B6 Blue and Cyan Assays matched compound rankings based on relative affinity measurements from previously published data (K(i), K(d), or K(m) values) for the CYP2B6 isozyme. In conclusion, these assays are proven to be robust and sensitive, with broad dynamic ranges and kinetic parameters allowing screening in HTS mode of a large panel of compounds for CYP2B6 metabolism and inhibition, and are a valuable new tool for CYP2B6 studies.

  12. Nutritional and psychological status of young women after a short-term use of a triphasic contraceptive steroid preparation. (United States)

    Massé, P G; Van den Berg, H; Livingstone, M M; Duguay, C; Beaulieu, G


    The present study was aimed to assess the psychological status of young healthy women after the administration of a triphasic contraceptive steroid preparation for six complete menstrual cycles. Subjects had never used oral contraceptives (OC) and had neither a familial history of depression nor psychological disturbances. OC-induced psychological disturbances were interpreted for years as evidence of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency. Other nutritional deficiencies, namely in cobalamin, folate and iron, can disturb the functioning of the central nervous system. In addition, a deficiency of any of these nutrients can lead to several anemia-induced symptoms that are highly susceptible to influence the psychological status. For ample evidence, nutritional status was then evaluated in parallel to psychological testing. Blood iron and vitamin levels of interest were found to be adequate and could not have biased the response to a psychological test (MMPI). This study showed that a 6-month Triphasil treatment did not modify significantly the psychological status of subjects. To our knowledge, this is the first psychological study on young never OC-users taking an identical triphasic contraceptive steroid preparation to investigate early psychological side-effects due to OC, at a similar time of the menstrual cycle, when nutritional status was also evaluated.

  13. Iron deficiency. (United States)

    Scrimshaw, N S


    The world's leading nutritional problem is iron deficiency. 66% of children and women aged 15-44 years in developing countries have it. Further, 10-20% of women of childbearing age in developed countries are anemic. Iron deficiency is identified with often irreversible impairment of a child's learning ability. It is also associated with low capacity for adults to work which reduces productivity. In addition, it impairs the immune system which reduces the body's ability to fight infection. Iron deficiency also lowers the metabolic rate and the body temperature when exposed to cold. Hemoglobin contains nearly 73% of the body's iron. This iron is always being recycled as more red blood cells are made. The rest of the needed iron does important tasks for the body, such as binds to molecules that are reservoirs of oxygen for muscle cells. This iron comes from our diet, especially meat. Even though some plants, such as spinach, are high in iron, the body can only absorb 1.4-7% of the iron in plants whereas it can absorb 20% of the iron in red meat. In many developing countries, the common vegetarian diets contribute to high rates of iron deficiency. Parasitic diseases and abnormal uterine bleeding also promote iron deficiency. Iron therapy in anemic children can often, but not always, improve behavior and cognitive performance. Iron deficiency during pregnancy often contributes to maternal and perinatal mortality. Yet treatment, if given to a child in time, can lead to normal growth and hinder infections. However, excess iron can be damaging. Too much supplemental iron in a malnourished child promotes fatal infections since the excess iron is available for the pathogens use. Many countries do not have an effective system for diagnosing, treating, and preventing iron deficiency. Therefore a concerted international effort is needed to eliminate iron deficiency in the world.

  14. In vitro study of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 adsorption on zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basić Zorica


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Zeolites are the hydratised alumosilicates of alcali and earthalcali cations, which have a long three-dimensional crystal structure. Preparations on the basis of zeolites are used for adsorption of organic and nonorganic toxic substances and they, also, find more and more use in veterinary and human medicine and pharmacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of zeolite to adsorb vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in acid and neutral solutions, as well as the characteristics of the process (saturability, reversibility and competitivness. Methods. The specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescent detector was used for determination of vitamins B1, B2 and B6. Analyte separation and detection were carried out by applying the reverse-phase method on column C18. An in vitro experiment was done by testing the influence of pH value (2 and 7, concentration of vitamin solution (1, 2 and 5 mg/L, the lenght of contact with zeolite (10-180 min and cation competitiveness on the exchange capacity, which is achieved by media and zeolite contact, as well as a possible vitamins desorption through changing pH value of the solution at 37°C. Jon competitiveness was examined by adding commercial feed mixture (grower with a defined content of the examined vitamines in zeolite solutions the pH = 2 and pH = 7. Results. Vitamins B1, B2 and B6 were stable in both pH=2 and pH = 7 solutions at 37°C, in the defined time intervals. In acid solution concentrations of vitamins significantly declined in the first 10 min, with no significant decline in further 30 min for all the three concentrations testch. In neutral solution, after the addition of 1% zeolite, decrease in vitamins concentrations was slightly lower than in acid solution, but also significant in the first 10 min of the contact with zeolite. It was found that zeolite, which adsorbed vitamins in acid solution, transferred in the neutral one released a significant quantity of adsorbed

  15. Modeling of LaB6 hollow cathode performance and lifetime (United States)

    Pedrini, Daniela; Albertoni, Riccardo; Paganucci, Fabrizio; Andrenucci, Mariano


    Thermionic hollow cathodes are currently used as sources of electrons in a variety of space applications, in particular as cathodes/neutralizers of electric thrusters (Hall effect and ion thrusters). Numerical tools are needed to guide the design of new devices before their manufacturing and testing, since multiple geometrical parameters influence the cathode performance. A reduced-order, numerical model was developed to assess the performance of orificed hollow cathodes, with a focus on the operational lifetime. The importance of the lifetime prediction is tied to its impact on the operational lifetime of the thruster to which the cathode is coupled. The cathode architecture consists of a refractory metal tube with an internal electron emitter made of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6). The choice of LaB6 accounts for the reduced evaporation rate, the low sensitivity to poisoning and the absence of an activation procedure with respect to oxide cathodes. A LaB6 emitter is thus a valuable option for long-lasting cathodes, despite its relatively high work-function and reactivity with many refractory metals at high temperatures. The suggested reduced-order model self-consistently predicts the key parameters of the cathode operation, shedding light on the power deposition processes as well as on the main erosion mechanisms. Preliminary results showed good agreement with both the experimental data collected by Alta and data available from the literature for different operating conditions and power levels. Next developments will include further comparisons between theoretical and experimental data, considering cathodes of various size and operating conditions.

  16. A novel mouse model of creatine transporter deficiency [v2; ref status: indexed,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Baroncelli


    Full Text Available Mutations in the creatine (Cr transporter (CrT gene lead to cerebral creatine deficiency syndrome-1 (CCDS1, an X-linked metabolic disorder characterized by cerebral Cr deficiency causing intellectual disability, seizures, movement  and behavioral disturbances, language and speech impairment ( OMIM #300352. CCDS1 is still an untreatable pathology that can be very invalidating for patients and caregivers. Only two murine models of CCDS1, one of which is an ubiquitous knockout mouse, are currently available to study the possible mechanisms underlying the pathologic phenotype of CCDS1 and to develop therapeutic strategies. Given the importance of validating phenotypes and efficacy of promising treatments in more than one mouse model we have generated a new murine model of CCDS1 obtained by ubiquitous deletion of 5-7 exons in the Slc6a8 gene. We showed a remarkable Cr depletion in the murine brain tissues and cognitive defects, thus resembling the key features of human CCDS1. These results confirm that CCDS1 can be well modeled in mice. This CrT−/y murine model will provide a new tool for increasing the relevance of preclinical studies to the human disease.

  17. A novel mouse model of creatine transporter deficiency [v1; ref status: indexed,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Baroncelli


    Full Text Available Mutations in the creatine (Cr transporter (CrT gene lead to cerebral creatine deficiency syndrome-1 (CCDS1, an X-linked metabolic disorder characterized by cerebral Cr deficiency causing intellectual disability, seizures, movement  and behavioral disturbances, language and speech impairment ( OMIM #300352. CCDS1 is still an untreatable pathology that can be very invalidating for patients and caregivers. Only two murine models of CCDS1, one of which is an ubiquitous knockout mouse, are currently available to study the possible mechanisms underlying the pathologic phenotype of CCDS1 and to develop therapeutic strategies. Given the importance of validating phenotypes and efficacy of promising treatments in more than one mouse model we have generated a new murine model of CCDS1 obtained by ubiquitous deletion of 5-7 exons in the Slc6a8 gene. We showed a remarkable Cr depletion in the murine brain tissues and cognitive defects, thus resembling the key features of human CCDS1. These results confirm that CCDS1 can be well modeled in mice. This CrT−/y murine model will provide a new tool for increasing the relevance of preclinical studies to the human disease.

  18. Metabolism of methapyrilene by Fischer-344 rat and B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes. (United States)

    Kelly, D W; Holder, C L; Korfmacher, W A; Getek, T A; Lay, J O; Casciano, D A; Shaddock, J G; Duhart, H M; Slikker, W


    1. Suspension cultures of freshly isolated F344 rat and B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes were compared for their ability to transform various concentrations of methapyrilene (MP). 2. MP metabolites were isolated and purified by h.p.l.c., and were identified by comparing their chromatographic and mass spectral properties with those of authentic standards. 3. Both rat and mouse hepatocytes transformed MP to tentatively identified 2-thiophenecarboxylic acid (I), and definitively identified mono-N-desmethyl methapyrilene glucuronide (II), methapyrilene glucuronide (III), methapyrilene N-oxide (V), and mono-N-desmethyl methapyrilene (VII).

  19. Synthesis and characterization of EuB6 by borothermic reduction of Eu2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar


    Full Text Available Carbon free high pure europium hexaboride is an urgent need for the fast breeder nuclear reactor program. The properties of EuB6 are highly influenced by the presence of one or more substitutional impurities, particularly, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. In the present investigation carbon and nitrogen free high pure europium hexaboride was synthesized by borothermic reduction of europium oxide Eu2O3 (using boron as a reducing agent at relatively low temperature ( 90 % of theoretical density was studied at 850°C and revealed that an adherent thin surface of Eu2O3 was formed which prevent further oxidation.

  20. The origin of fast valence fluctuations in SmB 6 (United States)

    Sluchanko, N. E.; Glushkov, V. V.; Gorshunov, B. P.; Demishev, S. V.; Kondrin, M. V.; Pronin, A. A.; Volkov, A. A.; Bruynseraede, Y.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Kunii, S.


    Low-temperature transport has been studied in steady and pulsed magnetic field on a single crystal of SmB 6. Measurements in the range of intrinsic conduction allowed us to determine the indirect gap E g≈20 meV and microscopic parameters of carriers. The results obtained in the region of extrinsic conduction are discussed within the Kikoin-Mishchenko polaron-exciton model of charge fluctuations with short-range excitonic states E ex≈3.5 meV, R ex≈6 Å.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    [目的]掌握延平区碘缺乏病状况,为延平区实现消除碘缺乏病提供依据.[方法]按(闽卫疾控[2008]40号)规定进行监测.[结果]延平区8-10岁儿童甲状腺肿大率为0.25%,尿碘中位数197.9 μg/L;居民碘盐合格率97.57%.[结论]各项防治指标已达到消除碘缺乏病目标县级考核标准.%[Objective] To understand the status of iodine deficiency discords in Yanping district, so as to provide the basis for elimination of IDD. [Methods] According to "The implementation details of iodine deficiency disorders in Fujian Province (try out)" [Min Sanitation CDC [2008] 40, conducted the monitoring. [Results] The goitre rate was 0.25% a-mong the children aged 8-10 years. The median of urinary iodine were 197.9 μg/L and 97.57 μg/L, respectively. [Conclusion] All indexes have reached the criteria about elimination of IDD.

  2. The Intestine Plays a Substantial Role in Human Vitamin B6 Metabolism : A Caco-2 Cell Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albersen, Monique; Bosma, Marjolein; Knoers, Nine V. V. A. M.; de Ruiter, Berna H. B.; Diekman, Eugene F.; de Ruijter, Jessica; Visser, Wouter F.; de Koning, Tom J.; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M.


    Background: Vitamin B6 is present in various forms (vitamers) in the diet that need to be metabolized to pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), the active cofactor form of vitamin B6. In literature, the liver has been reported to be the major site for this conversion, whereas the exact role of the intestine rem

  3. Kondo hybridisation and the origin of metallic states at the (001) surface of SmB6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Frantzeskakis; N. de Jong; B. Zwartsenberg; Y.K. Huang; Y. Pan; X. Zhang; F.X. Zhang; L.H. Bao; O. Tegus; A. Varykhalov; A. de Visser; M. Golden


    SmB6, a well-known Kondo insulator, has been proposed to be an ideal topological insulator with states of topological character located in a clean, bulk electronic gap, namely, the Kondo-hybridization gap. Since the Kondo gap arises from many-body electronic correlations, SmB6 would be placed at the

  4. CdTe quantum dots as fluorescence sensor for the determination of vitamin B6 in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Fang Sun; Cui Ling Ren; Li Hong Liu; Xing Guo Chen


    A novel,rapid and simple CdTe quantum dots (QDs) based technology platform was established for selective and sensitive determination of vitamin B6 in aqueous solution.It can perform accurate and reproducible quantification of vitamin B6 in pharmaceutical with satisfactory results.

  5. Iron status in Danish women, 1984-1994: a cohort comparison of changes in iron stores and the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron overload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Byg, K.E.; Ovesen, Lars;


    Background and objectives: From 1954 to 1986, flour in Denmark was fortified with 30 mg carbonyl iron per kilogram. This mandatory enrichment of cereal products was abolished in 1987. The aim was to evaluate iron status in the Danish female population before and after abolishment of iron...... fortification. Methods: Iron status, serum ferritin and haemoglobin, was assessed in population surveys in 1983-1984 comprising 1221 Caucasian women (1089 non-blood-donors, 130 donors) and in 1993-1994 comprising 1261 women (1155 non-blood-donors, 104 donors) equally distributed in age cohorts of 40, 50, 60......, postmenopausal women had median ferritin of 75 mug/L and in 1994 of 93 mug/L (P iron stores (ferritin iron stores (ferritin less...

  6. In-gap states on the non-polar (110) surface of SmB6 (United States)

    Denlinger, J. D.; Jang, Sooyoung; Min, C.-H.; Reinert, F.; Kang, Boyoun; Cho, B.-K.; Kim, D. J.; Fisk, Z.; Allen, J. W.

    Mixed-valent SmB6 with a temperature-dependent bulk gap is the first candidate example of a new class of strongly correlated topological insulators with f- d band inversion. The topological origin of in-gap states on cleaved (001) surfaces as measured by angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) is not without controversy, since the X states span the full ~20 meV hybridization gap at low temperature without exhibiting any clear Dirac point. Furthermore, reports exist of band-bending due to the polarity of the (001) surface and depth-dependent deviations from bulk stoichiometry or Sm valency. In this work we explore ARPES of the non - polar (110) surface of SmB6 prepared by polishing and high-temperature annealing. We find in-gap states at X and Y points with very similar properties as the (001) X states. We discuss the relevance of these findings to the TI and other proposed models, and to the recent discrepancy between 2D and 3D interpretations of dHvA Fermi surface orbits. Supported by U.S. DOE at the Advanced Light Source (DE-AC02-05CH11231).

  7. Radio Frequency Tunable Oscillator Device Based on a SmB6 Microcrystal (United States)

    Stern, Alex; Efimkin, Dmitry K.; Galitski, Victor; Fisk, Zachary; Xia, Jing


    Radio frequency tunable oscillators are vital electronic components for signal generation, characterization, and processing. They are often constructed with a resonant circuit and a "negative" resistor, such as a Gunn diode, involving complex structure and large footprints. Here we report that a piece of SmB6 , 100 μ m in size, works as a current-controlled oscillator in the 30 MHz frequency range. SmB6 is a strongly correlated Kondo insulator that was recently found to have a robust surface state likely to be protected by the topology of its electronics structure. We exploit its nonlinear dynamics, and demonstrate large ac voltage outputs with frequencies from 20 Hz to 30 MHz by adjusting a small dc bias current. The behaviors of these oscillators agree well with a theoretical model describing the thermal and electronic dynamics of coupled surface and bulk states. With reduced crystal size we anticipate the device to work at higher frequencies, even in the THz regime. This type of oscillator might be realized in other materials with a metallic surface and a semiconducting bulk.

  8. Radio Frequency Tunable Oscillator Device Based on a SmB_{6} Microcrystal. (United States)

    Stern, Alex; Efimkin, Dmitry K; Galitski, Victor; Fisk, Zachary; Xia, Jing


    Radio frequency tunable oscillators are vital electronic components for signal generation, characterization, and processing. They are often constructed with a resonant circuit and a "negative" resistor, such as a Gunn diode, involving complex structure and large footprints. Here we report that a piece of SmB_{6}, 100  μm in size, works as a current-controlled oscillator in the 30 MHz frequency range. SmB_{6} is a strongly correlated Kondo insulator that was recently found to have a robust surface state likely to be protected by the topology of its electronics structure. We exploit its nonlinear dynamics, and demonstrate large ac voltage outputs with frequencies from 20 Hz to 30 MHz by adjusting a small dc bias current. The behaviors of these oscillators agree well with a theoretical model describing the thermal and electronic dynamics of coupled surface and bulk states. With reduced crystal size we anticipate the device to work at higher frequencies, even in the THz regime. This type of oscillator might be realized in other materials with a metallic surface and a semiconducting bulk.

  9. Magnetic resonance anisotropy in CeB6: an entangled state of the art (United States)

    Semeno, A. V.; Gilmanov, M. I.; Bogach, A. V.; Krasnorussky, V. N.; Samarin, A. N.; Samarin, N. A.; Sluchanko, N. E.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.; Filipov, V. B.; Glushkov, V. V.; Demishev, S. V.


    Electron spin resonance (ESR) in strongly correlated metals is an exciting phenomenon, as strong spin fluctuations in this class of materials broaden extremely the absorption line below the detection limit. In this respect, ESR observation in CeB6 provides a unique chance to inspect Ce3+ magnetic state in the antiferroquadrupole (AFQ) phase. We apply the original high frequency (60 GHz) experimental technique to extract the temperature and angular dependences of g-factor, line width and oscillating magnetization. Experimental data show unambiguously that the modern ESR theory in the AFQ phase considering the Γ8 ground state of Ce3+ ion completely fails to predict both the g-factor magnitude and its angular dependence. Alignment of the external magnetic field along [100] axis induces a strong (more than twofold) broadening of ESR line width with respect to the other crystallographic directions and results also in the anomalous temperature dependences of the g-factor and oscillating magnetization. In this experimental geometry the latter parameter surprisingly exceeds total static magnetization by 20% at T* ~ 2.5 K. We argue that the unusual physical picture of ESR in CeB6 may be strongly affected by spin fluctuations and dynamic collective effects predominantly pronounced in [100] direction.

  10. Itinerant-electron metamagnetic transition in LaFe12B6 (United States)

    Fujieda, S.; Fukamichi, K.; Suzuki, S.


    LaFe12B6 (SrNi12B6-type) is an antiferromagnet with a low moment of 0.36 μB/Fe-atom in the ground state. The field-induced first-order transition takes place in a wide range of temperature including below and above the Néel temperature of 35 K. This transition results in a high moment of 1.6 μB/Fe-atom, being characteristics of the itinerant-electron metamagnetic transition. The critical magnetic field of the metamagnetic transition BC increases with increasing temperature except for low temperature ranges, in which the kinetic arrest occurs. Above the arrested temperature, the sign of the temperature dependence of dBC/dT is positive. The metamagnetic transition brings about large magnetocaloric effects, that is, a large negative value of the isothermal magnetic entropy change, ΔSm, and a large positive value of the adiabatic temperature change, ΔTad.

  11. Genetic variability of CYP2B6 polymorphisms in four southern Chinese populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Ying Xu; Ming-Liang He; Li-Ping Guo; Shui-Shan Lee; Qing-Ming Dong; Yi Tan; Hong Yao; Li-Hua Li; Che-Kit Lin; Hsiang-Fu Kung


    AIM: To investigate the genotype and allelic frequencies of Cytochrome P450 2B6 polymorphisms in four southern Chinese populations.METHODS: DNA was obtained from blood samples from Han Chinese from Hong Kong and three minority groups,the Wa, Bulang and Lahu from Yunnan in southern China. Genotyping was performed using real-time PCR and confirmed by direct sequencing.RESULTS: A total of 507 subjects from southern China were studied. Results showed there is a high prevalence of 516G > T (34.5%) in ethnic Chinese compared to literature reports on other Asian populations and Caucasians. The frequency of the 516TT genotype is higher in the Hah majority (23.1%) than in three other ethnic minority groups (i.e., 7.4%, 9.1% and 15.8%) in southern China.CONCLUSION: This was the first study to document the spectrum of CYP2B6 allelic variants and genotypes in a southern Chinese population. The 516G > T allele is associated with a defective metabolism of efavirenz (EFV), which therefore may predispose to drug toxicity.Treatment regimens for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and heroin addiction may need to be optimized in different populations because of the marked variability of the key metabolizing enzyme.

  12. Immunostimulatory oligonucleotide, CpG-like motif exists in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus NIAI B6. (United States)

    Kitazawa, Haruki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Shimosato, Takeshi; Kawai, Yasushi; Itoh, Takatoshi; Saito, Tadao


    The present study was conducted to find an immunostimulatory oligonucleotide derived from yogurt starter cultures. The chromosomal DNA was purified from nine strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and six strains of Streptococcus thermophilus. An immunostimulatory ability of the DNA was examined in a proliferation of peyer's patch and splenic B cells. Only the DNA from L. bulgaricus NIAI B6 induced a significant proliferation of both cells. When the DNA was cloned and amplified using PCR, the mitogenic activities to B cells were significantly increased by 13 of 135 DNA clones. Ten homologous nucleotide sequences were found as possible oligonucleotide sequences of mitogens, and were then chemically synthesized (sOL-LB1 to sOL-LB10). One CpG-like motif (sOL-LB7; 5'-CGGCACGCTCACGATTCTTG-3') was identified as an immunostimulatory oligonucleotide, but it did not contain palindromic CpG structure known as a B cell-specific mitogen. The sOL-LB7 substantially bound to B cells and increased the CD69 positive cells in peyer's patch cells. This study demonstrated that L. bulgaricus NIAI B6 was a good candidate of a starter culture for the production of new functional foods, "Bio-Defense Foods".

  13. Magnetic field dependence of the neutron spin resonance in CeB6 (United States)

    Portnichenko, P. Y.; Demishev, S. V.; Semeno, A. V.; Ohta, H.; Cameron, A. S.; Surmach, M. A.; Jang, H.; Friemel, G.; Dukhnenko, A. V.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.; Filipov, V. B.; Schneidewind, A.; Ollivier, J.; Podlesnyak, A.; Inosov, D. S.


    In zero magnetic field, the famous neutron spin resonance in the f -electron superconductor CeCoIn5 is similar to the recently discovered exciton peak in the nonsuperconducting CeB6. A magnetic field splits the resonance in CeCoIn5 into two components, indicating that it is a doublet. Here we employ inelastic neutron scattering (INS) to scrutinize the field dependence of spin fluctuations in CeB6. The exciton shows a markedly different behavior without any field splitting. Instead, we observe a second field-induced magnon whose energy increases with field. At the ferromagnetic zone center, however, we find only a single mode with a nonmonotonic field dependence. At low fields, it is initially suppressed to zero together with the antiferromagnetic order parameter, but then reappears at higher fields inside the hidden-order phase, following the energy of an electron spin resonance (ESR). This is a unique example of a ferromagnetic resonance in a heavy-fermion metal seen by both ESR and INS consistently over a broad range of magnetic fields.

  14. Small heat shock protein 20 (HspB6) in cardiac hypertrophy and failure. (United States)

    Fan, Guo-Chang; Kranias, Evangelia G


    Hsp20, referred to as HspB6, is constitutively expressed in various tissues. Specifically, HspB6 is most highly expressed in different types of muscle including vascular, airway, colonic, bladder, and uterine smooth muscle; cardiac muscle; and skeletal muscle. It can be phosphorylated at Ser-16 by both cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKA/PKG). Recently, Hsp20 and its phosphorylation have been implicated in multiple physiological and pathophysiological processes including smooth muscle relaxation, platelet aggregation, exercise training, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and Alzheimer's disease. In the heart, key advances have been made in elucidating the significance of Hsp20 in contractile function and cardioprotection over the last decade. This mini-review highlights exciting findings in animal models and human patients, with special emphasis on the potential salutary effects of Hsp20 in heart disease. This article is part of a special issue entitled "Key Signaling Molecules in Hypertrophy and Heart Failure."

  15. Current Status in Diagnosis and Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia%缺铁性贫血诊断及治疗现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 缺铁性贫血(iron deficiency anemia,IDA)是临床常见病,约占贫血总数的50%以上.IDA的诊断不仅要对单纯性IDA,而且对非单纯性IDA,即合并感染、肿瘤、结缔组织病或肝病的ID A能作出正确诊断,同时要求对早期缺铁的诊断,即在未发生贫血之前就能明确诊断.合理选择实验室检查项目,才能提高其诊断水平.

  16. 我国人口的缺钙现状及改善措施%Status quo of calcium deficiency among China'spopulation and improvin g measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨继远; 袁仲; 侯雪梅


    钙是人体健康和长寿不可缺少的重要元素,钙的生理功能及缺钙对人体健康的影响 日益受到重视.由于国民膳食结构、饮食习惯、营养状态、生理因素等的影响,我国人口的 缺钙状况令人忧虑,合理补钙正受到关注.乳和乳制品中的钙最易被肌体吸收,因此食物中 增加乳和乳制品,以及含钙较多的豆制品、海产品非常重要.同时,为改变国民膳食结构中 钙含量偏低的缺陷,应加强对钙强化食品的研究和开发,增加食物的含钙量.%Calcium is an important element for a good health and long life. Importance is increasingly attached to its physiological function and the impact of calcium d eficiency on human health. Affected by national food structure, diet habit, nutr ition state and physiological factors, calcium deficiency among Chinas populat ion is rather worrying, accordingly appropriate make up for the deficiency is ar ousing attention. Calcium in milk and milk products can be absorbed by human bod ies most easily, therefore it is important to add to daily food milk and milk pr oducts as well as soybean products and seafood. Meanwhile, to raise calcium cont ent in national food structure, research and development of calciumintensified food should be strengthened.

  17. Effect of a large dose vitamin B6 in treating acute tetramine toxication%大剂量维生素B6治疗急性毒鼠强中毒的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬新才; 郭伟; 徐博; 于叔麒


    目的探讨VitB6对毒鼠强中毒控制抽搐的治疗效果.方法将104例毒鼠强中毒患者随机分为常规治疗组和特殊治疗组.采用安定+苯巴比妥和安定+苯巴比妥+VitB6、或加用二巯基丙磺酸钠(Na-DMPS)及加VitB6和Na-DMPS的方法进行治疗,比较两组对毒鼠强中毒抽搐的控制情况.结果常规治疗组与VitB6组(P<0.01),与Na-DMPS组(P<0.01)与VitB6和Na-DMPS组(P<0.001)比较,差异均有显著性.结论 VitB6及Na-DMPS有明显控制抽搐作用,VitB6和Na-DMPS两者合用效果更佳.

  18. Pyridoxine deficiency affects biomechanical properties of chick tibial bone (United States)

    Masse, P. G.; Rimnac, C. M.; Yamauchi, M.; Coburn, S. P.; Rucker, R. B.; Howell, D. S.; Boskey, A. L.


    The mechanical integrity of bone is dependent on the bone matrix, which is believed to account for the plastic deformation of the tissue, and the mineral, which is believed to account for the elastic deformation. The validity of this model is shown in this study based on analysis of the bones of vitamin B6-deficient and vitamin B6-replete chick bones. In this model, when B6-deficient and control animals are compared, vitamin B6 deficiency has no effect on the mineral content or composition of cortical bone as measured by ash weight (63 +/- 6 vs. 58 +/- 3); mineral to matrix ratio of the FTIR spectra (4.2 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.2), line-broadening analyses of the X-ray diffraction 002 peak (beta 002 = 0.50 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.49 +/- 0.01), or other features of the infrared spectra. In contrast, collagen was significantly more extractable from vitamin B6-deficient chick bones (20 +/- 2% of total hydroxyproline extracted vs. 10 +/- 3% p < or = 0.001). The B6-deficient bones also contained an increased amount of the reducible cross-links DHLNL, dehydro-dihydroxylysinonorleucine, (1.03 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.84 +/- 0.13 p < or = 0.001); and a nonsignificant increase in HLNL, dehydro-hydroxylysinonorleucine, (0.51 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.43 +/- 0.03, p < or = 0.10). There were no significant changes in bone length, bone diameter, or area moment of inertia. In four-point bending, no significant changes in elastic modulus, stiffness, offset yield deflection, or fracture deflection were detected. However, fracture load in the B6-deficient animals was decreased from 203 +/- 35 MPa to 151 +/- 23 MPa, p < or = 0.01, and offset yield load was decreased from 165 +/- 9 MPa to 125 +/- 14 MPa, p < or = 0.05. Since earlier histomorphometric studies had demonstrated that the B6-deficient bones were osteopenic, these data suggest that although proper cortical bone mineralization occurred, the alterations of the collagen resulted in changes to bone mechanical performance.

  19. Strain background modifies phenotypes in the ATP8B1-deficient mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohela Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations in ATP8B1 (FIC1 underlie cases of cholestatic disease, ranging from chronic and progressive (progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis to intermittent (benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis. The ATP8B1-deficient mouse serves as an animal model of human ATP8B1 deficiency. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the effect of genetic background on phenotypes of ATP8B1-deficient and wild-type mice, using C57Bl/6 (B6, 129, and (B6-129 F1 strain backgrounds. B6 background resulted in greater abnormalities in ATP8B1-deficient mice than did 129 and/or F1 background. ATP8B1-deficient pups of B6 background gained less weight. In adult ATP8B1-deficient mice at baseline, those of B6 background had lower serum cholesterol levels, higher serum alkaline phosphatase levels, and larger livers. After challenge with cholate-supplemented diet, these mice exhibited higher serum alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels, greater weight loss and larger livers. ATP8B1-deficient phenotypes in mice of F1 and 129 backgrounds are usually similar, suggesting that susceptibility to manifestations of ATP8B1 deficiency may be recessive. We also detected differences in hepatobiliary phenotypes between wild-type mice of differing strains. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that the ATP8B1-deficient mouse in a B6 background may be a better model of human ATP8B1 deficiency and highlight the importance of informed background strain selection for mouse models of liver disease.

  20. Strategies for vitamin B6 biofortification of plants: A dual role as a micronutrient and a stress protectant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé eVanderschuren


    Full Text Available Vitamin B6 has an essential role in cells as a cofactor for several metabolic enzymes. It has also been shown to function as a potent antioxidant molecule. The recent elucidation of the vitamin B6 biosynthesis pathways in plants provides opportunities for characterizing their importance during developmental processes and exposure to stress. Humans and animals must acquire vitamin B6 with their diet, with plants being a major source, because they cannot biosynthesize it de novo. However, the abundance of the vitamin in the edible portions of the most commonly consumed plants is not sufficient to meet daily requirements. Genetic engineering has proven successful in increasing the vitamin B6 content in the model plant Arabidopsis. The added benefits associated with the enhanced vitamin B6 content, such as higher biomass and resistance to abiotic stress, suggest that increasing this essential micronutrient could be a valuable option to improve the nutritional quality and stress tolerance of crop plants. This review summarizes current achievements in biofortification of vitamin B6 and considers strategies for increasing vitamin B6 levels in crop plants for human health and nutrition.

  1. Genetic associations with plasma B12, B6, and folate levels in an ischemic stroke population from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith L Keene


    Full Text Available B vitamins play an important role in homocysteine metabolism, with vitamin deficiencies resulting in increased levels of homocysteine and increased risk for stroke. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS in 2,100 stroke patients from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP trial, a clinical trial designed to determine whether the daily intake of high dose folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12 reduce recurrent cerebral infarction. Extensive quality control (QC measures resulted in a total of 737,081 SNPs for analysis. Genome-wide association analyses for baseline quantitative measures of folate, Vitamins B12 and B6 were completed using linear regression approaches, implemented in PLINK. Six associations met or exceeded genome wide significance (P≤5x10-08. For baseline Vitamin B12, the strongest association was observed with a non-synonymous SNP (nsSNP located in the CUBN gene (P=1.76×10-13. Two additional CUBN intronic SNPs demonstrated strong associations with B12 (P= 2.92×10-10 and 4.11×10-10, while a second nsSNP, located in the TCN1 gene, also reached genome-wide significance (P= 5.148×10-11. For baseline measures of Vitamin B6, we identified genome-wide significant associations for SNPs at the ALPL locus (rs1697421; P= 7.06×10-10 and rs1780316; P= 2.25×10-08. In addition to the six genome-wide significant associations, nine SNPs (two for Vitamin B6, six for Vitamin B12, and one for folate measures provided suggestive evidence for association (P≤10-07. Our GWAS study has identified six genome-wide significant associations, nine suggestive associations, and successfully replicated five of 16 SNPs previously reported to be associated with measures of B vitamins. The six genome-wide significant associations are located in gene regions that have shown previous associations with measures of B vitamins, however four of the nine suggestive associations represent novel finding and warrant further investigation in

  2. Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in women. (United States)

    Coad, Jane; Pedley, Kevin


    Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world and disproportionately affects women and children. Stages of iron deficiency can be characterized as mild deficiency where iron stores become depleted, marginal deficiency where the production of many iron-dependent proteins is compromised but hemoglobin levels are normal and iron deficiency anemia where synthesis of hemoglobin is decreased and oxygen transport to the tissues is reduced. Iron deficiency anemia is usually assessed by measuring hemoglobin levels but this approach lacks both specificity and sensitivity. Failure to identify and treat earlier stages of iron deficiency is concerning given the neurocognitive implications of iron deficiency without anemia. Most of the daily iron requirement is derived from recycling of senescent erythrocytes by macrophages; only 5-10 % comes from the diet. Iron absorption is affected by inhibitors and enhancers of iron absorption and by the physiological state. Inflammatory conditions, including obesity, can result in iron being retained in the enterocytes and macrophages causing hypoferremia as a strategic defense mechanism to restrict iron availability to pathogens. Premenopausal women usually have low iron status because of iron loss in menstrual blood. Conditions which further increase iron loss, compromise absorption or increase demand, such as frequent blood donation, gastrointestinal lesions, athletic activity and pregnancy, can exceed the capacity of the gastrointestinal tract to upregulate iron absorption. Women of reproductive age are at particularly high risk of iron deficiency and its consequences however there is a controversial argument that evolutionary pressures have resulted in an iron deficient phenotype which protects against infection.

  3. Carcinogenicity study of cochineal in B6C3F1 mice. (United States)

    Mori, H; Iwata, H; Tanaka, T; Morishita, Y; Mori, Y; Kojima, T; Okumura, A


    The carcinogenicity of cochineal, a red colouring used in food and other products, was studied in a 2-yr bioassay in B6C3F1 mice. Groups of 50-55 mice of each sex were given 0, 3 or 6% cochineal in the diet for 2 yr. Mice of all groups developed tumours including hepatocellular adenomas or carcinomas, pulmonary adenomas or adenocarcinomas and lymphomas or lymphatic leukaemias, and the incidences of these tumours were not significantly different in treated and control groups. The results indicate that cochineal lacks carcinogenicity in mice and are consistent with those of in vitro short-term assays of cochineal and of carminic acid, an active principle of cochineal.

  4. Surface Analysis of LaB6 Single Crystal Thermionic Emitters (United States)

    Nakazawa, Masatoshi; Futamoto, Masaaki; Hosoki, Shigeyuki; Usami, Katuhisa


    Surface analysis of heated LaB6 thermionic emitter is made by means of Auger electron spectroscopy. Changes in surface state with changing emitter temperature and ambient oxygen pressure are investigated. The emitter temperature is varied from room temperature to 1700°C, and the oxygen pressure from 1× 10-5 Pa to 7× 10-3 Pa. With the increase of temperature the emitter surface passes through four states depending on oxygen pressure, before it reaches a clean state. Among them a state is particularly noteworthy that the emitter surface is covered with a layer of lanthanum oxide just before assuming the clean surface state. A surface state diagram is shown. The optimum conditions of emitter temperature and oxygen gas pressure to exhibit high emission properties are described.

  5. Transmembrane pH gradients in vivo: measurements using fluorinated vitamin B6 derivatives. (United States)

    Mason, R P


    It is well recognized that pH plays a significant regulatory role in most cellular processes. Increasingly, there is interest in transmembrane pH gradients, particularly with respect to tumor growth and response to therapy. NMR offers a non-invasive approach to monitoring cellular pH and detecting changes in response to interventions. This review will consider the strengths of various approaches to measuring pH with particular focus on the reporter molecules designed to interrogate the cellular milieu. In particular, fluorinated vitamin B6 derivatives (6-fluoropyridoxol and 6-fluoropyridoxamine) will be described, which for the first time provide a practical non-destructive method to measure simultaneously intra- and extracellular pH, i.e., the transmembrane pH gradient in animals in vivo based on a single reporter molecule.

  6. Non-anomalous magnetization density distribution in CeB6 (United States)

    Givord, F.; Boucherle, J.-X.; Burlet, P.; Gillon, B.; Kunii, S.


    Results of polarized neutron diffraction on the compound CeB6 are used to obtain its magnetization density distribution. The measurements are performed at two different points of the magnetic phase diagram (phase I and II). The data are analysed in direct space using the maximum entropy method, as well as in reciprocal space using the cerium form factor expansion and anisotropy. The conclusion is that, in both phases, the magnetization is localized on the cerium sites only. This result is in contradiction to a recent paper by Saitoh et al (2002 J. Phys. Soc. Japan 71 2369), claiming that, in phase II, a localized spin moment was observed at non-atomic sites.

  7. Comparison of Monte Carlo simulations of cytochrome b6f with experiment using Latin hypercube sampling. (United States)

    Schumaker, Mark F; Kramer, David M


    We have programmed a Monte Carlo simulation of the Q-cycle model of electron transport in cytochrome b(6)f complex, an enzyme in the photosynthetic pathway that converts sunlight into biologically useful forms of chemical energy. Results were compared with published experiments of Kramer and Crofts (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1183:72-84, 1993). Rates for the simulation were optimized by constructing large numbers of parameter sets using Latin hypercube sampling and selecting those that gave the minimum mean square deviation from experiment. Multiple copies of the simulation program were run in parallel on a Beowulf cluster. We found that Latin hypercube sampling works well as a method for approximately optimizing very noisy objective functions of 15 or 22 variables. Further, the simplified Q-cycle model can reproduce experimental results in the presence or absence of a quinone reductase (Q(i)) site inhibitor without invoking ad hoc side-reactions.

  8. Effect of high pressure on microstructure of crystallizing amorphous Nd9Fe85B6 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wei; LI Hui; XIE Yanwu; ZHANG Xiangyi


    The effect of high pressure on the microstructure of annealed amorphous NdgFegsB6 alloy was studied. It was found that applica- tion of high pressure made the microstructure of the crystallized alloy much more homogeneous. The average grain size of the Nd2Fe14B phase decreased with the increase of pressure, whereas, the size of the α-Fe first increased when a pressure of 1 Gpa was applied and then decreased with further increase of pressure. Pressure-induced (410) texture of the Nd2Fe14B phase was also observed. The present study sug-gested an effective route for controlling the microstructure in a nanoscale solid.

  9. Floating Zone Growth and Thermionic Emission Property of Single Crystal CeB6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Li-Hong; ZHANG Jiu-Xing; ZHOU Shen-Lin; ZHANG Ning; XU Hong


    @@ Large-sized and high-quality cerium hexaboride(CeB6) single crystals are successfully grown yb the optical floating zone method.The structure, chemical composition and thermionic emission properties of the crystal are characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence and emission measurements, respectively.Based on the observation of single crystal diffraction, the relative density of feed rods has a great effect on the quality of the grown crystal.The thermionic emission measurement results show that the emission current density of the single crystal is 47.1 A/cm2 at 1873K with an applied voltage of 1 kV,which is about two times larger than the value for polycrystalline samples.The single crystal possesses excellent emission current stability.Therefore, it is expected that CeBs single crystal is a very promising material for thermionic cathode applications.

  10. Intermediate type excitons in Schottky barriers of A3B6 layer semiconductors and UV photodetectors (United States)

    Alekperov, O. Z.; Guseinov, N. M.; Nadjafov, A. I.


    Photoelectric and photovoltaic spectra of Schottky barrier (SB) structures of InSe, GaSe and GaS layered semiconductors (LS) are investigated at quantum energies from the band edge excitons of corresponding materials up to 6.5eV. Spectral dependences of photoconductivity (PC) of photo resistors and barrier structures are strongly different at the quantum energies corresponding to the intermediate type excitons (ITE) observed in these semiconductors. It was suggested that high UV photoconductivity of A3B6 LS is due to existence of high mobility light carriers in the depth of the band structure. It is shown that SB of semitransparent Au-InSe is high sensitive photo detector in UV region of spectra.

  11. Carcinogenicity of bisphenol-A in Fischer rats and B6C3F1 mice. (United States)

    Huff, J


    Bisphenol-A (BP-A; 4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol) is a monomer of plastics commonly used in various consumer products, and is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of epoxy, polycarbonate, and polyester-styrene resins. A National Toxicology Program carcinogenesis bioassay of BP-A (>98% pure) was conducted by feeding diets containing 0, 1000, or 2000 ppm BP-A to groups of 50 male and 50 female Fischer (F)344 rats; 0, 1000, or 5000 ppm to groups of 50 male B6C3F1 mice; and 0, 5000, or 10,000 ppm to groups of 50 female B6C3F1 mice for 103 weeks. The mean body weights of the low- and high-dose rats and of female mice and high-dose male mice were lower than those of the controls throughout much of the study. Lower body weight gains in rats were likely caused by reduced food consumption. Survivals were comparable among groups. Regarding neoplasia, leukemias occurred at increased incidences in BP-A-dosed rats of both sexes: male, 13/50 controls vs 12/50 low-dose and 23/50 high-dose (P Toxicology Program concluded that there was no convincing evidence that BP-A was carcinogenic for rats or mice. However, the marginal increases in leukemias in male and female rats, along with increases in the combined incidence of lymphomas and leukemias in male mice, suggest that BP-A may be associated with increased cancers of the hematopoietic system. Increases in interstitial-cell tumors of the testes in rats were also evidence of carcinogenesis, as was the unusual occurrence of mammary gland fibroadenomas in male rats.

  12. Acrylonitrile is a multisite carcinogen in male and female B6C3F1 mice. (United States)

    Ghanayem, Burhan I; Nyska, Abraham; Haseman, Joseph K; Bucher, John R


    Acrylonitrile is a heavily produced unsaturated nitrile, which is used in the production of synthetic fibers, plastics, resins, and rubber. Acrylonitrile is a multisite carcinogen in rats after exposure via gavage, drinking water, or inhalation. No carcinogenicity studies of acrylonitrile in a second animal species were available. The current studies were designed to assess the carcinogenicity of acrylonitrile in B6C3F1 mice of both sexes. Acrylonitrile was administered by gavage at 0, 2.5, 10, or 20 mg/kg/day, 5 days per week, for 2 years. Urinary thiocyanate and N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine were measured as markers of exposure to acrylonitrile. In general, there were dose-related increases in urinary thiocyanate and N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine concentrations in all dosed groups of mice and at all time points. Survival was significantly (p acrylonitrile-dosed groups. In female mice, the incidence of benign or malignant granulosa cell tumors (combined) in the ovary in the 10 mg/kg dose group was greater than that in the vehicle control group, but because of a lack of dose response, this was considered an equivocal finding. In addition, the incidences of atrophy and cysts in the ovary of the 10 and 20 mg/kg dose groups were significantly increased. The incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma (combined) were significantly increased in female mice treated with acrylonitrile at 10 mg/kg/day for 2 years. This was also considered an equivocal result. In conclusion, these studies demonstrated that acrylonitrile causes multiple carcinogenic effects after gavage administration to male and female B6C3F1 mice for 2 years.

  13. Glycidol modulation of the immune responses in female B6C3F1 mice. (United States)

    Guo, T L; McCay, J A; Brown, R D; Musgrove, D L; Butterworth, L; Munson, A E; Germolec, D R; White, K L


    The immunotoxic potential of glycidol was evaluated in female B6C3F1 mice using a battery of functional assays and three host resistance models. Glycidol was administered to the animals by oral gavage as a solution in sterile distilled water daily for 14 days at doses of 25, 125 and 250 mg/kg. In tier I, we observed that glycidol exposure produced a dose-related decrease in splenocyte IgM antibody-forming cell response to sheep red blood cells (sRBC); the spleen natural killer (NK) cell activity was also decreased. A decrease in B cell proliferative responses to anti-IgM F(ab')2 and/or interleukin-4 (IL-4) was observed while the splenocyte proliferative responses to T cell mitogen ConA and B cell mitogen LPS were not affected. The splenocyte proliferative response to allogeneic cells as evaluated in the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) to DBA/2 spleen cells was not affected. In tier II, we found that exposure to glycidol decreased the number and percentage of B cells and the absolute number of CD4+ T cells in the spleen while the number of total T cells, CD8+ T cells and CD4+CD8+ T cells was not affected. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to mitomycin C-treated P815 mastocytoma was not affected; the cytotoxic activity of peritoneal macrophages was not suppressed. Moreover, the host resistance to Listeria monocytogenes was not affected although a slight increase in host resistance to Streptococcus pneumoniae was observed. However, exposure to glycidol decreased host resistance to the B16F10 melanoma tumor model with the maximal tumor formation in lung observed in the high dose group. Overall, these dada support the finding that glycidol is an immunosuppressive agent in female B6C3F1 mice.

  14. Iatrogenic nutritional deficiencies. (United States)

    Young, R C; Blass, J P


    This article catalogs the nutritional deficiencies inadvertently introduced by certain treatment regimens. Specifically, the iatrogenic effects on nutrition of surgery, hemodialysis, irradiation, and drugs are reviewed. Nutritional problems are particularly frequent consequences of surgery on the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric surgery can lead to deficiencies of vitamin B12, folate, iron, and thiamine, as well as to metabolic bone disease. The benefits of small bowel bypass are limited by the potentially severe nutritional consequences of this procedure. Following bypass surgery, patients should be monitored for signs of possible nutritional probems such as weight loss, neuropathy, cardiac arrhythmias, loss of stamina, or changes in mental status. Minimal laboratory tests should include hematologic evaluation, B12, folate, iron, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, sodium, potassium, chloride, and carbon dioxide levels. Roentgenologic examination of the bone should also be obtained. Loss of bone substance is a major consequence of many forms of treatment, and dietary supplementation with calcium is warranted. Patients undergoing hemodialysis have shown carnitine and choline deficiencies, potassium depletion, and hypovitaminosis, as well as osteomalacia. Chronic drug use may alter intake, synthesis, absorption, transport, storage, metabolism, or excretion of nutrients. Patients vary markedly in the metabolic effects of drugs, and recommendations for nutrition must be related to age, sex, reproductive status, and genetic endowment. Moreover, the illness being treated can itself alter nutritional requirements and the effect of the treatment on nutrient status. The changes in nutritional levels induced by use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives (OCs) are obscure; however, the effects on folate matabolism appear to be of less clinical import than previously suggested. Reduction in pyridoxine and serum vitamin B12 levels has been

  15. Clinical and research status of niacin deficiency%烟酸缺乏症的临床及研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李若虹; 吕景晶; 白彦萍


    Deficiency of niacin is the etiology of pellagra, which can be caused by many factors such as malnutrition, alcoholism, drugs, infections and tumors. For the patient of pellagra, many systems could be involved. Brain, gut and skin are the three most often involved systems. Pellagra is associated with a classic triad: dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia, which is well known by the mnemonic "the 3DY\\ Hovever, it is more common for a patient of Pellagra to present with one or two clinical symptoms, and diverse manifestations could be presented. It is not easy to diagnose when early symptoms arc subtle or non-specific.%烟酸缺乏症是由烟酸缺乏引起的一组临床症候群,与营养不良、酗酒、药物、感染及肿瘤等多种因素有关.可累及皮肤、胃肠道及脑.典型临床表现为皮疹、腹泻和痴呆,但大部分患者只表现其中一种或两种,且临床表现多样.早期症状轻微,可能只出现非特异症状,容易漏诊和误诊.

  16. Change of hepatic energy metabolism in rats with deficiency cold status%虚寒状态大鼠肝脏能量代谢变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李连珍; 薛春苗; 张冰; 刘小青


    Objective To investigate the change of hepatic energy metabolism in rats with deficiency cold induced by hydrocortisone. [Methods] Forty eight male SD rats were divided into two groups. The experimental group was intramuscularly injected with hydrocoriti-sone sodium succinate saline, 20 mg/kg and the control group was intramuscularly injected with saline, 0.25 mL. Five mL blood sample was collected from abdominal main vein on 15th day and 22th day. Serum LAC level were detected by automatic biochemical analyzer. The activities of Na+-K+-ATPase, Mg2+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase and SDH were detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The protein expression of hepatic uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was detected by immunohistochemistry. [Results] Compared with those in control group, the activities of serum LAC and hepatic tissue SDH were significantly lower(P﹤0.05)on 14th day and 21th day, the activi-ties of hepatic tissue Na+-K+-ATPase, Mg2+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase, the positive expression areas and integral optical density of UCP-2 were significantly lower(P﹤0.05, P﹤0.01)on 21th day. The other indexes had no obvious change. [Conclusion] During the experimental process, the function of hepatic energy metabolism is significantly lower or disordered in animals with deficiency cold induced by hydrocortisone.%[目的]探讨氢化泼尼松诱导的虚寒大鼠肝脏能量代谢变化特点。[方法]48只SD雄性大鼠随机分为正常组和虚寒组,每组24只。虚寒组肌肉注射氢化泼尼松琥珀酸钠生理盐水溶液20 mg/kg,正常组注射生理盐水0.25 mL。注射第14、第21天晚上8点,正常组和虚寒组各12只,禁食不禁水12 h,次日上午8点,麻醉,腹主静脉取血,分离血清,全自动生化分析仪检测乳酸(LAC)。固定位置取一块儿肝脏,4%多聚甲醛固定,免疫组化法检测解偶联蛋白2(UCP-2)蛋白表达。其余肝脏,-80℃冻存,紫外分光光度法

  17. [Effect of pharmacologic treatment of the nutritional status of neurologic patients]. (United States)

    Piñeiro Corrales, Guadalupe; Vázquez López, Cristina; Álvarez Payero, Miriam


    Clinical manifestations accompanying neurological diseases are diverse and affect multiple organs. Nutritional status of patients with certain neurological diseases such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Epilepsy and Multiple Sclerosis can be altered because of symptoms associated with disease course, including certain micronutrient deficiency (folic acid, zinc, vitamin B6 and B12, vitamin D, vitamin E and vitamin C), changes in energy expenditure, intake decreased, gastrointestinal disorders and dysfunction of the bone mass. Also, we have to take in account other factors as: advanced age, multiple co morbidities, polypharmacy, the use of herbal products, social habits, diet and pharmacological treatments effect. An assessment of the factors related to neurological treatment that cause alterations in metabolic and nutritional status was performed: side effects of anti-Parkinson drugs, antiepileptic drugs, and multiple sclerosis drugs; drug-nutrient interactions; and nutrient-drug interactions.

  18. Large-scale synthesis and electrical transport properties of single-crystalline SmB6 nanowires (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Peng, Yuehua; Yin, Yanling; Zhou, Weichang; Zhou, Fang; Liu, Chang; Liu, Guangtong; Sun, Lianfeng; Tang, Dongsheng


    Topological Kondo insulator samarium hexaboride (SmB6) nanowires, with diameters of 60-150 nm and lengths up to 1-5 μm, were successfully synthesized in large scale by chemical vapor deposition using BCl3 and SmCl3 as precursors at 1070 °C. Transmission electron microscopy observation and selected area electron diffraction analysis indicate that SmB6 nanowires are single-crystalline and grow in a preferred direction of [1 0 0]. It also indicates that the growth of SmB6 nanowires might be governed by a vapor-solid mechanism. Conventional four-terminal resistance measurements show that the resistance of an SmB6 nanowire increases with decreasing temperature, but saturates at temperatures less than 10 K, which might be attributed to a true topological insulator with a metallic surface and fully insulating bulk states. Resistance measurements also indicate that the contribution of surface states to conductance in the SmB6 nanowire is enhanced remarkably; therefore the high-quality single-crystalline SmB6 nanowires with large surface-to-bulk ratio might be the best candidate for investigating the topological properties of this material.

  19. Characterization of the myelotoxicity of chloramphenicol succinate in the B6C3F1 mouse. (United States)

    Turton, John A; Fagg, Rajni; Sones, William R; Williams, Thomas C; Andrews, C Michael


    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is haemotoxic in man, inducing two types of toxicity. First, a dose-related, reversible anaemia with reticulocytopenia, sometimes seen in conjunction with leucopenia and thrombocytopenia; this form of toxicity develops during drug treatment. The second haemotoxicity is aplastic anaemia (AA) which is evident in the blood as severe pancytopenia. AA development is not dose-related and occurs weeks or months after treatment. We wish, in the longer term, to investigate CAP-induced AA in the busulphan-pretreated mouse. However, as a prelude to that study, we wanted to characterize in detail the reversible haemotoxicity of CAP succinate (CAPS), administered at high dose levels in the mouse, and follow the recovery of the bone marrow in the post-dosing period. Female B6C3F1 mice were gavaged with CAPS at 0, 2500 and 3500 mg/kg, daily, for 5 days and sampled (n = 5) at 1, 7, 14 and 21 days post-dosing. Blood, bone marrow and spleen samples were analysed and clonogenic assays carried out. At day 1 post-dosing, at both CAPS dose levels, decreases were seen in erythrocytes and erythrocyte precursors; marrow erythroid cells were reduced. Reductions were also evident in splenic nucleated cell counts, blood high fluorescence ratio (HFR) reticulocyte counts and total reticulocyte counts; burst-forming units-erythroid and colony-forming units-erythroid showed decreases. At day 7 post-dosing (2500 mg/kg CAPS), there was regeneration of erythrocyte production, with marked splenic erythropoietic activity, and raised blood HFR reticulocytes. At day 7, at 3500 mg/kg CAPS, erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters remained depressed. At 14 days post-dosing (2500 mg/kg CAPS), many erythrocyte parameters had returned to normal; at 3500 mg/kg CAPS, there was erythroid regeneration. By 21 days post-dosing, at both CAPS dose levels, most erythrocytic parameters were equivalent to control values. For leucocyte parameters, there was some depression at day 1 post-dosing (at

  20. Growth inhibition and antioxidative status induced by selenium-enriched broccoli extract and selenocompounds in DNA mismatch repair-deficient human colon cancer cells. (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Ou, Bor-Rung; Liang, Yu-Chuan; Yeh, Jan-Ying


    The effects of enzymatic-digested Se-enriched broccoli extracts (SeB) and selenocompounds on growth and antioxidative status in human colon cancer cells was investigated in this study. HCT116 and HCT116+Chr.3 cells were treated with selenocompounds (sodium selenite, sodium selenate, Se-Met, MeSeCys) or SeB [high-Se (H-SeB) or low-Se (L-SeB)]. The cytotoxicity induced by selenocompounds in HCT116 cells was not associated with cellular H2O2 level, while the differential cytotoxicity observed by sodium selenite between HCT116 and HCT116+Chr.3 cell lines was related to cellular H2O2 production with the change in antioxidative enzyme activity, and the restoration of chromosome 3. H-SeB was found to reduce the cellular H2O2 content in HCT116+Chr.3 cells. The results in this study indicate that regardless of Se content, the cytotoxicity in HCT116 cells of both SeB forms appeared to be H2O2-independent, whereas the cytotoxicity in HCT116+Chr.3 of either SeB form appeared to be H2O2-dependent with an increase in antioxidative ability for H-SeB.

  1. 多元校正紫外光度法同时测定甲硝唑与维生素B6%Simultaneous Ultra Violet Spectrophotometric Determination of Metronidazole and Vitamin B6 by Multivariate Calibration Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐正保; 程志民; 朱蔓菁


    Metronidazole and Vitamin B6 have overlapping spectra in UV range, and it is difficult to determine them individually. The chemometric multivariate calibration methods, such as partial least squares (PLS) and principal components regression (PCR) were applied to the simultaneous determination of metronidazole and Vitamin B6 in 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid by resolving the overlapping spectra. The linear ranges were 1.0 ~ 28.0 mg/L and 1.0 ~ 28.0 mg/L for metronidazole and vitamin B6,respectively. The limits of detection were 0.568 mg/L and 0.364 mg/L for metronidazole and vitamin B6, respectively. These methods were successfully applied to the analysis of samples with satisfied results.%本文报道多元校正紫外光度法同时测定甲硝唑和维生素B6.首先在0.1 mol/L HCl溶液中对甲硝唑和维生素B6两组分混合溶液进行分光光度法测定,然后将所得的重叠光谱数据经计算机采集后,分别用化学计量学方法中的偏最小二乘法(PLS)和主成分回归法(PCR)进行处理,并用于药物样品的测定,获得了较好的定量分析结果.该法甲硝唑和维生素B6的线性范围分别为1.0~28.0 mg/L和1.0~28.0 mg/L,检出限分别为0.568 mg/L和0.364 mg/L.

  2. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and the premenstrual syndrome: a randomized crossover trial. (United States)

    Doll, H; Brown, S; Thurston, A; Vessey, M


    A randomized double-blind crossover trial was conducted to study the effects of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) at a dose of 50 mg per day on symptoms characteristic of the premenstrual syndrome. Sixty three women aged 18-49 years, identified by means of a general practice based survey of menstrual patterns in the community, entered the trial. All of the women had noticed moderate to severe premenstrual symptoms during the previous year. The women kept a daily menstrual diary which graded the severity of nine individual symptoms from zero to three. After completing a diary for an initial month the women were randomized to receive either drug or placebo for three months, after which the treatments were crossed over for a further three months. Thirty two women completed the full seven months of the study. In these women a significant beneficial effect (P less than 0.05) of pyridoxine was observed on emotional type symptoms (depression, irritability and tiredness). No significant effect was observed on premenstrual symptoms of any other type.

  3. Benzene-induced hematotoxicity and bone marrow compensation in B6C3F1 mice. (United States)

    Farris, G M; Robinson, S N; Gaido, K W; Wong, B A; Wong, V A; Hahn, W P; Shah, R S


    Long-term inhalation exposure of benzene has been shown to cause hematotoxicity and an increased incidence of acute myelogenous leukemia in humans. The progression of benzene-induced hematotoxicity and the features of the toxicity that may play a major role in the leukemogenesis are not known. We report the hematological consequences of benzene inhalation in B6C3F1 mice exposed to 1, 5, 10, 100, and 200 ppm benzene for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 1, 2, 4, or 8 weeks and a recovery group. There were no significant effects on hematopoietic parameters from exposure to 10 ppm benzene or less. Exposure of mice to 100 and 200 ppm benzene reduced the number of total bone marrow cells, progenitor cells, differentiating hematopoietic cells, and most blood parameters. Replication of primitive progenitor cells in the bone marrow was increased during the exposure period as a compensation for the cytotoxicity induced by 100 and 200 ppm benzene. In mice exposed to 200 ppm benzene, the primitive progenitor cells maintained an increased percentage of cells in S-phase through 25 days of recovery compared with controls. The increased replication of primitive progenitor cells in concert with the reported genotoxicity induced by benzene provides the components necessary for producing an increased incidence of lymphoma in mice. Furthermore, we propose this mode of action as a biologically plausible mechanism for benzene-induced leukemia in humans exposed to high concentrations of benzene.

  4. High-current-density gun with a LaB6 cathode (United States)

    Ebihara, K.; Hiramatsu, S.


    To develop a high-current electron gun for an induction linac, a prototype of a Pierce-type electron gun using planar 12-mm-diam lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) is studied as a thermionic emitter at high current densities. The cathode is heated up to temperatures of 1750 °C by electron bombardment and thermal radiation from a tungsten heater. The heater that has the highest temperature in the gun is thermally isolated from the outer vacuum chamber with heat shields. The bombardment voltage of ˜1 kV is typically applied to a gap between the cathode and the heater. The gun has been operated up to voltages of 55 kV, obtaining a maximum current density of 20 A/cm2 with a pulse width of 250 ns at a cathode temperature of 1600 °C. High-voltage pulsing results show that the gun, with applied voltages of over 40 kV, is operated in space-charge-limited region at temperatures of over 1600 °C; also it is operated in a temperature-limited region at temperatures of less than 1500 °C. An effective work function of 2.68 eV is obtained. The cathode, when heated up to 1600 °C, emits over 7 A of electrons with a ˜20% reduction after 850 h of continuous operation. These measurements were made between vacuum pressures of 10-6 and 10-7 Torr.

  5. LWR decay heat calculations using a GRS improved ENDF/B-6 based ORIGEN data library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, U.; Hummelsheim, K.I.; Kilger, R.; Moser, F.E.; Langenbuch, S. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Forschungsinstitute, Garching (Germany)


    The known ORNL ORIGEN code is widely spread over the world for inventory, activity and decay heat tasks and is used stand-alone or implemented in activation, shielding or burn-up systems. More than 1000 isotopes with more than six coupled neutron capture and radioactive decay channels are handled simultaneously by the code. The characteristics of the calculated inventories, e.g., masses, activities, neutron and photon source terms or the decay heat during short or long decay time steps are achieved by summing over all isotopes, characterized in the ORIGEN libraries. An extended nuclear GRS-ORIGENX data library is now developed for practical appliance. The library was checked for activation tasks of structure material isotopes and for actinide and fission product burn-up calculations compared with experiments and standard methods. The paper is directed to the LWR decay heat calculation features of the new library and shows the differences of dynamical and time integrated results of Endf/B-6 based and older Endf/B-5 based libraries for decay heat tasks compared to fission burst experiments, ANS curves and some other published data. A multi-group time exponential evaluation is given for the fission burst power of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu, to be used in quick LWR reactor accident decay heat calculation tools. (authors)

  6. Transport properties of the topological Kondo insulator SmB6 under the irradiation of light (United States)

    Zhu, Guo-Bao; Yang, Hui-Min


    In this paper, we study transport properties of the X point in the Brillouin zone of the topological Kondo insulator SmB6 under the application of a circularly polarized light. The transport properties at high-frequency regime and low-frequency regime as a function of the ratio (κ) of the Dresselhaus-like and Rashba-like spin-orbit parameter are studied based on the Floquet theory and Boltzmann equation respectively. The sign of Hall conductivity at high-frequency regime can be reversed by the ratio κ and the amplitude of the light. The amplitude of the current can be enhanced by the ratio κ. Our findings provide a way to control the transport properties of the Dirac materials at low-frequency regime. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11504095 and 11447145), the Foundation of Heze University (Grant Nos. XY14B002 and XYPY01), and the Project funded by the Higher Educational Science and Technology Program of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. J15LJ55).

  7. Thermal evolution of magnetic-excitation spectrum of PrB6 (United States)

    Lazukov, V. N.; Alekseev, P. A.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.; Philippov, V. B.


    The magnetic dynamic response of a PrB6 single crystal has been studied using inelastic neutron scattering in a temperature range of 10-120 K, which is above the temperatures of the phase transitions to the magnetic-ordered state. The study is aimed at revealing peculiarities of the state with a low magnetic moment in a temperature range of 7 K < T ≤ 20 K, which was identified in a number of magnetometric experiments. In addition to a quasielastic signal, a weak-dispersion excitation with an energy of ~1 meV has been detected, which exists at temperatures below 24 K. The results have been analyzed from the viewpoint of the formation of a spatially nonuniform state based on domains with short-range magnetic correlations at temperatures of 10-20 K. Judging by the dispersion of excitations, the character of the correlation is similar to that observed in a state with long-range magnetic order which arises at lower temperatures.

  8. Synthesis, thermionic emission and magnetic properties of (NdxGd1-x)B6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Li-Hong; Zhang Jiu-Xing; Zhou Shen-Lin; Tegus


    Polycrystalline rare-earth hexaborides (NdxGd1-x)B6 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.6, 0.8, 1) were prepared by the reactive spark plasma sintering (SPS) method using mixed powder of GdH2, NdH2 and B. The effects of Nd doping on the crystal structure, the grain orientation, the thermionic emission and the magnetic properties of the hexaboride were investigated by X-ray diffraction, electron backscattered diffraction and magnetic measurements. It is found that all the samples sintered by the SPS method exhibit high densities (> 95%) and high values of Vickers hardness (2319 kg/mm2). The values are much higher than those obtained in the traditional method. With the increase of Nd content, the thermionic emission current density increases from 11 to 16.30 A/cm2 and the magnetic phase transition temperature increases from 5.85 to 7.95 K. Thus, the SPS technique is a suitable method to synthesize the dense rare-earth hexaborides with excellent properties.

  9. Hydrogen disproportionation phase diagram and magnetic properties for Nd15Fe79B6 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mateusz Szymaski; Bartosz Michalski; Elbieta Jezierska; Marcin Leonowicz; Zbigniew Miazga


    Transformation-temperature-hydrogen pressure phase diagram was constructed for a Nd15Fe79B6 alloy in order to estimate appropriate conditions for hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption and recombination reaction (the HDDR). Optimised recom-bination time (the highest coercivity) was found to be 10 min. for 5 g samples processed at 740 ºC. Several HDDR processes were carried out at 30 kPa of hydrogen pressure at various temperatures. No correlation between magnetic propertiec and a direction of measurement was observed for the samples processed at 740 ºC. Remanence anisotropy was induced along an alignment direction when the temperature of the HDDR process was increased up to 800 ºC and 850 ºC for<100μm and 100–160μm particles, respec-tively. Simultaneously, a small drop in coercivity was observed in the direction of alignment for <100 μm particles, but no for 100–160μm particles. Furthermore, probably an ordered phase was found by TEM microstructure analysis in the bulk sample dis-proportionated at 850 ºC under 150 kPa of hydrogen. Grains with antiphase domains were observed and corresponding electron dif-fraction patterns were resolved, likely indicating superlattice structures.

  10. Carcinogenicity of glycidol in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. (United States)

    Irwin, R D; Eustis, S L; Stefanski, S; Haseman, J K


    Glycidol, a simple aliphatic epoxide, was administered by gavage in water to groups of male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Rats received 0, 37.5 or 75 mg kg-1 and mice received 0, 25 or 50 mg kg-1 daily, 5 days per week for 2 years. Exposure to glycidol was associated with dose-related increases in the incidences of neoplasms in numerous tissues in both rats and mice. Survival of rats that received glycidol was markedly reduced compared to the control because of the early induction of neoplastic disease. In male rats, mesothelioma arising in the tunica vaginalis and frequently metastasizing to the peritoneum were considered the major cause of early death. Early deaths in female rats were associated with mammary gland neoplasms. Survival of female mice that received 50 mg kg-1 was lower than the control after week 101 due primarily to euthanasia of moribund animals with mammary gland neoplasms. Survival of male mice and female mice that received 25 mg kg-1 was comparable to the control. In mice, exposure to glycidol was associated with increased incidences of neoplasms of the harderian gland in males and females, the forestomach in males and the mammary gland in females.

  11. Synthesis of Al-SrB6 composite via powder metallurgy processing%粉末冶金法制备Al-SrB6复合材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yucel BIROL


    The potential of powder metallurgy processing for the manufacture of Al−SrB6 composites was explored. Al4Sr particles fractured extensively during the ball milling of Al−15Sr/Al−4B powder mixtures. There was no interaction between the Al4Sr and AlB2 compounds across the section of the aluminium grains in the as-milled state. SrB6 formed, when the ball milled powder blends were subsequently annealed at sufficiently high temperatures. Ball milling for 1 h was sufficient for SrB6 to become the major constituent in powder blends annealed at 700 °C while it took 2 h of ball milling for powder blends annealed at 600 °C. Higher annealing temperatures and longer ball milling time encouraged the formation of the SrB6 compound while the latter made a great impact on the microstructural features of the Al−SrB6 composite. The SrB6 compound particles were much smaller and more uniformly distributed across the aluminium matrix grains in powder grains ball milled for 2 h before the annealing treatments at 600 °C and 700 °C.%采用粉末冶金法制备Al−SrB6复合材料。对Al−15Sr/Al−4B混合粉末进行球磨,在球磨过程中Al4Sr颗粒充分破碎。球磨态铝合金晶粒截面表明Al4Sr与AlB2之间不发生反应。混合球磨粉末经高温退火后形成SrB6。若在700°C进行退火,混合粉末需球磨1 h可使SrB6成为主要相,而若在600°C进行退火,混合粉末则需球磨2 h才能使SrB6成为主要相。提高退火温度和延长球磨时间都可以促进SrB6相的形成,但后者对Al−SrB6复合材料的微观组织影响更大。经600°C和700°C退火处理之前,SrB6颗粒更细小,在铝基体中分布也更均匀。

  12. Synthesis and Optical Absorption of Eu-doped CeB6 Nanocrystalline%Eu-掺杂CeB6纳米晶的合成与光吸收研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包黎红; 明明; 特古斯


    采用固相反应法成功地将Eu元素掺入CeB6纳米晶中,并系统地研究了对其光吸收性能的影响规律。由XRD分析、扫描电镜和透射电镜能谱分析结果充分证明了Eu元素成功地掺入了CeB6晶格中。光吸收结果表明,随着Eu掺杂量的增加, CeB6吸收峰波长从938 nm增加至1718 nm,产生了“红移”现象。与此同时,透射光波长也从可见光区域的798 nm红移至近红外区域的1138 nm。本文揭示了通过Eu掺杂可使CeB6透射光波长和吸收峰波长连续可调。这一特性对于拓展CeB6的光学应用具有重要意义。%The Eu-doped CeB6 nanocrystalline was successfully synthesized by a solid-state reaction and their optical properties were investigated. The XRD and EDS analyses fully confirm that the Eu element has been successfully doped into the lattice of CeB6. The optical absorption results show that maximum absorption red-shifted from 938 nm to 1718 nm. Meanwhile, it is interestingly found that the maximum transmission also red-shifts from visible region of 798 nm to near-infrared region of 1138 nm, which is for the first time to be obtained tunable optical characteristic CeB6 by Eu doping. Thus, these interesting findings on CeB6 nanocrystalline can extend its optical application.

  13. Vitamin D deficiency and heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Drechsler, Christiane; de Boer, Rudolf A.


    Vitamin D deficiency is present in the vast majority of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and correcting a poor vitamin D status is recommended as a treatment of CKD-mineral and bone disorders. In this review, we summarize the molecular and clinical data on the role of vitamin D status for

  14. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja


    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  15. [Phosphate metabolism and iron deficiency]. (United States)

    Yokoyama, Keitaro


    Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets(ADHR)is caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGF23 that prevent its proteolytic cleavage. Fibroblast growth factor 23(FGF23)is a hormone that inhibits renal phosphate reabsorption and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D biosynthesis. Low iron status plays a role in the pathophysiology of ADHR. Iron deficiency is an environmental trigger that stimulates FGF23 expression and hypophosphatemia in ADHR. It was reported that FGF23 elevation in patients with CKD, who are often iron deficient. In patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD, treatment with ferric citrate hydrate resulted in significant reductions in serum phosphate and FGF23.

  16. Distinct and synergistic roles of FcγRIIB deficiency and 129 strain-derived SLAM family proteins in the development of spontaneous germinal centers and autoimmunity. (United States)

    Soni, Chetna; Domeier, Phillip P; Wong, Eric B; Shwetank; Khan, Tahsin N; Elias, Melinda J; Schell, Stephanie L; Lukacher, Aron E; Cooper, Timothy K; Rahman, Ziaur S M


    The inhibitory IgG Fc receptor (FcγRIIB) deficiency and 129 strain-derived signaling lymphocyte activation molecules (129-SLAMs) are proposed to contribute to the lupus phenotype in FcγRIIB-deficient mice generated using 129 ES cells and backcrossed to C57BL/6 mice (B6.129.RIIBKO). In this study, we examine the individual contributions and the cellular mechanisms by which FcγRIIB deficiency and 129-derived SLAM family genes promote dysregulated spontaneous germinal center (Spt-GC) B cell and follicular helper T cell (Tfh) responses in B6.129.RIIBKO mice. We find that B6 mice congenic for the 129-derived SLAM locus (B6.129-SLAM) and B6 mice deficient in FcγRIIB (B6.RIIBKO) have increased Spt-GC B cell responses compared to B6 controls but significantly lower than B6.129.RIIBKO mice. These data indicate that both FcγRIIB deficiency and 129-SLAMs contribute to elevated Spt-GC B cell responses in B6.129.RIIBKO mice. However, only 129-SLAMs contribute significantly to augmented Tfh responses in B6.129.RIIBKO mice, and do so by a combination of T cell-dependent effects and enhanced B cell and DC-dependent antigen presentation to T cells. Elevated Spt-GC B cell responses in mice with FcγRIIB deficiency and polymorphic 129-SLAMs were associated with elevated metabolic activity, improved GC B cell survival and increased differentiation of naïve B cells into GC B cell phenotype. Our data suggest that the interplay between 129-SLAM expression on B cells, T cells and DCs is central to the alteration of the GC tolerance checkpoint, and that deficiency of FcγRIIB on B cells is necessary to augment Spt-GC responses, pathogenic autoantibodies, and lupus disease.

  17. Inheritance of steroid-independent male sexual behavior in male offspring of B6D2F1 mice. (United States)

    McInnis, Christine M; Bonthuis, Paul J; Rissman, Emilie F; Park, Jin Ho


    The importance of gonadal steroids in modulating male sexual behavior is well established. Individual differences in male sexual behavior, independent of gonadal steroids, are prevalent across a wide range of species, including man. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying steroid-independent male sexual behavior are poorly understood. A high proportion of B6D2F1 hybrid male mice demonstrates steroid-independent male sexual behavior (identified as "maters"), providing a mouse model that opens up avenues of investigation into the mechanisms regulating male sexual behavior in the absence of gonadal hormones. Recent studies have revealed several proteins that play a significant factor in regulating steroid-independent male sexual behavior in B6D2F1 male mice, including amyloid precursor protein (APP), tau, and synaptophysin. The specific goals of our study were to determine whether steroid-independent male sexual behavior was a heritable trait by determining if it was dependent upon the behavioral phenotype of the B6D2F1 sire, and whether the differential expression of APP, tau, and synaptophysin in the medial preoptic area found in the B6D2F1 sires that did and did not mate after gonadectomy was similar to those found in their male offspring. After adult B6D2F1 male mice were bred with C57BL/6J female mice, they and their male offspring (BXB1) were orchidectomized and identified as either maters or "non-maters". A significant proportion of the BXB1 maters was sired only from B6D2F1 maters, indicating that the steroid-independent male sexual behavior behavioral phenotype of the B6D2F1 hybrid males, when crossed with C57BL/6J female mice, is inherited by their male offspring. Additionally, APP, tau, and synaptophysin were elevated in in the medial preoptic area in both the B6D2F1 and BXB1 maters relative to the B6D2F1 and BXB1 non-maters, respectively, suggesting a potential genetic mechanism for the inheritance of steroid-independent male sexual behavior.

  18. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of BaB6 from molten melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose T.P.


    Full Text Available Barium hexaboride (BaB6 crystals were electrochemically synthesized using molten salt technique. Barium carbonate (BaCO3 and boron trioxide (B2O3 was used as reactants. Lithium fluoride (LiF was used as the supporting electrolyte. The molten electrolyte consisted of 50 wt % BaCO3 and B2O3 with different stiochiometric ratios of Ba and B and 50 wt % lithium fluoride. DTA/TGA studies were made to determine the eutectic point of the melt and it was found to be around 821oC. The electrolytic cell had a high purity graphite crucible, which served as the electrolyte holding vessel and also as the anode for the electrolysis. An electro-polished molybdenum rod was employed as the cathode. The electrolysis was performed at 870ºC under argon atmosphere, at current densities ranging from 0.2-0.5 A/cm2. The electrodeposited crystals were examined for the phase identification using X-ray diffraction technique. The AAS and the chemical analysis were made for the determination of chemical composition of the synthesized crystals. The purity of the crystals was also assessed using ICP-MS, XRF and EDX, which reveal that the crystals were associated with trace amount of impurities like oxygen, carbon and iron. The compound is found to be more than 99 % pure. The morphology of the crystals was examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. From the above studies, it is concluded that the molten salt process is a simple preparative procedure for the synthesis of sub-micron size barium hexaboride crystals.

  19. Effect of Combined Use of Calcium and Vitamin B6 on Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Premenstrual syndrome is one of the most common disorders in women, which includes a group of psychological and physical symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of combined use of calcium and vitamin B6 on premenstrual syndrome symptoms. Methods: This double blind randomized controlled was carried out on 76 students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Students were randomly allocated to two groups. (38 people in each group. Student in intervention groups received calcium tablet (500mg and vitamin B6 (40 mg and student in intervention groups received only vitamin B6 twice a day for two consecutive months. The symptoms were assessed by Beck depression inventory (BDI and daily symptom records (DSR questionnaires. Analyses were carried out by test-retest method, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, Independent t-test, and paired t-test using SPSS software ver.13. Results: The result showed that although the severity of symptoms decreased in both groups, but this reduction was more significant in the combined calcium and vitamin B6 group. Conclusion: According to the result, using of combination of calcium and vitamin B6 leads to better controlling of the premenstrual syndrome symptoms. Therefore it is recommended for women who suffer from these syndromes.

  20. 中华绒螯蟹幼蟹对饲料中维生素B_6的适宜需求量%Dietary vitamin B_6 requirement of junvenile Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玥; 孙新瑾; 陈立侨; 李二超; 叶金云


    The basal diet was formulated using vitamin B_6-free casein as the protein source.Eight graded levels (0, 10, 30, 60,100,150,200 and 400 mg vitamin B_6 per kg diet) of vitamin B_6 were added to the basal diet. Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of E. sinensis (2. 12 ±0.56) g for 10 weeks. Results showed that there were no significant differences in survival,weight gain, and the content of water and ash among crabs fed different diets. But protein utilization ratio (PUR) increased significantly with the increase of dietary vitamin B_6. The highest PUR was found in crabs fed diet with 100 mg vitamin Be per kg diet. Patterns of the content of crude protein and crude fat were similar to that of PUR. Crabs fed 100 mg vitamin B_6/kg diet had a significantly higher protein and fat content than that fed 0 and 400 mg vitamin B_6 per kg diet. Besides, different dietary vitamin B_6, content also had significant effect on the activities of hepatopancreas glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT) ,while no significant difference was observed in glutamate aspartate transaminase (AST). But they both increased with the increase of dietary vitamin Be. The maximum hepatopancreas ALT activitiy was observed in crab fed the 100 mg vitamin Be per kg diet, and was significantly higher than all the other, except 30 mg vitamin B_6 per kg diet groups. Combined, results in this study indicated that through stimulating the activity of transaminase, vitamin B_6 could assist the anabolism of protein, and then improved the accumulation of body protein and fat in crabs. Broken-line regression analysis showed that the optimum dietary pyridoxine requirement for maximum PUR and hepatopancreas ALT activity of E. sinensis under these experimental conditions was 81. 675 - 85.74 mg pyridoxine per kg diet.%试验以酪蛋白为蛋白源,配制了维生素B_6含量分别为0,10,30,60,100,150,200和400 mg/kg的8种等氮等能的半精制饲料,在静水系统中投喂体重为(2.12±0.56)g

  1. Fabrication and Properties of SiB6-B4C with Phenolic Resin as a Carbon Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Si-B-C ceramic composites were synthesized using SiB6, B4C, and phenolic resin as a carbon source by pressureless sintering in an Ar atmosphere. Then, the Si-B-C ceramic composites were fabricated to determine their potential for applications as high hardness and high temperature composites. The X-ray diffraction patterns of sintered bodies of SiB6-B4C with carbonized phenolic resin can be seen that SiB6 and C changed to B4C and SiC. In this study, it is obtained that carbonized phenolic resin is good addition material as a reaction material comparing to carbon powder at 1683 K for 1 h by pressureless sintering in an Ar atmosphere.

  2. Deficient efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, A.


    This article is a review of utility policy and public opinion related to energy efficiency. The historical background is presented, and the current socioeconomic status is also presented. Many fallacies of past utility policies intended to promote conservation are noted, and it is demonstrated that past policies have not been effective, i.e. the cost of electricity has increased. Given the failure of past practices, fourteen recommendations for future practices are set forth.

  3. VLCAD deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boneh, A; Andresen, B S; Gregersen, N


    -negative diagnoses of VLCADD in asymptomatic newborn babies. In view of the emerging genotype-phenotype correlation in this disorder, the information derived from mutational analysis can be helpful in designing the appropriate follow-up and therapeutic regime for these patients.......We diagnosed six newborn babies with very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) through newborn screening in three years in Victoria (prevalence rate: 1:31,500). We identified seven known and two new mutations in our patients (2/6 homozygotes; 4/6 compound heterozygotes). Blood...... samples taken at age 48-72 h were diagnostic whereas repeat samples at an older age were normal in 4/6 babies. Urine analysis was normal in 5/5. We conclude that the timing of blood sampling for newborn screening is important and that it is important to perform mutation analysis to avoid false...

  4. Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency. (United States)

    Mitchell, John J; Trakadis, Yannis J; Scriver, Charles R


    given to adult women with hyperphenylalaninemia because of the teratogenic effects of phenylalanine. Women with phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency considering pregnancy should follow special guidelines and assure adequate energy intake with the proper proportion of protein, fat, and carbohydrates to minimize risks to the developing fetus. Molecular genetic testing of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene is available for genetic counseling purposes to determine carrier status of at-risk relatives and for prenatal testing.

  5. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia (United States)

    Vitamin deficiency anemia Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Vitamin deficiency anemia is a lack of healthy red ... you have lower than normal amounts of certain vitamins. Vitamins linked to vitamin deficiency anemia include folate, ...

  6. Optimization of folic acid, vitamin B(12), and vitamin B(6) supplements in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Dijs, Fey P L; Fokkema, M Rebecca; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Niessink, Bram; van der Wal, Thaliet I C; Schnog, John-John B; Duits, Ashley J; Muskiet, Fred D; Muskiet, Frits A J


    Using homocysteine as a functional marker, we determined optimal folic acid, vitamin B(12), and vitamin B(6) dosages in 21 pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) patients (11 HbSS, 10 HbSC; 7-16 years). Daily supplements of folic acid (400, 700, or 1,000 microg), vitamin B(12) (1, 3, or 5 U.S. 1989 RDA

  7. Optimization of folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 supplements in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Dijs, Fey P L; Fokkema, M Rebecca; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Niessink, Bram; van der Wal, Thaliet I C; Schnog, John-John B; Duits, Ashley J; Muskiet, Fred D; Muskiet, Frits A J


    Using homocysteine as a functional marker, we determined optimal folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 dosages in 21 pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) patients (11 HbSS, 10 HbSC; 7-16 years). Daily supplements of folic acid (400, 700, or 1,000 mug), vitamin B-12 (1, 3, or 5 U.S. 1989 RDA), and

  8. Ultrasharp magnetization steps in the antiferromagnetic itinerant-electron system LaF e12B6 (United States)

    Diop, L. V. B.; Isnard, O.; Rodríguez-Carvajal, J.


    The remarkable intrinsic magnetic properties of the LaF e12B6 compound have been studied by neutron powder diffraction (NPD) and magnetization measurements. The NPD measurement reveals that LaF e12B6 exhibits an antiferromagnetic (AFM) structure that can be described with a magnetic propagation vector of (¼, ¼, ¼) below TN. In the amplitude-modulated model used for the refinement, the Fe magnetic moments are confined to the a b plane with a maximum value of 0.43 μB at 1.5 K. It is shown that the AFM state can be transformed to a ferromagnetic (FM) state via a field-induced first-order transition accompanied with a huge magnetic hysteresis. The LaF e12B6 compound is not only the unique stable R F e12B6 phase, along the rare-earth R series but also presents unique magnetic behavior for a purely 3 d itinerant electron system, including particularly low ordering temperature TN=36 K , remarkably small Fe moment, unusual amplitude-modulated magnetic arrangement, and a multicritical point in the magnetic phase diagram. In addition, we reveal that at 2 K, the AFM-FM transition is abrupt, leading to a large increase of the Fe magnetic moment up to 1.55 μB ; the magnetization curve presents ultrasharp steps, giving rise to an unusual staircaselike behavior.

  9. Relationship between plasma total homocysteine level and dietary caffeine and vitamin B6 intakes in pregnant women. (United States)

    Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Ota, Erika; Murayama, Ryoko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yeo, SeonAe; Murashima, Sachiyo


    A high total homocysteine (tHcy) level during pregnancy is a risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes, such as fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia. Caffeine is assumed to increase tHcy levels by acting as a vitamin B6 antagonist. The objective of this study was to examine a relationship between circulating tHcy levels and dietary caffeine and vitamin B6 intakes in pregnant Japanese women. A total of 321 healthy women with singleton pregnancies were recruited in metropolitan Tokyo, from June to December 2008, resulting in the final number included in the study as 254. Dietary caffeine intakes did not correlate with plasma tHcy levels. When we analyzed the data according to caffeinated beverages, caffeinated tea consumption was positively associated with plasma tHcy levels only among the women with a high intake of vitamin B6 , after controlling for confounding factors (P = 0.029). No correlation between coffee consumption and plasma tHcy levels was found. Pregnant Japanese women might need to cut down the consumption of caffeinated tea as well as take sufficient vitamin B6 in order to prevent the tHcy levels from increasing.

  10. Plasma Vitamins B2, B6, and B12, and Related Genetic Variants as Predictors of Colorectal Cancer Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, Simone J. P. M.; Vollset, Stein Emil; Hustad, Steinar; Midttun, Oivind; Meyer, Klaus; Fredriksen, Ase; Ueland, Per Magne; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Boffetta, Paolo; Overvad, Kim; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Morois, Sophie; Weikert, Cornelia; Pischon, Tobias; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Zilis, Demosthenes; Katsoulis, Michael; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Skeie, Guri; Munoz, Xavier; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Ardanaz, Eva; Navarro, Carmen; Rodriguez, Laudina; VanGuelpen, Bethany; Palmqvist, Richard; Manjer, Jonas; Ericson, Ulrika; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio


    Background: B-vitamins are essential for one-carbon metabolism and have been linked to colorectal cancer. Although associations with folate have frequently been studied, studies on other plasma vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and colorectal cancer are scarce or inconclusive. Methods: We carried out a neste


    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from rev...

  12. 29 CFR 2550.408b-6 - Statutory exemption for ancillary services by a bank or similar financial institution. (United States)


    ....408b-6 Statutory exemption for ancillary services by a bank or similar financial institution. (a) In... service is consistent with sound banking and financial practice, as determined by Federal or State... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statutory exemption for ancillary services by a bank...

  13. Near-Zero Thermal Expansion and High Ultraviolet Transparency in a Borate Crystal of Zn4 B6 O13. (United States)

    Jiang, Xingxing; Molokeev, Maxim S; Gong, Pifu; Yang, Yi; Wang, Wei; Wang, Shuaihua; Wu, Shaofan; Wang, Yingxia; Huang, Rongjin; Li, Laifeng; Wu, Yicheng; Xing, Xianran; Lin, Zheshuai


    Intrinsic isotropic near-zero thermal expansion is discovered in borate crystal Zn4 B6 O13 with high transparency in the ultraviolet region. First-principles calculations demonstrate that the very low thermal expansion originates mainly from the invariability of the solid [B24 O48 ] truncated octahedra that are fixed by the [Zn4 O13 ] clusters in the ZBO structure.

  14. Genome-wide association study of vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine blood concentrations. (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiko; Scheet, Paul; Giusti, Betti; Bandinelli, Stefania; Piras, Maria Grazia; Usala, Gianluca; Lai, Sandra; Mulas, Antonella; Corsi, Anna Maria; Vestrini, Anna; Sofi, Francesco; Gori, Anna Maria; Abbate, Rosanna; Guralnik, Jack; Singleton, Andrew; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Ferrucci, Luigi


    The B vitamins are components of one-carbon metabolism (OCM) that contribute to DNA synthesis and methylation. Homocysteine, a by-product of OCM, has been associated with coronary heart disease, stroke and neurological disease. To investigate genetic factors that affect circulating vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine, a genome-wide association analysis was conducted in the InCHIANTI (N = 1175), SardiNIA (N = 1115), and BLSA (N = 640) studies. The top loci were replicated in an independent sample of 687 participants in the Progetto Nutrizione study. Polymorphisms in the ALPL gene (rs4654748, p = 8.30 x 10(-18)) were associated with vitamin B6 and FUT2 (rs602662, [corrected] p = 2.83 x 10(-20)) with vitamin B12 serum levels. The association of MTHFR, a gene consistently associated with homocysteine, was confirmed in this meta-analysis. The ALPL gene likely influences the catabolism of vitamin B6 while FUT2 interferes with absorption of vitamin B12. These findings highlight mechanisms that affect vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and homocysteine serum levels.

  15. Simultaneous Determination of Caffeine and Vitamin B6 in Energy Drinks by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) (United States)

    Leacock, Rachel E.; Stankus, John J.; Davis, Julian M.


    A high-performance liquid chromatography experiment to determine the concentration of caffeine and vitamin B6 in sports energy drinks has been developed. This laboratory activity, which is appropriate for an upper-level instrumental analysis course, illustrates the standard addition method and simultaneous determination of two species. (Contains 1…

  16. Synthesis and Luminescent Properties of Ce3+, Tb3+ Co-Doped Zn4B6O13

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常树岚; 李善兰; 阚玉和; 王思宏


    Green-photoluminescence material Zn4B6O13: Ce3+, Tb3+ was first synthesized by spread method of high temperature and solid state reaction, which is cubic crystal system with lattice parameters: a0=0.7472 nm,V=0.4172 nm3, and structural properties are investigated by XRD. The excitation and emission band of Ce3+ ion single-doped in Zn4B6O13 transfer longer spectra 2.38~4.94 kk than in other matrices. Emission band of Ce3+ ion better overlaps with the 7F6→5G2,5D1,5H7 absorption band of Tb3+. It shows that emission of Tb3+ ion is sensitized by Ce3+. In Zn4B6O13∶Ce3+, Tb3+, it is due to the energy transfer mechanism, resonance transfer of electric multipolar interaction of the dipole-dipole between Ce3+→Ce3+ and Ce3+→Tb3+. The color coordinates of Zn4B6O13: x=0.281, y=0.619. The mean diameter of the particles is 0.23 μm.

  17. Efavirenz and Metabolites in Cerebrospinal Fluid: Relationship with CYP2B6 c.516G→T Genotype and Perturbed Blood-Brain Barrier Due to Tuberculous Meningitis (United States)

    Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Fisher, Martin; Nelson, Mark; Winston, Alan; Else, Laura; Carr, Daniel F.; Taylor, Steven; Ustianowski, Andrew; Back, David; Pirmohamed, Munir; Solomon, Tom; Farrar, Jeremy; Törok, M. Estée; Khoo, Saye


    Efavirenz (EFZ) has been associated with neuropsychiatric side effects. Recently, the 8-hydroxy-EFZ (8OH-EFZ) metabolite has been shown to be a potent neurotoxin in vitro, inducing neuronal damage at concentrations of 3.3 ng/ml. EFZ induced similar neuronal damage at concentrations of 31.6 ng/ml. We investigated the effect of genotype and blood-brain barrier integrity on EFZ metabolite concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We measured CSF drug concentrations in subjects from two separate study populations: 47 subjects with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) coinfection in Vietnam receiving 800 mg EFZ with standard antituberculous treatment and 25 subjects from the PARTITION study in the United Kingdom without central nervous system infection receiving 600 mg EFZ. EFZ and metabolite concentrations in CSF and plasma were measured and compared with estimates of effectiveness and neurotoxicity from available published in vitro and in vivo data. The effect of the CYP2B6 c.516G→T genotype (GG genotype, fast EFV metabolizer status; GT genotype, intermediate EFV metabolizer status; TT genotype, slow EFV metabolizer status) was examined. The mean CSF concentrations of EFZ and 8OH-EFZ in the TBM group were 60.3 and 39.3 ng/ml, respectively, and those in the no-TBM group were 15.0 and 5.9 ng/ml, respectively. Plasma EFZ and 8OH-EFZ concentrations were similar between the two groups. CSF EFZ concentrations were above the in vitro toxic concentration in 76% of samples (GG genotype, 61%; GT genotype, 90%; TT genotype, 100%) in the TBM group and 13% of samples (GG genotype, 0%; GT genotype, 18%; TT genotype, 50%) in the no-TBM group. CSF 8OH-EFZ concentrations were above the in vitro toxic concentration in 98% of the TBM group and 87% of the no-TBM group; levels were independent of genotype but correlated with the CSF/plasma albumin ratio. Potentially neurotoxic concentrations of 8OH-EFZ are frequently observed in CSF independently of the CYP2B6 genotype, particularly in those

  18. Status,Influencing Factors and Prevention Measures of the Nutritional Iron-deficiency Anemia%婴儿营养性缺铁性贫血的影响因素分析和防治措施探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王治涛; 黄中炎; 孙佳


    目的:了解6-12月龄婴儿营养性缺铁性贫血状况,探讨引起患病的影响因素,寻求降低患病率的有效方法,以便有针对性地开展防治工作.方法对2013年3月-2014年2月在某医院儿保门诊进行规范化健康体检的622例6-12月龄婴儿家长进行问卷调查及婴儿血常规检查,并进行统计分析,以血红蛋白<110 g/L 作为贫血诊断标准,计算贫血患病率,并寻找病因及影响因素.结果营养性缺铁性贫血婴儿占39.2%,病因及影响因素包括母孕期情况、辅食添加情况、婴儿患病情况、家长是否接受健康教育等,母孕期贫血及婴儿辅食添加不及时和不合理为最主要原因.结论营养性缺铁性贫血在6-12月龄婴儿发病率高,母孕期贫血、辅食添加不当为其最主要原因,应加强母亲孕期的保健措施,减少孕期贫血的发生率;对婴儿科学正确的喂养方法进行指导和定期的健康检查,针对婴儿家长进行贫血健康教育,大力提倡母乳喂养,减少疾病发生率等,这是降低贫血发生的关键措施,儿科工作者更要认真做好宣教工作.%Objectives To investigate the status of nutritional iron-deficiency anemia among 6-12 months old in-fants,and to probe the influencing factors that induce the illness,and then to seek an effective way to reduce the morbidity.Methods 622 infants aged 6-12 months old who received standardized physical examination and blood routine examination in the child care outpatient sector of our hospital between March 2013 and February 2014 were surveyed by questionnaire.The statistic analysis was conducted,with HGB<1 10 g/L as the diagnosis criterion of a-nemia,to calculate the morbidity of anemia and to find out the pathogeny and influencing factors.Results The mor-bidity of nutritional iron-deficiency anemia was 39.2%.The cause and the influencing factors of the disease included the pregnancy status

  19. All-enzymatic HPLC method for determination of individual and total contents of vitamin B6 in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Thi Viet Do


    Full Text Available Background : There is a need for a reliable and accurate method for quantification of each of the seven individual vitamin B6 compounds including pyridoxine-β-glucoside in foods. Objective : To determine pyridoxal (PL, pyridoxamine (PM, pyridoxine (PN, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP, pyridoxamine 5′-phosphate (PMP, pyridoxine 5′-phosphate (PNP, and pyridoxine-β-glucoside (PNG in foods. Design : By specific enzymatic treatment, each of the seven vitamin B6 compounds was all converted into 4-pyridoxolactone, which is a highly fluorescent compound. In total, seven separate, enzymatic steps were performed for each sample. Separation and quantification were performed with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection. For each sample type the result was corrected for the recovery based on spiked samples. The method was applied for analyses of chicken liver, chicken white meat, egg yolk, egg white, dried anchovy, carrots, and garlic. Results : The recovery varied from 14 to 114% in chicken liver, chicken white meat, egg yolk, egg white, dried anchovy, carrot, and garlic. Each food showed a characteristic distribution of the seven vitamin B6 compounds. The PNG was only found in low amounts; that is, 17–29 nmol vitamin B6/g in the plant-derived foods, carrot and garlic. Only egg white showed a lower content, 3 nmol/g. Overall the content in chicken liver, chicken white meat, and egg yolk had a total content of vitamin B6 between 42 and 51 nmol/g. Both PM and PMP were high in the chicken liver. In contrast, PL and PLP were high in the chicken white meat. The main vitamin B6 in the egg yolk was PLP. The dried anchovy contained high amounts of PLP and PMP and a total content of 144 nmol/g. Conclusions : The enzymatic-based HPLC method was applied for the determination of seven vitamin B6 compounds in foods. Their distribution in the foods varied significantly.

  20. Treatment of carnitine deficiency. (United States)

    Winter, S C


    Carnitine deficiency is a secondary complication of many inborn errors of metabolism. Pharmacological treatment with carnitine not only corrects the deficiency, it facilitates removal of accumulating toxic acyl intermediates and the generation of mitochondrial free coenzyme A (CoA). The United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) approved the use of carnitine for the treatment of inborn errors of metabolism in 1992. This approval was based on retrospective chart analysis of 90 patients, with 18 in the untreated cohort and 72 in the treated cohort. Efficacy was evaluated on the basis of clinical and biochemical findings. Compelling data included increased excretion of disease-specific acylcarnitine derivatives in a dose-response relationship, decreased levels of metabolites in the blood, and improved clinical status with decreased hospitalization frequency, improved growth and significantly lower mortality rates as compared to historical controls. Complications of carnitine treatment were few, with gastrointestinal disturbances and odour being the most frequent. No laboratory or clinical safety issues were identified. Intravenous carnitine preparations were also approved for treatment of secondary carnitine deficiency. Since only 25% of enteral carnitine is absorbed and gastrointestinal tolerance of high doses is poor, parenteral carnitine treatment is an appealing alternative therapeutic approach. In 7 patients treated long term with high-dose weekly to daily venous boluses of parenteral carnitine through a subcutaneous venous port, benefits included decreased frequency of decompensations, improved growth, improved muscle strength and decreased reliance on medical foods with liberalization of protein intake. Port infections were the most troubling complication. Theoretical concerns continue to be voiced that carnitine might result in fatal arrhythmias in patients with long-chain fat metabolism defects. No published clinical studies substantiate these

  1. Effect of methylglyoxal modification on the structure and properties of human small heat shock protein HspB6 (Hsp20). (United States)

    Muranova, Lydia K; Perfilov, Maxim M; Serebryakova, Marina V; Gusev, Nikolai B


    Human small heat shock protein HspB6 (Hsp20) was modified by metabolic α-dicarbonyl compound methylglyoxal (MGO). At low MGO/HspB6 molar ratio, Arg13, Arg14, Arg27, and Arg102 were the primary sites of MGO modification. At high MGO/HspB6 ratio, practically, all Arg and Lys residues of HspB6 were modified. Both mild and extensive MGO modification decreased susceptibility of HspB6 to trypsinolysis and prevented its heat-induced aggregation. Modification by MGO was accompanied by formation of small quantities of chemically crosslinked dimers and did not dramatically affect quaternary structure of HspB6. Mild modification by MGO did not affect whereas extensive modification decreased interaction of HspB6 with HspB1. Phosphorylation of HspB6 by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase was inhibited after mild modification and completely prevented after extensive modification by MGO. Chaperone-like activity of HspB6 measured with subfragment 1 of skeletal myosin was enhanced after MGO modifications. It is concluded that Arg residues located in the N-terminal domain of HspB6 are easily accessible to MGO modification and that even mild modification by MGO affects susceptibility to trypsinolysis, phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and chaperone-like activity of HspB6.

  2. Anemia and iron deficiency in heart failure. (United States)

    Gil, Victor M; Ferreira, Jorge S


    Heart failure is a common problem and a major cause of mortality, morbidity and impaired quality of life. Anemia is a frequent comorbidity in heart failure and further worsens prognosis and disability. Regardless of anemia status, iron deficiency is a common and usually unidentified problem in patients with heart failure. This article reviews the mechanisms, impact on outcomes and treatment of anemia and iron deficiency in patients with heart failure.

  3. Dietary restriction causing iodine-deficient goitre. (United States)

    Cheetham, Tim; Plumb, Emma; Callaghan, James; Jackson, Michael; Michaelis, Louise


    Iodine-deficient goitre was common in some parts of the UK prior to the introduction of salt iodisation. Many contemporary salt preparations do not contain much iodine, and there are renewed concerns about the iodine status of the population. We present a boy with severe allergy who developed goitre and significant thyroid dysfunction in association with an iodine-deficient 'food-restricted' diet. The case highlights the importance of a comprehensive nutritional assessment in all children on multiple food restrictions.

  4. Study on bacterial endotoxins test of disodium cantharidinate and vitamin B_6 injection%斑蝥酸钠维生素B_6注射液细菌内毒素检查法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵英; 唐继坤; 潘正兴


    Objective:To establish a method for determination of the bacterial endotoxin test in disodium cantharidinate and vitamin B_6 injection.Method:Inhibition and bacterial endotoxin test was performed with amebcyte lysate manufactured by different companies with different specifications according to the method of bacterial endotoxin test approved by Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2005 edition.Results:The original solution had non-interference with the bacterial endotoxin test.The results of bacteria endotoxin test in six batchs all accorded with the standard of the quality control.Conclusion:The results suggested that bacteria endotoxin test can be used as an alternative method for the rabbit pyrogen test for disodium cantharidinate and vitamin B_6 injection.The limits of bacterial endotoxin was 6 EU·mg~(-1).%目的:建立斑蝥酸钠维生素B6注射液的细菌内毒素检查方法.方法:按中国药典2005年版二部附录XIE细菌内毒素检查法进行,用小同厂家不同规格的鲎试剂对小同批号的斑蝥酸钠维牛素B_6注射液进行了干扰试验和细菌内毒素检查.结果:本品原液对细菌内毒素检查无干扰作用.按拟定标准检验,该品种6批样品细菌内毒素检查结果均符合规定.结论:本品可用细菌内毒素检查法代替家兔热原检查法,其细菌内毒素的限值(L)为6 EU·mL~(-1).

  5. Quantification of vitamin B6 vitamers in human cerebrospinal fluid by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, M. van der, E-mail: [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Albersen, M., E-mail: [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Koning, T.J. de, E-mail: [Department of Pediatric Metabolic Diseases, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC03.063.0, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Visser, G., E-mail: [Department of Pediatric Metabolic Diseases, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC03.063.0, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Middendorp, A., E-mail: [Waters Chromatography B.V., Florijnstraat 19, Postbus 379, 4870 AJ Etten-Leur (Netherlands); Bosma, M., E-mail: [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Verhoeven-Duif, N.M., E-mail: [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Sain-van der Velden, M.G.M. de, E-mail: [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of B6 vitamers in human CSF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our method is very accurate since stable isotope labeled internal standards are used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present data on light sensitivity, temperature dependence and rostrocaudal gradient. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With PN supplementation, concentrations of PL, PM, PN and PA in CSF are increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our fully validated method is suitable for implementation in a diagnostic setting. - Abstract: Since vitamin B6 is essential for normal functioning of the central nervous system, there is growing need for sensitive analysis of B6 vitamers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This manuscript describes the development and validation of a rapid, sensitive and accurate method for quantification of the vitamin B6 vitamers pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxamine (PM), pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxic acid (PA), pyridoxal 5 Prime -phosphate (PLP), pyridoxamine 5 Prime -phosphate (PMP) and pyridoxine 5 Prime -phosphate (PNP) in human CSF. The method is based on ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) with a simple sample preparation procedure of protein precipitation using 50 g L{sup -1} trichloroacetic acid containing stable isotope labeled internal standards: PL-D{sub 3} for PL and PM, PN-{sup 13}C{sub 4} for PN, PA-D{sub 2} for PA and PLP-D{sub 3} for the phosphorylated vitamers. B6 vitamers were separated (Acquity HSS-T3 UPLC column) with a buffer containing acetic acid, heptafluorobutyric acid and acetonitrile. Positive electrospray ionization was used to monitor transitions m/z 168.1 {yields} 150.1 (PL), 169.1 {yields} 134.1 (PM), 170.1 {yields} 134.1 (PN), 184.1 {yields} 148.1 (PA), 248.1 {yields} 150.1 (PLP), 249.1 {yields} 232.1 (PMP) and 250.1 {yields} 134.1 (PNP). The method was validated at three concentration levels for each B6 vitamer in CSF

  6. 逆境条件下烟草维生素B6存在形态的变化%Changes of the Existing Forms of Vitamin B6 in Tobacco in Response to Abiotic Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王灵红; 黄龙全; 张剑韵


    维生素B6(VB6)是一类吡啶化合物的总称.以组培烟草为材料,采用高效液相色谱结合荧光检测技术,分析紫外线、低温、盐和弱光胁迫对烟草体内VB6各存在形态含量的影响.结果表明:逆境条件下,VB6各存在形态含量发生变化,其中以磷酸吡哆醛和吡哆醇含量升高最明显.%Vitamin B6(VB6)is the general term for a kind of pyridine compounds.The paper aims to study the changes of the existing forms of vitamin B6 in response to abiotic stress.In this experiment,the influence of UV-B,chilling,salt and weak light stress on the content of the existing forms of VB6 in tobacco plants was determined using HPLC with fluorescence detector.The results showed that in response to abiotic stress,the content of the existing forms of VB6 changed with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and pyridoxine increased most obviously.

  7. HPLC法同时测定痤疮清软中甲硝唑与维生B6的含量%Simultaneous Determinahon of Metronidazole and Vitamin B6 in Cuochuangqing Ointment by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓雪男; 张振秋; 王海波; 刘威


    OBJECTIVE: To establish a method for simultaneous determination of metronidazole and vitamin B6 in Cuochuangqing ointment.METHODS: RP-HPLC wavelength switching method was adopted.DiamonsilTMC18 column was used with mobile phase consisted of methanol-water (10∶90).The detection wavelength was 291 nm at 0~6 min and 277 nm at 6.1~11 min and column temperature was set at 30 ℃.The flow rate was 1.0 mL·min-1 and injection volume was 10 μL.RESULTS: The linear range of metronidazole was 7.796~38.98 μg and that of vitamin B6 was 0.272~1.360 μg (r=0.999 7).Average recoveries were 98.9%(RSD=1.1%) and 97.0% (RSD=0.5%), respectively.CONCLUSION: The method is simple, specific and reproducible, accurate, reliable and suitable for quality control of Cuochuangqing ointment.%目的:建立同时测定痤疮清软膏中甲硝唑、维生素B6含量的方法.方法:采用反相高效液相色谱-切换波长法.色谱柱为DiamonsilTMC18,流动相为甲醇-水(10:90),0~6 min、6.1~11 min时检测波长分别为291、277 nm,柱温为30℃,进样量为10 μL,流速为1.0 mL·min-1.结果:甲硝唑、维生素B6进样量线性范围分别为7.796~38.98μg、0.272~1.360 μg(r均为0.9997);甲硝唑、维生素B6的回收率分别为98.9%(RSD=1.1%)、97.0%(RSD=0.5%).结论:所建立的方法操作简便、专属性高、重复性好,结果准确、可靠,可为痤疮清软膏质量控制提供依据.

  8. Observation of Ultrastructure and Morphous of Mouse Embryonic Palate Interfered by TCDD and Vitamin B6.%TCDD和B6联合作用下小鼠腭板形态的扫描电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李承浩; 石冰; 何苇; 蒙田; 卢胜军


    目的:二恶英(TCDD)和维生素B6联合作用下小鼠腭板形态的扫描电镜观察.方法:对孕期10 d(GD10)的小鼠,分别胃饲TCDD 24 μg/kg,5 mg、10 mg、20 mg B6/kg+TCDD 24 μg/kg,对照组胃饲芝麻油50 ml/kg,然后分别在GD12.5、GD13.5、GD14.5、GD15.5和GD17.5处死孕鼠,检查GD17.5胎鼠有无腭裂的发生,GD12.5、GD13.5、GD14.5、GD15.5胎鼠用于扫描电镜观察.结果:TCDD组的腭裂发生率为55.56%,对照组未见腭裂发生,TCDD+B6组浓度梯度下腭裂发生率为31.81%(5 mg),44.44%(10 mg),40.90%(20 mg).扫描电镜对照组腭中嵴上皮细胞形态规整,有大量微丝,伪足,随着孕期增加,融合的进行,微丝,伪足逐渐消失.TCDD组细胞肿胀变形,表面光滑,未见微丝,和伪足,而且形态并不随孕期的延长而改变,B6组腭中嵴上皮完全消失和TCDD组类似.结论:维生素B6不能恢复小鼠腭中嵴上皮细胞的表面超微结构,从而无法逆转TCDD导致腭裂效应.

  9. Evaluation of Curvularia lunata Strain B6 as a Potential Mycoherbicide to Control Barnydrgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; WEI Tao; SUN Ai-rui; NI Han-wen


    The virulent strain B6 of Curvularia lunata was screened out from 65 fungus strains isolated from the diseased leaves of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli). Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the strain being exploited as a mycoherbicide for barnyardgrass control in paddy fields. The results of pathogenicity experiments showed that this strain was highly pathogenic to barnyardgrass at the 1-to 2.5-leaf stages. The fresh weight reduction increased with the increase of inoculated conidial concentrations and the prolongation of dew duration. Strain B6 provided excellent barnyardgrass control when it was applied at the concentration of 1×104-1×106 conidia mL-1 in paddy fields with water layer. This strain was very safe to rice and the most plant species except wheat, barley and corn. Findings of this study indicated that this strain could be a potential mycoherbicide for barnyardgrass control in paddy fields in the future.

  10. Detection of vitamin B6 in beverage by high pressure liquid chromatography%高压液相色谱法检测饮料中维生素B6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何珊丽; 胡燕玲; 梁波


      目的建立饮料中维生素 B6含量的高压液相色谱检测方法。方法饮料样品经稀释、过滤后,用高压液相色谱仪进行测定,测定结果与 GB/T 5009.154-2003《食品中维生素 B6的测定》比较。结果浓度范围内线性关系良好,相关系数r均在0.999以上。本方法的检出限(S/N≥3)为吡哆醇15μg/kg、吡哆醛13μg/kg、吡哆胺16μg/kg。平均回收率为98.9%~99.5%,相对标准偏差为0.88%~1.05%。使用高压液相色谱法测定饮料中维生素 B6的含量与使用微生物方法检测得到的数据一致,而高压液相色谱法所用时间比微生物法要短得多。结论高压液相色谱法测定饮料中维生素B6灵敏度高,值得在实验室的日常检测中推广。%  Objective To establish a rapid and effective method for the detection of vitamin B6 in beve-rage by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods After dilution and filtration, samples was measured by high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector, and the data was compared with that obtained by the national standard microbial method. Results The method showed a good linearity with r≥0.999. The LODs of pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxmine were 15, 13, 16μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries were 98.9%~99.5%and the relative standard deviations were 0.88%~1.05%.The data of vitamin B6 content in beverage detected by HPLC was consistent with that obtained by microbial method. But the detection time of HPLC was much shorter than that of the microbial method. Moreover, the operation of HPLC was simple, and the repeata-bility and accuracy of data were much higher as well. Conclusion HPLC is a sensitive method for the detec-tion of vitamin B6 in beverage, and it could be applied to the daily detection in laboratory.

  11. Comparison of Methods of Identifying Helicobacter hepaticus in B6C3F1 Mice Used in a Carcinogenesis Bioassay


    Fox, James G.; MacGregor, Judith A.; Shen, Zeli; Li, Xiantang; Lewis, Robert; Dangler, Charles A.


    In a long-term rodent bioassay evaluating the carcinogenicity of triethanolamine, there was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity in male B6C3F1 mice, based on a marginal increase in the number of hepatocellular adenomas and hepatoblastomas. Interpretation was complicated by the presence of Helicobacter hepaticus in selected silver-stained liver sections which also had histological evidence of karyomegaly and oval cell hyperplasia. An increase in numbers of liver tumors, as evidence of ...

  12. RP-HPLC Determination of vitamins B1, B3, B6, folic acid and B12 in multivitamin tablets



    Abstract:Asimple and sensitive reversed-phase, ion-pair HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of B-group vitamins, thiamine chloride hydrochloride (B1), nicotinamide (B3), pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6) and folic acid in Pentovit® coated tablets. The cyanocobalamine (B12) was determined separately, because of its low concentration in the investigated multivitamin preparation. RP-HPLC analysis was performed with a LKB 2150 HPLC system, equipped with a UV/VI...

  13. Performance curves comparison of THG efficiency in CsLiB6O10 on flattened Gaussian and Gaussian beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wang(王丽); Jianhua Xue(薛建华)


    The conversion efficiency of THG on the flattened Gaussian and Gaussian beams is obtained in detail numerical stimulation for CsLiB6O10. The conversion efficiencies of 86.7% and 96% of the flattened Gaussian are larger than those of Gaussian beams of 72.6% and 88% under type I and type Ⅱ(1) phase matching. The efficiencies affected by the pump intensity, polarization rate, crystal lengths and orders of the flattened Gaussian beams were presented.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Cellulomonas sp. Strain B6 Isolated from Subtropical Forest Soil (United States)

    Piccinni, Florencia; Murua, Yanina; Ghio, Silvina; Talia, Paola; Rivarola, Máximo


    Cellulomonas sp. strain B6 was isolated from a subtropical forest soil sample and presented (hemi)cellulose-degrading activity. We report here its draft genome sequence, with an estimated genome size of 4 Mb, a G+C content of 75.1%, and 3,443 predicted protein-coding sequences, 92 of which are glycosyl hydrolases involved in polysaccharide degradation. PMID:27563050

  15. Plasma folate but not vitamin B(12) or homocysteine concentrations are reduced after short-term vitamin B(6) supplementation. (United States)

    Bosy-Westphal, A; Holzapfel, A; Czech, N; Müller, M J


    Adverse effects of high vitamin B(6) intake include peripheral neuropathy. Recent studies focussing on the reduction of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease showed that vitamin B(6) reduces plasma folate levels. The significance of this finding is unclear. We therefore analyzed plasma folate and basal homocysteine levels as well as the response to an oral methionine loading test in 8 healthy individuals before and after a controlled supplementation with oral doses of 25 mg pyridoxine for 10 days. Plasma pyridoxal phosphate increased from 40.6 +/- 13.6 to 426.8 +/- 200.3 nmol/l (p < 0.001), whereas plasma folate decreased from 6.3 +/- 1.6 to 4.6 +/-1.5 ng/ml (p < 0.01), respectively. Plasma vitamin B(12) and basal homocysteine levels remained unchanged (234.0 +/- 27.8 vs. 217.1 +/- 50.4 pg/ml and 10.9 +/- 4.8 vs. 10.1 +/- 3.6 micromol/l). There was no significant effect of vitamin B(6) supplementation on the area under methionine and homocysteine concentration versus time curve. Significant correlations were found between pre- and post-supplement levels of folate as well as PLP levels (r = 0.73, p < 0.05; r = 0.75, p < 0.05). These data suggest that a dose of 25 mg vitamin B(6) supplemented for 10 days reduces plasma folate but did not affect basal and postprandial homocysteine levels suggesting (1) a normal cellular availability of folate or (2) a compensation of impaired homocysteine remethylation by increased transsulfuration.

  16. Associations between Intake of Folate, Methionine, and Vitamins B-12, B-6 and Prostate Cancer Risk in American Veterans


    Vidal, Adriana C.; Grant, Delores J.; Williams, Christina D.; Elizabeth Masko; Allott, Emma H.; Kathryn Shuler; Megan McPhail; Alexis Gaines; Elizabeth Calloway; Leah Gerber; Jen-Tsan Chi; Freedland, Stephen J; Cathrine Hoyo


    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Recent reports suggest that excess of nutrients involved in the one-carbon metabolism pathway increases PC risk; however, empirical data are lacking. Veteran American men (272 controls and 144 PC cases) who attended the Durham Veteran American Medical Center between 2004–2009 were enrolled into a case-control study. Intake of folate, vitamin B12, B6, and methionine were measured using a food frequency questionnaire. Regr...

  17. Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, methionine and alcohol intake in relation to ovarian cancer risk


    Harris, Holly Ruth; Cramer, Daniel William; Vitonis, Allison F.; DePari, Mary; Terry, Kathryn Lynne


    Folate, methionine, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 may influence carcinogenesis due to their roles in the one-carbon metabolism pathway which is critical for DNA synthesis, methylation, and repair. Low intake of these nutrients has been associated with an increased risk of breast, colon, and endometrial cancers. Previous studies that have examined the relation between these nutrients and ovarian cancer risk have been inconsistent and have had limited power to examine the relation by histologic s...

  18. Effect of Vitamin B6 on Clinical Symptoms and Electrodiagnostic Results of Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Talebi


    Full Text Available Purpose: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS refers to a cluster of signs and symptoms that stems from compression of the median nerve traveling through carpal tunnel. Surgery is a definite treatment for CTS; however, many conservative therapies have been proposed. The present study set out to assess the effect of vitamin B6 in patients with CTS. Methods: Forty patients (67 hands with mild-moderate CTS were initially selected and randomly assigned into two groups as follows: 1 Case group with 20 subjects (32 affected hands receiving vitamin B6 (120 mg/day for 3 months and splinting. 2 Control group with 19 subjects (35 affected hands only received splinting. One subject from the control group dispensed with continuing participation in the research. Daily symptoms and electrodiagnostic (NCV-EMG results were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. Results: Nocturnal awakening frequency due to pain, daily pain, daily pain frequency, daily pain persistence, hand numbness, hand weakness, hand tingling, severity of nocturnal numbness and tingling, nocturnal awakening frequency owing to hand numbness and tingling, and clumsiness in handling objects improved significantly in the vitamin B6-treated patients; even so, only problem with opening a jam bottle and handling phone significantly reduced in the control group. The median nerve sensory latency mean decreased following the treatment; and the median nerve sensory amplitude mean and sensory conduction velocity mean increased. Conclusion: The present study suggests that vitamin B6 treatment improves clinical symptoms and sensory electrodiagnostic results in CTS patients, and thus is recommended for CTS treatment.

  19. Risk factors associated with anemia, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in rural Nepali pregnant women. (United States)

    Makhoul, Zeina; Taren, Douglas; Duncan, Burris; Pandey, Pooja; Thomson, Cynthia; Winzerling, Joy; Muramoto, Myra; Shrestha, Ram


    We conducted a cross sectional study to investigate risk factors associated with severe anemia [hemoglobin (Hb) iron status among Nepali pregnant women. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, health and dietary data were collected from 3,531 women living in the southeastern plains of Nepal. Stool samples were analyzed for intestinal helminthes. Dark adaptation was assessed using the Night Vision Threshold Test (NVTT). Hb levels were measured in all subjects to detect anemia and the soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) was measured among a subsample of 479 women. The iron status categories were: 1) normal (Hb> or = 11.0 g/dl and sTfR anemia without iron deficiency (Hbiron deficiency without anemia (Hb > or = 11.0 g/dl and sTfR>8.5 mg/l); and 4) iron deficiency anemia (IDA): (Hb8.5 mg/l). Factors associated with severe anemia and poor iron status were determined using logistic regression. Hookworm infection increased the risk for developing severe anemia [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 4.26; 95% CI 1.67-10.89; piron deficiency with and without anemia. Intake of iron supplements as tablets and/or tonic was protective against severe anemia, anemia without iron deficiency and IDA. Dietary heme iron was significantly associated with iron deficiency without anemia (RRR: 0.1; 95% CI 0.02-0.47; panemia and associated nutrient deficiencies.

  20. Iron deficiency in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cortés


    Full Text Available Context: Blood donation results in a substantial loss of iron (200 to 250 mg at each bleeding procedure (425 to 475 ml and subsequent mobilization of iron from body stores. Recent reports have shown that body iron reserves generally are small and iron depletion is more frequent in blood donors than in non-donors. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors and to establish the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors according to sex, whether they were first-time or multi-time donors. Design: From march 20 to April 5, 2004, three hundred potential blood donors from Hemocentro del Café y Tolima Grande were studied. Diagnostic tests: Using a combination of biochemical measurements of iron status: serum ferritin (RIA, ANNAR and the hemoglobin pre and post-donation (HEMOCUE Vital technology medical . Results: The frequency of iron deficiency in potential blood donors was 5%, and blood donors accepted was 5.1%; in blood donors rejected for low hemoglobin the frequency of iron deficiency was 3.7% and accepted blood donors was 1.7% in male and 12.6% in female. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in multi-time blood donors than in first-time blood donors, but not stadistic significative. Increase nivel accepted hemoglobina in 1 g/dl no incidence in male; in female increase of 0.5 g/dl low in 25% blood donors accepted with iron deficiency, but increased rejected innecesary in 16.6% and increased is 1 g/dl low blood donors female accepted in 58% (7/12, but increased the rejected innecesary in 35.6%. Conclusions: We conclude that blood donation not is a important factor for iron deficiency in blood donors. The high frequency of blood donors with iron deficiency found in this study suggests a need for a more accurate laboratory trial, as hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement alone is not sufficient for detecting and excluding blood donors with iron deficiency without anemia, and ajustes hacia

  1. High magnetic field study of the Gd-Co exchange interactions in GdCo12B6 (United States)

    Isnard, O.; Skourski, Y.; Diop, L. V. B.; Arnold, Z.; Andreev, A. V.; Wosnitza, J.; Iwasa, A.; Kondo, A.; Matsuo, A.; Kindo, K.


    Pulsed magnetic fields up to 68 Tesla have been used to determine the intersublattice coupling strength and its temperature dependence of GdCo12B6 compound. This compound exhibits ferrimagnetic behaviour below 163 ± 2 K. Two antiferromagnetically coupled sublattices cancel out at compensation temperature at about 48 K. They are carrying magnetization of typically 0.42 μB/Co atom and 7 μB/Gd. The intrinsic magnetic properties of the GdCo12B6 compound have been determined by combining low temperature magnetic measurements in both steady and pulsed magnetic field, as well as isofield studies in steady field. At 4.2 K, the magnetization curve of GdCo12B6 is found to reach the full saturation with sum of both sublattice magnetizations for an applied magnetic field of about 68 T. In addition a detailed study is presented in the whole ordered temperature range on the basis of magnetization curves recorded using pulsed magnetic field up to 60 T. This has enabled to investigate the intersublattice coupling strength and its temperature dependence, a value JCo-Gd/kB = -5.3 ± 0.3 K is derived from the magnetization curves whereas one gets much larger value for JCo-Co/kB = 108 K.

  2. Green algal cytochrome b6-f complexes: isolation and characterization from Dunaliella saline, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Scenedesmus obliquus. (United States)

    Wynn, R M; Bertsch, J; Bruce, B D; Malkin, R


    Cytochrome b6-f complexes have been isolated from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Dunaliella saline and Scenedesmus obliquus. Each complex is essentially free of chlorophyll and carotenoids and contains cytochrome b6 and cytochrome f hemes in a 2:1 molar ratio. C. reinhardtii and S. obliquus complexes contain the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (present in approx 1:1 molar ratio to cytochrome f) and each catalyzes a DBMIB- and DNP-INT-sensitive electron transfer from duroquinol to spinach plastocyanin. Immunological assays using antibodies to the peptides from the spinach cytochrome complex show varying cross-reactivity patterns except for the complete absence of binding to the Rieske proteins in any of the three complexes, suggesting little structural similarity between the Rieske proteins of algae with those from higher plants. One complex (D. salina) has been uniformly labeled by growth in NaH14CO3 to determine stoichiometries of constituent polypeptide subunits. Results from these studies indicate that all functionally active cytochrome b6-f complexes contain four subunits which occur in equimolar amounts.

  3. A novel two-dimensional MgB6 crystal: metal-layer stabilized boron kagome lattice. (United States)

    Xie, Sheng-Yi; Li, Xian-Bin; Tian, Wei Quan; Chen, Nian-Ke; Wang, Yeliang; Zhang, Shengbai; Sun, Hong-Bo


    Based on first-principles calculations, we designed for the first time a boron-kagome-based two-dimensional MgB6 crystal, in which two boron kagome layers sandwich a triangular magnesium layer. The two-dimensional lattice is metallic with several bands across the Fermi level, and among them a Dirac point appears at the K point of the first Brillouin zone. This metal-stabilized boron kagome system displays electron-phonon coupling, with a superconductivity critical transition temperature of 4.7 K, and thus it is another possible superconducting Mg-B compound besides MgB2. Furthermore, the proposed 2D MgB6 can also be used for hydrogen storage after decoration with Ca. Up to five H2 molecules can be attracted by one Ca with an average binding energy of 0.225 eV. The unique properties of 2D MgB6 will spur broad interest in nanoscience and technology.

  4. Comparison of the Effects of Relaxation and Vitamin B6 on Emotional and Physical Symptoms in Premenstrual Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Hasani


    Full Text Available Background: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS is consisted of multiple psychological and emotional symptoms. This disorder possesses adverse effects on women’ economic, social, familial and professional issues, therefore various medical therapies have been suggested, thus all have own side effects. Aim: To compare the effects of relaxation and vitamin B6 on emotional and physical symptoms of PMS. Method: This is a randomized clinical trial study with pre- and post-test design. The study was conducted on 150 girls living in public dormitory whom were randomly divided into three groups. The relaxation group trained in two sessions and then one week before menstruation, the taught techniques were carried out on a daily basis. The second group received 80mg vitamin B6 tablets QD for one week before menstruation and then three times a week for one cycle. The third group received no intervention as control group. Each day, data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire and where analyzed using SPSS version 14 with paired T and ANOVA tests. Results: The mean age of the participants was 20.6±1.5 and their average weight was 54.1± 6.6. The mean scores of psychological symptoms after the interventionwere 1.2± 0.2 in vitamin B6 group, 0.3± 0.7 in relaxation group, and 1.6 ± 0.4 in the control group (p

  5. An adequate interpretation of charge transport for a dilute La 1-xCe xB 6 system (United States)

    Sluchanko, N. E.; Glushkov, V. V.; Demishev, S. V.; Samarin, N. A.; Bogach, A. V.; Gon'kov, K. V.; Khayrullin, E. I.; Filipov, V. B.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.


    Precision measurements of charge transport characteristics (resistivity and Seebeck coefficient) have been carried out on the high quality single crystals of the so-called dilute Kondo system La 1-xCe xB 6 ( x⩽0.1) in a wide temperature range 1.8-300 K. At low temperatures, it was shown that instead of Kondo-type logarithmic contribution to resistivity Δ ρ∼-ln T the magnetic component obeys the power law Δ ρ∼ T-a, which corresponds to the regime of weak localization of charge carriers with the critical exponent values a=0.47-0.49 for x⩽0.1. An asymptotic behavior of Seebeck coefficient S∼-ln T found for these dilute magnetic compounds at intermediate temperatures is compared with S( T) dependence observed for the dense system CeB 6. The data obtained for La 1-xCe xB 6 are analyzed in terms of Kondo-impurity model and alternative spin-polaron approach.

  6. Magnetic octupole order in Ce0.7La0.3B6: A polarized neutron diffraction study (United States)

    Kuwahara, K.; Iwasa, K.; Kohgi, M.; Aso, N.; Sera, M.; Iga, F.; Matsuura, M.; Hirota, K.


    Recently, in phase IV of CexLa1-xB6, weak but distinct superlattice reflections from the order parameter of phase IV have been detected by our unpolarized neutron scattering experiment [K. Kuwahara, K. Iwasa, M. Kohgi, N. Aso, M. Sera, F. Iga, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 76 (2007) 093702]. The scattering vector dependence of the intensity of superlattice reflections is quite unusual; the intensity is stronger for high scattering vectors. This result strongly indicates that the order parameter of phase IV is the magnetic octupole. However, the possibility that the observed superlattice reflections are due to lattice distortions could not be completely ruled out only on the basis of the unpolarized neutron scattering experiment. To confirm that the superlattice reflections are magnetic, therefore, we have performed a single crystal polarized neutron diffraction experiment on Ce0.7La0.3B6. The obtained result has clearly shown that the time reversal symmetry is broken by the order parameter of phase IV. This is further evidence for the magnetic octupole order in CexLa1-xB6.

  7. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy


    Anouk de Bruyn; Yves Jacquemyn; Kristof Kinget; François Eyskens


    We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, su...

  8. Post-operative bariatric surgery complications: Deficiency of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Abdul Majid Mufaqam1, Soni Dhwani Satishkumar2, Patel Palak Arvindkumar2


    Full Text Available Since more than half of the population in America falls under the category of obesity, scientists have discovered a surgical technique to reduce the weight of the obese patients. Bariatric surgery or gastric bypass surgery is a procedure that has been successful in reducing the weight for obese people. This technique requires a permanent gastric bypass (Roux-en-Y where part of the stomach and duodenum is removed. Since the size of the stomach is reduced to 20% of its original size along with the removal of duodenum – this may lead to improper absorption of several vitamins and minerals. This review showed that several vitamins and mineral deficiencies are observed in patients, post-operative bariatric surgery. Thiamin, folate, and B12 deficiencies were most commonly observed, and Vitamin A, D, C and B6 deficiencies were also seen in some cases. Iron and calcium deficiencies were also reported by some of the studies.

  9. Behavior of Infants with Iron-Deficiency Anemia. (United States)

    Lozoff, Betsy; And Others


    Compared behavior of 52 Costa Rican 12- to 23-month-olds with iron-deficiency anemia to that of 139 infants with better iron status. Found that iron-deficient infants maintained closer contact with caregivers; showed less pleasure and playfulness; were more wary, hesitant, and easily tired; made fewer attempts at test items; and attended less to…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gromova


    Full Text Available The efficacy of ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate (EMHPS  depends on the concentration and activity of proteomic proteins. To provide the body with magnesium and pyridoxine is an important condition for the efficacy of EMHPS because these micronutrients are essential for maintaining neuronal function.Objective: to analyze the biological effects of pyridoxineand magnesium-dependent proteins providing the molecular mechanisms of multi-targeted action of EMHPS,  pyridoxine, and magnesium.Material and methods. Proteins that interact with both pyridoxine and magnesium were found in the genomic and proteomic databases. A list of 78 vitamin B6-dependent proteins, which is based on the available human genome records in NCBIPROTEIN, EMBL,  UNIPROT,  and HumanProteomeMap databases, was analyzed using a functional binding assay. The same assay was also applied to analyze a list 720 magnesium-dependent proteins.Results. The analysis has shown that 78 pyridoxine-dependent proteomic proteins are necessary for: 1 the synthesis and processing of amino acids; 2 cell energy metabolism (ATP synthesis, and 3 the synthesis of neurotransmitters and neuronal membranes. MexiB 6 has numerous synergistic interactions between the molecules of EMHPS,  pyridoxine, and magnesium. The combination of the components of EMHPS,  pyridoxine and magnesium in MexiB 6 (triple synergism allows prediction that the drug has more pronounced clinical effects than the molecules of EMHPS,  which emerges in its antihypoxic and antioxidant activities, the improvement of synaptic transmission of a signal, the neutralization of homocysteine, and the regulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism (restoration of cell sensitivity to insulin and carbohydrates in patients with atherosclerosis and in those at risk for diabetes mellitus or obesity. Pyridoxineand magnesium-induced potentiation of the effects of EMHPS may enhance its activity.

  11. RP-HPLC Determination of vitamins B1, B3, B6, folic acid and B12 in multivitamin tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Abstract:Asimple and sensitive reversed-phase, ion-pair HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of B-group vitamins, thiamine chloride hydrochloride (B1, nicotinamide (B3, pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6 and folic acid in Pentovit® coated tablets. The cyanocobalamine (B12 was determined separately, because of its low concentration in the investigated multivitamin preparation. RP-HPLC analysis was performed with a LKB 2150 HPLC system, equipped with a UV/VIS Waters M484 detector. The procedures for the determination of B1, B2, B6 and folic acid were carried out on a Supelcosil ABZ+ (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column with methanol-5mM heptanesulphonic acid sodium salt 0.1%triethylamine TEA(25:75 V/V; pH 2.8 as themobile phase. For the determination of B12 a Suplex pKb-100 (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column andmethanol–water (22:78 V/V as themobile phase were used. The column effluentsweremonitored at 290 nm for B 1, B3, B6 and folic acid, and at 550 nm for B12. The obtained results and statistical parameters for all the investigated vitamins of the B-group in Pentovit® coated tablets were satisfactory and ranged from 90.4 % to 108.5 % (RSD. from 0.5% to 4.1 %. The parameters for the validation of the methods are given.

  12. Initial Magnetization Curve and Hardening Mechanism in the Nanocomposite Nd8Fe85Nb1B6 Ribbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The melt-spun Nd8Fe85Nb1B6 ribbon was prepared by the single roller method with the tangential speed of 20 m/s. A mixture of Nd2Fe14B and α-Fe phases with the average crystalline grain size of about 20 nm was found to exist in the as-quenched ribbons. The initial magnetization curve of the nanocomposite Nd8Fe85Nb1B6 ribbon can be divided into four sections by the inflection points on it. The magnetically hardening mechanism corresponding to each section was investigated. The initial susceptibility of the Nd8Fe85Nb1B6 ribbon is higher than that of the Nd15Fe85B9 powder, which may be attributed to the reversible magnetization rotation in the central region not influenced by the exchange-coupling effect within the α-Fe grains.The above-mentioned magnetization rotation leads to the formation of equilibrium 180 deg. domain walls at the boundaries of the α-Fe grains. With the increase of applied field, these domain walls are compressed reversibly towards the Nd2Fe14B grains and eventually invade into them.The irreversible movement of the domain walls in the Nd2Fe14B grains accounts for the steepest growth of magnetization with the applied field. Finally, the magnetically inhomogeneous “core regions” are formed in the Nd2Fe14B grains, and the magnetization rotation in these“core regions”indicates the end of the whole initial saturation process.

  13. Development of doxorubicin-induced chronic cardiotoxicity in the B6C3F{sub 1} mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Varsha G., E-mail: [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Herman, Eugene H. [Division of Drug Safety Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20993 (United States); Moland, Carrie L.; Branham, William S. [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Lewis, Sherry M. [Office of Scientific Coordination, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Davis, Kelly J. [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); George, Nysia I. [Division Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Lee, Taewon [Department of Information and Mathematics, Korea University, Jochiwon, Chungnam 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kerr, Susan [Arkansas Heart Hospital, Little Rock, AR 72211 (United States); Fuscoe, James C. [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)


    Serum levels of cardiac troponins serve as biomarkers of myocardial injury. However, troponins are released into the serum only after damage to cardiac tissue has occurred. Here, we report development of a mouse model of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced chronic cardiotoxicity to aid in the identification of predictive biomarkers of early events of cardiac tissue injury. Male B6C3F{sub 1} mice were administered intravenous DOX at 3 mg/kg body weight, or an equivalent volume of saline, once a week for 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 weeks, resulting in cumulative DOX doses of 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 42 mg/kg, respectively. Mice were sacrificed a week following the last dose. A significant reduction in body weight gain was observed in mice following exposure to a weekly DOX dose for 1 week and longer compared to saline-treated controls. DOX treatment also resulted in declines in red blood cell count, hemoglobin level, and hematocrit compared to saline-treated controls after the 2nd weekly dose until the 8th and 9th doses, followed by a modest recovery. All DOX-treated mice had significant elevations in cardiac troponin T concentrations in plasma compared to saline-treated controls, indicating cardiac tissue injury. Also, a dose-related increase in the severity of cardiac lesions was seen in mice exposed to 24 mg/kg DOX and higher cumulative doses. Mice treated with cumulative DOX doses of 30 mg/kg and higher showed a significant decline in heart rate, suggesting drug-induced cardiac dysfunction. Altogether, these findings demonstrate the development of DOX-induced chronic cardiotoxicity in B6C3F{sub 1} mice. -- Highlights: ► 24 mg/kg was a cumulative cardiotoxic dose of doxorubicin in male B6C3F{sub 1} mice. ► Doxorubicin-induced hematological toxicity was in association with splenomegaly. ► Doxorubicin induced severe testicular toxicity in B6C3F{sub 1} male mice.

  14. Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Vitamin B6 by 4-Hydroxy 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI, Yan(李燕); WEN, Xiao-Lin(文小林); LIU, Zhong-Li(刘中立)


    The electrochemistry of pyridoxine (vitamin B6, VB6) was studied by cyclic voltammetry at a glassy carbon electrode. The electrochemical response of VB6 could be significantly enhanced by using 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (HO-TEMPO) as a mediator via an electrocatalytic EC' mechanism with the oxoammonium ion of HO-TEMPO as the active oxidant. The catalytic rate constant was determined to be 5.4×103 (mol·L-1)-1·s-1 by using chronoamperometry.

  15. Membrane estrogen receptor-α-mediated nongenomic actions of phytoestrogens in GH3/B6/F10 pituitary tumor cells


    Jeng, Yow-Jiun; Kochukov, Mikhail Y.; Watson, Cheryl S


    Background: Estradiol (E2) mediates various intracellular signaling cascades from the plasma membrane via several estrogen receptors (ERs). The pituitary is an estrogen-responsive tissue, and we have previously reported that E2 can activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as ERK1/2 and JNK1/2/3 in the membrane ERα (mERα)-enriched GH3/B6/F10 rat pituitary tumor cell line. Phytoestrogens are compounds found in plants and foods such as soybeans, alfalfa sprouts, and red grapes. Th...

  16. Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in royal jelly



    Royal jelly is used as a food supplement, popularly known as rich in B vitamins. The present work has two objectives: firstly, to apply simultaneous quantitative determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography of thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2) and pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and secondly to compare the obtained data with the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) values. The values obtained showed no thiamin, a range from 20 to 171 ng g-1 of riboflavin and from 408 to 2 188 ng g-1 ...

  17. Moderator effect of CYP2B6 genotype in HIV-1 patients with tuberculosis treated with rifampicin and efavirenz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C De la Calle


    Full Text Available Efavirenz (EFV is the preferred non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor component of the ARV regimen in HIV-TB patients. Concomitant use of EFV with rifampicin (RIF, an important component of first-line tuberculosis treatment, induces various hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes and is known to decrease EFV plasma concentrations in healthy volunteers and HIV-1 patients and EFV plasma concentrations below 1,000 µg/mL have been associated with an increased risk of virological failure [1]. Moreover, previous studies have shown that inter-individual variability in EFV plasma concentrations are associated with the presence of allelic variants in CYP2B6 gene. Carriers of the T allele of polymorphism 516 G>T are reported to be associated with slower EFV oral clearance. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of CYP2B6 genotype in EFV levels in HIV patients with TB treated with RIF. Four HIV patients who started ARV treatment concomitantly with TB treatment were analyzed. These patients started a regimen based on EFV at doses higher than standard due to RIF interaction. Viral load, CD4+ cell count and plasma levels of EFV in plasma were measured at each visit, and genotyping for CYP2B6 (516G>T polymorphism were performed. The self-reported rates of adherence to HAART were very high. One patient, who had TT genotype, required progressive dose reduction by toxic levels (Cmin: 20 µg/mL and effects on the central nervous system. Dose was adjusted to 600 mg qd despite treatment with RIF, and he required even lower doses after completion of TB treatment, 400 mg qd. Two other patients with non-mutated genotype (GG required dose escalation up to 1000 mg qd to achieve minimum recommended EFV concentrations between 1 and 4 µg/mL. All of them achieved virological suppression at six months. The fourth patient, who had non-mutated genotype, required dose increases for several months until dose adjustment. He needed 1600 mg qd during treatment with

  18. Isolation and NMR Characterization of Fumonisin B-2 and a New Fumonisin B-6 from Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Klejnstrup, Marie Louise; Phipps, Richard Kerry


    A new fumonisin, fumonisin B-6 (1), has been isolated by cation-exchange and reverse-phase chromatography, together with fumonisin B-2 (2), from,stationary cultures of the fungus Aspergillus niger NRRL 326. Analysis of mass spectrometric and NMR data determined that FB6 is a positional isomer...... of FBI and iso-FB1, having hydroxyl functions at C3, C4, and C5. Analysis of the NMR data for FB2 showed very similar chemical shift values when compared to an authentic Fusarium FB2 standard, strongly indicating identical molecules despite that an absolute stereochemical assignment of FB2 from A. niger...

  19. Multiple-site carcinogenicity of benzene in Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F sub 1 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, J.E.; Haseman, J.K.; Eustis, S.; Maronpot, R.R. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA)); DeMarini, D.M. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA)); Peters, A.C.; Persing, R.L. (Battelle Columbus Division, OH (USA)); Chrisp, C.E. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA)); Jacobs, A.C. (Carltech Associates, Rockville, MD (USA))


    Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of benzene were conducted in groups of 60 F344/N rats and 60 B6C3F{sub 1} mice of each sex for each of three exposure doses and vehicle controls. Using the results from 17-week studies, doses for the 2-year studies were selected based on clinical observations, on clinical pathologic findings and on body weight effects. Doses of 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg body weight benzene in corn oil were administered by gavage to male rats, 5 days per week, for 103 weeks. Doses of 0, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg benzene in corn oil were administered by gavage to female rats and to male and female mice for 103 weeks. Ten animals in each of the 16 groups were killed at 12 months, and necropsies were performed. Hematologic profiles were performed at 3-month intervals. For the 2-year studies, mean body weights of the top dose groups of male rats and of both sexes of mice were lower than those of the controls. Survivals of the top dose group of rats and mice of each sex were reduced; however, at week 92 for rats and week 91 for mice, survival was greater than 60% in all groups; most of the dosed animals that died before week 103 had neoplasia. Compound-related nonneoplastic or neoplastic effects on the hematopoietic system, Zymbal gland, forestomach, and adrenal gland were found both for rats and mice. Further, the oral cavity was affected in rats, and the lung, liver, Harderian gland, preputial gland, ovary, and mammary gland were affected in mice. Under the conditions of these 2-year gavage studies, there was clear evidence of carcinogenicity of benzene in male F344/N rats, female F344/N rats, male B6C3F{sub 1} mice, and female B6C3F{sub 1} mice. Dose-related lymphocytopenia was observed for male and female F344/N rats and male and female B6C3F{sub 1} mice. These unequivocal observations show clearly that benzene is a trans-species, trans-sex, multisite potent carcinogen.

  20. Folate-deficiency anemia (United States)

    ... Folate-deficiency anemia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Folate-deficiency anemia is a decrease in red blood cells (anemia) ...

  1. Anemia - B12 deficiency (United States)

    ... page: // Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia To use the sharing features on ... tissues. There are many types of anemia. Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a low red blood cell ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ... of the condition. Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require ...

  3. 1139例妊娠期妇女缺铁性贫血的调查分析%Investigation on status of iron deficiency anemia in 1 139 pregnant women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶晓娟; 汪静; 许芊; 宋琪; 黄俊


    Objective To investigate the status of iron deficiency anemia ( IDA ) in pregnant women in central city of Wuhan and related factors, so as to put forward intervention measures and improve the quality of perinatal care. Methods Dietary questionnaires were given to 1 139 cases of pregnant women who received prenatal check-up in Perinatal Care Clinic of Women and Children' s Medical Center of Jiang' an District, and blood samples were examined by Laboratory Department. Results The total incidence of IDA in pregnant women was 9.4% , among which 96. 3% were mild anemia cases and 3. 7% were moderate anemia cases. There was no severe case. With the increasing of gestational age, the prevalence of IDA was higher, which was highest in the third trimester ( 14. 9% ). There were statistical differences in the incidence of IDA among different trimesters (X2 value was 9. 180, 4. 038 and 24. 281, respectively, all P < 0. 05 ). Meanwhile, anemia in pregnant women was closely related to age and education level. With the increasing of age and decreasing of educational level, the incidence rate of anemia elevated gradually. Conclusion The incidence of IDA in pregnant women is relatively high, and it often occurs in middle and late pregnancy. Therefore, health promotion during pregnancy should be strengthened and effective intervention measures should be carried out. Iron supplements should be given in early pregnancy to reduce the incidence of anemia, so as to decrease the adverse effects of anemia on pregnant women and fetus.%目的 调查了解武汉市中心城区孕妇缺铁性贫血概况及其相关因素,提出干预措施,提高围产保健质量.方法 对在武汉市江岸区妇幼保健院围产保健门诊进行产前检查的1 139例孕妇进行膳食问卷调查,并统一由检验科进行采血样检验.结果 妊娠期妇女缺铁性贫血总发生率为9.4%,其中,轻度贫血占贫血总数的96.3%,中度贫血占3.7%,无重度贫血患者.随着孕期的增加,

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily ... Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily ... Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by ...

  7. A huge renormalization of transport effective mass in the magnetic-polaronic state of EuB 6 (United States)

    Glushkov, V.; Bogach, A.; Demishev, S.; Gon'kov, K.; Ignatov, M.; Khayrullin, Eu.; Samarin, N.; Shubin, A.; Shitsevalova, N.; Flachbart, K.; Sluchanko, N.


    The comprehensive study of galvanomagnetic, thermoelectric and magnetic properties was carried out on the single crystals of low carrier density ferromagnetic metal EuB 6 ( TC≈13.9 K, Tm=15.8 K) in a wide range of temperatures (1.8-300 K) and magnetic fields (up to 80 kOe). The analysis of the microscopic characteristics estimated from the data revealed a giant renormalization of the charge carriers’ effective mass meff, which is observed in the paramagnetic state of this compound with strong electron correlations. The gradual decrease of meff from the maximum of meff∼30 meff detected at T*≈80 K to the low temperature values of meff ( T⩽ TC)∼0.2-1 m0 is discussed in terms of the phase separation with the formation of low resistive ferromagnetic nano-sized regions (ferrons) in the dielectric magnetic polaronic state ( T> Tm). The observed unusual behavior of meff favors recent explanation of the genesis of the metal-insulator transition scenario proposed for La-doped EuB 6 systems [U. Yu, B.I. Min, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 117202.].


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available L’effet des vitamines B12, B9 et B6 sur la fragilité osmotique des érythrocytes humains a été exploré in vitro. De fortes concentrations de vitamines B12 et B6 ont protégé les érythrocytes de l’hémolyse hypotonique, avec une protection maxima atteinte respectivement à 10 et 500 µg/ml. A concentrations plus faibles, cependant, ces vitamines ont favorisé grandement l’hémolyse hypotonique. Par contre, la vitamine B9 a montré uniquement un effet hémolytique de 4 à 200 µg/ml. Cet effet peut être expliqué par la nature acide de la molécule. L’effet nul sur la fragilité osmotique de deux vitamines antagonistes, peut probablement être expliqué par l’antagonisme partiel ou par la présence de ces deux vitamines simultanément: ces dernières se lient en quantités appréciables à la cellule intacte de même qu’à l’hémolysat et il y’ a compétition mutuelle entre ces vitamines et leur transport.

  9. Effects of salvianolate on bone metabolism in glucocorticoid-treated lupus-prone B6.MRL-Faslpr/J mice (United States)

    Liu, Yanzhi; Cui, Yang; Zhang, Xiao; Gao, Xiang; Su, Yanjie; Xu, Bilian; Wu, Tie; Chen, Wenshuang; Cui, Liao


    Aim To investigate the bone-protective effects of salvianolate (Sal), a total polyphenol from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, on bone tissue in the spontaneous lupus-prone mouse model, B6.MRL-Faslpr/J, undergoing glucocorticoid (GC) treatment. Methods Fifteen-week-old female B6.MRL-Faslpr/J mice were administered either a daily dose of saline (lupus group), prednisone 6 mg/kg (GC group), Sal 60 mg/kg (Sal group); or GC plus Sal (GC + Sal group) for a duration of 12 weeks. Age-matched female C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice were used for control. Micro-computed tomography assessments, bone histomorphometry analysis, bone biomechanical test, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting analysis for bone markers, and renal histology analysis were performed to support our research endeavor. Results Lupus mice developed a marked bone loss and deterioration of mechanical properties of bone due to an increase in bone resorption rather than suppression of bone formation. GC treatment strongly inhibited bone formation in lupus mice. Sal treatment significantly attenuated osteogenic inhibition, and also suppressed hyperactive bone resorption, which recovered the bone mass and mechanical properties of bone in both the untreated and GC-treated lupus mice. Conclusion The data support further preclinical investigation of Sal as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus-related bone loss. PMID:27563234

  10. The role of vitamin B6 as an antioxidant in the presence of vitamin B2-photogenerated reactive oxygen species. A kinetic and mechanistic study. (United States)

    Natera, José; Massad, Walter; García, Norman A


    We report on the photostability of a mixture of vitamins B6 and B2 (riboflavin, Rf) upon visible light irradiation and on the possible role of the vitamin B6 family (B6D) as deactivators of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The work is a systematic kinetic and mechanistic study under conditions in which only Rf absorbs photoirradiation. Pyridoxine, pyridoxal hydrochloride, pyridoxal phosphate and pyridoxamine dihydrochloride were studied as representative members of the vitamin B6 family. The visible light irradiation of dissolved Rf and B6D in pH 7.4 aqueous medium under aerobic conditions induces photoprocesses that mainly produce B6D degradation. The overall oxidative mechanism involves the participation of ROS. Photogenerated (3)Rf* is quenched either by oxygen, giving rise to O(2)((1)Δ(g)) by electronic energy transfer to dissolved ground state oxygen, or by B6D yielding, through an electron transfer process, the neutral radical RfH˙, and O(2)˙(-) in an subsequent step. B6D act as quenchers of O(2)((1)Δ(g)) and O(2)˙(-), the former in a totally reactive event that also inhibits Rf photoconsumption. The common chromophoric moiety of B6D represented by 3-hydroxypyridine, constitutes an excellent model that mimics the kinetic behavior of the vitamin as an antioxidant towards Rf-generated ROS. The protein lysozyme, taken as an O(2)((1)Δ(g))-mediated oxidizable biological target, is photoprotected by B6D from Rf-sensitized photodegradation through the quenching of electronically excited triplet state of the pigment, in a process that competes with O(2)((1)Δ(g)) generation.

  11. Effects of Two-Step Sintering on Performance of SiC/SiB6 Composite Ceramics%两步烧结对SiC/纳米SiB6复合陶瓷性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲洁; 盛建松; 郭兴忠; 杨辉


    SiC/SiB6 composite ceramics were synthesized by pressureless liquid phase sintering, using SiBe nanoparticles as the reinforcement and YAG as the sintering aid. The effects of two-step sintering on their sintering properties and mechanical performance were studied. Results show, two-step sintering could affect the sintering properties and mechanical performance of the composite ceramics. When the temperature of the first sintering rose from 1850℃ to 1900℃, the contractiveness, mass loss and relative density of SiC/SiBe composite ceramics increased, but the flexural strength and Vickers hardness decreased; when the temperature of the second sintering rose from 1850℃ to 1900℃, the mass loss increased, the contravenes and relative density decreased, but the flexural strength and Vickers hardness were enhanced.%以纳米SiB6颗粒为增强相,YAG为烧结助剂,采用无压液相烧结技术制备了SiC/纳米SiB6复合陶瓷,主要研究两步烧结对复合陶瓷烧结特性和力学性能的影响。研究结果表明,两步烧结对复合陶瓷的烧结性能和力学性能有一定的影响。第一步烧结温度由1850℃升至1900℃,SiC/纳米SiB。复合陶瓷的收缩率、失重率和相对密度增加,抗弯强度和维氏硬度整体下降;而第二步烧结温度由1850℃升高到1900℃,复合陶瓷失重率增加,收缩率和相对密度下降,抗弯强度和维氏硬度均有所提高。

  12. Vitamin B12 deficiency and gastric histopathology in older patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KR Dholakia; TS Dharmarajan; D Yadav; S Oiseth; EP Norkus; CS Pitchumoni


    AIM: To compare upper gastric endoscopic and histopathologic findings in older adults in the presence and absence of B12 deficiency.METHODS: A prospective analysis of upper gastric endoscopic and gastric histopathologic findings from 30 newly identified B12-deficient patients (11 males,19 females) and 16 controls with normal B12 status (6males, 10 females) was performed. For all subjects, the indication for upper endoscopy and gastric biopsy were unrelated to B12 status. A single pathologist, blinded to B12 status, processed and interpreted the biopsy samples. Endoscopic and histopathologic findings were correlated with age, gender, hematocrit (Hct), MCV and B12 status.RESULTS: The B12-deficient group had significantly lower mean serum B12 levels compared to the controls (P<0.00005) while their mean Hct, MCV and serum albumin levels were similar. Iron deficiency (ferritinbased) was present in 21% of B12-deficient patients and intrinsic factor antibodies were present in29% (5/17) of B12-deficient patients. The endoscopic findings revealed significantly different rates of gastritis and atrophy between the B12-deficient and control groups (P= 0.017).B12-deficient patients had significantly less superficial gastritis (62% vs 94%) and significantly more atrophic gastritis (28% vs 0%) as compared to the controls (P= 0.039). Intestinal metaplasia was similar in both groups. Helicobacter pyloriinfection rates were similar in the B12-deficient patients and controls (40% vs31%).CONCLUSION: Significantly different endoscopic findings and types of gastritis could often be observed in the presence and absence of B12 deficiency. Atrophy,based on endoscopy, and atrophic gastritis, based on histopathology, suggest the presence of B12 deficiency.Gastric histopathology is not influenced by the age,gender, Hct or MCV of the patients.

  13. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk de Bruyn


    Full Text Available We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, supplementation with carnitine is advised. This supplementation should be continued throughout pregnancy according to plasma concentrations.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of a new borate Ba6Al4B14O33 with building blocks of AlO4, Al4O14, BO3, B6O14, and B6O13 (United States)

    Chen, Xuean; Yue, Jianying; Chang, Xinan; Xiao, Weiqiang


    A new barium aluminoborate, Ba6Al4B14O33, has been synthesized by the high-temperature solution reaction at 700 °C. The single-crystal XRD analysis showed that it crystallizes in a new structure type with space group P 1 bar, a=7.0070(14) Å, b=13.880(3) Å, c =14.702(3) Å, α=86.48(3)°, β=88.99(3)°, γ=83.46(3)°, V=1417.8(5) Å3, and Z=2. The fundamental building blocks in this structure are AlO4 tetrahedra, BO3 triangles, [Al4O14]16- groups composed of two AlO4 tetrahedra and two AlO5 trigonal bipyramids, [B6O14]10- groups formed by one BO3 triangle bonded to one [B5O12]9- double ring, and [B6O13]8- groups consisting of one BO3 triangle linked to one [B5O11]7- double ring. They are held together via common O atoms to form a 3D network, with intersecting open channels accommodating Ba2+ cations. The existence of both BO3 and BO4 groups is confirmed by FT-IR spectrum and an optical band gap of 3.44 eV is obtained from UV-VIS diffuse reflectance spectrum. Solid-state fluorescence spectrum has also been studied exhibiting the maximum emission peak at around 527 nm. Band structure calculations by the density functional theory method indicate that it is a direct band-gap insulator.

  15. Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice can be induced by diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Tai L., E-mail: [Department of Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7382 (United States); Wang, Yunbiao [Department of Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7382 (United States); Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102 (China); Xiong, Tao [College of Animal Science, Yangtze University, Jingzhou City, Hubei Province 434025 (China); Ling, Xiao [Institute for Food and Drug Control of Shandong Province, Jinan City, Shandong 250012 (China); Zheng, Jianfeng [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0613 (United States)


    Diet and phytoestrogens affect the development and progression of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to determine if oral exposure to phytoestrogen genistein (GE) by gavage changed blood glucose levels (BGL) through immunomodulation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets. These three diets were: NTP-2000 diet (NTP), soy- and alfalfa-free 5K96 diet (SOF) and high fat diet (HFD) with 60% of kcal from fat, primarily rendered fat of swine. The dosing regimen for STZ consisted of three 100 mg/kg doses (i.p.): the first dose was administered at approximately 2 weeks following the initiation of daily GE (20 mg/kg) gavage, and the second dose was on day 19 following the first dose, and the third dose was on day 57 following the first dose. In mice on the NTP diet, GE treatment decreased BGL with statistical significances observed on days 33 and 82 following the first STZ injection. In mice fed the HFD diet, GE treatment produced a significant decrease and a significant increase in BGL on days 15 and 89 following the first STZ injection, respectively. In mice fed the SOF diet, GE treatment had no significant effects on BGL. Although GE treatment affected phenotypic distributions of both splenocytes (T cells, B cells, natural killer cells and neutrophils) and thymocytes (CD4/CD8 and CD44/CD25), and their mitochondrial transmembrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species, indicators of cell death (possibly apoptosis), GE modulation of neutrophils was more consistent with its diabetogenic or anti-diabetic potentials. The differential effects of GE on BGL in male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets with varied phytoestrogen contents suggest that the estrogenic properties of this compound may contribute to its modulation of diabetes. - Highlights: • Diets affected streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice. • Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes can be induced by diet.

  16. The effects of detergents DDM and β-OG on the singlet excited state lifetime of the chlorophyll a in cytochrome b6f complex from spinach chloroplasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The singlet excited state lifetime of the chlorophyll a (Chl a) in cytochrome b6f (Cyt b6f) complex was reported to be shorter than that of free Chl a in methanol, but the value was different for Cyt b6f com-plexes from different sources (~200 and ~600 ps are the two measured results). The present study demonstrated that the singlet excited state lifetime is associated with the detergents n-dodecyl-β-D- maltoside (DDM) and n-octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (β-OG), but has nothing to do with the different sources of Cyt b6f complexes. Compared with the Cyt b6f dissolved in β-OG, the Cyt b6f in DDM had a lower fluorescence yield, a lower photodegradation rate of Chl a, and a shorter lifetime of Chl a excited state. In short, the singlet excited state lifetime, ~200 ps, of the Chl a in Cyt b6f complex in DDM is closer to the true in vivo.

  17. The effects of detergents DDM and β-OG on the singlet excited state lifetime of the chlorophyll a in cytochrome b6f complex from spinach chloroplasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN XiaoBo; ZHAO XiaoHui; ZHANG JianPing; LI LiangBi; KUANG TingYun


    The singlet excited state lifetime of the chlorophyll a (Chi a) in cytochrome b6f (Cyt b6f) complex was reported to be shorter than that of free Chl a in methanol, but the value was different for Cyt b6f complexes from different sources (~200 and ~600 ps are the two measured results). The present study demonstrated that the singiet excited state lifetime is associated with the detergents n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (DDM) and n-octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (β-OG), but has nothing to do with the different sources of Cyt b6f complexes. Compared with the Cyt b6f dissolved in β-OG, the Cyt b6f in DDM had a lower fluorescence yield, a lower photodegradation rate of Chl a, and a shorter lifetime of Chl a excited state. In short, the singlet excited state lifetime, ~200 ps, of the Chl a in Cyt b6f complex in DDM is closer to the true in vivo.

  18. Restricted TCR-alpha CDR3 diversity disadvantages natural regulatory T cell development in the B6.2.16 beta-chain transgenic mouse. (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Ferreira, Cristina; Chan, Andrew C Y; Dyson, Julian; Garden, Oliver A


    To date, analysis of mice expressing TCR-beta transgenes derived from CD4(+) T cell clones has demonstrated equivalent or higher TCR diversity in naturally occurring regulatory CD4(+) T cells (Tregs) versus conventional CD4(+) T cells (Tcons). However, TCR-alpha-chain diversity in these mice may be influenced by the inherent bias toward the CD4(+) lineage in the selected repertoires. We wished to determine whether the choice of TCR-beta-chain influences the relative diversity of the Treg and Tcon repertoires, examining as a model the B6.2.16beta-transgenic mouse, in which the fixed beta-chain is derived from a CD8(+) T cell clone. B6.2.16beta Treg thymocytes showed significantly lower TRAV17 (AV9) CDR3 sequence diversity than both syngeneic Tcon thymocytes, and Treg and Tcon thymocytes from wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice. The ratio of single-positive CD4(+)/single-positive CD8(+) thymocytes in B6.2.16beta mice was similar to that in B6, yet both the proportional frequency and absolute number of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) cells was significantly lower in the thymi and peripheral lymph nodes of B6.2.16beta mice. Furthermore, B6 + B6.2.16beta-->B6 mixed bone marrow chimeras revealed that the transgenic beta-chain disadvantaged Treg development in a competitive environment. These data underline the importance of the beta-chain in assessments of Treg alpha-chain diversity and provide further support for the notion that interclonal competition for entry into the Treg lineage is a significant factor in determining the composition of this lineage.

  19. Comparative studies on detergent-assisted apocytochrome b6 reconstitution into liposomal bilayers monitored by Zetasizer instruments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał A Surma

    Full Text Available The present paper is a systematic, comparative study on the reconstitution of an apocytochrome b6 purified from a heterologous system using a detergent-free method and reconstitution into liposomes performed using three different detergents: SDS, Triton X-100 and DM, and two methods of detergent removal by dialysis and using Bio-Beads. The product size, its distribution and zeta potential, and other parameters were monitored throughout the process. We found that zeta potential of proteoliposomes is correlated with reconstitution efficiency and, as such, can serve as a quick and convenient quality control for reconstitution experiments. We also advocate using detergent-free protein purification methods as they allow for an unfettered choice of detergent for reconstitution, which is the most crucial factor influencing the final product parameters.

  20. Nonlinear Hall effect as a signature of electronic phase separation in the semimetallic ferromagnet EuB(6). (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohang; Yu, Liuqi; von Molnár, Stephan; Fisk, Zachary; Xiong, Peng


    This work reports a study of the nonlinear Hall effect (HE) in the semimetallic ferromagnet EuB(6). A distinct switch in its Hall resistivity slope is observed in the paramagnetic phase, which occurs at a single critical magnetization over a wide temperature range. The observation is interpreted as the point of percolation for entities of a more conducting and magnetically ordered phase in a less ordered background. With an increasing applied magnetic field, the conducting regions either increase in number or expand beyond the percolation limit, hence increasing the global conductivity and effective carrier density. An empirical two-component model provides excellent scaling and a quantitative fit to the HE data and may be applicable to other correlated electron systems.

  1. The effect of antivitamin B6 administration on gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolism in retina and electroretinogram. (United States)

    Mizuno, A; Kamada, Y; Kunita, M; Matsuda, M


    The effect of several antivitamin B6 on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism was studied in the rat retina. The rat electroretinogram (ERG) was also recorded after administration of these drugs. Aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) and hydrazine administration increased the GABA content and inhibited the GABA degrading enzyme, GABA transaminase in retina. In addition, there drugs elongated the peak latency of the oscillatory potential in the rat ERG. In contrast, 4-deoxypyridoxine (DOP) or isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INAH) administration decreased the GABA content and inhibited the GABA synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase in retina, and administration of these drugs together with AOAA lessened the degrees of elevation of GABA content and of the elongation of the peak latency produced as compared with AOAA alone, though neither of the former drugs had a significant effect on ERG. The retinal GABA seems to play an important role in relation to the oscillatory potential of ERG.

  2. Influence of Heat Treatment on Microstructures and Properties of Nd8Fe78B6Co4 Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Melt-spun Nd8Fe78B6Co4 magnetic powders and their bonded magnets were prepared with the optimization of compositions and preparation techniques. The microstructure change of alloy NdFeB and the relation between microstructure and heat-treatment were studied. The heat-treatment temperature is 200~700 ℃. The as-cast structure of the alloy is typically amorphous. Different melt-spun speed and different heat treatment could result in different magnetic properties of NdFeB magnets. Magnetic properties of NdFeB increase with the addition of element Co. The magnetic properties of magnet alloy get the best when the melt-spun speed reaches 23~26 m·s-1, heat treatment temperature is 690 ℃ and time is 30 min.

  3. Induction of Apoptosis in Purified Nuclei from Tobacco-Suspension Cells by Cytochrome b6/f Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵友; 李萍; 朱瑞宇; 田瑞华; 戴尧仁


    An apoptotic cell-free system containing cytosol and nuclei from normally cultured tobacco suspension cells was used to show that a spinach chloroplast preparation can induce apoptosis in nuclei,evidenced by DNA electrophoresis and fluorescence microscopy observations.Further study showed that the chloroplast preparation or its pellet (thylakoid membrane) after hypoosmotic or supersonic treatment still exhibited the apoptosis-inducing activity,but the supernatant had no effect,which indicates that the apoptosis-inducing effector in the chloroplast preparation is water-insoluble.The induction of apoptosis by chloroplast preparation could be attenuated by Ac-DEVD-CHO,the specific inhibitor of Caspase-3,implying involvement of a Caspase-3-like protease during the process.Furthermore,extensive apoptosis in nuclei was induced by cytochrome b6/f on the thylakoid membrane,indicating that this important cytochrome complex may have an important role in the chloroplast-related apoptotic pathway.

  4. Pyridoxine neuropathy: correlation of functional tests and neuropathology in beagle dogs treated with large doses of vitamin B6. (United States)

    Schaeppi, U; Krinke, G


    Neurologic examination, electrophysiologic testing and microscopic post-mortem examination was used to study the neuropathy induced in the beagle dog by administration of excessive amounts of vitamin B6. Two female dogs received repeated daily oral doses of 3 g. The treatment was ceased when the dogs developed severe general morbidity, including uncoordinated gait and abnormal neurologic symptoms. The symptoms were most severe during and early after cessation of treatment, and in general they regressed during the subsequent 2 months of treatment-free observation. Sensory central and peripheral maximum nerve conduction velocity started to decrease after a considerable delay; the decrease progressed until late after termination of treatment and failed to fully regress. Morphologic lesions were confined to large, first order sensory neurons. The neurologic examination thus revealed the early changes, while electrodiagnostics and microscopic neuropathology were indicators of more advanced stages of toxic neuropathy and disclosed selective lesions in individuals whose gait appeared to be unremarkable.

  5. Folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 in adolescence: serum concentrations, prevalence of inadequate intakes and sources in food


    Josiane Steluti; Martini, Lígia A; Barbara S. E. Peters; MARCHIONI, Dirce M. L.


    OBJETIVO: Investigar os níveis séricos e a prevalência de inadequação da ingestão dietética de folato e das vitaminas B6 e B12, identificando os alimentos contribuintes para a ingestão desses nutrientes. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal, em adolescentes de 16 a 19 anos, de ambos os sexos, conduzido em Indaiatuba (SP). Coletou-se o registro alimentar de 3 dias não consecutivos. A dieta habitual foi estimada pela remoção da variabilidade intrapessoal, e a prevalência de inadequação da...

  6. Associations between Intake of Folate, Methionine, and Vitamins B-12, B-6 and Prostate Cancer Risk in American Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Vidal


    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Recent reports suggest that excess of nutrients involved in the one-carbon metabolism pathway increases PC risk; however, empirical data are lacking. Veteran American men (272 controls and 144 PC cases who attended the Durham Veteran American Medical Center between 2004–2009 were enrolled into a case-control study. Intake of folate, vitamin B12, B6, and methionine were measured using a food frequency questionnaire. Regression models were used to evaluate the association among one-carbon cycle nutrients, MTHFR genetic variants, and prostate cancer. Higher dietary methionine intake was associated with PC risk (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.1–3.9 The risk was most pronounced in men with Gleason sum <7 (OR = 2.75; 95%CI 1.32– 5.73. The association of higher methionine intake and PC risk was only apparent in men who carried at least one MTHFR A1298C allele (OR =6.7; 95%CI = 1.6–27.8, compared to MTHFR A1298A noncarrier men (OR =0.9; 95%CI = 0.24–3.92 (p-interaction =0.045. There was no evidence for associations between B vitamins (folate, B12, and B6 and PC risk. Our results suggest that carrying the MTHFR A1298C variants modifies the association between high methionine intake and PC risk. Larger studies are required to validate these findings.

  7. Effects of salvianolate on bone metabolism in glucocorticoid-treated lupus-prone B6.MRL-Faslpr/J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Y


    Full Text Available Yanzhi Liu,1,2 Yang Cui,3 Xiao Zhang,3 Xiang Gao,4 Yanjie Su,2 Bilian Xu,2 Tie Wu,2 Wenshuang Chen,2 Liao Cui1,2 1College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou City, 2Department of Pharmacology, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Research and Development of Natural Drugs, Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, 3Department of Rheumatology, Guangdong Provincial People’s Hospital, Guangzhou, 4Stem Cell Research and Cellular Therapy Center, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, People’s Republic of China Aim: To investigate the bone-protective effects of salvianolate (Sal, a total polyphenol from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, on bone tissue in the spontaneous lupus-prone mouse model, B6.MRL-Faslpr/J, undergoing glucocorticoid (GC treatment.Methods: Fifteen-week-old female B6.MRL-Faslpr/J mice were administered either a daily dose of saline (lupus group, prednisone 6 mg/kg (GC group, Sal 60 mg/kg (Sal group; or GC plus Sal (GC + Sal group for a duration of 12 weeks. Age-matched female C57BL/6J wild-type (WT mice were used for control. Micro-computed tomography assessments, bone histomorphometry analysis, bone biomechanical test, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting analysis for bone markers, and renal histology analysis were performed to support our research endeavor.Results: Lupus mice developed a marked bone loss and deterioration of mechanical properties of bone due to an increase in bone resorption rather than suppression of bone formation. GC treatment strongly inhibited bone formation in lupus mice. Sal treatment significantly attenuated osteogenic inhibition, and also suppressed hyperactive bone resorption, which recovered the bone mass and mechanical properties of bone in both the untreated and GC-treated lupus mice.Conclusion: The data support further preclinical investigation of Sal as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus-related bone

  8. Unusual Enhancement of Magnetization by Pressure in the Antiferro-Quadrupole-Ordered Phase in CeB6 (United States)

    Ikeda, Suguru; Sera, Masafumi; Hane, Shingo; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Kosaka, Masashi; Kunii, Satoru


    The effect of pressure on CeB6 was investigated by the measurement of the magnetization (M) under pressure, and we obtained the following results. The effect of pressure on M in phase I is very small. By applying pressure, TQ is enhanced, but TN and the critical field from the antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase III to the antiferro-quadrupole (AFQ) phase II (HcIII--II) are suppressed, as previously reported. The magnetization curve in phase III shows the characteristic shoulder at H˜ HcIII--II/2 at ambient pressure. This shoulder becomes much more pronounced by applying pressure. Both HcIII--II and the magnetic field, where a shoulder is seen in the magnetization curve in phase III, are largely suppressed by pressure. In phase II, the M-T curve at a low magnetic field exhibits an unusual concave temperature dependence below TQ down to TN. Thus, we found that the lower the magnetic field, the larger the enhancement of M in both phases III and II. To clarify the origin of the unusual pressure effect of M, we performed a mean-field calculation for the 4-sublattice model using the experimental results of dTQ/dP>0 and dTN/dP<0 and assuming the positive pressure dependence of the Txyz-antiferro-octupole (AFO) interaction. The characteristic features of the pressure effect of M obtained by the experiments could be reproduced well by the mean-field calculation. We found that the origin of the characteristic effect of pressure on CeB6 is the change in the subtle balance between the AFM interaction and the magnetic field-induced-effective FM interaction induced by the coexistence of the Oxy-AFQ and Txyz-AFO interactions under pressure.

  9. Review of fortified food and beverage products for pregnant and lactating women and their impact on nutritional status. (United States)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L


    Fortified beverages and supplementary foods, when given during pregnancy, have been shown to have positive effects on preventing maternal anaemia and iron deficiency. Studies show that use of micronutrient fortified supplementary foods, especially those containing milk and/or essential fatty acids during pregnancy, increase mean birthweight by around 60-73 g. A few studies have also shown that fortified supplementary foods have impacts on increasing birth length and reducing preterm delivery. Fortification levels have ranged generally from 50% to 100% of the recommended nutrient intake (RNI). Iron, zinc, copper, iodine, selenium, vitamins A, D, E, C, B1, B2, B6, and B12, folic acid, niacin and pantothenic acid are important nutrients that have been included in fortified beverages and supplemental foods for pregnant and lactating women. While calcium has been shown to reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia and maternal mortality, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and manganese can have negative impacts on organoleptic properties, so many products tested have not included these nutrients or have done so in a limited way. Fortified food supplements containing milk and essential fatty acids offer benefits to improving maternal status and pregnancy outcome. Fortified beverages containing only multiple micronutrients have been shown to reduce micronutrient deficiencies such as anaemia and iron deficiency.

  10. Acquired color vision deficiency. (United States)

    Simunovic, Matthew P


    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Underivatized Vitamin B1 and B6 in Whole Blood by Reversed Phase Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Puts, Johan; de Groot, Monique; Haex, Martin; Jakobs, Bernadette


    Background Vitamin B1 (thiamine-diphosphate) and B6 (pyridoxal-5’phosphate) are micronutrients. Analysis of these micronutrients is important to diagnose potential deficiency which often occurs in elderly people due to malnutrition, in severe alcoholism and in gastrointestinal compromise due to bypass surgery or disease. Existing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) based methods include the need for derivatization and long analysis time. We developed an Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) assay with internal standards for simultaneous measurement of underivatized thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5’phosphate without use of ion pairing reagent. Methods Whole blood, deproteinized with perchloric acid, containing deuterium labelled internal standards thiamine-diphosphate(thiazole-methyl-D3) and pyridoxal-5’phosphate(methyl-D3), was analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS. The method was validated for imprecision, linearity, recovery and limit of quantification. Alternate (quantitative) method comparisons of the new versus currently used routine HPLC methods were established with Deming regression. Results Thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5’phosphate were measured within 2.5 minutes instrumental run time. Limits of detection were 2.8 nmol/L and 7.8 nmol/L for thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5’phosphate respectively. Limit of quantification was 9.4 nmol/L for thiamine-diphosphate and 25.9 nmol/L for pyridoxal-5’phosphate. The total imprecision ranged from 3.5–7.7% for thiamine-diphosphate (44–157 nmol/L) and 6.0–10.4% for pyridoxal-5’phosphate (30–130 nmol/L). Extraction recoveries were 101–102% ± 2.5% (thiamine-diphosphate) and 98–100% ± 5% (pyridoxal-5’phosphate). Deming regression yielded slopes of 0.926 and 0.990 in patient samples (n = 282) and national proficiency testing samples (n = 12) respectively, intercepts of +3.5 and +3 for thiamine-diphosphate (n = 282 and n = 12) and slopes of

  12. Simultaneous Determination of Underivatized Vitamin B1 and B6 in Whole Blood by Reversed Phase Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Puts

    Full Text Available Vitamin B1 (thiamine-diphosphate and B6 (pyridoxal-5'phosphate are micronutrients. Analysis of these micronutrients is important to diagnose potential deficiency which often occurs in elderly people due to malnutrition, in severe alcoholism and in gastrointestinal compromise due to bypass surgery or disease. Existing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC based methods include the need for derivatization and long analysis time. We developed an Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS assay with internal standards for simultaneous measurement of underivatized thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate without use of ion pairing reagent.Whole blood, deproteinized with perchloric acid, containing deuterium labelled internal standards thiamine-diphosphate(thiazole-methyl-D3 and pyridoxal-5'phosphate(methyl-D3, was analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS. The method was validated for imprecision, linearity, recovery and limit of quantification. Alternate (quantitative method comparisons of the new versus currently used routine HPLC methods were established with Deming regression.Thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate were measured within 2.5 minutes instrumental run time. Limits of detection were 2.8 nmol/L and 7.8 nmol/L for thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate respectively. Limit of quantification was 9.4 nmol/L for thiamine-diphosphate and 25.9 nmol/L for pyridoxal-5'phosphate. The total imprecision ranged from 3.5-7.7% for thiamine-diphosphate (44-157 nmol/L and 6.0-10.4% for pyridoxal-5'phosphate (30-130 nmol/L. Extraction recoveries were 101-102% ± 2.5% (thiamine-diphosphate and 98-100% ± 5% (pyridoxal-5'phosphate. Deming regression yielded slopes of 0.926 and 0.990 in patient samples (n = 282 and national proficiency testing samples (n = 12 respectively, intercepts of +3.5 and +3 for thiamine-diphosphate (n = 282 and n = 12 and slopes of 1.04 and 0.84, intercepts of -2.9 and +20 for

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Raoultella ornithinolytica Strain B6, a 2,3-Butanediol-Producing Bacterium Isolated from Oil-Contaminated Soil. (United States)

    Shin, Sang Heum; Um, Youngsoon; Beak, Jeong Hun; Kim, Sehwan; Lee, Soojin; Oh, Min-Kyu; Kim, Young-Rok; Lee, Jinwon; Yang, Kap-Seok


    Here we report the full genome sequence of Raoultella ornithinolytica strain B6, a Gram-negative aerobic bacillus belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. This 2,3-butanediol-producing bacterium was isolated from oil-contaminated soil on Backwoon Mountain in South Korea. Strain B6 contains 5,398,151 bp with 4,909 protein-coding genes, 104 structural RNAs, and 55.88% G+C content.

  14. Nanocomposite Nd10Fe84-xB6Inx (x=0, 1) Permanent Magnet and Its Heat-treatment Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Nanocomposite magnet of Nd10Fe84-xB6lnx (x=0,1) has been fabricated and magnetic properties have been in vestigated. Addition of indium damages the magnetic behavior, but can change its heat-treatment effect. Annealing does not improve the properties very much to the In-free magnet, but changes the intrinsic coercivity of Nd10Fe83B6ln obviously.

  15. Effect of concomitant administration of three different antidepressants with vitamin B6 on depression and obsessive compulsive disorder in mice models (United States)

    Mesripour, Azadeh; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Kuchak, Athar


    Vitamin B6 is a cofactor of various enzymes influencing numerous neurotransmitters in the brain such as norepinephrin, and serotonin. Since these neurotransmitters influence mood, the aim the present work to evaluate the effect of vitamin B6 on depression and obsessive compulsive behavior when coadministred with clomipramine, fluoxetine, or venlafaxine. Male mice weighing 25–30 g were used. The immobility time and latency to immobility was measured in the forced swimming test as a model of despair and the number of marbles buried (MB) in an open field was used as the model of obsessive compulsive behavior in mice. Vitamin B6 (100 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to animals for six days and on the last day antidepressants were also administered and the tests took place with 30 min intervals. Immobility was reduced in vitamin B6 + clomipramine (141 ± 15 s) or venlafaxine (116 ± 15 s) but it was not significant comparing with the drugs alone. No beneficial response was seen in co-administration of vitamin B6 with fluoxetine compared to fluoxetine alone. Fluoxetine also increased the latency to first immobility. Vitamin B6 + clomipramine or venlafaxine reduced the MB behaviour by 77 ± 12% and 83 ± 7% respectively, while using them alone was less effective. Fluoxetine was very effective in reducing MB behaviour (95 ± 3.4%) thus using vitamin B6 concomitantly was not useful. Therefore vitamin B6 as a harmless agent could be suggested in depression and particularly in obsessive compulsive disorder as an adjuvant for better drug response.

  16. root uv-b sensitive Mutants Are Suppressed by Specific Mutations in ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE2 and by Exogenous Vitamin B6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colin D. Leasure; Hong-Yun Tong; Xue-Wen Hou; Amy Shelton; Mike Minton; Raymond Esquerra; Sanja Roje; Hanjo Hellmann; Zheng-Hui He


    Vitamin B6 (vitB6)serves as an essential cofactor for more than 140 enzymes. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP),active cofactor form of vitB6, can be photolytically destroyed by trace amounts of ultraviolet-B (UV-B). How sun-exposed organisms cope with PLP photosensitivity and modulate vitB6 homeostasis is currently unknown. We previously reported on two Arabidopsis mutants, rusl and rus2, that are hypersensitive to trace amounts of UV-B light. We performed mu-tagenesis screens for second-site suppressors of the rus mutant phenotype and identified mutations in the ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE2 (ASP2)gene. ASP2 encodes for cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), a PLP-dependent en-zyme that plays a key role in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Genetic analyses have shown that specific amino acid substitutions in ASP2 override the phenotypes of rusl and rus2 single mutants as well as rusl rus2 double mutant. These substitutions, all shown to reside at specific positions in the PLP-binding pocket, resulted in no PLP binding. Additional asp2 mutants that abolish AAT enzymatic activity, but which alter amino acids outside of the PLP-binding pocket, fail to suppress the rus phenotype. Furthermore, exogenously adding vitB6 in growth media can rescue both rusl and rus2. Our data suggest that AAT plays a role in vitB6 homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

  17. Transcriptional Regulation of Expression of the Maize Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 7 Gene (ZmALDH7B6) in Response to Abiotic Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Ri-liang


    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) represent a large protein family, which includes several members that catalyze the oxidation of an aldehyde to its corresponding carboxylic acid in plants. Genes encoding members of theALDH7 subfamily have been suggested to play important roles in various stress adaptations in plants. In this study, quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that a maizeALDH7 subfamily member (ZmALDH7B6) was constitutively expressed in various organs, including roots, leaves, immature ears, tassels, and developing seeds. The abundance ofZmALDH7B6 mRNA transcripts in maize roots was increased by ammonium, NaCl, and mannitol treatments. To further analyze tissue-speciifc and stress-induced expression patterns, the 1.5-kb 5´-lfankingZmALDH7B6 promoter region was fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and introduced into maize plants. In roots of independent transgenic lines, there was signiifcant induction of GUS activity in response to ammonium supply, conifrming ammonium-dependent expression ofZmALDH7B6 at the transcript level. Histochemical staining showed that GUS activity driven by theZmALDH7B6 promoter was mainly localized in the vascular tissues of maize roots. These results suggested thatZmALDH7B6 is induced by multiple environmental stresses in maize roots, and may play a role in detoxifying aldehydes, particularly in vascular tissue.

  18. Spatial distribution of electrons near the Fermi level in the metallic LaB6 through accurate X-ray charge density study (United States)

    Kasai, Hidetaka; Nishibori, Eiji


    Charge densities of iso-structural metal hexaborides, a transparent metal LaB6 and a semiconductor BaB6, have been determined using the d > 0.22 Å ultra-high resolution synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction data by a multipole refinement and a maximum entropy method (MEM). The quality of the experimental charge densities was evaluated by comparison with theoretical charge densities. The strong inter-octahedral and relatively weak intra-octahedral boron-boron bonds were observed in the charge densities. A difference of valence charge densities between LaB6 and BaB6 was calculated to reveal a small difference between isostructural metal and semiconductor. The weak electron lobes distributed around the inter B6 octahedral bond were observed in the difference density. We found the electron lobes are the conductive π-electrons in LaB6 from the comparison with the theoretical valence charge density. We successfully observed a spatial distribution of electrons near the Fermi level from the X-ray charge density study of the series of iso-structural solids. PMID:28120900

  19. A paucity of liver disease in Canadian Inuit with chronic hepatitis B virus, subgenotype B6 infection. (United States)

    Minuk, G Y; Macrury, S; Uhanova, J; Caouette, S; Coleman, N; Cummings, K; Larke, B; Vardy, L; Triet Huyn, C; Osiowy, C


    Clinical observations suggest that chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in the Canadian Inuit are less often associated with serious adverse outcomes than has been described in other HBV-infected patient populations. The aim of this study was to document the clinical and biochemical features, liver-related morbidity and all-cause mortality in Canadian Inuit with chronic HBV infections. Administrative databases were reviewed for individuals identified as hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive during a 1983-85 seroepidemiological survey of viral hepatitis in Baffin Island, Canada. An equal number of age- and gender-matched HBsAg-negative individuals from the same communities served as controls. Baseline HBV viral loads, genotypes and specific mutations were compared in HBsAg-positive survivors and nonsurvivors. A subset of surviving HBsAg-positive carriers were reassessed 25-30 years following their initial diagnosis for evidence of advanced liver disease and changes to their serological/virological findings. One hundred and forty four HBsAg-positive individuals were identified. All were Canadian Inuit. The mean age at diagnosis was 38 ± 17 years and 69 (61%) were male. Median follow-up was 23 years (range: 2-28 years). Viral quantitation from stored sera could be performed in 70 infected individuals. The median viral load was 4.3 log 10 IU/ml (range: 2.3-8.8 log 10 IU/ml), and all were genotype B, subgenotype B6. Liver biochemistry, morbidity and all-cause mortality rates were similar in HBsAg-positive carriers and controls. Following multivariate analyses, only age at diagnosis predicted mortality in HBsAg carriers. In a subset of 30 HBsAg-positive survivors who underwent follow-up assessments, clinical, biochemical and radiological examinations of the liver were essentially normal. 23/30 (77%) remained HBsAg positive and 17/19 (90%) HBV-DNA positive. The genotype and prevalence of genomic mutations in this cohort remained largely unchanged, but

  20. Comparison of capsular genes of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D isolates. (United States)

    Song, Jae-Hoon; Baek, Jin Yang; Ko, Kwan Soo


    Recently, Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6C and 6D have been identified. It is thought that they emerged by the replacement of wciN(β) in the capsular loci of serotypes 6A and 6B, respectively. However, their evolution has not been unveiled yet. To investigate the evolution of four serotypes of S. pneumoniae serogroup 6, four genes of the capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) locus, wchA, wciN, wciO, and wciP, of isolates of S. pneumoniae serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D were sequenced. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to investigate their genetic backgrounds. The wchA gene of serotype 6C and 6D isolates was distinct from that of serotype 6A and 6B isolates, which may suggest cotransfer of wchA with wciN(β). Otherwise, serotypes 6C and 6D displayed different genetic backgrounds from serotypes 6A and 6B, which was suggested by MLST analysis. In addition, serotype 6C isolates showed distinct wciP polymorphisms from other serotypes, which also indicated that serotype 6C had not recently originated from serotype 6A. Although serotype 6D shared the same amino acid polymorphisms of wciO with serotype 6B, wciP of serotype 6D differed from that of serotype 6B. The data indicate the implausibility of the scenario of a recent emergence of the cps locus of serotype 6D by genetic recombination between serotypes 6B and 6C. In addition, five serotype 6A and 6B isolates (6X group) displayed cps loci distinct from those of other isolates. The cps locus homogeneity and similar sequence types in MLST analysis suggest that most of the 6X group of isolates originated from the same ancestor and that the entire cps locus might have recently been transferred from an unknown origin. Serotype 6B isolates showed two or more cps locus subtypes, indicating a recombination-mediated mosaic structure of the cps locus of serotype 6B. The collective data favor the emergence of cps loci of serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D by complicated recombination.

  1. Deficiently Extremal Gorenstein Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pavinder Singh


    The aim of this article is to study the homological properties of deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebras. We prove that if / is an odd deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebra with pure minimal free resolution, then the codimension of / must be odd. As an application, the structure of pure minimal free resolution of a nearly extremal Gorenstein algebra is obtained.

  2. Iron deficiency anemia (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  3. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A;


    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  4. Growth Hormone Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Tarım


    Full Text Available Growth hormone deficiency is the most promising entity in terms of response to therapy among the treatable causes of growth retardation. It may be due to genetic or acquired causes. It may be isolated or a part of multiple hormone deficiencies. Diagnostic criteria and therefore treatment indications are still disputed. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 36-8

  5. Iron induced nickel deficiency (United States)

    It is increasingly apparent that economic loss due to nickel (Ni) deficiency likely occurs in horticultural and agronomic crops. While most soils contain sufficient Ni to meet crop requirements, situations of Ni deficiency can arise due to antagonistic interactions with other metals. This study asse...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Restless Legs Syndrome Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily treated condition that occurs if you ...

  7. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.


    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  8. Iron deficiency in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijterschout, L.


    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Iron is involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism, immune response, and plays an important role in brain development. In infancy, ID is associated with adverse effects on cognitive, motor, and behavioral development

  9. Ultrafast terahertz spectroscopy study of Kondo insulating thin film SmB6: evidence for an emergent surface state (United States)

    Zhang, Jingdi; Yong, Jie; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Greene, Richard; Averitt, Richard

    We utilize terahertz time domain spectroscopy to investigate thin films of the heavy fermion compound SmB6, a prototype Kondo insulator. Temperature dependent terahertz (THz) conductivity measurements reveal a rapid decrease in the Drude weight and carrier scattering rate at ~T* =20 K, well below the hybridization gap onset temperature (100 K). Moreover, a low-temperature conductivity plateau (below 20K) indicates the emergence of a surface state with an effective electron mass of 0.1me. Conductivity dynamics following optical excitation are also measured and interpreted using Rothwarf-Taylor (R-T) phenomenology, yielding a hybridization gap energy of 17 meV. However, R-T modeling of the conductivity dynamics reveals a deviation from the expected thermally excited quasiparticle density at temperatures below 20K, indicative of another channel opening up in the low energy electrodynamics. Taken together, these results suggest the onset of a surface state well below the crossover temperature (100K) after long-range coherence of the f-electron Kondo lattice is established. JZ and RDA acknowledge support from DOE - Basic Energy Sciences under Grant No. DE-FG02-09ER46643, under which the THz measurements and data analysis were performed. JY, IT and RLG acknowledge support from ONR N00014-13-1-0635 and NSF DMR 1410665.

  10. Paulus als Schriftuitlegger Paulus’ vertolking van Genesis 15:5b-6 in Romeinen 4:3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter K. Baaij


    Full Text Available Paul as expositor of Scripture. Paul’s interpretation of Genesis 15:5b-6 in Romans 4:3 The author of this article has since 1986 been working exclusively on the translation and exegesis of the Epistle to the Romans. In the course of this work, he discovered that Paul first carefully considered his text in Biblical Hebrew before writing it accurately in Greek. It then transpires that “the difficult Paul” proclaimed the gospel of the crowning of the Law (10:4 with great clarity. The real Paul is pre-eminently the expositor of Scripture. Provided we use the instruments provided to the reader by Paul, we shall thus not only understand the proclamation of Paul better but also Scripture itself.  In this article the author illustrates that Paul in Romans 4:3 accurately renders what is written in Genesis 15:5b and 6. Paul teaches us to understand the Hebrew text better by indicating where the emphasis lies in the Hebrew text and how we must interpret the Hebrew terms used. For this reason Paul’s interpretation of Genesis 15:5b and 6 in Romans 4:3 is of great importance in the continually more topical debate on how we must translate the Bible.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B 6 content in two varieties of Brazilian beans (United States)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H. A. L. C. H.; Mancini-Filho, J. J.; Delincée, H. H.; Bognár, A. A.


    The effect of 60Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macaçar beans ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macaçar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B 1, B 2 and B 6 was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology.

  12. Multipolar phases and magnetically hidden order: review of the heavy-fermion compound Ce1-x La x B6 (United States)

    Cameron, Alistair S.; Friemel, Gerd; Inosov, Dmytro S.


    Cerium hexaboride is a cubic f-electron heavy-fermion compound that displays a rich array of low-temperature magnetic ordering phenomena which have been the subject of investigation for more than 50 years. Its complex behaviour is the result of competing interactions, with both itinerant and local electrons playing important roles. Investigating this material has proven to be a substantial challenge, in particular because of the appearance of a ‘magnetically hidden order’ phase, which remained elusive to neutron-scattering investigations for many years. It was not until the development of modern x-ray scattering techniques that the long suspected multipolar origin of this phase was confirmed. Doping with non-magnetic lanthanum dilutes the magnetic cerium sublattice and reduces the f-electron count, bringing about substantial changes to the ground state with the emergence of new phases and quantum critical phenomena. To this day, Ce1-x La x B6 and its related compounds remain a subject of intense interest. Despite the substantial progress in understanding their behaviour, they continue to reveal new and unexplained physical phenomena. Here we present a review of the accumulated body of knowledge on this family of materials in order to provide a firm standpoint for future investigations.

  13. Absorption and metabolism of triclosan after application to the skin of B6C3F1 mice. (United States)

    Fang, Jia-Long; Vanlandingham, Michelle; da Costa, Gonçalo Gamboa; Beland, Frederick A


    Triclosan is used as an antimicrobial agent in personal care products, household items, medical devices, and clinical settings. Humans can receive lifelong exposures to triclosan; however, data on the toxicity and carcinogenicity after topical application are lacking. This study determined the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of triclosan after application to the skin of B6C3F1 mice. [(14)C(U)]triclosan (10 or 100 mg triclosan/kg body weight) was administered topically to mice in two separate experiments: a vehicle selection experiment using propylene glycol, ethanol, and a generic cosmetic cream, and a toxicokinetic experiment. Mice were killed up to 72 h after triclosan administration, and excreta and tissues were analyzed for radioactivity. Ethanol had the best properties of the vehicles evaluated. Maximum absorption was obtained at approximately 12 h after dosing. Radioactivity appeared in the excreta and in all tissues examined, with the highest levels in the gall bladder and the lowest levels in the brain. Triclosan was metabolized to triclosan sulfate, triclosan glucuronide, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and hydroxytriclosan. The metabolite profile was tissue-dependent and the predominant route of excretion was fecal. The AUC(0-∞) and the Cmax of plasma and liver in females were greater than those in males. Slightly lower absorption was observed in mice with Elizabethan collars.

  14. Surface properties of graphite and LaB6 materials used for laser heated emissive probe diagnostic (United States)

    Mehta, P.; Sarma, A.; Sivagami, A. D.; HariPrakash, N.; Gopi, S.; Sarma, B.; Ghosh, J.


    Laser heated emissive probe (LHEP) has been used as an alternative diagnostics to measure direct plasma potential. In this case, surface properties of LHEP materials have been studied before and after exposing it to high power laser. A high density small diameter (0.5 mm) laser light of variable power density is used to heat the probe tip. Two types of probe tip material are used in this experiment, viz, Graphite (Coarse grain and HOPG) and LaB6. Purity of material is dependent on the constituents of the same. Surface properties of these materials before and after laser exposure and plasma conditions have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In order to achieve higher sensitivity on carbon surface and other layers the low-energy probing ( 1.0 keV), the energy dispersive spectroscopy is used. Data of the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy allows us to obtain the structure of the materials as well as different elements present in these materials. To understand the surface morphology more critically, open source software named Gwyddion ( version 2.35) has been used for processing of the SEM images. The 3-D visualization of the probe tip at different experimental conditions has been made using the Interactive 3-D surface plot plug-in of Gwyddion. Optical properties are also analyzed using diffusion reflectance spectroscopy and from which band gap energy of the same has been estimated.

  15. A novel GH6 cellobiohydrolase from Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6 and its synergistic action on cellulose degradation. (United States)

    Baramee, Sirilak; Teeravivattanakit, Thitiporn; Phitsuwan, Paripok; Waeonukul, Rattiya; Pason, Patthra; Tachaapaikoon, Chakrit; Kosugi, Akihiko; Sakka, Kazuo; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok


    We recently discovered a novel glycoside hydrolase family 6 (GH6) cellobiohydrolase from Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6 (PcCel6A), which is rarely found in bacteria. This enzyme is a true exo-type cellobiohydrolase which exhibits high substrate specificity on amorphous cellulose and low substrate specificity on crystalline cellulose, while this showed no activity on substitution substrates, carboxymethyl cellulose and xylan, distinct from all other known GH6 cellobiohydrolases. Product profiles, HPLC analysis of the hydrolysis products and a schematic drawing of the substrate-binding subsites catalysing cellooligosaccharides can explain the new mode of action of this enzyme which prefers to hydrolyse cellopentaose. PcCel6A was not inhibited by glucose or cellobiose at concentrations up to 300 and 100 mM, respectively. A good synergistic effect for glucose production was found when PcCel6A acted together with processive endoglucanase Cel9R from Clostridium thermocellum and β-glucosidase CglT from Thermoanaerobacter brockii. These properties of PcCel6A make it a suitable candidate for industrial application in the cellulose degradation process.

  16. Effect of particle size on the polycrystalline CeB6 cathode prepared by spark plasma sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Lihong; ZHANG Jiuxing; ZHOU Shenlin


    The full densification polycrystalline cerium hexaboride (CeB6) cathode material was prepared by using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method in an oxygen free system. The starting precursor nanopowders with an average grain size of 50 nm were prepared by high-energy ball milling. The ball-milled nanopowder was fully densified at 1550 ℃ under 50 MPa, which was about 350 ℃ lower than the conventional hot-pressing method and it was also lower than that of coarse powder under the same sintering condition. The mechanical properties of nanopowder sintered samples were significantly better than that of coarse powder, e.g., the flexural strength and Vickers hardness were 211% and 51% higher than that of coarse powder, respectively. The electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) result showed that the (100) fiber texture could be fabricated by the ball-milled nanopowder sintered at 1550 ℃ and the thermionic emission current density was measured to be 16.04 A/cm2 at a cathode temperature of 1873 K.

  17. Lack of efficacy of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) treatment in acquired idiopathic sideroblastic anaemia, including refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts. (United States)

    Baumann Kreuziger, Lisa M; Wolanskyj, Alexandra P; Hanson, Curtis A; Steensma, David P


    Pyridoxine, or vitamin B6, is commonly used to treat acquired idiopathic sideroblastic anaemia (AISA, including refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts), but the efficacy of this therapy in an unselected AISA population (i.e. patients without confirmed ALAS2 or other pyridoxine-responsive germline mutations) has not been established. We reviewed clinical data from 231 patients with AISA and found that 42% of 203 evaluable patients had been treated with pyridoxine. Only 6.8% of pyridoxine-treated patients experienced a haemoglobin improvement (≥ 1.5 g/dL) meeting 2006 International Working Group for Myelodysplastic Syndromes standardised response criteria. As some patients received combination therapy with erythropoietin or other agents, improvement could be attributed to pyridoxine monotherapy in only one patient (1.4%). Smaller, less meaningful increments in haemoglobin levels of 0.5 g/dL were observed in 13.5% of patients. Response to therapy did not correlate with International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) risk group or multilineage vs unilineage dysplasia. New symptomatic peripheral neuropathy was noted in 2.3% of patients treated with pyridoxine. In this large series of unselected patients with sideroblastic anaemia, pyridoxine therapy was ineffective and was associated with a risk of adverse effects. Pyridoxine therapy should be reserved for patients with known or suspected pyridoxine-responsive mutations.

  18. Directional anisotropy of magnetostriction and magnetic phase transition in Nd14 Dy2 Fe78 B6 solid solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T.


    Full Text Available   In this research. The magnetic phase transition and anisotropic magnetoelastic effects of a polycrystalline sample of Nd14Dy2Fe78B6 were studied by susceptibility and magnetostriction measurements. The composition was prepared by casting method. SEM pictures and XRD analysis showed that it was composed of polycrystalline magnetic phases with the main phase of 2-14-1. Results of ac susceptibility measurements show that the sample undergoes a magnetic phase transition at about 130 K, which is due to a gradual spin reorientaion accompanied with crystal structure distortion. Magnetostriction measurements in three orthogonal directions of the main body of the sample were performed in the range of 77 K to 300 K and in the field up to 1.5 T. At temperatures below 125 K, the magnetostriction values in three orthogonal directions differ by a factor of two to three. This anisotropy in magnetostriction indicates preferential orientation of the crystalline grains in the volume of the sample. In addition, magnetostriction curves show minimum values near the phase transition temperature with different values in the different directions. Minimum values of magnetostriction can be explained by the critical behavior of the orbital magnetic moments of the Fe atoms at the phase transition temperature.

  19. Regulation of Vitamin C Homeostasis during Deficiency


    Jens Lykkesfeldt; Pernille Tveden-Nyborg; Maiken Lindblad


    Large cross-sectional population studies confirm that vitamin C deficiency is common in humans, affecting 5%–10% of adults in the industrialized world. Moreover, significant associations between poor vitamin C status and increased morbidity and mortality have consistently been observed. However, the absorption, distribution and elimination kinetics of vitamin C in vivo are highly complex, due to dose-dependent non-linearity, and the specific regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Par...

  20. 婴幼儿缺铁性贫血的现状、影响因素分析及预防措施%Preventive measures and status and influencing factors analysis of infant iron deficiency anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:缺铁性贫血对婴幼儿危害性极大。本文从早产儿、低体重儿、人工喂养、辅食添加不合理、辅食添加过晚、母亲贫血史、胃肠道功能紊乱、婴幼儿长期慢性失血等方面分析婴幼儿缺铁性贫血原因,并提出相应的预防对策。%Iron deficiency anemia was greatly harm to infants.In this paper,the author analyzed the reasons for infant iron deficiency anemia from premature,low birth weight infants,artificial feeding,unreasonable food supplement,complementary feeding too late,mother history of anemia,gastrointestinal tract dysfunction,infant chronic blood loss and etc.,and put forward the corresponding preventive measures.

  1. Immune Deficiency Influences Juvenile Social Behavior and Maternal Behavior (United States)

    Quinnies, Kayla M.; Cox, Kimberly H.; Rissman, Emilie F.


    Mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) lack functional T and B-lymphocytes, and have impaired cognitive abilities. Here, we assessed social behaviors in male SCID and C57BL/6 (B6) juvenile mice. In a social preference task, SCID mice spent more time than B6 mice investigating a novel adult male mouse. In a social recognition task, SCID mice habituated to a novel ovariectomized mouse, but failed to show dishabituation when presented with an unfamiliar individual. We hypothesized that partial immune restoration could normalize behaviors. SCID pups (postnatal day 7) received either saline or splenocytes from normal donors. Splenocyte-replaced SCID mice spent less time interacting with a novel mouse than saline-injected SCID or B6 control mice. Again, control SCID mice failed to dishabituate to a novel mouse, but splenocyte-replaced SCID mice showed dishabituation. In both of these studies B6 and SCID pairs were used to produce offspring that remained with their dams until weaning. There are no studies of maternal behavior in SCID dams; therefore to investigate the potential role for this factor we quantified maternal behavior in SCID and B6 dams; several significant differences were found. To control for differences in maternal care we mated heterozygous SCIDs to produce offspring. These homozygous SCID and WT offspring reared by dams of the same genotypes displayed similar responses to a novel mouse; however, in the social recognition task SCID males did not display dishabituation to a novel mouse. Taken together, our data indicate that gene by environment interactions influence social interactions in immune deficient mice. PMID:26030431

  2. The effects of vitamin D supplementation on hepatic dysfunction, vitamin D status, and glycemic control in children and adolescents with vitamin D deficiency and either type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Udoka Nwosu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effects of vitamin D supplementation on mild hepatic dysfunction and glycemic control are unclear in children and adolescents with either type 1 (T1D or type 2 diabetes (T2D. HYPOTHESIS: Vitamin D supplementation will improve hepatic dysfunction and glycemic control. AIM: To determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on alanine transaminase (ALT, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] concentration. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 131 subjects with either T1D (n = 88 ∶ 46 females, 42 males, or T2D (n = 43 ∶ 26 females, 17 males of ages 3-18 years between 2007-2013. All subjects had (1 a diagnosis of diabetes for > 12 mo, (2 received vitamin D supplementation for the management of vitamin D deficiency (3 had baseline and subsequent simultaneous measurements of HbA1c, ALT, and 25(OHD. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OHD concentration of < 50 nmol/L (20 ng/mL. RESULTS: At baseline, vitamin D deficiency occurred in 72.1% of patients with T2D and in 37.5% of T1D patients (p < 0.001. Patients with T2D had significantly higher values for BMI SDS (p < 0.001, alanine transaminase (ALT (p = 0.001, but lower 25(OHD p < 0.001, and no difference in HbA1c (p = 0.94, and total daily dose (TDD of insulin per kg body weight (p = 0.48 as compared to T1D patients. After 3 months of vitamin D supplementation, there was a significant increase in 25(OHD in both T2D (p = 0.015, and T1D patients (p < 0.001; significant reduction in BMI SDS (p = 0.015 and ALT (p = 0.012 in T2D, but not in T1D. There was a clinically-significant decrease in HbA1c in T2D from 8.5 ± 2.9% at baseline to 7.7 ± 2.5 at 3 mo, but not in T1D, 8.5 ± 1.2 to 8.53 ± 1.1%. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation in subjects with T2D was associated with statistically significant decreases in BMI SDS, ALT, and a clinically-significant decrease in HbA1c.

  3. Trichloroethylene-induced gene expression and DNA methylation changes in B6C3F1 mouse liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiang

    Full Text Available Trichloroethylene (TCE, widely used as an organic solvent in the industry, is a common contaminant in air, soil, and water. Chronic TCE exposure induced hepatocellular carcinoma in mice, and occupational exposure in humans was suggested to be associated with liver cancer. To understand the role of non-genotoxic mechanism(s for TCE action, we examined the gene expression and DNA methylation changes in the liver of B6C3F1 mice orally administered with TCE (0, 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w. per day for 5 days. After 5 days TCE treatment at a dose level of 1000 mg/kg b.w., a total of 431 differentially expressed genes were identified in mouse liver by microarray, of which 291 were up-regulated and 140 down-regulated. The expression changed genes were involved in key signal pathways including PPAR, proliferation, apoptosis and homologous recombination. Notably, the expression level of a number of vital genes involved in the regulation of DNA methylation, such as Utrf1, Tet2, DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, were dysregulated. Although global DNA methylation change was not detected in the liver of mice exposed to TCE, the promoter regions of Cdkn1a and Ihh were found to be hypo- and hypermethylated respectively, which correlated negatively with their mRNA expression changes. Furthermore, the gene expression and DNA methylation changes induced by TCE were dose dependent. The overall data indicate that TCE exposure leads to aberrant DNA methylation changes, which might alter the expression of genes involved in the TCE-induced liver tumorgenesis.

  4. Toxicity of divinylbenzene-55 for B6C3F1 mice in a two-week inhalation study. (United States)

    Morgan, D L; Mahler, J F; Wilson, R E; Moorman, M P; Price, H C; O'connor, R W


    Divinylbenzene (DVB) is a crosslinking monomer used primarily for copolymerization with styrene to produce ion-exchange resins. The toxicity of inhaled DVB was investigated because of the potential for worker exposure and the structural similarity of DVB to styrene, a potential carcinogen. Male and female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 25, 50, or 75 ppm DVB for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for up to 2 weeks. Six mice/sex/dose group were killed after 3, 5, and 10 exposures and six mice/sex in the 75 ppm group were killed 7 days after 10 exposures. The most severe effects occurred in the nasal cavity and liver, with less severe effects occurring in the kidneys. In the nasal cavity olfactory epithelium acute necrosis and inflammation were present at early time points followed by regeneration, architectural reorganization, and focal respiratory metaplasia by 7 days after the last exposure. Olfactory epithelial changes were concentration-dependent with extensive involvement at 75 ppm and peripheral sparing at 25 ppm. There was also necrosis and regeneration of olfactory-associated Bowman's glands as well as the lateral nasal (Steno's) glands. Hepatocellular centrilobular (CL) necrosis was observed only in the 75 ppm dose group and was similar to that caused by styrene. A time-dependent progression was observed, characterized by CL degeneration after 1 exposure, necrosis after 3 and 5 exposures, and chronic inflammation with CL karyomegaly after 10 exposures and 7 days after the 10th exposure. Hepatic GSH levels were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. In the kidneys, transient tubular damage was observed in some male mice exposed to 75 ppm, and appeared to be a response to DVB-induced tubular epithelial injury.

  5. Structural definition of the lysine swing in Arabidopsis thaliana PDX1: Intermediate channeling facilitating vitamin B6 biosynthesis. (United States)

    Robinson, Graham C; Kaufmann, Markus; Roux, Céline; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B


    Vitamin B6 is indispensible for all organisms, notably as the coenzyme form pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Plants make the compound de novo using a relatively simple pathway comprising pyridoxine synthase (PDX1) and pyridoxine glutaminase (PDX2). PDX1 is remarkable given its multifaceted synthetic ability to carry out isomerization, imine formation, ammonia addition, aldol-type condensation, cyclization, and aromatization, all in the absence of coenzymes or recruitment of specialized domains. Two active sites (P1 and P2) facilitate the plethora of reactions, but it is not known how the two are coordinated and, moreover, if intermediates are tunneled between active sites. Here we present X-ray structures of PDX1.3 from Arabidopsis thaliana, the overall architecture of which is a dodecamer of (β/α)8 barrels, similar to the majority of its homologs. An apoenzyme structure revealed that features around the P1 active site in PDX1.3 have adopted inward conformations consistent with a catalytically primed state and delineated a substrate accessible cavity above this active site, not noted in other reported structures. Comparison with the structure of PDX1.3 with an intermediate along the catalytic trajectory demonstrated that a lysine residue swings from the distinct P2 site to the P1 site at this stage of catalysis and is held in place by a molecular catch and pin, positioning it for transfer of serviced substrate back to P2. The study shows that a simple lysine swinging arm coordinates use of chemically disparate sites, dispensing with the need for additional factors, and provides an elegant example of solving complex chemistry to generate an essential metabolite.

  6. Supercomplexes of plant photosystem I with cytochrome b6f, light-harvesting complex II and NDH. (United States)

    Yadav, K N Sathish; Semchonok, Dmitry A; Nosek, Lukáš; Kouřil, Roman; Fucile, Geoffrey; Boekema, Egbert J; Eichacker, Lutz A


    Photosystem I (PSI) is a pigment-protein complex required for the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis and participates in light-harvesting and redox-driven chloroplast metabolism. Assembly of PSI into supercomplexes with light harvesting complex (LHC) II, cytochrome b6f (Cytb6f) or NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex (NDH) has been proposed as a means for regulating photosynthesis. However, structural details about the binding positions in plant PSI are lacking. We analyzed large data sets of electron microscopy single particle projections of supercomplexes obtained from the stroma membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana. By single particle analysis, we established the binding position of Cytb6f at the antenna side of PSI. The rectangular-shaped Cytb6f dimer binds at the side where Lhca1 is located. The complex binds with its short side rather than its long side to PSI, which may explain why these supercomplexes are difficult to purify and easily disrupted. Refined analysis of the interaction between PSI and the NDH complex indicates that in total up to 6 copies of PSI can arrange with one NDH complex. Most PSI-NDH supercomplexes appeared to have 1-3 PSI copies associated. Finally, the PSI-LHCII supercomplex was found to bind an additional LHCII trimer at two positions on the LHCI side in Arabidopsis. The organization of PSI, either in a complex with NDH or with Cytb6f, may improve regulation of electron transport by the control of binding partners and distances in small domains.

  7. Early metabolomics changes in heart and plasma during chronic doxorubicin treatment in B6C3F1 mice. (United States)

    Schnackenberg, Laura K; Pence, Lisa; Vijay, Vikrant; Moland, Carrie L; George, Nysia; Cao, Zhijun; Yu, Li-Rong; Fuscoe, James C; Beger, Richard D; Desai, Varsha G


    The present study aimed to identify molecular markers of early stages of cardiotoxicity induced by a potent chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin (DOX). Male B6C3F1 mice were dosed with 3 mg kg(-1) DOX or saline via tail vein weekly for 2, 3, 4, 6 or 8 weeks (cumulative DOX doses of 6, 9, 12, 18 or 24 mg kg(-1) , respectively) and euthanized a week after the last dose. Mass spectrometry-based and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry-based metabolic profiling were employed to identify initial biomarkers of cardiotoxicity before myocardial injury and cardiac pathology, which were not noted until after the 18 and 24 mg kg(-1) cumulative doses, respectively. After a cumulative dose of 6 mg kg(-1) , 18 amino acids and four biogenic amines (acetylornithine, kynurenine, putrescine and serotonin) were significantly increased in cardiac tissue; 16 amino acids and two biogenic amines (acetylornithine and hydroxyproline) were significantly altered in plasma. In addition, 16 acylcarnitines were significantly increased in plasma and five were significantly decreased in cardiac tissue compared to saline-treated controls. Plasma lactate and succinate, involved in the Krebs cycle, were significantly altered after a cumulative dose of 6 mg kg(-1) . A few metabolites remained altered at higher cumulative DOX doses, which could partly indicate a transition from injury processes at 2 weeks to repair processes with additional injury happening concurrently before myocardial injury at 8 weeks. These altered metabolic profiles in mouse heart and plasma during the initial stages of injury progression due to DOX treatment may suggest these metabolites as candidate early biomarkers of cardiotoxicity. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Trichloroethylene-induced gene expression and DNA methylation changes in B6C3F1 mouse liver. (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Chen, Jiahong; Tong, Jian; Chen, Tao


    Trichloroethylene (TCE), widely used as an organic solvent in the industry, is a common contaminant in air, soil, and water. Chronic TCE exposure induced hepatocellular carcinoma in mice, and occupational exposure in humans was suggested to be associated with liver cancer. To understand the role of non-genotoxic mechanism(s) for TCE action, we examined the gene expression and DNA methylation changes in the liver of B6C3F1 mice orally administered with TCE (0, 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w. per day) for 5 days. After 5 days TCE treatment at a dose level of 1000 mg/kg b.w., a total of 431 differentially expressed genes were identified in mouse liver by microarray, of which 291 were up-regulated and 140 down-regulated. The expression changed genes were involved in key signal pathways including PPAR, proliferation, apoptosis and homologous recombination. Notably, the expression level of a number of vital genes involved in the regulation of DNA methylation, such as Utrf1, Tet2, DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, were dysregulated. Although global DNA methylation change was not detected in the liver of mice exposed to TCE, the promoter regions of Cdkn1a and Ihh were found to be hypo- and hypermethylated respectively, which correlated negatively with their mRNA expression changes. Furthermore, the gene expression and DNA methylation changes induced by TCE were dose dependent. The overall data indicate that TCE exposure leads to aberrant DNA methylation changes, which might alter the expression of genes involved in the TCE-induced liver tumorgenesis.

  9. Follow-up Efficacy of Integrative Chinese and Western Drugs on Localized Scleroderma with Vitamine B6 and Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction (血府逐阏汤)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-ling; SU You-ming; YANG Rong-ya; ZHANG Jie; XU Yang


    Objective:To investigate the therapeutic effects of vitamine B6 (Vit B6) and Xuefu Zhuyu Deoderma(LSD). Methods: Thirty-three patients were treated with XFZY and Vit B6, with 15 cases taking orally prednisone acetate and 20 healthy volunteers as the control. Their level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the patients with LSD before and after treatment were observed. Results: The level of sIL-2R and TNF-α in the serum from the patients with LSD were higher than those of healthy volunteers (P<0. 01). After treatment with Vit B6 and XFZY, the level of sIL-2R and TNF-αfrom the patients with LSD decreased significantly (P<0.01), but there were no difference between the group taking Vit B6 plus XFZY and the group given prednisone. Conclusion: The activating blood circulation to remove stasis approach in treating LSD with integrative Chinese and Western drugs got better results, and metabolic disorder of tryptophan might be correlated with the etiology of LSD.

  10. A computational study on some viable targets for gas-phase synthesis of metal complexes of the cyclic (B6C)-2 and their bonding pattern. (United States)

    Shahbazian, Shant; Alizadeh, Shadi


    In this account, a detailed computational study is conducted to verify the geometric, energetic, and electronic properties of the planar cyclic (B 6C) (-2) (as the simplest carrier of hexacoordinate carbon) within some metal complexes. The [M(B 6C)] ((-)) (M = Li, Na, K) and [M(B 6C)] (M = Be, Mg, Ca) series are employed for this purpose. Relevant ab initio calculations at both DFT and post-HF levels vividly demonstrate that this dianion is stabilized considerably in the electric field generated by cations, whereas the geometrical and electronic properties of this ring remain almost intact in these complexes. The complementary topological analysis of charge densities confirms that cyclic (B 6C) (-2) within these complexes exhibits the same topological patterns as the naked dianion, thus confirming the presence of an unusual charge density distribution in this dianion. An electrostatic model is proposed that not only qualitatively but also quantitatively explains the observed computational trends in these complexes. This model successfully traces the polarization of the central carbon atom of the ring in the presence of a hard, multiply charged cation. To facilitate experimental detection, the photoelectron spectra of the [M(B 6C)] ((-)) (M = Li, Na, K) series are computed and the dominant features are extracted. Although considered species are not global minima on their potential energy hypersurfaces, their kinetic stabilities are verified and demonstrated unequivocally.

  11. Motivational, proteostatic and transcriptional deficits precede synapse loss, gliosis and neurodegeneration in the B6.HttQ111/+ model of Huntington’s disease (United States)

    Bragg, Robert M.; Coffey, Sydney R.; Weston, Rory M.; Ament, Seth A.; Cantle, Jeffrey P.; Minnig, Shawn; Funk, Cory C.; Shuttleworth, Dominic D.; Woods, Emily L.; Sullivan, Bonnie R.; Jones, Lindsey; Glickenhaus, Anne; Anderson, John S.; Anderson, Michael D.; Dunnett, Stephen B.; Wheeler, Vanessa C.; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Brooks, Simon P.; Price, Nathan D.; Carroll, Jeffrey B.


    We investigated the appearance and progression of disease-relevant signs in the B6.HttQ111/+ mouse, a genetically precise model of the mutation that causes Huntington’s disease (HD). We find that B6.HttQ111/+ mice are healthy, show no overt signs of central or peripheral inflammation, and no gross motor impairment as late as 12 months of age. Behaviorally, we find that 4–9 month old B6.HttQ111/+ mice have normal activity levels and show no clear signs of anxiety or depression, but do show clear signs of reduced motivation. The neuronal density, neuronal size, synaptic density and number of glia is normal in B6.HttQ111/+ striatum, the most vulnerable brain region in HD, up to 12 months of age. Despite this preservation of the synaptic and cellular composition of the striatum, we observe clear progressive, striatal-specific transcriptional dysregulation and accumulation of neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs). Simulation studies suggest these molecular endpoints are sufficiently robust for future preclinical studies, and that B6.HttQ111/+ mice are a useful tool for modeling disease-modifying or neuroprotective strategies for disease processes before the onset of overt phenotypes. PMID:28176805

  12. The Unexplored Crossroads of the Female Athlete Triad and Iron Deficiency: A Narrative Review. (United States)

    Petkus, Dylan L; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; De Souza, Mary Jane


    Despite the severity and prevalence of iron deficiency in exercising women, few published reports have explored how iron deficiency interacts with another prevalent and severe condition in exercising women: the 'female athlete triad.' This review aims to describe how iron deficiency may interact with each component of the female athlete triad, that is, energy status, reproductive function, and bone health. The effects of iron deficiency on energy status are discussed in regards to thyroid function, metabolic fuel availability, eating behaviors, and energy expenditure. The interactions between iron deficiency and reproductive function are explored by discussing the potentially impaired fertility and hyperprolactinemia due to iron deficiency and the alterations in iron metabolism due to menstrual blood loss and estrogen exposure. The interaction of iron deficiency with bone health may occur via dysregulation of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, hypoxia, and hypothyroidism. Based on these discussions, several future directions for research are presented.

  13. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric and 3-methylglutaric acids impair redox status and energy production and transfer in rat heart: relevance for the pathophysiology of cardiac dysfunction in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A lyase deficiency. (United States)

    da Rosa, Mateus Struecker; Seminotti, Bianca; Ribeiro, César Augusto João; Parmeggiani, Belisa; Grings, Mateus; Wajner, Moacir; Leipnitz, Guilhian


    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A lyase (HL) deficiency is characterized by tissue accumulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric (HMG), and 3-methylglutaric (MGA) acids. Affected patients present cardiomyopathy, whose pathomechanisms are not yet established. We investigated the effects of HMG and MGA on energy and redox homeostasis in rat heart using in vivo and in vitro models. In vivo experiments showed that intraperitoneal administration of HMG and MGA decreased the activities of the respiratory chain complex II and creatine kinase (CK), whereas HMG also decreased the activity of complex II-III. Furthermore, HMG and MGA injection increased reactive species production and carbonyl formation, and decreased glutathione concentrations. Regarding the enzymatic antioxidant defenses, HMG and MGA increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, while only MGA diminished the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, as well as the protein content of SOD1. Pre-treatment with melatonin (MEL) prevented MGA-induced decrease of CK activity and SOD1 levels. In vitro results demonstrated that HMG and MGA increased reactive species formation, induced lipid peroxidation and decreased glutathione. We also verified that reactive species overproduction and glutathione decrease provoked by HMG and MGA were abrogated by MEL and lipoic acid (LA), while only MEL prevented HMG- and MGA-induced lipoperoxidation. Allopurinol (ALP) also prevented reactive species overproduction caused by both metabolites. Our data provide solid evidence that bioenergetics dysfunction and oxidative stress are induced by HMG and MGA in heart, which may explain the cardiac dysfunction observed in HL deficiency, and also suggest that antioxidant supplementation could be considered as adjuvant therapy for affected patients.

  14. Dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among urban adolescents


    Deka, Mrigen Kr.; Malhotra, Anil Kumar; Yadav, Rashmi; Gupta, Shubhanshu


    Introduction: Adolescents are considered to be a nutritionally vulnerable segment of the population. There is a greater need to look into the nutritional status of adolescents but unfortunately, precise estimates of their dietary intake, dietary practices as well as nutritional deficiencies have been the least explored area. The general objective for conducting this study was to assess the dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional...

  15. Solid-liquid stable phase equilibria of the ternary systems MgCl2 + MgB6O10+ H2O AND MgSO4 + MgB6O10 + H2O at 308.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingzong Meng


    Full Text Available The solubilities and the relevant physicochemical properties of the ternary systems MgCl2 + MgB6O10 + H2O and MgSO4 + MgB6O10 + H2O at 308.15 K were investigated using an isothermal dissolution method. It was found that there is one invariant point, two univariant curves, and two crystallization regions of the systems. The systems belong to a simple co-saturated type, and neither double salts nor solid solutions were found. Based on the extended HW model and its temperature-dependent equations, the single-salt Pitzer parameters β(0, β(1, β(2 and CØ for MgCl2, MgSO4, and Mg(B6O7(OH6, the mixed ion-interaction parameters θCl,B6O10, θSO4,B6O10, ΨMg,Cl,B6O10, ΨMg,SO4,B6O10 of the systems at 308.15 K were fitted, In addition, the average equilibrium constants of the stable equilibrium solids at 308.15 K were obtained by a method using the activity product constant. Then the solubilities of the ternary systems are calculated. The calculated solubilities agree well with the experimental values.

  16. Preparation and Identification of Major Impurity A in Pyridoxine Hydrochloride%维生素B6中关键杂质A的制备与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐勇智; 范卫东; 章根宝; 党登峰


    Impurity A in European pharmacopoeia for pyridoxine hydrochloride was synthesized from pyridoxine hydrochloride with the presence of sulfuric acid, and its structure was characterized by lH NMR, MS, FT-IR, HPLC. This study provides a convenient method to prepare impurity A reference substance, which can be used for quality control of pyridoxine hydrochloride.%以维生素B6为起始原料,在硫酸存在下合成了欧洲药典中的维生素B6杂质A,并通过1H NMR、MS、FT-IR、HPLC方法对其结构进行鉴定,为生产维生素B6质量控制提供了一种简便的杂质标准物制备方法.

  17. 维生素B6与苯巴比妥的相互作用%The interactions between pyridoxine and phenobarbital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡朝欣; 陈湛芳; 单若冰; 张玉华; 王志燕



  18. The response of IL-3 dependent B6SUtA bone marrow cells to both erythropoietin and chemical inducers of differentiation. (United States)

    Ishiguro, K; Sartorelli, A C


    To develop cell lines which respond to both a physiological cytokine and chemical agents by the induction of differentiation pathway, factor dependent B6SUtA murine bone marrow cells were transfected with the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR). Clones were obtained that exhibited different sensitivities to erythopoietin (Epo), with one clone exhibiting erythroid differentiation in response to Epo, while in another Epo acted as a proliferation stimulus. Moreover, parental B6SUtA cells were sensitive to the initiation of differentiation by butyrate, diazepam and hemin. Thus, B6SUtA cells appear to represent a unique model to dissect the signaling molecules involved in the growth and differentiation pathways employed by Epo and non-physiological chemicals.

  19. Cloning and sequencing of the Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum B6A-RI apu gene and purification and characterization of the amylopullulanase from Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Ramesh, M V; Podkovyrov, S M; Lowe, S E; Zeikus, J G


    The amylopullulanase gene (apu) of the thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum B6A-RI was cloned into Escherichia coli. The complete nucleotide sequence of the gene was determined. It encoded a protein consisting of 1,288 amino acids with a signal peptide of 35 amino acids. The enzyme purified from E. coli was a monomer with an M(r) of 142,000 +/- 2,000 and had same the catalytic and thermal characteristics as the native glycoprotein from T. saccharolyticum B6A. Linear alignment and the hydrophobic cluster analysis were used to compare this amylopullulanase with other amylolytic enzymes. Both methods revealed strictly conserved amino acid residues among these enzymes, and it is proposed that Asp-594, Asp-700, and Glu-623 are a putative catalytic triad of the T. saccharolyticum B6A-RI amylopullulanase.

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chest pain, and other symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in children, and other complications. Infants and young children and ...

  1. Vitamin D Deficiency (United States)

    ... fractures), muscle weakness, and the bone-thinning disease osteoporosis. Severe vitamin D deficiency can cause rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Both problems cause soft, weak bones, as well ...

  2. Factor II deficiency (United States)

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor II is one such coagulation factor. Factor II deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  3. Factor VII deficiency (United States)

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor VII is one such coagulation factor. Factor VII deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events Spokespeople Email Alerts E-Newsletters About NHLBI Organization NHLBI Director Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Jobs ... food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia . The term "anemia" usually refers to ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CAUSES WHO IS AT RISK SIGNS & SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS TREATMENTS PREVENTION LIVING WITH CLINICAL TRIALS LINKS Related Topics ... Doctors usually can successfully treat iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment will depend on the cause and severity of ...

  6. Manganese deficiency in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren


    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant micronutrient with an indispensable function as a catalyst in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Even so, Mn deficiency frequently occurs without visual leaf symptoms, thereby masking the distribution and dimension of the problem...... restricting crop productivity in many places of the world. Hence, timely alleviation of latent Mn deficiency is a challenge in promoting plant growth and quality. We describe here the key mechanisms of Mn deficiency in plants by focusing on the impact of Mn on PSII stability and functionality. We also address...... the mechanisms underlying the differential tolerance towards Mn deficiency observed among plant genotypes, which enable Mn-efficient plants to grow on marginal land with poor Mn availability....

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Digg. Share this page from the NHLBI on Facebook. Add this link to the NHLBI to my ... Deficiency Anemia article. Updated: March 26, 2014 Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SITE INDEX ACCESSIBILITY PRIVACY STATEMENT FOIA ...

  8. Proximal Focal Femoral Deficiency


    Vishal Kalia, Vibhuti


    Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD) is a developmental disorder of the proximal segment of thefemur and of acetabulum resulting in shortening of the affected limb and impairment of the function. It isa spectrum of congenital osseous anomalies characterized by a deficiency in the structure of the proximalfemur. The diagnosis is often made by radiological evaluation which includes identification and descriptionof PFFD and evaluation of associated limb anomalies by plain radiographs. Contra...

  9. Iron deficiency anemia


    Naigamwalla, Dinaz Z.; Webb, Jinelle A.; Giger, Urs


    Iron is essential to virtually all living organisms and is integral to multiple metabolic functions. The most important function is oxygen transport in hemoglobin. Iron deficiency anemia in dogs and cats is usually caused by chronic blood loss and can be discovered incidentally as animals may have adapted to the anemia. Severe iron deficiency is characterized by a microcytic, hypochromic, potentially severe anemia with a variable regenerative response. Iron metabolism and homeostasis will be ...

  10. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency.


    Labrune Philippe; Gajdos Vincent; Eberschweiler Pascale; Hubert-Buron Aurélie; Petit François; Vianey-Saban Christine; Boudjemline Alix; Piraud Monique; Froissart Roseline


    Abstract Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency), or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI), is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, betw...

  11. Structural and biophysical characterization of human cytochromes P450 2B6 and 2A6 bound to volatile hydrocarbons: analysis and comparison. (United States)

    Shah, Manish B; Wilderman, P Ross; Liu, Jingbao; Jang, Hyun-Hee; Zhang, Qinghai; Stout, C David; Halpert, James R


    X-ray crystal structures of complexes of cytochromes CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 with the monoterpene sabinene revealed two distinct binding modes in the active sites. In CYP2B6, sabinene positioned itself with the putative oxidation site located closer to the heme iron. In contrast, sabinene was found in an alternate conformation in the more compact CYP2A6, where the larger hydrophobic side chains resulted in a significantly reduced active-site cavity. Furthermore, results from isothermal titration calorimetry indicated a much more substantial contribution of favorable enthalpy to sabinene binding to CYP2B6 as opposed to CYP2A6, consistent with the previous observations with (+)-α-pinene. Structural analysis of CYP2B6 complexes with sabinene and the structurally similar (3)-carene and comparison with previously solved structures revealed how the movement of the F206 side chain influences the volume of the binding pocket. In addition, retrospective analysis of prior structures revealed that ligands containing -Cl and -NH functional groups adopted a distinct orientation in the CYP2B active site compared with other ligands. This binding mode may reflect the formation of Cl-π or NH-π bonds with aromatic rings in the active site, which serve as important contributors to protein-ligand binding affinity and specificity. Overall, the findings from multiple techniques illustrate how drugs metabolizing CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 handle a common hydrocarbon found in the environment. The study also provides insight into the role of specific functional groups of the ligand that may influence the binding to CYP2B6.

  12. Characterization of hepatocellular resistance and susceptibility to styrene toxicity in B6C3F1 mice. (United States)

    Mahler, J F; Price, H C; O'Connor, R W; Wilson, R F; Eldridge, S R; Moorman, M P; Morgan, D L


    Short-term inhalation exposure of B6C3F1 mice to styrene causes necrosis of centrilobular (CL) hepatocytes. However, in spite of continued exposure, the necrotic parenchyma is rapidly regenerated, indicating resistance by regenerated cells to styrene toxicity. These studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that resistance to repeated styrene exposure is due to sustained cell proliferation, with production of hepatocytes that have reduced metabolic capacity. Male mice were exposed to air or 500 ppm styrene (6 h/day); hepatotoxicity was evaluated by microscopic examination, serum liver enzyme levels, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeling index (LI). Metabolism was assessed by measurement of blood styrene and styrene oxide. Both single and repeated exposures to styrene resulted in mortality by Day 2; in mice that survived, there was CL necrosis with elevated BrdU LI at Day 6, and complete restoration of the necrotic parenchyma by Day 15. The BrdU LI in mice given a single exposure had returned to control levels by Day 15. Re-exposure of these mice on Day 15 resulted in additional mortality and hepatocellular necrosis, indicating that regenerated CL cells were again susceptible to the cytolethal effect of styrene following a 14-day recovery. However, in mice repeatedly exposed to styrene for 14 days, the BrdU LI remained significantly increased on Day 15, with preferential labeling of CL hepatocytes with enlarged nuclei (karyomegaly). If repeated exposures were followed by a 10-day recovery period, CL karyomegaly persisted, but the BrdU LI returned to control level and CL hepatocytes became susceptible again to styrene toxicity as demonstrated by additional mortality and acute necrosis after a challenge exposure. These findings indicated a requirement for continued styrene exposure and DNA synthesis in order to maintain this resistant phenotype. Analyses of proliferating-cell nuclear-antigen (PCNA) labeling were conducted to further characterize the cell cycle

  13. Comparison of methods of identifying Helicobacter hepaticus in B6C3F1 mice used in a carcinogenesis bioassay. (United States)

    Fox, J G; MacGregor, J A; Shen, Z; Li, X; Lewis, R; Dangler, C A


    In a long-term rodent bioassay evaluating the carcinogenicity of triethanolamine, there was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity in male B6C3F1 mice, based on a marginal increase in the number of hepatocellular adenomas and hepatoblastomas. Interpretation was complicated by the presence of Helicobacter hepaticus in selected silver-stained liver sections which also had histological evidence of karyomegaly and oval cell hyperplasia. An increase in numbers of liver tumors, as evidence of carcinogenic activity, was also noted in female mice. However, H. hepaticus was not considered a complicating factor, because the livers of the female mice did not have histological features compatible with H. hepaticus infection. A retrospective analysis of 51 liver tissue samples from the original carcinogenicity study was conducted to determine the incidence of H. hepaticus infection and to evaluate different diagnostic approaches for assessing the presence of H. hepaticus in livers lacking characteristic lesions. In an initial evaluation of seven mice with liver tumors, argyrophilic bacteria resembling H. hepaticus were observed in liver sections, associated with characteristic liver lesions of hepatocytic karyomegaly and oval cell hyperplasia. Frozen liver tissue was available from four of these mice; all were confirmed to be infected with H. hepaticus by culture and PCR. In a larger subsequent analysis using frozen liver tissues from 44 mice without characteristic hepatic lesions, H. hepaticus-specific DNA was amplified from the livers of 21 of 44 of the mice (47%), compared to 14 of 44 of the mice (32%) having H. hepaticus cultured from their frozen liver tumors. The results of H. hepaticus culture and H. hepaticus-specific PCR concurred (i.e., both positive and negative results) in 84% of the cases. Microscopic detection of immunofluorescence-labeled or silver-stained bacteria in liver sections was relatively insensitive compared to either culture or PCR detection. This

  14. Deficiências de micronutrientes em crianças e adolescentes com anemia falciforme: uma revisão sistemática Micronutrient deficiency in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar S. R. Mataratzis


    Full Text Available A anemia falciforme é a doença hemolítica crônica, de caráter hereditário mais comum no Brasil, sendo escassas as informações sobre o estado nutricional de micronutrientes em portadores dessa enfermidade no Brasil. Estudos internacionais vêm demonstrando correlação positiva entre deficiência de micronutrientes e evolução desfavorável da doença.O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar revisão sistemática sobre deficiência de micronutrientes em crianças e adolescentes com anemia falciforme.Foram selecionadas publicações nas bases científicas de dados Medline e Lilacs através do Pubmed e Scielo, disponíveis entre os anos de 1998 e 2008. Foram incluídas na análise as publicações realizadas com crianças e adolescentes portadores da forma homozigótica da doença (SS. A qualidade metodológica dos artigos foi avaliada segundo as recomendações de Strobe, sendo selecionados 11 estudos, sendo 2 transversais, 4 caso-controle e 5 de coorte, todos realizados nos Estados Unidos. A avaliação da concordância entre os avaliadores na classificação da qualidade dos artigos demonstrou ótima concordância (k = 1,00, com um total de 90,9% de trabalhos com classificação B. Para a maioria dos nutrientes estudados (vit. A, D, B6, folato, cálcio e zinco, observou-se estado nutricional desfavorável entre os portadores de anemia falciforme, à exceção do ferro e vitamina B12, cujos resultados revelaram baixo ou nenhum nível de inadequação, seja bioquímica ou dietética. Tal constatação reforça a necessidade do cuidado nutricional no manejo desses pacientes, garantindo qualidade de vida para os portadores da doença.Sickle cell anemia is a chronic hemolitic disease and very common in Brazil and there are few information about nutritional status of micronutrients in people with sickle cell anemia in this country. International studies have shown positive correlation between deficiency of micronutrients and worst evolution of

  15. The Effect of CYP2B6, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 Alleles on Methadone Binding: A Molecular Docking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nur Syazana Bt Nik Mohamed Kamal


    Full Text Available Current methadone maintenance therapy (MMT is yet to ensure 100% successful treatment as the optimum dosage has yet to be determined. Overdose leads to death while lower dose causes the opioid withdrawal effect. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in cytochrome P450s (CYPs, the methadone metabolizers, have been showen to be the main factor for the interindividual variability of methadone clinical effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of SNPs in three major methadone metabolizers (CYP2B6, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 on methadone binding affinity. Results showed that CYP2B6*11, CYP2B6*12, CYP2B6*18, and CYP3A4*12 have significantly higher binding affinity to R-methadone compared to wild type. S-methadone has higher binding affinity in CYP3A4*3, CYP3A4*11, and CYP3A4*12 compared to wild type. R-methadone was shown to be the active form of methadone; thus individuals with CYP alleles that binds better to R-methadone will have higher methadone metabolism rate. Therefore, a higher dosage of methadone is necessary to obtain the opiate effect compared to a normal individual and vice versa. These results provide an initial prediction on methadone metabolism rate for individuals with mutant type CYP which enables prescription of optimum methadone dosage for individuals with CYP alleles.

  16. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)(6)-1 - Payment by an employer of employee tax under section 3101 or employee contributions under a State... (United States)


    ... OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(b)(6)-1 Payment by an employer of... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment by an employer of employee tax...


    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a multimedia environmental pollution that is carcinogenic in mouse liver. The ability of TCE to modulate DNA methylation and the expression of immediate-early protooncogenes was evaluated. Female B6C3F1 mice were administered 1000 mg/kg TCE by gavage 5 ...

  18. Insights from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on the metallic states of YbB6(001): E(k) dispersion, temporal changes, and spatial variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantzeskakis, E.; de Jong, N.; Zhang, J.X.; Zhang, X.; Li, Z.; Liang, C.L.; Wang, Y.; Varykhalov, A.; Huang, Y.K.; Golden, M.S.


    We report high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) results on the (001) cleavage surface of YbB6, a rare-earth compound that has been recently predicted to host surface electronic states with topological character. We observe two types of well-resolved metallic states, whose

  19. Quantitative Assessment of Peroxisome Proliferation in B6C3F1 Mouse Liver after Subchronic Exposure to Trichloroethylene by Gavage. (United States)


    be genotoxic (reviewed in ECETOC , 1994). The others are considered non-genotoxic carcinogens. Mechanisms of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis have been...the B6C3F1 mouse. Toxicol. Lett. 49, 255-265. ECETOC (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals) (1994). Trichloroethylene

  20. Iron deficiency anaemia. (United States)

    Lopez, Anthony; Cacoub, Patrice; Macdougall, Iain C; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent


    Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Measurement of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum soluble transferrin receptors, and the serum soluble transferrin receptors-ferritin index are more accurate than classic red cell indices in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to the search for and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, treatment strategies encompass prevention, including food fortification and iron supplementation. Oral iron is usually recommended as first-line therapy, but the most recent intravenous iron formulations, which have been available for nearly a decade, seem to replenish iron stores safely and effectively. Hepcidin has a key role in iron homoeostasis and could be a future diagnostic and therapeutic target. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of iron deficiency anaemia, and outstanding research questions for treatment.

  1. 婴儿缺铁性贫血状况及对生长发育的影响%The Status of iron deficiency anemia and its effect on growth and development among infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇; 李晶; 刘惠娟; 魏春雷; 戴艳; 孙晓艳; 吴娟琴


    目的:了解6月龄内婴儿缺铁性贫血的患病状况及对生长发育的影响。方法调查嘉兴市区2011年7月-2012年6月出生的341名健康婴儿,分别在出生后42 d、6月龄检测血常规,体格检查,收集喂养资料和6月龄发育筛查测试( DST)。结果出生后42 d婴儿贫血患病率为37.54%。男婴40.54%与女婴33.97%比较差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。6月龄婴儿贫血患病率为19.35%,其中新发占48.48%。母乳喂养、混合喂养和人工喂养婴儿贫血患病率,42 d 时分别为30.82%、41.40%和47.37%,3组间比较差异无统计学意义( P >0.05);6月龄时分别为38.20%、16.38%和9.56%,3组间比较以母乳喂养组患病率最高( P0. 05). The prevalence rate of iron deficiency anemia at 6 months was 19. 35%,in which 48. 48% were new cases. At age of 42 days,there was no significant difference between different feeding patterns in anemia prevalence( breast feeding:30. 82%,mixed feeding:41. 40%,artificial feeding:47. 37%,P>0. 05). While at age of 6 months,the anemia prevalence of breast feeding group was higher( 38. 20%)than that of the other two groups( mixed feeding:16. 38%;artificial feeding:9. 56%;P<0. 05 ). The rate of developmental quotient below 70 was 11. 76% in the anemia cases whose hemoglobin was continuously low from 42 days to 6 months,which was higher than that of new onset anemia cases (3. 13%)and normal hemoglobin controls(1. 82%)(P<0. 05). Conclusion Continuously low hemoglobin at early age of 42 days to 6 months is potentially harmful to neuropsychological development of infants. Early screening of hemoglobin is urgently needed for intervention of iron deficiency anemia among infants.

  2. Estado nutricional e carência de ferro em crianças freqüentadoras de creche antes e 15 meses após intervenção nutricional Nutritional status and iron deficiency among children enrolled in a day care center before and after 15 months of nutritional management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Soares Biscegli


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o estado nutricional e a prevalência de carência de ferro em crianças freqüentadoras de creche antes e 15 meses após orientação nutricional e intervenção terapêutica. MÉTODOS: Estudo coorte com 52 crianças de 32 a 78 meses de idade, freqüentadoras de uma creche em Catanduva, São Paulo, avaliadas em dois períodos: antes e 15 meses após receberem tratamento para anemia e correção das alterações no estado nutricional. O estado nutricional das crianças foi avaliado por meio da curva da Organização Mundial de Saúde (2006. O diagnóstico de carência de ferro foi realizado por dosagem de hemoglobina e nível de ferritina sérica. Dados adicionais das crianças não eutróficas foram obtidos por meio de entrevistas com suas mães. RESULTADOS: Observou-se 2% de desnutrição aguda e 8% de obesidade, não havendo diferença significante entre os dois períodos. 12% das crianças apresentaram anemia, havendo diminuição do número de crianças com anemia após o tratamento. Dois novos casos de obesidade e cinco de carência de ferro surgiram durante o período de intervenção nutricional. Das oito crianças com alterações nutricionais no período inicial, 63% das mães procuraram atendimento médico para tratamento. CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento dos distúrbios nutricionais e da carência de ferro diminuiu o número de crianças afetadas. O aparecimento de novos casos de obesidade e anemia serve de alerta para a necessidade de outras medidas preventivas tanto na creche como no âmbito familiar.OBJECTIVE: To compare the nutritional status and the prevalence of iron deficiency among children enrolled in a day care center before and after 15 months of nutritional management. METHODS: Cohort study of 52 children, aged 32 to 78 months, evaluated before and after treatment of anemia and nutritional disturbs in a no-profit day care center in Catanduva, São Paulo, Brazil. The nutritional status was classified according

  3. Is there a mismatch between who gets iron supplementation and who needs it? A cross-sectional study of iron supplements, iron deficiency anaemia and socio-economic status in Australia. (United States)

    Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J


    Fe deficiency anaemia (IDA) is more prevalent in lower socio-economic groups; however, little is known about who actually receives Fe supplements. This paper aims to determine whether the groups most likely to have IDA are the most likely to be taking Fe supplements. Logistic regression analysis was conducted using the cross-sectional, nationally representative National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey and National Health Measures Survey. After adjusting for other factors, those whose main language spoken at home was not English had twice the odds of having IDA compared with those whose main language spoken at home was English (95% CI 1·00, 4·32). Those who were not in the labour force also had twice the odds of having IDA as those who were employed (95% CI 1·16, 3·41). Those in income quintile 1 had 3·7 times the odds of having IDA compared with those in income quintile 5 (95% CI 1·42, 9·63). Those whose main language spoken at home was not English were significantly less likely to take Fe supplements (P=0·002) than those whose main language spoken at home was English. There was no significant difference in the likelihood of taking Fe supplements between those who were not in the labour force and those who were employed (P=0·618); between those who were in income quintile 1 and in higher income quintiles; and between males and females (P=0·854), after adjusting for other factors. There is a mismatch between those who are most in need of Fe supplements and those who currently receive them.

  4. Biotransformation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) by human liver microsomes: identification of cytochrome P450 2B6 as the major enzyme involved. (United States)

    Erratico, Claudio A; Szeitz, András; Bandiera, Stelvio M


    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were widely used flame retardants that have become persistent environmental pollutants. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro oxidative metabolism of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a major PBDE detected in human tissue and environmental samples. Biotransformation of BDE-47 by pooled and individual human liver microsomes and by human recombinant cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes was assessed using a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry-based method. Of the nine hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 produced by human liver microsomes, seven metabolites were identified using authentic standards. A monohydroxy-tetrabrominated and a dihydroxy-tetrabrominated metabolite remain unidentified. Kinetic analysis of the rates of metabolite formation revealed that the major metabolites were 5-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (5-OH-BDE-47), 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE-47), and possibly the unidentified monohydroxy-tetrabrominated metabolite. Among the human recombinant P450 enzymes tested, P450 2B6 was the most active enzyme in the formation of the hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47. Moreover, the formation of all metabolites of BDE-47 by pooled human liver microsomes was inhibited by a P450 2B6-specific antibody and was highly correlated with P450 2B6-mediated activity in single donor liver microsomes indicating that P450 2B6 was the major P450 responsible for the biotransformation of BDE-47. Additional experiments involving the incubation of liver microsomes with individual monohydroxy-tetrabrominated metabolites in place of BDE-47 demonstrated that 2,4-dibromophenol was a product of BDE-47 and several primary metabolites, but the dihydroxy-tetrabrominated metabolite was not formed by sequential hydroxylation of any of the monohydroxy-tetrabrominated metabolites tested. The present study provides a comprehensive characterization of the oxidative metabolism of BDE-47 by

  5. Investigations of surface related electronic properties in SmB6 and LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures (United States)

    Adhikari, Sanjay

    This dissertation reports research performed on two types of two-dimensional. systems: SmB6 and LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO). SmB6 has been proposed to be. a topological Kondo insulator at low temperature. In order to understand carriers/. lattice dynamics and their interactions, femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. is performed in SmB6 single crystals and thin lms at variable temperatures. The. collective oscillation modes in GHz - THz and the change of carrier relaxations is. observed as a function of temperature. From the temperature dependent results. f 􀀀?d hybridization, opening of the hybridization gap, phonon bottleneck", and th. possible topological surface state formation is revealed. The topological surface state. should support helical Dirac dispersion with momentum-spin lockage. This dissertation. reports on current injection in SmB6 thin lm with circularly polarized light. at oblique incidence. This spin polarized photocurrent is concluded to be a direct. result of spin momentum lockage in SmB6. LAO/STO interface shows 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the interface. when the thickness of LAO is more than 3 unit cell. Carrier properties at the. LAO/STO interfaces are highly sensitive to the top surface termination of LAO. The spontaneous dissociation of water on LAO surface is systematically studied by. density functional theory and experimental surface characterizations. Extrinsic effects. from surface adsorbates were often ignored in the previous studies of the 2DEG. From the experiments, it is found that the dissociated water molecules, especially the. surface protons, strongly aect the interface density of states, electron distributions. and lattice distortions. The investigations also reveal the importance of additional. molecular water layers. These additional water layers, through hydrogen bonds, provide. an energetically feasible pathway for manipulating the surface-bonded protons. and thus, the interface electrical characteristics.

  6. 稀土硼化物LaxCe1-xB6亚微米粉的制备及光吸收研究∗%Synthesis and optical absorption prop erties of LaxCe1-xB6 submicron powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包黎红; 朝洛蒙; 伟伟; 特古斯


    以稀土氧化物La2 O3和CeO2为稀土源,以NaBH4为硼源在真空环境中通过固相反应成功制备出了分散性好的单相三元LaxCe1−xB6亚微米粉。系统研究了掺杂元素La对CeB6物相,微观结构及光吸收性能的影响。实验结果表明, La元素的掺杂没有改变CeB6的物相和晶体结构,而是无序替代了Ce原子晶位。光吸收结果表明,随着La掺杂量的增加LaxCe1−xB6分散液吸收谷波长从620 nm减小到610 nm出现了蓝移现象。%According to original knowledge, lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) as an excellent thermionic electron emitter is char-acterized by a low work function, a high emission density, and a high brightness. Recently, much attention has been drawn to its another excellent optical properties: strong light absorption in near infrared rays (NIR), and transparency in visible light (VL), which result from the free electron plasmon resonance. However, up to now the optical properties and syntheses of ternary rare-earth hexaborides have been very rarely reported in the literature. In this paper, ternary LaxCe1−xB6 submicron crystallines are successfully synthesized using a solid-state reaction, in which La2O3 and CeO2 are used as rare-earth sources and NaBH4 as boron sources in a continuous vacuum condition. Effects of La doping content on the LaxCe1−xB6 phase composition, microstructure, and optical absorption properties are investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). It is found that all the synthesized samples are composed of CaB6-type single-phase alloy with a space group P m¯3m at the reaction temperature of 1200 ◦C held by 2 h. The SEM results indicate that the cubic-shaped ternary LaxCe1−xB6 crystals with a mean size of 200 nm are obtained and the energy dispersive spectrometer results confirm that the La atoms are randomly distributed at the lattice sites of CeB6. High resolution transmission

  7. [Vitamin deficiencies and hypervitaminosis]. (United States)

    Mino, M


    There have recently been very few deficiencies with respect to fat soluble and water soluble vitamins in Japan All-trans-retinoic acid as induction or maintenance treatment improves disease free and overall survival against acute promyelocytic leukemia. In the isolated vitamin E deficiencies gene mutation has been cleared for alpha-tocopherol transferprotein. Recently, a relation of nutritional vitamin K intake and senile osteoporosis in women was epidemiologically demonstrated on a prospective study. Thiamin was yet noticed as development of deficiency in alcoholism, while the importance of supplemental folic acid during pregnancy has become especially clear in light of studies showing that folic acid supplements reduce the risk of neural tube defects in the fetus. With respect to hypervitaminosis, the Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN), USA, has established safe intakes by identifying the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) and LOAEL (Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level). Summaries of NOAEL and LOAEL for individual vitamins were shown.

  8. The effect and mechanism of neutralizing heat shock protein B6 antibody on tube formation of human choroidal endothelial cell%热休克蛋白B6中和性抗体对脉络膜血管内皮细胞管腔形成的影响及其机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠康; 张济明; 李龙标; 钱益勇; 刘高勤; 罗宝根; 费梅


    Background The proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells is a primary link during angiogenesis.Studies showed that heat shock protein B6 (HspB6) promotes the secretion of multiple angiogenesis-related factors and therefore leads to neovascularization.Understanding the effects of neutralizing HspB6 antibody on the biological behavior of human choroidal vascular endothelial cells has an important significance in the target treatment of choroidal neovacularization diseases.Objective This study was to address the role and mechanism of neutralizing HspB6 antibody in tube formation of human choroidal vascular endothelial cells.Methods Human choroidal vascular endothelial cell line was normally cultured and harvested for total RNA extraction.Expressions of HspB6 mRNA and protein in human choroidal vascular endothelial cells were detected by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry (FCM).The cells were seeded on 96-well plate covered with matrigel at the density of 2×104/hole.Then the neutralizing HspB6 antibody at the concentration of 100 μg/Land 500 μg/L was added into the medium respectively,and the control cells were set without the addition of HspB6 antibody.The number of capillary tubes was calculated 12 hours after culture by three-dimensional matrigel assay.In addition,0,50,100,500 μg/L of neutralizing HspB6 antibody were added into the cell medium separately for 24hours,cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method was employed to assay the inhibitory rate(IR) of the cells.Transwell test was used to count the cell number across chamber membrane for the evaluation of migration ability of the cells.The apoptosis of the cells was assayed by FCM.Results Both HspB6 mRNA and protein were expressed on human choroidal vascular endothelial cells.The number of capillary tube formation of human choroidal vascular endothelial cells was (67.25±5.75),(60.39±6.41) and (39.76±10.73) /field in the 0,100 and 500 μg/L neutralizing HspB6 antibody groups

  9. Biomarkers of Selenium Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald F. Combs, Jr.


    Full Text Available The essential trace element, selenium (Se, has multiple biological activities, which depend on the level of Se intake. Relatively low Se intakes determine the expression of selenoenzymes in which it serves as an essential constituent. Higher intakes have been shown to have anti-tumorigenic potential; and very high Se intakes can produce adverse effects. This hierarchy of biological activities calls for biomarkers informative at different levels of Se exposure. Some Se-biomarkers, such as the selenoproteins and particularly GPX3 and SEPP1, provide information about function directly and are of value in identifying nutritional Se deficiency and tracking responses of deficient individuals to Se-treatment. They are useful under conditions of Se intake within the range of regulated selenoprotein expression, e.g., for humans <55 μg/day and for animals <20 μg/kg diet. Other Se-biomarkers provide information indirectly through inferences based on Se levels of foods, tissues, urine or feces. They can indicate the likelihood of deficiency or adverse effects, but they do not provide direct evidence of either condition. Their value is in providing information about Se status over a wide range of Se intake, particularly from food forms. There is need for additional Se biomarkers particularly for assessing Se status in non-deficient individuals for whom the prospects of cancer risk reduction and adverse effects risk are the primary health considerations. This would include determining whether supranutritional intakes of Se may be required for maximal selenoprotein expression in immune surveillance cells. It would also include developing methods to determine low molecular weight Se-metabolites, i.e., selenoamino acids and methylated Se-metabolites, which to date have not been detectable in biological specimens. Recent analytical advances using tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry suggest prospects for detecting these metabolites.

  10. Mortality and GH deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Laursen, Torben;


    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the mortality in Denmark in patients suffering from GH deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: Mortality was analyzed in 1794 GHD patients and 8014 controls matched on age and gender. All records in GHD patients were studied and additional morbidity noted. Patients were divided into chil......OBJECTIVE: To estimate the mortality in Denmark in patients suffering from GH deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: Mortality was analyzed in 1794 GHD patients and 8014 controls matched on age and gender. All records in GHD patients were studied and additional morbidity noted. Patients were divided...

  11. Analysis on status and intervention of anemia and iron deficiency among children aged 6 months to 7 years old in rural areas%农村地区6个月~7岁儿童贫血及铁缺乏情况调查及干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕; 傅苏林; 邵子瑜; 殷刚柱; 汪小燕; 李梦月


    Objective To study on the status and intervention of anemia and iron deficiency among children aged 6 months to 7 years old in rural areas of Hefei city. Methods A total of 2095 children aged 6 months to 7 years old were investigated with questionnaire, the he-moglobin and ferritin were tested, and children with anemia and/or iron deficiency were dealt with health education and nutrition package. Results There were 331 children with anemia (15. 80%) and 114 children with iron deficiency (5. 44%) among 2095 children. A total of 281 children accepted intervention and the hemoglobin of 218 anemia children returned to normal levels, and there were 1982(96. 92%) nor-mal children among 2095 children after intervention. The morbidity rate of mild and moderate anemia was decreased. Conclusion The inter-vention effect of the children with anemia and iron deficiency is remarkable. Strengthening the health education, using scientific and reasona-ble method of feeding and the right method about feeding behavior of anemia children can effectively prevent and cure anemia and iron defi-ciency in children.%目的:了解合肥市农村地区6个月~7岁儿童的贫血及铁缺乏情况及干预效果。方法采取随机抽样的方法抽取2095名6个月~7岁儿童进行问卷调查并测定血红蛋白,对贫血和(或)铁缺乏的儿童进行干预。结果2095名研究对象中,正常儿童1764名,检出贫血患儿331例,检出率为15.80%。其中铁缺乏检出114人,检出率为5.44%,贫血患儿中铁缺乏检出率为34.44%。在接受干预的281名儿童中有218名血红蛋白恢复到正常水平,即干预后正常儿童为1982名,占96.92%;轻度、中度贫血检出率均明显下降。结论合肥市农村地区儿童贫血及铁缺乏干预效果显著。加强儿童贫血相关健康教育,科学合理的喂养方法及早期正确的喂养行为可以有效防治婴幼儿贫血及铁缺乏。

  12. Vitamin K Deficiency Embryopathy from Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Lane


    Full Text Available A 21-year-old primigravida had a pregnancy complicated by hyperemesis gravidarum (HG beginning at 7-week gestation. Despite medical therapy, she lost 18% of her prepregnancy weight. Early ultrasound at 14 weeks demonstrated a flattened facial profile with nasal hypoplasia (Binder phenotype consistent with vitamin K deficiency from HG. She had a percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy tube placed for enteral feeding at 15-week gestation. At repeated anatomy ultrasound at 21-week gestation, delivery, and postnatal pediatric genetics exam, nasal hypoplasia was consistent with vitamin K deficiency embryopathy from HG. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is a common condition. HG, the most severe form, has many maternal and fetal effects. Evaluation of vitamin K status could potentially prevent this rare and disfiguring embryopathy.

  13. Simultaneous Assay of Metronidazole and Vitamin B6 for Compound Metronidazole Tablets by Using UV Spectrophotometry%紫外分光光度法同时测定复方甲硝唑片中甲硝唑和维生素B6的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐万军; 陈栋华; 王利华; 袁誉洪


    建立了一种简单、快速、能同时测定复方甲硝唑片中甲硝唑与维生素B6的方法.采用0.100 mol/L NaOH和2.0%的四硼酸钠溶液为介质,测定波长为288和320 nm.维生素B6的存在不干扰甲硝唑的直接测定.赋形剂对该测定方法不干扰.甲硝唑的回收率为96.6% ~ 102.0%,RSD为1.6% ~ 3.8%;维生素B6的回收率为95.2% ~ 106.3%,RSD为5.4%~8.1%.该方法简单、成本低、易于操作.%A simple and fast procedure is established for simultaneous determination of metronidazole and vitamin B6 in compound metronidazole tablets. Using 0.100 mol/L of NaOH and 2.0% borax as medium, and two detection wavelengths are 288 and 320 nm respectively. The presence of vitamin B6 does not interfere in the direct quantitative determination of metronidazole. Common excipients used do not interfere in the proposed method. The recoveries were 96.6% ~ 102.0% for metronidazole and 95.2% ~ 106.3% for vitamin B6, and RSDs were 1.6% ~ 3.8% for metronidazole and 5.4% ~ 8.1% for vitamin B6. The described method is simple, low cost, and easy to operate.

  14. Influence of various polymorphic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR on drug metabolic activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Chen

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ~70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication.

  15. Iron, Anemia, and Iron Deficiency Anemia among Young Children in the United States


    Gupta, Priya M.; Perrine, Cria G.; Zuguo Mei; Scanlon, Kelley S.


    Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with impaired neurocognitive development and immune function in young children. Total body iron, calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations, and hemoglobin allow for monitoring of the iron and anemia status of children in the United States. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID), anemia, and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among children 1–5 years using data from the 2007–201...

  16. Diagnosing oceanic nutrient deficiency (United States)

    Moore, C. Mark


    The supply of a range of nutrient elements to surface waters is an important driver of oceanic production and the subsequent linked cycling of the nutrients and carbon. Relative deficiencies of different nutrients with respect to biological requirements, within both surface and internal water masses, can be both a key indicator and driver of the potential for these nutrients to become limiting for the production of new organic material in the upper ocean. The availability of high-quality, full-depth and global-scale datasets on the concentrations of a wide range of both macro- and micro-nutrients produced through the international GEOTRACES programme provides the potential for estimation of multi-element deficiencies at unprecedented scales. Resultant coherent large-scale patterns in diagnosed deficiency can be linked to the interacting physical-chemical-biological processes which drive upper ocean nutrient biogeochemistry. Calculations of ranked deficiencies across multiple elements further highlight important remaining uncertainties in the stoichiometric plasticity of nutrient ratios within oceanic microbial systems and caveats with regards to linkages to upper ocean nutrient limitation. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  17. Factor V deficiency (United States)

    ... When certain blood clotting factors are low or missing, your blood does not clot properly. Factor V deficiency is rare. It may be caused by: A defective Factor V gene passed down through families (inherited) An antibody that interferes with normal Factor ...

  18. Iodine-deficiency disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Jooste, P.L.; Pandav, C.S.


    billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed iodine-deficien

  19. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolk, Jan; Seersholm, Niels; Kalsheker, Noor


    biennially to exchange views and research findings. The fourth biennial meeting was held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 2-3 June 2005. This review covers the wide range of AAT deficiency-related topics that were addressed encompassing advances in genetic characterization, risk factor identification, clinical...... epidemiology, inflammatory and signalling processes, therapeutic advances, and lung imaging techniques....

  20. Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency? Sleep deprivation (DEP-rih-VA-shun) is a condition that ... the following: You don't get enough sleep (sleep deprivation) You sleep at the wrong time of day ( ...

  1. Morbidity and GH deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Laursen, Torben; Green, Anders;


    OBJECTIVE: To estimate morbidity in Denmark in all patients with GH deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: Morbidity was analyzed in 1794 GHD patients and 8014 controls matched on age and gender. All records in the GHD patients were studied and additional morbidity noted. Diagnoses and dates of admissions were...

  2. Prevention of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Infants and Children of Preschool Age. (United States)

    Fomon, Samuel J.

    Iron-deficiency anemia is almost certainly the most prevalent nutritional disorder among infants and young children in the United States. Anemia is frequently seen among children of low socioeconomic status but is probably also the most frequent nutritional deficiency disease seen among children cared for by private doctors. Possible reasons for…

  3. Distribution of the Si-deficiency rice soil in Hubet Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HELiyuan; LIXiaoling; Huazhong


    There are about 1 million ha of Si-deficiency paddy soils in Hubei Province, Practically, it is essential to study the Si nutrient status in those Si-deficiency rice soil and its regional distribution before the application of Si-fertilizer.

  4. Iron deficiency among children of asylum seekers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga-Boelen, A. A. M.; Storm, H.; Wiegersma, P. A.; Bijleveld, C. M. A.; Verkade, H. J.


    Objectives: To investigate, in asylum seekers' children in the Netherlands, biochemical iron status and the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and anemia in relation to age, region of origin, length of stay in the Netherlands, body mass index (BMI), and dietary iron intake. Patients and Methods: Hem

  5. Causes of Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency (United States)

    This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetar...

  6. Iron deficiency in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Empel, Vanessa P M; Lee, Joy; Williams, Trevor J; Kaye, David M


    BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency has been reported to be highly prevalent in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH) patients, with the potential to influence cardiac performance, pulmonary artery pressures and the pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia. METHODS: Iron status was evaluated in 29

  7. Vitamin A, iron and zinc deficiency in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, M.A.; Wieringa, F.T.


    The research described in this thesis was concerned with vitamin A, iron and zinc deficiency in pregnant and lactating women and in infants. The effects of supplementation withβ-carotene, iron and zinc on micronutrient status, growth, pregnancy outcome and immune function, and interactions between m

  8. Iron deficiency and overload in relation to nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjersberg MQI; Jansen EHJM; LEO


    Nutritional iron intake in the Netherlands has been reviewed with respect to both iron deficiency and iron overload. In general, iron intake and iron status in the Netherlands are adequate and therefore no change in nutrition policy is required. The following aspects and developments, however, need

  9. Vitamin D Deficiency in Risk Groups Living in Tropical Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, T. J. M.; van Eijndhoven, F. H. A.; van der Veer, E.; Muskiet, F. A. J.


    Objective: Curacao (12 degrees 10N, 69 degrees 0W) is characterized by whole year abundant sunshine (8-10 hours/day). We challenged the automatic assumption that people living in tropical countries do not have a high risk of vitamin D deficiency, and investigated the vitamin D status in a tropical e

  10. Serum transferrin receptor levels in the evaluation of iron deficiency in the neonate. (United States)

    Rusia, U; Flowers, C; Madan, N; Agarwal, N; Sood, S K; Sikka, M


    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a major global problem. Early onset of iron deficiency in developing countries makes it imperative to identify iron deficiency in neonates. Most conventional laboratory parameters of iron status fail to distinguish neonates with iron deficient erythropoiesis. Serum transferrin receptor (STFR) levels are a recent sensitive measure of iron deficiency and the present study was carried out to evaluate the usefulness of cord serum transferrin receptors in identifying iron deficient erythropoiesis in neonates. A complete hemogram, red cell indices, iron profile: serum iron (SI), percent transferrin saturation (TS%) and serum ferritin (SF) was carried out in 100 full-term neonates and their mothers at parturition. Cord and maternal STFR levels were estimated using a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Anemic women had a significantly lower SI, their TS% and high STFR levels suggesting that iron deficiency was responsible for the anemia. In the neonates of iron deficient mothers, cord SI, TS% and cord ferritin were not significantly different from those of neonates born to non-anemic mothers. Cord STFR level correlated well with hemoglobin (Hb) and laboratory parameters of iron status, and its level was significantly higher in neonates born to anemic mothers than in those born to non-anemic mothers. It was the only laboratory parameter to differentiate between neonates born to anemic and non-anemic mothers. Therefore, STFR is a sensitive index of iron status in neonates and identifies neonates with iron deficient erythropoiesis.

  11. Cardiovascular changes in atherosclerotic ApoE-deficient mice exposed to Co60 (γ radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Kumarathasan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is evidence for a role of ionizing radiation in cardiovascular diseases. The goal of this work was to identify changes in oxidative and nitrative stress pathways and the status of the endothelinergic system during progression of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice after single and repeated exposure to ionizing radiation. METHODS AND RESULTS: B6.129P2-ApoE tmlUnc mice on a low-fat diet were acutely exposed (whole body to Co60 (γ (single dose 0, 0.5, and 2 Gy at a dose rate of 36.32 cGy/min, or repeatedly (cumulative dose 0 and 2 Gy at a dose-rate of 0.1 cGy/min for 5 d/wk, over a period of 4 weeks. Biological endpoints were investigated after 3-6 months of recovery post-radiation. The nitrative stress marker 3-nitrotyrosine and the vasoregulator peptides endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 in plasma were increased (p<0.05 in a dose-dependent manner 3-6 months after acute or chronic exposure to radiation. The oxidative stress marker 8-isoprostane was not affected by radiation, while plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decreased (p<0.05 after treatment. At 2Gy radiation dose, serum cholesterol was increased (p = 0.008 relative to controls. Percent lesion area increased (p = 0.005 with age of animal, but not with radiation treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations are consistent with persistent nitrative stress and activation of the endothelinergic system in ApoE-/- mice after low-level ionizing radiation exposures. These mechanisms are known factors in the progression of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Unexpected synergy between magnetic iron chains and stacked B6 rings in Nb6Fe(1-x)Ir(6+x)B8. (United States)

    Mbarki, Mohammed; St Touzani, Rachid; Fokwa, Boniface P T


    The synergistic combination of experiment and density functional theory has led to the discovery of the first ferromagnetic material, Nb6Fe(1-x)Ir(6+x)B8, containing in its crystal structure iron chains embedded in stacked B6 rings. The strong ferromagnetic Fe-Fe interactions found in the iron chains induce an unexpected strengthening of the B-B interactions in the B6 rings. Beside these strong B-B interactions, strong interlayer metal-boron bonds (Ir-B and Nb-B) ensure the overall structural stability of this phase, while the magnetic Fe-Fe interactions are mainly responsible for the observed ferromagnetic ordering below T(C)=350 K.

  13. A comparison of the retention of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, and cooking yield in pork loin with conventional and enhanced meal-service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Kall, M.; Hansen, K.;


    In this study different simulated meal-service systems were compared with respect to vitamin B-1, B-2 and B-6 retention, and cooking yield in pork roasts. Initially the roasts were cooked traditionally or sous vide. No significant differences were observed between cooking methods. Further...... processing included warm-holding, conventional cook-chill, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and sous vide. Compared to retention in the freshly cooked samples, vitamin B-2 retention remained unaffected, irrespective of the meal-service system used and storage period. As regards vitamin B-1 and vitamin B-6......, retentions declined significantly, by 14% and 21% respectively during 3 h of warm-holding, and by 11% and 19% respectively after 1 day of storage and subsequent reheating (cook-chill, MAP and sous vide). Vitamin B-1 retention declined by an extra 4% during storage for 14 days (sous vide) (not significant...

  14. Determination of Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B6 in YanTai Capsules by HPLC%HPLC法测定燕泰胶囊中维生素B1和维生素B6的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  15. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (United States)

    ... Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a condition in which ...

  16. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children (United States)

    ... c m y one in Children What is growth hormone deficiency? Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a rare condition in which the body does not make enough growth hormone (GH). GH is made by the pituitary gland, ...

  17. Interactions of endosulfan and methoxychlor involving CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in human HepaRG cells. (United States)

    Savary, Camille C; Jossé, Rozenn; Bruyère, Arnaud; Guillet, Fabrice; Robin, Marie-Anne; Guillouzo, André


    Humans are usually exposed to several pesticides simultaneously; consequently, combined actions between pesticides themselves or between pesticides and other chemicals need to be addressed in the risk assessment. Many pesticides are efficient activators of pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), two major nuclear receptors that are also activated by other substrates. In the present work, we searched for interactions between endosulfan and methoxychlor, two organochlorine pesticides whose major routes of metabolism involve CAR- and PXR-regulated CYP3A4 and CYP2B6, and whose mechanisms of action in humans remain poorly understood. For this purpose, HepaRG cells were treated with both pesticides separately or in mixture for 24 hours or 2 weeks at concentrations relevant to human exposure levels. In combination they exerted synergistic cytotoxic effects. Whatever the duration of treatment, both compounds increased CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 mRNA levels while differently affecting their corresponding activities. Endosulfan exerted a direct reversible inhibition of CYP3A4 activity that was confirmed in human liver microsomes. By contrast, methoxychlor induced this activity. The effects of the mixture on CYP3A4 activity were equal to the sum of those of each individual compound, suggesting an additive effect of each pesticide. Despite CYP2B6 activity being unchanged and increased with endosulfan and methoxychlor, respectively, no change was observed with their mixture, supporting an antagonistic effect. Altogether, our data suggest that CAR and PXR activators endosulfan and methoxychlor can interact together and with other exogenous substrates in human hepatocytes. Their effects on CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 activities could have important consequences if extrapolated to the in vivo situation.

  18. Study on Two-phase Nanocrystalline Nd8.5Fe74Co5Cu1NblZr3Cr1B6.5 Permanent Magnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiansen NI; Hui XU; Mingyuan ZHU; Qiang LI; Bangxin ZHOU; Yuanda DONG


    Nd8.5Fe74Co5Cu1Nb1Zr3Cr1B6.5 bonded magnets were prepared by melt-spun and subsequent heat treatment. Magnetic properties of Br=0.68 T, JHc=716 Ka/m, (BH)max=77 Kj/m3 were achieved. The addition of Cr element shows to be significantly advantageous in reducing grain size and increasing the intrinsic coercivity.

  19. Silane Reduction of 5-Hydroxy-6-methyl-pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylic Acid Diethyl Ester: Synthesis of Vitamin B6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. Gum


    Full Text Available Alternative methods for the synthesis of pyridoxine have been investigated. The key intermediate, 5-hydroxy-6-methyl-pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid diethyl ester (5, was reduced with either a silane monomer (MeSiH(OEt2 or a polysiloxane (polymethylhydrosiloxane, PMHS to afford crude pyridoxine. An isolation technique utilizing a commercially available resin was devised, affording the desired product, vitamin B6, in an overall yield of 38-54 % and a purity of 76%.

  20. Effect of feed supplementation with a-ketoglutarate, combined with vitamin B6 or C, on the performance and haemoglobin and amino acid levels in growing rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierzynowski, Stefan Grzegorz; Filip, Rafal; Harrison, Adrian Paul


    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a-ketoglutarate (AKG), at pH 2 or 5, combined with vitamin B6 (AKG 2B, AKG 5B) or C (AKG 2C, AKG 5C), on the performance and haemoglobin and amino acid levels in growing rats. Eighty rats were divided into 5 treatment groups and stayed on trial...