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Sample records for b19 genotype specific

  1. Existence of various human parvovirus B19 genotypes in Chinese plasma pools: genotype 1, genotype 3, putative intergenotypic recombinant variants and new genotypes.

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    Jia, Junting; Ma, Yuyuan; Zhao, Xiong; Huangfu, Chaoji; Zhong, Yadi; Fang, Chi; Fan, Rui; Lv, Maomin; Zhang, Jingang

    2016-09-17

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a frequent contaminant of blood and plasma-derived medicinal products. Three distinct genotypes of B19V have been identified. The distribution of the three B19V genotypes has been investigated in various regions or countries. However, in China, data on the existence of different B19V genotypes are limited. One hundred and eighteen B19V-DNA positive source plasma pool samples collected from three Chinese blood products manufacturers were analyzed. The subgenomic NS1/VP1u region junction of B19V was amplified by nested PCR. These amplified products were then cloned and subsequently sequenced. For genotyping, their phylogenetic inferences were constructed based on the NS1/VP1-unique region. Then putative recombination events were analyzed and identified. Phylogenetic analysis of 118 B19V sequences attributed 61.86 % to genotype 1a, 10.17 % to genotype 1b, and 17.80 % to genotype 3b. All the genotype 3b sequences obtained in this study grouped as a specific, closely related cluster with B19V strain D91.1. Four 1a/3b recombinants and 5 new atypical B19V variants with no recombination events were identified. There were at least 3 subtypes (1a, 1b and 3b) of B19V circulating in China. Furthermore, putative B19V 1a/3b recombinants and unclassified strains were identified as well. Such recombinant and unclassified strains may contribute to the genetic diversity of B19V and consequently complicate the B19V infection diagnosis and NAT screening. Further studies will be required to elucidate the biological significance of the recombinant and unclassified strains.

  2. Frequency and Genotype of Human Parvovirus B19 among Iranian Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

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    Sharif, Alireza; Aghakhani, Arezoo; Velayati, Ali Akbar; Banifazl, Mohammad; Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Razeghi, Effat; Kheirkhah, Davood; Kazemimanesh, Monireh; Bavand, Anahita; Ramezani, Amitis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and genotype of human parvovirus B19 and its relation with anemia among Iranian patients under dialysis. Fifty hemodialysis (HD) and 33 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients were enrolled. B19 IgG and IgM antibodies were assessed by ELISA, and the presence of B19 DNA was evaluated by nested PCR. PCR products were sequenced directly and phylogenetic analysis was performed. In the HD group, the prevalence of B19 antibodies was 54% for IgG and 4% for IgM. B19 DNA was detected in 10% of the cases, and 10% showed B19 IgG and viremia simultaneously. In the PD group, the prevalence of B19 IgG and IgM was 57.6 and 0% respectively, whereas B19 DNA was found in 12.1% of the group. A total of 9.1% showed B19 IgG and viremia concurrently. There was no significant difference regarding anemia and B19 infection in either group. All B19 isolates were clustered in genotype 1A. Our findings indicate that B19 infection plays no role in leading chronic anemia in dialysis patients. However, persistent B19 viremia and the circulation of the same strains in dialysis patients may indicate a potential risk for the contamination of dialysis equipment and nosocomial spread of B19 infection within dialysis units. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Prevalence and genotypic characterization of human parvovirus B19 in children with hemato-oncological disorders in North India.

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    Jain, Parul; Jain, Amita; Prakash, Shantanu; Khan, Danish N; Singh, Desh D; Kumar, Archana; Moulik, Nirmalya R; Chandra, Tulika

    2015-02-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) has been associated with chronic anemia in immuno-compromised patients. In the present study, the prevalence and genotype distribution of B19V in children from North India, suffering with hemato-oncological disorders is reported. Children with aplastic anemia/leukemia/chronic hematological disorders, and healthy blood donors were enrolled in the study. Blood samples from cases and blood donors were analyzed for anti-B19V IgM and anti-B19V IgG antibodies by ELISA and for B19V-DNA by PCR. B19V-DNA positive samples were studied further for determination of viral load in samples and for B19V-DNA sequence (VP1/VP2 overlapping region) analysis. Total 238 cases (103 leukemia, 77 aplastic anemia and 58 chronic hematological disorders) and 350 blood donors were enrolled in the study. Anti-B19V IgM was positive in 16 (6.7%) cases, B19V-DNA was detected in 13 (5.5%) cases and anti-B19V IgG was positive in 127 (53.4%) cases. Total 223 (63.5%) blood donors were positive for anti-B19V IgG, however, anti-B19V IgM and B19V-DNA was not detected in any blood donor. The prevalence of anti-B19V IgG was significantly higher in children > 10 years of age. Viral load of B19V decreased with appearance of specific antibodies. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1/VP2 overlapping region revealed that genotype 1 predominated in these patients (11/13, 84.6%), followed by genotype 3 (2/13, 15.4%). No genotype 2 was detected. All the genotype 1strains were sub-typed as 1a, except four strains, which matched neither 1a nor 1b and formed a separate cluster. Both the genotype 3 strains were sub-typed as 3b. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Frequency and genotype of human parvovirus B19 among Iranian patients infected with HIV.

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    Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Mohraz, Minoo; Kazemimanesh, Monireh; Aghakhani, Arezoo; Foroughi, Maryam; Banifazl, Mohammad; Eslamifar, Ali; Ramezani, Amitis

    2015-07-01

    The human parvovirus B19 (B19) usually causes a subclinical infection in immunocompetent individuals. Whereas immunocompromised individuals such as patients infected with HIV are at risk of persistent anemia due to B19 infection. Only few studies have been carried out on distribution and molecular epidemiology of B19 in Iran. We aimed to determine the frequency and genotype of B19 among Iranian patients infected with HIV. We conducted a survey on 99 HIV patients and 64 healthy controls. IgG and IgM antibodies against B19 were detected by ELISA and B19 DNA was assessed by nested PCR. PCR products were subjected to direct sequencing and classified after phylogenetic analysis. The prevalence of B19 immunoglobulin was 11.1% for IgG and 1% for IgM. B19 DNA was detected in 13.1% of cases. The prevalence of B19 IgG, IgM, and DNA in control group was 25%, 1.6%, and 9.4%, respectively. B19 IgG was significantly lower in HIV group than in normal controls. There was no significant difference regarding anemia between cases and controls. All sequenced B19 isolates belonged to genotype 1A with low genetic diversity. Our findings indicated that in the HAART era, the importance of B19 infections in HIV patients may be limited whereas persistent B19 viremia in the circulation of healthy controls raises a potential concern in blood donations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Recurrent high level parvovirus B19/genotype 2 viremia in a renal transplant recipient analyzed by real-time PCR for simultaneous detection of genotypes 1 to 3.

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    Liefeldt, Lutz; Plentz, Annelie; Klempa, Boris; Kershaw, Olivia; Endres, Anne-Sophie; Raab, Ulla; Neumayer, Hans-H; Meisel, Helga; Modrow, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    Organ transplant recipients infected with parvovirus B19 frequently develop persistent viremia associated with chronic anemia and pure red cell aplasia. In this study, a male renal transplant recipient who had been infected with parvovirus B19/genotype 2 after renal transplantation at the age of 34 years is described. The patient was repeatedly treated with high dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) that resulted in the resolvement of symptoms but not in virus eradication. During an observation period of 33 months after transplantation three phases associated with high parvovirus B19 viremia were observed. Both the first and the second viremic phases were combined with severe anemia. Parvovirus B19 specific IgM-antibodies were initially detected at the beginning of the second phase in continually rising concentrations. Initially eradication of the virus by immunoglobulin therapy was reported after the first viremic phase [Liefeldt et al. (2002): Nephrol Dial Transplant 17:1840-1842]. Retrospectively this statement has to be corrected. It was based on the use of a qualitative PCR assay specific for parvovirus B19 genotype 1 associated with reduced sensitivity for detection of genotype 2. After sequence analysis of the viral DNA and adjustment of a real-time PCR assay (TaqMan) for quantitative detection of all three B19 virus genotypes analysis of consecutive serum samples allowed the demonstration of long lasting phases with reduced viral loads following IVIG-treatment. These results demonstrate that IVIG treatment of parvovirus B19-triggered anemia in transplant recipients offers an opportunity to resolve symptoms, but does not guarantee eradication of the virus. Since reactivation of parvovirus B19 infection can result in high virus load associated with the recurrence of symptoms repeated screening for viral DNA is recommended using the TaqMan system established for quantitative detection of all three genotypes of parvovirus B19. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Prevalence and genotypic characterization of Human Parvovirus B19 in children with measles- and rubella-like illness in Iran.

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    Rezaei, Farhad; Sarshari, Behrang; Ghavami, Nastaran; Meysami, Parisa; Shadab, Azadeh; Salimi, Hamid; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat

    2016-06-01

    Human Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a prototype of the Erythroparvovirus genus in Parvoviridae family. B19V infections are often associated with fever and rash, and can be mistakenly reported as measles or rubella. Differential diagnosis of B19V illness is necessary for case management and also for public health control activities, particularly in outbreak situations in which measles or rubella is suspected. To investigate the causative role of B19V infection in children with measles- and rubella-like illness, a total of 583 sera from children with exanthema were tested for presence of B19V by determining anti-B19V IgG and IgM antibodies by ELISA as well as B19V DNA detection by nested PCR. DNA positive samples were assessed further for determination of viral load and sequence analysis by Real-Time PCR and Sanger sequencing method, respectively. Out of 583 patients, 112 (19.21%) patients were positive for B19V-IgM antibody, 110 (18.87%) were positive for B19V-IgG antibody, and 63 (10.81%) were positive for B19V viral DNA. The frequency of B19V-IgG antibodies were increased with age; that is children under 6 year old showed 7.11% seroprevalence for B19V-IgG as compared to 18.39% and 28.91% for age groups 6 to >11 and 11-14 years old, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the NS1-VPu1 overlapping region revealed that all sequenced B19V-DNA belonged to genotype 1. The results of this study may aid the surveillance programs aiming at eradicating measles/rubella virus in Iran, as infections with B19V can be mistakenly reported as measles or rubella if laboratory testing is not conducted. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Prolonged activation of virus-specific CD8+T cells after acute B19 infection

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    Isa, Adiba; Kasprowicz, Victoria; Norbeck, Oscar

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is a ubiquitous and clinically significant pathogen, causing erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, transient aplastic crisis, and intrauterine fetal death. The phenotype of CD8+ T cells in acute B19 infection has not been studied previously. METHODS AND FINDINGS......: The number and phenotype of B19-specific CD8+ T cell responses during and after acute adult infection was studied using HLA-peptide multimeric complexes. Surprisingly, these responses increased in magnitude over the first year post-infection despite resolution of clinical symptoms and control of viraemia......, with T cell populations specific for individual epitopes comprising up to 4% of CD8+ T cells. B19-specific T cells developed and maintained an activated CD38+ phenotype, with strong expression of perforin and CD57 and downregulation of CD28 and CD27. These cells possessed strong effector function...

  8. Granzyme B mediated function of Parvovirus B19-specific CD4+ T cells

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    Kumar, Arun; Perdomo, Maria F; Kantele, Anu; Hedman, Lea; Hedman, Klaus; Franssila, Rauli

    2015-01-01

    A novel conception of CD4+ T cells with cytolytic potential (CD4+ CTL) is emerging. These cells appear to have a part in controlling malignancies and chronic infections. Human parvovirus B19 can cause a persistent infection, yet no data exist on the presence of B19-specific CD4+ CTLs. Such cells could have a role in the pathogenesis of some autoimmune disorders reported to be associated with B19. We explored the cytolytic potential of human parvovirus B19-specific T cells by stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) with recombinant B19-VP2 virus-like particles. The cytolytic potential was determined by enzyme immunoassay-based quantitation of granzyme B (GrB) and perforin from the tissue culture supernatants, by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) and by detecting direct cytotoxicity. GrB and perforin responses with the B19 antigen were readily detectable in B19-seropositive individuals. T-cell depletion, HLA blocking and ICS experiments showed GrB and perforin to be secreted by CD4+ T cells. CD4+ T cells with strong GrB responses were found to exhibit direct cytotoxicity. As anticipated, ICS of B19-specific CD4+ T cells showed expected co-expression of GrB, perforin and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). Unexpectedly, also a strong co-expression of GrB and interleukin 17 (IL-17) was detected. These cells expressed natural killer (NK) cell surface marker CD56, together with the CD4 surface marker. To our knowledge, this is the first report on virus-specific CD4+ CTLs co-expressing CD56 antigen. Our results suggest a role for CD4+ CTL in B19 immunity. Such cells could function within both immune regulation and triggering of autoimmune phenomena such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:26246896

  9. Prevalence of parvovirus B19 specific antibody in pregnant women with spontaneous abortion.

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    Rahbar, Nahid; Vali Zadeh, Saeid; Ghorbani, Raheb; Kheradmand, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is a very common viral infection especially in school-aged children. The infection during pregnancy can affect the fetus due to lack of mother's immunity. Although, there is still no evidence of fetal teratogenic effects with parvovirus B19, but non-immune fetal hydrops and abortion may be caused by vertical transmission of the virus during pregnancy. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) in pregnant women who had a spontaneous abortion. This cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women who referred due to a spontaneous abortion. All demographic information such as age, occupation, and gestational age, last history of abortion, gravity, and presence of children below the age of six was recorded and a blood sample was provided for all the women. Then, the blood samples were tested to assay parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) by EuroImmune ELISA kit. Among 94 pregnant women with the mean age of 28.4 years who had a spontaneous abortion, parvovirus B19 specific antibody (IgM) was detected in 17 participants (18.1%). Meanwhile, 14 women (14.9%) were suspected for presence of the antibody in their blood sample. There was no significant difference between the presence of antibody and age of pregnant women, occupation, gestational age, number of previous abortion, presence of children below the age of six and number of pregnancy. These findings revealed that a high percentage of pregnant women are probably non-immune against parvovirus B19, and also there might be a number of spontaneous abortions in which parvovirus infection caused fetal death.  However, more studies are needed to prove the absolute role of parvovirus B19 in these abortions.

  10. Recombinant human parvovirus B19 vectors: erythroid cell-specific delivery and expression of transduced genes.

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    Ponnazhagan, S; Weigel, K A; Raikwar, S P; Mukherjee, P; Yoder, M C; Srivastava, A

    1998-06-01

    A novel packaging strategy combining the salient features of two human parvoviruses, namely the pathogenic parvovirus B19 and the nonpathogenic adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV), was developed to achieve erythroid cell-specific delivery as well as expression of the transduced gene. The development of such a chimeric vector system was accomplished by packaging heterologous DNA sequences cloned within the inverted terminal repeats of AAV and subsequently packaging the DNA inside the capsid structure of B19 virus. Recombinant B19 virus particles were assembled, as evidenced by electron microscopy as well as DNA slot blot analyses. The hybrid vector failed to transduce nonerythroid human cells, such as 293 cells, as expected. However, MB-02 cells, a human megakaryocytic leukemia cell line which can be infected by B19 virus following erythroid differentiation with erythropoietin (N. C. Munshi, S. Z. Zhou, M. J. Woody, D. A. Morgan, and A. Srivastava, J. Virol. 67:562-566, 1993) but lacks the putative receptor for AAV (S. Ponnazhagan, X.-S. Wang, M. J. Woody, F. Luo, L. Y. Kang, M. L. Nallari, N. C. Munshi, S. Z. Zhou, and A. Srivastava, J. Gen. Virol. 77:1111-1122, 1996), were readily transduced by this vector. The hybrid vector was also found to specifically target the erythroid population in primary human bone marrow cells as well as more immature hematopoietic progenitor cells following erythroid differentiation, as evidenced by selective expression of the transduced gene in these target cells. Preincubation with anticapsid antibodies against B19 virus, but not anticapsid antibodies against AAV, inhibited transduction of primary human erythroid cells. The efficiency of transduction of primary human erythroid cells by the recombinant B19 virus vector was significantly higher than that by the recombinant AAV vector. Further development of the AAV-B19 virus hybrid vector system should prove beneficial in gene therapy protocols aimed at the correction of inherited and

  11. Recombinant Human Parvovirus B19 Vectors: Erythroid Cell-Specific Delivery and Expression of Transduced Genes

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    Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan; Weigel, Kirsten A.; Raikwar, Sudhanshu P.; Mukherjee, Pinku; Yoder, Mervin C.; Srivastava, Arun

    1998-01-01

    A novel packaging strategy combining the salient features of two human parvoviruses, namely the pathogenic parvovirus B19 and the nonpathogenic adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV), was developed to achieve erythroid cell-specific delivery as well as expression of the transduced gene. The development of such a chimeric vector system was accomplished by packaging heterologous DNA sequences cloned within the inverted terminal repeats of AAV and subsequently packaging the DNA inside the capsid structure of B19 virus. Recombinant B19 virus particles were assembled, as evidenced by electron microscopy as well as DNA slot blot analyses. The hybrid vector failed to transduce nonerythroid human cells, such as 293 cells, as expected. However, MB-02 cells, a human megakaryocytic leukemia cell line which can be infected by B19 virus following erythroid differentiation with erythropoietin (N. C. Munshi, S. Z. Zhou, M. J. Woody, D. A. Morgan, and A. Srivastava, J. Virol. 67:562–566, 1993) but lacks the putative receptor for AAV (S. Ponnazhagan, X.-S. Wang, M. J. Woody, F. Luo, L. Y. Kang, M. L. Nallari, N. C. Munshi, S. Z. Zhou, and A. Srivastava, J. Gen. Virol. 77:1111–1122, 1996), were readily transduced by this vector. The hybrid vector was also found to specifically target the erythroid population in primary human bone marrow cells as well as more immature hematopoietic progenitor cells following erythroid differentiation, as evidenced by selective expression of the transduced gene in these target cells. Preincubation with anticapsid antibodies against B19 virus, but not anticapsid antibodies against AAV, inhibited transduction of primary human erythroid cells. The efficiency of transduction of primary human erythroid cells by the recombinant B19 virus vector was significantly higher than that by the recombinant AAV vector. Further development of the AAV-B19 virus hybrid vector system should prove beneficial in gene therapy protocols aimed at the correction of inherited

  12. Prolonged activation of virus-specific CD8+T cells after acute B19 infection.

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    Adiba Isa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Human parvovirus B19 (B19 is a ubiquitous and clinically significant pathogen, causing erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, transient aplastic crisis, and intrauterine fetal death. The phenotype of CD8+ T cells in acute B19 infection has not been studied previously.The number and phenotype of B19-specific CD8+ T cell responses during and after acute adult infection was studied using HLA-peptide multimeric complexes. Surprisingly, these responses increased in magnitude over the first year post-infection despite resolution of clinical symptoms and control of viraemia, with T cell populations specific for individual epitopes comprising up to 4% of CD8+ T cells. B19-specific T cells developed and maintained an activated CD38+ phenotype, with strong expression of perforin and CD57 and downregulation of CD28 and CD27. These cells possessed strong effector function and intact proliferative capacity. Individuals tested many years after infection exhibited lower frequencies of B19-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, typically 0.05%-0.5% of CD8+ T cells, which were perforin, CD38, and CCR7 low.This is the first example to our knowledge of an "acute" human viral infection inducing a persistent activated CD8+ T cell response. The likely explanation--analogous to that for cytomegalovirus infection--is that this persistent response is due to low-level antigen exposure. CD8+ T cells may contribute to the long-term control of this significant pathogen and should be considered during vaccine development.

  13. Prolonged activation of virus-specific CD8+T cells after acute B19 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human parvovirus B19 (B19 is a ubiquitous and clinically significant pathogen, causing erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, transient aplastic crisis, and intrauterine fetal death. The phenotype of CD8+ T cells in acute B19 infection has not been studied previously. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The number and phenotype of B19-specific CD8+ T cell responses during and after acute adult infection was studied using HLA-peptide multimeric complexes. Surprisingly, these responses increased in magnitude over the first year post-infection despite resolution of clinical symptoms and control of viraemia, with T cell populations specific for individual epitopes comprising up to 4% of CD8+ T cells. B19-specific T cells developed and maintained an activated CD38+ phenotype, with strong expression of perforin and CD57 and downregulation of CD28 and CD27. These cells possessed strong effector function and intact proliferative capacity. Individuals tested many years after infection exhibited lower frequencies of B19-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, typically 0.05%-0.5% of CD8+ T cells, which were perforin, CD38, and CCR7 low. CONCLUSION: This is the first example to our knowledge of an "acute" human viral infection inducing a persistent activated CD8+ T cell response. The likely explanation--analogous to that for cytomegalovirus infection--is that this persistent response is due to low-level antigen exposure. CD8+ T cells may contribute to the long-term control of this significant pathogen and should be considered during vaccine development.

  14. Low-level DNAemia of parvovirus B19 (genotypes 1-3) in adult transplant recipients is not associated with anaemia.

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    Plentz, Annelie; Würdinger, Michael; Kudlich, Matthias; Modrow, Susanne

    2013-10-01

    After acute parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection of immunocompetent individuals, viral genomes persist lifelong in various tissues. In immunocompromized patients, acute B19V infection may be associated with severe anaemia. It is unclear whether reactivation of latent B19V DNA may contribute to persistent viraemia and anaemia in transplant recipients. We retrospectively analysed the impact of B19V infection in 371 adult transplant recipients (kidney, liver, heart, bone marrow). The patients' pre-transplantation serostatus was determined. 1431 sera or plasmas obtained in monthly intervals during six months following transplantation were analysed for the presence of B19V DNA by quantitative PCR which allows discrimination between B19V genotypes 1-3. Overall, 82% of the patients were seropositive. B19V DNA (<600-1100 geq/ml) was detected in 4.0% of patients and classified as genotype 1 in 12, genotype 2 in one and genotype 3 in two patients. Whereas 5.5%, 6.7% and 5.7% of liver, heart and bone marrow recipients displayed DNAemia, viral genomes were detected only in 1.4% of kidney recipients. Haemoglobin levels and reticulocyte counts showed no differences between DNAemic and non-DNAemic patients. In a control group of 120 healthy subjects, 78% were seropositive and 2.5% displayed DNAemia. Prevalence and level of B19V DNAemia in adult transplant recipients was comparable to that observed in healthy individuals, but with a distinct accumulation within the first weeks post-transplantation. The presence of low-level DNAemia in transplant recipients was not associated with anaemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Genotyping of human parvovirus B19 in clinical samples from Brazil and Paraguay using heteroduplex mobility assay, single-stranded conformation polymorphism and nucleotide sequencing

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    Marcos César Lima de Mendonça

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Heteroduplex mobility assay, single-stranded conformation polymorphism and nucleotide sequencing were utilised to genotype human parvovirus B19 samples from Brazil and Paraguay. Ninety-seven serum samples were collected from individuals presenting with abortion or erythema infectiosum, arthropathies, severe anaemia and transient aplastic crisis; two additional skin samples were collected by biopsy. After the procedure, all clinical samples were classified as genotype 1.

  16. Tracking of peptide-specific CD4+ T-cell responses after an acute resolving viral infection: a study of parvovirus B19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasprowicz, Victoria; Isa, Adiba; Tolfvenstam, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of peptide-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses to acute viral infections of humans is poorly understood. We analyzed the response to parvovirus B19 (B19), a ubiquitous and clinically significant pathogen with a compact and conserved genome. The magnitude and breadth of the CD4(+) T......-cell response to the two B19 capsid proteins were investigated using a set of overlapping peptides and gamma interferon-specific enzyme-linked immunospot assays of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a cohort of acutely infected individuals who presented with acute arthropathy. These were compared...... to those for a cohort of B19-specific immunoglobulin M-negative (IgM(-)), IgG(+) remotely infected individuals. Both cohorts of individuals were found to make broad CD4(+) responses. However, while the responses following acute infection were detectable ex vivo, responses in remotely infected individuals...

  17. Molecular phenotypes of human parvovirus B19 in patients with myocarditis.

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    Bock, C-Thomas; Düchting, Anja; Utta, Friederike; Brunner, Eva; Sy, Bui Tien; Klingel, Karin; Lang, Florian; Gawaz, Meinrad; Felix, Stephan B; Kandolf, Reinhard

    2014-04-26

    To investigate molecular phenotypes of myocardial B19V-infection to determine the role of B19V in myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) from 498 B19V-positive patients with myocarditis and DCM were analyzed using molecular methods and functional experiments. EMBs were obtained from the University Hospitals of Greifswald and Tuebingen and additionally from 36 German cardiology centers. Control tissues were obtained at autopsy from 34 victims of accidents, crime or suicide. Identification of mononuclear cell infiltrates in EMBs was performed using immunohistological staining. Anti-B19V-IgM and anti-B19V-IgG were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). B19V viral loads were determined using in-house quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For B19V-genotyping a new B19V-genotype-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR was established. B19V-genotyping was verified by direct DNA-sequencing and sequences were aligned using BLAST and BioEdit software. B19V P6-promoter and HHV6-U94-transactivator constructs were generated for cell culture experiments. Transfection experiments were conducted using human endothelial cells 1. Luciferase reporter assays were performed to determine B19V-replication activity. Statistical analysis and graphical representation were calculated using SPSS and Prism5 software. The prevalence of B19V was significantly more likely to be associated with inflammatory cardiomyopathy (iCMP) compared to uninflamed DCM (59.6% vs 35.3%) (P reactivation of B19V-infection by HHV6-coinfection in B19V-associated iCMP. Our findings suggest that B19V-infection of the human heart can be a causative event for the development of an endothelial cell-mediated inflammatory disease and that this is related to both viral load and genotype.

  18. NS1 specific CD8+ T-cells with effector function and TRBV11 dominance in a patient with parvovirus B19 associated inflammatory cardiomyopathy.

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    Mathias Streitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parvovirus B19 (B19V is the most commonly detected virus in endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs from patients with inflammatory cardiomyopathy (DCMi. Despite the importance of T-cells in antiviral defense, little is known about the role of B19V specific T-cells in this entity. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An exceptionally high B19V viral load in EMBs (115,091 viral copies/mug nucleic acids, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and serum was measured in a DCMi patient at initial presentation, suggesting B19V viremia. The B19V viral load in EMBs had decreased substantially 6 and 12 months afterwards, and was not traceable in PBMCs and the serum at these times. Using pools of overlapping peptides spanning the whole B19V proteome, strong CD8(+ T-cell responses were elicited to the 10-amino-acid peptides SALKLAIYKA (19.7% of all CD8(+ cells and QSALKLAIYK (10% and additional weaker responses to GLCPHCINVG (0.71% and LLHTDFEQVM (0.06%. Real-time RT-PCR of IFNgamma secretion-assay-enriched T-cells responding to the peptides, SALKLAIYKA and GLCPHCINVG, revealed a disproportionately high T-cell receptor Vbeta (TRBV 11 expression in this population. Furthermore, dominant expression of type-1 (IFNgamma, IL2, IL27 and T-bet and of cytotoxic T-cell markers (Perforin and Granzyme B was found, whereas gene expression indicating type-2 (IL4, GATA3 and regulatory T-cells (FoxP3 was low. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that B19V Ag-specific CD8(+ T-cells with effector function are involved in B19V associated DCMi. In particular, a dominant role of TRBV11 and type-1/CTL effector cells in the T-cell mediated antiviral immune response is suggested. The persistence of B19V in the endomyocardium is a likely antigen source for the maintenance of CD8(+ T-cell responses to the identified epitopes.

  19. Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection in systemic sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, K.; Corcioli, F.; Carlsen, Karen Marie

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our previous reports suggested a possible association between parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection and systemic sclerosis (SSc), based on higher prevalence of B19V DNA in SSc patients in respect to controls. METHODS: In the present study, to further evaluate the differences in the pattern...... of B19 infection in SSc, skin biopsies and bone marrow samples from patients and controls were analysed for B19V DNA detection, genotyping and viral expression. RESULTS: B19V DNA was detected in skin biopsies from 39/49 SSc patients and from 20/28 controls. Bone marrow showed positive in 17/29 SSc...... in the skin of genotype 1-positive patients and not in control skins. CONCLUSION: The results outline some differences in the rate of persistence of B19V DNA, in the simultaneous persistence of 2 genotypes and in the pattern of viral expression among SSc patients and controls Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  20. Parvovirus B19.

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    Landry, Marie Louise

    2016-06-01

    Primary parvovirus B19 infection is an infrequent, but serious and treatable, cause of chronic anemia in immunocompromised hosts. Many compromised hosts have preexisting antibody to B19 and are not at risk. However, upon primary infection, some patients may be able to mount a sufficient immune response to terminate active parvovirus B19 infection of erythroid precursors. The most common consequence of B19 infection in the compromised host is pure red-cell aplasia, resulting in chronic or recurrent anemia with reticulocytopenia. Anemia persists until neutralizing antibody is either produced by the host or passively administered. Parvovirus B19 should be suspected in compromised hosts with unexplained or severe anemia and reticulocytopenia, or when bone-marrow examination shows either giant pronormoblasts or absence of red-cell precursors. Diagnosis is established by detection of B19 DNA in serum in the absence of IgG antibody to B19. In some cases, IgG antibody is detected but is not neutralizing. Anti-B19 IgM may or may not be present. Therapy includes any or all of the following: red-cell transfusion, adjustment in medications to restore or improve the patient's immune system, and administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Following treatment, patients should be closely monitored, especially if immunosuppression is unchanged or increased. Should hematocrit trend downward and parvovirus DNA trend upward, the therapeutic options above should be revisited. In a few instances, monthly maintenance IVIG may be indicated. Caregivers should be aware that B19 variants, though rarely encountered, can be missed or under-quantitated by some real-time polymerase-chain reaction methods.

  1. Human Parvovirus B19

    OpenAIRE

    Yarkın, Fügen

    1992-01-01

    Human parvavirus B19'un morfolojisi, oluşturduğu enfeksiyonun klinik belirtileri,tanı yöntemleri, epidemik özellikleri göz önüne alındığında, özellikle kronik olgularda B19 antikorlarının ilave edildiği immünglobulinlerin intravenöz infüzyonunun tedavide etkili olabilmektedir.

  2. Parvovirus B19 Associated Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana; Saxena, Priyanka; Rangegowda, Devraj; Chowdhury, Ashok; Gupta, Nalini; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection can present with myriads of clinical diseases and syndromes; liver manifestations and hepatitis are examples of them. Parvovirus B19 hepatitis associated aplastic anemia and its coinfection with other hepatotropic viruses are relatively underrecognized, and there is sufficient evidence in the literature suggesting that B19 infections can cause a spectrum of liver diseases from elevation of transaminases to acute hepatitis to fulminant liver failure and even chronic hepatitis. It can also cause fatal macrophage activation syndrome and fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Parvovirus B19 is an erythrovirus that can only be replicate in pronormoblasts and hepatocytes, and other cells which have globosides and glycosphingolipids in their membrane can also be affected by direct virus injury due to nonstructural protein 1 persistence and indirectly by immune mediated injury. The virus infection is suspected in bone marrow aspiration in cases with sudden drop of hemoglobin and onset of transient aplastic anemia in immunosuppressed or immunocompetent patients and is confirmed either by IgM and IgG positive serology, PCR analysis, and in situ hybridization in biopsy specimens or by application of both. There is no specific treatment for parvovirus B19 related liver diseases, but triple therapy regimen may be effective consisting of immunoglobulin, dehydrohydrocortisone, and cyclosporine. PMID:24232179

  3. Parvovirus B19 1A complete genome from a fatal case in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Costa Conteville

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 (B19V infects individuals worldwide and is associated with an ample range of pathologies and clinical manifestations. B19V is classified into three distinct genotypes, all identified in Brazil. Here, we report a complete sequence of a B19V genotype 1A that was obtained by high-throughput metagenomic sequencing. This genome provides information that will contribute to the studies on B19V epidemiology and evolution.

  4. Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cheek Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... disease is the most common illness caused by parvovirus B19 infection. Learn More Parvovirus B19 infection can cause ...

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus/human parvovirus B19 co-infection in blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Miao; Zhu, Jiang; Yin, Huimin; Ke, Ling; Gao, Lei; Pan, Zhihong; Yang, Xiuhua; Li, Wuping

    2012-01-01

    Background Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is a common pathogen which causes a variety of diseases. Persistent B19 infection is related to the degree of host immunodeficiency in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, the existence, loading, virus evolution and distribution of B19 in Chinese HIV-positive patients have not been determined. Materials and methods. We investigated 573 HIV-positive blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China in the last two decades. Bl9-specific serology and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the prevalence of B19/HIV co-infection. Viral genome fragments were subjected to phylogeny and haplotype analysis. Results B19 genomic DNA was found in 26 of 573 (4.5%) HIV-positive individuals, a higher prevalence than in blood donors. DNA levels ranged from 5.3×102–1.1×105 copies/mL. The seroprevalence of IgG was significantly lower in HIV-positive samples than in HIV-negative blood donors, indicating deficient production of B19-specific IgG in the former. The B19 isolates were genotype-1 subtype B19-1A which formed a monophyletic group; seven distinct haplotypes were discovered with 60% of the B19/HIV co-infected variants sharing one central haplotype. Discussion. This study on the prevalence, phylogeny and distribution of human parvovirus B19 in Sichuan, China, demonstrates the persistence of B19 in the circulation of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects, with implications for blood safety. PMID:22790259

  6. Update of the human parvovirus B19 biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant-Delmas, A; Morinet, F

    2016-02-01

    Since its discovery, the human parvovirus B19 (B19V) has been associated with many clinical situations in addition to the prototype clinical manifestations, i.e. erythema infectiosum and erythroblastopenia crisis. The clinical significance of the viral B19V DNA persistence in sera after acute infection remains largely unknown. Such data may constitute a new clinical entity and is discussed in this manuscript. In 2002, despite the genetic diversity among B19V viruses has been reported to be very low, the description of markedly distinct sequences showed a new organization into three genotypes. The most recent common ancestor for B19V genotypes was estimated at early 1800s. B19V replication is enhanced by hypoxia and this might to explain the high viral load detected by quantitative PCR in the sera of infected patients. The minimum infectious dose necessary to transmit B19V infection by the transfusion of labile blood products remains unclear. At the opposite, the US Food and Drug Administration proposed a limit of 10(4)IU/mL of viral DNA in plasma pools used for the production of plasma derivatives. Recently, a new human parvovirus (PARV4) has been discovered. The consequences on blood transfusion of this blood-borne agent and its pathogenicity are still unknown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. [Diagnosis for human parvovirus B19-polyarthritis: usefulness of empty particle B19.ELISA and B19-DNA.PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Y; Ishii, K; Murai, C; Sugamura, K; Mitomo, N; Saitoh, T; Rikimaru, Y; Okazaki, T; Sasaki, T

    1998-10-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of new ELISA for human parvovirus B19 (B19) antibodies and PCR for the diagnosis of acute onset of B19 polyarthritis. We evaluated the reproducibility and sensitivity on the detection of anti-B19 antibody by ELISA using recombinant VP-1 and VP-2 (empty particle), and then studied for the prevalence of IgM and IgG B19 antibody in 125 samples for anti-B19 tests. The random study on anti-B19 antibody assay as well as PCR for B19-DNA was also performed in 130 cases with acute onset of arthritis excluding those with known origins, 224 with rheumatoid arthritis and 149 with other categories. The results by using B19-empty particle ELISA were reproducible and showed the assay was a sensitive way for clinical use. IgM anti-B19 antibodies were positive not only in all samples from erythema infectiosum, but also often in those from hemolytic anemia, pure red cell aplasia, fetal hydrops, hepatic injury, fever of unknown origin. Among 130 with acute onset of arthritis, 21 showed positive tests for IgM anti-B19 antibody and/or B19 DNA. On the other hand, 4 among 224 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were positive for IgM anti-B19 antibody, but all of 149 in control group were negative for IgM anti-B19 antibodies and for B19 DNA. Anti-B19 ELISA using B19-empty particle which has been introduced as a routine test system, is a useful tool for the diagnosis of acute onset of B19 arthritis. An additional examination using PCR for B19 DNA may contribute for understanding persistent B19 polyarthritis or reactivation of B19 infection.

  8. Human erythrovirus B19 and blood transfusion - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsyan, A; Candotti, D

    2007-08-01

    Erythrovirus (parvovirus) B19 (B19) is a common human pathogen. It is a non-enveloped single-strand DNA virus packaging its genome in small tight capsids consisting of viral VP1 and VP2 proteins. It is now accepted that B19 is a relatively quickly evolving virus having diverged in several genetic variants recently identified. The main route of B19 transmission is respiratory, with a majority of infections occurring during childhood and manifesting as erythema infectiousum. B19 can also be transmitted vertically and via blood transfusion and organ transplantation. The majority of adult populations show immunological evidence of previous exposure to B19. Although the immune response is able to clear infection and provide life-long protection against B19, recent data suggest that in some, if not the majority, of individuals the acute phase of infection is followed by viral persistence in the blood or other tissues regardless of the host's immunocompetence. Transmission of B19 by blood and blood products and its resistance to common viral inactivation methods raises several blood safety questions, still unanswered. The diversity of B19 strains and the ability of the virus to persist in the presence of specific antibodies raise the issue of transmissibility by transfusion not so much to immunocompetent recipients but rather to the large proportion of recipients in whom there is some degree of immunodeficiency. The ability of the virus to reactivate in immunodeficient recipients may create difficulties in differentiating between transfusion transmission and reactivation.

  9. Parvovirus B19 associated acute cholestatic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Perrini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few reports in the literature of hepatitis as a manifestation of Parvovirus B19 infection. We describe a case of Parvovirus B19 associated acute cholestatic hepatitis diagnosed based on a positive serologic test (IgM and molecular detection of parvovirus B19 DNA in peripheral blood. Parvovirus B19 infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patient presenting with acute hepatitis of unknown etiology.

  10. 7 CFR 15b.19 - New construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New construction. 15b.19 Section 15b.19 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 15b.19 New construction. (a) Design and construction. Each facility or part of a facility constructed by, on behalf of, or for the use of a recipient...

  11. Extinct type of human parvovirus B19 persists in tonsillar B cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pyöriä, Lari; Toppinen, Mari; Mantyla, Elina; Hedman, Lea; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Ilmarinen, Taru; Soderlund-Venermo, Maria; Hedman, Klaus; Perdomo, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) DNA persists lifelong in human tissues, but the cell type harbouring it remains unclear. We here explore B19V DNA distribution in B, T and monocyte cell lineages of recently excised tonsillar tissues from 77 individuals with an age range of 2?69 years. We show that B19V DNA is most frequent and abundant among B cells, and within them we find a B19V genotype that vanished from circulation >40 years ago. Since re-infection or re-activation are unlikely with this virus type...

  12. Incidence and progression of Parvovirus B19 infection and molecular changes in circulating B19V strains in children with haematological malignancy: A follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amita; Jain, Parul; Kumar, Archana; Prakash, Shantanu; Khan, Danish Nasar; Kant, Ravi

    2018-01-01

    The present study was planned to estimate the incidence of human Parvovirus B19 infection and understand its progression in children suffering with hematological malignancy. The circulating B19V genotypes and viral mutations occurring in strains of B19V over one-year period were also studied. Children with malignancies were enrolled consecutively and were followed up for one-year period. Serum sample was collected at the time of enrolment and each follow up visit and was tested for anti B19V IgG and IgM as well as for B19V DNA. At least one B19V DNA positive sample from each patient was processed for sequencing. For patients positive for B19V DNA >1 time and at least 6 months apart, last positive sample from the same patient was also sequenced to study the nucleotide change over time. We have found very high incidence of B19V infection (100%) in the study population. All the patients tested positive for at least one B19V infection parameter (either antibodies or DNA) at least once, over one year of follow up. Cumulative percent positivity of anti B19V IgG, anti B19V IgM and B19V DNA was 85.3%, 45.2% and 72.1% respectively. Genotype 3b was reported, with occasional nucleotide change over one year period. DNA clearance was delayed in spite of appearance of IgG antibodies. Appearance of IgM class of antibodies was either delayed or absent. To conclude, children with haematological malignancies have high incidence of B19V infection with late and short lived serological response and persistence of DNA for long duration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Seroprevalence, molecular epidemiology and quantitation of parvovirus B19 DNA levels in Iranian blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadsar, Maryam; Aghakhani, Arezoo; Banifazl, Mohammad; Kazemimanesh, Monireh; Tabatabaei Yazdi, Seyed Morteza; Mamishi, Setareh; Bavand, Anahita; Sadat Larijani, Mona; Ramezani, Amitis

    2018-04-16

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection is common among blood donors, and healthy blood donors can transmit virus via transfusion. Due to resistance of B19 to viral inactivation methods, there is a potential concern regarding transfusion safety in blood products. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence, molecular epidemiology, and quantitation of B19 DNA levels in blood donors in Tehran, Iran. A total of 500 blood donors from Blood Transfusion Research Center were studied. ELISA was used for detection of B19 IgG and IgM and nested PCR was carried out for detection of B19 DNA. PCR products were subjected to direct sequencing. B19 viral load was determined by real time PCR. B19 IgG, IgM, and DNA were detected in 27.6, 2.6, and 1.2% of donors respectively. Ten samples (2%) were positive for both antibodies while in four cases (0.8%), B19 IgG and DNA detected simultaneously. One case had B19 IgM, IgG, and viremia concurrently. The titers of B19 DNA in four of six donors were more than 10 6  IU/mL (high level viremia) and all four cases had IgG simultaneously. All B19 isolates categorized in genotype 1A. Our findings indicated that prevalence of B19 DNA in Iranian blood donors was comparable with previous studies throughout the world. High level B19 viremia found in 0.8% of our donors and all viremic donors revealed neutralizing B19 antibody. Therefore implementation of a B19 screening test for each volunteer blood donor does not appear to be necessary but B19 testing for plasma-derived products seems important in Iranian donors. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Hydroxyurea inhibits parvovirus B19 replication in erythroid progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvicini, Francesca; Bua, Gloria; Conti, Ilaria; Manaresi, Elisabetta; Gallinella, Giorgio

    2017-07-15

    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection is restricted to erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) of the human bone marrow, leading to transient arrest of erythropoiesis and severe complications mainly in subjects with underlying hematological disorders or with immune system deficits. Currently, there are no specific antiviral drugs for B19V treatment, but identification of compounds inhibiting B19V replication can be pursued by a drug repositioning strategy. In this frame, the present study investigates the activity of hydroxyurea (HU), the only disease-modifying therapy approved for sickle cell disease (SCD), towards B19V replication in the two relevant cellular systems, the UT7/EpoS1 cell line and EPCs. Results demonstrate that HU inhibits B19V replication with EC 50 values of 96.2µM and 147.1µM in UT7/EpoS1 and EPCs, respectively, providing experimental evidence of the antiviral activity of HU towards B19V replication, and confirming the efficacy of a drug discovery process by drug repositioning strategy. The antiviral activity occurs in vitro at concentrations lower than those affecting cellular DNA replication and viability, and at levels measured in plasma samples of SCD patients undergoing HU therapy. HU might determine a dual beneficial effect on SCD patients, not only for the treatment of the disease but also towards a virus responsible for severe complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Human parvovirus B19 in patients with beta thalassemia major from Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabzadeh, Seyed Ali Mohammad; Alizadeh, Farideh; Tavakoli, Ahmad; Mollaei, Hamidreza; Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Karimi, Gharib; Farahmand, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Helya Sadat; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza

    2017-03-01

    Due to the tropism of human parvovirus B19 to erythroid progenitor cells, infection in patients with an underlying hemolytic disorder such as beta-thalassemia major leads to suppression of erythrocyte formation, referred to as transient aplasia crisis (TAC), which may be life-threatening. We investigated the prevalence of parvovirus B19 among patients with beta thalassemia major attending the Zafar Adult Thalassemia Clinic in Tehran, Iran. This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the presence of parvovirus B19 DNA in blood samples and parvovirus B19 genotypes in plasma samples of patients with thalassemia major. The population consisted of 150 patients with beta-thalassemia major who attended the Zafar clinic in Tehran. Specimens were studied using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The prevalence of parvovirus B19 in our study population was 4%. Of 150 patients with thalassemia, six (4%) were positive for B19 DNA. There was no significant correlation between blood transfusion frequency and B19 DNA positivity. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of human parvovirus B19 revealed genotype I in these six patients. In this study, acute B19 infections were detected in patients with beta thalassemia major. Screening of such high-risk groups can considerably reduce the incidence and prevalence of B19 infection; thus, screening is required for epidemiologic surveillance and disease-prevention measures.

  16. Fifth Disease (Parvovirus B19) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifth Disease (parvovirus B19) In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby with a ... infectiosum, is a viral illness caused by human parvovirus B19. It occurs most commonly in children ages 4 ...

  17. Parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Eveline P.; de Haan, Timo R.; Kroes, Aloys C. M.; Beersma, Matthias F. C.; Oepkes, Dick; Walther, Frans J.

    2006-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 is a small single-stranded DNA virus and a potent inhibitor of erythropoiesis, due to its cytotoxicity to erythroid progenitor cells. Infection with parvovirus B19 during pregnancy can cause several serious complications in the fetus, such as fetal anemia, neurological anomalies,

  18. Slovenian recommendations for parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Osvald Avguštin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 (B19V causes a mild disease called erythema infectiosum, also known as the fifh disease that affects mostly children and young adults. The virus can be transferred to the fetus during pregnancy in 31 to 51 % of the cases and can cause severe anaemia, non-immune hydrops fetalis or fetal death due to inhibition of erythropoiesis. It also affects the heart muscle, central nervous system, bones, and most likely can cause a subsequent arrest in children’s neurological development. It is estimated that 25–45 % of pregnant women are seronegative with a high risk of infection during pregnancy. A B19V infection in pregnant women is determined by detecting specific IgM and IgG antibodies, and in case of doubt, by using PCR method to detect viral DNA. Fetal infection with B19V is confirmed by detecting viral DNA in the amniotic fluid. In the case of either a suspected or confirmed fetal infection we monitor the fetus by ultrasound screening in a tertiary centre. We treat the fetus with an intrauterine transfusion at the first signs of anaemia or hydrops. To prevent fresh infections with B19V during pregnancy we should raise awareness amongst women and healthcare workers about the risks it poses for the fetus. The recommendations for management of women who are exposed to, are at risk of developing, or have developed B19V infection in pregnancy are published in this article.

  19. Specificity of the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test for detecting human papillomavirus genotype 52 (HPV-52)

    OpenAIRE

    Kocjan, Boštjan; Poljak, Mario; Oštrbenk, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: HPV-52 is one of the most frequent human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes causing significant cervical pathology. The most widely used HPV genotyping assay, the Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Linear Array), is unable to identify HPV- 52 status in samples containing HPV-33, HPV-35, and/or HPV-58. Methods: Linear Array HPV-52 analytical specificity was established by testing 100 specimens reactive with the Linear Array HPV- 33/35/52/58 cross-reactive probe, but not with the...

  20. Parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy: maternal and fetal viral load measurements related to clinical parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Timo R.; Beersma, Matthijs F. C.; Oepkes, Dick; de Jong, Eveline P.; Kroes, Aloys C. M.; Walther, Frans J.

    2007-01-01

    To correlate quantitative maternal and fetal parvovirus B19 (B19V) viral loads and antibody levels at intrauterine transfusion (IUT) as a predictor of fetal morbidity. Prospectively collected clinical data and quantitative B19V viral load and specific IgM and IgG values in fetal and maternal blood

  1. Substitution rate and natural selection in parvovirus B19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenković, Gorana G.; Ćirković, Valentina S.; Šiljić, Marina M.; Blagojević, Jelena V.; Knežević, Aleksandra M.; Joksić, Ivana D.; Stanojević, Maja P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate substitution rate and imprints of natural selection on parvovirus B19 genotype 1. Studied datasets included 137 near complete coding B19 genomes (positions 665 to 4851) for phylogenetic and substitution rate analysis and 146 and 214 partial genomes for selection analyses in open reading frames ORF1 and ORF2, respectively, collected 1973–2012 and including 9 newly sequenced isolates from Serbia. Phylogenetic clustering assigned majority of studied isolates to G1A. Nucleotide substitution rate for total coding DNA was 1.03 (0.6–1.27) x 10−4 substitutions/site/year, with higher values for analyzed genome partitions. In spite of the highest evolutionary rate, VP2 codons were found to be under purifying selection with rare episodic positive selection, whereas codons under diversifying selection were found in the unique part of VP1, known to contain B19 immune epitopes important in persistent infection. Analyses of overlapping gene regions identified nucleotide positions under opposite selective pressure in different ORFs, suggesting complex evolutionary mechanisms of nucleotide changes in B19 viral genomes. PMID:27775080

  2. Global co-existence of two evolutionary lineages of parvovirus B19 1a, different in genome-wide synonymous positions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke W A Molenaar-de Backer

    Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 (B19V can cause infection in humans. To date, three genotypes of B19V, with subtypes, are known, of which genotype 1a is the most prevalent genotype in the Western world. We sequenced the genome of B19V strains of 65 asymptomatic, recently infected Dutch blood donors, to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of B19V strains, in the years 2003-2009. The sequences were compared to B19V sequences from Dutch patients with fifth disease, and to global B19V sequences as available from GenBank. All Dutch B19V strains belonged to genotype 1a. Phylogenetic analysis of the strains from Dutch blood donors showed that two groups of genotype 1a co-exist. A clear-cut division into the two groups was also found among the B19V strains from Dutch patients, and among the B19V sequences in GenBank. The two groups of genotype 1a co-exist around the world and do not appear to differ in their ability to cause disease. Strikingly, the two groups of B19V predominantly differ in synonymous mutations, distributed throughout the entire genome of B19V. We propose to call the two groups of B19V genotype 1a respectively subtype 1a1 and 1a2.

  3. Human parvovirus B19: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogo, L D; Mokhtari-Azad, T; Kabir, M H; Rezaei, F

    2014-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a small non-enveloped single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus of the family Parvoviridae, the subfamily Parvovirinae, the genus Erythrovirus and Human parvovirus B19 type species. It is a common community-acquired respiratory pathogen without ethnic, socioeconomic, gender, age or geographic boundaries. Moreover, the epidemiological and ecological relationships between human parvovirus B19, man and environment have aroused increasing interest in this virus. B19V infection is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, some of which were well established and some are still controversial, however, it is also underestimated from a clinical perspective. B19V targets the erythroid progenitors in the bone marrow by binding to the glycosphingolipid globoside (Gb4), leading to large receptor-induced structural changes triggering cell death either by lysis or by apoptosis mediated by the nonstructural (NS)1 protein. The pattern of genetic evolution, its peculiar properties and functional profile, the characteristics of its narrow tropism and restricted replication, its complex relationship with the host and its ample pathogenetic potential are all topics that are far from a comprehensive understanding. The lack of efficient adaptation to in vitro cellular cultures and the absence of animal models have limited classical virological studies and made studies on B19V dependent on molecular biology. The present review looks at the nature of this virus with the view to provide more information about its biology, which may be useful to the present and future researchers. human parvovirus B19; respiratory pathogen; biology; genome; fifth disease; transient aplastic crisis; anemia.

  4. Molecular Study of Parvovirus B19 Infection in Children with

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat Abou El-Khier, Noha; Darwish, Ahmad; El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa

    2018-02-26

    Background: Parvovirus B19 is a common viral infection in children. Nearby evidences are present about its association with acute leukemia, especially acute lymphoblast leukemia. Nevertheless, scanty reports have discussed any role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Purpose: To evaluate the frequency of virological markers of B19 infection including its DNA along with specific immunoglobulins G (IgG) and M (IgM) among children with newly diagnosed AML. Besides, describing the clinical importance of Parvovirus B19 infection in those patients. Patients and methods: A case-control retrospective study was conducted on 48 children recently diagnosed with AML before and during chemotherapy induction and 60 healthy control. Specific serum IgM and IgG levels were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Parvovirus DNA was detected in 20 patients with AML. IgM was found in sera of four patients and one case had positive DNA and IgG (5%). Patients with recent parvovirus B19 infection had a significantly reduced hemoglobin levels, RBCs counts, platelet counts, neutrophil counts and absolute lymphocytosis (p=0.01, p=0.0001, p=0.01, p=0.02, p=0.0003, respectively). There were no clinical findings with statistically significant association to recent infection. Half of the patients with AML had positive PCR and/or IgM for parvovirus B19. Among children with AML under chemotherapy, there were reduced hemoglobin levels (P=0.03), reduced platelet counts (P=0.0001) and absolute neutropenia (mean±SD, 1.200 ±1.00) in those with parvovirus B19 infection. More than half of patients with parvovirus B19 (72.2%) had positive PCR and/or IgM and 36.4% of them had positive IgG. Conclusion: This study highlights that parvovirus B19 is common in children with AML either at diagnosis or under chemotherapy. There are no clinical manifestations that can be used as markers for its presence, but hematological laboratory

  5. Genotype-Specific Measles Transmissibility: A Branching Process Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackley, Sarah F; Hacker, Jill K; Enanoria, Wayne T A; Worden, Lee; Blumberg, Seth; Porco, Travis C; Zipprich, Jennifer

    2018-04-03

    Substantial heterogeneity in measles outbreak sizes may be due to genotype-specific transmissibility. Using a branching process analysis, we characterize differences in measles transmission by estimating the association between genotype and the reproduction number R among postelimination California measles cases during 2000-2015 (400 cases, 165 outbreaks). Assuming a negative binomial secondary case distribution, we fit a branching process model to the distribution of outbreak sizes using maximum likelihood and estimated the reproduction number R for a multigenotype model. Genotype B3 is found to be significantly more transmissible than other genotypes (P = .01) with an R of 0.64 (95% confidence interval [CI], .48-.71), while the R for all other genotypes combined is 0.43 (95% CI, .28-.54). This result is robust to excluding the 2014-2015 outbreak linked to Disneyland theme parks (referred to as "outbreak A" for conciseness and clarity) (P = .04) and modeling genotype as a random effect (P = .004 including outbreak A and P = .02 excluding outbreak A). This result was not accounted for by season of introduction, age of index case, or vaccination of the index case. The R for outbreaks with a school-aged index case is 0.69 (95% CI, .52-.78), while the R for outbreaks with a non-school-aged index case is 0.28 (95% CI, .19-.35), but this cannot account for differences between genotypes. Variability in measles transmissibility may have important implications for measles control; the vaccination threshold required for elimination may not be the same for all genotypes or age groups.

  6. Parvovirus B19 VLP recognizes globoside in supported lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Waqas; Nilsson, Jonas; Olofsson, Sigvard; Bally, Marta; Rydell, Gustaf E

    2014-05-01

    Studies have suggested that the glycosphingolipid globoside (Gb4Cer) is a receptor for human parvovirus B19. Virus-like particles bind to Gb4Cer on thin-layer chromatograms, but a direct interaction between the virus and lipid membrane-associated Gb4Cer has been debated. Here, we characterized the binding of parvovirus B19 VP1/VP2 virus-like particles to glycosphingolipids (i) on thin-layer chromatograms (TLCs) and (ii) incorporated into supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) acting as cell-membrane mimics. The binding specificities of parvovirus B19 determined in the two systems were in good agreement; the VLP recognized both Gb4Cer and the Forssman glycosphingolipid on TLCs and in SLBs compatible with the role of Gb4Cer as a receptor for this virus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Parvovirus B19 infection after kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin-Sartorius, Albane; Mekki, Yahia; Bloquel, Bénédicte; Rabant, Marion; Legendre, Christophe

    2012-02-01

    Prevalence for human parvovirus B19 infection is estimated to be between 2% and 30% in renal transplant recipients. In post-transplant settings, parvovirus B19 infection may occur either as a primary infection or a reactivation. Parvovirus transmission most commonly occurs through respiratory tract but may also result from graft or blood packs contamination. Co-infections with HHV-6 and CMV viruses are frequent. The hallmark symptom is anemia, more rarely pancytopenia and hemophagocytic syndrome. In respect to renal involvement, parvovirus B19 infection has been associated with graft dysfunction in 10% of cases. Both thrombotic microangiopathies and collapsing glomerulopathies have been reported concomitantly with parvovirus B19 infection but the causal link remains unclear. Other complications are seldomly reported, including hepatitis, encephalitis, and myocarditis. Diagnosis is based on pre and post-transplant serological status. In addition, the management of parvovirus B19 infection in immunocompromised patients requires quantitative assessment of blood viral load by PCR. The treatment relies primarily on reduction of immunosuppression combined with intravenous immunoglobulin infusions. Relapses occur in 30% of cases. Copyright © 2011 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. cultivars and identification of genotype-specific fingerprints using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 89; Online resources. Diversity in Indian barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars and identification of genotype-specific fingerprints using microsatellite markers. S. K. Jaiswal Shree P. Pandey S. Sharma R. Prasad L. C. Prasad R. P. S. Verma Arun K. Joshi. Volume 89 Online ...

  9. Phenotype- and genotype-specific structural alterations in spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Serena; Battistella, Giovanni; Huddleston, Hailey; Scharf, Rebecca; Fleysher, Lazar; Rumbach, Anna F; Frucht, Steven J; Blitzer, Andrew; Ozelius, Laurie J; Simonyan, Kristina

    2017-04-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia is a focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles that occur selectively during speaking. Although hereditary trends have been reported in up to 16% of patients, the causative etiology of spasmodic dysphonia is unclear, and the influences of various phenotypes and genotypes on disorder pathophysiology are poorly understood. In this study, we examined structural alterations in cortical gray matter and white matter integrity in relationship to different phenotypes and putative genotypes of spasmodic dysphonia to elucidate the structural component of its complex pathophysiology. Eighty-nine patients with spasmodic dysphonia underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging to examine cortical thickness and white matter fractional anisotropy in adductor versus abductor forms (distinct phenotypes) and in sporadic versus familial cases (distinct genotypes). Phenotype-specific abnormalities were localized in the left sensorimotor cortex and angular gyrus and the white matter bundle of the right superior corona radiata. Genotype-specific alterations were found in the left superior temporal gyrus, supplementary motor area, and the arcuate portion of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus. Our findings suggest that phenotypic differences in spasmodic dysphonia arise at the level of the primary and associative areas of motor control, whereas genotype-related pathophysiological mechanisms may be associated with dysfunction of regions regulating phonological and sensory processing. Identification of structural alterations specific to disorder phenotype and putative genotype provides an important step toward future delineation of imaging markers and potential targets for novel therapeutic interventions for spasmodic dysphonia. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  10. Linking genotypes database with locus-specific database and genotype-phenotype correlation in phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettstein, Sarah; Underhaug, Jarl; Perez, Belen; Marsden, Brian D; Yue, Wyatt W; Martinez, Aurora; Blau, Nenad

    2015-03-01

    The wide range of metabolic phenotypes in phenylketonuria is due to a large number of variants causing variable impairment in phenylalanine hydroxylase function. A total of 834 phenylalanine hydroxylase gene variants from the locus-specific database PAHvdb and genotypes of 4181 phenylketonuria patients from the BIOPKU database were characterized using FoldX, SIFT Blink, Polyphen-2 and SNPs3D algorithms. Obtained data was correlated with residual enzyme activity, patients' phenotype and tetrahydrobiopterin responsiveness. A descriptive analysis of both databases was compiled and an interactive viewer in PAHvdb database was implemented for structure visualization of missense variants. We found a quantitative relationship between phenylalanine hydroxylase protein stability and enzyme activity (r(s) = 0.479), between protein stability and allelic phenotype (r(s) = -0.458), as well as between enzyme activity and allelic phenotype (r(s) = 0.799). Enzyme stability algorithms (FoldX and SNPs3D), allelic phenotype and enzyme activity were most powerful to predict patients' phenotype and tetrahydrobiopterin response. Phenotype prediction was most accurate in deleterious genotypes (≈ 100%), followed by homozygous (92.9%), hemizygous (94.8%), and compound heterozygous genotypes (77.9%), while tetrahydrobiopterin response was correctly predicted in 71.0% of all cases. To our knowledge this is the largest study using algorithms for the prediction of patients' phenotype and tetrahydrobiopterin responsiveness in phenylketonuria patients, using data from the locus-specific and genotypes database.

  11. Genotyping of Brucella species using clade specific SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Jeffrey T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is a worldwide disease of mammals caused by Alphaproteobacteria in the genus Brucella. The genus is genetically monomorphic, requiring extensive genotyping to differentiate isolates. We utilized two different genotyping strategies to characterize isolates. First, we developed a microarray-based assay based on 1000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that were identified from whole genome comparisons of two B. abortus isolates , one B. melitensis, and one B. suis. We then genotyped a diverse collection of 85 Brucella strains at these SNP loci and generated a phylogenetic tree of relationships. Second, we developed a selective primer-extension assay system using capillary electrophoresis that targeted 17 high value SNPs across 8 major branches of the phylogeny and determined their genotypes in a large collection ( n = 340 of diverse isolates. Results Our 1000 SNP microarray readily distinguished B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis, differentiating B. melitensis and B. suis into two clades each. Brucella abortus was divided into four major clades. Our capillary-based SNP genotyping confirmed all major branches from the microarray assay and assigned all samples to defined lineages. Isolates from these lineages and closely related isolates, among the most commonly encountered lineages worldwide, can now be quickly and easily identified and genetically characterized. Conclusions We have identified clade-specific SNPs in Brucella that can be used for rapid assignment into major groups below the species level in the three main Brucella species. Our assays represent SNP genotyping approaches that can reliably determine the evolutionary relationships of bacterial isolates without the need for whole genome sequencing of all isolates.

  12. Frequent occurrence of parvovirus B19 DNAemia in the first year after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porignaux, Roseline; Vuiblet, Vincent; Barbe, Coralie; Nguyen, Yohan; Lavaud, Sylvie; Toupance, Olivier; Andréoletti, Laurent; Rieu, Philippe; Lévêque, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    Described for the first time in 1986, Parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection in kidney transplant recipients remains little-known and probably underestimated. The aims of this study were to establish B19V infection frequency during the first year after kidney transplant and to determine predisposing factors and manifestations of the infection in renal transplant recipients. Sixty consecutive adult patients, transplanted less than a year before, were included in this study. B19V and other opportunistic viral infections were detected retrospectively in plasma samples collected every 15 days during the first 3 months and every month from 3 months to 1 year following the kidney transplant. Demographic characteristics, immunosuppressive treatment and biological findings were recorded on each sampling date. Six patients (10%) presented B19V viremia, while eight CMV (13.3%), seven EBV (11.7%), five HHV-6 (8.3%), five BKV (8.3%), and two adenovirus (3.3%) infections were detected. The mean value of B19V viral load was 149 UI/ml. B19V infections were either reactivation or reinfection due to genotype two in five cases, while one case of primary infection with genotype 1 was observed. Neither risk factors nor biological consequences of B19V infection have been identified. These results rank B19V third among opportunistic viral infections occurring during the first year after a kidney transplant. With regard to this high incidence, and even if the risk factors and biological consequences of the infection should be assessed in larger studies, the question of systematic screening and follow-up of B19V infection in kidney transplant recipients is relevant. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Molecular diversity of human parvovirus B19 during two outbreaks of erythema infectiosum in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Nasser Cubel Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to provide information on the genetic diversity of human parvovirus B19 (B19V circulating in the municipality of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil during 1996–2006, a period with two distinct outbreaks of B19V infection: 1999–2000 and 2004–2005. A total of 27 sera from patients with erythema infectiosum and five sera from HIV-infected patients that tested positive for B19V DNA during the study period were analyzed. To genotype B19V strains, a semi-nested PCR for partial amplification of the capsid gene was performed and sequence analysis revealed that 31 sequences belonged to subgenotype 1a (G1a of the main genotype 1 and one sequence was characterized as subgenotype 3b (G3b. The phylogenetic tree supported the division of the G1a into two well-defined clades with 1.3% of divergence. The low diversity of the G1a strains may be explained by the fact that all patients had acute B19V infection and 30/32 sera were collected during two distinct outbreaks. The G3b strain was from an HIV-infected patient who seroconverted to anti-B19 IgG antibodies in September/2005. This is the first report of G3b in the state of Rio de Janeiro.

  14. Parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Joan; Mundle, William; Boucoiran, Isabelle

    2014-12-01

    This guideline reviews the evidence relating to the effects of parvovirus B19 on the pregnant woman and fetus, and discusses the management of women who are exposed to, who are at risk of developing, or who develop parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy. The outcomes evaluated were maternal outcomes including erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, anemia, and myocarditis, and fetal outcomes including spontaneous abortion, congenital anomalies, hydrops fetalis, stillbirth, and long-term effects. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed and The Cochrane Library on July 8, 2013, using appropriate controlled vocabulary (MeSH terms "parvovirus" and "pregnancy") and key words (parvovirus, infection, pregnancy, hydrops). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date restrictions but results were limited to English or French language materials. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, and national and international medical specialty. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Recommendations 1. Investigation for parvovirus B19 infection is recommended apart of the standard workup for fetal hydrops or intrauterine fetal death. (II-2A) 2. Routine screening for parvovirus immunity in low-risk pregnancies is not recommended. (II-2E) 3. Pregnant women who are exposed to, or who develop symptoms of, parvovirus B19 infection should be assessed to determine whether they are susceptible to infection (non-immune) or have a current infection by determining their parvovirus B19 immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M status. (II-2A) 4. If parvovirus B19 immunoglobulin G is present and immunoglobulin M

  15. Polymicrogyria and Congenital Parvovirus B19 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant S. Schulert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fetal parvovirus B19 infection causes anemia, hydrops, and pregnancy loss but is generally not considered teratogenic. Nevertheless, disturbances of neuronal migration have been described with congenital parvovirus infection. We evaluated a term infant with congenital parvovirus disease and polymicrogyria. We compared this case with four other reports of central nervous system disease after birth to parvovirus-infected mothers. After an extensive diagnostic evaluation, this infant was found to have congenital parvovirus disease with severe anemia and nonimmune hydrops as well as extensive polymicrogyria. Although rare, this report and literature review suggest that parvovirus B19 has the potential to disrupt normal neurodevelopment. We suggest that infants with severe congenital parvovirus infection have close developmental surveillance and if symptomatic undergo neuroimaging to assess for disorders of neuromigration.

  16. Parvovírus B19

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Parvovírus são pequenos vírus, cuja designação deriva do latim parvus. Possui duas subfamílias: Parvovirinae e Densovirinae. A subfamília Parvivirinae possui três géneros: Parvovirus, Eritrovirus e Dependovirus. Apenas o género Eritrovirus possui um vírus potencialmente patogénico para o ser humano, o parvovirus B19.

  17. Detection of Parvovirus B19 Infection in Thalasemic Patients in Isfahan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoozad, Razieh; Mahzounieh, Mohammad Reza; Ghorani, Mohammad Reza

    2015-11-01

    Parvovirus B19, a member of the Erythrovirus genus of Parvoviridae family, causes various clinical illnesses including infectious erythema, arthropathy, hydrops fetalis or congenital anemia, and transient aplastic crises. The B19 virus can be transmitted through respiratory secretions, blood products, and blood transfusion. The aim of this study was to detect the B19 virus in thalassemia patients in Isfahan, Iran. The prevalence of parvovirus B19 infection was compared between thalassemia major patients and healthy subjects. Plasma samples were collected from 30 thalassemia patients from Isfahan, Iran. Thirty patients without any blood complications were considered as the control group. After DNA extraction from the plasma samples, polymerase chain reaction was performed for parvovirus B19 detection. The parvovirus B19-specific nucleotide sequence was detected in 6 patients (20%). None of the samples obtained from the 30 control subjects tested positive for B19. In this study B19-Parvovirus infection were detected in patients with hematologic disorders in comparison with control subjects. Screening of patients with a high risk of parvovirus B19 infection can considerably reduce the incidence and prevalence of B19 infection.

  18. Aberrant cellular immune responses in humans infected persistently with parvovirus B19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isa, Adiba; Norbeck, Oscar; Hirbod, Taha

    2006-01-01

    A subset of parvovirus B19 (B19) infected patients retains the infection for years, as defined by detection of B19 DNA in bone marrow. Thus far, analysis of B19-specific humoral immune responses and viral genome variations has not revealed a mechanism for the absent viral clearance. In this study......, ex-vivo cellular immune responses were assessed by enzyme linked immunospot assay mounted against the majority of the translated viral genome. Compared to seropositive healthy individuals, individuals with B19 persistence (2-8 years) showed larger number of responses to the structural proteins (P = 0.......0022), whereas responses to the non-structural protein were of lower magnitude (P = 0.012). These observations provide the first findings of immunological discrepancies between individuals with B19 persistence and healthy individuals, findings that may reflect both failed immunity and antigenic exhaustion....

  19. Influenza B pneumonia with Staphylococcus aureus superinfection associated with parvovirus B19 and concomitant agranulocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krell, S; Adams, I; Arnold, U; Kalinski, T; Aumann, V; König, W; König, B

    2003-10-01

    An 11-year-old patient with anamnestic fever for 3 days and signs of upper respiratory tract infection underwent fulminant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia with concomitant agranulocytosis. From autopsia influenza B virus and parvovirus B19 were detected by nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT). Specific IgG but no IgM points to preexisting parvovirus B19 infection. Whether in this case agranulocytosis can be interpreted as early manifestation of reactivated parvovirus B19 infection is under discussion. Therefore, parvovirus B19 could have provoked a foudroyant course of influenza B pneumonia which was superinfected with S. aureus.

  20. Frequency and significance of parvovirus B19 infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naciute, Milda; Mieliauskaite, Diana; Rugiene, Rita; Nikitenkiene, Rita; Jancoriene, Ligita; Mauricas, Mykolas; Nora-Krukle, Zaiga; Murovska, Modra

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to clarify the possible involvement of parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis by investigating the presence of B19V infection markers (genomic sequences and virus-specific antibodies) in association with the level of cytokines and RA clinical activity and aggressiveness. A total of 118 RA patients and 49 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Nested PCR was used to detect B19V sequences in whole blood and cell-free plasma DNA, ELISA to detect virus-specific antibodies and cytokine levels in plasma and recomLine dot blot assay for antibodies to separate B19V antigens. The detection frequency of B19V DNA was higher in patients with RA (25.4 %) in comparison with healthy persons (18.4 %). B19V DNA in cell-free plasma (B19+p) was detected significantly often in RA patients in comparison with healthy controls (13.6 vs 2 %; P=0.0002). RA B19+p patients had higher disease activity and aggressiveness, decreased haemoglobin and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rates. IL-6 plasma levels were significantly higher in RA patients than in controls. Within the RA patients’ group the IL-6 level was significantly increased in B19+p patients with disease activity scores of DAS28>5.2, high C-reactive protein and low haemoglobin. Contrary to the healthy controls, the majority of RA B19+p patients did not have antibodies to VP-1S (VP1u) and VP-N (N-terminal half of structural proteins VP1 and VP2), which correspond to the epitopes of neutralizing antibodies. These results indicate that B19V infection at least in some patients is involved in RA pathogenesis. PMID:27902343

  1. Frequency and significance of parvovirus B19 infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naciute, Milda; Mieliauskaite, Diana; Rugiene, Rita; Nikitenkiene, Rita; Jancoriene, Ligita; Mauricas, Mykolas; Nora-Krukle, Zaiga; Murovska, Modra; Girkontaite, Irute

    2016-12-01

    The present study aims to clarify the possible involvement of parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis by investigating the presence of B19V infection markers (genomic sequences and virus-specific antibodies) in association with the level of cytokines and RA clinical activity and aggressiveness. A total of 118 RA patients and 49 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Nested PCR was used to detect B19V sequences in whole blood and cell-free plasma DNA, ELISA to detect virus-specific antibodies and cytokine levels in plasma and recomLine dot blot assay for antibodies to separate B19V antigens. The detection frequency of B19V DNA was higher in patients with RA (25.4 %) in comparison with healthy persons (18.4 %). B19V DNA in cell-free plasma (B19+p) was detected significantly often in RA patients in comparison with healthy controls (13.6 vs 2 %; P=0.0002). RA B19+p patients had higher disease activity and aggressiveness, decreased haemoglobin and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rates. IL-6 plasma levels were significantly higher in RA patients than in controls. Within the RA patients' group the IL-6 level was significantly increased in B19+p patients with disease activity scores of DAS28>5.2, high C-reactive protein and low haemoglobin. Contrary to the healthy controls, the majority of RA B19+p patients did not have antibodies to VP-1S (VP1u) and VP-N (N-terminal half of structural proteins VP1 and VP2), which correspond to the epitopes of neutralizing antibodies. These results indicate that B19V infection at least in some patients is involved in RA pathogenesis.

  2. Seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 IgG in children affected by juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrich, Benedikt; Süß-Fröhlich, Yvonne; Girschick, Hermann J

    2007-01-01

    Parvovirus (PV) B19 is the causative agent of the childhood disease erythema infectiosum. An association of PV B19 with chronic arthropathies, sometimes resembling rheumatoid arthritis or juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), has repeatedly been described. Other studies, however, have failed to identify any such relationship. In order to study further whether there is a link between PV B19 and JIA, we determined the prevalence of PV B19 specific IgG antibodies in serum samples from children with rheumatoid diseases and compared it with the prevalence in unaffected children We reasoned that if there is an association between PV B19 and JIA, then the prevalence of PV B19 IgG in the children with JIA should be higher than in the control group. PV B19 IgG status was tested in 406 children with JIA and related diseases, and in 146 children constituting a control group. The percentage of PV B19 IgG positive children was not significantly elevated in the disease subgroups compared with age-matched control groups. In conclusion, our findings do not support the hypothesis that human parvovirus B19 is involved in the pathogenesis of JIA. PMID:17760961

  3. Human parvovirus B19: a mechanistic overview of infection and DNA replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong; Qiu, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a human pathogen that belongs to genus Erythroparvovirus of the Parvoviridae family, which is composed of a group of small DNA viruses with a linear single-stranded DNA genome. B19V mainly infects human erythroid progenitor cells and causes mild to severe hematological disorders in patients. However, recent clinical studies indicate that B19V also infects nonerythroid lineage cells, such as myocardial endothelial cells, and may be associated with other disease outcomes. Several cell culture systems, including permissive and semipermissive erythroid lineage cells, nonpermissive human embryonic kidney 293 cells and recently reported myocardial endothelial cells, have been used to study the mechanisms underlying B19V infection and B19V DNA replication. This review aims to summarize recent advances in B19V studies with a focus on the mechanisms of B19V tropism specific to different cell types and the cellular pathways involved in B19V DNA replication including cellular signaling transduction and cell cycle arrest. PMID:26097496

  4. The Chemokine CXCL-10 Is a Marker of Infection Stage in Individuals With DNAemia Due to Parvovirus B19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weseslindtner, Lukas; Aberle, Judith H; Hedman, Lea; Hedman, Klaus

    2017-01-15

    Accurate diagnosis of parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection requires the differentiation between acute and past infection, which is especially important when DNAemia due to B19V (hereafter, "B19V DNAemia") is detected in pregnancy. Here, we explored whether the level of the chemokine CXCL-10, in combination with findings of molecular and serological assays, can discriminate between acute and past B19V infection. B19V DNA-positive serum samples from 222 immunocompetent individuals were analyzed for (1) viral DNA loads, (2) anti-B19V immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG), (3) anti-VP1 IgG avidity, (4) anti-VP-2 epitope type specificity (ETS), and (5) CXCL-10 serum levels. Anti-B19V IgM and IgG, avidity, and ETS assays were used to categorize individuals with B19V DNAemia as having acute or past B19V infection. Acute B19V infection caused a significant increase in the serum concentration of CXCL-10, compared with the concentration at baseline, before infection. Higher CXCL-10 serum levels were furthermore detected in acute B19V infection as compared to past infection. As a marker, CXCL-10 serum levels could discriminate between acute and past B19V infection, with an excellent discriminatory capacity when CXCL-10 and B19V DNA levels were used as combined parameters. Acute B19V infection is associated with increased CXCL-10 production, and measurement of CXCL-10 serum levels thus allows for the staging of B19V infection in individuals with B19V DNAemia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Parvovirus B19 in the Context of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Evaluating Cell Donors and Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Bianca E.; Emmel, Vanessa E.; Oliveira-Silva, Michelle; Gutiyama, Luciana M.; Arcuri, Leonardo; Colares, Marta; de Cássia Tavares, Rita; Bouzas, Luis F.; Abdelhay, Eliana; Hassan, Rocio

    2017-01-01

    Background Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a common human pathogen, member of the family Parvoviridae. Typically, B19V has been found to infect erythroid progenitors and cause hematological disorders, such as anemia and aplastic crisis. However, the persistence of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been demonstrated in tonsils, liver, skin, brain, synovial, and testicular tissues as well as bone marrow, for both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Although the molecular and cellular mechanisms of persistence remain undefined, it raises questions about potential virus transmissibility and its effects in the context of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients. Methods With this aim, we retrospectively screened allogeneic stem cell donors from 173 patients admitted for allo-HSCT from January 2008 to May 2013 using a seminested polymerase chain reaction approach. Results We found 8 positive donor samples, yielding a 4.6% of parvovirus prevalence (95% confidence interval, 2.36-8.85). Pre- and post-HSCT samples (n = 51) from the 8 recipients of the positive donors were also investigated, and 1 case exhibited B19V DNA in the post-HSCT follow-up (D + 60). Direct DNA sequencing was performed to determine the genotype of isolates and classification, performed by phylogenetic reconstruction, showed a predominance of genotype 1a, whereas the rare genotype 3b was detected in 2 additional patients. By molecular cloning, different B19V 1a substrains polymorphisms were evidenced in the single case in which donor and its recipient were B19V+. Conclusions Our results suggest that HSCT allografts are not a main source for B19V transmission, pointing to potential events of reinfection or endogenous viral reactivation. PMID:29184906

  6. Parvovirus B19 in the Context of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Evaluating Cell Donors and Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Bianca E; Emmel, Vanessa E; Oliveira-Silva, Michelle; Gutiyama, Luciana M; Arcuri, Leonardo; Colares, Marta; de Cássia Tavares, Rita; Bouzas, Luis F; Abdelhay, Eliana; Hassan, Rocio

    2017-11-01

    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a common human pathogen, member of the family Parvoviridae. Typically, B19V has been found to infect erythroid progenitors and cause hematological disorders, such as anemia and aplastic crisis. However, the persistence of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been demonstrated in tonsils, liver, skin, brain, synovial, and testicular tissues as well as bone marrow, for both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Although the molecular and cellular mechanisms of persistence remain undefined, it raises questions about potential virus transmissibility and its effects in the context of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients. With this aim, we retrospectively screened allogeneic stem cell donors from 173 patients admitted for allo-HSCT from January 2008 to May 2013 using a seminested polymerase chain reaction approach. We found 8 positive donor samples, yielding a 4.6% of parvovirus prevalence (95% confidence interval, 2.36-8.85). Pre- and post-HSCT samples (n = 51) from the 8 recipients of the positive donors were also investigated, and 1 case exhibited B19V DNA in the post-HSCT follow-up (D + 60). Direct DNA sequencing was performed to determine the genotype of isolates and classification, performed by phylogenetic reconstruction, showed a predominance of genotype 1a, whereas the rare genotype 3b was detected in 2 additional patients. By molecular cloning, different B19V 1a substrains polymorphisms were evidenced in the single case in which donor and its recipient were B19V+. Our results suggest that HSCT allografts are not a main source for B19V transmission, pointing to potential events of reinfection or endogenous viral reactivation.

  7. Parvovirus B19: What Is the Relevance in Transfusion Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhl, David; Hennig, Holger

    2018-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) has been discovered in 1975. The association with a disease was unclear in the first time after the discovery of B19V, but meanwhile, the usually droplet transmitted B19V is known as the infectious agent of the “fifth disease,” a rather harmless children’s illness. But B19V infects erythrocyte progenitor cells and thus, acute B19V infection in patients with a high erythrocyte turnover may lead to a life-threatening aplastic crisis, and acutely infected pregnant women can transmit B19V to their unborn child, resulting in a hydrops fetalis and fetal death. However, in many adults, B19V infection goes unnoticed and thus many blood donors donate blood despite the infection. The B19V infection does not impair the blood cell counts in healthy blood donors, but after the acute infection with extremely high DNA concentrations exceeding 1010 IU B19V DNA/ml plasma is resolved, B19V DNA persists in the plasma of blood donors at low levels for several years. That way, many consecutive donations that contain B19V DNA can be taken from a single donor, but the majority of blood products from donors with detectable B19V DNA seem not to be infectious for the recipients from several reasons: first, many recipients had undergone a B19V infection in the past and have formed protective antibodies. Second, B19V DNA concentration in the blood product is often too low to infect the recipient. Third, after the acute infection, the presence of B19V DNA in the donor is accompanied by presumably neutralizing antibodies which are protective also for the recipient of his blood products. Thus, transfusion-transmitted (TT-) B19V infections are very rarely reported. Moreover, in most blood donors, B19V DNA concentration is below 1,000 IU/ml plasma, and no TT-B19V infections have been found by such low-viremic donations. Cutoff for an assay for B19V DNA blood donor screening should, therefore, be approximately 1,000 IU/ml plasma, if a general screening of blood

  8. Enhanced inhibition of parvovirus B19 replication by cidofovir in extendedly exposed erythroid progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvicini, Francesca; Bua, Gloria; Manaresi, Elisabetta; Gallinella, Giorgio

    2016-07-15

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) commonly induces self-limiting infections but can also cause severe clinical manifestations in patients with underlying haematological disorders or with immune system deficits. Currently, therapeutic options for B19V entirely rely on symptomatic and supportive treatments since a specific antiviral therapy is not yet available. Recently a first step in the research for active compounds inhibiting B19V replication has allowed identifying the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate cidofovir (CDV). Herein, the effect of CDV against B19V replication was characterized in human erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) cultured and infected following different experimental approaches to replicate in vitro the infection of an expanding erythroid cell population in the bone marrow. B19V replication was selectively inhibited both in infected EPCs extendedly exposed to CDV 500μM (viral inhibition 82%) and in serially infected EPCs cultures with passage of the virus progeny, constantly under drug exposure (viral inhibition 99%). In addition, a potent inhibitory effect against B19V (viral inhibition 92%) was assessed in a short-term infection of EPCs treated with CDV 500μM 1day before viral infection. In the evaluated experimental conditions, the enhanced effect of CDV against B19V might be ascribed both to the increased intracellular drug concentration achieved by extended exposure, and to a progressive reduction in efficiency of the replicative process within treated EPCs population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Parvovirus B19 infection in Tunisian patients with sickle-cell anemia and acute erythroblastopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zili Mohamed

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human parvovirus B19 is the etiologic agent of erythema infectiosum in children. It is also associated with other clinical manifestations in different target groups. Patients with chronic hemolytic anemia are at high risk of developing acute erythroblastopenia following infection by the virus. They usually become highly viremic and pose an increased risk of virus transmission. Close monitoring of such high risk groups is required for epidemiologic surveillance and disease prevention activities. Here we report a molecular epidemiological study on B19 virus infection in Tunisian patients with chronic hemolytic anemia. Methods This study was conducted on 92 young chronic hemolytic anemia patients who attended the same ward at the National Bone Marrow Transplantation Center of Tunis and 46 controls from a different hospital. Screening for IgM and IgG anti-B19 antibodies was performed using commercially available enzyme immunoassays and B19 DNA was detected by nested PCR in the overlapping VP1/VP2 region. DNA was sequenced using dideoxy-terminator cycle sequencing technology. Results Anti-parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies were detected in 26 of 46 sickle-cell anemia patients, 18 of 46 β-thalassemia and 7 of 46 controls. Anti-parvovirus B19 IgM antibodies were detected only in 4 of the sickle-cell anemia patients: two siblings and two unrelated who presented with acute erythroblastopenia at the time of blood collection for this study and had no history of past transfusion. B19 DNA was detected only in sera of these four patients and the corresponding 288 bp nested DNA amplicons were sequenced. The sequences obtained were all identical and phylogenetic analysis showed that they belonged to a new B19 virus strain of Genotype1. Conclusion A new parvovirus B19 strain of genotype1 was detected in four Tunisian patients with sickle-cell anemia. Virus transmission appeared to be nosocomial and resulted in acute erythroblastopenia in the four

  10. Human parvovirus B19-induced anaemia in pre-school children in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbede, Olajide O.; Omoare, Adesuyi A.; Ernest, Samuel K.

    2018-01-01

    Sera collected from 57 anaemic and 115 non-anaemic age-matched pre-school children in Ilorin, Nigeria, between November 2014 and December 2015 were assayed for human parvovirus B19-specific IgM antibodies by using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique. A total of 17 (29.8%) anaemic children and 18 (15.7%) non-anaemic children were positive for parvovirus B19 infection. Infection with parvovirus B19 is common in this population, and screening for the virus during differential diagnosis is recommended. PMID:29850435

  11. Real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of parvovirus B19 DNA in blood donations using a commercial and an in-house assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelman, M H G M; van Swieten, P; Cuijpers, H T M

    2011-06-01

    European regulations require testing of manufacturing plasma for parvovirus B19 (B19) DNA to limit the load of this virus to a maximum acceptable level of 10 IU/µL. To meet this requirement, most manufacturers introduced a test algorithm to identify and eliminate high-load donations before making large manufacturing pools of plasma units. Sanquin screens all donations using a commercial assay from Roche and an in-house assay. Between 2006 and 2009, 6.2 million donations were screened using two different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting B19 DNA. Donations with B19 DNA loads of greater than 1 × 10(6) IU/mL showing significant differences in viral load between the two assays were further analyzed by sequencing analysis. A total of 396 donations with B19 DNA loads of greater than 1 × 10(6) IU/mL were identified. Fifteen samples (3.8%) had discordant test results; 10 samples (2.5%) were underquantified by the Roche assay, two samples (0.5%) were underquantified by the in-house assay, and three samples (0.8%) were not detected by the Roche assay. Sequencing analysis revealed mismatches in primer and probe-binding regions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 12 samples were B19 Genotype 1. The three samples not detected by the Roche assay were B19 Genotype 2. This study shows that 3.8% of the viremic B19 DNA-positive donations are not quantified correctly by the Roche or in-house B19 DNA assays. B19 Genotype 1 isolates showing incorrect test results are more common than B19 Genotype 2 or 3 isolates. Newly designed B19 PCR assays for blood screening should preferably have multiplexed formats targeting multiple regions of the B19 genome. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  12. Anemia as a complication of parvovirus b19 infection in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čapenko, Svetlana; Kozireva, Svetlana; Folkmane, Inese; Bernarde, Kristīna; Rozentāls, Rafails; Murovska, Modra

    2012-01-01

    The frequency of B19 infection in renal transplant donors and recipients was studied to determine the significance of active viral infection in the development of anemia. Serum, plasma, and peripheral blood leukocyte samples of 47 renal transplant donors, 38 recipients with anemia (Group 1), and 25 without anemia (Group 2) after renal transplantation were evaluated for the presence of anti-B19 specific antibodies (ELISA) and B19 DNA (nPCR). Active persistent B19 infection after renal transplantation was detected in 12 of the 38 in the Group 1 (10 had reactivation and 2 primary infection), and none of the recipients in the Group 2 had it. Of the 12 recipients in the Group 1, 10 were seropositive and 2 seronegative before renal transplantation; 10 received the transplants from the seropositive and 2 from seronegative donors. rHuEPO therapy-resistant severe anemia was detected only in the recipients with active B19 infection after renal transplantation in the Group 1 (7/12). The logistic regression analysis revealed a significant relationship between active B19 infection and severe anemia (OR, 0.039; 95% CI, 0.006-0.257; P=0.001). Active B19 infection was documented only in the anemic recipients and could be associated with the development of severe anemia after renal transplantation. This allows us to recommend concurrent screening for viral DNA in plasma and detection of anti-B19 IgM class antibodies. To find the association between B19 infection and the development of anemia, further investigations are necessary.

  13. Parvovirus B19 is a bystander in adult myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepsell, Scott A; Anderson, Daniel R; Radio, Stanley J

    2012-01-01

    The genomic DNA of parvovirus B19, a small single-stranded DNA virus of the genus Erythrovirus, has been shown to persist in solid tissues of constitutionally healthy, immunocompetent individuals. Despite these data, many case reports and series have linked the presence of parvovirus B19 genomic DNA, detected through nucleic acid amplification testing, with myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Herein, we use multiple tools to better assess the relationship between parvovirus B19 and myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Nucleic acid amplification testing, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy were used to assess the location and activity of parvovirus B19 in cases of myocarditis and in cases with no significant cardiac disease. Nucleic acid amplification testing for parvovirus B19 genomic DNA was positive in 73% of patients with myocarditis/cardiomyopathy and in 26% of patients with no significant disease. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed that, in cases with amplifiable parvovirus B19 DNA, parvovirus B19 genomic DNA and viral protein production were present in rare mononuclear cells. In a majority of cases of myocarditis and a significant number of otherwise normal hearts, nucleic acid amplification testing detected persistent parvovirus B19 genomic DNA that did not play a significant pathogenic role. The source of parvovirus B19 DNA appeared to be interstitial mononuclear inflammatory cells and not myocardial or endothelial cells. Therefore, nucleic acid amplification testing alone is not diagnostically helpful for determining the etiology of adult myocarditis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Atypical Papular Purpuric Eruption Induced by Parvovirus B19 Infection

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    Şeyma Kayalı

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 infection’s most common dermatological manifestation is erythema infectiosum as also known the fifth disease. Rare clinical presentations of parvovirus B 19 like papulopurpuric gloves and socks syndrome and acropetechial syndrome has also been described re­cently. This study presents report of a case with atypical feature and distribution of rash due to parvovirus B19 in­fection. We want to emphasize that pediatricians should consider parvovirus B19 infection of any patient who has leukopenia presenting with petechial/purpuric eruption of an unclear origin.

  15. Preservative Monitoring of a Greek Woman with Hydrops Fetalis due to Parvovirus B19 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharias Fasoulakis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primate erythroparvovirus 1 (parvovirus B19 is a member of the Erythrovirus genus of the Parvoviridae family and it is one of the few members of the family known to be pathogenic in human. B19 infection is common and widespread with the virus being associated with numerous rheumatologic and haematologic manifestations. More specifically, maternal infection with parvovirus B19 during pregnancy can cause severe anemia which may lead to nonimmune hydrops or fetal demise, as a result of fetal erythroid progenitor cells infection with shortened half-life of erythrocytes. We present a rare case reported in the Greek population, of subclinical transient reticulocytopenia due to B19 parvovirus infection, in an asymptomatic pregnant woman, without medical history of hemoglobinopathy, and with the presence of hydrops fetalis during the third trimester of her pregnancy.

  16. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO HUMAN PARVOVIRUS B19 IN SAUDI WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE IN MAKKAH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Hani O.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the seroprevalence rate of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) to parvovirus B19 in pregnant Saudi women in Makkah. Subjects and Methods: Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a total of 1200 serum samples were tested for antibodies to parvovirus B19 known to cause a variety of clinical syndromes in women and newborn infants. Results: Parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies detected in 46.6% and IgM antibodies were found in 2.25% of different age groups. Conclusion: The previous exposure to parvovirus B19 was determined, and 560 (46.6%) of 1200 pregnant Saudi women tested at their first antenatal visit were seropositive for specific IgG. The rate of maternal infection in susceptible pregnancies was 2.25%. These results were in accordance with previous studies performed in other countries. PMID:23012138

  17. [Reactivation of parvovirus B19 infection in an HIV-infected woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterpu, R; Ichou, H; Mahé, I; Mortier, E

    2014-06-01

    Infection by human parvovirus B19 (erythrovirus B19) is common and usually asymptomatic during childhood conferring lasting protection against a new infection. Parvovirus B19 infection may cause erythema infectiosum (5th disease) and aplastic crisis. Secondary symptomatic parvovirus B19 infection in the same patient is rare and its physiopathology is not always clear. A 48-year-old HIV-infected female patient presented within 5 years two acute episodes of parvovirus B19 infection although her CD4 cells count was above 500/mm(3). Absence of specific antibodies production after the first episode and persisting parvovirus viremia suggested viral reactivation rather than re-infection. During the second episode, specific antibodies were produced. Similarly to most DNA viruses, parvovirus B19 reactivation is possible in HIV-infected patients while effectively treated by antiretroviral therapy. Copyright © 2013 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The prevalence of parvovirus B19 infection among pregnant women of Ardabil in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Shahram; Peeri-Doghaheh, Hadi; Mohammad-Shahi, Jafar; Mobini, Elham; Shahbazzadegan, Samira

    2016-06-01

    Trans-placental transmission of parvovirus B19 during pregnancy can causes adverse outcomes. Regarding its importance in prenatal care, we decided to study prevalence of parvovirus B19 infection among pregnant woman in Ardabil, Iran. In a community based study with a cluster sampling, 350 pregnant women that attended in health care centers in Ardabil were selected. Serum samples were collected and Anti-B19 specific IgG was detected using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Euroimmune Elisa kit, Germany). Furthermore, a questionnaire filled for all participants during samples collection. 64.6% (226/350) of participants were Ardabil citizen and the rest were from rural area (124/350). Anti-B19-specific IgG antibody was detected in 69.1% of pregnant women (242/350). Participants' ages ranged from 15 to 34 years with average of 23 years. According to our study, seroprevalence of IgG antibodies had positive significant correlation with the participants' age (r=0.268) but there were no significant relations between B19 seropositivity and living area, family member, number of commensals, number of living children, and the amount of hemoglobin (p>0.05). Approximately, one-third of the participants were at risk of primary B19 infection. Therefore, health education of pregnant women and screening of infected pregnant women is recommended to prevent fetal complications.

  19. Original Research: Parvovirus B19 infection in children with sickle cell disease in the hydroxyurea era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkert, Rhiannon R; Lavoie, Paul; Tang, Li; Sun, Yilun; Hurwitz, Julia L

    2016-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection causes transient aplastic crisis in sickle cell disease (SCD) due to a temporary interruption in the red blood cell production. Toxicity from hydroxyurea includes anemia and reticulocytopenia, both of which also occur during a transient aplastic crisis event. Hydroxyurea inhibits proliferation of hematopoietic cells and may be immunosuppressive. We postulated that hydroxyurea could exacerbate parvovirus B19-induced aplastic crisis and inhibit the development of specific immune responses in children with SCD. We conducted a retrospective review of parvovirus B19 infection in 330 children with SCD. Altogether there were 120 known cases of aplastic crisis attributed to parvovirus B19 infection, and 12% of children were on hydroxyurea treatment during the episode. We evaluated hematological and immune responses. Children with HbSS or HbSβ0-thalassemia treated with hydroxyurea, when compared with untreated children, required fewer transfusions and had higher Hb concentration nadir during transient aplastic crisis. Duration of hospital stays was no different between hydroxyurea-treated and untreated groups. Children tested within a week following aplastic crisis were positive for parvovirus-specific IgG. Immune responses lasted for the duration of the observation period, up to 13 years after transient aplastic crisis, and there were no repeat aplastic crisis episodes. The frequencies of parvovirus-specific antibodies in all children with SCD increased with age, as expected due to the increased likelihood of a parvovirus exposure, and were comparable to frequencies reported for healthy children. Approximately one-third of children had a positive parvovirus B19-specific IgG test without a documented history of transient aplastic crisis, and 64% of them were treated with hydroxyurea. Hydroxyurea may reduce requirements for blood transfusions and may attenuate symptoms during transient aplastic crisis episodes caused by parvovirus B19 infections

  20. Original Research: Parvovirus B19 infection in children with sickle cell disease in the hydroxyurea era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Jane S; Penkert, Rhiannon R; Lavoie, Paul; Tang, Li; Sun, Yilun; Hurwitz, Julia L

    2016-04-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection causes transient aplastic crisis in sickle cell disease (SCD) due to a temporary interruption in the red blood cell production. Toxicity from hydroxyurea includes anemia and reticulocytopenia, both of which also occur during a transient aplastic crisis event. Hydroxyurea inhibits proliferation of hematopoietic cells and may be immunosuppressive. We postulated that hydroxyurea could exacerbate parvovirus B19-induced aplastic crisis and inhibit the development of specific immune responses in children with SCD. We conducted a retrospective review of parvovirus B19 infection in 330 children with SCD. Altogether there were 120 known cases of aplastic crisis attributed to parvovirus B19 infection, and 12% of children were on hydroxyurea treatment during the episode. We evaluated hematological and immune responses. Children with HbSS or HbSβ(0)-thalassemia treated with hydroxyurea, when compared with untreated children, required fewer transfusions and had higher Hb concentration nadir during transient aplastic crisis. Duration of hospital stays was no different between hydroxyurea-treated and untreated groups. Children tested within a week following aplastic crisis were positive for parvovirus-specific IgG. Immune responses lasted for the duration of the observation period, up to 13 years after transient aplastic crisis, and there were no repeat aplastic crisis episodes. The frequencies of parvovirus-specific antibodies in all children with SCD increased with age, as expected due to the increased likelihood of a parvovirus exposure, and were comparable to frequencies reported for healthy children. Approximately one-third of children had a positive parvovirus B19-specific IgG test without a documented history of transient aplastic crisis, and 64% of them were treated with hydroxyurea. Hydroxyurea may reduce requirements for blood transfusions and may attenuate symptoms during transient aplastic crisis episodes caused by parvovirus B19 infections

  1. Serological prevalence of human parvovirus B19 in diseases or disordersrelated to different human body systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Osman; Aydin, Hakan; Uslu, Hakan

    2016-02-17

    Human parvovirus B19 is a pathogen that affects different parts of the body. We planned this study because of the lack of data on B19 seroprevalence based on different body-system diseases. The prevalence of parvovirus B19 antibodies was investigated retrospectively in 1239 patients by review of medical records from 2009-2012, according to their diseases classified under general titles in compliance with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Parvovirus B19-specific antibodies were detected by quantitative enzyme immunoassays. The positivity rate was 27.8% for only IgG, 8.5% for only IgM, and 2.6% for both IgG and IgM. The highest positivity for IgG alone was found in musculoskeletal system and connective tissue diseases (55.9%), while the highest positivity for IgM was found in neoplasms (16.4%). The highest positivity for IgG was seen in rheumatoid arthritis (72.2%) and pregnancy (52.6%), and the highest positivity for total IgM was found in upper respiratory tract disease (21.0%) and hepatic failure (17.1%). Parvovirus B19 seroprevalence was relatively low in northeastern Anatolia compared to most serological studies conducted in other regions. We think that this study has provided the first wide-ranging information on the seroprevalence of B19 in diseases and disorders of the major human body systems.

  2. Seroprevalence of human parvovirus B19 in healthy blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Gupta, R M; Sen, Sourav; Sarkar, R S; Philip, J; Kotwal, Atul; Sumathi, S H

    2013-07-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is an emerging transfusion transmitted infection. Although parvovirus B19 infection is connected with severe complications in some recipients, donor screening is not yet mandatory. To reduce the risk of contamination, plasma-pool screening and exclusion of highly viraemic donations are recommended. In this study the prevalence of parvovirus B19 in healthy blood donors was detected by ELISA. A total of 1633 samples were screened for IgM and IgG antibodies against parvovirus B19 by ELISA. The initial 540 samples were screened for both IgM and IgG class antibodies and remaining 1093 samples were screened for only IgM class antibodies by ELISA. Net prevalence of IgM antibodies to human parvovirus B19 in our study was 7.53% and prevalence of IgG antibodies was 27.96%. Dual positivity (IgG and IgM) was 2.40%. The seroprevalence of human parvovirus B19 among blood donor population in our study is high, and poses an adverse transfusion risk especially in high-risk group of patients who have no detectable antibodies to B19. Studies with large sample size are needed to validate these results.

  3. Chronic hepatitis caused by persistent parvovirus B19 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogensen Trine H

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human infection with parvovirus B19 may lead to a diverse spectrum of clinical manifestations, including benign erythema infectiosum in children, transient aplastic crisis in patients with haemolytic anaemia, and congenital hydrops foetalis. These different diseases represent direct consequences of the ability of parvovirus B19 to target the erythroid cell lineage. However, accumulating evidence suggests that this virus can also infect other cell types resulting in diverse clinical manifestations, of which the pathogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. This has prompted important questions regarding the tropism of the virus and its possible involvement in a broad range of infectious and autoimmune medical conditions. Case Presentation Here, we present an unusual case of persistent parvovirus B19 infection as a cause of chronic hepatitis. This patient had persistent parvovirus B19 viraemia over a period of more than four years and displayed signs of chronic hepatitis evidenced by fluctuating elevated levels of ALAT and a liver biopsy demonstrating chronic hepatitis. Other known causes of hepatitis and liver damage were excluded. In addition, the patient was evaluated for immunodeficiency, since she had lymphopenia both prior to and following clearance of parvovirus B19 infection. Conclusions In this case report, we describe the current knowledge on the natural history and pathogenesis of parvovirus B19 infection, and discuss the existing evidence of parvovirus B19 as a cause of acute and chronic hepatitis. We suggest that parvovirus B19 was the direct cause of this patient's chronic hepatitis, and that she had an idiopathic lymphopenia, which may have predisposed her to persistent infection, rather than bone marrow depression secondary to infection. In addition, we propose that her liver involvement may have represented a viral reservoir. Finally, we suggest that clinicians should be aware of parvovirus B19 as an unusual

  4. Multicenter evaluation of a commercial multiplex polymerase chain reaction test for screening plasma donations for parvovirus B19 DNA and hepatitis A virus RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelman, Marco H G M; Cuijpers, H Theo M; Wessberg, Susanna; Valkeajärvi, Anne; Pichl, Lutz; Schottstedt, Volkmar; Saldanha, John

    2012-07-01

    Three European laboratories evaluated the TaqScreen DPX test (DPX test), a multiplex nucleic acid test assay for the simultaneous detection and quantitation of parvovirus B19 (B19V) DNA and the detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV) RNA. The 95% limit of detection of the test for B19V and HAV was determined using the respective WHO International Standards. The reproducibility of the test was evaluated by testing replicate samples of B19V at log 4.0 and 40 IU/mL and HAV at 5 IU/mL. The accuracy of the DPX test for B19V was evaluated by replicate testing of B19V samples containing log 3.0, log 4.0, and log 5.0 IU/mL. Panels of B19V Genotypes 1, 2, and 3 and HAV genotypes were evaluated. Cross-contamination was evaluated. For comparison of the DPX test and the established tests, the sites tested plasma samples in pools of either 96 or 480 donations. The mean 95% lower limits of detection of the three laboratories for B19V and HAV were 20.30 and 1.85 IU/mL. The test showed good reproducibility with the major part of the variance of the test being attributed to intermediate assay variation. The test showed great accuracy for B19V, especially at log 4.0 IU/mL. Spiking of test pools of 480 donations and manufacturing pools with log 4.0 IU/mL B19 DNA and 4 IU/mL HAV RNA showed that the DPX assay was robust. The test was able to detect the three genotypes of B19V and HAV genotypes. No cross-contamination was seen. Test results of routine samples correlated well with those of the established tests. The DPX test is a robust and sensitive test for the detection of B19V and HAV in plasma samples. The quantitative B19V results obtained with the test are accurate, and the test is able to detect all the known genotypes of B19V and HAV and fulfills all the European Pharmacopoeia and Food and Drug Administration requirements for a B19V and HAV test for screening of plasma donations and samples from plasma pools for manufacture. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  5. Safety and Immunogenicity of a Candidate Parvovirus B19 Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, David I; El Sahly, Hana M; Keitel, Wendy A; Wolff, Mark; Simone, Gina; Segawa, Claire; Wong, Susan; Shelly, Daniel; Young, Neal S; Dempsey, Walla

    2011-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 is an important human pathogen causing erythema infectiosum, transient aplastic crisis in individuals with underlying hemolytic disorders and hydrops fetalis. We therefore evaluated a parvovirus B19 virus like particle (VLP) vaccine. The safety and immunogenicity of a 25 μg dose of parvovirus B19 recombinant capsid; 2.5 and 25 μg doses of the recombinant capsid given with MF59; and saline placebo were assessed in healthy adults. Because of 3 unexplained cutaneous events the stu...

  6. Risk factors and long-term outcomes of parvovirus B19 infection in kidney transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Chung Hee; Kim, Hyosang; Yang, Won Seok; Han, Duck Jong; Park, Su-Kil

    2017-10-01

    Parvovirus B19 is a small, non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA virus with a special affinity for the erythroid progenitor cells of the bone marrow. The first case of parvovirus B19 infection in a kidney transplant recipient (KTR) was reported in 1986. Data on the risk factors and specific clinical characteristics of parvovirus B19 infection remain insufficient. We screened 602 KTRs for parvovirus B19 infection using parvovirus B19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from January 1990 to April 2016, and the clinical characteristics of patients with positive results were compared to those of age- and gender-matched patients with negative PCR results. A total of 39 KTRs tested positive for parvovirus B19, and they were compared to 78 age- and gender-matched patients among 563 KTRs who had negative PCR results. In all, 89.7% of positive cases were reported within the first year after kidney transplantation. In multivariate analyses, deceased-donor kidney transplantation (odds ratio [OR] 9.067, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.668-49.275, P = .011), use of tacrolimus (OR 3.607, 95% CI 1.024-12.706, P = .046), PCR test within 1 year of kidney transplantation (OR 12.456, 95% CI 2.674-58.036, P = .001), and hemoglobin levels (OR 0.559, 95% CI 0.351-0.889, P = .014) showed significant correlations with parvovirus B19 infection. Graft survival did not differ between the two groups during the follow-up period of 111.68 ± 54.54 months (P = .685 by log-rank test). The identification of factors related to positive parvovirus B19 PCR results may promote the early detection of parvovirus B19 infection. Further studies are needed to elucidate the characteristics of parvovirus B19 infection in kidney transplantation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Parvovirus B19 induced lupus-like syndrome with nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Elodie; Rihova, Zuzana; Cmejla, Radek; Decleire, Pierre-Yves; Langen, Corinne

    2016-12-01

    We report a case of a 65-year-old man who developed an acute illness with fever, arthralgia and nephritic syndrome. Antinuclear antibodies were slightly positive and complement levels were low. Renal biopsy showed exudative diffuse proliferative endocapillary glomerulonephritis with diffuse immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, IgM) and complement deposition (C3d, C4d, C1q) on immunofluorescence. The patient was first treated with corticosteroids and mycophenolate mofetil for suspected lupus with WHO class IV glomerulonephritis. The diagnosis was questioned and a diagnosis of parvovirus B19-associated nephritis was made based on elevation of serum IgM antibodies for parvovirus B19 and detection of parvovirus B19 DNA on renal biopsy. The immunosuppressive treatment was stopped and progressive spontaneous regression of clinical and laboratory abnormalities was observed. We conclude that human parvovirus B19 infection should be considered as a cause of lupus-like symptomatology and acute glomerulonephritis.

  8. Neurologiske symptomer og akut hepatitis associeret til parvovirus B19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giørtz-Carlsen, Birgitte; Rittig, Søren; Thelle, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The spectrum of symptoms correlated to parvovirus B19 infections has expanded greatly during the past years. We report a case of anaemia, encephalitis-like symptoms and acute hepatitis in a 15-months-old Danish girl associated with parvovirus B19, verified by positive serum IgM og IgG antibodies....... She presented with non-febrile seizures and decreased level of consciousness. Later she developed signs of acute hepatitis. The course was benign. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov-19...

  9. Generalized edema associated with parvovirus B19 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter J. Vlaar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Generalized edema is a rare presentation of human parvovirus B19 infection. The etiology of this edema is unclear, particularly because signs of heart or renal failure are often not present. We report the case of a young adult presenting with generalized edema with serological and PCR evidence of parvovirus B19 infection, and discuss the potential mechanisms of edema based on the previous literature.

  10. [Observations on human parvovirus B19 infection diagnosed in 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihály, Ilona; Trethon, András; Arányi, Zsuzsanna; Lukács, Adrienne; Kolozsi, Tímea; Prinz, Gyula; Marosi, Anikó; Lovas, Nóra; Dobner, Ilona Sarolta; Prinz, Géza; Szalai, Zsuzsanna; Pék, Tamás

    2012-12-09

    The incidence of human parvovirus B19 infection is unknown. A retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory findings was carried out in patients diagnosed with human parvovirus B19 infection in 2011 in a virologic laboratory of a single centre in Hungary. Clinical and laboratory data of patients with proven human parvovirus B19 infection were analysed using in- and out-patient files. In 2011, 72 patients proved to have human parvovirus B19 infection with the use of enzyme immunoassay. The clinical diagnoses of these patients were as follows: human parvovirus B19 infection (30.6%), transient aplastic crisis (16.7%), arthritis (8.3%) and acute hepatitis (4.1%). Symptoms of each of the four phases of the infection occurred in various combinations with the exception of the monophase of cheek exanthema. This occurred without the presence of other symptoms in some cases. Leading symptoms and signs were exanthema (in 74.6% of cases), haematological disorders (in 69% of cases), fever (in 54.9% of cases) and arthritis (in 33.8% of cases). Several atypical dermatological symptoms were also observed. Acute arthritis without exanthema was noted in 8 patients. Of the 72 patients with proven human parvovirus B19 infection there were 7 pregnant women, and one of them had hydrops foetalis resulting spontaneous abortion. In 16 patients (22.5%) human parvovirus B19 IgG was undetectable despite an optimal time for testing. The observations of this study may contribute to a better recognition of clinical symptoms of human parvovirus B19 infection.

  11. Placental abruption possibly due to parvovirus B19 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Ayaka; Takai, Yasushi; Tamaru, Jun-Ichi; Samejima, Kouki; Seki, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    There is concern about the development of anemia-associated fetal hydrops associated with maternal parvovirus B19 infection. Parvovirus B19 infection occurs via the globoside (P antigen) receptor, the main glycolipid of erythroid cells, which induces apoptosis. Similar findings have been reported for the P antigen of globoside-containing placental trophoblast cells. A 32-year-old woman was infected with human parvovirus B19 at week 32 of pregnancy, and had severe anemia at week 34. At week 37, an emergency cesarean section was performed because of sudden abdominal pain and fetal bradycardia; placental abruption was found. A live male infant was delivered with no sign of fetal hydrops or fetal infection. Placental tissue was positive for parvovirus B19 according to polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical analysis using caspase-related M30 CytoDEATH monoclonal antibody revealed M30 staining of the placental villous trophoblasts. Placental trophoblasts and erythroid precursor cells have been reported to express globoside (P antigen), which is necessary for parvovirus B19 infectivity, and to show apoptotic activity as a result of infection. Placentas from three other pregnancies with documented abruption showed no M30 staining. The present case strongly suggests an association between placental abruption and apoptosis resulting from parvovirus B19 infection.

  12. Acute human parvovirus b19 infection: cytologic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharada Raju, Rane; Nalini Vinayak, Kadgi; Madhusudan Bapat, Vishnuprasad; Preeti Balkisanji, Agrawal; Shaila Chandrakant, Puranik

    2014-09-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is highly tropic to human bone marrow and replicates only in erythroid progenitor cells. It is causative agent of transient aplastic crisis in patients with chronic haemolytic anemia. In immunocompromised patients persistent parvovirus B19 infection may develop and it manifests as pure red cell aplasia and chronic anaemia. Bone marrow is characterised morphologically by giant pronormoblast stage with little or no further maturation. We encountered a case of 6 year old HIV positive male child presented with pure red cell aplasia due to parvovirus B19 infection. Bone marrow aspiration cytology revealed giant pronormoblast with prominent intranuclear inclusions led to suspicion of parvovirus B19 infection which was confirmed by DNA PCR. This case is presented to report classical morphological features of parvovirus B19 infection rarely seen on bone marrow examination should warrant the suspicion of human parvovirus B19 infection in the setting of HIV positive patient with repeated transfusions and confirmation should be done by PCR.

  13. Parvovirus-B19-associated complications in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Meryl; Kopp, Jeffrey B

    2007-10-01

    Parvovirus B19 is a common human pathogen, causing erythema infectiosum in children, hydrops fetalis in pregnant women, and transient aplastic crisis in patients with chronic hemolytic anemia. Immunosuppressed patients can fail to mount an effective immune response to B19, resulting in prolonged or persistent viremia. Renal transplant recipients can develop symptomatic B19 infections as a result of primary infection acquired via the usual respiratory route or via the transplanted organ, or because of reactivation of latent or persistent viral infection. The most common manifestations of B19 infection in immunosuppressed patients are pure red cell aplasia and other cytopenias. Thus, this diagnosis should be considered in transplant recipients with unexplained anemia and reticulocytopenia or pancytopenia. Collapsing glomerulopathy and thrombotic microangiopathy have been reported in association with B19 infection in renal transplant recipients, but a causal relationship has not been definitively established. Prompt diagnosis of B19 infection in the renal transplant recipient requires a high index of suspicion and careful selection of diagnostic tests, which include serologies and polymerase chain reaction. Most patients benefit from intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and/or alteration or reduction of immunosuppressive therapy. Conservative therapy might be sufficient in some cases.

  14. Genotypic-specific variance in Caenorhabditis elegans lifetime fecundity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, S Anaid; Viney, Mark

    2014-06-01

    Organisms live in heterogeneous environments, so strategies that maximze fitness in such environments will evolve. Variation in traits is important because it is the raw material on which natural selection acts during evolution. Phenotypic variation is usually thought to be due to genetic variation and/or environmentally induced effects. Therefore, genetically identical individuals in a constant environment should have invariant traits. Clearly, genetically identical individuals do differ phenotypically, usually thought to be due to stochastic processes. It is now becoming clear, especially from studies of unicellular species, that phenotypic variance among genetically identical individuals in a constant environment can be genetically controlled and that therefore, in principle, this can be subject to selection. However, there has been little investigation of these phenomena in multicellular species. Here, we have studied the mean lifetime fecundity (thus a trait likely to be relevant to reproductive success), and variance in lifetime fecundity, in recently-wild isolates of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that these genotypes differed in their variance in lifetime fecundity: some had high variance in fecundity, others very low variance. We find that this variance in lifetime fecundity was negatively related to the mean lifetime fecundity of the lines, and that the variance of the lines was positively correlated between environments. We suggest that the variance in lifetime fecundity may be a bet-hedging strategy used by this species.

  15. Genotype-specific responses to light stress in eelgrass Zostera marina, a marine foundation plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina Elina; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.

    2015-01-01

    , and their performance during light limitation and 4 wk of recovery was compared to non-shaded controls. In addition to growth and biomass, we investigated storage carbohydrates and quantified the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis and control of oxidative stress. Plants showed......Within mono-specific meadows of clonal plants, genotypic diversity may functionally replace species diversity. Little is known about the variability in performance and plasticity of different genotypes towards anthropogenically induced stressors. In this field experiment we compared light......-limitation stress responses and recovery of different eelgrass Zostera marina genotypes to assess the variability in phenotypic plasticity and gene expression between different genotypes. Replicated monoculture plots of 4 genotypes were subjected to a simulated turbidity period of 4 wk using shading screens...

  16. Human parvovirus B19 DNA is not detected in Guthrie cards from children who have developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isa, Adiba; Priftakis, Peter; Broliden, Kristina

    2004-01-01

    of childhood ALL. PROCEDURES: Fifty-four Guthrie cards, collected at 3-5 days of age, from Swedish children who subsequently developed ALL, as well as from 50 healthy controls, were investigated by nested PCR for the presence of B19 DNA. RESULTS: B19 DNA was not detected in any of the Guthrie cards from ALL...... patients or from healthy controls, although all tested samples had amplifiable cellular DNA as confirmed by an HLA DQ specific PCR. CONCLUSION: B19 DNA was not found in any of the Guthrie cards from children who later developed ALL or in the healthy controls. These findings suggest that it is less likely......BACKGROUND: There has been much speculation about the cause of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It has been suggested, on the basis of findings in epidemiological studies, that ALL may be initiated by an in utero infection of the fetus. The human parvovirus B19 (B19) is etiologically...

  17. Safety and immunogenicity of a candidate parvovirus B19 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David I; El Sahly, Hana M; Keitel, Wendy A; Wolff, Mark; Simone, Gina; Segawa, Claire; Wong, Susan; Shelly, Daniel; Young, Neal S; Dempsey, Walla

    2011-10-06

    Parvovirus B19 is an important human pathogen causing erythema infectiosum, transient aplastic crisis in individuals with underlying hemolytic disorders and hydropsfetalis. We therefore evaluated a parvovirus B19 virus like particle (VLP) vaccine. The safety and immunogenicity of a 25 μg dose of parvovirus B19 recombinant capsid; 2.5 and 25 μg doses of the recombinant capsid given with MF59; and saline placebo were assessed in healthy adults. Because of 3 unexplained cutaneous events the study was halted after enrollment of 43 subjects and before any subject received their third scheduled dose. The rashes developed 5-9 days after the first or second injection and were seen in one placebo recipient (without an injection site lesion) and two vaccine recipients (with injection site reactions). No clear cause was established. Other safety evaluations revealed mostly injection site reactions that were mild to moderate with an increase in pain in subjects receiving vaccine and MF59. After dose 2 the majority of vaccine recipients developed ELISA and neutralizing antibody to parvovirus B19. Given the possible severe consequences of parvovirus B19 infection, further development of a safe and effective vaccine continues to be important. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Parvovirus B19 Replication and Expression in Differentiating Erythroid Progenitor Cells.

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    Gloria Bua

    Full Text Available The pathogenic Parvovirus B19 (B19V is characterized by a strict adaptation to erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs, a heterogeneous population of differentiating cells with diverse phenotypic and functional properties. In our work, we studied the dynamics of B19V infection in EPCs in dependence on the cell differentiation stage, in terms of distribution of infected cells, synthesis of viral nucleic acids and production of infectious virus. EPCs at early differentiation stage led to an abortive infection, without viral genome replication and a very low transcriptional activity. EPCs at later stages were permissive, with highest levels of viral replicative activity at day 9 (+3.0 Log from 2 to 48 hpi and lower levels at day 18 (+1.5 Log from 2 to 48 hpi. B19V DNA increment was in accordance with the percentage of cells positive to flow-FISH assay (41.4% at day 9, 1.1% at day 18. Quantitation of total RNA indicated a close association of genome replication and transcription with viral RNA accumulation within infected cells related to viral DNA increase during the course of infection. Analysis of the different classes of mRNAs revealed two distinct pattern of genome expression profile with a fine regulation in the frequency utilization of RNA processing signals: an early phase, when cleavage at the proximal site leading to a higher relative production of mRNA for NS protein, and a late phase, when cleavage at the distal site was more frequent leading to higher relative abundance of mRNA for VP and 11 kDA proteins. Infectious virus was released from cells at day 6-15, but not at day 18. Our results, providing a detailed description of B19V replication and expression profile in differentiating EPCs, highlight the very tight adaptation of B19V to a specific cellular target defined both by its erythroid lineage and its differentiation stage.

  19. Parvovirus B19 Replication and Expression in Differentiating Erythroid Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bua, Gloria; Manaresi, Elisabetta; Bonvicini, Francesca; Gallinella, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenic Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is characterized by a strict adaptation to erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs), a heterogeneous population of differentiating cells with diverse phenotypic and functional properties. In our work, we studied the dynamics of B19V infection in EPCs in dependence on the cell differentiation stage, in terms of distribution of infected cells, synthesis of viral nucleic acids and production of infectious virus. EPCs at early differentiation stage led to an abortive infection, without viral genome replication and a very low transcriptional activity. EPCs at later stages were permissive, with highest levels of viral replicative activity at day 9 (+3.0 Log from 2 to 48 hpi) and lower levels at day 18 (+1.5 Log from 2 to 48 hpi). B19V DNA increment was in accordance with the percentage of cells positive to flow-FISH assay (41.4% at day 9, 1.1% at day 18). Quantitation of total RNA indicated a close association of genome replication and transcription with viral RNA accumulation within infected cells related to viral DNA increase during the course of infection. Analysis of the different classes of mRNAs revealed two distinct pattern of genome expression profile with a fine regulation in the frequency utilization of RNA processing signals: an early phase, when cleavage at the proximal site leading to a higher relative production of mRNA for NS protein, and a late phase, when cleavage at the distal site was more frequent leading to higher relative abundance of mRNA for VP and 11 kDA proteins. Infectious virus was released from cells at day 6–15, but not at day 18. Our results, providing a detailed description of B19V replication and expression profile in differentiating EPCs, highlight the very tight adaptation of B19V to a specific cellular target defined both by its erythroid lineage and its differentiation stage. PMID:26845771

  20. The Receptor-Binding Domain in the VP1u Region of Parvovirus B19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisi, Remo; Di Tommaso, Chiarina; Kempf, Christoph; Ros, Carlos

    2016-02-24

    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is known as the human pathogen causing the mild childhood disease erythema infectiosum. B19V shows an extraordinary narrow tissue tropism for erythroid progenitor cells in the bone marrow, which is determined by a highly restricted uptake. We have previously shown that the specific internalization is mediated by the interaction of the viral protein 1 unique region (VP1u) with a yet unknown cellular receptor. To locate the receptor-binding domain (RBD) within the VP1u, we analyzed the effect of truncations and mutations on the internalization capacity of the recombinant protein into UT7/Epo cells. Here we report that the N-terminal amino acids 5-80 of the VP1u are necessary and sufficient for cellular binding and internalization; thus, this N-terminal region represents the RBD required for B19V uptake. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we further identified a cluster of important amino acids playing a critical role in VP1u internalization. In silico predictions and experimental results suggest that the RBD is structured as a rigid fold of three α-helices. Finally, we found that dimerization of the VP1u leads to a considerably enhanced cellular binding and internalization. Taken together, we identified the RBD that mediates B19V uptake and mapped functional and structural motifs within this sequence. The findings reveal insights into the uptake process of B19V, which contribute to understand the pathogenesis of the infection and the neutralization of the virus by the immune system.

  1. Specific gene expression responses to parasite genotypes reveal redundancy of innate immunity in vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Haase

    Full Text Available Vertebrate innate immunity is the first line of defense against an invading pathogen and has long been assumed to be largely unspecific with respect to parasite/pathogen species. However, recent phenotypic evidence suggests that immunogenetic variation, i.e. allelic variability in genes associated with the immune system, results in host-parasite genotype-by-genotype interactions and thus specific innate immune responses. Immunogenetic variation is common in all vertebrate taxa and this reflects an effective immunological function in complex environments. However, the underlying variability in host gene expression patterns as response of innate immunity to within-species genetic diversity of macroparasites in vertebrates is unknown. We hypothesized that intra-specific variation among parasite genotypes must be reflected in host gene expression patterns. Here we used high-throughput RNA-sequencing to examine the effect of parasite genotypes on gene expression patterns of a vertebrate host, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. By infecting naïve fish with distinct trematode genotypes of the species Diplostomum pseudospathaceum we show that gene activity of innate immunity in three-spined sticklebacks depended on the identity of an infecting macroparasite genotype. In addition to a suite of genes indicative for a general response against the trematode we also find parasite-strain specific gene expression, in particular in the complement system genes, despite similar infection rates of single clone treatments. The observed discrepancy between infection rates and gene expression indicates the presence of alternative pathways which execute similar functions. This suggests that the innate immune system can induce redundant responses specific to parasite genotypes.

  2. Rapid ABO genotyping by high-speed droplet allele-specific PCR using crude samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Chiaki; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Takeichi, Naoya; Furukawa, Satomi; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Uehara, Takeshi; Okumura, Nobuo; Honda, Takayuki

    2018-01-01

    ABO genotyping has common tools for personal identification of forensic and transplantation field. We developed a new method based on a droplet allele-specific PCR (droplet-AS-PCR) that enabled rapid PCR amplification. We attempted rapid ABO genotyping using crude DNA isolated from dried blood and buccal cells. We designed allele-specific primers for three SNPs (at nucleotides 261, 526, and 803) in exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene. We pretreated dried blood and buccal cells with proteinase K, and obtained crude DNAs without DNA purification. Droplet-AS-PCR allowed specific amplification of the SNPs at the three loci using crude DNA, with results similar to those for DNA extracted from fresh peripheral blood. The sensitivity of the methods was 5%-10%. The genotyping of extracted DNA and crude DNA were completed within 8 and 9 minutes, respectively. The genotypes determined by the droplet-AS-PCR method were always consistent with those obtained by direct sequencing. The droplet-AS-PCR method enabled rapid and specific amplification of three SNPs of the ABO gene from crude DNA treated with proteinase K. ABO genotyping by the droplet-AS-PCR has the potential to be applied to various fields including a forensic medicine and transplantation medical care. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Poemat Parmenidesa. Fragmenty B 9-17, B 19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Mrówka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a new translation of the Fragments of Parmenides of Elea, the fifth century B.C. thinker. The text includes: a Greek poem with the fragments B 9-17, B 19, a critical apparatus which takes into consideration some new editions and a new English translation.

  4. Parvovirus B19-akut hepatitis hos immunkompetent patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lykke

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a case of acute hepatitis in an adult person without subsequent complications caused by parvovirus B19 (PVB19). The diagnosis was made by detection of PVB19 IgM and IgG antibody in the blood using ELISA. There was not made any affirmative polymerase chain reaction for DNA...

  5. Parvovirus B19 Infection in Children With Arterial Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Heather J; Luna, Jorge M; Wintermark, Max; Hills, Nancy K; Tokarz, Rafal; Li, Ying; Glaser, Carol; DeVeber, Gabrielle A; Lipkin, W Ian; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2017-10-01

    Case-control studies suggest that acute infection transiently increases the risk of childhood arterial ischemic stroke. We hypothesized that an unbiased pathogen discovery approach utilizing MassTag-polymerase chain reaction would identify pathogens in the blood of childhood arterial ischemic stroke cases. The multicenter international VIPS study (Vascular Effects of Infection in Pediatric Stroke) enrolled arterial ischemic stroke cases, and stroke-free controls, aged 29 days through 18 years. Parental interview included questions on recent infections. In this pilot study, we used MassTag-polymerase chain reaction to test the plasma of the first 161 cases and 34 controls enrolled for a panel of 28 common bacterial and viral pathogens. Pathogen DNA was detected in no controls and 14 cases (8.7%): parvovirus B19 (n=10), herpesvirus 6 (n=2), adenovirus (n=1), and rhinovirus 6C (n=1). Parvovirus B19 infection was confirmed by serologies in all 10; infection was subclinical in 8. Four cases with parvovirus B19 had underlying congenital heart disease, whereas another 5 had a distinct arteriopathy involving a long-segment stenosis of the distal internal carotid and proximal middle cerebral arteries. Using MassTag-polymerase chain reaction, we detected parvovirus B19-a virus known to infect erythrocytes and endothelial cells-in some cases of childhood arterial ischemic stroke. This approach can generate new, testable hypotheses about childhood stroke pathogenesis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Parvovirus B19 viraemia in Dutch blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaaijer, H. L.; Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Farrington, C. P.

    2004-01-01

    Blood, donated by asymptomatic donors, may contain and transmit parvovirus B19. To investigate the dynamics of parvovirus viraemia in asymptomatic blood donors, we studied the amounts of parvovirus DNA in pools of donor plasma, the prevalence of parvovirus antibodies among blood donors in relation

  7. Epidemiology of high-level parvovirus B19 viraemia among Dutch blood donors, 2003-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, K.; Mesman, H. J.; de Waal, M.; Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Zaaijer, H. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Plasma derivatives and blood components with low levels of parvovirus B19 (B19) seem not infectious, but recently infected, highly viraemic donors may transmit B19. We studied the incidence of high-level B19 viraemia (B19 DNA > 106 IU/ml) in 6 center dot 5 million Dutch

  8. Myocardial Parvovirus B19 Persistence: Lack of Association with Clinicopathologic Phenotype in Adults with Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Garrick C.; Lopez-Molina, Javier; Gottumukkala, Raju V.; Rosner, Gregg F.; Anello, Mary S.; Hecht, Jonathan L.; Winters, Gayle L.; Padera, Robert F.; Baughman, Kenneth L.; Lipes, Myra A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Multiple viruses have been isolated from the heart, but their significance remains controversial. We sought to determine the prevalence of cardiotropic viruses in endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) samples from adult heart failure (HF) patients and to define the clinicopathologic profile of patients exhibiting viral positivity. Methods and Results EMB from 100 patients (median EF 30%, IQR 20–45%) presenting for cardiomyopathy evaluation (median symptom duration 5 months, IQR 1–13 months) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus, and parvovirus B19. Each isolate was sequenced and viral load was determined. Parvovirus B19 was the only virus detected in EMB samples (12% of subjects). No subject had anti-parvovirus IgM antibodies, but all had IgG antibodies, suggesting viral persistence. The clinical presentation of parvovirus-positive patients was markedly heterogeneous, with both acute and chronic HF, variable ventricular function, and ischemic cardiomyopathy. No subject met Dallas histopathological criteria for active or borderline myocarditis. Two patients with a positive cardiac MRI and presumed “parvomyocarditis” had similar viral loads as autopsy controls without heart disease. The oldest parvovirus-positive subjects were positive for genotype 2, suggesting lifelong persistence in heart tissue. Conclusions Parvovirus B19 was the only virus isolated from EMB samples in this series of adult HF patients from the United States. Positivity was associated with a wide array of clinical presentations and heart failure phenotypes. Our studies do not support a causative role for parvovirus B19 persistence in HF and therefore advocate against the use of antiviral therapy for these patients. PMID:21097605

  9. Phosphorylated STAT5 directly facilitates parvovirus B19 DNA replication in human erythroid progenitors through interaction with the MCM complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganaie, Safder S; Zou, Wei; Xu, Peng; Deng, Xuefeng; Kleiboeker, Steve; Qiu, Jianming

    2017-05-01

    Productive infection of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) exhibits high tropism for burst forming unit erythroid (BFU-E) and colony forming unit erythroid (CFU-E) progenitor cells in human bone marrow and fetal liver. This exclusive restriction of the virus replication to human erythroid progenitor cells is partly due to the intracellular factors that are essential for viral DNA replication, including erythropoietin signaling. Efficient B19V replication also requires hypoxic conditions, which upregulate the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) pathway, and phosphorylated STAT5 is essential for virus replication. In this study, our results revealed direct involvement of STAT5 in B19V DNA replication. Consensus STAT5-binding elements were identified adjacent to the NS1-binding element within the minimal origins of viral DNA replication in the B19V genome. Phosphorylated STAT5 specifically interacted with viral DNA replication origins both in vivo and in vitro, and was actively recruited within the viral DNA replication centers. Notably, STAT5 interacted with minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex, suggesting that STAT5 directly facilitates viral DNA replication by recruiting the helicase complex of the cellular DNA replication machinery to viral DNA replication centers. The FDA-approved drug pimozide dephosphorylates STAT5, and it inhibited B19V replication in ex vivo expanded human erythroid progenitors. Our results demonstrated that pimozide could be a promising antiviral drug for treatment of B19V-related diseases.

  10. Evaluation of Populus and Salix continuously irrigated with landfill leachate I. Genotype-specific elemental phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesny, Ronald S; Bauer, Edmund O

    2007-01-01

    There is a need for the identification and selection of specific tree genotypes that can sequester elements from contaminated soils, with elevated rates of uptake. We irrigated Populus (DN17, DN182, DN34, NM2, NM6) and Salix (94003, 94012, S287, S566, SX61) genotypes planted in large soil-filled containers with landfill leachate or municipal water and tested for differences in inorganic element concentrations (P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, B, Mn, Fe, Cu, Al, Na, and Cl) in the leaves, stems, and roots. Trees were irrigated with leachate or water during the final 12 wk of the 18-wk study. Genotype-specific uptake existed. For genera, tissue concentrations exhibited four responses. First, Populus had the greatest uptake of P, K, S, Cu, and Cl. Second, Salix exhibited the greatest uptake of Zn, B, Fe, and Al. Third, Salix had greater concentrations of Ca and Mg in leaves, while Populus had greater concentrations in stems and roots. Fourth, Populus had greater concentrations of Mn and Na in leaves and stems, while Salix had greater concentrations in roots. Populus deltoides x P. nigra clones exhibited better overall phytoremediation than the P. nigra x P. maximowiczii genotypes tested. Phytoremediation for S. purpurea clones 94003 and 94012 was generally less than for other Salix genotypes. Overall, concentrations of elements in the leaves, stems, and roots corroborated those in the plant-sciences literature. Uptake was dependent upon the specific genotype for most elements. Our results corroborated the need for further testing and selecting of specific clones for various phytoremediation needs, while providing a baseline for future researchers developing additional studies and resource managers conducting on-site remediation.

  11. Hereditary Spherocytosis Unmasked by Human Parvovirus B19 Induced Aplastic Crisis in a Family

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    Samin Alavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human parvovirus (HPV B19 induced aplastic crisis in a family leading to the diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis (HS is a very rare condition being barely reported in the literature. We herein report a 4-year-old girl, her brother, and their mother who all presented with progressive pallor and jaundice after a febrile illness. The HPV B19 was diagnosed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and positive serology for specific anti-HPV B19 IgM. They were further diagnosed with having HS. The clinical importance of this report is that in the case of an abrupt onset of unexplained severe anemia and jaundice, one should consider underlying hemolytic anemias mostly hereditary spherocytosis complicated by HPV B19 aplastic crisis. Herein, we report the occurrence of this condition, simultaneously in three members of a family. The distinguished feature of this report is that all affected family members developed some degrees of transient pancytopenia, not only anemia, all simultaneously in the course of their disease.

  12. Parvovirus B19 does not bind to membrane-associated globoside in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Baerbel; Baxa, Ulrich; Chipman, Paul R.; Rossmann, Michael G.; Modrow, Susanne; Seckler, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The glycosphingolipid globoside (globotetraosylceramide, Gb4Cer) has been proposed to be the cellular receptor of human parvovirus B19. Quantitative measurements of the binding of parvovirus B19 to Gb4Cer were performed to explore the molecular basis of the virus tropism. Solid-phase assays with fluorescence-labeled liposomes or 125 iodine-labeled empty capsids were used to characterize the specificity of binding. In addition, surface plasmon resonance on lipid layers, as well as isothermal titration microcalorimetry, was utilized for real-time analysis of the virus-receptor interaction. These studies did not confirm binding of Gb4Cer to recombinant B19 VP2 capsids, suggesting that Gb4Cer does not function on its own as the cellular receptor of human parvovirus B19, but might be involved in a more complex recognition event. The biochemical results were further confirmed by cryo-electron microscopy image reconstructions at 10 A resolution, in which the structures of empty capsids were compared with empty capsids incubated with Gb4Cer

  13. Two family members with a syndrome of headache and rash caused by human parvovirus B19

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    Antonio Carlos M. Pereira

    Full Text Available Human parvovirus B19 infection can cause erythema infectiosum (EI and several other clinical presentations. Central nervous system (CNS involvement is rare, and only a few reports of encephalitis and aseptic meningitis have been published. Here, we describe 2 cases of B19 infection in a family presenting different clinical features. A 30 year old female with a 7-day history of headache, malaise, myalgias, joint pains, and rash was seen. Physical examination revealed a maculopapular rash on the patient's body, and arthritis of the hands. She completely recovered in 1 week. Two days before, her 6 year old son had been admitted to a clinic with a 1-day history of fever, headache, abdominal pain and vomiting. On admission, he was alert, and physical examination revealed neck stiffness, Kerning and Brudzinski signs, and a petechial rash on his trunk and extremities. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was normal. He completely recovered in 5 days. Acute and convalescent sera of both patients were positive for specific IgM antibody to B19. Human parvovirus B19 should be considered in the differential diagnosis of aseptic meningitis, particularly during outbreaks of erythema infectiosum. The disease may mimic meningococcemia and bacterial meningitis.

  14. Human parvovirus PARV4 DNA in tissues from adult individuals: a comparison with human parvovirus B19 (B19V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotellini Matteo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PARV4 is a new member of the Parvoviridae family not closely related to any of the known human parvoviruses. Viremia seems to be a hallmark of PARV4 infection and viral DNA persistence has been demonstrated in a few tissues. Till now, PARV4 has not been associated with any disease and its prevalence in human population has not been clearly established. This study was aimed to assess the tissue distribution and the ability to persist of PARV4 in comparison to parvovirus B19 (B19V. Results PARV4 and B19V DNA detection was carried out in various tissues of individuals without suspect of acute viral infection, by a real time PCR and a nested PCR, targeting the ORF2 and the ORF1 respectively. Low amount of PARV4 DNA was found frequently (>40% in heart and liver of adults individuals, less frequently in lungs and kidneys (23,5 and 18% respectively and was rare in bone marrow, skin and synovium samples (5,5%, 4% and 5%, respectively. By comparison, B19V DNA sequences were present in the same tissues with a higher frequency (significantly higher in myocardium, skin and bone marrow except than in liver where the frequency was the same of PARV4 DNA and in plasma samples where B19V frequency was significantly lower than that of PARV4 Conclusions The particular tropism of PARV4 for liver and heart, here emerged, suggests to focus further studies on these tissues as possible target for viral replication and on the possible role of PARV4 infection in liver and heart diseases. Neither bone marrow nor kidney seem to be a common target of viral replication.

  15. Analysis of the receptor-mediated B19V mechanism of internalization in the endothelial B19V infection and adenovirus-mediated reactivation of B19V in endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pozzuto, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Human Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is the causative agent of erythema infectiosum, hydrops fetalis, aplastic crises and polyarthritis. B19V displays a very narrow cell and tissue tropism with productive infection thought to be restricted exclusively to erythroid progenitor cells in the bone marrow and fetal liver. However, over the last years increasing evidence for the presence of B19V DNA in other cell types and tissues such as synovial fibroblasts, tonsilles and skin as well as endothelial cells ...

  16. Association Between CNDP1 Genotype and Diabetic Nephropathy Is Sex Specific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooyaart, Antien L.; Zutinic, Ana; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Grootendorst, Diana C.; Kleefstra, Nanne; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Bohringer, Stefan; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Bruijn, Jan Anthonie; Navis, Gerjan; Janssen, Bart; Baelde, Hans J.; De Heer, Emile

    OBJECTIVE-The 5-5 homozygous CNDP1 (carnosinase) genotype is associated with a reduced risk of diabetic nephropathy. We investigated whether this association is sex specific and independent of susceptibility for type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Three separate groups of 114, 90, and 66

  17. Antigenicity analysis of human parvovirus B19-VP1u protein in the induction of anti-phospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Chiu, Chun-Ching; Cheng, Ju; Lin, Chia-Yun; Shi, Ya-Fang; Tsai, Chun-Chou; Tzang, Bor-Show; Hsu, Tsai-Ching

    2018-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests a connection between human parvovirus B19 (B19) and autoimmune diseases, and especially an association between the B19-VP1 unique region (VP1u) and anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS). However, little is known about the antigenicity of B19-VP1u in the induction of APS-like syndrome. To elucidate the antigenicity of B19-VP1u in the induction of APS, N-terminal truncated B19-VP1u (tVP1u) proteins were prepared to immunize Balb/c mice to generate antibodies against B19-tVP1u proteins. The secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) activities and binding specificity of mice anti-B19-tVP1u antibodies with cardiolipin (CL) and beta-2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) were evaluated by performing immunoblot, ELISA and absorption experiments. A mice model of passively induced APS was adopted. Although sPLA2 activities were identified in all B19-tVP1u proteins, only amino acid residues 61-227 B19-tVP1u exhibited a higher sPLA2 activity. Autoantibodies against CL and β2GPI exhibited binding activities with all B19-tVP1u proteins. IgG that was purified from mice that had been immunized with amino acid residues 21-227 to 121-227 B19-tVP1u proteins exhibited significantly higher binding activity with CL. IgG that was purified from mice that had been immunized with amino acid residues 21-227, 31-227, 82-227 and 91-227 B19-tVP1u proteins exhibited significantly higher binding activity with β2GPI. Accordingly, significantly higher binding inhibition of CL was detected in the presence of amino acid residues 61-227 and 101-227 B19-tVP1u. Significantly higher binding inhibition of β2GPI was detected in the presence of amino acid residues 21-227, 31-227, 82-227 and 91-227 B19-tVP1u. The mice that received amino acid residues 31-227 or 61-227 anti-tB19-VP1u IgG revealed significant thrombocytopenia and those that received amino acid residues 21-227, 31-227, 61-227, 71-227, 82-227, 91-227, 101-227 or 114-227 anti-tB19-VP1u IgG exhibited significantly prolonged aPTT. These

  18. Parvovirus B19 reactivation presenting as neutropenia after rituximab treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepfish, A; Rachmilevitch, E; Schattner, A

    2006-11-01

    A patient with primary biliary cirrhosis and associated refractory immune thrombocytopenic purpura was treated with 4 weekly courses of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting B-cell surface antigen CD20. Her thrombocyte count and even cholestatic liver function tests improved. However, 17 weeks after rituximab treatment, she developed severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count 0.23x10(3)/mul) and recurrent thrombocytopenia with abnormal bone marrow of all three lineages. Although delayed-onset neutropenia has been reported after rituximab, reactivated viral infections have also been encountered. Parvovirus B19 was suspected and confirmed as the cause of neutropenia in our patient. The patient was supported by GCSF treatment and recovered uneventfully after several weeks. Neutropenia after rituximab can also be the predominant manifestation of reactivated parvovirus B19 infection and have a favorable prognosis.

  19. Parvovirus B19 infections serological diagnostics in rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L P Ananjeva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study contamination with parvovirus B19 of a group of patients with rheumatic diseases (RD. Methods. 77 pts with RD (mean age 42,5 years, 79% female admitted to Institute of Rheumatology of RAMS were examined. 34 of them had rheumatoid arthritis (RA, 11 - systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and Sjogren's disease (SD, 15 with osteoarthritis (OA and seronegative spondyloarthritides (SS and 17 with early (before a year undifferentiated arthritis (EUA. Quantitative determination of IgM and IgG serum antibodies to parvovirus BI9 was performed by I FA with IBL kits (Hamburg, Germany. Results. Anti-B19 IgG antibodies were found in 52% of pts, IgM antibodies - only in one case. Mean antibodies values in pts with RD of disease duration less then 6 months were significantly higher then in pts with longer disease duration (21,5+36 U/ml and 8,4+14.7 U/ml respectively, p<0,05. Anti-B 19 antibodies were present in 62% of pts with RA, 53% of pts with EUA, 45% of pts with SD, 33% of pts with OA and SS. High levels of antibodies (4-10 times higher positivity threshold were revealed in 13 pts with different RD with short duration of joint syndrome (6,3±7,6 months and fever at presentation. A case of B19 parvovirus infection in a boy of 3 years age accompanied by symptoms of Still's disease is described.

  20. Isolated velopalatine paralysis associated with parvovirus B19 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares-Fernandes João P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of isolated velopalatine paralysis in an 8-year-old boy is presented. The symptoms were sudden-onset of nasal speech, regurgitation of liquids into the nose and dysphagia. Brain MRI and cerebrospinal fluid examination were normal. Infectious serologies disclosed an antibody arrangement towards parvovirus B19 that was typical of recent infection. In the absence of other positive data, the possibility of a correlation between the tenth nerve palsy and parvovirus infection is discussed.

  1. Generation of a parvovirus B19 vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Sumana; Medina-Selby, Angelica; Coit, Doris; Schaefer, Mary; Spencer, Terika; Brito, Luis A; Zhang, Pu; Otten, Gillis; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Settembre, Ethan C

    2013-08-20

    Parvovirus B19 is the causative agent of fifth disease in children, aplastic crisis in those with blood dyscrasias, and hydrops fetalis. Previous parvovirus B19 virus-like-particle (VLP) vaccine candidates were produced by co-infection of insect cells with two baculoviruses, one expressing wild-type VP1 and the other expressing VP2. In humans, the VLPs were immunogenic but reactogenic. We have developed new VLP-based parvovirus B19 vaccine candidates, produced by co-expressing VP2 and either wild-type VP1 or phospholipase-negative VP1 in a regulated ratio from a single plasmid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These VLPs are expressed efficiently, are very homogeneous, and can be highly purified. Although VP2 alone can form VLPs, in mouse immunizations, VP1 and the adjuvant MF59 are required to elicit a neutralizing response. Wild-type VLPs and those with phospholipase-negative VP1 are equivalently potent. The purity, homogeneity, yeast origin, and lack of phospholipase activity of these VLPs address potential causes of previously observed reactogenicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Postinfectious glomerulonephritis secondary to Erythrovirus B19 (Parvovirus B19): case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Helena; Guermah, Imane; Matas, Lurdes; Hernández, Alba; Navarro, Maruja; Lopez, Dolores; Bonet, Josep

    2016-04-01

    A previously healthy 32-yearold woman developed arterial hypertension, proteinuria, and hematuria (nephritic syndrome) with normal renal function and was diagnosed with post-infectious glomerulonephritis secondary to parvovirus B19 infection. The renal biopsy showed endocapillary glomerulonephritis, with positive IgG, C3, and C1q immunoreactivity in the capillary walls and ultrastructural evidence of subendothelial deposits. The diagnosis of parvovirus B19 infection was confirmed by IgG/IgM serological positivity and parvovirus DNA demonstration in both peripheral blood and kidney tissue. Glomerular involvement improved spontaneously. To be noted are the atypical signs and symptoms of our patient who, unlike previously reported cases, failed to show fever, skin rash, or affected relatives.

  3. Seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G antibody to parvovirus B19 in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfy, Samia; Nishikawa, John; Petric, Martin

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence of antibody to parvovirus B19 was assessed in two populations. In a group of 494 residents from Ontario and the Maritimes, virus-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody, a marker of acute infection, was found throughout the year but was most prevalent during the late winter and early spring months. The overall prevalence of IgG antibody in this group was 30.3%. In an effort to examine age-specific prevalence in this population, a second group of sera from 210 pediatric patients at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario and from Red Cross blood donors was tested for the presence of B19-specific IgG, and of these, 31.4% of the samples were positive. This prevalence varied from 3.3% in the under five-year-old age group to 66.7% in the 35- to 45-year-old age group. Eighty per cent of sera from females of this group were seropositive. This study provides insight into the prevalence of parvovirus B19 IgG antibody in the population. PMID:22514456

  4. HPV genotype-specific concordance between EuroArray HPV, Anyplex II HPV28 and Linear Array HPV Genotyping test in Australian cervical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa M. Cornall

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare human papillomavirus genotype-specific performance of two genotyping assays, Anyplex II HPV28 (Seegene and EuroArray HPV (EuroImmun, with Linear Array HPV (Roche. Methods: DNA extracted from clinican-collected cervical brush specimens in PreservCyt medium (Hologic, from 403 women undergoing management for detected cytological abnormalities, was tested on the three assays. Genotype-specific agreement were assessed by Cohen's kappa statistic and Fisher's z-test of significance between proportions. Results: Agreement between Linear Array and the other 2 assays was substantial to almost perfect (κ = 0.60 − 1.00 for most genotypes, and was almost perfect (κ = 0.81 – 0.98 for almost all high-risk genotypes. Linear Array overall detected most genotypes more frequently, however this was only statistically significant for HPV51 (EuroArray; p = 0.0497, HPV52 (Anyplex II; p = 0.039 and HPV61 (Anyplex II; p=0.047. EuroArray detected signficantly more HPV26 (p = 0.002 and Anyplex II detected more HPV42 (p = 0.035 than Linear Array. Each assay performed differently for HPV68 detection: EuroArray and LA were in moderate to substantial agreement with Anyplex II (κ = 0.46 and 0.62, respectively, but were in poor disagreement with each other (κ = −0.01. Conclusions: EuroArray and Anyplex II had similar sensitivity to Linear Array for most high-risk genotypes, with slightly lower sensitivity for HPV 51 or 52. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Genotyping, Linear Array, Anyplex II, EuroArray, Cervix

  5. A study on the association between parvovirus B19 infection, serum tumour necrosis factor and C-reactive protein levels among Nigerian patients with sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwalokun, Bamidele Abiodun; Iwalokun, Senapon Olusola; Hodonu, Semande Olufunmilayo; Aina, Olugbenga Ayoola; Omilabu, Sunday

    2012-11-01

    Microbial burden involving parvovirus B19 infection has been recognised as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients. Given the recent reports of parvovirus B19 infection in Nigeria and the role of inflammation in sickle cell crisis, knowledge of the relationship between the two may be essential for deploying appropriate interventions in infected patients. This study determined the serum levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as inflammatory markers in Nigerian SCA patients with and without parvovirus B19 infections. A total of 64 SCA patients aged 5-25 years and 41 age-matched apparently healthy volunteers with haemoglobin genotypes AA or AS were enrolled with consent into the study. Parvovirus B19 infection and serum levels of TNF-α and CRP were determined by the ELISA method. The overall prevalence rate of parvovirus B19 infection in the study subjects was 13.3%. This rate further showed gender variation and negative correlation with age. Significant (p Parvovirus B19 infection was found to elicit greater increases in these inflammatory markers than in infected non-SCA controls. We conclude that parvovirus B19 infection is common in this environment, and that serum TNF-α and CRP are predictors of clinical inflammatory episodes in infected SCA patients.

  6. Detection of parvovirus B19 DNA in blood: Viruses or DNA remnants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar-de Backer, M W A; Russcher, A; Kroes, A C M; Koppelman, M H G M; Lanfermeijer, M; Zaaijer, H L

    2016-11-01

    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) DNA can be detected in blood over a long period after acute infection. Several reports associate the presence of B19V DNA with disease, irrespective of timing of the initial B19V infection. This study aims to analyze the properties of B19V DNA in blood, differentiating between bare, non-infectious strands of DNA and B19V DNA in viable virions. Ten blood donors with asymptomatic acute B19V infection were followed and sampled up to 22 months after infection. The samples were treated with and without an endonuclease and tested for B19V DNA, to distinguish between DNA in virions and naked DNA. In the acute phase of infection, high levels of B19V DNA were detected, concurrent with B19V IgM antibodies. B19V DNA apparently was encapsidated, as indicated by resistance to endonuclease degradation. Subsequently, B19V DNA remained detectable for more than one year in all donors at low levels (<10 5 IU/mL). Approximately 150days after infection B19V DNA became degradable by an endonuclease, indicating that this concerned naked DNA. In some donors a second endonuclease-resistant peak occurred. Detection of B19V DNA in blood by PCR does not necessarily imply that B19V replication takes place and that infectious B19V virions are present. We propose that remnant B19V DNA strands can be released from tissues without active replication. This finding urges to reconsider an assumed role of B19V infection mainly based on B19V DNA detection in blood, a much debated subject in clinical syndromes such as myocarditis and arthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. High frequency of parvovirus B19 DNA in bone marrow samples from rheumatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, Anders; Isa, Adiba; Tolfvenstam, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human parvovirus B19 (B19) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is now a routine analysis and serves as a diagnostic marker as well as a complement or alternative to B19 serology. The clinical significance of a positive B19 DNA finding is however dependent on the type of tissue or body fluid...... analysed and of the immune status of the patient. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the clinical significance of B19 DNA positivity in bone marrow samples from rheumatic patients. STUDY DESIGN: Parvovirus B19 DNA was analysed in paired bone marrow and serum samples by nested PCR technique. Serum was also analysed...... negative group. A high frequency of parvovirus B19 DNA was thus detected in bone marrow samples in rheumatic patients. The clinical data does not support a direct association between B19 PCR positivity and rheumatic disease manifestation. Therefore, the clinical significance of B19 DNA positivity in bone...

  8. HPV genotype-specific concordance between EuroArray HPV, Anyplex II HPV28 and Linear Array HPV Genotyping test in Australian cervical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornall, Alyssa M; Poljak, Marin; Garland, Suzanne M; Phillips, Samuel; Machalek, Dorothy A; Tan, Jeffrey H; Quinn, Michael A; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2017-12-01

    To compare human papillomavirus genotype-specific performance of two genotyping assays, Anyplex II HPV28 (Seegene) and EuroArray HPV (EuroImmun), with Linear Array HPV (Roche). DNA extracted from clinican-collected cervical brush specimens in PreservCyt medium (Hologic), from 403 women undergoing management for detected cytological abnormalities, was tested on the three assays. Genotype-specific agreement were assessed by Cohen's kappa statistic and Fisher's z-test of significance between proportions. Agreement between Linear Array and the other 2 assays was substantial to almost perfect (κ = 0.60 - 1.00) for most genotypes, and was almost perfect (κ = 0.81 - 0.98) for almost all high-risk genotypes. Linear Array overall detected most genotypes more frequently, however this was only statistically significant for HPV51 (EuroArray; p = 0.0497), HPV52 (Anyplex II; p = 0.039) and HPV61 (Anyplex II; p=0.047). EuroArray detected signficantly more HPV26 (p = 0.002) and Anyplex II detected more HPV42 (p = 0.035) than Linear Array. Each assay performed differently for HPV68 detection: EuroArray and LA were in moderate to substantial agreement with Anyplex II (κ = 0.46 and 0.62, respectively), but were in poor disagreement with each other (κ = -0.01). EuroArray and Anyplex II had similar sensitivity to Linear Array for most high-risk genotypes, with slightly lower sensitivity for HPV 51 or 52. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of exploratory factor analysis to ascertain the correlation between the activities of rheumatoid arthritis and infection by human parvovirus B19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakurina, Natalja; Kadisa, Anda; Lejnieks, Aivars; Mikazane, Helena; Kozireva, Svetlana; Murovska, Modra

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated a possible correlation between the clinical activities of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). RA patients were organized into two groups: 100 patients in the main group and 97 in the RA(DAS28) group. Four subgroups were defined from the main group according to the presence or absence of certain infection-specific markers: group I comprised 43 patients who had IgG antibodies against B19; group II, 25 patients with active B19 infection (B19-specific IgM antibodies and/or plasma viremia); group III, 19 patients with latent/persistent B19 infection (virus-specific sequences in peripheral blood leukocytes' DNA with or without B19-specific IgG antibodies), and group IV, 13 patients without infection markers. The RA(DAS28) group was divided into four subgroups similarly to the main group: group I, 35; group II, 31; group III, 19; and group IV, 12 patients. Disease-specific clinical values in both groups were analyzed employing EFA, and the RA(DAS28) group was additionally assessed using Disease Activity Score (DAS)28. RA activity was higher in patients who had markers of B19 infection. The highest activity of RA in both study groups was in patients with latent/persistent infection. In the RA(DAS28) group, according to DAS28, the highest activity of RA was in patients with active B19 infection. Using EFA and DAS28, a correlation between the clinical activity of RA and B19 infection was confirmed. These data suggest that EFA is applicable for medico-biological studies. Copyright © 2015 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  10. Parvovirus B19 Infection in a Fatal Case of Acute Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Alves, Arthur Daniel Rocha; Garcia, Rita de Cássia Nasser Cubel; Melgaço, Juliana Gil; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2017-12-01

    B19V has been proposed as an etiologic agent for hepatitis, mainly in children, but this is a rare clinical occurrence. In this article, we report a case of non-A-E acute liver failure in an immunocompetent child with B19 infection. The clinical findings of severe anemia and pancytopenia combined with the detection of anti-B19 Immunoglobulin G (IgG), B19 DNA and B19 mRNA in liver indicate a persistent infection and suggest a diagnosis of parvovirus B19-associated acute liver failure.

  11. Parvovirus B19 Is Associated with a Significant Decrease in Hemoglobin Level among Children <5 Years of Age with Anemia in Northwestern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizeba, Yustina A; Mirambo, Mariam M; Kayange, Neema; Mhada, Tumaini; Ambrose, Emmanuela E; Smart, Luke R; Mshana, Stephen E

    2017-12-13

    Parvovirus B19 (B19) can cause transient aplastic crisis and lead to acute severe anemia. This study investigated the relationship between B19 and anemia among children B19 IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies among children with various categories of anemia according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. A total of 265 children with median age of 28.5 months (interquartile range 18-39.5) were investigated. Eighty-six children (32.5%) had severe anemia. B19-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in 24 (9%) and 46 (17.4%) children, respectively. Low hemoglobin (Hb) level (p = 0.031), Plasmodium falciparum infection (p = 0.001) and residing in rural areas (p = 0.025) independently predicted B19 IgM seropositivity. Acute B19 infection decreased Hb level by 1.1 g/dl (p = 0.003). In malaria endemic areas, acute B19 infections should be considered among children with severe anemia from rural areas. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A Novel Method for Assessing Sex-Specific and Genotype-Specific Response to Injury in Astrocyte Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingyue; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Yang, Rui; Murphy, Stephanie J; Hurn, Patricia D.

    2008-01-01

    Female astrocytes sustain less cell death from oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) than male astrocytes. Arimidex, an aromatase inhibitor, abolishes these sex differences. To verify sex-dependent differences in P450 aromatase function in astrocyte cell death following OGD, we developed a novel method that uses sex-specific and genotype-specific single pup primary astrocyte cultures from wild-type (WT) and aromatase-knockout (ArKO) mice. After determining sex by external and internal examination as well as PCR and genotype by PCR amplification of tail cDNA, we established cultures from 1−3 day-old male and female, WT and ArKO mice pups and grew them to confluence in estrogen-free media. Cell death was measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Our study shows that, while WT female astrocytes are more resistant to OGD than WT male cells, sex differences disappear in ArKO cells. Cell death is significantly increased in ArKO compared to WT in female astrocytes but not male cells. Therefore, P450 aromatase appears to be essential in endogenous neuroprotection in females, and this finding may have clinical implications. This innovative technique may also be applied to other in vitro studies of sex-related functional differences. PMID:18436308

  13. The magnitude and correlates of Parvovirus B19 infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Mwanza, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirambo, Mariam M; Maliki, Fatma; Majigo, Mtebe; Mushi, Martha F; Moremi, Nyambura; Seni, Jeremiah; Matovelo, Dismas; Mshana, Stephen E

    2017-06-07

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection has been associated with congenital infection which may result into a number of the adverse pregnancy outcomes. The epidemiology and the magnitude of B19 infections among pregnant women have been poorly studied in developing countries. This study was done to establish preliminary information about the magnitude of B19 among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the city of Mwanza, Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2014 and June 2015 among 258 pregnant women attending two antenatal clinics representing rural and urban areas in the city of Mwanza. Socio-demographic data were collected using structured data collection tool. Specific B19 IgM and IgG antibodies were determined using indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits (DRG Instruments GmbH, Germany). Data were analyzed using STATA version 11 software. The median age of study participants was 21 IQR (19-25) years. Of 253 pregnant women; 116(44.96%), 109(42.25%) and 33(12.79%) were in the first, second and third trimester respectively. The majority 168(66.4%) of women were from urban areas. Of 253 pregnant women, the overall prevalence of IgM was 83(32.8%) while that of IgG was 142(55.0%) among 258 women tested. A total of 50(19.4%) women were positive for both IgG and IgM indicating true IgM positive. History of baby with low birth weight (OR: 10, 95% CI: 1.82-58.05, P = 0.01) was independent predictor of B19 IgG seropositivity and being at the third trimester was protective (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.16-0.92, P = 0.03). The IgG titers were found to decrease significantly as gestational age increases (Spearman's rho = -0.2939, p = 0.0004) CONCLUSION: More than a half of pregnant women in Mwanza city are B19 IgG sero-positive with about one third of these being B19 IgM seropositive. Further studies to determine the impact of B19 infections among pregnant women and their newborns are recommended in developing countries.

  14. Study of chronic hemolytic anaemia patients in Rio de Janeiro: prevalence of anti-human parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies and the developement aplastic crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANT'ANNA Anadayr L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of anti-human parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies was determined in sera from 165 chronic hemolytic anemia patients, receiving medical care at Instituto Estadual de Hematologia (IEHE, Rio de Janeiro, during the year of 1994. This sample represents around 10% of the chronic hemolytic anemia patients attending at IEHE. Most of these patients (140 have sickle cell disease. Anti-B19 IgG antibodies were detected in 32.1% of patients. No statistically significant difference (p > 0.05 was seen between IgG antibody prevalence in male (27.8% and female (35.5% patients. Anti-B19 IgG antibodies were more frequent in older (37.6% than younger (28.2% than 20 years old patients, although this difference had no statistical significance (p > 0.05. Anti-B19 IgG antibody prevalence showed that 67.9% of patients enrolled in the study were susceptible to B19 acute infection. With the aim to detect acute B19 infection, patients follow up continued until February 1996. During this period four patients presented transient aplastic crisis due to human parvovirus B19 as confirmed by the detection of specific IgM antibodies. All four patients were younger than 20 years old, and 3 were younger than 10 years old. Three of them were sickle cell disease patients. Three of the four acute B19 infection occurred during 1994 springtime.

  15. Parvovirus B19 infection modulates the levels of cytokines in the plasma of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naciute, Milda; Mieliauskaite, Diana; Rugiene, Rita; Maciunaite, Gabriele; Mauricas, Mykolas; Murovska, Modra; Girkontaite, Irute

    2017-08-01

    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection is associated with various autoimmune diseases. We investigated the levels of pro-inflammatory (IFNᵧ, TNFα, IL-2, IL-12) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) cytokines in the plasma of B19V DNA positive (B19 + ) and negative (B19 - ) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in comparison with the control group (healthy persons). Blood samples were collected from 118 patients with RA and 49 healthy voluntaries. B19V sequence was determined in whole blood and cell-free plasma DNA by nested PCR. The levels of cytokines in the plasma and cell culture medium from Concanavalin A (ConA) or B19V VP1 protein stimulated PBMC were determined by ELISA. The levels of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IL-2 and TNFα were higher in plasma of RA patients in comparison with control persons. B19 + controls and RA patients had lower levels of IFNᵧ in comparison with B19 - controls and RA patients. Within RA patients the plasma levels of IFNᵧ were lower in patients with low RA disease activity or remission. Plasma level of IL-4 was increased and IL-10 level was decreased in B19 + RA patients in comparison with B19 - RA patients and did not differ between B19 + and B19 - controls. B19V infection did not affect plasma levels of IL-12, IL-2, and TNFα. ConA and B19 VP1 protein stimulated PBMC from RA patients produced less IFNᵧ than stimulated PBMC from the healthy controls. B19V infection could differently modulate the amount of cytokines in the plasma of healthy persons and RA patients. Decreased production of IFNᵧ and raised level of plasma IL-4 in RA patients could lower antiviral clearance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of Relationship Between Parvovirus B19 Infection and Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Yıldırım

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Psoriasis is a common, chronic, relapsing skin disease, characterized by the formation of typical scaly papules or plaques. The three factors well-recognized as triggering the onset, causing new lesions or inducing a flare in the disease are: stress, skin injury and infection. Various microorganisms are associated with provocation and/or exacerbation of psoriasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parvovirus B19 (PVB19 and psoriasis/psoriasis area severity index (PASI. Material and Method: Sixty patients with psoriasis (36 men, 24 women and 40 healthy volunteers (22 men, 18 women were included in our study. PVB19 DNA was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: PVB19 DNA was detected in 27 of 60 subjects in the patient group (45% and in 9 of 40 controls (22.5% (p0.05. The relationship between the viral load and the subtypes of psoriasis was not statistically significant (p>0.05.Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it was concluded that a relationship may be present between psoriasis and PVB 19 infection.

  17. Parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy studied by maternal viral load and immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Timo R.; Beersma, Matthias F. C.; Claas, Eric C. J.; Oepkes, Dick; Kroes, Aloys C. M.; Walther, Frans J.

    2007-01-01

    Facilitate risk assessment of vital complications in fetuses of pregnancies affected by acute parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection. Study of the natural course of maternal B19V infection in four cases, from early pregnancy on. University Medical Center in the Netherlands. Pregnant mothers attending

  18. Morphological Manifestations of Parvovirus B19 Infection in the Bone Marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-09

    Parvovirus B19 (PV B19 ) preferentially infects erythroid progenitor cells in the bone marrow, frequently causing anemia along with transient aplastic...infection. We devised a highly sensitive two-round, nested PCR procedure to detect PV B19 . Eight of 78 clinical specimens from individuals with

  19. Plant genotype-specific archaeal and bacterial endophytes but similar Bacillus antagonists colonize Mediterranean olive trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry eMueller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes have an intimate and often symbiotic interaction with their hosts. Less is known about the composition and function of endophytes in trees. In order to evaluate our hypothesis that plant genotype and origin have a strong impact on both, endophytes of leaves from 10 Olea europaea L. cultivars from the Mediterranean basin growing at a single agricultural site in Spain and from nine wild olive trees located in natural habitats in Greece, Cyprus and on Madeira Island were studied. The composition of the bacterial endophytic communities as revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and the subsequent PCoA analysis showed a strong correlation to the plant genotypes. The bacterial distribution patterns were congruent with the plant origins in Eastern and Western areas of the Mediterranean basin. Subsequently, the endophytic microbiome of wild olives was shown to be closely related to those of cultivated olives of the corresponding geographic origins. The olive leaf endosphere harbored mostly Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The detection of a high portion of archaeal taxa belonging to the phyla Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota in the amplicon libraries was an unexpected discovery, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR revealing an archaeal portion of up to 35.8%. Although the function of these Archaea for their host plant remains speculative, this finding suggests a significant relevance of archaeal endophytes for plant-microbe interactions. In addition, the antagonistic potential of culturable endophytes was determined; all isolates with antagonistic activity against the olive-pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. belong to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. In contrast to the specific global structural diversity, BOX-fingerprints of the antagonistic Bacillus isolates were highly similar and independent of the olive genotype from which they were isolated.

  20. Serological and Molecular Biological Studies of Parvovirus B19, Coxsackie B Viruses, and Adenoviruses as Potential Cardiotropic Viruses in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Stefka Kr; Angelova, Svetla G; Stoyanova, Asya P; Georgieva, Irina L; Nikolaeva-Glomb, Lubomira K; Mihneva, Zafira G; Korsun, Neli St

    2016-12-01

    Inflammatory diseases of the heart (myocarditis, pericarditis) are commonly caused by viruses. Among the human cardiotropic viruses, parvovirus B19, Coxsackie B viruses, and adenoviruses play a leading role. The aim of the present study was to determine the presumptive causative role of parvovirus B19, Coxsackie B viruses, and adenoviruses in the development of myocarditis, pericarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy by demonstrating the presence of specific antiviral antibodies or viral DNA in patients' serum samples. We tested serum samples collected between 2010 and 2014 from 235 patients with myocarditis (n=108), pericarditis (n=79), myopericarditis (n=19), dilated cardiomyopathy (n=7), and fever of unknown origin accompanied by cardiac complaints (n=22). The mean age of patients with the standard deviation was 33 ± 18 years. Serological and molecular methods (ELISA for specific IgM/IgG antibodies to parvovirus B19 and IgM antibodies to Coxsackie B viruses and adenoviruses, and PCR for detection of parvovirus B19 in serum samples, respectively) were used in the study. Of all tested 235 serum samples, in 60 (25.5%) positive results for at least one of the three tested viruses were detected. Forty out of these 235 serum samples (17%) were Coxsackie B virus IgM positive. They were found in 17% (18/108) of the patients with myocarditis, in 15% (12/79) of those with pericarditis, in 16% (3/19) of those with myopericarditis and in 32% (7/22) in those with fever of unknown origin. The 63 Coxsackie B virus IgM negative patient's serum samples were tested by ELISA for presence of adenovirus IgM antibodies. Such were found in 4 patients with pericarditis and in 2 patients with fever of unknown origin. Every IgM negative sample (n=189) for Coxsackie B and adenovirus was further tested by ELISA for parvovirus B19 IgM/IgG antibodies. B19-IgM antibodies were detected in 14 patients (7.4%). The percentages for B19-IgM antibodies was 8% (7/90), 5% (3/63) and 31% (4/13) in the

  1. Human parvovirus B19 infection during the inactive stage of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashiro; Saito, Shinichiro; Hirabayashi, Yasuhiko; Harigae, Hideo; Ishii, Tomonori; Kodera, Takao; Fujii, Hiroshi; Munakata, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Takeshi

    2003-06-01

    A 42-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) had an episode of fever, arthralgia and anemia. In order to treat the suspected activation of SLE, the daily dose of steroid was increased, however, the anemia progressed and pancytopenia developed. Both IgM anti-B19 antibodies to human parvovirus B19 (B19) and B19 DNA were positive, and bone marrow analysis revealed pure red cell aplasia with giant proerythroblasts. High dose gamma globulin was administered and the daily dose of steroid was tapered, resulting in the improvement of her condition. B19 infection should be ruled out in cases with reactivation of autoimmune diseases.

  2. Cross-species infection of specific-pathogen-free pigs by a genotype 4 strain of human hepatitis E virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagins, A. R.; Opriessnig, T.; Huang, Y. W.; Halbur, P. G.; Meng, X. J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important pathogen. The animal strain of HEV, swine HEV, is related to human HEV. The genotype 3 swine HEV infected humans and genotype 3 human HEV infected pigs. The genotype 4 swine and human HEV strains are genetically related, but it is unknown whether genotype 4 human HEV can infect pigs. A swine bioassay was utilized in this study to determine whether genotype 4 human HEV can infect pigs. Fifteen, 4-week-old, specific-pathogen-free pigs were divided into 3 groups of 5 each. Group 1 pigs were each inoculated intravenously with PBS buffer as negative controls, group 2 pigs similarly with genotype 3 human HEV (strain US-2), and group 3 pigs similarly with genotype 4 human HEV (strain TW6196E). Serum and fecal samples were collected at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 days postinoculation (dpi) and tested for evidence of HEV infection. All pigs were necropsied at 56 dpi. As expected, the negative control pigs remained negative. The positive control pigs inoculated with genotype 3 human HEV all became infected as evidenced by detection of HEV antibodies, viremia and fecal virus shedding. All five pigs in group 3 inoculated with genotype 4 human HEV also became infected: fecal virus shedding and viremia were detected variably from 7 to 56 dpi, and seroconversion occurred by 28 dpi. The data indicated that genotype 4 human HEV has an expanded host range, and the results have important implications for understanding the natural history and zoonosis of HEV. PMID:18551597

  3. Estimating the risk of parvovirus B19 infection in blood donors and pregnant women in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Nabae

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seroepidemiological study of parvovirus B19 has not taken place for some 20 years in Japan. To estimate the risk of parvovirus B19 infection in Japan among blood donors and pregnant women in this century, a seroepidemiological survey and statistical modeling of the force of infection were conducted. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The time- and age-specific seroprevalence data were suggestive of strong age-dependency in the risk of infection. Employing a piecewise constant model, the highest forces of infection of 0.05 and 0.12 per year were observed among those aged 0-4 and 5-9 years, respectively, while estimates among older individuals were less than 0.01 per year. Analyzing the antigen detection data among blood donors, the age-specific proportion positive was highest among those aged 30-39 years, agreeing with the presence of dip in seroprevalence in this age-group. Among pregnant women, up to 107 fetal deaths and 21 hydrops fetalis were estimated to have occurred annually across Japan. CONCLUSIONS: Seroepidemiological profiles of PVB19 infection in Japan was characterized with particular emphasis on the risk of infection in blood donors and the burden of infection among pregnant women. When a vaccine becomes available in the future, a similar seroepidemiological study is expected to play a key role in planning the appropriate immunization policy.

  4. Genotype-Specific Regulation of Oral Innate Immunity by T2R38 Taste Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Sucheol; Coldwell, Susan; Drury, Jeanie L.; Arroyo, Fabiola; Phi, Tran; Saadat, Sanaz; Kwong, Danny; Chung, Whasun Oh

    2015-01-01

    The bitter taste receptor T2R38 has been shown to regulate mucosal innate immune responses in the upper airway epithelium. Furthermore, SNPs in T2R38 influence the sensitivity to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and are associated with caries risk/protection. However, no study has been reported on the role of T2R38 in the innate immune responses to oral bacteria. We hypothesize that T2R38 regulates oral innate immunity and that this regulation is genotype-specific. Primary gingival epithelial cells carrying three common genotypes, PAV/PAV (PROP super-taster), AVI/PAV (intermediate) and AVI/AVI (non-taster) were stimulated with cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans, periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis or non-pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum. QRT-PCR analyzed T2R38 mRNA, and T2R38-specific siRNA and ELISA were utilized to evaluate induction of hBD-2 (antimicrobial peptide), IL-1α and IL-8 in various donor-lines. Experiments were set up in duplicate and repeated three times. T2R38 mRNA induction in response to S. mutans was highest in PAV/PAV (4.3-fold above the unstimulated controls; p<0.05), while lowest in AVI/AVI (1.2-fold). In PAV/PAV, hBD-2 secretion in response to S. mutans was decreased by 77% when T2R38 was silenced. IL-1α secretion was higher in PAV/PAV compared to AVI/PAV or AVI/AVI with S. mutans stimulation, but it was reduced by half when T2R38 was silenced (p<0.05). In response to P. gingivalis, AVI/AVI showed 4.4-fold increase (p<0.05) in T2R38 expression, whereas the levels in PAV/PAV and AVI/PAV remained close to that of the controls. Secretion levels of IL-1α and IL-8 decreased in AVI/AVI in response to P. gingivalis when T2R38 was silenced (p<0.05), while the changes were not significant in PAV/PAV. Our data suggest that the regulation of gingival innate immunity by T2R38 is genotype-dependent and that the ability to induce a high level of hBD-2 by PAV/PAV carriers may be a reason for protection against caries in this group. PMID

  5. Aplastic crisis due to human parvovirus B19 infection in hereditary hemolytic anaemia Crise aplástica devido à infecção por parvovirus humano B19 em anemia hemolítica hereditária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. N. Cubel

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Specific anti-B19 IgM was demonstrated in sera from three children showing transient aplastic crisis. A two years-old boy living in Rio de Janeiro suffering from sickle-cell anaemia showed the crisis during August, 1990. Two siblings living in Santa Maria, RS, developed aplastic crisis during May, 1991, when they were also diagnosed for hereditary spherocytosis. For a third child from this same family, who first developed aplastic crisis no IgM anti-B19 was detected in her sera.IgM específica anti-B19 foi demonstrada nos soros de três crianças apresentando aplasia transitória de medula. Um menino de dois anos de idade vivendo no Rio de Janeiro e sendo portador de anemia falciforme, apresentou a crise durante Agosto de 1990. Dois irmãos vivendo em Santa Maria - RS, desenvolveram crise de aplasia em Maio de 1991, quando foram também diagnosticados como portadores de microesferocitose. IgM anti-B19 não foi detectada no soro de uma terceira criança, desta mesma família, a qual primeiramente apresentou crise de aplasia.

  6. Quantification of Parvovirus B19 DNA Using COBAS AmpliPrep Automated Sample Preparation and LightCycler Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorling, Stefan; Schalasta, Gunnar; Enders, Gisela; Zauke, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The COBAS AmpliPrep instrument (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, D-68305 Mannheim, Germany) automates the entire sample preparation process of nucleic acid isolation from serum or plasma for polymerase chain reaction analysis. We report the analytical performance of the LightCycler Parvovirus B19 Quantification Kit (Roche Diagnostics) using nucleic acids isolated with the COBAS AmpliPrep instrument. Nucleic acids were extracted using the Total Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit (Roche Diagnostics) and amplified with the LightCycler Parvovirus B19 Quantification Kit. The kit combination processes 72 samples per 8-hour shift. The lower detection limit is 234 IU/ml at a 95% hit-rate, linear range approximately 104-1010 IU/ml, and overall precision 16 to 40%. Relative sensitivity and specificity in routine samples from pregnant women are 100% and 93%, respectively. Identification of a persistent parvovirus B19-infected individual by the polymerase chain reaction among 51 anti-parvovirus B19 IgM-negative samples underlines the importance of additional nucleic acid testing in pregnancy and its superiority to serology in identifying the risk of parvovirus B19 transmission via blood or blood products. Combination of the Total Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit on the COBAS AmpliPrep instrument with the LightCycler Parvovirus B19 Quantification Kit provides a reliable and time-saving tool for sensitive and accurate detection of parvovirus B19 DNA. PMID:14736825

  7. Molecular Diagnosis of Brettanomyces bruxellensis’ Sulfur Dioxide Sensitivity Through Genotype Specific Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Avramova

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The yeast species Brettanomyces bruxellensis is associated with important economic losses due to red wine spoilage. The most common method to prevent and/or control B. bruxellensis spoilage in winemaking is the addition of sulfur dioxide into must and wine. However, recently, it was reported that some B. bruxellensis strains could be tolerant to commonly used doses of SO2. In this work, B. bruxellensis response to SO2 was assessed in order to explore the relationship between SO2 tolerance and genotype. We selected 145 isolates representative of the genetic diversity of the species, and from different fermentation niches (roughly 70% from grape wine fermentation environment, and 30% from beer, ethanol, tequila, kombucha, etc.. These isolates were grown in media harboring increasing sulfite concentrations, from 0 to 0.6 mg.L-1 of molecular SO2. Three behaviors were defined: sensitive strains showed longer lag phase and slower growth rate and/or lower maximum population size in presence of increasing concentrations of SO2. Tolerant strains displayed increased lag phase, but maximal growth rate and maximal population size remained unchanged. Finally, resistant strains showed no growth variation whatever the SO2 concentrations. 36% (52/145 of B. bruxellensis isolates were resistant or tolerant to sulfite, and up to 43% (46/107 when considering only wine isolates. Moreover, most of the resistant/tolerant strains belonged to two specific genetic groups, allowing the use of microsatellite genotyping to predict the risk of sulfur dioxide resistance/tolerance with high reliability (>90%. Such molecular diagnosis could help the winemakers to adjust antimicrobial techniques and efficient spoilage prevention with minimal intervention.

  8. Human parvovirus B19 infection in HIV-positive patients Infecção por parvovirus humano B19 em pacientes HIV-positivos

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    Fábio S. Aguiar

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 infects predominantly erythroid cells, leading to transient inhibition of erythropoiesis. Immunocompromised patients may be unable to produce neutralizing antibodies and may develop severe chronic anemia. Epidemiological studies done on Niterói population showed that B19 infection occurs periodically in late spring and summer. We report a study from 55 HIV infected patients attending an infectious diseases outpatient clinic in this city during a 5-month period in which B19 circulation was well documented. All patients were under anti-retroviral therapy. No anti-B19 IgM was found, but a high prevalence of IgG anti-B19 (91% was observed. In six patients, B19 DNA was found by dot-blot hybridization techniques, but this was not confirmed by PCR. None of these 6 patients manifested anemia and only one had CD4 cell count below 200 x 10(7/L. We conclude that persistent infection causing anemia is an infrequent finding in our HIV positive patients under drug therapy.O parvovírus B19 infecta predominantemente células eritróides, causando inibição transitória da eritropoiese. Pacientes imunocomprometidos podem ser incapazes de produzir anticorpos neutralizantes, evoluindo com grave anemia crônica. Estudos epidemiológicos da população de Niterói mostraram que a infecção ocorre periodicamente no final da primavera e no verão. Descrevem-se 55 pacientes infectados pelo HIV atendidos num ambulatório de doenças infecciosas nesta cidade num período de cinco meses, no qual a circulação do parvovírus B19 foi documentada. Todos os pacientes estavam sob terapia anti-retroviral. Não se encontrou IgM anti-B19, mas notou-se uma prevalência alta de IgG anti-B19 (91%. Em seis pacientes verificou-se a presença de DNA do B19 por hibridização em dot-blot, o que não se confirmou por PCR. Nenhum destes seis pacientes tinha anemia, e apenas um tinha células CD4 abaixo de 200 x 10(7/L. Conclui-se que infecção persistente causando

  9. Parvovirus B19 infection in hospital workers: community or hospital acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, S F; Török, T J; Thorp, J A; Hedrick, J; Erdman, D D; Zaki, S R; Hinkle, C J; Bayer, W L; Anderson, L J

    1995-10-01

    A suspected nosocomial outbreak of parvovirus B19 infection in a maternity ward was investigated in February 1994. Questionnaires were administered and sera collected from maternity ward staff (n = 91), other ward staff in the same hospital (n = 101), and maternity ward staff at a nearby hospital (n = 81). Blood donors (n = 265) were used as community controls. Recent infection (parvovirus B19 IgM positivity) in susceptible persons (parvovirus B19 IgG-negative or IgM-positive) was common among all 4 groups (23%-30%). This high rate of recent infection occurred during a large community outbreak of fifth disease. Environmental samples collected from a room where a stillborn parvovirus B19-infected fetus was delivered were positive for parvovirus B19 DNA. Thus, this suspected nosocomial outbreak actually reflected transmission outside the hospital, but contaminated environmental surfaces were identified as one potential source for transmission of parvovirus B19.

  10. Genotype-Specific Concordance of Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection Within Heterosexual Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillinger, Julia A; Katz, Barry P; Markowitz, Lauri E; Braslins, Phillip G; Shrier, Lydia A; Madico, Guillermo; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Orr, Donald P; Rice, Peter A; Batteiger, Byron E

    2016-12-01

    Sexual transmission rates of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) cannot be measured directly; however, the study of concordance of Ct infection in sexual partnerships (dyads) can help to illuminate factors influencing Ct transmission. Heterosexual men and women with Ct infection and their sex partners were enrolled and partner-specific coital and behavioral data collected for the prior 30 days. Microbiological data included Ct culture, and nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), quantitative Ct polymerase chain reaction, and ompA genotyping. We measured Ct concordance in dyads and factors (correlates) associated with concordance. One hundred twenty-one women and 125 men formed 128 dyads. Overall, 72.9% of male partners of NAAT-positive women and 68.6% of female partners of NAAT-positive men were Ct-infected. Concordance was more common in dyads with culture-positive members (78.6% of male partners, 77% of female partners). Partners of women and men who were NAAT-positive only had lower concordance (33.3%, 46.4%, respectively). Women in concordant dyads had significantly higher median endocervical quantitative Ct polymerase chain reaction values (3,032) compared with CT-infected women in discordant dyads (1013 inclusion forming units DNA equivalents per mL; P model coitus-specific transmission probabilities.

  11. Seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 infection in patients with beta thalassemia major in Fayoum University Hospital

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    Mohamed E. Al Ghwass

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Parvovirus B19 infection is detected in high rates among children with beta thalassemia major. Measures to avoid iatrogenic and nosocomial transmission have to be implemented including screening of donated blood for B19 especially blood given to patients with hematological disorders. Also data from this study support the need for introduction of an approved B19 vaccine that primarily protects children with thalassemia major against that infection.

  12. Epidemiologic study of human parvovirus B19 infection in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lahong; Cai, Chengsong; Pan, Feng; Hong, Liquan; Luo, Xian; Hu, Sha; Xu, Jiali; Chen, Zhaojun

    2016-07-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection causes a number of diseases in humans, and, in some circumstances, can be life threatening. To understand the epidemiology of B19V infection in the greater metropolitan area of Hangzhou, East China, we performed surveys of IgM and IgG antibodies against B19V and quantification of B19V DNA, by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative PCR, respectively, in plasma samples from diverse groups. These groups included anemia patients, Mycoplasma pneumonia- and Treponema pallidum-infected patients, HIV-positive individuals, and healthy blood donor volunteers. Our results demonstrated a low level of B19V IgG antibody presence, ranging from 21.9% to 41.8% in all the groups tested, suggesting a low prevalence of B19V infection in the area. Of note, we found that two healthy blood donors and one Mycoplasma pneumonia-infected patient had B19V IgM antibody among 1,290 plasma samples tested. The Mycoplasma pneumonia-infected patient had viremia with viral genome copies of 2.86 × 10(6) per ml of plasma. We detected a high rate of B19V DNA (7.1%) in HIV-positive injection drug users. Importantly, an amino acid mutation of P558S in the large non-structural protein NS1 was identified to be conserved among 14 B19V isolates from the HIV-positive group but not in the B19V isolate of the Mycoplasma pneumonia-infected patient, representing a hallmark of B19V isolates that circulate in HIV1-positive patients in the greater metropolitan area of Hangzhou, East China. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Parvovirus B19 in the Context of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Evaluating Cell Donors and Recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Gama, Bianca E.; Emmel, Vanessa E.; Oliveira-Silva, Michelle; Gutiyama, Luciana M.; Arcuri, Leonardo; Colares, Marta; de Cássia Tavares, Rita; Bouzas, Luis F.; Abdelhay, Eliana; Hassan, Rocio

    2017-01-01

    Background. Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a common human pathogen, member of the family Parvoviridae. Typically, B19V has been found to infect erythroid progenitors and cause hematological disorders, such as anemia and aplastic crisis. However, the persistence of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been demonstrated in tonsils, liver, skin, brain, synovial, and testicular tissues as well as bone marrow, for both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Although the molecular and cellular mechani...

  14. Impact of Parvovirus B19 Viremia in Liver Transplanted Children on Anemia: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würdinger, Michael; Modrow, Susanne; Plentz, Annelie

    2017-06-13

    Acute parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection in immunocompromised patients may lead to severe anemia. However, in adult transplant recipients, B19V reactivations without anemia and low-level viremia are common. The impact of B19V in pediatric transplant patients, with high risk of primary infection, is investigated here. In a six-month period, 159 blood samples of 54 pediatric liver transplant recipients were tested for B19V DNA by quantitative real-time PCR. Viremia was correlated with anemia and immunosuppression and compared with rates in adult transplant recipients. B19V DNA was detected in 5/54 patients. Primary B19V infections were observed in four patients prior to and in one patient after transplantation. Rates of viremia were significantly higher in pediatric recipients than in adults. Prolonged virus shedding after primary infection prior to transplantation accounts for most viremic cases. Anemia was significantly more frequent in samples from viremic patients, but remained mild. In 15% of anemic samples, B19V DNA was detected. Therefore, in anemic pediatric transplant recipients, diagnostics for B19V seem reasonable.

  15. Acute encephalitis and encephalopathy associated with human parvovirus B19 infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toru; Kawashima, Hideshi

    2015-11-08

    Reports of neurologic manifestations of human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection have been on the rise. Acute encephalitis and encephalopathy is the most common, accounting for 38.8% of total B19-associated neurological manifestations. To date, 34 children with B19 encephalitis and encephalopathy have been reported, which includes 21 encephalitis and 13 encephalopathy cases. Ten (29%) were immunocompromised and 17 (39%) had underlying diseases. Fever at the onset of disease and rash presented in 44.1% and 20.6% of patients, respectively. Neurological manifestations include alteration of consciousness occurred in all patients, seizures in 15 (44.1%) patients, and focal neurologic signs in 12 (35.3%) patients. Anemia and pleocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) occurred in 56.3% and 48.1% of patients, respectively. Serum Anti-B19 IgM (82.6%) and CSF B19 DNA (90%) were positive in the majority of cases. Some patients were treated with intravenous immunoglobulins and/or steroids, although an accurate evaluation of the efficacy of these treatment modalities cannot be determined. Nineteen (57.6%) patients recovered completely, 11 (33.3%) patients had some neurological sequelae and 3 (8.8%) patients died. Although the precise pathogenesis underlying the development of B19 encephalitis and encephalopathy is unclear, direct B19 infection or NS1protein of B19 toxicity in the brain, and immune-mediated brain injuries have been proposed.

  16. Impact of Parvovirus B19 Viremia in Liver Transplanted Children on Anemia: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würdinger, Michael; Modrow, Susanne; Plentz, Annelie

    2017-01-01

    Acute parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection in immunocompromised patients may lead to severe anemia. However, in adult transplant recipients, B19V reactivations without anemia and low-level viremia are common. The impact of B19V in pediatric transplant patients, with high risk of primary infection, is investigated here. In a six-month period, 159 blood samples of 54 pediatric liver transplant recipients were tested for B19V DNA by quantitative real-time PCR. Viremia was correlated with anemia and immunosuppression and compared with rates in adult transplant recipients. B19V DNA was detected in 5/54 patients. Primary B19V infections were observed in four patients prior to and in one patient after transplantation. Rates of viremia were significantly higher in pediatric recipients than in adults. Prolonged virus shedding after primary infection prior to transplantation accounts for most viremic cases. Anemia was significantly more frequent in samples from viremic patients, but remained mild. In 15% of anemic samples, B19V DNA was detected. Therefore, in anemic pediatric transplant recipients, diagnostics for B19V seem reasonable. PMID:28608818

  17. Down-Regulation of Na+/K+ ATPase Activity by Human Parvovirus B19 Capsid Protein VP1

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    Ahmad Almilaji

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Human parvovirus B19 (B19V may cause inflammatory cardiomyopathy (iCMP which is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction. The B19V capsid protein VP1 contains a lysophosphatidylcholine producing phospholipase A2 (PLA sequence. Lysophosphatidylcholine has in turn been shown to inhibit Na+/K+ ATPase. The present study explored whether VP1 modifies Na+/K+ ATPase activity. Methods: Xenopus oocytes were injected with cRNA encoding VP1 isolated from a patient suffering from fatal B19V-iCMP or cRNA encoding PLA2-negative VP1 mutant (H153A and K+ induced pump current (Ipump as well as ouabain-inhibited current (Iouabain both reflecting Na+/K+-ATPase activity were determined by dual electrode voltage clamp. Results: Injection of cRNA encoding VP1, but not of VP1(H153A or water, was followed by a significant decrease of both, Ipump and Iouabain in Xenopus oocytes. The effect was not modified by inhibition of transcription with actinomycin (10 µM for 36 hours but was abrogated in the presence of PLA2 specific blocker 4-bromophenacylbromide (50 µM and was mimicked by lysophosphatidylcholine (0.5 - 1 µg/ml. According to whole cell patch clamp, lysophosphatidylcholine (1 µg /ml similarly decreased Ipump in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC. Conclusion: The B19V capsid protein VP1 is a powerful inhibitor of host cell Na+/K+ ATPase, an effect at least partially due to phospholipase A2 (PLA2 dependent formation of lysophosphatidylcholine.

  18. [Detection of human parvovirus B19, human bocavirus and human parvovirus 4 infections in blood samples among 95 patients with liver disease in Nanjing by nested PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Rui; Zhou, Wei-Min; Liu, Xi-Jun; Wang, Yue; Lou, Yong-Liang; Tan, Wen-Jie

    2013-04-01

    To analyze the infection of human parvovirus B19, human bocavirus (HBoV) and human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) in blood samples among patients with liver disease in Nanjing by molecular detection. Nested PCR assays were designed and validated to detect B19, HBoV and PARV4, respectively. The assays were used to screen three parvoviruses in blood samples from 95 patients with different liver disease in Nanjing. The parvovirus infection was analyzed statistically. The detection limits were 10 copies of genomic DNA equivalents per reaction for each assays and the good specificity were observed. The frequency of B19 and HBoV were 2/95 (2.1%) and 9/95 (9.5%) in blood samples respectively. No PARV4 was detected. HBoV was detected in 3/5 patients with drug-induced hepatitis. Both B19 and HBoV infection were detected in blood from patients with liver disease.

  19. The presence of enterovirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus B19 in myocardial tissue samples from autopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Skov; Hansen, Jakob; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2014-01-01

    of adenovirus, enterovirus, and parvovirus B19 (PVB) in myocardial autopsy samples from myocarditis related deaths and in non-inflamed control hearts in an effort to clarify their significance as the causes of myocarditis in a forensic material. METHODS: We collected all autopsy cases diagnosed with myocarditis...... from 1992 to 2010. Eighty-four suicidal deaths with morphologically normal hearts served as controls. Polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of the viral genomes (adenovirus, enterovirus, and PVB) in myocardial tissue specimens. The distinction between acute and persistent PVB infection...... was made by the serological determination of PVB-specific immunoglobulins M and G. RESULTS: PVB was detected in 33 of 112 (29 %) myocarditis cases and 37 of 84 (44 %) control cases. All of the samples were negative for the presence of adenovirus and enterovirus. Serological evidence of an acute PVB...

  20. Human Parvovirus B19 Utilizes Cellular DNA Replication Machinery for Viral DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Wang, Zekun; Xiong, Min; Chen, Aaron Yun; Xu, Peng; Ganaie, Safder S; Badawi, Yomna; Kleiboeker, Steve; Nishimune, Hiroshi; Ye, Shui Qing; Qiu, Jianming

    2018-03-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection of human erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) induces a DNA damage response and cell cycle arrest at late S phase, which facilitates viral DNA replication. However, it is not clear exactly which cellular factors are employed by this single-stranded DNA virus. Here, we used microarrays to systematically analyze the dynamic transcriptome of EPCs infected with B19V. We found that DNA metabolism, DNA replication, DNA repair, DNA damage response, cell cycle, and cell cycle arrest pathways were significantly regulated after B19V infection. Confocal microscopy analyses revealed that most cellular DNA replication proteins were recruited to the centers of viral DNA replication, but not the DNA repair DNA polymerases. Our results suggest that DNA replication polymerase δ and polymerase α are responsible for B19V DNA replication by knocking down its expression in EPCs. We further showed that although RPA32 is essential for B19V DNA replication and the phosphorylated forms of RPA32 colocalized with the replicating viral genomes, RPA32 phosphorylation was not necessary for B19V DNA replication. Thus, this report provides evidence that B19V uses the cellular DNA replication machinery for viral DNA replication. IMPORTANCE Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection can cause transient aplastic crisis, persistent viremia, and pure red cell aplasia. In fetuses, B19V infection can result in nonimmune hydrops fetalis and fetal death. These clinical manifestations of B19V infection are a direct outcome of the death of human erythroid progenitors that host B19V replication. B19V infection induces a DNA damage response that is important for cell cycle arrest at late S phase. Here, we analyzed dynamic changes in cellular gene expression and found that DNA metabolic processes are tightly regulated during B19V infection. Although genes involved in cellular DNA replication were downregulated overall, the cellular DNA replication machinery was tightly

  1. The role of parvovirus B19 in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jonathan R

    2016-04-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is a single-stranded DNA virus which preferentially targets the erythroblasts in the bone marrow. B19 infection commonly causes erythema infectiosum, arthralgia, fetal death, transient aplastic crisis in patients with shortened red cell survival, and persistent infection in people who are immunocompromised. Less common clinical manifestations include atypical skin rashes, neurological syndromes, cardiac syndromes, and various cytopenias. B19 infection has also been associated with development of a variety of different autoimmune diseases, including rheumatological, neurological, neuromuscular, cardiovascular, haematological, nephrological and metabolic. Production of a variety of autoantibodies has been demonstrated to occur during B19 infection and these have been shown to be key to the pathogenesis of the particular disease process in a significant number of cases, for example, production of rheumatoid factor in cases of B19-associated rheumatoid arthritis and production of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in patients with B19-associated type 1 diabetes mellitus. B19 infection has also been associated with the development of multiple autoimmune diseases in 12 individuals. Documented mechanisms in B19-associated autoimmunity include molecular mimicry (IgG antibody to B19 proteins has been shown to cross react with a variety of recognised human autoantigens, including collagen II, keratin, angiotensin II type 1 receptor, myelin basic protein, cardiolipin, and platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb/IIIa), B19-induced apoptosis with presentation of self-antigens to T lymphocytes, and the phospholipase activity of the B19 unique VP1 protein. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. MAPA distinguishes genotype-specific variability of highly similar regulatory protein isoforms in potato tuber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang; Larhlimi, Abdelhalim; Hummel, Jan; Egelhofer, Volker; Selbig, Joachim; van Dongen, Joost T; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2011-07-01

    Mass Accuracy Precursor Alignment is a fast and flexible method for comparative proteome analysis that allows the comparison of unprecedented numbers of shotgun proteomics analyses on a personal computer in a matter of hours. We compared 183 LC-MS analyses and more than 2 million MS/MS spectra and could define and separate the proteomic phenotypes of field grown tubers of 12 tetraploid cultivars of the crop plant Solanum tuberosum. Protein isoforms of patatin as well as other major gene families such as lipoxygenase and cysteine protease inhibitor that regulate tuber development were found to be the primary source of variability between the cultivars. This suggests that differentially expressed protein isoforms modulate genotype specific tuber development and the plant phenotype. We properly assigned the measured abundance of tryptic peptides to different protein isoforms that share extensive stretches of primary structure and thus inferred their abundance. Peptides unique to different protein isoforms were used to classify the remaining peptides assigned to the entire subset of isoforms based on a common abundance profile using multivariate statistical procedures. We identified nearly 4000 proteins which we used for quantitative functional annotation making this the most extensive study of the tuber proteome to date.

  3. Investigating genotype specific response in photosynthetic behavior under drought stress and nitrogen limitation in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleban, J. R.; Mackay, D. S.; Ewers, B. E.; Weinig, C.; Aston, T.

    2015-12-01

    Challenges in terrestrial ecosystem modeling include characterizing the impact of stress on vegetation and the heterogeneous behavior of different species within the environment. In an effort to address these challenges the impacts of drought and nutrient limitation on the CO2 assimilation of multiple genotypes of Brassica rapa was investigated using the Farquhar Model (FM) of photosynthesis following a Bayesian parameterization and updating scheme. Leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements from an unstressed group (well-watered/well-fertilized) and two stressed groups (drought/well-fertilized and well-watered/nutrient limited) were used to estimate FM model parameters. Unstressed individuals were used to initialize Bayesian parameter estimation. Posterior mean estimates yielded a close fit with data as observed assimilation (An) closely matched predicted (Ap) with mean standard error for all individuals ranging from 0.8 to 3.1 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Posterior parameter distributions of the unstressed individuals were combined and fit to distributions to establish species level Bayesian priors of FM parameters for testing stress responses. Species level distributions of unstressed group identified mean maximum rates of carboxylation standardized to 25° (Vcmax25) as 101.8 μmol m-2 s-1 (± 29.0) and mean maximum rates of electron transport standardized to 25° (Jmax25) as 319.7 μmol m-2 s-1 (± 64.4). These updated priors were used to test the response of drought and nutrient limitations on assimilation. In the well-watered/nutrient limited group a decrease of 28.0 μmol m-2 s-1 was observed in mean estimate of Vcmax25, a decrease of 27.9 μmol m-2 s-1 in Jmax25 and a decrease in quantum yield from 0.40 mol photon/mol e- in unstressed individuals to 0.14 in the nutrient limited group. In the drought/well-fertilized group a decrease was also observed in Vcmax25 and Jmax25. The genotype specific unstressed and stressed responses were then used to

  4. 32 CFR 806b.19 - Information compiled in anticipation of civil action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information compiled in anticipation of civil action. 806b.19 Section 806b.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR... compiled in anticipation of civil action. Withhold records compiled in connection with a civil action or...

  5. [Prevalence of Parvovirus B19 Infection in Chinese Xiamen Area Blood Donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shan-Hai; Xie, Jin-Zhen; Zhang, Ya-Li; Ni, Hong-Ying; Song, Xiu-Yu

    2016-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of parvovirus B19 infection in Chinese Xiamen area blood donors. Blood samples from blood donors were tested for detection of parvovirus B19 DNA and antibody. The direct sequencing and genetype analysis of B19 DNA positive samples were performed. Six out of 10452 samples were B19 DNA positive. The viral loads of the 6 samples were between 3.59×10 2 -1.07×10 4 IU/ml; the positive rate of B19-IgM was 4.64%(50/1078) and B19-IgG was 16.79%(181/1078). The positive rate of B19-IgG increased with ages, and was not related with the sex. The overall prevalence of parvovirus B19 infection in blood donors is lower in Chinese Xiamen area than that in other areas, however, there is still a certain percentage of viremia in donors and the attention should be paid to blood safety in the future work.

  6. Long-term outcome after fetal transfusion for hydrops associated with parvovirus B19 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Hélène T. C.; de Haan, Timo R.; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.; Oepkes, Dick; Walther, Frans J.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate neurodevelopmental status of children treated with intrauterine red blood cell and platelet transfusion for fetal hydrops caused by parvovirus B19. Maternal and neonatal records of all intrauterine transfusions for congenital parvovirus B19 infection in our center between 1997 and 2005

  7. Population-based study on the seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijckevorsel, G. G. C.; Sonder, G. J. B.; Schim van der Loeff, M. F.; van den Hoek, J. A. R.

    2009-01-01

    A study was undertaken to estimate the seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 infection in the general adult population of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. To our knowledge this is the first study testing parvovirus B19 in a random sample of the Dutch adult population. The study was a cross-sectional survey,

  8. Parvovirus B19 integration into human CD36+ erythroid progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovitz, Tyler; Wong, Susan; Young, Neal S; Oliveira, Thiago; Falck-Pedersen, Erik

    2017-11-01

    The pathogenic autonomous human parvovirus B19 (B19V) productively infects erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs). Functional similarities between B19V nonstructural protein (NS1), a DNA binding endonuclease, and the Rep proteins of Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) led us to hypothesize that NS1 may facilitate targeted nicking of the human genome and B19 vDNA integration. We adapted an integration capture sequencing protocol (IC-Seq) to screen B19V infected human CD36+ EPCs for viral integrants, and discovered 40,000 unique B19V integration events distributed throughout the human genome. Computational analysis of integration patterns revealed strong correlations with gene intronic regions, H3K9me3 sites, and the identification of 41 base pair consensus sequence with an octanucleotide core motif. The octanucleotide core has homology to a single region of B19V, adjacent to the P6 promoter TATA box. We present the first direct evidence that B19V infection of erythroid progenitor cells disrupts the human genome and facilitates viral DNA integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genotype-Specific Clearance of Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infections among Mothers in the Finnish Family HPV Study▿

    OpenAIRE

    Louvanto, Karolina; Syrjänen, Kari J.; Rintala, Marjut A. M.; Grénman, Seija E.; Syrjänen, Stina M.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young women are transient, but whether the clearance differs among different HPV genotypes and the different factors predicting genotype-specific clearance are partly unknown. In the Finnish Family HPV Study, 131 of 252 women (mean age, 25.5 years) cleared their infection during the prospective follow-up of 6 years (median, 62.4 months; range, 1.6 to 94.5 months). Cervical scrapings collected at each visit were tested for 24 lo...

  10. Neurological aspects of human parvovirus B19 infection: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barah, Faraj; Whiteside, Sigrid; Batista, Sonia; Morris, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 has been linked with various clinical syndromes including neurological manifestations. However, its role in the latter remains not completely understood. Although the last 10 years witnessed a surge of case reports on B19-associated neurological aspects, the literature data remains scattered and heterogeneous, and epidemiological information on the incidence of B19-associated neurological aspects cannot be accurately extrapolated. The aim of this review is to identify the characteristics of cases of B19-associated neurological manifestations. A computerized systematic review of existing literature concerning cases of B19-related neurological aspects revealed 89 articles describing 129 patients; 79 (61.2%) were associated with CNS manifestations, 41 (31.8%) were associated with peripheral nervous system manifestations, and 9 (7.0%) were linked with myalgic encephalomyelitis. The majority of the cases (50/129) had encephalitis. Clinical characteristic features of these cases were analyzed, and possible pathological mechanisms were also described. In conclusion, B19 should be included in differential diagnosis of encephalitic syndromes of unknown etiology in all age groups. Diagnosis should rely on investigation of anti-B19 IgM antibodies and detection of B19 DNA in serum or CSF. Treatment of severe cases might benefit from a combined regime of intravenous immunoglobulins and steroids. To confirm these outcomes, goal-targeted studies are recommended to exactly identify epidemiological scenarios and explore potential pathogenic mechanisms of these complications. Performing retrospective and prospective and multicenter studies concerning B19 and neurological aspects in general, and B19 and encephalitic syndromes in particular, are required. © 2014 The Authors. Reviews in Medical Virology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24459081

  11. Chloroquine and its derivatives exacerbate B19V-associated anemia by promoting viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bönsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An unexpectedly high seroprevalence and pathogenic potential of human parvovirus B19 (B19V have been observed in certain malaria-endemic countries in parallel with local use of chloroquine (CQ as first-line treatment for malaria. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of CQ and other common antimalarial drugs on B19V infection in vitro and the possible epidemiological consequences for children from Papua New Guinea (PNG. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Viral RNA, DNA and proteins were analyzed in different cell types following infection with B19V in the presence of a range of antimalarial drugs. Relationships between B19V infection status, prior 4-aminoquinoline use and anemia were assessed in 200 PNG children <10 years of age participating in a case-control study of severe infections. In CQ-treated cells, the synthesis of viral RNA, DNA and proteins was significantly higher and occurred earlier than in control cells. CQ facilitates B19V infection by minimizing intracellular degradation of incoming particles. Only amodiaquine amongst other antimalarial drugs had a similar effect. B19V IgM seropositivity was more frequent in 111 children with severe anemia (hemoglobin <50 g/L than in 89 healthy controls (15.3% vs 3.4%; P = 0.008. In children who were either B19V IgM or PCR positive, 4-aminoquinoline use was associated with a significantly lower admission hemoglobin concentration. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data strongly suggest that 4-aminoquinoline drugs and their metabolites exacerbate B19V-associated anemia by promoting B19V replication. Consideration should be given for choosing a non-4-aminoquinoline drug to partner artemisinin compounds in combination antimalarial therapy.

  12. Detection of cytomegalovirus, human parvovirus B19, and herpes simplex virus-1/2 in women with first-trimester spontaneous abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ya; Bian, Guohui; Zhou, Qiongxiu; Gao, Zhan; Liao, Pu; Liu, Yu; He, Miao

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between viral infections and first-trimester spontaneous abortions is not well-understood. The study aim was to investigate the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV), human parvovirus B19 (B19V), and herpes simplex virus-1/2 (HSV-1/2) infection by molecular and serological techniques in women experiencing spontaneous miscarriage in the first trimester of pregnancy. Plasma samples were examined for CMV, B19V, and HSV-1/2 DNA using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time qPCR), and for specific IgG antibodies against B19V, CMV, and HSV-1/2 using serological assays. The abortion group consisted of women (n = 1,716) with a history of two or more first-trimester spontaneous abortions. Women younger than 30 years possess higher portion to experience spontaneous abortion. No specimens were positive for B19V or CMV DNA. Seven out of the 1,716 specimens were positive for HSV-1/2 DNA. By serology, 47.24% of patients were positive for B19V IgG, 39.66% for HSV IgG, 79.31% for CMV IgG, and 9.31% for B19V IgM. The high rate of positivity for CMV IgG suggests that the majority of women with first-trimester spontaneous abortions are not susceptible to primary CMV infection. The lack of virus DNA in the majority of cases indicates that B19V, CMV, and HSV-1/2 infection is not commonly associated with first-trimester spontaneous abortion. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Parvovirus B19 infection presenting with severe erythroid aplastic crisis during pregnancy in a woman with autoimmune hemolytic anemia and alpha-thalassemia trait: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Ching; Chen, Chin-Shan; Wang, Wei-Yao; Ma, Jui-Shan; Shu, Hwei-Fan; Fan, Frank S

    2015-03-12

    Parvovirus B19 virus commonly causes subclinical infection, but it can prove fatal to the fetus during pregnancy and cause severe anemia in an adult with hemolytic diseases. We present the case of a woman with autoimmune hemolytic anemia who was diagnosed with parvovirus B19-induced transient aplastic crisis during her second trimester of pregnancy and faced the high risk of both fetal and maternal complications related to this specific viral infection. To the best of our knowledge, the experience of successful intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for B19 virus infection during pregnancy, as in our case, is limited. A 28-year-old and 20-week pregnant Chinese woman with genetically confirmed alpha-thalassemia trait was diagnosed with cold antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia and suffered from transient aplastic crisis caused by B19 virus infection. She received intravenous immunoglobulin treatment to reduce the risk of hydrops fetalis. Her peripheral blood reticulocyte percentage recovered, but anemia persisted, so she underwent several courses of high dose intravenous dexamethasone for controlling her underlying hemolytic problem. Finally, her hemoglobin levels remained stable with no need of erythrocyte transfusion, and a healthy baby boy was naturally delivered. Parvovirus B19 virus infection should be considered when a sudden exacerbation of anemia occurs in a patient with hemolytic disease, and the possible fetal complications caused by maternal B19 virus infection during pregnancy should not be ignored. Close monitoring and adequate management can keep both mother and fetus safe.

  14. [Human parvovirus B19 infection which first presented with petechial hemorrhage, followed by papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome and erythema infectiosum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Atsuo; Umezawa, Remi; Kurosawa, Rumiko; Kajigaya, Yasuhiko

    2002-11-01

    A case of human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection is reported. A 6-year-old previously healthy girl was admitted to our hospital complaining of slight fever and petechial hemorrhage on her neck, trunk and the proximal parts of extremities. On admission, the platelet count was within normal range (180 x 10(3)/microliter) but white blood cells and reticulocytes were moderately suppressed (2.4 x 10(3)/microliter and 1@1000, respectively). The purpura disappeared in a week and the blood cell counts fully recovered without any specific treatment. Detection of B19 DNA and anti-B19 IgM antibody in the serum on admission led to the final diagnosis. Since the cellular receptor for B19, the blood group P antigen, is expressed on vascular endothelial cells as well as erythroid progenitor cells, the purpura was considered to be the result of direct vascular injury. She was very unique as she subsequently exhibited papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome and erythema infectiosum during follow-up. This case may provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of cutaneous manifestations of B19 infection.

  15. VP1u phospholipase activity is critical for infectivity of full-length parvovirus B19 genomic clones

    OpenAIRE

    Filippone, Claudia; Zhi, Ning; Wong, Susan; Lu, Jun; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Gallinella, Giorgio; Kakkola, Laura; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Young, Neal S.; Brown, Kevin E.

    2008-01-01

    Three full-length genomic clones (pB19-M20, pB19-FL and pB19-HG1) of parvovirus B19 were produced in different laboratories. pB19-M20 was shown to produce infectious virus. To determine the differences in infectivity, all three plasmids were tested by transfection and infection assays. All three clones were similar in viral DNA replication, RNA transcription, and viral capsid protein production. However, only pB19-M20 and pB19-HG1 produced infectious virus. Comparison of viral sequences showe...

  16. Different levels of food restriction reveal genotype-specific differences in learning a visual discrimination task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Makowiecki

    Full Text Available In behavioural experiments, motivation to learn can be achieved using food rewards as positive reinforcement in food-restricted animals. Previous studies reduce animal weights to 80-90% of free-feeding body weight as the criterion for food restriction. However, effects of different degrees of food restriction on task performance have not been assessed. We compared learning task performance in mice food-restricted to 80 or 90% body weight (BW. We used adult wildtype (WT; C57Bl/6j and knockout (ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice, previously shown to have a reverse learning deficit. Mice were trained in a two-choice visual discrimination task with food reward as positive reinforcement. When mice reached criterion for one visual stimulus (80% correct in three consecutive 10 trial sets they began the reverse learning phase, where the rewarded stimulus was switched to the previously incorrect stimulus. For the initial learning and reverse phase of the task, mice at 90%BW took almost twice as many trials to reach criterion as mice at 80%BW. Furthermore, WT 80 and 90%BW groups significantly differed in percentage correct responses and learning strategy in the reverse learning phase, whereas no differences between weight restriction groups were observed in ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice. Most importantly, genotype-specific differences in reverse learning strategy were only detected in the 80%BW groups. Our results indicate that increased food restriction not only results in better performance and a shorter training period, but may also be necessary for revealing behavioural differences between experimental groups. This has important ethical and animal welfare implications when deciding extent of diet restriction in behavioural studies.

  17. Enhanced specificity of TPMT*2 genotyping using unidirectional wild-type and mutant allele-specific scorpion primers in a single tube.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chen

    Full Text Available Genotyping of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT is recommended for predicting the adverse drug response of thiopurines. In the current study, a novel version of allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR, termed competitive real-time fluorescent AS-PCR (CRAS-PCR was developed to analyze the TPMT*2 genotype in ethnic Chinese. This technique simultaneously uses wild-type and mutant allele-specific scorpion primers in a single reaction. To determine the optimal conditions for both traditional AS-PCR and CRAS-PCR, we used the Taguchi method, an engineering optimization process that balances the concentrations of all components using an orthogonal array rather than a factorial array. Instead of running up to 264 experiments with the conventional factorial method, the Taguchi method achieved the same optimization using only 16 experiments. The optimized CRAS-PCR system completely avoided non-specific amplification occurring in traditional AS-PCR and could be performed at much more relaxed reaction conditions at 1% sensitivity, similar to traditional AS-PCR. TPMT*2 genotyping of 240 clinical samples was consistent with published data. In conclusion, CRAS-PCR is a novel and robust genotyping method, and the Taguchi method is an effective tool for the optimization of molecular analysis techniques.

  18. New view on the age-specificity of pig Cryptosporidium by species-specific primers for distinguishing Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeníková, M.; Němejc, K.; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Kváč, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 176, 2/3 (2011), 120-125 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP523/07/P117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cryptosporidium suis * Cryptosporidium pig genotype II * Mixed infection * Age-specificity * Species-specific primers Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2011

  19. Fruit metabolite networks in engineered and non-engineered tomato genotypes reveal fluidity in a hormone and agroecosystem specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Tahira; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Teasdale, John R; Kramer, Matthew; Bunce, Jim; Handa, Avtar K; Mattoo, Autar K

    Metabolomics provides a view of endogenous metabolic patterns not only during plant growth, development and senescence but also in response to genetic events, environment and disease. The effects of the field environment on plant hormone-specific metabolite profiles are largely unknown. Few studies have analyzed useful phenotypes generated by introducing single or multiple gene events alongside the non-engineered wild type control at field scale to determine the robustness of the genetic trait and its modulation in the metabolome as a function of specific agroecosystem environments. We evaluated the influence of genetic background (high polyamine lines; low methyl jasmonate line; low ethylene line; and isogenic genotypes carrying double transgenic events) and environments (hairy vetch, rye, plastic black mulch and bare soil mulching systems) on the metabolomic profile of isogenic reverse genetic mutations and selected mulch based cropping systems in tomato fruit. Net photosynthesis and fruit yield were also determined. NMR spectroscopy was used for quantifying metabolites that are central to primary metabolism. We analyzed both the first moment (means) of metabolic response to genotypes and agroecosystems by traditional univariate/multivariate methods, and the second moment (covariances) of responses by creating networks that depicted changes in correlations of paired metabolites. This particular approach is novel and was necessary because our experimental material yielded highly variable metabolic responses that could not be easily understood using the traditional analytical approaches for first moment statistics. High endogenous spermidine and spermine content exhibited strong effects on amino acids, Krebs cycle intermediates and energy molecules (ADP + ATP) in ripening fruits of plants grown under different agroecosystem environments. The metabolic response to high polyamine genotypes was similar to the response to hairy vetch cover crop mulch; supported by

  20. Transgenerational effects of mild heat in Arabidopsis thaliana show strong genotype specificity that is explained by climate at origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, Maartje P; Kubisch, Alexander; Ouborg, N Joop; Pagel, Jörn; Schmid, Karl J; Vergeer, Philippine; Lampei, Christian

    2017-08-01

    Transgenerational environmental effects can trigger strong phenotypic variation. However, it is unclear how cues from different preceding generations interact. Also, little is known about the genetic variation for these life history traits. Here, we present the effects of grandparental and parental mild heat, and their combination, on four traits of the third-generation phenotype of 14 Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes. We tested for correlations of these effects with climate and constructed a conceptual model to identify the environmental conditions that favour the parental effect on flowering time. We observed strong evidence for genotype-specific transgenerational effects. On average, A. thaliana accustomed to mild heat produced more seeds after two generations. Parental effects overruled grandparental effects in all traits except reproductive biomass. Flowering was generally accelerated by all transgenerational effects. Notably, the parental effect triggered earliest flowering in genotypes adapted to dry summers. Accordingly, this parental effect was favoured in the model when early summer heat terminated the growing season and environments were correlated across generations. Our results suggest that A. thaliana can partly accustom to mild heat over two generations and genotype-specific parental effects show non-random evolutionary divergence across populations that may support climate change adaptation in the Mediterranean. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. The plasma virome of febrile adult Kenyans shows frequent parvovirus B19 infections and a novel arbovirus (Kadipiro virus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoi, Carolyne N; Siqueira, Juliana; Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Mugo, Peter; Graham, Susan M; Price, Matt A; Sanders, Eduard J; Delwart, Eric

    2016-12-01

    Viral nucleic acids present in the plasma of 498 Kenyan adults with unexplained fever were characterized by metagenomics analysis of 51 sample pools. The highest to lowest fraction of plasma pools was positive for parvovirus B19 (75 %), pegivirus C (GBV-C) (67 %), alpha anellovirus (59 %), gamma anellovirus (55 %), beta anellovirus (41 %), dengue virus genotype 2 (DENV-2) (16 %), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (6 %), human herpesvirus 6 (6 %), HBV (4 %), rotavirus (4 %), hepatitis B virus (4 %), rhinovirus C (2 %), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV; 2 %) and Kadipiro virus (2 %). Ranking by overall percentage of viral reads yielded similar results. Characterization of viral nucleic acids in the plasma of a febrile East African population showed a high frequency of parvovirus B19 and DENV infections and detected a reovirus (Kadipiro virus) previously reported only in Asian Culex mosquitoes, providing a baseline to compare with future virome studies to detect emerging viruses in this region.

  2. No Definite Association between Human Parvovirus B19 Infection and Behçet Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibagahi, Mojtaba; Habibagahi, Zahra; Saidmardani, Said-Mostafa; Sadeghian, Faezeh

    2015-11-01

    The etiology of the Behçet disease (BD) has remained obscured. There have been studies to show the association of BD to infections like herpes simplex, hepatitis, and parvovirus B19 however, the findings are rather controversial. We selected 55 patients with the best matched symptoms of BD and measured the loads of B19 DNA in their plasma by quantitative real time PCR and verified their seropositivity by ELISA. All findings were compared to the results from 42 healthy persons. Patients showed a wide spectrum of BD symptoms. Serologic studies showed high prevalence of B19 IgG among the tested patients which was not statistically different with the healthy population (72.7% vs. 85.7%, respectively). Similarly, the prevalence of B19 IgM between patients and controls was not different (18% vs. 11.9%, respectively). No correlation was found between the presence of anti-B19 antibodies and the clinical observations. Only one person from the patient and control groups had detectable levels of B19 DNA without any difference or correlation with the disease symptoms. Our data could not establish an association between B19 parvovirus infection and Behçet disease, although there have been reports of such correlation. Nevertheless, there might be indirect relation in genetically susceptible individuals after viral infections. More studies on designed animal models and surveys on patients should be done to resolve this controversy.

  3. Severe anemia and hydrops in a neonate with parvovirus B19 infection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Sajjadian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia at the time of birth may cause some problem like asphyxia, heart failure shock or even death in a neonate. Different etiologies can be considered for this problem. Parvovirus B19, as a viral organism, can cause hydrops fetalis and neonatal anemia and consequent complications. We present here a case of newborn infant with severe anemia who had human parvovirus B19 infection.Case Presentation: A male newborn with gestational age of 36 week was born from a mother with poor prenatal care and history of contact with domestic animal. The neonate was very pale with Apgar score 2 at 1 min and received resuscitation, mechanical ventilation and repeated blood transfusion The hemoglobin level was significantly low. Analysis was made based on the clinical presentations. According to the case history, physical and laboratory findings, neonatal severe anemia induced by parvovirus B19 infection was suggested and Laboratory work up documented his infection with parovirus B19.Conclusion: Parvovirus B19 (B19 virus is the smallest single strand linear DNA virus in animal viruses, which is the only strain of parvovirus that is pathogenic in humans. Human parvovirus B19 may cross the placenta and result in fetal infection, morbidity and death. Parvovirus is an uncommon cause of neonatal anemia and hydrops fetalis so this etiology must be considered in differential diagnosis of anemia at birth.

  4. Human parvovirus B19 in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in Basrah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahem, Wijdan Nazar; Hasony, Hassan Jaber; Hassan, Jenan Ghulam

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association of human parvovirus B19 infection with the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and its effect on TEL-AML-1 fusion gene and the presence of mutant P53. The case-control study was conducted at Basrah Hospital for Paediatrics and Gynaecology, Basrah, Iraq, from May 2009 to April 2010. A total of 100 blood samples were collected from 40 newly diagnosed cases and 60 healthy children to serve as control matched by age and gender. Human parvovirus B19-IgG and anti-P53 antibody were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and TEL-AML-1 fusion gene was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on extracted ribonucleic acid from fresh blood samples using specified primers. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. A higher proportion of human parvovirus B19-positive cases was found in leukaemic patients (n=19; 47.5%) compared to 12 (20%) in the control group (pparvovirus-B19 infection as 10 (71.4%) of TEL-AML-1 translocation-positive cases had human parvovirus-B19 IgG. On the other hand, there was no association between such infections and P53 gene mutation in the patients. Human parvovirus-B19 infection is common in the population, with higher prevalence among leukaemic patients with significant association between human parvovirus-B19 and TEL-AML-1 fusion gene in patients of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

  5. No Definite Association between Human Parvovirus B19 Infection and Behçet Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Habibagahi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiology of the Behçet disease (BD has remained obscured. There have been studies to show the association of BD to infections like herpes simplex, hepatitis, and parvovirus B19 however, the findings are rather controversial. Materials and Methods: We selected 55 patients with the best matched symptoms of BD and measured the loads of B19 DNA in their plasma by quantitative real time PCR and verified their seropositivity by ELISA. All findings were compared to the results from 42 healthy persons. Results: Patients showed a wide spectrum of BD symptoms. Serologic studies showed high prevalence of B19 IgG among the tested patients which was not statistically different with the healthy population (72.7% vs. 85.7%, respectively. Similarly, the prevalence of B19 IgM between patients and controls was not different (18% vs. 11.9%, respectively. No correlation was found between the presence of anti-B19 antibodies and the clinical observations. Only one person from the patient and control groups had detectable levels of B19 DNA without any difference or correlation with the disease symptoms. Conclusion: Our data could not establish an association between B19 parvovirus infection and Behçet disease, although there have been reports of such correlation. Nevertheless, there might be indirect relation in genetically susceptible individuals after viral infections. More studies on designed animal models and surveys on patients should be done to resolve this controversy.

  6. The seroprevalence of Parvovirus B19 among kidney transplant recipients: a single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khameneh, Zakieh Rostamzadeh; Sepehrvand, Nariman; Sohrabi, Vahid; Ghasemzadeh, Nazafarin

    2014-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 is a DNA virus that is responsible for causing several diseases in humans. Parvovirus B19-induced persistent anemia is one of its manifestations that is relatively common in transplant recipients. This study was aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 among kidney transplant recipients. Ninety-one transplant recipients were selected randomly and were investigated for several variables including age, gender, educational status, history of hemodialysis (HD), history of blood transfusion and immunosuppressive therapy. Two milliliters of blood samples were collected via venipuncture and evaluated for anti-Parvovirus B19 IgG antibody using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All recipients were anemic, with 72.5% of them suffering from severe anemia (Hb ≤ 11 in men and ≤ 10 in women). Sixty-three patients (69.2%) were seropositive for Parvovirus B19. There was no significant difference in age, sex, educational status, history of blood transfusion, history of HD and immunosuppressive therapy between seropositive and seronegative groups. The seroprevalence of Parvovirus B19 was relatively high in kidney transplant recipients in Urmia, Iran. Our study failed to find a correlation between the severity of anemia and the seropositivity of Parvovirus B19.

  7. The seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 among kidney transplant recipients: A single-center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakieh Rostamzadeh Khameneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 is a DNA virus that is responsible for causing several diseases in humans. Parvovirus B19-induced persistent anemia is one of its manifestations that is relatively common in transplant recipients. This study was aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 among kidney transplant recipients. Ninety-one transplant recipients were selected randomly and were investigated for several variables including age, gender, educational status, history of hemodialysis (HD, history of blood transfusion and immunosuppressive therapy. Two milliliters of blood samples were collected via venipuncture and evaluated for anti-Parvovirus B19 IgG antibody using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All recipients were anemic, with 72.5% of them suffering from severe anemia (Hb ≤ 11 in men and ≤ 10 in women. Sixty-three patients (69.2% were seropositive for Parvovirus B19. There was no significant difference in age, sex, educational status, history of blood transfusion, history of HD and immunosuppressive therapy between seropositive and seronegative groups. The seroprevalence of Parvovirus B19 was relatively high in kidney transplant recipients in Urmia, Iran. Our study failed to find a correlation between the severity of anemia and the seropositivity of Parvovirus B19.

  8. Detection and a possible link between parvovirus B19 and thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadi, Ashkan; Mostafaei, Shayan; Yari, Kheirollah; Ghasemi, Amir; Minaei Chenar, Hamzeh; Moghoofei, Mohsen

    2017-06-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is a small, non-enveloped virus and belongs to Parvoviridae family. B19 persists in many tissues such as thyroid tissue and even thyroid cancer. The main aim of this study was to determine the presence of B19, its association with increased inflammation in thyroid tissue, and thus its possible role in thyroid cancer progression. Studies have shown that virus replication in non-permissive tissue leads to overexpression of non-structural protein and results in upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. A total of 36 paraffin-embedded thyroid specimens and serum were collected from patients and 12 samples were used as control. Various methods were employed, including polymerase chain reaction, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results have shown the presence of B19 DNA in 31 of 36 samples (86.11%). Almost in all samples, the levels of non-structural protein 1, nuclear factor kappa B, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin 6 were simultaneously high. The presence of parvovirus B19 has a significant positive correlation with nuclear factor kappa B, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin 6 levels. This study suggests that B19 infection may play an important role in tumorigenesis and thyroid cancer development via the inflammatory mechanisms.

  9. Human parvovirus B19 and parvovirus 4 among Iranian patients with hemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanmard, Davod; Ziaee, Masood; Ghaffari, Hadi; Namaei, Mohammad Hasan; Tavakoli, Ahmad; Mollaei, Hamidreza; Moghoofei, Mohsen; Mortazavi, Helya Sadat; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza

    2017-12-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is one of the smallest DNA viruses and shows great resistance to most disinfectants. Therefore, it is one of the common contaminant pathogens present in blood and plasma products. Parvovirus 4 (PARV4) is a newly identified parvovirus, which is also prevalent in parenteral transmission. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of B19V and PARV4 DNA among patients with hemophilia in Birjand County in eastern Iran. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study comprising nearly all people with hemophilia in this region. Whole blood samples were taken after patient registration and sent for plasma isolation. After nucleic acid extraction, B19V was detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction, PARV4 DNA was then detected using sensitive semi-nested PCR. In total, there were 86 patients with hemophilia, with mean age 28.5±1.5 years. Of these, 90.7% were men and 9.3% women; 84.9% had hemophilia A and 7.0% had hemophilia B. We found 11 patients (12.8%) were positive for B19V DNA and 8 were positive (9.3%) for PARV4 DNA. The prevalence of B19V was higher in middle-aged groups rather than younger people, whereas PARV4 infection was more common in younger patients ( P B19 virus, imposing more precautionary measures for serum and blood products is recommended.

  10. Cytokine responses in acute and persistent human parvovirus B19 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isa, A; Lundqvist, A; Lindblom, A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the proinflammatory and T helper (Th)1/Th2 cytokine responses during acute parvovirus B19 (B19) infection and determine whether an imbalance of the Th1/Th2 cytokine pattern is related to persistent B19 infection. Cytokines were quantified by multiplex beads...... immunoassay in serum from B19-infected patients and controls. The cytokine responses were correlated with B19 serology, quantitative B19 DNA levels and clinical symptoms. In addition to a proinflammatory response, elevated levels of the Th1 type of cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12 and IL-15 were evident...... at time of the initial peak of B19 viral load in a few patients during acute infection. This pattern was seen in the absence of an interferon (IFN)-gamma response. During follow-up (20-130 weeks post-acute infection) some of these patients had a sustained Th1 cytokine response. The Th1 cytokine response...

  11. Evaluation of customised lineage-specific sets of MIRU-VNTR loci for genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante-Poku, Adwoa; Nyaho, Michael Selasi; Borrell, Sonia; Comas, Iñaki; Gagneux, Sebastien; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    Different combinations of variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci have been proposed for genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Existing VNTR schemes show different discriminatory capacity among the six human MTBC lineages. Here, we evaluated the discriminatory power of a "customized MIRU12" loci format proposed previously by Comas et al. based on the standard 24 loci defined by Supply et al. for VNTR-typing of MTBC in Ghana. One hundred and fifty-eight MTBC isolates classified into Lineage 4 and Lineage 5 were used to compare a customized lineage-specific panel of 12 MIRU-VNTR loci ("customized MIRU-12") to the standard MIRU-15 genotyping scheme. The resolution power of each typing method was determined based on the Hunter-Gaston- Discriminatory Index (HGDI). A minimal set of customized MIRU-VNTR loci for typing Lineages 4 (Euro-American) and 5 (M. africanum West African 1) strains from Ghana was defined based on the cumulative HGDI. Among the 106 Lineage 4 strains, the customized MIRU-12 identified a total of 104 distinct genotypes consisting of 2 clusters of 2 isolates each (clustering rate 1.8%), and 102 unique strains while standard MIRU-15 yielded a total of 105 different genotypes, including 1 cluster of 2 isolates (clustering rate: 0.9%) and 104 singletons. Among, 52 Lineage 5 isolates, customized MIRU-12 genotyping defined 51 patterns with 1 cluster of 2 isolates (clustering rate: 0.9%) and 50 unique strains whereas MIRU-15 classified all 52 strains as unique. Cumulative HGDI values for customized MIRU-12 for Lineages 4 and 5 were 0.98 respectively whilst that of standard MIRU-15 was 0.99. A union of loci from the customised MIRU-12 and standard MIRU-15 revealed a set of customized eight highly discriminatory loci: 4052, 2163B, 40, 4165, 2165, 10,16 and 26 with a cumulative HGDI of 0.99 for genotyping Lineage 4 and 5 strains from Ghana.

  12. Prospective evaluation of 618 pregnant women exposed to parvovirus B19: risks and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harger, J H; Adler, S P; Koch, W C; Harger, G F

    1998-03-01

    To assess the risk of maternal parvovirus B19 infection from exposure to various sources and the fetal morbidity of those infections. We obtained demographic and occupational information about pregnant women exposed to sources of B19 and about the nature and duration of the exposures. We performed serologic testing 10-14 days after exposure using an indirect capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Women with immunoglobulin (Ig) M were examined with weekly ultrasound until 12 weeks after exposure, and the outcome of the pregnancy was ascertained from interviews with patients and their obstetricians. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors for maternal immunity and infection by B19. Of 618 pregnant women exposed, 307 (49.7%) were immune to B19, 259 remained susceptible after exposure, and 52 (16.7% of all susceptibles) contracted B19 infection. None of the 52 fetuses of infected women developed nonimmune hydrops, and there were no fetal deaths attributable to B19 in this group. The relative risk of maternal B19 infection was 2.8 if the source was a related child living in the household (95% confidence interval 1.7, 4.6; P women (4.1%, 2.8%, and 5.7%, respectively). Only 17 (33%) of the IgM-positive women were entirely asymptomatic. The risk of maternal B19 infection in pregnancy could not be predicted by a gravida's occupation, but it was significantly higher when the source of exposure was her own child. The fetal risk of nonimmune hydrops after maternal B19 infection must be very low. As a consequence, exclusion of pregnant women from the workplace during endemic periods with seasonal clusters of cases is not justified. Weekly fetal ultrasound evaluation in these cases carries a low yield.

  13. Non-genotype-specific role of the hepatitis C virus 5' untranslated region in virus production and in inhibition by interferon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Ramirez, Santseharay; Gottwein, Judith M

    2011-01-01

    The 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is structured into four domains (I-IV) with numerous genotype-specific nucleotides. It is unknown whether the polymorphisms confer genotype-specific functions to the 5'UTR. Using viable JFH1-based Core-NS2 recombinants, we developed...

  14. Combining quantitative trait loci analysis with physiological models to predict genotype-specific transpiration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuning, Gretchen A; Bauerle, William L; Mullen, Jack L; McKay, John K

    2015-04-01

    Transpiration is controlled by evaporative demand and stomatal conductance (gs ), and there can be substantial genetic variation in gs . A key parameter in empirical models of transpiration is minimum stomatal conductance (g0 ), a trait that can be measured and has a large effect on gs and transpiration. In Arabidopsis thaliana, g0 exhibits both environmental and genetic variation, and quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been mapped. We used this information to create a genetically parameterized empirical model to predict transpiration of genotypes. For the parental lines, this worked well. However, in a recombinant inbred population, the predictions proved less accurate. When based only upon their genotype at a single g0 QTL, genotypes were less distinct than our model predicted. Follow-up experiments indicated that both genotype by environment interaction and a polygenic inheritance complicate the application of genetic effects into physiological models. The use of ecophysiological or 'crop' models for predicting transpiration of novel genetic lines will benefit from incorporating further knowledge of the genetic control and degree of independence of core traits/parameters underlying gs variation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Transcription-associated mutational pressure in the Parvovirus B19 genome: Reactivated genomes contribute to the variability of viral populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrustalev, Vladislav Victorovich; Ermalovich, Marina Anatolyevna; Hübschen, Judith M; Khrustaleva, Tatyana Aleksandrovna

    2017-12-21

    In this study we used non-overlapping parts of the two long open reading frames coding for nonstructural (NS) and capsid (VP) proteins of all available sequences of the Parvovirus B19 subgenotype 1a genome and found out that the rates of A to G, C to T and A to T mutations are higher in the first long reading frame (NS) of the virus than in the second one (VP). This difference in mutational pressure directions for two parts of the same viral genome can be explained by the fact of transcription of just the first long reading frame during the lifelong latency in nonerythroid cells. Adenine deamination (producing A to G and A to T mutations) and cytosine deamination (producing C to T mutations) occur more frequently in transcriptional bubbles formed by DNA "plus" strand of the first open reading frame. These mutations can be inherited only in case of reactivation of the infectious virus due to the help of Adenovirus that allows latent Parvovirus B19 to start transcription of the second reading frame and then to replicate its genome by the rolling circle mechanism using the specific origin. Results of this study provide evidence that the genomes reactivated from latency make significant contributions to the variability of Parvovirus B19. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. RNA-Seq reveals genotype-specific molecular responses to water deficit in eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In a context of climate change, phenotypic plasticity provides long-lived species, such as trees, with the means to adapt to environmental variations occurring within a single generation. In eucalyptus plantations, water availability is a key factor limiting productivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation of eucalyptus to water shortage remain unclear. In this study, we compared the molecular responses of two commercial eucalyptus hybrids during the dry season. Both hybrids differ in productivity when grown under water deficit. Results Pyrosequencing of RNA extracted from shoot apices provided extensive transcriptome coverage - a catalog of 129,993 unigenes (49,748 contigs and 80,245 singletons) was generated from 398 million base pairs, or 1.14 million reads. The pyrosequencing data enriched considerably existing Eucalyptus EST collections, adding 36,985 unigenes not previously represented. Digital analysis of read abundance in 14,460 contigs identified 1,280 that were differentially expressed between the two genotypes, 155 contigs showing differential expression between treatments (irrigated vs. non irrigated conditions during the dry season), and 274 contigs with significant genotype-by-treatment interaction. The more productive genotype displayed a larger set of genes responding to water stress. Moreover, stress signal transduction seemed to involve different pathways in the two genotypes, suggesting that water shortage induces distinct cellular stress cascades. Similarly, the response of functional proteins also varied widely between genotypes: the most productive genotype decreased expression of genes related to photosystem, transport and secondary metabolism, whereas genes related to primary metabolism and cell organisation were over-expressed. Conclusions For the most productive genotype, the ability to express a broader set of genes in response to water availability appears to be a key characteristic in the maintenance

  17. Parvovirus B19-triggered acute hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia in a child with Evans syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELPIS MANTADAKIS

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human parvovirus B19 (HPV-B19 is the etiologic agent of erythema infectiosum, of transient aplastic crises in individuals with underlying chronic hemolytic disorders, and of chronic pure red cell aplasia in immunocompromised individuals. Case report. We describe a 14-year-old girl with long-standing Evans syndrome, who presented with severe anemia, reticulocytopenia and thromocytopenia. A bone marrow aspirate revealed severe erythroid hypoplasia along with presence of giant pronormoblasts, while serological studies and real-time PCR of whole blood were positive for acute parvovirus B19 infection. The patient was initially managed with corticosteroids, but both cytopenias resolved only after administration of intravenous gamma globulin 0.8g/kg. Conclusion: Acute parvovirus B19 infection should be suspected in patients with immunologic diseases, who present with reticulocytopenic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. In this setting, intravenous gamma globulin is effective for both cytopenias.

  18. Parvovirus B19 infection as a cause of acute myositis in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakirca, Mustafa; Karatoprak, Cumali; Ugurlu, Serdal; Zorlu, Mehmet; Kıskaç, Muharrem; Çetin, Güven

    2015-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection is often asymptomatic, but clinical expressions may include transient aplastic crisis, erythema infectiosum, non-immune hydrops fetalis, and chronic red cell aplasia. This virus has also been associated with rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune connective tissue diseases; however, we could not identify any acute adult myositis case developed after a Parvovirus B19 infection in the literature. For this reason, we would like to present a rare case of acute myositis developed after Parvovirus B19 infection. In patients presenting with symptoms of fever, rash on the legs and myositis, viral infections such as Parvovirus B19 should be kept in mind. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. THE ROLE OF PARVOVIRUS B19 IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INFLAMMATORY CARDIOMYOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Shchedrina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of inflammatory cardiomyopathy is discussed. The etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory cardiomyopathy are considered with focus on the role of parvovirus B19.

  20. Parvovirus B19-triggered Acute Hemolytic Anemia and Thrombocytopenia in a Child with Evans Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikidou, Panagiota; Grapsa, Anastassia; Bezirgiannidou, Zoe; Chatzimichael, Athanassios; Mantadakis, Elpis

    2018-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (HPV-B19) is the etiologic agent of erythema infectiosum, of transient aplastic crises in individuals with underlying chronic hemolytic disorders, and of chronic pure red cell aplasia in immunocompromised individuals. We describe a 14-year-old girl with long-standing Evans syndrome, who presented with severe anemia, reticulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. A bone marrow aspirate revealed severe erythroid hypoplasia along with the presence of giant pronormoblasts, while serological studies and real-time PCR of whole blood were positive for acute parvovirus B19 infection. The patient was initially managed with corticosteroids, but both cytopenias resolved only after administration of intravenous gamma globulin 0.8g/kg. Acute parvovirus B19 infection should be suspected in patients with immunologic diseases, who present reticulocytopenic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. In this setting, intravenous gamma globulin is effective for both cytopenias.

  1. RNA Binding Protein RBM38 Regulates Expression of the 11-Kilodalton Protein of Parvovirus B19, Which Facilitates Viral DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganaie, Safder S; Chen, Aaron Yun; Huang, Chun; Xu, Peng; Kleiboeker, Steve; Du, Aifang; Qiu, Jianming

    2018-04-15

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) expresses a single precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA), which undergoes alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation to generate 12 viral mRNA transcripts that encode two structural proteins (VP1 and VP2) and three nonstructural proteins (NS1, 7.5-kDa protein, and 11-kDa protein). Splicing at the second 5' donor site (D2 site) of the B19V pre-mRNA is essential for the expression of VP2 and the 11-kDa protein. We previously identified that cis -acting intronic splicing enhancer 2 (ISE2) that lies immediately after the D2 site facilitates the recognition of the D2 donor for its efficient splicing. In this study, we report that ISE2 is critical for the expression of the 11-kDa viral nonstructural protein. We found that ISE2 harbors a consensus RNA binding motif protein 38 (RBM38) binding sequence, 5'-UGUGUG-3'. RBM38 is expressed during the middle stage of erythropoiesis. We first confirmed that RBM38 binds specifically with the ISE2 element in vitro The knockdown of RBM38 significantly decreases the level of spliced mRNA at D2 that encodes the 11-kDa protein but not that of the D2-spliced mRNA that encodes VP2. Importantly, we found that the 11-kDa protein enhances viral DNA replication and virion release. Accordingly, the knockdown of RBM38 decreases virus replication via downregulating 11-kDa protein expression. Taken together, these results suggest that the 11-kDa protein facilitates B19V DNA replication and that RBM38 is an essential host factor for B19V pre-mRNA splicing and for the expression of the 11-kDa protein. IMPORTANCE B19V is a human pathogen that can cause fifth disease, arthropathy, anemia in immunocompromised patients and sickle cell disease patients, myocarditis, and hydrops fetalis in pregnant women. Human erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) are most susceptible to B19V infection and fully support viral DNA replication. The exclusive tropism of B19V for erythroid-lineage cells is dependent not only on the expression of viral

  2. Focal epilepsy as a long term sequela of Parvovirus B19 encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Concetta Ilenia; Costanzo, Carmela Maria; Franchina, Concetta; Castiglione, Giacomo; Giuliano, Loretta; Russo, Raffaela; Conti, Alessandro; Sofia, Vito; Scalia, Guido

    2016-07-01

    Human Parvovirus B19 (PVB19), the etiological agent of the fifth disease, is associated with a large spectrum of pathologies, among which is encephalitis. Since it has been detected from the central nervous system in children or in immunocompromised patients, its causative role in serious neurological manifestations is still unclear. Here we report the case of an 18-year-old healthy boy who developed encephalitis complicated by prolonged status epilepticus. The detection of PVB19 DNA in his serum and, subsequently, in his cerebrospinal fluid supports the hypothesis that this virus could potentially play a role in the pathogenesis of neurological complications. In addition, the detection of viral DNA and the presence of specific IgM and IgG antibodies in serum, together with clinical findings such as skin rash, support the presence of a disseminated viral infection. In the presence of neurological disorders, especially when there are no specific signs, but seizures and rash are present, it is important to search for PVB19 both in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Moreover, the introduction of the PVB19 DNA test into diagnostic protocols of neuropathies, especially those undiagnosed, could clarify the etiological agent that otherwise could remain unrecognized. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of parvovirus B19 infections in Ireland, January 1996-June 2008.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nicolay, N

    2009-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection may be mistakenly reported as measles or rubella if laboratory testing is not performed. As Europe is seeking to eliminate measles, an accurate diagnosis of fever\\/rash illnesses is needed. The main purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological pattern of parvovirus B19, a common cause of rash, in Ireland between January 1996 and June 2008, using times series analysis of laboratory diagnostic data from the National Virus Reference Laboratory. Most diagnostic tests for presumptive parvovirus B19 infection were done in children under the age of five years and in women of child-bearing age (between 20-39 years-old). As a consequence, most of the acute diagnoses of B19 infection were made in these populations. The most commonly reported reasons for testing were: clinical presentation with rash, acute arthritis, influenza-like symptoms or pregnancy. The time series analysis identified seasonal trends in parvovirus B19 infection, with annual cycles peaking in late winter\\/spring and a six-year cycle for parvovirus B19 outbreaks in Ireland.

  4. Construction and sequencing of an infectious clone of the human parvovirus B19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi Ning; Zadori, Zoltan; Brown, Kevin E.; Tijssen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 has a nonenveloped, icosahedral capsid packaging a linear single-stranded DNA genome of 5.6 kb with long inverted terminal repeats (ITR) at both the 5' and 3' end. Previous attempts to construct a full-length B19 clone were unsuccessful due to deletions in the ITR sequences. We cloned the complete parvovirus B19 genome with intact ITRs from an aplastic crisis patient. Sequence analysis of the complete viral genome indicated that both 5' and 3' ITRs have two sequence configurations and several base changes within the ITRs compared to previous published sequences. After transfection of the plasmid into permissive cells, spliced and non-spliced viral transcripts and viral capsid proteins could be detected. Southern blot analysis of the DNA purified from the plasmid-transfected cells confirmed parvovirus B19 DNA replication. Production of infectious virus by the B19 plasmid was shown by inoculation of cell lysate derived from transfected cells into fresh cells. Together, these results indicate the first successful production of an infectious clone for parvovirus B19 virus

  5. Splenic infarcts as a rare manifestation of parvovirus B19 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranidiotis, Georgios; Efstratiadis, Efrosini; Kapsalakis, Georgios; Loizos, Georgios; Bilis, Apostolos; Melidonis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is a DNA virus most known for causing erythema infectiosum in children, and polyarthropathy or transient aplastic crisis in adults. However, various unusual clinical manifestations have also been reported in association with it. We describe a young patient who presented with splenic infarcts as a rare complication of B19 infection. A 33-year old previously healthy man was admitted to our hospital because of a 5-day history of fever and headache. Imaging studies revaled two splenic infarcts. Endocarditis was ruled out, whereas serologic testing for B19 was indicative of acute infection. To our knowledge, three cases of thromboembolism in the setting of B19 infection have been reported up to now, including one occurence of splenic infarction. These events were attributed to the development of a transient antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. In contrast, our patient did not have elevated titers of antiphospholipid antibodies. Splenic infarcts can be an atypical presentation of B19 infection. Parvovirus B19 may induce thromboembolic events, even in the absence of antiphospholipid antibodies.

  6. Prevalence of parvovirus B19 and parvovirus V9 DNA and antibodies in paired bone marrow and serum samples from healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heegaard, Erik D; Petersen, Bodil Laub; Heilmann, Carsten J; Hornsleth, Allan

    2002-03-01

    Parvovirus B19 (hereafter referred to as B19) exhibits a marked tropism to human bone marrow (BM), and infection may lead to erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, hydrops fetalis, and various hematologic disorders. Recently, a distinct parvovirus isolate termed V9 with an unknown clinical spectrum was discovered. In contrast to the many studies of B19 serology and viremia, valid information on the frequency of B19 or V9 DNA in the BM of healthy individuals is limited. To develop a reference value, paired BM and serum samples from healthy subjects were tested for the presence of B19 and V9 DNA and specific antibodies. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) was not found in any of the serum samples. The prevalence of IgG showed a gradual and steady increase from 37% in children aged 1 to 5 years to 87% in people aged >50 years. When 190 well-characterized subjects were examined, B19 DNA was detected in the BM of 4 individuals (2.1%; 95% confidence interval, 0.58 to 5.3%) while none of the paired serum samples showed evidence of circulating viral DNA. V9 DNA was not found in any of the BM or serum samples. The finding of B19 DNA probably indicated a primary infection in one 7-year-old individual and reinfection or reactivation of persistent infection in the remaining three persons, aged 47 to 58 years. Serving as a benchmark for future studies, these findings are useful when interpreting epidemiologic data, performing BM transplantation, or considering clinical implications of parvovirus infection.

  7. High prevalence of Human Parechovirus (HPeV) genotypes in the Amsterdam region and the identification of specific HPeV variants by direct genotyping of stool samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, K.; Thomas, X.; Serpenti, C.; Molenkamp, R.; Wolthers, K.

    2008-01-01

    Human Parechoviruses (HPeV) are widespread pathogens belonging to the Picornavirus family. Six genotypes are known which have predominantly been isolated from children. Data on prevalence of HPeV genotypes are generally based on cell culture, which may underestimate the prevalence of certain HPeV

  8. Fetal thrombocytopenia in pregnancies with fetal human parvovirus-B19 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Nir; Whittle, Wendy; Kelly, Edmond N; Windrim, Rory; Seaward, P Gareth R; Keunen, Johannes; Keating, Sarah; Ryan, Greg

    2015-06-01

    Fetal infection with human parvovirus B19 (hParvo-B19) has been associated mainly with fetal anemia, although data regarding other fetal hematologic effects are limited. Our aim was to assess the rate and consequences of severe fetal thrombocytopenia after fetal hParvo-B19 infection. We conducted a retrospective study of pregnancies that were complicated by fetal hParvo-B19 infection that underwent fetal blood sampling (FBS). The characteristics and outcomes of fetuses with severe thrombocytopenia (B19 infection. A total of 37 pregnancies that were affected by fetal hParvo-B19 infection were identified. Of the 29 cases that underwent FBS and had information regarding fetal platelets, 11 cases (38%) were complicated by severe fetal thrombocytopenia. Severely thrombocytopenic fetuses were characterized by a lower hemoglobin concentration (2.6 ± 0.9 g/dL vs 5.5 ± 3.6 g/dL; P = .01), lower reticulocyte count (9.1% ± 2.8% vs 17.3% ± 10.6%; P = .02), and lower gestational age at the time of diagnosis (21.4 ± 3.1 wk vs 23.6 ± 2.2 wk; P = .03). Both the fetal death rate within 48 hours of FBS (27.3% vs 0%; P = .02) and the risk of prematurity (100.0% vs 13.3%; P B19 infection, can be further worsened by IUT, and may be associated with an increased risk of procedure-related fetal loss after either FBS or IUT. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The role of parvovirus B19 and the immune response in the pathogenesis of acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jonathan R; Mattey, Derek L

    2015-05-01

    In this article, we review the evidence suggesting a possible role for B19 virus in the pathogenesis of a subset of cases of acute leukemia. Human parvovirus B19 infection may complicate the clinical course of patients with acute leukemia and may also precede the development of acute leukemia by up to 180 days. Parvovirus B19 targets erythroblasts in the bone marrow and may cause aplastic crisis in patients with shortened-red cell survival. Aplastic crisis represents a prodrome of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in 2% patients. There is a significant overlap between those HLA classes I and II alleles that are associated with a vigorous immune response and development of symptoms during B19 infection and those HLA alleles that predispose to development of acute leukemia. Acute symptomatic B19 infection is associated with low circulating IL-10 consistent with a vigorous immune response; deficient IL-10 production at birth was recently found to be associated with subsequent development of acute leukemia. Anti-B19 IgG has been associated with a particular profile of methylation of human cancer genes in patients with acute leukemia, suggesting an additional hit and run mechanism. The proposed role for parvovirus B19 in the pathogenesis of acute leukemia fits well with the delayed infection hypothesis and with the two-step mutation model, which describes carriage of the first mutation prior to birth, followed by suppression of hematopoiesis, which allows rapid proliferation of cells harboring the first mutation, acquisition of a second activating mutation, and expansion of cells carrying both mutations, resulting in acute leukemia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Molecular and structural characterization of fluorescent human parvovirus B19 virus-like particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, Leona; Toivola, Jouni; White, Daniel; Ihalainen, Teemu; Smith, Wesley; Lindholm, Laura; Vuento, Matti; Oker-Blom, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Although sharing a T = 1 icosahedral symmetry with other members of the Parvoviridae family, it has been suggested that the fivefold channel of the human parvovirus B19 VP2 capsids is closed at its outside end. To investigate the possibility of placing a relatively large protein moiety at this site of B19, fluorescent virus-like particles (fVLPs) of B19 were developed. The enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was inserted at the N-terminus of the structural protein VP2 and assembly of fVLPs from this fusion protein was obtained. Electron microscopy revealed that these fluorescent protein complexes were very similar in size when compared to wild-type B19 virus. Further, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy showed that an average of nine EGFP domains were associated with these virus-like structures. Atomic force microscopy and immunoprecipitation studies showed that EGFP was displayed on the surface of these fVLPs. Confocal imaging indicated that these chimeric complexes were targeted to late endosomes when expressed in insect cells. The fVLPs were able to efficiently enter cancer cells and traffic to the nucleus via the microtubulus network. Finally, immunoglobulins present in human parvovirus B19 acute and past-immunity serum samples were able to detect antigenic epitopes present in these fVLPs. In summary, we have developed fluorescent virus-like nanoparticles displaying a large heterologous entity that should be of help to elucidate the mechanisms of infection and pathogenesis of human parvovirus B19. In addition, these B19 nanoparticles serve as a model in the development of targetable vehicles designed for delivery of biomolecules

  11. Human Parvovirus B19 in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in basrah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahem, W.N.; Hasony, H.J.; Hassan, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association of human parvovirus B19 infection with the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and its effect on TEL-AML-1 fusion gene and the presence of mutant P53. Methods: The case-control study was conducted at Basrah Hospital for Paediatrics and Gynaecology, Basrah, Iraq, from May 2009 to April 2010. A total of 100 blood samples were collected from 40 newly diagnosed cases and 60 healthy children to serve as control matched by age and gender. Human parvovirus B19-IgG and anti-P53 antibody were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and TEL-AML-1 fusion gene was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on extracted ribonucleic acid from fresh blood samples using specified primers. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A higher proportion of human parvovirus B19-positive cases was found in leukaemic patients (n=19; 47.5%) compared to 12 (20%) in the control group (p<0.05). There was significant association between Tel-Amyl-1 translocation and human parvovirus-B19 infection as 10 (71.4%) of TEL-AML-1 translocation-positive cases had human parvovirus-B19 IgG. On the other hand, there was no association between such infections and P53 gene mutation in the patients. Conclusion: Human parvovirus-B19 infection is common in the population, with higher prevalence among leukaemic patients with significant association between human parvovirus-B19 and TEL-AML-1 fusion gene in patients of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. (author)

  12. Genotype-specific interactions and the trade-off between host and parasite fitness

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    Shykoff Jacqui A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of parasite traits is inextricably linked to their hosts. For instance one common definition of parasite virulence is the reduction in host fitness due to infection. Thus, traits of infection must be viewed in both protagonists and may be under shared genetic and physiological control. We investigated these questions on the oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsis (= parasitica, a natural pathogen of the Brassicaceae Arabidopsis thaliana. Results We performed a controlled cross inoculation experiment confronting six lines of the host plant with seven strains of the parasite in order to evaluate genetic variation for phenotypic traits of infection among hosts, parasites, and distinct combinations. Parasite infection intensity and transmission were highly variable among parasite strains and host lines but depended also on the interaction between particular genotypes of the protagonists, and genetic variation for the infection phenotype of parasites from natural populations was found even at a small spatial scale within population. Furthermore, increased parasite fitness led to a significant decrease in host fitness only on a single host line (Gb, although a trade-off between these two traits was expected because host and parasite share the same resource pool for their respective reproduction. We propose that different levels of compatibility dependent on genotype by genotype interactions might lead to different amounts of resources available for host and parasite reproduction. This variation in compatibility could thus mask the expected negative relationship between host and parasite fitness, as the total resource pool would not be constant. Conclusion These results highlight the importance of host variation in the determination of parasite fitness traits. This kind of interaction may in turn decouple the relationship between parasite transmission and its negative effect on host fitness, altering theoretical predictions

  13. Persistence of human parvovirus B19 in multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells expressing the erythrocyte P antigen: implications for transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundin, Mikael; Lindblom, Anna; Örvell, Claes; Barrett, A.John; Sundberg, Berit; Watz, Emma; Wikman, Agneta; Broliden, Kristina; Le Blanc, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are used to improve the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and in regenerative medicine. However, MSC may harbor persistent viruses that may compromise their clinical benefit. Retrospectively screened, 1 of 20 MSC from healthy donors contained parvovirus B19 (B19) DNA. We found that MSC express the B19 receptor (the globoside P antigen) and a co-receptor (Ku 80), and can transmit B19 to bone marrow cells in vitro, suggesting that the virus can persist in the marrow stroma of healthy individuals. Two stem cell transplant patients received the B19 positive MSC as treatment for graft-versus-host disease. Neither developed viremia nor symptomatic B19 infection. These results demonstrate for the first time that persistent B19 in MSC can infect hematopoietic cells and underscore the importance of monitoring B19 transmission by MSC products. PMID:18804048

  14. Evaluation of customised lineage-specific sets of MIRU-VNTR loci for genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in Ghana.

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    Adwoa Asante-Poku

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different combinations of variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR loci have been proposed for genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC. Existing VNTR schemes show different discriminatory capacity among the six human MTBC lineages. Here, we evaluated the discriminatory power of a "customized MIRU12" loci format proposed previously by Comas et al. based on the standard 24 loci defined by Supply et al. for VNTR-typing of MTBC in Ghana. METHOD: One hundred and fifty-eight MTBC isolates classified into Lineage 4 and Lineage 5 were used to compare a customized lineage-specific panel of 12 MIRU-VNTR loci ("customized MIRU-12" to the standard MIRU-15 genotyping scheme. The resolution power of each typing method was determined based on the Hunter-Gaston- Discriminatory Index (HGDI. A minimal set of customized MIRU-VNTR loci for typing Lineages 4 (Euro-American and 5 (M. africanum West African 1 strains from Ghana was defined based on the cumulative HGDI. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Among the 106 Lineage 4 strains, the customized MIRU-12 identified a total of 104 distinct genotypes consisting of 2 clusters of 2 isolates each (clustering rate 1.8%, and 102 unique strains while standard MIRU-15 yielded a total of 105 different genotypes, including 1 cluster of 2 isolates (clustering rate: 0.9% and 104 singletons. Among, 52 Lineage 5 isolates, customized MIRU-12 genotyping defined 51 patterns with 1 cluster of 2 isolates (clustering rate: 0.9% and 50 unique strains whereas MIRU-15 classified all 52 strains as unique. Cumulative HGDI values for customized MIRU-12 for Lineages 4 and 5 were 0.98 respectively whilst that of standard MIRU-15 was 0.99. A union of loci from the customised MIRU-12 and standard MIRU-15 revealed a set of customized eight highly discriminatory loci: 4052, 2163B, 40, 4165, 2165, 10,16 and 26 with a cumulative HGDI of 0.99 for genotyping Lineage 4 and 5 strains from Ghana.

  15. Performance of the Epstein-Barr Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus Immunoglobulin M Assays on the Liaison Platform with Sera from Patients Displaying Acute Parvovirus B19 Infection▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Elisa; Tormo, Nuria; Clari, María Ángeles; Bravo, Dayana; Muñoz-Cobo, Beatriz; Navarro, David

    2009-01-01

    Acute parvovirus B19 infection has been reported to cause false-positive results frequently in the Epstein-Barr (EBV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) assays from DiaSorin performed on the Liaison platform. We tested 65 sera from patients with a presumptive or conclusive diagnosis of acute parvovirus B19 infection in both assays and obtained no false-positive results in the EBV IgM test and 10.4% nonspecific reactivities in the HSV IgM assay. Our data support the specificity of both assays in this clinical setting. PMID:19571110

  16. Myostatin genotype regulates muscle-specific miRNA expression in mouse pectoralis muscle

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    Cheng Ye

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loss of functional Myostatin results in a dramatic increase in skeletal muscle mass. It is unknown what role miRNAs play in Myostatin mediated repression of skeletal muscle mass. We hypothesized that Myostatin genotype would be associated with the differential expression of miRNAs in skeletal muscle. Findings Loss of functional Myostatin resulted in a significant increase (p .2 on miR-24 expression level. Myostatin genotype did not affect the expression level of MyoD or Myogenin (P > 0.5. Conclusions Myostatin may regulates the expression of miRNAs such as miR-133a, miR-133b, miR-1, and miR-206 in skeletal muscle as it has been observed that the expression of those miRNAs are significantly higher in myostatin null mice compared to wild type and heterozygous mice. In contrast, expression of myogenic factors such as MyoD or Myogenin has not been affected by myostatin in the muscle tissue.

  17. Relation between parvovirus B19 infection and fetal mortality and spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Zahra; Esghaei, Maryam; Keyvani, Hossein; Shabani, Fateme; Sarmadi, Fateme; Mollaie, Hamidreza; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Infection with parvovirus B19 may cause fetal losses including spontaneous abortion, intrauterine fetal death and non-immune hydrops fetalis. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of parvovirus B19 in formalin fixed placental tissues in lost fetuses using real-time PCR method. In this cross-sectional study, 100 formalin fixed placental tissues with unknown cause of fetal death were determined using real-time PCR method after DNA extraction. Six out of 100 cases (6%) were positive for parvovirus B19 using real-time PCR. Gestational age of all positive cases was less than 20 weeks with a mean of 12.3 weeks. Three cases have a history of abortion and all of positive cases were collected in spring. Mean age of positive cases were 28 years. Parvovirus B19 during pregnancy can infect red precursor cells and induces apoptosis or lyses these cells that resulting in anemia and congestive heart failure leading to fetal death. Management of parvovirus B19 infection in pregnant women is important because immediate diagnosis and transfusion in hydropsic fetuses can decrease the risk of fetal death.

  18. Post-infectious acute glomerulonephritis with podocytopathy induced by parvovirus B19 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Satoshi; Hirata, Masayoshi; Ito, Kiyoaki; Mizushima, Ichiro; Fujii, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kazunori; Nagata, Michio; Kawano, Mitsuhiro

    2018-03-01

    Human parvovirus B19 infection causes a variety of glomerular diseases such as post-infectious acute glomerulonephritis and collapsing glomerulopathy. Although each of these appears independently, it has not been fully determined why parvovirus B19 provokes such a variety of different glomerular phenotypes. Here, we report a 68-year-old Japanese man who showed endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis admixed with podocytopathy in association with parvovirus B19 infection. The patient showed acute onset of heavy proteinuria, microscopic hematuria and kidney dysfunction with arthralgia and oliguria after close contact with a person suffering from erythema infectiosum. In the kidney biopsy specimen, glomeruli revealed diffuse and global endocapillary infiltration of inflammatory cells, with some also showing tuft collapse with aberrant vacuolation, swelling, and hyperplasia of glomerular epithelial cells. Immunofluorescence revealed dense granular C3 deposition that resembled the "starry sky pattern". Intravenous glucocorticoid pulse therapy followed by oral prednisolone and cyclosporine combination therapy resulted in considerable amelioration of the kidney dysfunction and urinary abnormalities. The present case reveals that parvovirus B19 infection can induce different glomerular phenotypes even in the same kidney structure. This finding may provide hints useful for the further elucidation of the pathogenesis of parvovirus B19-induced glomerular lesions. © 2018 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Different patterns of skin manifestations associated with parvovirus B19 primary infection in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mage, Valentia; Lipsker, Dan; Barbarot, Sébastien; Bessis, Didier; Chosidow, Olivier; Del Giudice, Pascal; Aractingi, Sélim; Avouac, Jérôme; Bernier, Claire; Descamps, Vincent; Dupin, Nicolas

    2014-07-01

    Skin involvement is reported during primary parvovirus B19 infection in adults. We sought to describe the cutaneous presentations associated with parvovirus B19 primary infection in adults. We conducted a descriptive, retrospective, multicenter study. The patients included (>18 years old) had well-established primary infections with parvovirus B19. Twenty-nine patients were identified between 1992 and 2013 (17 women, 12 men). The elementary dermatologic lesions were mostly erythematous (86%) and often purpuric (69%). Pruritus was reported in 48% of cases. The rash predominated on the legs (93%), trunk (55%), and arms (45%), with a lower frequency of facial involvement (20%). Four different but sometimes overlapping patterns were identified (45%): exanthema, which was reticulated and annular in some cases (80%); the gloves-and-socks pattern (24%); the periflexural pattern (28%); and palpable purpura (24%). The limitations of this study were its retrospective design and possible recruitment bias in tertiary care centers. Our findings suggest that primary parvovirus B19 infection is associated with polymorphous skin manifestations with 4 predominant, sometimes overlapping, patterns. The acral or periflexural distribution of the rash and the presence of purpuric or annular/reticulate lesions are highly suggestive of parvovirus B19 infection. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Persistent anemia in a kidney transplant recipient with parvovirus B19 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Pakkyara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia after kidney transplant is not uncommon. This paper reports a case of unexplained anemia in a kidney transplant recipient that persisted for more than two months, and that did not respond to recombinant human erythropoietin treatment but was successfully treated after diagnosing Parvovirus B19 (ParvoV B19 infection. A middle-aged male underwent living-unrelated kidney transplantation from Pakistan in April 2015. He was on triple immuno-suppression therapy consisting of prednisolone, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. He presented with anemia which persisted for more than two months that did not improve with Darbepoetin alpha and required blood transfusions. A bone marrow biopsy demonstrated pure erythroid hypoplasia and occasional giant pronormoblasts characteristic of a ParvoV B19 infection. The serum was highly positive for ParvoV B19 DNA polymerase chain reaction. The anemia resolved completely three weeks after the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin. ParvoV B19 infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of kidney transplant recipients who present with anemia associated with a low reticulocyte count.

  1. Parvovirus B19 infection during pregnancy and risks to the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, Asher; Ergaz, Zivanit

    2017-03-15

    Parvovirus B19 infects 1 to 5% of pregnant women, generally with normal pregnancy outcomes. During epidemics, the rate of infection is higher. Major congenital anomalies among offspring of infected mothers are rare, as the virus does not appear to be a significant teratogen. However, parvovirus B19 infection may cause significant fetal damage, and in rare cases, brain anomalies and neurodevelopmental insults, especially if infection occurs in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. Parvovirus B19 is also an important cause of fetal loss, especially in the second half of pregnancy when spontaneous fetal loss from other causes is relatively rare. Parvovirus B19 infection may affect many fetal organs and can cause severe anemia, following fetal erythroid progenitor cells infection and apoptosis, especially in fetuses, that have shortened half-life of erythrocytes. Severe anemia may cause high output cardiac failure and nonimmune hydrops fetalis. In addition, parvovirus B19 may directly infect myocardial cells and produce myocarditis that further aggravates the cardiac failure. Intrauterine fetal transfusion is commonly used for the treatment of severe fetal anemia with survival rates of 75 to 90% and significant reduction of fetal morbidity. Only 66 cases were evaluated neurodevelopmentally, of which 10 (16%) had slight or severe neurodevelopmental problems. Because parvovirus B19 infection can cause severe fetal morbidity and mortality, it should be part of the routine work-up of pregnant women who have been exposed to the virus or of pregnancies with suspected fetal hydrops. Assessment for maternal infection during pregnancy is especially important during epidemics, when sero-conversion rates are high. Birth Defects Research 109:311-323, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant parvovirus B19 vaccine formulated with MF59C.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, W Ripley; Reed, Jennifer L; Noble, William; Young, Neal S; Koenig, Scott

    2003-02-15

    A recombinant human parvovirus B19 vaccine (MEDI-491; MedImmune) composed of the VP1 and VP2 capsid proteins and formulated with MF59C.1 adjuvant was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, phase 1 trial. Parvovirus B19-seronegative adults (n=24) received either 2.5 or 25 microg MEDI-491 at 0, 1, and 6 months. MEDI-491 was safe and immunogenic. All volunteers developed neutralizing antibody titers that peaked after the third immunization and were sustained through study day 364.

  3. Parvovirus B19 infection in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia during induction therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNall, R Y; Head, D R; Pui, C H; Razzouk, B I

    2001-01-01

    Immunocompromised children, including those undergoing chemotherapy treatment of malignant disease, are at particular risk for infection with parvovirus B19. However, these patients' attenuated immune responses may obscure the serologic and clinical manifestations of the infection. The authors describe a patient undergoing induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia whose parvovirus B19 infection was identified by the incidental detection of giant pronormoblasts and absence of normal mature erythroid precursors, characteristic of parvovirus infection, on a routine bone marrow examination. Intravenous immunoglobulin was administered and the patient's aplastic anemia resolved completely within 3 weeks. This highlights the importance of alertness to the possibility of parvovirus infection in children with cancer.

  4. Sustained CD8+ T-cell responses induced after acute parvovirus B19 infection in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norbeck, Oscar; Isa, Adiba; Pöhlmann, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    Murine models have suggested that CD8+ T-cell responses peak early in acute viral infections and are not sustained, but no evidence for humans has been available. To address this, we longitudinally analyzed the CD8+ T-cell response to human parvovirus B19 in acutely infected individuals. We...... observed striking CD8+ T-cell responses, which were sustained or even increased over many months after the resolution of acute disease, indicating that CD8+ T cells may play a prominent role in the control of parvovirus B19 and other acute viral infections of humans, including potentially those generated...

  5. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis to amoxicillin associated with parvovirus B19 reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calistru, Ana Maria; Lisboa, Carmen; Cunha, Ana Paula; Bettencourt, Herberto; Azevedo, Filomena

    2012-09-01

    We report the case of a 22-year-old male patient with 2 episodes, 4 months apart, of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) associated with oral intake of amoxicillin and simultaneous reactivation of parvovirus B19 infection proven by positive polymerase chain reaction test in the skin fragment and blood sample and elevation of the IgG antibodies titer. To our knowledge, this is the first report of AGEP resulting from the interaction between drug hypersensitivity and the reactivation of parvovirus B19. A combination of an immunological reaction to the drug and virus infection could be responsible for the clinical picture.

  6. Identification of the major structural and nonstructural proteins encoded by human parvovirus B19 and mapping of their genes by procaryotic expression of isolated genomic fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotmore, S.F.; McKie, V.C.; Anderson, L.J.; Astell, C.R.; Tattersall, P.

    1986-11-01

    Plasma from a child with homozygous sickle-cell disease, sampled during the early phase of an aplastic crisis, contained human parvovirus B19 virions. Plasma taken 10 days later (during the convalescent phase) contained both immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies directed against two viral polypeptides with apparent molecular weights for 83,000 and 58,000 which were present exclusively in the particulate fraction of the plasma taken during the acute phase. These two protein species comigrated at 110S on neutral sucrose velocity gradients with the B19 viral DNA and thus appear to constitute the viral capsid polypeptides. The B19 genome was molecularly cloned into a bacterial plasmid vector. Two expression constructs containing B19 sequences from different halves of the viral genome were obtained, which directed the synthesis, in bacteria, of segments of virally encoded protein. These polypeptide fragments were then purified and used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies against a protein sequence specified between nucleotides 2897 and 3749 recognized both the 83- and 58-kilodalton capsid polypeptides in aplastic plasma taken during the acute phase and detected similar proteins in the similar proteins in the tissues of a stillborn fetus which had been infected transplacentally with B19. Antibodies against a protein sequence encoded in the other half of the B19 genome (nucleotides 1072 through 2044) did not react specifically with any protein in plasma taken during the acute phase but recognized three nonstructural polypeptides of 71, 63, and 52 kilodaltons present in the liver and, at lower levels, in some other tissues of the transplacentally infected fetus.

  7. Identification of the major structural and nonstructural proteins encoded by human parvovirus B19 and mapping of their genes by procaryotic expression of isolated genomic fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotmore, S.F.; McKie, V.C.; Anderson, L.J.; Astell, C.R.; Tattersall, P.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma from a child with homozygous sickle-cell disease, sampled during the early phase of an aplastic crisis, contained human parvovirus B19 virions. Plasma taken 10 days later (during the convalescent phase) contained both immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies directed against two viral polypeptides with apparent molecular weights for 83,000 and 58,000 which were present exclusively in the particulate fraction of the plasma taken during the acute phase. These two protein species comigrated at 110S on neutral sucrose velocity gradients with the B19 viral DNA and thus appear to constitute the viral capsid polypeptides. The B19 genome was molecularly cloned into a bacterial plasmid vector. Two expression constructs containing B19 sequences from different halves of the viral genome were obtained, which directed the synthesis, in bacteria, of segments of virally encoded protein. These polypeptide fragments were then purified and used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies against a protein sequence specified between nucleotides 2897 and 3749 recognized both the 83- and 58-kilodalton capsid polypeptides in aplastic plasma taken during the acute phase and detected similar proteins in the similar proteins in the tissues of a stillborn fetus which had been infected transplacentally with B19. Antibodies against a protein sequence encoded in the other half of the B19 genome (nucleotides 1072 through 2044) did not react specifically with any protein in plasma taken during the acute phase but recognized three nonstructural polypeptides of 71, 63, and 52 kilodaltons present in the liver and, at lower levels, in some other tissues of the transplacentally infected fetus

  8. Use of allele-specific FAIRE to determine functional regulatory polymorphism using large-scale genotyping arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J P Smith

    Full Text Available Following the widespread use of genome-wide association studies (GWAS, focus is turning towards identification of causal variants rather than simply genetic markers of diseases and traits. As a step towards a high-throughput method to identify genome-wide, non-coding, functional regulatory variants, we describe the technique of allele-specific FAIRE, utilising large-scale genotyping technology (FAIRE-gen to determine allelic effects on chromatin accessibility and regulatory potential. FAIRE-gen was explored using lymphoblastoid cells and the 50,000 SNP Illumina CVD BeadChip. The technique identified an allele-specific regulatory polymorphism within NR1H3 (coding for LXR-α, rs7120118, coinciding with a previously GWAS-identified SNP for HDL-C levels. This finding was confirmed using FAIRE-gen with the 200,000 SNP Illumina Metabochip and verified with the established method of TaqMan allelic discrimination. Examination of this SNP in two prospective Caucasian cohorts comprising 15,000 individuals confirmed the association with HDL-C levels (combined beta = 0.016; p = 0.0006, and analysis of gene expression identified an allelic association with LXR-α expression in heart tissue. Using increasingly comprehensive genotyping chips and distinct tissues for examination, FAIRE-gen has the potential to aid the identification of many causal SNPs associated with disease from GWAS.

  9. Possible involvement of miRNAs in tropism of Parvovirus B19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarlou, Azadeh; AkhavanRahnama, Mahshid; Atashi, Amir; Soleimani, Masoud; Arefian, Ehsan; Gallinella, Giorgio

    2016-03-01

    Human Parvovirus B19 (PVB19) is one of the most important pathogens that targets erythroid lineage. Many factors were mentioned for restriction to erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs). Previous studies showed that in non-permissive cells VP1 and VP2 (structural proteins) mRNAs were detected but could not translate to proteins. A bioinformatics study showed that this inhibition might be due to specific microRNAs (miRNAs) present in non-permissive cells but not in permissive EPCs. To confirm the hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of miRNAs on VP expression. CD34(+) HSCs were separated from cord blood. Then, CD34(+) cells were treated with differentiation medium to obtain CD36(+) EPCs. To evaluate the effect of miRNAs on VP expression in MCF7 and HEK-293 cell lines (non-permissive cells) and CD36(+) EPCs, dual luciferase assay was performed in presence of shRNAs against Dicer and Drosha to disrupt miRNA biogenesis. QRT-PCR was performed to check down-regulation of Dicer and Drosha after transfection. All measurements were done in triplicate. Data means were compared using one-way ANOVAs. MicroRNA prediction was done by the online microRNA prediction tools. No significant difference was shown in luciferase activity of CD36(+) EPCs after co-transfection with shRNAs, while it was significant in non-permissive cells. Our study revealed that miRNAs may be involved in inhibition of VP expression in non-permissive cells, although further studies are required to demonstrate which miRNAs exactly are involved in regulation of PVB19 replication.

  10. [Aplastic crisis in sickle cell anemia induced by parvovírus B19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsato, M L; Bruniera, P; Cusato, M P; Spewien, K E; Durigon, E L; Toporovski, J

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Transient aplastic crisis is reported in an eight-month old child with sickle cell anemia and acute B19 parvovirus infection. This fact is uncommon in this age. PATIENT AND METHODS: The authors review the literature and describe a clinical case of an eight-month old child with sickle cell anemia presented with profound anemia and reticulocytopenia. His peripheral blood was analyzed for parvovirus B19 using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and for anti B19 immunoglobulin Ig M, and Ig G by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: An eight-month old child with sickle cell anemia was admitted to the hospital with fever and profound anemia (HB = 3.8g/ dl) and reticulocytopenia (2%). A diagnosis of aplastic crisis was established. The results indicate that Ig M and PCR were positive and Ig G negative. The patient needed erytrocyte transfusion, and was discharged on hospital day 4. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical and laboratory features indicate that human parvovirus B19 was the etiologic agent of an aplastic crisis in an eight-month old child. According to the international literature this event is uncommon for this age; in addition, this is the first time it appears in the Brazilian literature.

  11. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(19)-1 - Services of certain nonresident aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services of certain nonresident aliens. 31.3121... 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(b)(19)-1 Services of certain nonresident aliens. (a) (1) Services performed after 1961 by a nonresident alien individual who is temporarily present in the United States as a...

  12. 29 CFR 2550.408b-19 - Statutory exemption for cross-trading of securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exemption under section 408(b)(19) of the Act requires satisfaction of several objective conditions in... customer or pooled fund or account. (2) The term “compliance officer” means an individual designated by the... the Act to which Title I of the Act applies or any plan defined in section 4975(e)(1) of the Code. (6...

  13. NMR 11B, 19F of hydroxofluoroborate solutions in acetic and peracetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchetinina, G.P.; Brovkina, O.V.; Chernyshov, B.N.

    1985-01-01

    Hydroxofluoroborate solutions in acetic and peracetic acids are studied by the 11 B, 19 F NMR method. The reactions of substitutions of acetate- and peracetate ions for nucleophilic hydroxogroups with the formation of the respective complexes are shown to occur in these solutions, with monodentate coordination of BF 3 CH 3 COO - - and BF 3 CH 3 COOO - - groups being accomplished in this case

  14. Aplastic crisis in occult hereditary spherocytosis caused by human parvovirus (HPV B19).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, E S; Quick, G; Ransom, D; Helbert, B; Frankel, L S

    1989-02-01

    We have reported a case of aplastic crisis occurring in an 11-year-old black boy with occult hereditary spherocytosis. An etiologic diagnosis of human parvovirus (HPV) B19 infection was confirmed serologically. The Coulter Model S + IV proved useful for both diagnosis and treatment monitoring through serial histograms. The relationship of HPV infection and aplastic crisis is discussed.

  15. Estimation of serum concentration of parvovirus B19 DNA by PCR in patients with chronic anemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornsleth, A.; Carlsen, K. M.; Christensen, Laurids Siig

    1994-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 DNA was detected in serum samples from 10 out of 42 patients with chronic anaemia, the majority of whom suffered from aplastic anaemia, haemolytic anaemia, pure red cell anaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. Nested PCR methods with sensitivities of 0.005-0.05 fg DNA were developed. ...

  16. sero-prevalence of human parvovirus b19 among patients attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Conclusion: Seroprevalence to B19 among patients was low leaving a large proportion of the population especially women in Kano still ... transient anaemia amongst healthy adults, aplastic crises in ... Confidence Interval (CI). .... findings of Ooi et al in Malaysia (11), Salimi et al in Iran (5) .... age/young adults in Shiraz, Iran.

  17. Slow clearance of human parvovirus B19 viremia following acute infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Anna; Isa, Adiba; Norbeck, Oscar

    2005-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 is a common, clinically significant pathogen. Reassessment of the viral kinetics after acute infection showed that the virus is not rapidly cleared from healthy hosts, despite early resolution of symptoms. These findings challenge our current conception of the virus' pathogenesis...

  18. Acute parvovirus B19 infection in adults: a retrospective study of 49 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Bandera, A I; Mayor Arenal, M; Vorlicka, K; Ruiz Bravo-Burguilllos, E; Montero Vega, D; Vidaurrázaga Díaz-Arcaya, C

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to describe the epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of acute parvovirus B19 infection in adults. This study describes all cases of acute parvovirus B19 infection in patients older than 18 years of age who were treated at Hospital Universitario La Paz in Madrid, Spain, in 2012. Forty-nine adults were treated for acute parvovirus B19 infection. Most were young women who were infected in the spring or early summer. In over half the cases skin lesions were key diagnostic signs.We saw the full range of types of rash of purplish exanthems that were fairly generalized; vasculitis was relatively common (in >18%). Mild or moderate abnormalities in blood counts and indicators of liver dysfunction resolved spontaneously in all but 2 immunocompromised patients, who developed chronic anemia. This is the largest case series of acute parvovirus B19 infection published to date. This infection should be suspected on observing signs of purplish skin rashes, no matter the location or pattern of distribution, or vasculitis, especially if accompanied by fever and joint pain in young women in the spring. Measures to avoid infection should be recommended to individuals at risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular and structural characterization of fluorescent human parvovirus B19 virus-like particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, L.; Toivola, J.; White, D.; Ihalainen, T.; Smith, W.; Lindholm, L.; Vuento, M.; Oker-Blom, C.

    2005-01-01

    Although sharing a T = 1 icosahedral symmetry with other members of the Parvoviridae family, it has been suggested that the fivefold channel of the human parvovirus B19 VP2 capsids is closed at its outside end. To investigate the possibility of placing a relatively large protein moiety at this site

  20. Influenza A and Parvovirus B19 Seropositivity Rates in Gabonese Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabor, Julian J.; Schwarz, Norbert G.; Esen, Meral; Kremsner, Peter G.; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological data from Central Africa on influenza A and parvovirus B19 infections are limited. We analyzed 162 blood samples of infants 3, 9, 15, and 30 months of age for IgG antibodies against both pathogens. Antibody responses were 0, 3.7%, 12.3%, and 20.4% against influenza A;

  1. Adult Reye-like syndrome associated with serologic evidence of acute parvovirus B19 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Gonçalves da Costa

    Full Text Available Reye's syndrome is an infrequently diagnosed medical condition affecting mainly children. The etiology, epidemiology and natural history of Reye's syndrome have been cloudily written in footnotes of medical books and exotic papers since the initial description in early 1950s. We report here a case of adult Reye's syndrome associated with serologic evidence of parvovirus B19 infection.

  2. Erythrovirus B19 infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: screening by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Setúbal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythrovirus B19 infects erythrocytic progenitors, transiently interrupting erythropoiesis. In AIDS patients it causes chronic anemia amenable to treatment. We looked for evidences of B19 infection in stored bone marrow material from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Histological sections were made from stored paraffin blocks from 33 autopsies (39 blocks and 35 biopsies (45 blocks, 30 patients performed from 1988 to 2002. They were examined after hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining, immunohistochemical (IHC, and in situ hybridization. HE revealed intra-nuclear inclusion bodies ("lantern cells" suggesting B19 infection in 19 sections corresponding to 19 of 63 patients examined with this test. Seven of 78 sections subjected to immunohistochemistry were positive, corresponding to 7 of 58 patients examined with this test. Fourteen sections corresponding to 13 of the 20 HE and/or IHC positive patients were subjected to in situ hybridization, with six positives results. Among the 13 patients subjected to the three techniques, only one gave unequivocal positive results in all and was considered a true positive. The frequency of B19 infection (1/63 patients in the material examined can be deemed low.

  3. Fetal stroke and congenital parvovirus B19 infection complicated by activated protein C resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Timo R.; van Wezel-Meijler, Gerda; Beersma, Matthias F. C.; Von Lindern, Jeanette S.; van Duinen, Sjoerd G.; Walther, Frans J.

    2006-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection in gestation has been associated with severe fetal complications such as anaemia, hydrops and fetal demise. Fetal infection in the first trimester poses the greatest risk for these complications, but infection during the third trimester is more common than previously

  4. Disturbance of cerebral neuronal migration following congenital parvovirus B19 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, Lourens Rasmus; Smal, Jaime; de Haan, Timo Robert; Page-Christiaens, Godelieve C. M. L.; Verboon-Maciolek, Malgorzata; Oepkes, Dick; de Vries, Linda S.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the clinical course of an infant who presented with severe fetal anemia and fetal hydrops following congenital parvovirus B19 infection before 16 gestational weeks. The fetus was treated by cordocentesis and intrauterine transfusion at 18 weeks. The infant demonstrated mild unilateral

  5. The Evaluation of the Relationship Between Parvovirus B19 and Hashimato Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulfem Ece

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Hashimato thyroiditis also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis or autoimmune thyroiditis is characterized by lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltration of thyroid follicles causing destruction and atrophy in thyroid tissue. Reports on coexistence of several HLA antigen types in Hashimoto thyroiditis may indicate genetic predisposition. Parvovirus B19 is a prevalent and single stranded DNA virus that can cause disease in humans. Parvovirus B 19 infection may be responsible for autoimmune disorders or trigger them. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between Parvovirus B19 and Hashimato thyroiditis. Material and Method: Fifity patients with Hashimato thyroiditis that were admitted to our Internal Medicine outpatient clinic and thirty healthy subjects were included in this study. Parvovirus B19 IgM and IgG were studied by EIA (Virion/Serion, Germany. Statistical analysis of the data was studied with chi-square test at Izmir University School of Medicine Department of Biostatistics . p0.05. IgG levels in patient group was statistically significant (p

  6. VP1u phospholipase activity is critical for infectivity of full-length parvovirus B19 genomic clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Claudia; Zhi, Ning; Wong, Susan; Lu, Jun; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Gallinella, Giorgio; Kakkola, Laura; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Young, Neal S; Brown, Kevin E

    2008-05-10

    Three full-length genomic clones (pB19-M20, pB19-FL and pB19-HG1) of parvovirus B19 were produced in different laboratories. pB19-M20 was shown to produce infectious virus. To determine the differences in infectivity, all three plasmids were tested by transfection and infection assays. All three clones were similar in viral DNA replication, RNA transcription, and viral capsid protein production. However, only pB19-M20 and pB19-HG1 produced infectious virus. Comparison of viral sequences showed no significant differences in ITR or NS regions. In the capsid region, there was a nucleotide sequence difference conferring an amino acid substitution (E176K) in the phospholipase A2-like motif of the VP1-unique (VP1u) region. The recombinant VP1u with the E176K mutation had no catalytic activity as compared with the wild-type. When this mutation was introduced into pB19-M20, infectivity was significantly attenuated, confirming the critical role of this motif. Investigation of the original serum from which pB19-FL was cloned confirmed that the phospholipase mutation was present in the native B19 virus.

  7. VP1u phospholipase activity is critical for infectivity of full-length parvovirus B19 genomic clones✰

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Claudia; Zhi, Ning; Wong, Susan; Lu, Jun; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Gallinella, Giorgio; Kakkola, Laura; Venermo, Maria S Söderlund; Young, Neal S.; Brown, Kevin E.

    2008-01-01

    Three full-length genomic clones (pB19-M20, pB19-FL and pB19-HG1) of parvovirus B19 were produced in different laboratories. pB19-M20 was shown to produce infectious virus. To determine the differences in infectivity, all three plasmids were tested by transfection and infection assays. All three clones were similar in viral DNA replication, RNA transcription, and viral capsid protein production. However, only pB19-M20 and pB19-HG1 produced infectious virus. Comparison of viral sequences showed no significant differences in ITR or NS regions. In the capsid region, there was a nucleotide sequence difference conferring an amino acid substitution (E176K) in the phospholipase A2-like motif of the VP1-unique (VP1u) region. The recombinant VP1u with the E176K mutation had no catalytic activity as compared with the wild-type. When this mutation was introduced into pB19-M20, infectivity was significantly attenuated, confirming the critical role of this motif. Investigation of the original serum from which pB19-FL was cloned confirmed that the phospholipase mutation was present in the native B19 virus. PMID:18252260

  8. Exacerbating effects of human parvovirus B19 NS1 on liver fibrosis in NZB/W F1 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai-Ching Hsu

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disorder with unknown etiology that impacts various organs including liver. Recently, human parvovirus B19 (B19 is recognized to exacerbate SLE. However, the effects of B19 on liver in SLE are still unclear. Herein we aimed to investigate the effects of B19 on liver in NZB/W F1 mice by injecting subcutaneously with PBS, recombinant B19 NS1, VP1u or VP2, respectively. Our experimental results revealed that B19 NS1 protein significantly enhanced the TGF-β/Smad fibrotic signaling by increasing the expressions of TGF-β, Smad2/3, phosphorylated Smad2/3, Smad4 and Sp1. The consequent fibrosis-related proteins, PAI-1 and α-SMA, were also significantly induced in livers of NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 NS1 protein. Accordingly, markedly increased collagen deposition was also observed in livers of NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 NS1 protein. However, no significant difference was observed in livers of NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 VP1u or VP2 as compared to the controls. These findings indicate that B19 NS1 plays a crucial role in exacerbating liver fibrosis in NZB/W F1 mice through enhancing the TGF-â/Smad fibrotic signaling.

  9. Exacerbating Effects of Human Parvovirus B19 NS1 on Liver Fibrosis in NZB/W F1 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Tsai, Chun-Chou; Chiu, Chun-Ching; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Tzang, Bor-Show

    2013-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder with unknown etiology that impacts various organs including liver. Recently, human parvovirus B19 (B19) is recognized to exacerbate SLE. However, the effects of B19 on liver in SLE are still unclear. Herein we aimed to investigate the effects of B19 on liver in NZB/W F1 mice by injecting subcutaneously with PBS, recombinant B19 NS1, VP1u or VP2, respectively. Our experimental results revealed that B19 NS1 protein significantly enhanced the TGF-β/Smad fibrotic signaling by increasing the expressions of TGF-β, Smad2/3, phosphorylated Smad2/3, Smad4 and Sp1. The consequent fibrosis-related proteins, PAI-1 and α-SMA, were also significantly induced in livers of NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 NS1 protein. Accordingly, markedly increased collagen deposition was also observed in livers of NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 NS1 protein. However, no significant difference was observed in livers of NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 VP1u or VP2 as compared to the controls. These findings indicate that B19 NS1 plays a crucial role in exacerbating liver fibrosis in NZB/W F1 mice through enhancing the TGF-â/Smad fibrotic signaling. PMID:23840852

  10. Concept and design of a genome-wide association genotyping array tailored for transplantation-specific studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yun R.; van Setten, Jessica; Verma, Shefali S.

    2015-01-01

    genome-wide genotyping array, the 'TxArray', comprising approximately 782,000 markers with tailored content for deeper capture of variants across HLA, KIR, pharmacogenomic, and metabolic loci important in transplantation. To test concordance and genotyping quality, we genotyped 85 HapMap samples...

  11. Viremic blood donor found by a rapid screening method in a season of high human parvovirus B19 activity in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Setúbal

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Erythrovirus B19 infection is usually benign but may have serious consequences in patients with hemolytic anemia (transient aplastic crisis, immunodeficiency (in whom persistent infection can lead to chronic bone marrow failure with anemia, or who are in the first or second trimester of gestation (spontaneous abortion, hydrops fetalis, and fetal death. Being non-enveloped, B19 resists most inactivation methods and can be transmitted by transfusion. B19 is difficult to cultivate and native virus is usually obtained from viremic blood. As specific antibodies may be absent, and there is no reliable immunological method for antigen detection, hybridization or polymerase chain reaction are needed for detecting viremia. A rapid method, gel hemagglutination (Diamed ID-Parvovirus B19 Antigen Test, can disclose highly viremic donations, whose elimination lessens the viral burden in pooled blood products and may even render them non-infectious. In order to obtain native antigen and to determine the frequency of viremic donors, we applied this test to blood donors in a period of high viral activity in our community. Positive or indeterminate results were re-tested by dot-blot hybridization. We tested 472 donors in 1998 and 831 ones in 1999. One viremic donor was found in 1999. We suggest that in periods of high community viral activity the gel hemagglutination test may be useful in avoiding highly viremic blood being added to plasma pools or directly transfused to patients under risk.

  12. Reliability of measurement and genotype x environment 1 interaction for potato specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dry matter content of potatoes used to make potato chips and French fries strongly influences fry oil absorption and texture of the finished product. Specific gravity (SpGr) is often used to assess the processing quality of potatoes tubers because of its strong correlation with dry matter conten...

  13. Human parvovirus B19 VP1u Protein as inflammatory mediators induces liver injury in naïve mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Chiu, Chun-Ching; Chang, Shun-Chih; Chan, Hsu-Chin; Shi, Ya-Fang; Chen, Tzy-Yen; Tzang, Bor-Show

    2016-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a human pathogen known to be associated with many non-erythroid diseases, including hepatitis. Although B19V VP1-unique region (B19-VP1u) has crucial roles in the pathogenesis of B19V infection, the influence of B19-VP1u proteins on hepatic injury is still obscure. This study investigated the effect and possible inflammatory signaling of B19-VP1u in livers from BALB/c mice that were subcutaneously inoculated with VP1u-expressing COS-7 cells. The in vivo effects of B19-VP1u were analyzed by using live animal imaging system (IVIS), Haematoxylin-Eosin staining, gel zymography, and immunoblotting after inoculation. Markedly hepatocyte disarray and lymphocyte infiltration, enhanced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity and increased phosphorylation of p38, ERK, IKK-α, IκB and NF-κB (p-p65) proteins were observed in livers from BALB/c mice receiving COS-7 cells expressing B19-VP1u as well as the significantly increased CRP, IL-1β and IL-6. Notably, IFN-γ and phosphorylated STAT1, but not STAT3, were also significantly increased in the livers of BALB/c mice that were subcutaneously inoculated with VP1u-expressing COS-7 cells. These findings revealed the effects of B19-VP1u on liver injury and suggested that B19-VP1u may have a role as mediators of inflammation in B19V infection.

  14. Human Parvovirus B19 NS1 Protein Aggravates Liver Injury in NZB/W F1 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Chou; Chiu, Chun-Ching; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Hsu, Huai-Sheng; Tzang, Bor-Show; Hsu, Tsai-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19) has been associated with a variety of diseases. However, the influence of B19 viral proteins on hepatic injury in SLE is still obscure. To elucidate the effects of B19 viral proteins on livers in SLE, recombinant B19 NS1, VP1u or VP2 proteins were injected subcutaneously into NZB/W F1 mice, respectively. Significant expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were detected in NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 NS1 as compared to those mice receiving PBS. Markedly hepatocyte disarray and lymphocyte infiltration were observed in livers from NZB/WF 1 mice receiving B19 NS1 as compared to those mice receiving PBS. Additionally, significant increases of Tumor Necrosis Factor –α (TNF-α), TNF-α receptor, IκB kinase –α (IKK-α), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor (IκB) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were detected in livers from NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 NS1 as compared to those mice receiving PBS. Accordingly, significant increases of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) and U-plasminogen activator (uPA) were also detected in livers from NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 NS1 as compared to those mice receiving PBS. Contrarily, no significant variation on livers from NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 VP1u or VP2 was observed as compared to those mice receiving PBS. These findings firstly demonstrated the aggravated effects of B19 NS1 but not VP1u or VP2 protein on hepatic injury and provide a clue in understanding the role of B19 NS1 on hepatic injury in SLE. PMID:23555760

  15. Human parvovirus B19 infection and hydrops fetalis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita CN Cubel

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded lung and liver tissue from 23 cases of non immune hydrops fetalis and five control cases, in which hydrops were due to syphilis (3 and genetic causes (2, were examined for the presence of human parvovirus B19 by DNA hybridisation. Using in situ hybridisation with a biotynilated probe one positive case was detected. Using 32P-labelled probes in a dot blot assay format, five further positives were obtained. These were all confirmed as positive by a nested polymerase chain reaction assay. Electron microscopy revealed virus in all these five positive cases. The six B19 DNA positive cases of hydrops fetalis were from 1974, 1980, 1982, 1987 and 1988, four of which occurred during the second half of the year, confirming the seasonality of the disease.

  16. Anaemia and fever in kidney transplant. The role of human parvovirus B19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet Parodis López

    2017-03-01

    We report the case of a 65 year-old man with a history of deceased donor renal transplant in September 2014. At 38 days after the transplant, the patient presented progressive anaemia that was resistant to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. At 64 days after transplant, hyperthermia occurred with progressive deterioration of the patient's general condition. The viral serology and the first blood PCR for human parvovirus B19 were both negative. At 4 months and 19 days after, a bone marrow biopsy was conducted, showing giant erythroblasts with nuclear viral inclusions that were compatible with parvovirus; a PCR in the tissue confirmed the diagnosis. A second blood PCR was positive for parvovirus. After treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and the temporary discontinuation of mycophenolate mofetil, a complete remission of the disease occurred, although the blood PCR for parvovirus B19 remained positive, so monitoring is necessary for future likely recurrence.

  17. Outbreak of parvovirus B19 infection among anesthesiology and surgical fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Medrano, Reynaldo; Martínez-Reséndez, Michel Fernando; Garza-González, Elvira; Medina-Torres, Ana Gabriela; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián

    2016-09-01

    A human parvovirus B19 outbreak was detected in personnel assigned to a surgical area (anesthesiology fellows and an otorhinolaryngology fellow) in a university hospital. The attack rate between susceptible members was higher than previous reports. Diagnosis was determined by polymerase chain reaction for human parvovirus B19 in serum of 1 subject and immunoglobulin M/immunoglobulin G antibody titer in the remaining subjects. Medical personnel were put on leave of absence until resolution of symptoms and laboratory confirmation of health. No cases of infection were detected in hospitalized patients or other health care workers on follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Th17-related cytokines in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with dilated cardiomyopathies: a possible linkage to parvovirus B19 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-Yuan Chen

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathies (DCM are a major cause of mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Immune responses induced by human parvovirus B19 (B19 are considered an important pathogenic mechanism in myocarditis or DCM. However, little is known about Th17-related cytokines in SLE patients with DCM about the linkage with B19 infection. IgM and IgG against B19 viral protein, and serum levels of Th17-related cytokines were determined using ELISA in eight SLE patients with DCM and six patients with valvular heart disease (VHD. Humoral responses of anti-B19-VP1u and anti-B19-NS1 antibody were assessed using Western blot and B19 DNA was detected by nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Levels of interleukin (IL-17, IL-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were significantly higher in SLE patients with DCM (mean ± SEM, 390.99±125.48 pg/ml, 370.24±114.09 pg/ml, 36.01±16.90 pg/ml, and 183.84±82.94 pg/ml, respectively compared to healthy controls (51.32±3.04 pg/ml, p<0.001; 36.88±6.64 pg/ml, p<0.001; 5.39±0.62 pg/ml, p<0.005; and 82.13±2.42 pg/ml, p<0.005, respectively. Levels of IL-17 and IL-6 were higher in SLE patients with DCM versus those with VHD (both p<0.01. Five (62.5% of DCM patients had detectable anti-B19-NS1 IgG and four (50.0% of them had anti-B19-VP1u IgG, whereas only one (16.7% of VHD patients had detectable anti-B19-NS1 IgG and anti-B19-VP1u IgG. Serum levels of IL-17, IL-6 and IL-1β were markedly higher in SLE patients with anti-B19-VP1u IgG and anti-B19-NS1 IgG compared to those without anti-B19-VP1u IgG or anti-B19-NS1 IgG, respectively. These suggest a potential association of B19 with DCM and Th17-related cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of DCM in SLE patients.

  19. Human parvovirus B19 infection in hemophiliacs first infused with two high-purity, virally attenuated factor VIII concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzi, A; Ciappi, S; Zakvrzewska, K; Morfini, M; Mariani, G; Mannucci, P M

    1992-03-01

    Human parvovirus B19 can be transmitted by coagulation factor concentrates and is highly resistant to virucidal methods. To evaluate whether the additional removal of virus by chromatographic methods during the manufacture of high-purity concentrates reduces the risk of B19 transmission, we have prospectively evaluated the rate of anti-B19 seroconversion in two groups of susceptible (anti-B19 negative) hemophiliacs infused with high-purity, heated (pasteurized) or solvent-detergent-treated factor VIII concentrates. Both products infected a relatively high proportion of patients (nine of 20).

  20. Th17-Related Cytokines in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathies: A Possible Linkage to Parvovirus B19 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Der-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Ming; Lan, Joung-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathies (DCM) are a major cause of mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Immune responses induced by human parvovirus B19 (B19) are considered an important pathogenic mechanism in myocarditis or DCM. However, little is known about Th17-related cytokines in SLE patients with DCM about the linkage with B19 infection. IgM and IgG against B19 viral protein, and serum levels of Th17-related cytokines were determined using ELISA in eight SLE patients with DCM and six patients with valvular heart disease (VHD). Humoral responses of anti-B19-VP1u and anti-B19-NS1 antibody were assessed using Western blot and B19 DNA was detected by nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Levels of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were significantly higher in SLE patients with DCM (mean ± SEM, 390.99±125.48 pg/ml, 370.24±114.09 pg/ml, 36.01±16.90 pg/ml, and 183.84±82.94 pg/ml, respectively) compared to healthy controls (51.32±3.04 pg/ml, pB19-NS1 IgG and four (50.0%) of them had anti-B19-VP1u IgG, whereas only one (16.7%) of VHD patients had detectable anti-B19-NS1 IgG and anti-B19-VP1u IgG. Serum levels of IL-17, IL-6 and IL-1β were markedly higher in SLE patients with anti-B19-VP1u IgG and anti-B19-NS1 IgG compared to those without anti-B19-VP1u IgG or anti-B19-NS1 IgG, respectively. These suggest a potential association of B19 with DCM and Th17-related cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of DCM in SLE patients. PMID:25462010

  1. Human parvovirus B19 antibodies induce altered membrane protein expression and apoptosis of BeWo trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzang, Bor-Show; Chiang, Szu-Yi; Chan, Hsu-Chin; Liu, Chung-Hsien; Hsu, Tsai-Ching

    2016-11-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is harmful during pregnancy since it can be vertically transmitted to the developing fetus. In addition, the anti‑B19 antibodies induced by B19 infection are believed to have a cytopathic role in B19 transmission; however, knowledge regarding the effects of anti‑B19 antibodies during pregnancy is limited. To investigate the possible roles of anti‑B19 antibodies during pregnancy, the present study examined the effects of anti‑B19‑VP1 unique region (VP1u), anti‑B19‑VP2 and anti‑B19‑nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies on BeWo trophoblasts. Briefly, BeWo trophoblasts were incubated with purified IgG against B19‑VP1u, B19‑VP2 and B19‑NS1. Subsequently, the expression of surface proteins and apoptotic molecules were assessed in BeWo trophoblasts using flow cytometry, ELISA and western blotting. The expression levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)‑G were significantly increased on BeWo trophoblasts treated with rabbit anti‑B19‑VP1u IgG, and were unchanged in those treated with rabbit anti‑B19‑NS1 and anti‑B19‑VP2 IgG, as compared with the control group. Furthermore, the expression levels of globoside (P blood group antigen) and cluster of differentiation (CD)29 (β1 integrin) were significantly increased in BeWo trophoblasts treated with rabbit anti‑B19‑NS1 and anti‑B19‑VP2 IgG, whereas only CD29 was also significantly increased in cells treated with anti‑B19‑VP1u IgG. In addition, the number of cells at sub‑G1 phase; caspase‑3 activity; and the expression of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic molecules, including Fas‑associated death domain protein, activated caspase‑8, activated caspase‑3, B‑cell lymphoma 2‑associated X protein, cytochrome c, apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 and activated caspase‑9, were significantly increased in BeWo trophoblasts treated with anti‑B19‑VP1u and anti‑B19‑NS1 IgG. In conclusion, the present

  2. Parvovirus b19 DNA CpG dinucleotide methylation and epigenetic regulation of viral expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bonvicini

    Full Text Available CpG DNA methylation is one of the main epigenetic modifications playing a role in the control of gene expression. For DNA viruses whose genome has the ability to integrate in the host genome or to maintain as a latent episome, a correlation has been found between the extent of DNA methylation and viral quiescence. No information is available for Parvovirus B19, a human pathogenic virus, which is capable of both lytic and persistent infections. Within Parvovirus B19 genome, the inverted terminal regions display all the characteristic signatures of a genomic CpG island; therefore we hypothesised a role of CpG dinucleotide methylation in the regulation of viral genome expression.The analysis of CpG dinucleotide methylation of Parvovirus B19 DNA was carried out by an aptly designed quantitative real-time PCR assay on bisulfite-modified DNA. The effects of CpG methylation on the regulation of viral genome expression were first investigated by transfection of either unmethylated or in vitro methylated viral DNA in a model cell line, showing that methylation of viral DNA was correlated to lower expression levels of the viral genome. Then, in the course of in vitro infections in different cellular environments, it was observed that absence of viral expression and genome replication were both correlated to increasing levels of CpG methylation of viral DNA. Finally, the presence of CpG methylation was documented in viral DNA present in bioptic samples, indicating the occurrence and a possible role of this epigenetic modification in the course of natural infections.The presence of an epigenetic level of regulation of viral genome expression, possibly correlated to the silencing of the viral genome and contributing to the maintenance of the virus in tissues, can be relevant to the balance and outcome of the different types of infection associated to Parvovirus B19.

  3. Parvovirus B19 DNA CpG Dinucleotide Methylation and Epigenetic Regulation of Viral Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvicini, Francesca; Manaresi, Elisabetta; Di Furio, Francesca; De Falco, Luisa; Gallinella, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    CpG DNA methylation is one of the main epigenetic modifications playing a role in the control of gene expression. For DNA viruses whose genome has the ability to integrate in the host genome or to maintain as a latent episome, a correlation has been found between the extent of DNA methylation and viral quiescence. No information is available for Parvovirus B19, a human pathogenic virus, which is capable of both lytic and persistent infections. Within Parvovirus B19 genome, the inverted terminal regions display all the characteristic signatures of a genomic CpG island; therefore we hypothesised a role of CpG dinucleotide methylation in the regulation of viral genome expression. The analysis of CpG dinucleotide methylation of Parvovirus B19 DNA was carried out by an aptly designed quantitative real-time PCR assay on bisulfite-modified DNA. The effects of CpG methylation on the regulation of viral genome expression were first investigated by transfection of either unmethylated or in vitro methylated viral DNA in a model cell line, showing that methylation of viral DNA was correlated to lower expression levels of the viral genome. Then, in the course of in vitro infections in different cellular environments, it was observed that absence of viral expression and genome replication were both correlated to increasing levels of CpG methylation of viral DNA. Finally, the presence of CpG methylation was documented in viral DNA present in bioptic samples, indicating the occurrence and a possible role of this epigenetic modification in the course of natural infections. The presence of an epigenetic level of regulation of viral genome expression, possibly correlated to the silencing of the viral genome and contributing to the maintenance of the virus in tissues, can be relevant to the balance and outcome of the different types of infection associated to Parvovirus B19. PMID:22413013

  4. Anaemia and fever in Kidney transplant. The role of human parvovirus B19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodis López, Yanet; Santana Estupiñán, Raquel; Marrero Robayna, Silvia; Gallego Samper, Roberto; Henríquez Palop, Fernando; Rivero Vera, José Carlos; Camacho Galán, Rafael; Pena López, María José; Sablón González, Nery; González Cabrera, Fayna; Oliva Dámaso, Elena; Vega Díaz, Nicanor; Rodríguez Pérez, José Carlos

    Infections remain an issue of particular relevance in renal transplant patients, particularly viral infections. Human parvovirus B19 infection causes severe refractory anaemia, pancytopenia and thrombotic microangiopathy. Its presence is recognized by analysing blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by the discovery of typical giant proerythroblasts in the bone marrow. We report the case of a 65 year-old man with a history of deceased donor renal transplant in September 2014. At 38 days after the transplant, the patient presented progressive anaemia that was resistant to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. At 64 days after transplant, hyperthermia occurred with progressive deterioration of the patient's general condition. The viral serology and the first blood PCR for human parvovirus B19 were both negative. At 4 months and 19 days after, a bone marrow biopsy was conducted, showing giant erythroblasts with nuclear viral inclusions that were compatible with parvovirus; a PCR in the tissue confirmed the diagnosis. A second blood PCR was positive for parvovirus. After treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and the temporary discontinuation of mycophenolate mofetil, a complete remission of the disease occurred, although the blood PCR for parvovirus B19 remained positive, so monitoring is necessary for future likely recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. A Parvovirus B19 synthetic genome: sequence features and functional competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaresi, Elisabetta; Conti, Ilaria; Bua, Gloria; Bonvicini, Francesca; Gallinella, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    Central to genetic studies for Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is the availability of genomic clones that may possess functional competence and ability to generate infectious virus. In our study, we established a new model genetic system for Parvovirus B19. A synthetic approach was followed, by design of a reference genome sequence, by generation of a corresponding artificial construct and its molecular cloning in a complete and functional form, and by setup of an efficient strategy to generate infectious virus, via transfection in UT7/EpoS1 cells and amplification in erythroid progenitor cells. The synthetic genome was able to generate virus with biological properties paralleling those of native virus, its infectious activity being dependent on the preservation of self-complementarity and sequence heterogeneity within the terminal regions. A virus of defined genome sequence, obtained from controlled cell culture conditions, can constitute a reference tool for investigation of the structural and functional characteristics of the virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Case Report of Parvovirus B19 Infection in a Renal Allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oramas, Diana M; Setty, Suman; Yeldandi, Vijay; Cabrera, Julio; Patel, Tushar

    2017-10-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection is undiagnosed in recipients undergoing solid organ transplantation. It is usually responsible for unexplained acute and chronic red blood cell aplasia that does not respond to erythropoietin therapy. Cases of parvovirus B19 infection associated with pancytopenia, solid organ dysfunction, and allograft rejection have been described in the literature. The deterioration of the immune system as a result of severe immunotherapy favors the reactivation of a previous infection or the acquisition of a new one. We present a case of a 32-year-old woman with a 1-year history of renal allograft transplant and previous cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection who presented with chest pain, polyarthritis, pancytopenia, and renal dysfunction. A serum sample using polymerase chain reaction showed a parvovirus titer of 13.8 trillion IU/mL and a CMV titer of 800 IU/mL. The renal biopsy revealed nucleomegaly with focal viral inclusions, along with changes associated with immunotherapy toxicity. Electron microscopy demonstrated capillary and tubular epithelial cells with "viral factories," thereby confirming the diagnosis. Thus, screening for parvovirus B19 is advised in high-risk patients who present with refractory anemia to avoid the complications of a chronic infection associated with the fatal rejection of the transplanted organ.

  7. Focal seizure associated with human parvovirus B19 infection in a non-encephalopathic child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Debopam; Willis, Erin

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of acute symptomatic (at the time of documented brain insult) seizures and single unprovoked seizures are 29-39 and 23-61 per 100 000 per year, respectively. After stabilization of the patient, finding the etiology of the seizure is of paramount importance. A careful history and physical examination may allow a diagnosis without need for further evaluation. In the literature, severe central nervous system involvement has been reported from human parvovirus B19 infection. We reported a previously healthy 7-year-old girl who presented after an episode of focal seizure. She was afebrile and didn't have any focal neurological abnormalities. She had erythematous malar rash along with reticulating pattern of rash over her both upper extremities. Parvovirus infection was suspected due to the characteristic erythematous malar rash. Serum human parvovirus B19 DNA polymerase chain reaction was positive which was consistent with acute parvovirus infection. Further confirmation of current infection was done with Sandwich enzyme immunoassays showing positive anti-B19 IgM Index (>1.1). IgG index was equivocal (0.9-1.1). We report an extremely rare presentation of non-febrile seizure from acute parvovirus infection in a child without encephalopathy who had an excellent recovery. Timely diagnosis can provide counselling regarding future seizure recurrence risk, curtail expenditure from expensive diagnostic work up and provide additional recommendations about potential risks to a pregnant caregiver.

  8. Comparative analysis of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) leaf transcriptomes reveals genotype-specific salt tolerance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yunting; Xu, Yuxing; Hettenhausen, Christian; Lu, Chengkai; Shen, Guojing; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Jing; Song, Juan; Lin, Honghui; Wu, Jianqiang

    2018-02-15

    Soil salinity is an important factor affecting growth, development, and productivity of almost all land plants, including the forage crop alfalfa (Medicago sativa). However, little is known about how alfalfa responds and adapts to salt stress, particularly among different salt-tolerant cultivars. Among seven alfalfa cultivars, we found that Zhongmu-1 (ZM) is relatively salt-tolerant and Xingjiang Daye (XJ) is salt-sensitive. Compared to XJ, ZM showed slower growth under low-salt conditions, but exhibited stronger tolerance to salt stress. RNA-seq analysis revealed 2237 and 1125 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ZM and XJ in the presence and absence of salt stress, among which many genes are involved in stress-related pathways. After salt treatment, compared with the controls, the number of DEGs in XJ (19373) was about four times of that in ZM (4833). We also detected specific differential gene expression patterns: In response to salt stress, compared with XJ, ZM maintained relatively more stable expression levels of genes related to the ROS and Ca 2+ pathways, phytohormone biosynthesis, and Na + /K + transport. Notably, several salt resistance-associated genes always showed greater levels of expression in ZM than in XJ, including a transcription factor. Consistent with the suppression of plant growth resulting from salt stress, the expression of numerous photosynthesis- and growth hormone-related genes decreased more dramatically in XJ than in ZM. By contrast, the expression levels of photosynthetic genes were lower in ZM under low-salt conditions. Compared with XJ, ZM is a salt-tolerant alfalfa cultivar possessing specific regulatory mechanisms conferring exceptional salt tolerance, likely by maintaining high transcript levels of abiotic and biotic stress resistance-related genes. Our results suggest that maintaining this specific physiological status and/or plant adaptation to salt stress most likely arises by inhibition of plant growth in ZM through

  9. Specific gravity of hybrid poplars in the north-central region, USA: within-tree variability and site × genotype effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    William L. Headlee; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny; Richard B. Hall; Edmund O. Bauer; Bradford Bender; Bruce A. Birr; Raymond O. Miller; Jesse A. Randall; Adam H. Wiese

    2013-01-01

    Specific gravity is an important consideration for traditional uses of hybrid poplars for pulp and solid wood products, as well as for biofuels and bioenergy production. While specific gravity has been shown to be under strong genetic control and subject to within-tree variability, the role of genotype × environment interactions is poorly understood. Most...

  10. Genotype-Specific Minimal Residual Disease Interpretation Improves Stratification in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, David; Enshaei, Amir; Bartram, Jack; Hancock, Jeremy; Harrison, Christine J.; Hough, Rachael; Samarasinghe, Sujith; Schwab, Claire; Vora, Ajay; Wade, Rachel; Moppett, John; Moorman, Anthony V.; Goulden, Nick

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Minimal residual disease (MRD) and genetic abnormalities are important risk factors for outcome in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Current risk algorithms dichotomize MRD data and do not assimilate genetics when assigning MRD risk, which reduces predictive accuracy. The aim of our study was to exploit the full power of MRD by examining it as a continuous variable and to integrate it with genetics. Patients and Methods We used a population-based cohort of 3,113 patients who were treated in UKALL2003, with a median follow-up of 7 years. MRD was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction analysis of Ig/TCR gene rearrangements, and patients were assigned to a genetic subtype on the basis of immunophenotype, cytogenetics, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. To examine response kinetics at the end of induction, we log-transformed the absolute MRD value and examined its distribution across subgroups. Results MRD was log normally distributed at the end of induction. MRD distributions of patients with distinct genetic subtypes were different (P acute lymphoblastic leukemia responded more slowly. The risk of relapse was correlated with MRD kinetics, and each log reduction in disease level reduced the risk by 20% (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.83; P < .001). Although the risk of relapse was directly proportional to the MRD level within each genetic risk group, absolute relapse rate that was associated with a specific MRD value or category varied significantly by genetic subtype. Integration of genetic subtype–specific MRD values allowed more refined risk group stratification. Conclusion A single threshold for assigning patients to an MRD risk group does not reflect the response kinetics of the different genetic subtypes. Future risk algorithms should integrate genetics with MRD to accurately identify patients with the lowest and highest risk of relapse. PMID:29131699

  11. A protected area influences genotype-specific survival and the structure of a Canis hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R; Mahoney, Peter J

    2014-02-01

    It is widely recognized that protected areas can strongly influence ecological systems and that hybridization is an important conservation issue. However, previous studies have not explicitly considered the influence of protected areas on hybridization dynamics. Eastern wolves are a species of special concern and their distribution is largely restricted to a protected population in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada, where they are the numerically dominant canid. We studied intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing survival and cause-specific mortality of hybrid and parental canids in the three-species hybrid zone between eastern wolves, eastern coyotes, and gray wolves in and adjacent to APP. Mortality risk for eastern wolves in areas adjacent to APP was significantly higher than for other sympatric Canis types outside of APP, and for eastern wolves and other canids within APP. Outside of APP, the annual mortality rate of all canids by harvest (24%) was higher than for other causes of death (4-7%). Furthermore, eastern wolves (hazard ratio = 3.5) and nonresidents (transients and dispersing animals, hazard ratio = 2.7) were more likely to die from harvest relative to other Canis types and residents, respectively. Thus, eastern wolves dispersing from APP were especially vulnerable to harvest mortality. For residents, eastern wolf survival was more negatively influenced by increased road density than for other Canis types, further highlighting the sensitivity of eastern wolves to human disturbance. A cycle of dispersal from APP followed by high rates of mortality and hybridization appears to maintain eastern wolves at low density adjacent to APP, limiting the potential for expansion beyond the protected area. However, high survival and numerical dominance of eastern wolves within APP suggest that protected areas can allow rare hybridizing species to persist even if their demographic performance is compromised and barriers to hybridization are largely

  12. Effector-Triggered Immunity Determines Host Genotype-Specific Incompatibility in Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Michiko; Miwa, Hiroki; Masuda, Sachiko; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Okazaki, Shin

    2016-08-01

    Symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia leads to the formation of N2-fixing root nodules. In soybean, several host genes, referred to as Rj genes, control nodulation. Soybean cultivars carrying the Rj4 gene restrict nodulation by specific rhizobia such as Bradyrhizobium elkanii We previously reported that the restriction of nodulation was caused by B. elkanii possessing a functional type III secretion system (T3SS), which is known for its delivery of virulence factors by pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the molecular basis for the T3SS-dependent nodulation restriction in Rj4 soybean. Inoculation tests revealed that soybean cultivar BARC-2 (Rj4/Rj4) restricted nodulation by B. elkanii USDA61, whereas its nearly isogenic line BARC-3 (rj4/rj4) formed nitrogen-fixing nodules with the same strain. Root-hair curling and infection threads were not observed in the roots of BARC-2 inoculated with USDA61, indicating that Rj4 blocked B. elkanii infection in the early stages. Accumulation of H2O2 and salicylic acid (SA) was observed in the roots of BARC-2 inoculated with USDA61. Transcriptome analyses revealed that inoculation of USDA61, but not its T3SS mutant in BARC-2, induced defense-related genes, including those coding for hypersensitive-induced responsive protein, which act in effector-triggered immunity (ETI) in Arabidopsis. These findings suggest that B. elkanii T3SS triggers the SA-mediated ETI-type response in Rj4 soybean, which consequently blocks symbiotic interactions. This study revealed a common molecular mechanism underlying both plant-pathogen and plant-symbiont interactions, and suggests that establishment of a root nodule symbiosis requires the evasion or suppression of plant immune responses triggered by rhizobial effectors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Prevalence of nucleic acid sequences specific for human parvoviruses, hepatitis A and hepatitis E viruses in coagulation factor concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrow, S; Wenzel, J J; Schimanski, S; Schwarzbeck, J; Rothe, U; Oldenburg, J; Jilg, W; Eis-Hübinger, A M

    2011-05-01

    Due to their high resistance to inactivation procedures, nonenveloped viruses such as parvovirus B19, human bocavirus (HBoV), human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) pose a particular threat to blood products. Virus transmission to patients treated with blood products presents an additional burden to disease. We determined the frequency and the amount of nucleic acid specific for nonenveloped viruses in recently manufactured preparations of commercial coagulation factor concentrates. At least three different batches of each of 13 different plasma-derived and recombinant coagulation factor products were tested for the presence and the amount of nucleic acid for parvovirus B19, HBoV, human parvovirus 4, hepatitis A virus and HEV by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Whereas none of the recombinant products tested positive for any of these viruses, parvovirus B19 DNA with amounts ranging between 2×10(1) and 1.3×10(3) genome equivalents/ml was detected in five plasma-derived products. In addition to parvovirus B19 genotype 1, genotypes 2 and 3 were observed in two batches of a factor VIII/von-Willebrand factor product. In two products (one factor VIII concentrate and one activated prothrombin complex concentrate), a combination of both genotypes 1 and 2 of parvovirus B19 was detected. The data show that nucleic acids from several relevant nonenveloped viruses are not found at detectable levels in coagulation factor concentrates. In some cases, parvovirus B19 DNA was detectable at low levels. Testing of the plasma pools for the full range of parvovirus genotypes is advocated for ensuring product safety. © 2010 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2010 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  14. Commensal Bacteroides species induce colitis in host-genotype-specific fashion in a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Seth M; Bijanki, Vinieth N; Nava, Gerardo M; Sun, Lulu; Malvin, Nicole P; Donermeyer, David L; Dunne, W Michael; Allen, Paul M; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S

    2011-05-19

    The intestinal microbiota is important for induction of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is associated with complex shifts in microbiota composition, but it is unclear whether specific bacterial subsets induce IBD and, if so, whether their proportions in the microbiota are altered during disease. Here, we fulfilled Koch's postulates in host-genotype-specific fashion using a mouse model of IBD with human-relevant disease-susceptibility mutations. From screening experiments we isolated common commensal Bacteroides species, introduced them into antibiotic-pretreated mice, and quantitatively reisolated them in culture. The bacteria colonized IBD-susceptible and -nonsusceptible mice equivalently, but induced disease exclusively in susceptible animals. Conversely, commensal Enterobacteriaceae were >100-fold enriched during spontaneous disease, but an Enterobacteriaceae isolate failed to induce disease in antibiotic-pretreated mice despite robust colonization. We thus demonstrate that IBD-associated microbiota alterations do not necessarily reflect underlying disease etiology. These findings establish important experimental criteria and a conceptual framework for understanding microbial contributions to IBD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Commensal Bacteroides species induce colitis in host-genotype-specific fashion in a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Seth M.; Bijanki, Vinieth N.; Nava, Gerardo M.; Sun, Lulu; Malvin, Nicole P.; Donermeyer, David L.; Dunne, W. Michael; Allen, Paul M.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The intestinal microbiota is important for induction of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is associated with complex shifts in microbiota composition, but it is unclear whether specific bacterial subsets induce IBD and, if so, whether their proportions in the microbiota are altered during disease. Here we fulfilled Koch’s postulates in host-genotype-specific fashion using a mouse model of IBD with human-relevant disease-susceptibility mutations. From screening experiments we isolated common commensal Bacteroides species, introduced them into antibiotic-pretreated mice, and quantitatively re-isolated them in culture. The bacteria colonized IBD-susceptible and non-susceptible mice equivalently, but induced disease exclusively in susceptible animals. Conversely, commensal Enterobacteriaceae were >100-fold enriched during spontaneous disease but an Enterobacteriaceae isolate failed to induce disease in antibiotic-pretreated mice despite robust colonization. We thus demonstrate that IBD-associated microbiota alterations do not necessarily reflect underlying disease etiology. These findings establish important experimental criteria and a conceptual framework for understanding microbial contributions to IBD. PMID:21575910

  16. Incidence of parvovirus B 19 infection. among an unselected population of pregnant women in the Netherlands : A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gessel, Peter H.; Gaytant, Michael A.; Vossen, Ann C. T. M.; Galama, Joep M. D.; Ursem, Nicolette T. C.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Wildschut, Hajo I. J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate seroprevalence of anti-parvovirus B19 IgG immunoglobulins and the rate of seroconversion in seronegative pregnant women. Design: Prospective assessment of anti-parvovirus B19 IgG immunoglobulins in an unselected population of pregnant women booked for antenatal care from 1998

  17. Seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM antibodies among pregnant women in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, Iyanda; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Fagbami, Ademola Hezekiah

    2013-12-15

    Human parvovirus B19 causes a wide range of complications in pregnant women including abortion, severe fetal anemia, non-immune hydrops fetalis, and even intrauterine fetal death. However, there is a dearth of information on the prevalence of the virus among pregnant women in southwestern Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 231 pregnant women and screened for antibodies to human parvovirus B19 IgM and IgG using an enzyme immunosorbent assay kits. Of the 231 women, 31 were in their first trimester, 146 were in their second trimester, and 54 were in their third trimester. Forty-five (20%) were positive for parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies, 10 (4%) were positive for parvovirus B19 IgM antibodies, and 176 (76%) had no detectable parvovirus B19 antibodies. Twenty-eight (19%) of the 146 pregnant women in their second trimester were positive for parvovirus B19 IgG antibody while three (2%) of the 146 were positive for parvovirus B19 IgM antibody. It is evident that there is a high prevalence of human parvovirus B19 among pregnant women in south-western Nigeria. This suggests that there is an active transmission of the virus in the community; it is therefore necessary to conduct more studies on the virus in pregnant women in Nigeria to ascertain its effect on the fetus.

  18. Incidence of parvovirus B19 infection among an unselected population of pregnant women in the Netherlands: A prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gessel, P.H. van; Gaytant, M.A.; Vossen, A.C.; Galama, J.M.D.; Ursem, N.T.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Wildschut, H.I.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate seroprevalence of anti-parvovirus B19 IgG immunoglobulins and the rate of seroconversion in seronegative pregnant women. DESIGN: Prospective assessment of anti-parvovirus B19 IgG immunoglobulins in an unselected population of pregnant women booked for antenatal care from 1998

  19. Genotype-specific microsatellite (SSR) markers for the sugarcane germplasm in the Karst region of Guizhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is the first report on SSR-based molecular evaluation of genetic variability among sugarcane genotypes from the Karst region of China that provides useful information for local sugarcane improvement. Eighteen sugarcane genotypes including 13 active cultivars and five elite QT-series clones bred l...

  20. Parvovirus B19 infection presenting concurrently as papular-purpuric gloves-and-socks syndrome and bathing-trunk eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Osorio, I; Mallo-García, S; Rodríguez-Díaz, E; Gonzalvo-Rodríguez, P; Requena, L

    2017-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection can cause a wide range of cutaneous manifestations, including papular-purpuric gloves-and-socks syndrome (PPGSS) and petechial bathing trunk eruption. We report a case of an immunocompetent woman with a primary parvovirus B19 infection presenting as concurrent PPGSS and petechial bathing trunk eruption. Parvovirus B19 seroconversion was confirmed several days after the onset of the clinical manifestations. The coexistence of these two cutaneous manifestations of primary parvovirus B19 infection has rarely been reported in the literature. It is important to recognize parvovirus B19 infection early, based on the cutaneous manifestations, to avoid potentially serious systemic complications in susceptible individuals. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Cephalhematoma and petechial rashes associated with acute parvovirus B19 infection: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Masato; Shiozawa, Ryosuke; Hangai, Mayumi; Takita, Junko; Kitanaka, Sachiko

    2013-10-07

    Parvovirus B19 can cause petechial rashes in the acute phase of illness as well as erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) during convalescence. This petechial rash is often called "gloves and socks" syndrome because of the typical distribution of the eruption. However, involvement of other sites (e.g., intertriginous area) and generalized involvement have been recently recognized. We report here a patient with parvovirus-associated petechiae and cephalhematoma. The patient was a previously healthy 10-year-old boy. There was a family history of fatal bleeding; his sister died of intracranial bleeding with an uncertain cause at the age of 5 months. The patient was admitted to our hospital because of sudden onset of cephalhematoma associated with fever. He reported that he had no recent head trauma but that he massaged his scalp on the day before admission. On admission, his temperature was 38.8°C; otherwise, he was in a stable condition. Besides cephalhematoma, petechial rashes were present on his trunk and limbs. The initial laboratory tests were essentially normal, including platelet count and coagulation tests. Expanded laboratory tests were repeated to explore the etiology of his skin hemorrhage, all of which indicated that hematological disorders were unlikely. His symptoms subsided spontaneously over the next few days and he was discharged uneventfully. Anti-parvovirus IgM titer was elevated during hospitalization and typical erythema infectiosum was seen approximately 1 week after discharge. During 6 months follow-up, he remained stable without recurrence of a hemorrhagic episode. Finally, we concluded that his cephalhematoma was responsible for acute parvoviral infection. This is believed to be the first report describing a possible association between parvovirus B19 infection and cephalhematoma. Parvovirus B19 infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children who present with unexplained hemorrhage such as cephalhematoma or petechiae.

  2. Parvovirus B19 Infection in the First Trimester of Pregnancy and Risk of Fetal Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jonathan; Jensen, Anne K V; Bager, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in 3 regions in Denmark from 1992 to 1994. Cases of women with fetal loss were identified in the National Patient Register (n = 2,918), and control women with live-born children were identified in the Medical Birth Register (n = 8,429) by matching on age and sampling week. First-trimester serum samples......Because parvovirus B19 infection during pregnancy has been associated with increased risk of fetal loss in small or selected study populations, the authors evaluated the risk in a population-based study. A nested case-control study was conducted by using a population-based screening for syphilis...

  3. Human Parvovirus B19 Induced Apoptotic Bodies Contain Altered Self-Antigens that are Phagocytosed by Antigen Presenting Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammasri, Kanoktip; Rauhamäki, Sanna; Wang, Liping; Filippou, Artemis; Kivovich, Violetta; Marjomäki, Varpu; Naides, Stanley J.; Gilbert, Leona

    2013-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) from the erythrovirus genus is known to be a pathogenic virus in humans. Prevalence of B19V infection has been reported worldwide in all seasons, with a high incidence in the spring. B19V is responsible for erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) commonly seen in children. Its other clinical presentations include arthralgia, arthritis, transient aplastic crisis, chronic anemia, congenital anemia, and hydrops fetalis. In addition, B19V infection has been reported to trigger autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the mechanisms of B19V participation in autoimmunity are not fully understood. B19V induced chronic disease and persistent infection suggests B19V can serve as a model for viral host interactions and the role of viruses in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Here we investigate the involvement of B19V in the breakdown of immune tolerance. Previously, we demonstrated that the non-structural protein 1 (NS 1) of B19V induces apoptosis in non-permissive cells lines and that this protein can cleave host DNA as well as form NS1-DNA adducts. Here we provide evidence that through programmed cell death, apoptotic bodies (ApoBods) are generated by B19V NS1 expression in a non-permissive cell line. Characterization of purified ApoBods identified potential self-antigens within them. In particular, signature self-antigens such as Smith, ApoH, DNA, histone H4 and phosphatidylserine associated with autoimmunity were present in these ApoBods. In addition, when purified ApoBods were introduced to differentiated macrophages, recognition, engulfment and uptake occurred. This suggests that B19V can produce a source of self-antigens for immune cell processing. The results support our hypothesis that B19V NS1-DNA adducts, and nucleosomal and lysosomal antigens present in ApoBods created in non-permissive cell lines, are a source of self-antigens. PMID:23776709

  4. Effect of specific ADRB1/ADRB2/AGT genotype combinations on the association between survival and carvedilol treatment in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten; Andersen, Jon; Jimenez-Solem, Espen

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to determine whether carvedilol-treated chronic heart failure patients have a different prognosis when stratified for a specific combination of a gain-of-function genotype of the adrenergic β-1 receptor gene (ADRB1) (Arg389-homozygous), two gain-of-fun...

  5. Novel B19-like parvovirus in the brain of a harbor seal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier Bodewes

    Full Text Available Using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing, a novel parvovirus was detected in the brain of a young harbor seal (Phoca vitulina with chronic non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis that was rehabilitated at the Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre (SRRC in the Netherlands. In addition, two novel viruses belonging to the family Anelloviridae were detected in the lungs of this animal. Phylogenetic analysis of the coding sequence of the novel parvovirus, tentatively called Seal parvovirus, indicated that this virus belonged to the genus Erythrovirus, to which human parvovirus B19 also belongs. Although no other seals with similar signs were rehabilitated in SRRC in recent years, a prevalence study of tissues of seals from the same area collected in the period 2008-2012 indicated that the Seal parvovirus has circulated in the harbor seal population at least since 2008. The presence of the Seal parvovirus in the brain was confirmed by real-time PCR and in vitro replication. Using in situ hybridization, we showed for the first time that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus was present in the Virchow-Robin space and in cerebral parenchyma adjacent to the meninges. These findings showed that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus can be involved in central nervous system infection and inflammation, as has also been suspected but not proven for human parvovirus B19 infection.

  6. Parvovirus B19: recent insights and implications for pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Gallinella

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 is a human pathogenic virus, a ssDNA member of the family Parvoviridae, characterized by a selective tropism for erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs in the bone marrow and an ample pathogenetic potential. The selective tropism for EPCs can be explained both in terms of receptor-mediated tropism and of an intracellular permissive environment conditioned by the cell differentiation and proliferation stage. Infection of EPCs is productive, induces apoptosis and leads to a temporary arrest of erythropoiesis, which can usually be manifest in cases of underlying erythropoietic disorders or immune system deficiencies. Endothelial cells constitute an additional diffuse target, whose infection is mediated by ADE phenomenon, but is normally nonproductive and mainly leading to inflammatory processes. The relevance of parvovirus as a cardiotropic virus is recently emerging, while its capability of intrauterine transmission and consequences on the fetus is known and should not be overlooked. To the purpose of diagnosis, a combination of molecular and immunological methods offers the best discrimination of active infectious processes, and an application of these methods especially in cases of atypical presentations should be encouraged. Ongoing research is directed towards the development of a vaccine and the discovery of antiviral drugs that may be useful in the prevention and treatment of parvovirus B19 infections.

  7. Novel B19-like parvovirus in the brain of a harbor seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Rogier; Rubio García, Ana; Wiersma, Lidewij C M; Getu, Sarah; Beukers, Martijn; Schapendonk, Claudia M E; van Run, Peter R W A; van de Bildt, Marco W G; Poen, Marjolein J; Osinga, Nynke; Sánchez Contreras, Guillermo J; Kuiken, Thijs; Smits, Saskia L; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2013-01-01

    Using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing, a novel parvovirus was detected in the brain of a young harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with chronic non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis that was rehabilitated at the Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre (SRRC) in the Netherlands. In addition, two novel viruses belonging to the family Anelloviridae were detected in the lungs of this animal. Phylogenetic analysis of the coding sequence of the novel parvovirus, tentatively called Seal parvovirus, indicated that this virus belonged to the genus Erythrovirus, to which human parvovirus B19 also belongs. Although no other seals with similar signs were rehabilitated in SRRC in recent years, a prevalence study of tissues of seals from the same area collected in the period 2008-2012 indicated that the Seal parvovirus has circulated in the harbor seal population at least since 2008. The presence of the Seal parvovirus in the brain was confirmed by real-time PCR and in vitro replication. Using in situ hybridization, we showed for the first time that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus was present in the Virchow-Robin space and in cerebral parenchyma adjacent to the meninges. These findings showed that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus can be involved in central nervous system infection and inflammation, as has also been suspected but not proven for human parvovirus B19 infection.

  8. On the texture and crystal structure of the B19' martensite in single-crystal titanium nickelide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundyrev, V.M.; Zel'dovich, V.I.

    2003-01-01

    The texture of the B19' martensite formed by cooling the Ti-51 at. % Ni alloy in the B2-phase monocrystal is studied. The positions of the (002), (111-bar), (020) and (111) planes of B19' martensite proceeding from the plane (110) of B2-phase relative to this plane are determined for this purpose. It is established that the obtained results may be described on the basis of the accepted monoclinic structure of the B19' martensite and earlier determined orientation ratios. However small deviation from the parallelism of the (020) B19' and (110)B2 planes is observed. Not less that 12 crystallographically equivalent orientations of the martensite crystals are realized by transforming the B2 phase monocrystal into the B19' martensite in the process of cooling in the irradiated volume of 1.5 x 0.01 mm. Realization of various martensite orientations is practically equally probable. Large self-accommodation crystal groups having limited number of orientations do not appear. It is shown that the martensite phases R and B19' are formed by the martensite transformations in the process of cooling. The B19' martensite has the set of the monoclinic angles from 90 p to 96.8 deg [ru

  9. [Parvovirus B19 infection as the cause of hepatitis and neutrophil granulocytosis in a 20-year old woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggers, H; Rasmussen, L H; Møller, A

    1995-10-23

    A case of Parvovirus B19 infection (erythema infectiosum) in a 20 year old woman is presented. The patient presented with fever, arthritis in one knee, neutrophil granulocytosis and biochemical evidence of hepatitis. Serological evidence of Parvovirus B19 infection was found as the only explanation of the clinical picture. Hepatitis was due to Parvovirus B19 infection as there was no serological evidence of EBV or CMV reactivation. Neutrophil granulocytosis and thrombocytosis were found and were probably due to an active bone marrow in the recovery phase of bone marrow aplasia.

  10. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Subgenotypes 1a and 1b in Japanese Patients: Ultra-Deep Sequencing Analysis of HCV NS5B Genotype-Specific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang; Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamoto, Shingo; Jiang, Xia; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Nakatani, Sueli M.; Ono, Suzane Kioko; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Gonoi, Tohru; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) subgenotypes 1a and 1b have different impacts on the treatment response to peginterferon plus ribavirin with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against patients infected with HCV genotype 1, as the emergence rates of resistance mutations are different between these two subgenotypes. In Japan, almost all of HCV genotype 1 belongs to subgenotype 1b. Methods and Findings To determine HCV subgenotype 1a or 1b in Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1, real-time PCR-based method and Sanger method were used for the HCV NS5B region. HCV subgenotypes were determined in 90% by real-time PCR-based method. We also analyzed the specific probe regions for HCV subgenotypes 1a and 1b using ultra-deep sequencing, and uncovered mutations that could not be revealed using direct-sequencing by Sanger method. We estimated the prevalence of HCV subgenotype 1a as 1.2-2.5% of HCV genotype 1 patients in Japan. Conclusions Although real-time PCR-based HCV subgenotyping method seems fair for differentiating HCV subgenotypes 1a and 1b, it may not be sufficient for clinical practice. Ultra-deep sequencing is useful for revealing the resistant strain(s) of HCV before DAA treatment as well as mixed infection with different genotypes or subgenotypes of HCV. PMID:24069214

  11. Specific and straightforward molecular investigation of β-thalassemia mutations in the Malaysian Malays and Chinese using direct TaqMan genotyping assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, S L; Chua, K H; George, E; Tan, J A M A

    2013-07-15

    Beta-thalassemia is a life-threatening inherited blood disorder. Rapid characterization of β-globin gene mutations is necessary because of the high frequency of Malaysian β-thalassemia carriers. A combination real-time polymerase chain reaction genotyping assay using TaqMan probes was developed to confirm β-globin gene mutations. In this study, primers and probes were designed to specifically identify 8 common β-thalassemia mutations in the Malaysian Malay and Chinese ethnic groups using the Primer Express software. "Blind tests" using DNA samples from healthy individuals and β-thalassemia patients with different genotypes were performed to determine the specificity and sensitivity of this newly designed assay. Our results showed 100% sensitivity and specificity for this novel assay. In conclusion, the TaqMan genotyping assay is a straightforward assay that allows detection of β-globin gene mutations in less than 40 min. The simplicity and reproducibility of the TaqMan genotyping assay permit its use in laboratories as a rapid and cost-effective diagnostic tool for confirmation of common β-thalassemia mutations in Malaysia.

  12. Forecasting Brassica rapa: Merging climate models with genotype specific process models for evaluation whole species response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleban, J. R.; Mackay, D. S.; Ewers, B. E.; Weinig, C.; Guadagno, C. L.

    2016-12-01

    Human society has modified agriculture management practices and utilized a variety of breeding approaches to adapt to changing environments. Presently a dual pronged challenge has emerged as environmental change is occurring more rapidly while the demand of population growth on food supply is rising. Knowledge of how current agricultural practices will respond to these challenges can be informed through crafted prognostic modeling approaches. Amongst the uncertainties associated with forecasting agricultural production in a changing environment is evaluation of the responses across the existing genotypic diversity of crop species. Mechanistic models of plant productivity provide a means of genotype level parameterization allowing for a prognostic evaluation of varietal performance under changing climate. Brassica rapa represents an excellent species for this type of investigation because of its wide cultivation as well as large morphological and physiological diversity. We incorporated genotypic parameterization of B. rapa genotypes based on unique CO2 assimilation strategies, vulnerabilities to cavitation, and root to leaf area relationships into the TREES model. Three climate drivers, following the "business-as-usual" greenhouse gas emissions scenario (RCP 8.5) from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) were considered: temperature (T) along with associated changes in vapor pressure deficit (VPD), increasing CO2, as well as alternatives in irrigation regime across a temporal scale of present day to 2100. Genotypic responses to these drivers were evaluated using net primary productivity (NPP) and percent loss hydraulic conductance (PLC) as a measure of tolerance for a particular watering regime. Genotypic responses to T were witnessed as water demand driven by increases in VPD at 2050 and 2100 drove some genotypes to greater PLC and in a subset of these saw periodic decreases in NPP during a growing season. Genotypes able to withstand the greater

  13. Neutron- and X-ray diffraction investigations for the metallic glasses Ni81B19 and Co80P20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperl, W.

    1982-01-01

    By means of isotope substitution for three chemically and technically identical amorphous Ni 81 B 19 samples neutron diffraction experiments are performed and the partial structure factors and the partial pair correlation functions are determined. (BHO)

  14. Rhabdomyolysis associated with human parvovirus B19 infection in a patient with Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Aki; Yoto, Yuko; Ohya, Kazuhiro; Tsugawa, Takeshi; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2014-07-01

    Patients with Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy sometimes experience transient exacerbations of muscle weakness. We took care of a 9-year-old boy with Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy who presented with acute respiratory failure and decreased exercise ability with marked elevation of serum creatine kinase indicating rhabdomyolysis. At that time, his younger sister suffered from erythema infectiosum. Although he had no particular symptoms, he was tested and proven to have acute human parvovirus B19 infection based on detection of anti-B19 IgM and parvovirus B19 DNA in his serum. His acute rhabdomyolysis was possibly triggered by human parvovirus B19 infection. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Aseptic arthritis due to parvovirus B19 infection immediately after kidney and pancreas transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoaneta A. Markova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human parvovirus B19 (PVB19 has been frequently identified as a cause of anemia in immunocompromised transplanted patients. Rarely the infection correlates with deterioration of the graft function. Immunomodulatory therapy in PVB19 cases, still not standardised in dose and duration, has been proven to achieve good clinical results. The clinical presentation depends mainly on the immunological status of the patient. Here we report an atypical presentation of an acute PVB19 infection in the immediate postoperative phase after transplantation and aim to raise the recognition of PVB19 as a significant human pathogen in the early post-transplantation period. Additionally, we provide a literature review of clinical presentation and management of recently published cases.

  16. Seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 antibodies and evidence of viremia among Nigerian patients with sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwalokun, Bamidele Abiodun; Iwalokun, Senapon Olusola; Hodonu, Semande Olufunmilayo

    2013-01-01

    Clinical, biochemical and molecular evidence for the sickle cell anemia (SCA) crisis in Nigerian patients arising from parvovirus b19 infection remains inadequate. This study determined the prevalence and correlates of anti-parvovirus b19 antibodies in a population of SCA patients and non-SCA healthy controls in Lagos, Nigeria. In this prospective cross-sectional study, we enrolled 73 confirmed SCA patients from 5 district hospitals in Lagos and 81 sex and age-matched non-SCA healthy controls. Serum sample from each study participant was screened for anti-parvovirus b19 by ELISA and PCR techniques. Standard biomedical assays were also done. Anti-parvovirus b19 IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in 22 (14.3%) and 97 (62.9%) of the 154 sera screened, 13 (17.8%) and 45 (61.6%) in SCA patients; 9 (11.1%) and 52 (64.2%) in non-SCA controls. The overall seronegativity rate was 19.5%. Parvovirus B19 DNA was found in 2 (11.1%) of the 18 IgM seropositive SCA serum samples screened. On the whole, parvovirus b19 infection was more commonly asymptomatic in non-SCA controls but caused significant elevation in liver enzymes in infected SCA patients (P parvovirus b19 infection increased 65 times during unsteady state among the SCA patients. Although no deaths of infected patients were recorded during the study, age below 12 years, hospitalization and overcrowded environment were risk factors for infection. We conclude that parvovirus b19 is common in SCA patients, incurring greater susceptibility to infections. PMID:23885266

  17. Investigation of epstein-barr virus and parvovirus b19 DNA in allogeneic stem cell transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Altay; Gökahmetoğlu, Selma; Durmaz, Süleyman; Kandemir, Idris; Sağlam, Derya; Kaynar, Leylagül; Eser, Bülent; Cetin, Mustafa; Kılıç, Hüseyin

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to investigate posttransplant Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and parvovirus B19 DNA in allogeneic stem cell transplant patients between 2009 and 2010. Forty-five adult patients in whom allogeneic stem cell transplantation was performed between April 2009 and November 2010 in the Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, were included in the study. EBV and parvovirus B19 DNA positivity was investigated by using real-time polymerase chain reaction technique in 135 plasma samples obtained after transplantation at between 1 and 6 months. Pretransplant serological markers of EBV and parvovirus B19 were provided from patient files. In 32 (71.1%) of the patients, EBV antibodies in the pretransplantation period were as follows: anti-EBNA-1 IgG (+), VCA IgM (-), and VCA IgG (+). In 2 patients (4.45%), these antibodies were as follows: anti-EBNA-1 IgG (+), VCA IgM (-), and VCA IgG (-). In 1 patient (2.2%), they were as follows: anti-EBNA-1 IgG (-), VCA IgM (-), and VCA IgG (+). EBV serological markers were negative in 2 (2.2%) out of 45 patients before transplantation. There was low DNA positivity (parvovirus B19 IgM was negative and IgG was positive, parvovirus B19 IgM was positive and IgG was negative in 1 (2.3%) patient. Parvovirus B19 DNA was not identified in any of the samples obtained from these 45 patients. In this study, EBV and parvovirus B19 DNA were investigated in allogeneic stem cell transplant patients. None of the patients developed PTLD and parvovirus B19 DNA positivity was not detected. However, this issue needs to be further evaluated in prospective, multicenter studies with larger series of patients.

  18. Seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 antibodies and evidence of viremia among Nigerian patients with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwalokun, Bamidele Abiodun; Iwalokun, Senapon Olusola; Hodonu, Semande Olufunmilayo

    2013-07-01

    Clinical, biochemical and molecular evidence for the sickle cell anemia (SCA) crisis in Nigerian patients arising from parvovirus b19 infection remains inadequate. This study determined the prevalence and correlates of anti-parvovirus b19 antibodies in a population of SCA patients and non-SCA healthy controls in Lagos, Nigeria. In this prospective cross-sectional study, we enrolled 73 confirmed SCA patients from 5 district hospitals in Lagos and 81 sex and age-matched non-SCA healthy controls. Serum sample from each study participant was screened for anti-parvovirus b19 by ELISA and PCR techniques. Standard biomedical assays were also done. Anti-parvovirus b19 IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in 22 (14.3%) and 97 (62.9%) of the 154 sera screened, 13 (17.8%) and 45 (61.6%) in SCA patients; 9 (11.1%) and 52 (64.2%) in non-SCA controls. The overall seronegativity rate was 19.5%. Parvovirus B19 DNA was found in 2 (11.1%) of the 18 IgM seropositive SCA serum samples screened. On the whole, parvovirus b19 infection was more commonly asymptomatic in non-SCA controls but caused significant elevation in liver enzymes in infected SCA patients (P parvovirus b19 infection increased 65 times during unsteady state among the SCA patients. Although no deaths of infected patients were recorded during the study, age below 12 years, hospitalization and overcrowded environment were risk factors for infection. We conclude that parvovirus b19 is common in SCA patients, incurring greater susceptibility to infections.

  19. Measles Virus Hemagglutinin epitopes immunogenic in natural infection and vaccination are targeted by broad or genotype-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Alía, Miguel Angel; Casasnovas, José M; Celma, María Luisa; Carabaña, Juan; Liton, Paloma B; Fernandez-Muñoz, Rafael

    2017-05-15

    Measles virus (MV) remains a leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths in children. Protection against MV is associated with neutralizing antibodies that preferentially recognize the viral hemagglutinin (MV-H), and to a lesser extent, the fusion protein (MV-F). Although MV is serologically monotypic, 24 genotypes have been identified. Here we report three neutralization epitopes conserved in the more prevalent circulating MV genotypes, two located in the MV-H receptor binding site (RBS) (antigenic site III) and a third in MV-H/MV-F interphase (antigenic site Ia) which are essential for MV multiplication. In contrast, two MV-H neutralization epitopes, showed a genotype-specific neutralization escape due to a single amino acid change, that we mapped in the "noose" antigenic site, or an enhanced neutralization epitope (antigenic site IIa). The monoclonal antibody (mAb) neutralization potency correlated with its binding affinity and was mainly driven by kinetic dissociation rate (k off ). We developed an immunoassay for mAb binding to MV-H in its native hetero-oligomeric structure with MV-F on the surface of a MV productive steady-state persistently infected (p.i.) human cell lines, and a competitive-binding assay with serum from individuals with past infection by different MV genotypes. Binding assays revealed that a broad neutralization epitope, in RBS antigenic site, a genotype specific neutralization epitopes, in noose and IIa sites, were immunogenic in natural infection and vaccination and may elicit long-lasting humoral immunity that might contribute to explain MV immunogenic stability. These results support the design of improved measles vaccines, broad-spectrum prophylactic or therapeutic antibodies and MV-used in oncolytic therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Human papillomavirus virus (HPV) genotype- and age-specific analyses of external genital lesions among men in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Donna J; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Messina, Jane A; Stoler, Mark H; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J; Abrahamsen, Martha; Sirak, Bradley A; O'Keefe, Michael T; Papenfuss, Mary; Gage, Christine; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto; Gonzalez Sosa, Rossana; Rojas Juarez, Oscar; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

    2015-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes external genital lesions (EGLs) in men, including condyloma and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). We sought to determine the incidence of pathologically confirmed EGLs, by lesion type, among men in different age groups and to evaluate the HPV types that were associated with EGL development. HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study participants who contributed ≥2 visits from 2009-2013 were included in the biopsy cohort. Genotyping by an HPV line-probe assay was performed on all pathologically confirmed EGLs. Age-specific analyses were conducted for incident EGLs, with Kaplan-Meier estimation of cumulative incidence. This biopsy cohort included 2754 men (median follow-up duration, 12.4 months [interquartile range, 6.9-19.2 months]). EGLs (n = 377) were pathologically confirmed in 228 men, 198 of whom had incident EGLs. The cumulative incidence of any EGL was highest among men <45 years old and, for condyloma, decreased significantly over time with age. The genotype-specific incidence of EGL varied by pathological diagnoses, with high- and low-risk genotypes found in 15.6% and 73.2% of EGLs, respectively. Condyloma primarily contained HPV 6 or 11. While PeIN lesions primarily contained HPV 16, 1 PeIN III lesion was positive for HPV 6 only. Low- and high-risk HPV genotypes contribute to the EGL burden. Men remain susceptible to HPV-related EGLs throughout the life span, making it necessary to ensure the longevity of immune protection against the most common causative HPV genotypes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Genotype-specific physiological and transcriptomic responses to drought stress in Setaria italica (an emerging model for Panicoideae grasses).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sha; Li, Lin; Wang, Yongqiang; Chen, Qiannan; Zhang, Wenying; Jia, Guanqing; Zhi, Hui; Zhao, Baohua; Diao, Xianmin

    2017-08-30

    Understanding drought-tolerance mechanisms and identifying genetic dominance are important for crop improvement. Setaria italica, which is extremely drought-tolerant, has been regarded as a model plant for studying stress biology. Moreover, different genotypes of S. italica have evolved various drought-tolerance/avoidance mechanisms that should be elucidated. Physiological and transcriptomic comparisons between drought-tolerant S. italica cultivar 'Yugu1' and drought-sensitive 'An04' were conducted. 'An04' had higher yields and more efficient photosystem activities than 'Yugu1' under well-watered conditions, and this was accompanied by positive brassinosteroid regulatory actions. However, 'An04's growth advantage was severely repressed by drought, while 'Yugu1' maintained normal growth under a water deficiency. High-throughput sequencing suggested that the S. italica transcriptome was severely remodelled by genotype × environment interactions. Expression profiles of genes related to phytohormone metabolism and signalling, transcription factors, detoxification, and other stress-related proteins were characterised, revealing genotype-dependent and -independent drought responses in different S. italica genotypes. Combining our data with drought-tolerance-related QTLs, we identified 20 candidate genes that contributed to germination and early seedling' drought tolerance in S. italica. Our analysis provides a comprehensive picture of how different S. italica genotypes respond to drought, and may be used for the genetic improvement of drought tolerance in Poaceae crops.

  2. Validation of celiac disease diagnoses recorded in the Danish National Patient Register using duodenal biopsies, celiac disease-specific antibodies, and human leukocyte-antigen genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dydensborg Sander, Stine; Størdal, Ketil; Plato Hansen, Tine

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to validate the celiac disease diagnoses recorded in the Danish National Patient Register. To validate the diagnoses, we used information on duodenal biopsies from a national register of pathology reports (the Patobank) and information on celiac disease......-specific antibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes obtained from patient medical records. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included all the children who were born from 1995 to 2012 and who were registered as having celiac disease in the Danish National Patient Register. We reviewed all the pathology reports...... on duodenal biopsies in the Patobank and the information in the medical records on celiac disease-specific antibodies (ie, anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 IgA and IgG, endomysial antibodies IgA, and anti-deamidated gliadin peptide IgG) and HLA genotypes. RESULTS: We identified 2,247 children who were...

  3. In-cell PCR method for specific genotyping of genomic DNA from one individual in a mixture of cells from two individuals: a model study with specific relevance to prenatal diagnosis based on fetal cells in maternal blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, T Vauvert

    2002-01-01

    only in the male cells, leading to the correct HLA-DPB1 genotyping of the male by DNA sequencing of a nested, linked TSPY-HLA-DPB1 PCR product. CONCLUSION: This approach might be usable on mixed cell populations of fetal and maternal cells obtained after conventional cell-sorting techniques on maternal...... maternal blood samples, the use of such an approach for genotyping by molecular biology techniques in a more routine setting has been hampered by the large contamination of maternal nucleated blood cells in the cell isolates. Therefore, a new method based on in-cell PCR is described, which may overcome...... this problem. Methods and Results: Mixtures of cells from two different individuals were fixed and permeabilized in suspension. After coamplification of a DNA sequence specific for one of the individuals and the DNA sequence to be genotyped, the two PCR products were linked together in the fixed cells positive...

  4. Context-dependent effects of genome-wide association study genotypes and macroenvironment on time to biochemical (prostate specific antigen) failure after prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebbeck, Timothy R; Weber, Anita L; Walker, Amy H; Stefflova, Klara; Tran, Teo V; Spangler, Elaine; Chang, Bao-Li; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita M

    2010-09-01

    Disparities in cancer defined by race, age, or gender are well established. However, demographic metrics are surrogates for the complex contributions of genotypes, exposures, health care, socioeconomic and sociocultural environment, and many other factors. Macroenvironmental factors represent novel surrogates for exposures, lifestyle, and other factors that are difficult to measure but might influence cancer outcomes. We applied a "multilevel molecular epidemiology" approach using a prospective cohort of 444 White prostate cancer cases who underwent prostatectomy and were followed until biochemical failure (BF) or censoring without BF. We applied Cox regression models to test for joint effects of 86 genome-wide association study-identified genotypes and macroenvironment contextual effects after geocoding all cases to their residential census tracts. All analyses were adjusted for age at diagnosis and tumor aggressiveness. Residents living in census tracts with a high proportion of older single heads of household, high rates of vacant housing, or high unemployment had shorter time until BF postsurgery after adjustment for patient age and tumor aggressiveness. After correction for multiple testing, genotypes alone did not predict time to BF, but interactions predicting time to BF were observed for MSMB (rs10993994) and percentage of older single heads of households (P = 0.0004), and for HNF1B/TCF2 (rs4430796) and census tract per capita income (P = 0.0002). The context-specific macroenvironmental effects of genotype might improve the ability to identify groups that might experience poor prostate cancer outcomes. Risk estimation and clinical translation of genotype information might require an understanding of both individual- and macroenvironment-level context. (c) 2010 AACR.

  5. [Collapsing variant of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis by parvovirus B19: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Geraldo Rubens Ramos de; Praxedes, Marcel Rodrigues Gurgel; Malheiros, Denise; Testagrossa, Leonardo; Dias, Cristiane Bitencourt; Woronik, Viktoria

    2015-01-01

    To describe the clinical and laboratory profile of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) of the collapsing subtype in association with infection by parvovirus B19 (PVB19). Female patient, 37 years old, mulatto, developed pharyngalgia and fever with partial improvement after penicillin. After one week we observed reduced urinary output and lower limb edema. Smoker, family and personal history negative for hypertension, diabetes or kidney disease. Patient presented with olyguria, hypertension and edema, also hypochromic microcytic hypoproliferative anemia, nephritic range proteinuria, microscopic hematuria and renal dysfunction. All rheumatologic investigation, HIV and hepatitis serology were negative. Unremarkable renal ultrasound. PCR positive for PVB19 in bone marrow aspirate and blood and renal biopsy conclusive of collapsing FSGS subtype. Spontaneous remission occurred within two weeks of the profile. The blood PVB19 PCR was repeated within a month and resulted negative. This finding demonstrated PVB19 acute infection or viral reactivation in association with collapsing FSGS. There is demonstrated the temporal association of PVB19 viremia and collapsing FSGS, due primary infection or viral reactivation. The association of collapsing FSGS and PVB19 is described in the literature, demonstrating virus presence in kidney tissue, but the real relationship of virus in the pathogenesis of this glomerulopathy remains unclear.

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal growth responses are fungal specific but do not differ between soybean genotypes with different phosphate efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiurong; Zhao, Shaopeng; Bücking, Heike

    2016-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play a key role in the phosphate (P) uptake of many important crop species, but the mechanisms that control their efficiency and their contribution to the P nutrition of the host plant are only poorly understood. The P uptake and growth potential of two soybean genotypes that differ in their root architectural traits and P acquisition efficiency were studied after colonization with different AM fungi and the transcript levels of plant P transporters involved in the plant or mycorrhizal P uptake pathway were examined. The mycorrhizal growth responses of both soybean genotypes ranged from highly beneficial to detrimental, and were dependent on the P supply conditions, and the fungal species involved. Only the colonization with Rhizophagus irregularis increased the growth and P uptake of both soybean genotypes. The expression of GmPT4 was downregulated, while the mycorrhiza-inducible P transporter GmPT10 was upregulated by colonization with R. irregularis Colonization with both fungi also led to higher transcript levels of the mycorrhiza-inducible P transporter GmPT9, but only in plants colonized with R. irregularis were the higher transcript levels correlated to a better P supply. The results suggest that AM fungi can also significantly contribute to the P uptake and growth potential of genotypes with a higher P acquisition efficiency, but that mycorrhizal P benefits depend strongly on the P supply conditions and the fungal species involved. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Increased seroprevalence of IgG-class antibodies against cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19, and varicella-zoster virus in women working in child day care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijckevorsel, Gini G. C.; Bovee, Lian P. M. J.; Damen, Marjolein; Sonder, Gerard J. B.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; van den Hoek, Anneke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Primary maternal infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV), parvovirus B19 (B19V), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) may result in adverse pregnancy outcomes like congenital infection or foetal loss. Women working in child day care have an increased exposure to CMV, B19V, and VZV. By comparing

  8. Production of viable male unreduced gametes in Brassica interspecific hybrids is genotype specific and stimulated by cold temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowling Wallace A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unreduced gametes (gametes with the somatic chromosome number may provide a pathway for evolutionary speciation via allopolyploid formation. We evaluated the effect of genotype and temperature on male unreduced gamete formation in Brassica allotetraploids and their interspecific hybrids. The frequency of unreduced gametes post-meiosis was estimated in sporads from the frequency of dyads or giant tetrads, and in pollen from the frequency of viable giant pollen compared with viable normal pollen. Giant tetrads were twice the volume of normal tetrads, and presumably resulted from pre-meiotic doubling of chromosome number. Giant pollen was defined as pollen with more than 1.5 × normal diameter, under the assumption that the doubling of DNA content in unreduced gametes would approximately double the pollen cell volume. The effect of genotype was assessed in five B. napus, two B. carinata and one B. juncea parents and in 13 interspecific hybrid combinations. The effect of temperature was assessed in a subset of genotypes in hot (day/night 30°C/20°C, warm (25°C/15°C, cool (18°C/13°C and cold (10°C/5°C treatments. Results Based on estimates at the sporad stage, some interspecific hybrid genotypes produced unreduced gametes (range 0.06 to 3.29% at more than an order of magnitude higher frequency than in the parents (range 0.00% to 0.11%. In nine hybrids that produced viable mature pollen, the frequency of viable giant pollen (range 0.2% to 33.5% was much greater than in the parents (range 0.0% to 0.4%. Giant pollen, most likely formed from unreduced gametes, was more viable than normal pollen in hybrids. Two B. napus × B. carinata hybrids produced 9% and 23% unreduced gametes based on post-meiotic sporad observations in the cold temperature treatment, which was more than two orders of magnitude higher than in the parents. Conclusions These results demonstrate that sources of unreduced gametes, required for the triploid

  9. Single-tube multiplex PCR using type-specific E6/E7 primers and capillary electrophoresis genotypes 21 human papillomaviruses in neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warenholt Janina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV E6/E7 type-specific oncogenes are required for cervical carcinogenesis. Current PCR protocols for genotyping high-risk HPV in cervical screening are not standardized and usually use consensus primers targeting HPV capsid genes, which are often deleted in neoplasia. PCR fragments are detected using specialized equipment and extra steps, including probe hybridization or primer extension. In published papers, analytical sensitivity is typically compared with a different protocol on the same sample set. A single-tube multiplex PCR containing type-specific primers was developed to target the E6/E7 genes of two low-risk and 19 high-risk genotypes (HPV6, 11 and 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 70, 73 and 82 and the resulting short fragments were directly genotyped by high-resolution fluorescence capillary electrophoresis. Results The method was validated using long oligonucleotide templates, plasmid clones and 207 clinical samples of DNA from liquid-based cytology, fresh and formalin-fixed specimens and FTA Microcards® imprinted with cut tumor surfaces, swabbed cervical cancers or ejected aspirates from nodal metastases of head and neck carcinomas. Between one and five long oligonucleotide targets per sample were detected without false calls. Each of the 21 genotypes was detected in the clinical sample set with up to five types simultaneously detected in individual specimens. All 101 significant cervical neoplasias (CIN 2 and above, except one adenocarcinoma, contained E6/E7 genes. The resulting genotype distribution accorded with the national pattern with HPV16 and 18 accounting for 69% of tumors. Rare HPV types 70 and 73 were present as the sole genotype in one carcinoma each. One cervical SCC contained DNA from HPV6 and 11 only. Six of twelve oropharyngeal cancer metastases and three neck metastases of unknown origin bore E6/E7 DNA; all but one were HPV16. One neck

  10. Serological and molecular analysis of parvovirus B19 infection in Mayan women with systemic lupus erythematosus in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia Pacheco, Guillermo; Nakazawa Ueji, Yumi E; Rodríguez Dzul, Edwin A; Angulo Ramírez, Angélica V; López Villanueva, Ricardo F; Quintal Ortiz, Irma G; Rosado Paredes, Elsy P

    2017-09-30

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease that mainly affects women, characterized by the production of autoantibodies. Its causal agent is unknown, but the combination of environmental, hormonal and genetic factors may favor the development of the disease. Parvovirus B19 has been associated with the development of SLE, since it induces the production of anti-single stranded DNA antibodies. It is unknown whether PV-B19 infection is an environmental factor that trigger or reactivate SLE in the Mexican Mayan population. A preliminary serological and molecular study of PV-B19 infection in Mayan women with established SLE was done. IgG and IgM anti PV-B19 were evaluated in 66 SLE patients and 66 control subjects, all women of Mayan origin. Viral DNA and viral load were analyzed by qPCR. Insignificant levels of IgM were observed in 14.3% (4/28) of the patients and 11.4% (4/35) of control subjects. IgG was detected in 82.1% (23/28) of the patients and 82.9% (29/35) of control subjects, but were significantly higher in patients. Viral DNA was found in 86.0% (57/66) of the patients and 81.0% (54/66) of control subjects. Viral load, quantified in 28/66 patients and 31/66 controls which were positive for IgM and IgG, was significantly higher in controls. The high prevalence of PV-B19 in Yucatan, and the presence of IgM, IgG, and viral load in Mayan women with established SLE suggest that PV-B19 infection could be an environmental factor to trigger or reactivate SLE.

  11. Serological and molecular analysis of parvovirus B19 infection in Mayan women with systemic lupus erythematosus in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa Ueji, Yumi E; Rodríguez Dzul, Edwin A; Angulo Ramírez, Angélica V; López Villanueva, Ricardo F; Quintal Ortiz, Irma G; Rosado Paredes, Elsy P

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease that mainly affects women, characterized by the production of autoantibodies. Its causal agent is unknown, but the combination of environmental, hormonal and genetic factors may favor the development of the disease. Parvovirus B19 has been associated with the development of SLE, since it induces the production of anti-single stranded DNA antibodies. It is unknown whether PV-B19 infection is an environmental factor that trigger or reactivate SLE in the Mexican Mayan population. Aim: A preliminary serological and molecular study of PV-B19 infection in Mayan women with established SLE was done. Methods: IgG and IgM anti PV-B19 were evaluated in 66 SLE patients and 66 control subjects, all women of Mayan origin. Viral DNA and viral load were analyzed by qPCR. Results: Insignificant levels of IgM were observed in 14.3% (4/28) of the patients and 11.4% (4/35) of control subjects. IgG was detected in 82.1% (23/28) of the patients and 82.9% (29/35) of control subjects, but were significantly higher in patients. Viral DNA was found in 86.0% (57/66) of the patients and 81.0% (54/66) of control subjects. Viral load, quantified in 28/66 patients and 31/66 controls which were positive for IgM and IgG, was significantly higher in controls. Conclusion: The high prevalence of PV-B19 in Yucatan, and the presence of IgM, IgG, and viral load in Mayan women with established SLE suggest that PV-B19 infection could be an environmental factor to trigger or reactivate SLE. PMID:29213152

  12. Parameters Associated with Adverse Fetal Outcomes in Parvovirus B19 Congenital Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agra, Isabela Karine Rodrigues; Amorim Filho, Antonio Gomes; Lin, Lawrence Hsu; Biancolin, Sckarlet Ernandes; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira; Brizot, Maria de Lourdes

    2017-11-01

    Objective  To investigate the clinical and sonographic parameters associated with adverse fetal outcomes in patients with congenital parvovirus B19 infection managed by intrauterine transfusion. Methods  This was a single-center retrospective study conducted from January 2005 to December 2016 that assessed patients with singleton pregnancies with fetal parvovirus infection confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction of the amniotic fluid or fetal blood samples who underwent at least one intrauterine transfusion. The maternal characteristics, sonographic findings and parameters related to intrauterine transfusion were compared between the two groups (recovery/non-recovery), who were categorized based on fetal response after in-utero transfusions. Progression to fetal death or delivery without fetal recovery after the transfusions was considered non-recovery and categorized as an adverse outcome. Results  The final analysis included ten singleton pregnancies: seven of which were categorized into the recovery group and three of which into the non-recovery group. The baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. All fetuses were hydropic at the time of diagnosis. No significant differences related to sonographic or intrauterine transfusion parameters were identified between the groups; however, the non-recovery group tended to have an increased number of sonographic markers and lower fetal hemoglobin and platelet levels before the transfusion. Conclusion  We were unable to firmly establish the clinical or sonographic parameters associated with adverse fetal outcomes in patients with parvovirus infection managed with intrauterine transfusions; however, edema, placental thickening and oligohydramnios may indicate greater fetal compromise and, subsequently, adverse outcomes. However, further studies are necessary, mainly due to the small number of cases analyzed in the present study. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  13. Nanocrystallization in amorphous Fe40Ni40(Si+B)19Mo1-2 ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiseng, S.; Winotai, P.; Nilpairuch, S.; Limsuwan, P.; Tang, I.M.

    2004-01-01

    Cut Fe 40 Ni 40 (Si+B) 19 Mo 1-2 ribbons were annealed for 2 h at various temperatures between 350 deg. C and 600 deg. C. XRD and Mossbauer effect spectroscopy (ME) measurements were then performed on all of the ribbons. The magnetic properties of several ribbons were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). A differential thermal analysis scan (over the range 20-800 deg. C) of the as-cast ribbon showed two phase transitions; the first at 454 deg. C and the second at 525 deg. C. Both the XRD and ME spectra of the as cast, the 350 deg. C and 400 deg. C annealed ribbons showed that they were amorphous. The ME spectra of the 450 deg. C, 475 deg. C and 500 deg. C annealed ribbons showed that these ribbons contained α-Fe, α-Fe(Si) and t-Fe 2 B nanocrystallites. For the ribbons annealed above 550 deg. C, crystallites of t-Fe 2 B, t-Fe 3 B, t-Fe 5 SiB 2 and FCC-FeNi appeared, with the α-Fe and α-Fe(Si) crystallites disappearing. The sextets of all of the Fe compounds appeared in the ME spectra of the 525 deg. C annealed ribbon. The VSM measurements supported the picture of a two-stage phase transitions; amorphous phase→a nanocrystalline phase (Fe-containing nanocrystallites in an amorphous matrix) at 454 deg. C and then a second transition, the nanocrystalline phase→a disordered alloy containing Fe-B and Fe-Ni crystallites at 525 deg. C

  14. Generalized petechial rashes in children during a parvovirus B19 outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, M Bruce; Riedesel, Erica L; Williams, Gary P; Demuri, Gregory P

    2010-04-01

    Human parvovirus B19 infection is associated not only with erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) but also, rarely, with purpuric or petechial rashes. Most reports of these atypical rashes describe sporadic cases with skin lesions that have distinctively focal distributions. During a community outbreak of fifth disease, we investigated a cluster of illnesses in children with generalized petechial rashes to determine whether parvovirus was the causative agent and, if so, to describe more fully the clinical spectrum of petechial rashes that are associated with this virus. Systematic evaluation was conducted by general pediatricians of children with petechial rashes for evidence of acute parvovirus infection. During the outbreak, acute parvovirus infection was confirmed in 13 (76%) of 17 children who were evaluated for petechial rash. Confirmed case patients typically had mild constitutional symptoms, and most (11 [85%] of 13) had fever. Petechiae were typically dense and widely distributed; sometimes accentuated in the distal extremities, axillae, or groin; and usually absent from the head/neck. Most case patients had leukopenia, and several had thrombocytopenia. Parvovirus immunoglobulin M was detected in 8 (73%) of 11 acute-phase serum specimens, and immunoglobulin G was detectable only in convalescent specimens. Parvovirus DNA was detected in all 7 tested serum specimens, including 2 acute-phase specimens that were immunoglobulin M-negative. All case patients had brief, uncomplicated illnesses, but 6 were briefly hospitalized and 1 underwent a bone marrow examination. Two case patients developed erythema infectiosum during convalescence. During an outbreak of fifth disease, parvovirus proved to be a common cause of petechial rash in children, and this rash was typically more generalized than described in case reports. Associated clinical features, hematologic abnormalities, and serologic test results are consistent with a viremia-associated illness that is distinct

  15. Findings of multiple HPV genotypes in cervical carcinoma are associated with poor cancer-specific survival in a Swedish cohort of cervical cancer primarily treated with radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliff, Malin; Sorbe, Bengt; Mordhorst, Louise Bohr; Helenius, Gisela; Karlsson, Mats G; Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella

    2018-04-10

    Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the most common cancers in women and virtually all cases of CC are a result of a persistent infection of human papillomavirus (HPV). For disease detected in early stages there is curing treatment but when diagnosed late with recurring disease and metastasis there are limited possibilities. Here we evaluate HPV impact on treatment resistance and metastatic disease progression. Prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes and HPV16 variants in a Swedish CC patient cohort (n=209) was evaluated, as well as HPV influence on patient prognosis. Tumor samples suitable for analysis (n=204) were genotyped using two different real-time PCR methods. HPV16 variant analysis was made using pyrosequencing. Results showed that HPV prevalence in the total series was 93%. Of the HPV-positive samples, 13% contained multiple infections, typically with two high-risk HPV together. Primary cure rate for the complete series was 95%. Recurrence rate of the complete series was 28% and distant recurrences were most frequent (20%). Patients with tumors containing multiple HPV-strains and particularly HPV genotypes belonging to the alpha 7 and 9 species together had a significantly higher rate of distant tumor recurrences and worse cancer-specific survival rate.

  16. 76 FR 71241 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-2B19 (Regional Jet Series 100 & 440...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... of the hydraulic system No. 1 with a new reducer in accordance with Part B of Bombardier Service... reducer of the hydraulic system No. 1 with a new reducer, paragraph (q) of this AD does. Other FAA AD... of on-ground hydraulic accumulator screw cap/end cap failure have been experienced on CL-600-2B19...

  17. 75 FR 34657 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-2B19 (Regional Jet Series 100 & 440...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... ``dry'' ADG [air driven generator] (Hamilton Sundstrand part number in the 761339 series), in the aft area of the strut and generator housing assembly, have been reported on CL-600-2B19 aircraft. The same... typically 45 days, which is consistent with the comment period for domestic transport ADs. We will post all...

  18. Characterization of plasmids harbouring qnrS1, qnrB2 and qnrB19 genes in Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Fernandez, A.; Fortini, D.; Veldman, K.T.; Mevius, D.J.; Carattoli, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize plasmids carrying qnrS1, qnrB2 and qnrB19 genes identified in Salmonella strains from The Netherlands. The identification of plasmids may help to follow the dissemination of these resistance genes in different countries and environments.

  19. The Type 1 Diabetes - HLA Susceptibility Interactome - Identification of HLA Genotype-Specific Disease Genes for Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsson, C.; Hansen, Niclas Tue; Bergholdt, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The individual contribution of genes in the HLA region to the risk of developing type 1 diabetes (T1D) is confounded by the high linkage disequilibrium (LD) in this region. Using a novel approach we have combined genetic association data with information on functional protein......-protein interactions to elucidate risk independent of LD and to place the genetic association into a functional context. Methodology/Principal Findings: Genetic association data from 2300 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the HLA region was analysed in 2200 T1D family trios divided into six risk groups based...... on HLA-DRB1 genotypes. The best SNP signal in each gene was mapped to proteins in a human protein interaction network and their significance of clustering in functional network modules was evaluated. The significant network modules identified through this approach differed between the six HLA risk groups...

  20. Age-specific prevalence of HPV genotypes in cervical cytology samples with equivocal or low-grade lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brismar-Wendel, S; Froberg, M; Hjerpe, A; Andersson, S; Johansson, B

    2009-01-01

    Background: To define the spectrum of human papillomavirus (HPV) types and establish an age limit for triage HPV testing in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Materials and methods: 343 liquid-based cytological samples from the population-based screening programme with minor abnormalities were subjected to HPV genotyping (Linear Array, Roche, Basel, Switzerland). Results: High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) was found in 71% of LSIL and 49% of ASCUS cases (Page-dependent in LSIL (P=0.01), with decreasing prevalence until the age of 50 years, followed by a slight increase. Human papillomavirus type 16 was the most common HR-HPV, found in 23% of HPV-positive women. Human papillomavirus type 18 was the sixth most common, found in 9.9% (Page-dependent quadratic trend was observed for multiple infections (P=0.01) with a trough at about 42 years. The most common HR-HPV types to show a coinfection with HPV16 (clade 9) were HPV39 (28%), 45 (38%), and 59 (46%), belonging to HPV18 clade 7. The frequency of low-risk (LR) vs probable HR and HR-HPV also followed an age-dependent quadratic trend. Conclusions: After the age of 25 years, HR-HPV prevalence is similar in LSIL and ASCUS cases, motivating a low age limit for triage HPV testing. Multiple infections and LR/HR-HPV dominance are age-dependent. Genotyping in longitudinal design is needed to elucidate the importance of multiple infections in cancer progression and in cross-protection from vaccination. PMID:19623178

  1. Cell type-specific deficiency of c-kit gene expression in mutant mice of mi/mi genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isozaki, K.; Tsujimura, T.; Nomura, S.; Morii, E.; Koshimizu, U.; Nishimune, Y.; Kitamura, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The mi locus of mice encodes a novel member of the basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein family of transcription factors (hereafter called mi factor). In addition to microphthalmus, osteopetrosis, and lack of melanocytes, mice of mi/mi genotype are deficient in mast cells. Since the c-kit receptor tyrosine kinase plays an important role in the development of mast cells, and since the c-kit expression by cultured mast cells from mi/mi mice is deficient in both mRNA and protein levels, the mast cell deficiency of mi/mi mice has been attributed at least in part to the deficient expression of c-kit. However, it remained to be examined whether the c-kit expression was also deficient in tissues of mi/mi mice. In the present study, we examined the c-kit expression by mi/mi skin mast cells using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Moreover, we examined the c-kit expression by various cells other than mast cells in tissues of mi/mi mice. We found that the c-kit expression was deficient in mast cells but not in erythroid precursors, testicular germ cells, and neurons of mi/mi mice. This suggested that the regulation of the c-kit transcription by the mi factor was dependent on cell types. Mice of mi/mi genotype appeared to be a useful model to analyze the function of transcription factors in the whole-animal level. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7524330

  2. Acute liver failure during treatment of interferon alpha 2a chronic hepatitis B and coinfection of parvovirus B19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobala-Szczygieł, Barbara; Boroń-Kaczmarska, Anna; Kępa, Lucjan; Oczko-Grzesik, Barbara; Piotrowski, Damian; Stolarz, Wojciech

    Parvovirus B19 infection is associated with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations among which some are well known but others remain controversial. The role of this infection as a cause of acute hepatitis or exacerbation of chronic liver disease requires discussion regarding its significance in a strategy of prevention and treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis. Clinical importance of this infection in patients with chronic hepatitis B treated with pegylated interferon alpha 2a is still unclear but exactly in this population significant complications during treatment may arise. Parvovirus B19 infection is not rare among persons with chronic hepatitis B, therefore searching for co-infection should be placed in standard diagnostic procedures especially in case of exacerbation of chronic hepatitis, pancytopaenia or anaemia of unknown origin. Pegylated interferon alpha 2a still remains a gold standard of therapy of patients with chronic hepatitis B according to European (EASL) and Polish guidelines. We present a case of 35 years old woman treated with pegylated interferon alpha 2a who developed acute liver failure in 23rd week of chronic hepatitis B therapy. An exacerbation of hepatitis with encephalopathy and pancytopaenia have been observed. Parvovirus B19 and HBV co-infection does not increase the frequency of liver function abnormalities in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Further investigations should be done to describe the natural course of co-infection with parvovirus B19 and HBV and to establish possible association between parvovirus B19 infection and chronic hepatitis B and also the influence of interferon alpha 2a on the infections course.

  3. Parvovirus B19 infections in state of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: 526 sera analyzed by IgM-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MCL Mendonça

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study were analyzed 526 sera; the patients aged from two days to 65 years old presenting exanthema, which was the most frequent symptom observed, besides fever, adenomegaly, and arthralgia. These sera were negative by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM-ELISA for either rubella (495, toxoplasma (41, cytomegalovirus (12, measles (40, dengue (56, and they were submitted to nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR for B19 DNA and commercial IgM-ELISA for B19. In 39 abortion cases, IgM or DNA were not detected, therefore they were not took into account for analysis. Specific DNA and IgM were detected respectively in 71 (14.5% and IgM in 62 (12.7% sera from 487 sera analyzed. IgM and DNA were simultaneously detected in 43 (8.8%, while agreement among the results by PCR and IgM-ELISA was observed in 440 (90.4%. The sera were collected from January 1999 to December 2000, most of them in 1999 (325, during winter and spring. The major number of clinical cases was observed in the age group from one to ten years old. IgM or DNA were detected in 23 from 51 municipal districts of the state of Rio de Janeiro, where the samples were collected.

  4. Smoking-specific parenting and smoking onset in adolescence: the role of genes from the dopaminergic system (DRD2, DRD4, DAT1 genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Hiemstra

    Full Text Available Although only few studies have shown direct links between dopaminergic system genes and smoking onset, this does not rule out the effect of a gene-environment interaction on smoking onset. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the associations between smoking-specific parenting (i.e., frequency and quality of communication and house rules and smoking onset while considering the potential moderating role of dopaminergic system genes (i.e., DRD2, DRD4, and DAT1 genotypes. Data from five annual waves of the 'Family and Health' project were used. At time 1, the sample comprised 365 non-smoking adolescents (200 younger adolescents, mean age = 13.31, SD = .48; 165 older adolescents, mean age = 15.19, SD = .57. Advanced longitudinal analyses were used (i.e., logistic regression analyses, (dual latent growth curves, and cross-lagged path models. The results showed a direct effect of quality of communication on smoking onset. No direct effects were found for frequency of communication and house rules. Furthermore, no direct and moderating effects of the DRD2, DRD4, or DAT1 genotypes were found. In conclusion, the findings indicated that the effects of smoking-specific parenting on smoking are similar for adolescent carriers and non-carriers of the dopaminergic system genes.

  5. Common genotypes of hepatitis B virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrees, M.; Khan, S.; Riazuddin, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To find out the frequency of common genotypes of hepatitis-B virus (HBV). Subjects and Methods: HBV genotypes were determined in 112 HBV DNA positive sera by a simple and precise molecular genotyping system base on PCR using type-specific primers for the determination of genotypes of HBV A through H. Results: Four genotypes (A,B,C and D) out of total eight reported genotypes so far were identified. Genotypes A, B and C were predominant. HBV genotype C was the most predominant in this collection, appearing in 46 samples (41.7%). However, the genotypes of a total of 5 (4.46%) samples could not be determined with the present genotyping system. Mixed genotypes were seen in 8(7.14% HBV) isolates. Five of these were infected with genotypes A/D whereas two were with genotypes C/D. One patient was infected with 4 genotypes (A/B/C/D). Genotype A (68%) was predominant in Sindh genotype C was most predominant in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) (68.96) whereas genotype C and B were dominant in Punjab (39.65% and 25.86% respectively). Conclusion: All the four common genotypes of HBV found worldwide (A,B,C and D) were isolated. Genotype C is the predominant Genotypes B and C are predominant in Punjab and N.W.F.P. whereas genotype A is predominant in Sindh. (author)

  6. Parvovirus B19 in an Immunocompetent Adult Patient with Acute Liver Failure: An Underdiagnosed Cause of Acute Non-A-E Viral Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kee Ho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There are occasional pediatric reports of parvovirus B19-associated transient acute hepatitis and hepatic failure. A case of a 34-year-old immunocompetent woman who developed severe and prolonged but self-limited acute hepatitis and myelosuppression following acute parvovirus B19 infection is reported. Parvovirus B19 may be the causative agent in some adult cases of acute non-A-E viral hepatitis and acute liver failure.

  7. Sex-specific genotype-by-environment interactions for cuticular hydrocarbon expression in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus: implications for the evolution of signal reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weddle, C B; Mitchell, C; Bay, S K; Sakaluk, S K; Hunt, J

    2012-10-01

    Phenotypic traits that convey information about individual identity or quality are important in animal social interactions, and the degree to which such traits are influenced by environmental variation can have profound effects on the reliability of these cues. Using inbred genetic lines of the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus, we manipulated diet quality to test how the cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles of males and females respond across two different nutritional rearing environments. There were significant differences between lines in the CHC profiles of females, but the effect of diet was not quite statistically significant. There was no significant genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI), suggesting that environmental effects on phenotypic variation in female CHCs are independent of genotype. There was, however, a significant effect of GEI for males, with changes in both signal quantity and content, suggesting that environmental effects on phenotypic expression of male CHCs are dependent on genotype. The differential response of male and female CHC expression to variation in the nutritional environment suggests that these chemical cues may be under sex-specific selection for signal reliability. Female CHCs show the characteristics of reliable cues of identity: high genetic variability, low condition dependence and a high degree of genetic determination. This supports earlier work showing that female CHCs are used in self-recognition to identify previous mates and facilitate polyandry. In contrast, male CHCs show the characteristics of reliable cues of quality: condition dependence and a relatively higher degree of environmental determination. This suggests that male CHCs are likely to function as cues of underlying quality during mate choice and/or male dominance interactions. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. A population-based epidemiological survey of human parvovirus B19 infection: a project of the Kyushu and Okinawa Population Study (KOPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Takeshi; Furusyo, Norihiro; Hayashi, Takeo; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Jun

    2013-12-01

    Human parvovirus B19 infection occurs by droplet nuclei through the respiratory tract and causes a wide range of diseases. It can be transmitted through blood transfusion from asymptomatic blood donors. This study was done to investigate the parvovirus B19 infection rate of a group of healthy Japanese residents. Of 2,081 blood samples tested, 15 (0.72 %) were positive for parvovirus B19 IgM, 1,412 (67.9 %) for B19 virus IgG, and 4 (0.2 %) for parvovirus B19 DNA. About half of all women of childbearing age were susceptible to parvovirus B19 infection. No relationship was found between the frequency of symptoms and the prevalence of parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM, suggesting that there are asymptomatic carriers in the healthy Japanese population. There is a risk of parvovirus B19 infection by blood transfusion from asymptomatic donors and that pregnant women are at high risk for parvovirus B19 infection.

  9. Increased expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 in liver from NZB/W F1 mice received antibody against human parvovirus B19 VP1 unique region protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Gwo-Jong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human parvovirus B19 infection has been postulated to the anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS in autoimmunity. However, the influence of anti-B19-VP1u antibody in autoimmune diseases is still obscure. Methods To elucidate the effect of anti-B19-VP1u antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, passive transfer of rabbit anti-B19-VP1u IgG was injected intravenously into NZB/W F1 mice. Results Significant reduction of platelet count and prolonged thrombocytopenia time were detected in anti-B19-VP1u IgG group as compared to other groups, whereas significant increases of anti-B19-VP1u, anti-phospholipid (APhL, and anti-double strand DNA (dsDNA antibody binding activity were detected in anti-B19-VP1u group. Additionally, significant increases of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9 activity and protein expression were detected in B19-VP1u IgG group. Notably, phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI3K and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK proteins were involved in the induction of MMP9. Conclusion These experimental results firstly demonstrated the aggravated effects of anti-B19-VP1u antibody in disease activity of SLE.

  10. Prevalence of Parvovirus B19 and Parvovirus V9 DNA and Antibodies in Paired Bone Marrow and Serum Samples from Healthy Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Heegaard, Erik D.; Petersen, Bodil Laub; Heilmann, Carsten J.; Hornsleth, Allan

    2002-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 (hereafter referred to as B19) exhibits a marked tropism to human bone marrow (BM), and infection may lead to erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, hydrops fetalis, and various hematologic disorders. Recently, a distinct parvovirus isolate termed V9 with an unknown clinical spectrum was discovered. In contrast to the many studies of B19 serology and viremia, valid information on the frequency of B19 or V9 DNA in the BM of healthy individuals is limited. To develop a reference valu...

  11. Papular-purpuric "gloves and socks" syndrome due to parvovirus B19: report of a case with unusual features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PASSONI Luiz Fernando C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of papular-purpuric "gloves and socks" syndrome (PPGSS in an adult male with acute parvovirus B19 infection. The patient displayed the classical features of fever, oral lesions, and purpura on hands and feet, but the purpuric lesions on the feet evolved to superficial skin necrosis, a feature not previously described in this syndrome. We believe this is the first reported case of PPGSS occurring in Brazil.

  12. [Clinical and biological manifestations in primary parvovirus B19 infection in immunocompetent adult: a retrospective study of 26 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, D; Mekki, Y; Durieu, I; Broussolle, C; Sève, P

    2014-05-01

    Parvovirus B19 causes erythema infectiosum in children, transient aplastic anemia in patients with hemoglobinopathies, pur red cell aplasia in immunocompromised persons and hydrops fetalis in pregnancy. The spectrum of clinical and biological manifestations in immunocompetent adult continues to grow up. We report on a case series of 26 patients with primary parvovirus B19 infection in immunocompetent adults. This is a retrospective study over the period 2000 to 2010 in two departments of internal medecine. The diagnostic was clinical, serological or molecular. There was a female predominance (sex-ratio 3.33/1). Median patient age at diagnostic was 38.8 years (range: 18-68). The predominant symptoms were fever (65%), peripheral and symmetrical polyarthralgia (62%) and skin rash (58%). Two patients had neurological manifestations (sixth cranial nerve palsy, distal paresthesia) and one patient had myocarditis. Abnormal laboratory values included increased acute phase reactants (73%), thrombocytopenia (43%), lymphopenia (38%) and elevated liver enzymes (37%). Antinuclear (19%), anti-DNA (28%) and anti-phospholipids antibodies (14%), and hypocomplementemia (32%) were observed. False reaction with anti-CMV and anti-EBV IgM positivity was documented in 27% of cases. Two patients had persistent parvovirus B19 infection. The diversity of the clinical manifestations of parvovirus B19 infection may be misleading for the clinician. However, the diagnosis should be suspected in immunocompetent adults to limit the risk of transmission to the patients who could develop a severe infection such as pregnant women or immunocompromised patients. Copyright © 2013 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Parvovirus B19 antibodies and correlates of infection in pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel E Emiasegen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Human parvovirus B19 infection is associated with spontaneous abortion, hydrops foetalis, intrauterine foetal death, erythema infectiosum (5th disease, aplastic crisis and acute symmetric polyarthropathy. However, data concerning Nigerian patients with B19 infection have not been published yet. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of B19 IgG and IgM antibodies, including correlates of infection, among pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Nigeria. Subsequent to clearance from an ethical committee, blood samples were collected between August-November 2008 from 273 pregnant women between the ages of 15-40 years who have given their informed consent and completed self-administered questionnaires. Recombinant IgG and IgM enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits (Demeditec Diagnostics, Germany were used for the assays. Out of the 273 participants, 111 (40.7% had either IgG or IgM antibodies. Out of these, 75 (27.5% had IgG antibodies whereas 36 (13.2% had IgM antibodies, and those aged 36-40 years had the highest prevalence of IgG antibodies. Significant determinants of infection (p < 0.05 included the receipt of a blood transfusion, occupation and the presence of a large number of children in the household. Our findings have important implications for transfusion and foeto-maternal health policy in Nigeria. Routine screening for B19 IgM antibodies and accompanying clinical management of positive cases should be made mandatory for all Nigerian blood donors and women of childbearing age.

  14. A test of genotypic variation in specificity of herbivore-induced responses in Solidago altissima L. (Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uesugi, A.; Poelman, E.H.; Kessler, A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant-induced responses to multiple herbivores can mediate ecological interactions among herbivore species, thereby influencing herbivore community composition in nature. Several studies have indicated high specificity of induced responses to different herbivore species. In addition, there may be

  15. Genotyping of Trypanosoma cruzi Sublineage in Human Samples from a North-East Argentina Area by Hybridization with DNA Probes and Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Cristina; Lorenz, Virginia; Ortiz, Silvia; Gonzalez, Verónica; Racca, Andrea; Bontempi, Iván; Manattini, Silvia; Solari, Aldo; Marcipar, Iván

    2010-01-01

    We have evaluated blood samples of chronic and congenital Trypanosoma cruzi-infected patients from the city of Reconquista located in the northeast of Argentina where no information was previously obtained about the genotype of infecting parasites. Fourteen samples of congenital and 19 chronical patients were analyzed by hybridization with DNA probes of minicircle hypervariable regions (mHVR). In congenital patients, 50% had single infections with TcIId, 7% single infections with TcIIe, 29% mixed infections with TcIId/e, and 7% had mixed infections with TcIId/b and 7% TcIId/b, respectively. In Chronical patients, 52% had single infections with TcIId, 11% single infections with TcIIe, 26% had mixed infections with TcIId/e, and 11% had non-identified genotypes. With these samples, we evaluated the minicircle lineage-specific polymerase chain reaction assay (MLS-PCR), which involves a nested PCR to HVR minicircle sequences and we found a correlation with hybridization probes of 96.4% for TcIId and 54.8% for TcIIe. PMID:20064998

  16. A Sorghum bicolor expression atlas reveals dynamic genotype-specific expression profiles for vegetative tissues of grain, sweet and bioenergy sorghums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakoor, N; Nair, R; Crasta, O; Morris, G; Feltus, A; Kresovich, S

    2014-01-23

    Background: Effective improvement in sorghum crop development necessitates a genomics-based approach to identify functional genes and QTLs. Sequenced in 2009, a comprehensive annotation of the sorghum genome and the development of functional genomics resources is key to enable the discovery and deployment of regulatory and metabolic genes and gene networks for crop improvement. Results: This study utilizes the first commercially available whole-transcriptome sorghum microarray (Sorgh-WTa520972F) to identify tissue and genotype-specific expression patterns for all identified Sorghum bicolor exons and UTRs. The genechip contains 1,026,373 probes covering 149,182 exons (27,577 genes) across the Sorghum bicolor nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes. Specific probesets were also included for putative non-coding RNAs that may play a role in gene regulation (e. g., microRNAs), and confirmed functional small RNAs in related species (maize and sugarcane) were also included in our array design. We generated expression data for 78 samples with a combination of four different tissue types (shoot, root, leaf and stem), two dissected stem tissues (pith and rind) and six diverse genotypes, which included 6 public sorghum lines (R159, Atlas, Fremont, PI152611, AR2400 and PI455230) representing grain, sweet, forage, and high biomass ideotypes. Conclusions: Here we present a summary of the microarray dataset, including analysis of tissue-specific gene expression profiles and associated expression profiles of relevant metabolic pathways. With an aim to enable identification and functional characterization of genes in sorghum, this expression atlas presents a new and valuable resource to the research community.

  17. Modeling and E-M estimation of haplotype-specific relative risks from genotype data for a case-control study of unrelated individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stram, Daniel O; Leigh Pearce, Celeste; Bretsky, Phillip; Freedman, Matthew; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Altshuler, David; Kolonel, Laurence N; Henderson, Brian E; Thomas, Duncan C

    2003-01-01

    The US National Cancer Institute has recently sponsored the formation of a Cohort Consortium (http://2002.cancer.gov/scpgenes.htm) to facilitate the pooling of data on very large numbers of people, concerning the effects of genes and environment on cancer incidence. One likely goal of these efforts will be generate a large population-based case-control series for which a number of candidate genes will be investigated using SNP haplotype as well as genotype analysis. The goal of this paper is to outline the issues involved in choosing a method of estimating haplotype-specific risk estimates for such data that is technically appropriate and yet attractive to epidemiologists who are already comfortable with odds ratios and logistic regression. Our interest is to develop and evaluate extensions of methods, based on haplotype imputation, that have been recently described (Schaid et al., Am J Hum Genet, 2002, and Zaykin et al., Hum Hered, 2002) as providing score tests of the null hypothesis of no effect of SNP haplotypes upon risk, which may be used for more complex tasks, such as providing confidence intervals, and tests of equivalence of haplotype-specific risks in two or more separate populations. In order to do so we (1) develop a cohort approach towards odds ratio analysis by expanding the E-M algorithm to provide maximum likelihood estimates of haplotype-specific odds ratios as well as genotype frequencies; (2) show how to correct the cohort approach, to give essentially unbiased estimates for population-based or nested case-control studies by incorporating the probability of selection as a case or control into the likelihood, based on a simplified model of case and control selection, and (3) finally, in an example data set (CYP17 and breast cancer, from the Multiethnic Cohort Study) we compare likelihood-based confidence interval estimates from the two methods with each other, and with the use of the single-imputation approach of Zaykin et al. applied under both

  18. Children's 5-HTTLPR genotype moderates the link between maternal criticism and attentional biases specifically for facial displays of anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Brandon E; Johnson, Ashley L; Benas, Jessica S; Uhrlass, Dorothy J; Knopik, Valerie S; McGeary, John E

    2011-09-01

    Theorists have proposed that negative experiences in childhood may contribute to the development of experience-specific information-processing biases, including attentional biases. There are also clear genetic influences on cognitive processes, with evidence that polymorphisms in specific candidate genes may moderate the impact of environmental stress on attentional biases (e.g., a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene; 5-HTTLPR). In the current study, we tested a gene×environment (G×E) model of risk for attentional biases. We hypothesised that children whose mothers exhibit high levels of expressed emotion criticism (EE-Crit) would display attentional biases specifically for angry, but not happy or sad, faces, and that this link would be stronger among children carrying one or two copies of the 5-HTTLPR short allele than among those homozygous for the long allele. Results generally supported these hypotheses, though we found that carriers of the 5-HTTLPR short allele who also had a critical mother exhibited attentional avoidance of angry faces rather than preferential attention.

  19. Increased Numbers of CD4+CD25+ and CD8+CD25+ T-Cells in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis with Parvovirus B19 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naciute, Milda; Maciunaite, Gabriele; Mieliauskaite, Diana; Rugiene, Rita; Zinkeviciene, Aukse; Mauricas, Mykolas; Murovska, Modra; Girkontaite, Irute

    2017-01-01

    To investigate T-cell subpopulations in peripheral blood of human parvovirus B19 DNA-positive (B19 + ) and -negative (B19 - ) patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy persons. Blood samples were collected from 115 patients with RA and 47 healthy volunteers; 27 patients with RA and nine controls were B19 + Cluster of differentiation (CD) 4, 8, 25 and 45RA were analyzed on blood cells. CD25 expression on CD4 + CD45RA + , CD4 + CD45RA - , CD8 + CD45RA + , CD8 + CD45RA - subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. The percentage of CD25 low and CD25 hi cells was increased on CD4 + CD45RA + , CD4 + CD45RA - T-cells and the percentage of CD25 + cells was increased on CD8 + CD45RA + , CD8 + CD45RA - T-cells of B19 + patients with RA in comparison with B19 - patients and controls. Raised levels of CD4 and CD8 regulatory T-cells in B19 + RA patients could cause down-regulation of antiviral clearance mechanisms and lead to activation of persistent human parvovirus B19 infection in patients with RA. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  20. Spontaneous resolution of hemophagocytic syndrome associated with acute parvovirus B19 infection and concomitant Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in an otherwise healthy adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroche, C; Scieux, C; Honderlick, P; Piette, A M; Morinet, F; Blétry, O

    2002-10-01

    Reported here is the case of a patient who spontaneously recovered from hemophagocytic syndrome associated with acute B19 infection and concomitant Epstein-Barr virus reactivation. The previously healthy 37-year-old-man was hospitalized after 10 days of high fever, arthralgia and arthritis and was determined to have hemophagocytic syndrome. Immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) capsid antigen, early antigen and parvovirus B19 (B19) were found. B19 DNA and low-level EBV DNA were detected in bone marrow, serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The patient recovered spontaneously without any treatment. Two months later anti-B19 IgG antibodies were detected, while at 9-month follow-up, anti-B19 IgM antibodies were no longer detectable and B19 DNA had disappeared from serum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous resolution of hemophagocytic syndrome associated with acute B19 infection and concomitant EBV reactivation in an otherwise healthy adult.

  1. Clinical and Laboratoy Characteristics of Parvovirus B19 Infection During 2013/2014 Outbreak in Zagreb, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdukovic, Mia; Pejic, Lucija; Papic, Neven; Vince, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Human Parvovirus B19 (HPV-B19) occurs worldwide and causes mild, acute exanthematous disease that occurs in a form of cyclic local epidemics. The aim of this study was to analyze clinical features and complication rates of acute HPV-B19 infection in different age groups. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 718 consecutive patients clinicaly diagnosed with acute HPV-B19 infection who visited outpatient department at the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Zagreb, Croatia during 2013–2014 outbreak. In 212 patients (of 298 tested) diagnosis was confirmed by positive IgM antibodies and/or HPV-B19 DNA in peripheral blood. Results Outbreak started in June 2013 and had a peak in April 2014, with highest prevalence in schoolchildren. There were no difference in clinical presentation or laboratory findings between clinicaly and serologicaly diagnosed patients. Biphasic presentation, fever, myalgia, arthralgia, headache and peripheral edema were more frequent in adults, but „slapped cheeks” was found predominantly in children. Complications were more common in adults, most commonly hematological disordes (mild anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia), vasculitis, hepatitis and aseptic meningitis. There were no deaths in our cohort. Children 
(n = 52) Adults 
(n = 160) P-value Age, years 8.8 ± 4.1 39 ± 10.7 Male sex 31 (59.6%) 26 (12.3%) 0.0001 Clinical presentation Biphasic presentation 8 (15.4%) 48 (30.0 %) 0.0460 Fever 26 (50.0%) 110 (68.7%) 0.0194 Rash 51 (98.1%) 127 (79.4%) 0.0008 Myalgia 5 (9.6%) 50 (31.2%) 0.0017 Arthralgia 9 (17.3%) 100 (62.5%) 0.0001 Headache 3 (5.8%) 34 (21.2%) 0.0107 “Slapped cheeks” 29 (55,8%) 24 (15.0%) 0.0001 Peripheral edema 6 (11.5%) 63 (39.4%) 0.0001 Anemia 4 (7.7%) 19 (11.8%) 0.6076 Leukopenia 1 (1.9%) 23 (14.5%) 0.0111 Thrombocytopenia 4 (7.7%) 35 (21.8%) 0.0231 Hepatitis 1 (1.9%) 11 (6.87%) 0.3011 Vasculitis 1 (1.9%) 2 (1.25%) 0.5721 Other 2 (3.8%) 3 (1.9%) 0.5982 Conclusion

  2. Altered consolidation of extinction-like inhibitory learning in genotype-specific dysfunctional coping fostered by chronic stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campus, P; Maiolati, M; Orsini, C; Cabib, S

    2016-12-15

    Genetic and stress-related factors interact to foster mental disorders, possibly through dysfunctional learning. In a previous study we reported that a temporary experience of reduced food availability increases forced swim (FS)-induced helplessness tested 14days after a first experience in mice of the standard inbred C57BL/6(B6) strain but reduces it in mice of the genetically unrelated DBA/2J (D2) strain. Because persistence of FS-induced helplessness influences adaptive coping with stress challenge and involve learning processes the present study tested whether the behavioral effects of restricted feeding involved altered consolidation of FS-related learning. First, we demonstrated that restricted feeding does not influence behavior expressed on the first FS experience, supporting a specific effect on persistence rather then development of helplessness. Second, we found that FS-induced c-fos expression in the infralimbic cortex (IL) was selectively enhanced in food-restricted (FR) B6 mice and reduced in FR D2 mice, supporting opposite alterations of consolidation processes involving this brain area. Third, we demonstrated that immediate post-FS inactivation of IL prevents 24h retention of acquired helplessness by continuously free-fed mice of both strains, indicating the requirement of a functioning IL for consolidation of FS-related learning in either mouse strain. Finally, in line with the known role of IL in consolidation of extinction memories, we found that restricted feeding selectively facilitated 24h retention of an acquired extinction in B6 mice whereas impairing it in D2 mice. These findings support the conclusion that an experience of reduced food availability strain-specifically affects persistence of newly acquired passive coping strategies by altering consolidation of extinction-like inhibitory learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Towards a molecular taxonomic key of the Aurantioideae subfamily using chloroplastic SNP diagnostic markers of the main clades genotyped by competitive allele-specific PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueslati, Amel; Ollitrault, Frederique; Baraket, Ghada; Salhi-Hannachi, Amel; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2016-08-18

    Chloroplast DNA is a primary source of molecular variations for phylogenetic analysis of photosynthetic eukaryotes. However, the sequencing and analysis of multiple chloroplastic regions is difficult to apply to large collections or large samples of natural populations. The objective of our work was to demonstrate that a molecular taxonomic key based on easy, scalable and low-cost genotyping method should be developed from a set of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) diagnostic of well-established clades. It was applied to the Aurantioideae subfamily, the largest group of the Rutaceae family that includes the cultivated citrus species. The publicly available nucleotide sequences of eight plastid genomic regions were compared for 79 accessions of the Aurantioideae subfamily to search for SNPs revealing taxonomic differentiation at the inter-tribe, inter-subtribe, inter-genus and interspecific levels. Diagnostic SNPs (DSNPs) were found for 46 of the 54 clade levels analysed. Forty DSNPs were selected to develop KASPar markers and their taxonomic value was tested by genotyping 108 accessions of the Aurantioideae subfamily. Twenty-seven markers diagnostic of 24 clades were validated and they displayed a very high rate of transferability in the Aurantioideae subfamily (only 1.2 % of missing data on average). The UPGMA from the validated markers produced a cladistic organisation that was highly coherent with the previous phylogenetic analysis based on the sequence data of the eight plasmid regions. In particular, the monophyletic origin of the "true citrus" genera plus Oxanthera was validated. However, some clarification remains necessary regarding the organisation of the other wild species of the Citreae tribe. We validated the concept that with well-established clades, DSNPs can be selected and efficiently transformed into competitive allele-specific PCR markers (KASPar method) allowing cost-effective highly efficient cladistic analysis in large collections at

  4. Glomeruloesclerose segmentar e focal (GESF) colapsante associada ao parvovírus B19: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Geraldo Rubens Ramos de; Praxedes, Marcel Rodrigues Gurgel; Malheiros, Denise; Testagrossa, Leonardo; Dias, Cristiane Bitencourt; Woronik, Viktoria

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Descrever quadro clínico-laboratorial de glomeruloesclerose segmentar e focal (GESF) subtipo colapsante em associação com infecção por parvovírus B19 (PVB19). Relato do caso: Paciente feminino, 37 anos, parda, iniciou quadro de faringoalgia e febre aferida com melhora parcial após penicilina. Com uma semana, observou redução de débito urinário e edema de membros inferiores. Tabagista, com histórico familiar e pessoal negativos para hipertensão, diabetes ou nefropatias. À admissão, a...

  5. TumorBoost: Normalization of allele-specific tumor copy numbers from a single pair of tumor-normal genotyping microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuvial Pierre

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput genotyping microarrays assess both total DNA copy number and allelic composition, which makes them a tool of choice for copy number studies in cancer, including total copy number and loss of heterozygosity (LOH analyses. Even after state of the art preprocessing methods, allelic signal estimates from genotyping arrays still suffer from systematic effects that make them difficult to use effectively for such downstream analyses. Results We propose a method, TumorBoost, for normalizing allelic estimates of one tumor sample based on estimates from a single matched normal. The method applies to any paired tumor-normal estimates from any microarray-based technology, combined with any preprocessing method. We demonstrate that it increases the signal-to-noise ratio of allelic signals, making it significantly easier to detect allelic imbalances. Conclusions TumorBoost increases the power to detect somatic copy-number events (including copy-neutral LOH in the tumor from allelic signals of Affymetrix or Illumina origin. We also conclude that high-precision allelic estimates can be obtained from a single pair of tumor-normal hybridizations, if TumorBoost is combined with single-array preprocessing methods such as (allele-specific CRMA v2 for Affymetrix or BeadStudio's (proprietary XY-normalization method for Illumina. A bounded-memory implementation is available in the open-source and cross-platform R package aroma.cn, which is part of the Aroma Project (http://www.aroma-project.org/.

  6. Trait specific expression profiling of salt stress responsive genes in diverse rice genotypes as determined by modified Significance Analysis of Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rashed Hossain

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress responsive gene expression is commonly profiled in a comparative manner involving different stress conditions or genotypes with contrasting reputation of tolerance/resistance. In contrast, this research exploited a wide natural variation in terms of taxonomy, origin and salt sensitivity in eight genotypes of rice to identify the trait specific patterns of gene expression under salt stress. Genome wide transcptomic responses were interrogated by the weighted continuous morpho-physiological trait responses using modified Significance Analysis of Microarrays. More number of genes was found to be differentially expressed under salt stressed compared to that of under unstressed conditions. Higher numbers of genes were observed to be differentially expressed for the traits shoot Na+/K+, shoot Na+, root K+, biomass and shoot Cl-, respectively. The results identified around sixty genes to be involved in Na+, K+ and anion homeostasis, transport and transmembrane activity under stressed conditions. Gene Ontology (GO enrichment analysis identified 1.36% (578 genes of the entire transcriptome to be involved in the major molecular functions such as signal transduction (>150 genes, transcription factor (81 genes and translation factor activity (62 genes etc. under salt stress. Chromosomal mapping of the genes suggests that majority of the genes are located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6 & 7. The gene network analysis showed that the transcription factors and translation initiation factors formed the major gene networks and are mostly active in nucleus, cytoplasm and mitochondria whereas the membrane and vesicle bound proteins formed a secondary network active in plasma membrane and vacuoles. The novel genes and the genes with unknown functions thus identified provide picture of a synergistic salinity response representing the potentially fundamental mechanisms that are active in the wide natural genetic background of rice and will be of greater use once

  7. TU-B-19A-01: Image Registration II: TG132-Quality Assurance for Image Registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, K; Mutic, S

    2014-01-01

    AAPM Task Group 132 was charged with a review of the current approaches and solutions for image registration in radiotherapy and to provide recommendations for quality assurance and quality control of these clinical processes. As the results of image registration are always used as the input of another process for planning or delivery, it is important for the user to understand and document the uncertainty associate with the algorithm in general and the Result of a specific registration. The recommendations of this task group, which at the time of abstract submission are currently being reviewed by the AAPM, include the following components. The user should understand the basic image registration techniques and methods of visualizing image fusion. The disclosure of basic components of the image registration by commercial vendors is critical in this respect. The physicists should perform end-to-end tests of imaging, registration, and planning/treatment systems if image registration is performed on a stand-alone system. A comprehensive commissioning process should be performed and documented by the physicist prior to clinical use of the system. As documentation is important to the safe implementation of this process, a request and report system should be integrated into the clinical workflow. Finally, a patient specific QA practice should be established for efficient evaluation of image registration results. The implementation of these recommendations will be described and illustrated during this educational session. Learning Objectives: Highlight the importance of understanding the image registration techniques used in their clinic. Describe the end-to-end tests needed for stand-alone registration systems. Illustrate a comprehensive commissioning program using both phantom data and clinical images. Describe a request and report system to ensure communication and documentation. Demonstrate an clinically-efficient patient QA practice for efficient evaluation of image

  8. Anemia y fiebre en el postrasplante renal: su relación con el parvovirus humano B19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet Parodis López

    2017-03-01

    Presentamos el caso clínico de un varón de 65 años con trasplante renal de donante cadáver en septiembre de 2014. A los 38 días del trasplante comienza con anemia progresiva y resistente a los agentes estimulantes de la eritropoyesis. A los 64 días se produce hipertermia, con deterioro progresivo de su estado general. La serología vírica resultó negativa, al igual que la PCR inicial en sangre del parvovirus humano B19. A los 4 meses y 19 días se realiza una biopsia de médula ósea en la que se observan eritroblastos gigantes con inclusiones víricas nucleares compatibles con parvovirus, por lo que se realiza una PCR en dicho tejido que confirma el diagnóstico. Una segunda PCR en sangre resultó positiva. Tras el tratamiento con inmunoglobulinas intravenosas (IGIV y la suspensión temporal del micofenolato de mofetilo, se produce una remisión completa de la enfermedad, aunque persistía positiva la PCR para el parvovirus B19 en sangre, lo que hace necesario vigilar probables recidivas.

  9. Immunologic Storm Simulating Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Following Parvovirus B19 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana González-Mazarío

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The appearance of symptoms compatible with systemic autoimmune diseases has been described in relation to several viral infections like HIV, cytomegalovirus and especially PVB19, depending on the evolution of the immunological condition of the host and their age. We present a young immunocompetent male patient, with clinical manifestations simulating systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE with important activation of cytokines. Methods: For quantification of the different cytokines in plasma, a commercially available multiplex bead immunoassay, based on the Luminex platform (Cat # HSCYTO-60SK-08, Milliplex® MAP High Sensitivity, Millipore, was used according to the manufacturer’s instructions. All samples were run in duplicate and the data (mean fluorescence intensity were analyzed using a Luminex reader. The mean concentration was calculated using a standard curve. Results: The clinical evolution was favourable without the need for any specific treatment, showing complete recovery after two months. Whilst the symptoms and viral charge were disappearing, the anti-DNA continued to increase and we demonstrate important activation of IL-10, IL-6 and TNFα cytokines as a result of a hyperstimulating response by an immunocompetent hyperfunctional system, which persists after clinical improvement. We should emphasize the behaviour of two cytokines: IL-12p70 and IL-2, which showed opposite tendencies. Conclusions: Viral infections, especially PVB19, can produce or simulate several autoimmune diseases as a hyperstimulation response from an immunocompetent hyperfunctional system. Consequently, a persistent increase of autoantobodies and important activation of cytokines, even after clinical improvement and seroconversion, can be demonstrated.

  10. MO-B-19A-01: MOC: A How-To Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibbott, G; Seibert, J; Allison, J; Frey, G

    2014-01-01

    Medical physicists who were certified in 2002 or later, as well as those who become certified in the future, are enrolled in Maintenance of Certification. Many physicists with life-time certificates have voluntarily enrolled in MOC, as have physicists who volunteer their time to participate in the ABR exam development and administration processes. MOC consists of four components: Part 1, Professional standing; Part 2, Lifelong learning and self-assessment; Part 3, Cognitive expertise; and Part 4, Practice quality improvement. These four components together evaluate six competencies: Medical knowledge, patient care and procedural skills, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice. Parts 1, 2, and 3 of MOC are fairly straightforward, although many participants have questions about the process for attesting to professional standing, the opportunities for obtaining self-assessed continuing education, and the timing of the cognitive exam. MOC participants also have questions about Part 4, Practice Quality Improvement. PQI projects are powerful tools for improving the quality and safety of the environments in which we practice medical physics. In the current version of MOC known as “Continuous Certification” a medical physicist must have completed a PQI project within the previous three years, at the time of the ABR's annual look-back each March. For the first “full” annual look-back in March 2016, diplomates will be given an additional year, so that a PQI project completed in 2012, 2013, 2014, or 2015 will fulfill this requirement. Each component of MOC will be addressed, and the specifics of interest to medical physicists will be discussed. Learning Objectives: Understand the four components and six competencies evaluated by MOC. Become familiar with the annual requirements of Continuous Certification. Learn about opportunities for Practice Quality Improvement projects

  11. MO-B-19A-01: MOC: A How-To Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibbott, G [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Seibert, J [UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Allison, J [Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA (Georgia); Frey, G [The American Board of Radiology, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Medical physicists who were certified in 2002 or later, as well as those who become certified in the future, are enrolled in Maintenance of Certification. Many physicists with life-time certificates have voluntarily enrolled in MOC, as have physicists who volunteer their time to participate in the ABR exam development and administration processes. MOC consists of four components: Part 1, Professional standing; Part 2, Lifelong learning and self-assessment; Part 3, Cognitive expertise; and Part 4, Practice quality improvement. These four components together evaluate six competencies: Medical knowledge, patient care and procedural skills, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice. Parts 1, 2, and 3 of MOC are fairly straightforward, although many participants have questions about the process for attesting to professional standing, the opportunities for obtaining self-assessed continuing education, and the timing of the cognitive exam. MOC participants also have questions about Part 4, Practice Quality Improvement. PQI projects are powerful tools for improving the quality and safety of the environments in which we practice medical physics. In the current version of MOC known as “Continuous Certification” a medical physicist must have completed a PQI project within the previous three years, at the time of the ABR's annual look-back each March. For the first “full” annual look-back in March 2016, diplomates will be given an additional year, so that a PQI project completed in 2012, 2013, 2014, or 2015 will fulfill this requirement. Each component of MOC will be addressed, and the specifics of interest to medical physicists will be discussed. Learning Objectives: Understand the four components and six competencies evaluated by MOC. Become familiar with the annual requirements of Continuous Certification. Learn about opportunities for Practice Quality Improvement projects

  12. Association between human parvovirus B19 and arthropathy in Belém, Pará, north Brazil Associação entre parvovírus B19 e artropatias em Belém, Pará, norte do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo B. FREITAS

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 220 patients with arthropathy were selected in Belém, Pará between January 1994 and December 2000, and screened for the presence of human parvovirus B19 IgM and IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. A subgroup (n = 132 of patients with high levels of antibodies (either IgM+/IgG+ or IgM-/IgG+ were examined for the presence of DNA by polymerase chain reaction/nested PCR. Recent/active infection (detection of IgM and/or IgG-specific antibodies and presence of viral DNA was identified in 47.7% of the 132 individuals with arthropathy. In our study, women were significantly more affected (59.7% than men (35.4% (P = 0.0006. The age group of 11-20 years (84.6%, among female patients, and 21-30 years (42.1%, among male, were those with the highest incidence rates. The analysis of the temporal distribution of B19-associated arthropaties showed a cyclic pattern, with peak incidence rates occuring at 3-5 year intervals. Significant diference (P = 0.01 was observed when comparing both the highest (39.0% and the lowest (11.0% seropositivity rates for the years of 1995 and 2000, respectively. The interfalangial joints of hands and feet were mostly affected, with 50.0% and 48.0% of cases among both women and men, respectively. In a smaller proportion, other joints such as those of knee, ankle, pulse and shoulder were affected. As for the duration, symptoms lasted 1 to 5 days in 54.0% of the individuals, whereas in 46.0% of them the disease lasted 6-10 days, if considered the subgroup (n = 63 of patients with recent/active infection by parvovirus B19. In our study, joint clinical manifestations occurred symmetrically. Our results indicate that B19 may be an important agent of arthropathies in our region, and this underscores the need for specific laboratory diagnosis when treating patients suffering from acute arthropathy, mainly pregnant women.Um total de 220 indivíduos portadores de artropatias foi selecionado em Belém, Par

  13. Human parvovirus B19-induced aplastic crisis in an adult patient with hereditary spherocytosis: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yujin; Hatta, Yoshihiro; Ishiwatari, Yusaku; Kanno, Hitoshi; Takei, Masami

    2014-03-11

    Although there are several case reports of human parvovirus B19 infection in patients with hereditary spherocytosis, no systematic reviews of adult patients with hereditary spherocytosis with human parvovirus B19 infection have been published as clinical case reports. In this study, we report a case of aplastic crisis due to human parvovirus B19 infection in an adult patient with hereditary spherocytosis. A 33-year-old woman with hereditary spherocytosis and gallstones was admitted because of rapid progress in marked anemia and fever. Although empiric antibiotic therapy was prescribed, her clinical symptoms and liver function test worsened. Because the anti-human parvovirus B19 antibody and deoxyribonucleic acid levels assessed by polymerase chain reaction were positive, the patient was diagnosed with aplastic crisis due to the human parvovirus B19 infection. We collected and reviewed several case reports of patients with hereditary spherocytosis aged > 18 years with human parvovirus B19 infection between 1984 and 2010. A total of 19 reports with 22 cases [median age, 28 years (range, 18-43 range); male: female ratio, 6:16], including the present case were identified. The male-to-female ratio of 6:16 implied that younger females were predominantly affected. Although fever and abdominal symptoms were common initial symptoms, liver dysfunction or skin eruptions were less commonly documented. Anti-human parvovirus B19 antibody or deoxyribonucleic acid levels assessed by polymerase chain reaction was commonly used to diagnose human parvovirus B19 infection and may be useful to distinguish human parvovirus B19 infection from other abdominal infection in patients with hereditary spherocytosis.

  14. [DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF COMBINED USE OF COMBINED METHOD OF ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY AND POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION TO DETECT OF INTRAUTERINE FETAL INFECTION BY PARVOVIRUS B19].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, N P; Lakatosh, V P; Lakatosh, P V; Malanchuk, O B; Poladich, I V

    2015-01-01

    The combined method of diagnosis parvovirus infection during pregnancy by maternal serum enzyme immunoassay and deoxyribonucleic acid isolation parvovirus B19 polymerase chain reaction in amnniotic fluid and fetal cord blood newborns, can diagnose vertical transmission and anticipate a negative effect on the fetus parvovirus. Lack of maternal IgM antibodies in serum due to parvovirus seroconversion during pregnancy does not exclude the persistence of the virus in the fetus. To analyze the diagnostic value of the method for determining the LHP parvovirus B19 DNA in the amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood of newborns to determine vertical transmission of parvovirus infection when infected mothers B19 during pregnancy.

  15. Nucleotide mismatches between the VP7 gene and the primer are associated with genotyping failure of a specific lineage from G1 rotavirus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinola Emilio E

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years it was reported that the accumulation of point mutations in VP4 and VP7 genes of rotavirus strains was the main cause of the failure of the G or P-typing. Failures in the correct genotyping of G1, G2, G8, G9 and G10 rotavirus strains were reported in the most commonly used reverse transcription (RT-PCR strategies. Collecting VP7 gene sequences of G1 rotavirus strains from databases we found that 74 (61.2 % out of 121 G1 strains from lineage I showed the four specific mismatches at the 5' end of the 9T1-1 primer, previously associated with the failure of G1-typing. Thus, a great percentage of the G1 strains from lineage I worldwide reported could not have been typed if the Das's RT-PCR strategy were used. This analysis shows that the failure on the detection of the G1 strains could be due to the diversification of rotavirus strains in phylogenetic lineages. Therefore, the use of different RT-PCR strategies with different primer binding locations on the VP7 gene or new typing methodologies -like microarrays procedures- could be a better option to avoid the failure of the G-typing of rotavirus strains detected during surveillance programs.

  16. No evidence of parvovirus B19, Chlamydia pneumoniae or human herpes virus infection in temporal artery biopsies in patients with giant cell arteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Tarp, B; Obel, N

    2002-01-01

    conditions. DNA was extracted from frozen biopsies and PCR was used to amplify genes from Chlamydia pneumoniae, parvovirus B19 and each of the eight human herpes viruses: herpes simplex viruses HSV-1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus and human herpes viruses HHV-6, -7 and -8......OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have suggested that infective agents may be involved in the pathogenesis of giant cell arteritis (GCA), in particular Chlamydia pneumoniae and parvovirus B19. We investigated temporal arteries from patients with GCA for these infections as well as human herpes viruses....... RESULTS: In all 30 biopsies, PCR was negative for DNAs of parvovirus B19, each of the eight human herpes viruses and C. pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of DNA from parvovirus B19, human herpes virus or C. pneumoniae in any of the temporal arteries. These agents do not seem to play a unique...

  17. New LightCycler PCR for Rapid and Sensitive Quantification of Parvovirus B19 DNA Guides Therapeutic Decision-Making in Relapsing Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Timm C.; Hufnagel, Markus; Zahn, Katrin; Beutel, Karin; Schmitt, Heinz-Josef; Ullmann, Uwe; Rautenberg, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Detection of parvovirus B19 DNA offers diagnostic advantages over serology, particularly in persistent infections of immunocompromised patients. A rapid, novel method of B19 DNA detection and quantification is introduced. This method, a quantitative PCR assay, is based on real-time glass capillary thermocycling (LightCycler [LC]) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The PCR assay allowed quantification over a dynamic range of over 7 logs and could quantify as little as 250 B19 genome equivalents (geq) per ml as calculated for plasmid DNA (i.e., theoretically ≥5 geq per assay). Interrater agreement analysis demonstrated equivalence of LC-FRET PCR and conventional nested PCR in the diagnosis of an active B19 infection (kappa coefficient = 0.83). The benefit of the new method was demonstrated in an immunocompromised child with a relapsing infection, who required an attenuation of the immunosuppressive therapy in addition to repeated doses of immunoglobulin to eliminate the virus. PMID:11724854

  18. Parvovirus B19 Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Conditions Not Listed? Not Listed? Acidosis and Alkalosis Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison Disease Alcoholism Allergies Alzheimer ... or "erythema infectiosum." The virus is found in respiratory droplets during an infection and is easily transmitted ...

  19. Increased seroprevalence of IgG-class antibodies against cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19, and varicella-zoster virus in women working in child day care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rijckevorsel Gini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary maternal infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV, parvovirus B19 (B19V, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV may result in adverse pregnancy outcomes like congenital infection or foetal loss. Women working in child day care have an increased exposure to CMV, B19V, and VZV. By comparing the seroprevalence of IgG-class antibodies against CMV, VZV and B19V in female day care workers (DCW with the seroprevalence in women not working in day care this study aimed to assess the association between occupation and infection. Methods A cross-sectional design was used. Out of a random sample of 266 day care centres, demographic data, data on work history, and blood samples were collected from 285 women from 38 centres. In addition, blood samples and basic demographics from women who participated in a cross-sectional survey of the Amsterdam population (2004 were used. All blood samples were tested for IgG-class antibodies against CMV, B19V, and VZV. Results Twenty-seven percent of the DCW were still susceptible to B19V or CMV. Working in day care was independently associated with B19V infection in all DCW (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.2; 95 % CI 1.1–1.3, and with CMV infection in DCW of European origin only (PR 1.7; 95 % CI 1.3–2.3. Almost all women born outside Europe tested seropositive for CMV (96 %. All DCW tested seropositive for VZV, compared to only 94 % of the women not working in day care. Conclusion This study confirms the clear association between employment in child day care centres and infection with CMV and B19V. Intervention policies, like screening of new employees and awareness campaigns emphasizing hygienic measures among DCW, should be implemented urgently to improve the maternal health of these women and the health of their offspring.

  20. Effects of Human Parvovirus B19 and Bocavirus VP1 Unique Region on Tight Junction of Human Airway Epithelial A549 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Ching; Shi, Ya-Fang; Yang, Jiann-Jou; Hsiao, Yuan-Chao; Tzang, Bor-Show; Hsu, Tsai-Ching

    2014-01-01

    As is widely recognized, human parvovirus B19 (B19) and human bocavirus (HBoV) are important human pathogens. Obviously, both VP1 unique region (VP1u) of B19 and HBoV exhibit the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity and are recognized to participate in the pathogenesis of lower respiratory tract illnesses. However, exactly how, both VP1u from B19 and HBoV affect tight junction has seldom been addressed. Therefore, this study investigates how B19-VP1u and HBoV-VP1u may affect the tight junction of the airway epithelial A549 cells by examining phospholipase A2 activity and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) as well as performing immunoblotting analyses. Experimental results indicate that TEER is more significantly decreased in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α (10 ng), two dosages of B19-VP1u and BoV-VP1u (400 ng and 4000 ng) or bee venom PLA2 (10 ng) than that of the control. Accordingly, more significantly increased claudin-1 and decreased occludin are detected in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α or both dosages of HBoV-VP1u than that of the control. Additionally, more significantly decreased Na+/K+ ATPase is observed in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α, high dosage of B19-VP1u or both dosages of BoV-VP1u than that of the control. Above findings suggest that HBoV-VP1u rather than B19 VP1u likely plays more important roles in the disruption of tight junction in the airway tract. Meanwhile, this discrepancy appears not to be associated with the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity. PMID:25268969

  1. Interaction Effect between Handedness and CNTNAP2 Polymorphism (rs7794745 genotype on Voice-specific Frontotemporal Activity in Healthy Individuals: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiko eKoeda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that Contactin-associated protein-like2 (CNTNAP2 polymorphisms affect left-hemispheric function of language processing in healthy individuals, but no study has investigated the influence of these polymorphisms on right-hemispheric function involved in human voice perception. Further, although recent reports suggest that determination of handedness is influenced by genetic effect, the interaction effect between handedness and CNTNAP2 polymorphisms for brain activity in human voice perception and language processing has not been revealed. We aimed to investigate the interaction effect of handedness and CNTNAP2 polymorphisms in respect to brain function for human voice perception and language processing in healthy individuals. Brain function of 108 healthy volunteers (74 right-handed and 34 non-right-handed was examined while they were passively listening to reverse sentences (rSEN, identifiable non-vocal sounds (SND, and sentences (SEN. Full factorial design analysis was calculated by using three factors: 1 rs7794745 (A/A or A/T, 2 rs2710102 (G/G or A carrier (A/G and A/A, and 3 voice-specific response (rSEN or SND. The main effect of rs7794745 (A/A or A/T was significantly revealed at the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG and bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG. This result suggests that rs7794745 genotype affects voice-specific brain function. Furthermore, interaction effect was significantly observed among MFG-STG activations by human voice perception, rs7794745 (A/A or A/T, and handedness. These results suggest that CNTNAP2 polymorphisms could be one of the important factors in the neural development related to vocal communication and language processing in both right-handed and non-right-handed healthy individuals.

  2. Desmanthus GENOTYPES

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    JOSÉ HENRIQUE DE ALBUQUERQUE RANGEL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmanthus is a genus of forage legumes with potential to improve pastures and livestock produc-tion on clay soils of dry tropical and subtropical regions such as the existing in Brazil and Australia. Despite this patterns of natural or enforced after-ripening of Desmanthus seeds have not been well established. Four year old seed banks of nine Desmanthus genotypes at James Cook University were accessed for their patterns of seed softe-ning in response to a range of temperatures. Persistent seed banks were found to exist under all of the studied ge-notypes. The largest seeds banks were found in the genotypes CPI 78373 and CPI 78382 and the smallest in the genotypes CPI’s 37143, 67643, and 83563. An increase in the percentage of softened seeds was correlated with higher temperatures, in two patterns of response: in some accessions seeds were not significantly affected by tempe-ratures below 80º C; and in others, seeds become soft when temperature rose to as little as 60 ºC. At 80 °C the heat started to depress germination. High seed production of Desmanthus associated with dependence of seeds on eleva-ted temperatures to softening can be a very important strategy for plants to survive in dry tropical regions.

  3. Adapted J6/JFH1-based Hepatitis C virus recombinants with genotype-specific NS4A show similar efficacies against lead protease inhibitors, alpha interferon, and a putative NS4A inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottwein, Judith M; Jensen, Sanne B; Serre, Stéphanie B N

    2013-01-01

    To facilitate studies of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS4A, we aimed at developing J6/JFH1-based recombinants with genotype 1- to 7-specific NS4A proteins. We developed efficient culture systems expressing NS4A proteins of genotypes (isolates) 1a (H77 and TN), 1b (J4), 2a (J6), 4a (ED43), 5a (SA13), 6a...... (HK6a), and 7a (QC69), with peak infectivity titers of ∼3.5 to 4.5 log10 focus-forming units per ml. Except for genotype 2a (J6), growth depended on adaptive mutations identified in long-term culture. Genotype 1a, 1b, and 4a recombinants were adapted by amino acid substitutions F772S (p7) and V1663A...... (NS4A), while 5a, 6a, and 7a recombinants required additional substitutions in the NS3 protease and/or NS4A. We demonstrated applicability of the developed recombinants for study of antivirals. Genotype 1 to 7 NS4A recombinants showed similar responses to the protease inhibitors telaprevir (VX-950...

  4. Validation of celiac disease diagnoses recorded in the Danish National Patient Register using duodenal biopsies, celiac disease-specific antibodies, and human leukocyte-antigen genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dydensborg Sander S

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stine Dydensborg Sander,1-3 Ketil Størdal,4,5 Tine Plato Hansen,6 Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen,7 Joseph A Murray,8 Søren Thue Lillevang,9 Steffen Husby1,2 1Hans Christian Andersen Children’s Hospital, Odense University Hospital, 2Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, 3Odense Patient Data Explorative Network (OPEN, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; 4Mental and Physical Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, 5Department of Pediatrics, Ostfold Hospital Trust, Fredrikstad, Norway; 6Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital, 7Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 8Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 9Department of Clinical Immunology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark Purpose: The purpose of this study was to validate the celiac disease diagnoses recorded in the Danish National Patient Register. To validate the diagnoses, we used information on duodenal biopsies from a national register of pathology reports (the Patobank and information on celiac disease-specific antibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA genotypes obtained from patient medical records.Patients and methods: We included all the children who were born from 1995 to 2012 and who were registered as having celiac disease in the Danish National Patient Register. We reviewed all the pathology reports on duodenal biopsies in the Patobank and the information in the medical records on celiac disease-specific antibodies (ie, anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 IgA and IgG, endomysial antibodies IgA, and anti-deamidated gliadin peptide IgG and HLA genotypes.Results: We identified 2,247 children who were registered in the Danish National Patient Register with celiac disease. Duodenal biopsies for 1,555 of the children (69% were registered in the Patobank; 1,127 (50% had a biopsy that was compatible with celiac disease (ie, Marsh 2–3. We accessed the medical

  5. Cancer-associated fibroblasts regulate keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion via TGF-β-dependent pathways in genotype-specific oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, N; Hassona, Y; Celentano, A; Lim, K P; Manchella, S; Parkinson, E K; Prime, S S

    2017-01-01

    The interrelationship between malignant epithelium and the underlying stroma is of fundamental importance in tumour development and progression. In the present study, we used cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) derived from genetically unstable oral squamous cell carcinomas (GU-OSCC), tumours that are characterized by the loss of genes such as TP53 and p16 INK4A and with extensive loss of heterozygosity, together with CAFs from their more genetically stable (GS) counterparts that have wild-type TP53 and p16 INK4A and minimal loss of heterozygosity (GS-OSCC). Using a systems biology approach to interpret the genome-wide transcriptional profile of the CAFs, we show that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family members not only had biological relevance in silico but also distinguished GU-OSCC-derived CAFs from GS-OSCC CAFs and fibroblasts from normal oral mucosa. In view of the close association between TGF-β family members, we examined the expression of TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 in the different fibroblast subtypes and showed increased levels of active TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 in CAFs from GU-OSCC. CAFs from GU-OSCC, but not GS-OSCC or normal fibroblasts, induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and down-regulated a broad spectrum of cell adhesion molecules resulting in epithelial dis-cohesion and invasion of target keratinocytes in vitro in a TGF-β-dependent manner. The results demonstrate that the TGF-β family of cytokines secreted by CAFs derived from genotype-specific oral cancer (GU-OSCC) promote, at least in part, the malignant phenotype by weakening intercellular epithelial adhesion. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Melanoma cultures show different susceptibility towards E1A-, E1B-19 kDa- and fiber-modified replication-competent adenoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M; Graf, C; Gut, T; Sirena, D; Peter, I; Dummer, R; Greber, U F; Hemmi, S

    2006-06-01

    Replicating adenovirus (Ad) vectors with tumour tissue specificity hold great promise for treatment of cancer. We have recently constructed a conditionally replicating Ad5 AdDeltaEP-TETP inducing tumour regression in a xenograft mouse model. For further improvement of this vector, we introduced four genetic modifications and analysed the viral cytotoxicity in a large panel of melanoma cell lines and patient-derived melanoma cells. (1) The antiapoptotic gene E1B-19 kDa (Delta19 mutant) was deleted increasing the cytolytic activity in 18 of 21 melanoma cells. (2) Introduction of the E1A 122-129 deletion (Delta24 mutant), suggested to attenuate viral replication in cell cycle-arrested cells, did not abrogate this activity and increased the cytolytic activity in two of 21 melanoma cells. (3) We inserted an RGD sequence into the fiber to extend viral tropism to alphav integrin-expressing cells, and (4) swapped the fiber with the Ad35 fiber (F35) enhancing the tropism to malignant melanoma cells expressing CD46. The RGD-fiber modification strongly increased cytolysis in all of the 11 CAR-low melanoma cells. The F35 fiber-chimeric vector boosted the cytotoxicity in nine of 11 cells. Our results show that rational engineering additively enhances the cytolytic potential of Ad vectors, a prerequisite for the development of patient-customized viral therapies.

  7. Parvovirus B19 NS1 protein induces cell cycle arrest at G2-phase by activating the ATR-CDC25C-CDK1 pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human parvovirus B19 (B19V infection of primary human erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs arrests infected cells at both late S-phase and G2-phase, which contain 4N DNA. B19V infection induces a DNA damage response (DDR that facilitates viral DNA replication but is dispensable for cell cycle arrest at G2-phase; however, a putative C-terminal transactivation domain (TAD2 within NS1 is responsible for G2-phase arrest. To fully understand the mechanism underlying B19V NS1-induced G2-phase arrest, we established two doxycycline-inducible B19V-permissive UT7/Epo-S1 cell lines that express NS1 or NS1mTAD2, and examined the function of the TAD2 domain during G2-phase arrest. The results confirm that the NS1 TAD2 domain plays a pivotal role in NS1-induced G2-phase arrest. Mechanistically, NS1 transactivated cellular gene expression through the TAD2 domain, which was itself responsible for ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related activation. Activated ATR phosphorylated CDC25C at serine 216, which in turn inactivated the cyclin B/CDK1 complex without affecting nuclear import of the complex. Importantly, we found that the ATR-CHK1-CDC25C-CDK1 pathway was activated during B19V infection of EPCs, and that ATR activation played an important role in B19V infection-induced G2-phase arrest.

  8. Coexistence of Epstein-Barr virus and Parvovirus B19 in tonsillar tissue samples: quantitative measurement by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahiner, Fatih; Gümral, Ramazan; Yildizoğlu, Üzeyir; Babayiğit, Mustafa Alparslan; Durmaz, Abdullah; Yiğit, Nuri; Saraçli, Mehmet Ali; Kubar, Ayhan

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence and copy number of six different viruses in tonsillar tissue samples removed surgically because of chronic recurrent tonsillitis or chronic obstructive tonsillar hypertrophy. In total, 56 tissue samples (tonsillar core) collected from 44 children and 12 adults were included in this study. The presence of viruses was investigated using a new TaqMan-based quantitative real-time PCR assay. Of the 56 tissue samples, 67.9% (38/56) were positive for at least one of the six viruses. Epstein-Barr virus was the most frequently detected virus, being found in 53.6% (30/56), followed by human Parvovirus B19 21.4% (12/56), human adenovirus 12.5% (7/56), human Cytomegalovirus 5.4% (3/56), BK polyomavirus 1.8% (1/56), and Herpes simplex virus 1.8% (1/56). Precancerous or cancerous changes were not detected in the tonsillar tissue samples by pathologic examination, whereas lymphoid hyperplasia was observed in 24 patients. In contrast to other viruses, B19 virus was present in high copy number in tonsillar tissues. The rates of EBV and B19 virus with high copy number (>500.000 copies/ml) were higher in children than in adults, and a positive relationship was also found between the presence of EBV and the presence of B19 virus with high copy number (P=0.037). It is previously reported that some viral agents are associated with different chronic tonsillar pathologies. In the present study, the presence of B19 virus in tonsillar core samples was investigated quantitatively for the first time, and our data suggests that EBV infections could be associated with B19 virus infections or could facilitate B19 virus replication. However, further detailed studies are needed to clarify this observation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preemptive intravenous immunoglobulin allows safe and timely administration of antineoplastic therapies in patients with multiple myeloma and parvovirus B19 disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katragadda, L; Shahid, Z; Restrepo, A; Muzaffar, J; Alapat, D; Anaissie, E

    2013-08-01

    Parvovirus B19 (B19) disease is a rare cause of anemia in cancer patients and often goes unrecognized, causing delays in anticancer therapy. A retrospective review was carried out of the records of patients with multiple myeloma who underwent melphalan-based autologous stem cell transplantation (MEL-ASCT) and developed B19 infection (January 2009-December 2011). Cases were defined by the presence of clinical and laboratory findings consistent with B19 disease in patients with repeatedly positive plasma quantitative polymerase chain reaction for parvovirus. Six patients qualified as cases; 5 presented with trilineage cytopenias (chronic in 1) and 1 with anemia later progressing to pancytopenia. Transfusion-dependent thrombocytopenia led to testing in 5 patients. Two of these patients also had manifestations of autoimmune disease. Therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resulted in clinical and hematologic response in all; however, 1 patient, whose white blood cell counts and serum hemoglobin levels improved, required splenectomy for persistent thrombocytopenia. All patients required additional IVIG for recurrent B19 disease. Although viral load at diagnosis did not correlate with the severity of cytopenia, its decrease was associated with response during 17 of 20 evaluable episodes (P = 0.02). Preemptive IVIG allowed the safe administration of chemotherapy in 3 patients, including MEL-ASCT in 1. Parvovirus B19 can cause severe disease in myeloma patients including ASCT recipients. Thrombocytopenia - not anemia - was the leading presentation and may be associated with autoimmune conditions. Patients with unexplained cytopenias, particularly when prolonged, should undergo testing for circulating parvovirus. A reduction in viral load was associated with response to IVIG, although additional therapy was needed for recurrent disease. Most importantly, preemptive IVIG allowed for safe and timely administration of antineoplastic therapy in patients with ongoing B

  10. Genotyping of the 19-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 5' flank of beta-hydroxylase gene by dissociation analysis of allele-specific PCR products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Werge, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The 19-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 5' flank of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene has been associated with psychiatric disorders. We have developed a simple, reliable and inexpensive closed-tube assay for genotyping of this polymorphism based upon T(m) determination of amplified...... and a conventional approach based upon agarose gel electrophoresis of amplified fragments revealed complete concordance between the two procedures. The insights obtained in this study may be utilized to develop assays based upon dissociation analysis of PCR products for genotyping of other insertion...

  11. Anomalous magnetic aftereffect and thermal remagnetization in melt-spun Nd4 Fe77 B19 permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.H.; Eckert, D.; Handstein, A.; Wolf, M.; Collocott, S.; Andrikidis, C.

    1996-01-01

    Usually measurements of the magnetic after effect in permanent magnet materials are performed on the major demagnetization curve. In this investigation, however, we measured the time dependence of magnetization of the spring magnet Nd 4 Fe 77 B 19 for different magnetic pre histories. The measurements were done with SQUID magnetometers. Depending on the magnetic pre history the magnetic viscosity S can be positive as well as negative, even for the same 'coordinate' (J,H), i.e. the system does not always move directly towards the thermal equilibrium state. In particular the samples spontaneously remagnetize after being field demagnetized. The driving force for this effect may be similar as that for thermal remagnetization. For certain magnetic pre histories the magnetization J (t) depends non-monotonically on time t, i.e. it can not always be described by a formula S 1 n(1 + t/t o ). Similar effects observed for αFe, many years ago, have been called anomalous aftereffect. These observations were attributed to the reversible aftereffect associated with the diffusion of C-atoms in α-Fe. However, the reversible aftereffect is not typical for permanent magnet materials. THe anomalous aftereffect found in our investigation as well as the effects of spontaneous remagnetization will be explained in terms of magnetic interactions in the material. (author)

  12. PRDM1 expression via human parvovirus B19 infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Wei-Ping; Yao, Li; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Jin; Zhang, Wei-Chen; Zhang, Yue-Hua; Wang, Zhe; Yan, Qing-Guo; Guo, Ying; Fan, Lin-Ni; Liu, Yi-Xiong; Huang, Gao-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Ectopic lymphoid follicle infiltration is a key event in Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). Positive regulatory domain zinc finger protein 1 (PRDM1), which is induced by antigen stimulation, can regulate all lymphocyte lineages. Several groups independently demonstrated that human parvovirus B19 (PVB19) is closely associated with HT. Hence, we determined whether PRDM1 is expressed in HT thyroid tissue and whether there is any correlation between PRDM1 expression and PVB19 in the pathogenesis of HT. We detected PRDM1 expression in HT (n = 86), normal thyroid tissue (n = 30), and nontoxic nodular goiter (n = 20) samples using immunohistochemistry. We also detected PVB19 protein in HT samples in a double-blind manner and analyzed the correlation between the 2 proteins using immunofluorescence confocal detection and coimmunoprecipitation. Furthermore, we detected changes of the expression levels of PRDM1 and PVB19 in transfected primary thyroid follicular epithelial cells using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We found that PRDM1 protein is significantly highly expressed in the injured follicular epithelial cells in HT (83/86 cases) than in normal thyroid cells (0/30 cases) or in nontoxic nodular goiter cells (0/20 cases) (P thyroid epithelial cells also showed PRDM1 up-regulation after PVB19 NS1 transfection. Our findings suggest a previously unrecognized role of PRDM1 and PVB19 in the pathogenesis of HT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Human parvovirus B19 nosocomial outbreak in healthcare personnel in a paediatric ward at a national tertiary referral centre in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungkate, S; Phongsamart, W; Rungmaitree, S; Lapphra, K; Wittawatmongkol, O; Pumsuwan, V; Wiruchkul, N; Assanasen, S; Rongrungruang, Y; Onlamoon, N; Horthongkham, N; Lermankul, W; Kongstan, N; Chokephaibulkit, K

    2017-06-01

    Nosocomial outbreaks of parvovirus B19 (pB19) have been reported, but they rarely occur among healthcare personnel (HCP). Susceptibility among pregnant HCP was the major concern. An outbreak of pB19 among HCP is described in a paediatric ward with a cross-sectional serologic study in all HCP and patients exposed to the outbreak. Acute infection was diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction or positive anti-parvovirus B19 IgM. Among 48 HCP (three pregnant) and 22 patients included in the outbreak serologic study, 11 (23%) HCP and two (9%) patients had acute infection. Of these, six HCP and no patients were symptomatic. Clinical manifestations included itchy rash (100%) and joint pain following resolution of rash (67%), with median rash duration of four days. Forty percent of HCP and 50% of patients had positive anti-parvovirus IgG, indicating previously immune status. HCP with acute infection and HCP who were susceptible without infection were younger than HCP with previous immunity (mean age 32.2 vs 40.5 years, respectively; P = 0.003). The attack rate was 38% among HCP and 18% among patients who were susceptible, respectively. The outbreak ended within two weeks following strict droplet precaution and segregation of symptomatic HCP. Parvovirus B19 infection may cause nosocomial outbreak with high attack rate among HCP. Outbreak control with droplet precaution was highly effective. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance of TcI/TcVI/TcII Chagas-Flow ATE-IgG2a for universal and genotype-specific serodiagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

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    Glaucia Diniz Alessio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Distinct Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes have been considered relevant for patient management and therapeutic response of Chagas disease. However, typing strategies for genotype-specific serodiagnosis of Chagas disease are still unavailable and requires standardization for practical application. In this study, an innovative TcI/TcVI/TcII Chagas Flow ATE-IgG2a technique was developed with applicability for universal and genotype-specific diagnosis of T. cruzi infection. For this purpose, the reactivity of serum samples (percentage of positive fluorescent parasites-PPFP obtained from mice chronically infected with TcI/Colombiana, TcVI/CL or TcII/Y strain as well as non-infected controls were determined using amastigote-AMA, trypomastigote-TRYPO and epimastigote-EPI in parallel batches of TcI, TcVI and TcII target antigens. Data demonstrated that "α-TcII-TRYPO/1:500, cut-off/PPFP = 20%" presented an excellent performance for universal diagnosis of T. cruzi infection (AUC = 1.0, Se and Sp = 100%. The combined set of attributes "α-TcI-TRYPO/1:4,000, cut-off/PPFP = 50%", "α-TcII-AMA/1:1,000, cut-off/PPFP = 40%" and "α-TcVI-EPI/1:1,000, cut-off/PPFP = 45%" showed good performance to segregate infections with TcI/Colombiana, TcVI/CL or TcII/Y strain. Overall, hosts infected with TcI/Colombiana and TcII/Y strains displayed opposite patterns of reactivity with "α-TcI TRYPO" and "α-TcII AMA". Hosts infected with TcVI/CL strain showed a typical interweaved distribution pattern. The method presented a good performance for genotype-specific diagnosis, with global accuracy of 69% when the population/prototype scenario include TcI, TcVI and TcII infections and 94% when comprise only TcI and TcII infections. This study also proposes a receiver operating reactivity panel, providing a feasible tool to classify serum samples from hosts infected with distinct T. cruzi genotypes, supporting the potential of this method for universal and genotype-specific diagnosis

  15. Molecular and clinical evaluation of the acute human parvovirus B19 infection: comparison of two cases in children with sickle cell disease and discussion of the literature

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    Svetoslav Nanev Slavov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Human parvovirus B19 is a well-known cause of severe conditions in patients with sickle cell disease, but the molecular mechanisms of the infection are insufficiently understood. The different clinical outcome of the acute parvovirus B19 infection in two pediatric patients with sickle cell disease has been examined. One of them developed life-threatening condition requiring emergency transfusions, while the other had asymptomatic infection, diagnosed occasionally. Both cases had high viral load and identical subgenotype, indicating that the viral molecular characteristics play a minimal role in the infection outcome.

  16. Molecular and clinical evaluation of the acute human parvovirus B19 infection: comparison of two cases in children with sickle cell disease and discussion of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Nanev Slavov

    Full Text Available Human parvovirus B19 is a well-known cause of severe conditions in patients with sickle cell disease, but the molecular mechanisms of the infection are insufficiently understood. The different clinical outcome of the acute parvovirus B19 infection in two pediatric patients with sickle cell disease has been examined. One of them developed life-threatening condition requiring emergency transfusions, while the other had asymptomatic infection, diagnosed occasionally. Both cases had high viral load and identical subgenotype, indicating that the viral molecular characteristics play a minimal role in the infection outcome.

  17. Detection of erythrovirus B19 in thyroidectomy specimens from Graves' disease patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Cyril; Hoffmann, Thomas Walter; Benzerdjeb, Nassim; Duverlie, Gilles; Sevestre, Henri; Desailloud, Rachel

    2013-08-01

    Environmental factors, such as viruses, are thought to contribute to the development of thyroid autoimmunity. Erythrovirus B19 (EVB19) is suspected to be involved in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, but no direct evidence is available concerning the role of EVB19 infection in Graves' disease. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the presence of EVB19 is more frequent in thyroidectomy specimens of patients undergoing thyroidectomy for Graves' disease (cases) than for multinodular thyroid (controls). Serum and thyroidectomy specimens were prospectively collected from 64 patients referred for total thyroidectomy over a 5-year period (2007-2011) and were investigated retrospectively and blindly for circulating EVB19 DNA by q-PCR (Qiagen), and for EVB19 thyrocyte infection by immunochemistry (VP2-Antibody, Dako). EVB19 serology was also determined. General clinical and laboratory data were collected. Twenty patients were referred for Graves' disease and 44 patients were referred for non-autoimmune multinodular thyroid. Patients with thyroid cancer were excluded. Ten percent of Graves' disease patients and 27.7% of control patients had positive staining of thyrocytes for EVB19 antibodies (ns). EVB19-positive and EVB19-negative cases did not differ. EVB19-positive controls were older than EVB19-negative controls (mean age: 57.5 [35-74] vs. 45 [28-80] years, P=0.03) No case of acute EVB19 infection was identified. EVB19-positive serology was more frequent in controls than in Graves' disease patients (88% vs. 45%, PGraves' disease patients than in controls. Further studies are needed to determine the role of EVB19 infection in thyroid diseases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Efficient Culture Adaptation of Hepatitis C Virus Recombinants with Genotype-Specific Core-NS2 by Using Previously Identified Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Troels Kasper Høyer; Gottwein, Judith M; Carlsen, Thomas H R

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important cause of chronic liver disease, and interferon-based therapy cures only 40 to 80% of patients, depending on HCV genotype. Research was accelerated by genotype 2a (strain JFH1) infectious cell culture systems. We previously developed viable JFH1-based...... (HC-TN and DH6), 1b (DH1 and DH5), and 3a (DBN) isolates, using previously identified adaptive mutations. Introduction of mutations from isolates of the same subtype either led to immediate efficient virus production or accelerated culture adaptation. The DH6 and DH5 recombinants without introduced...... mutations did not adapt to culture. Universal adaptive effects of mutations in NS3 (Q1247L, I1312V, K1398Q, R1408W, and Q1496L) and NS5A (V2418L) were investigated for JFH1-based genotype 1 to 5 core-NS2 recombinants; several mutations conferred adaptation to H77C (1a), J4 (1b), S52 (3a), and SA13 (5a...

  19. A highly restricted T-cell receptor dominates the CD8+ T-cell response to parvovirus B19 infection in HLA-A*2402-positive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasprowicz, V; Isa, Adiba; Jeffery, K

    2006-01-01

    Six of seven HLA-A*2402-positive individuals with acute parvovirus B19 infections made vigorous CD8-positive cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses to the viral epitope FYTPLADQF. All responders showed highly focused T-cell receptor (TCR) usage, using almost exclusively BV5.1. The BV5.1 TCR dominated...

  20. Saccharomyces cerevisiae-derived virus-like particle parvovirus B19 vaccine elicits binding and neutralizing antibodies in a mouse model for sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkert, Rhiannon R; Young, Neal S; Surman, Sherri L; Sealy, Robert E; Rosch, Jason; Dormitzer, Philip R; Settembre, Ethan C; Chandramouli, Sumana; Wong, Susan; Hankins, Jane S; Hurwitz, Julia L

    2017-06-22

    Parvovirus B19 infections are typically mild in healthy individuals, but can be life threatening in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD). A Saccharomyces cerevisiae-derived B19 VLP vaccine, now in pre-clinical development, is immunogenic in wild type mice when administered with the adjuvant MF59. Because SCD alters the immune response, we evaluated the efficacy of this vaccine in a mouse model for SCD. Vaccinated mice with SCD demonstrated similar binding and neutralizing antibody responses to those of heterozygous littermate controls following a prime-boost-boost regimen. Due to the lack of a mouse parvovirus B19 challenge model, we employed a natural mouse pathogen, Sendai virus, to evaluate SCD respiratory tract responses to infection. Normal mucosal and systemic antibody responses were observed in these mice. Results demonstrate that mice with SCD can respond to a VLP vaccine and to a respiratory virus challenge, encouraging rapid development of the B19 vaccine for patients with SCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute polyarthritis in a young patient caused by meningococcal and parvovirus B19 infections: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoipierre, Virginie; Dellyes, Anna; Aubry, Camille; Zandotti, Christine; Lafforgue, Pierre; Parola, Philippe; Lagier, Jean-Christophe

    2016-12-20

    Meningococcal infection is a multifaceted disease including acute polyarthritis. This presentation should be known by clinicians in order to prevent delay in treatment. We report what we believe to be the first case of an association of parvovirus B19 and meningococcal polyarthritis in a young adult. A 19-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our hospital with fever, intense leg pain, and a transient rash. A physical examination showed asymmetric polyarthritis and no neurological abnormalities. A parvovirus B19 polymerase chain reaction performed using a blood sample and knee fluid aspirate came back positive, but serology was negative for immunoglobulin M and positive for immunoglobulin G. A blood culture was positive for serotype C meningococcus; a polymerase chain reaction performed for Neisseria meningitidis was positive in joint fluid but negative in blood samples (performed after antibiotic treatment had begun). Our patient was treated with ceftriaxone for 15 days, associated with analgesic therapy. Hydroxychloroquine treatment was introduced 5 months after the onset of polyarthritis because of persisting inflammatory arthralgia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of polyarthritis caused by concomitant meningococcal and parvovirus B19 infections. This unusual presentation of meningococcal disease may have resulted from the persistent parvovirus B19 infection. Our experience with this case illustrates the need for a systematic approach to the diagnosis of febrile acute polyarthritis. Only long-term follow-up will reveal if this infectious polyarthritis will evolve towards an autoimmune rheumatism.

  2. [The diagnostic value of anti-CMV and anti-HPV-B19 antiviral antibodies in studies on causes of recurrent abortions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkaradkiewicz, A; Pieta, P; Tułecka, T; Breborowicz, G; Słomko, Z; Strzyzowski, P

    1997-04-01

    Presence of serum anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) and anti-parvovirus B19 (HPV-B19) antibodies was studied in 11 women within the first day after consecutive spontaneous abortion in the second trimester of pregnancy and in the control group, consisting of 15 women in the second trimester of a normal pregnancy. Most of studied women manifested presence of serum IgG class anti-CMV antibodies (IgG-anti-CMV) and levels of the antibodies proved significantly higher in women following spontaneous abortions. The patients frequently demonstrated in parallel presence of serum IgG class anti-HPV-B19 antibodies. In one patient a generalised nonimmunological hydrops fetalis was disclosed and her serum contained IgM and IgG class antibodies against CMV as well as against HPV-B19. The results suggest that in majority of the studied women the spontaneous abortion might have resulted from fetal infection due to reactivation of chronic CMV infection in the course of pregnancy.

  3. Glomeruloesclerose segmentar e focal (GESF colapsante associada ao parvovírus B19: relato de caso

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    Geraldo Rubens Ramos de Freitas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Descrever quadro clínico-laboratorial de glomeruloesclerose segmentar e focal (GESF subtipo colapsante em associação com infecção por parvovírus B19 (PVB19. Relato do caso: Paciente feminino, 37 anos, parda, iniciou quadro de faringoalgia e febre aferida com melhora parcial após penicilina. Com uma semana, observou redução de débito urinário e edema de membros inferiores. Tabagista, com histórico familiar e pessoal negativos para hipertensão, diabetes ou nefropatias. À admissão, apresentava-se com oliguria, hipertensão e edema, associados à anemia microcítica e hipocrômica hipoproliferativa, proteinúria nefrótica, hematúria microscópica e alteração da função renal. A investigação reumatológica e sorologias para hepatites e HIV foram negativas. Ultrassonografia de rins e vias urinárias sem alterações. PCR foi positivo para PVB19 em aspirado de medula óssea e sangue. A biópsia renal conclusiva de GESF subtipo colapsante. Ocorreu remissão espontânea com duas semanas do quadro. Em retorno ambulatorial, o PCR em sangue periférico foi negativo para PVB19, sugerindo associação de GESF colapsante a fase aguda ou reativação da infecção viral. Conclusão : Este relato registra a associação temporal entre GESF colapsante e viremia pelo PVB19, seja por infecção aguda ou reativação de infecção latente. A associação GESF colapsante e PVB19 é descrita na literatura, com demonstração da presença do vírus em tecido renal, porém, a real relação do vírus na patogênese dessa glomerulopatia permanece indefinida.

  4. Prevalência de anticorpos IgG antiparvovírus B19 em gestantes durante o atendimento pré-natal e casos de hidropisia fetal não imune atribuídos ao parvovírus B19, na Cidade do Rio de Janeiro Anti-parvovirus B19 IgG antibody prevalence in pregnant women during antenatal follow-up and cases of non-immune hydropsis fetalis due to parvovirus B19, in the City of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ricardo Araujo da Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de medir a prevalência de anticorpos IgG contra o parvovírus B19 em gestantes com até 24 semanas de idade gestacional e detectar a ocorrência de casos de hidropisia fetal não-imune atribuídos a esse vírus, coletamos 249 amostras de soro em uma maternidade de referência na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, entre junho de 2003 e março de 2005. As gestantes foram acompanhadas até o termo da gestação, sendo detectados 17 casos de hidropisia fetal. Quatro casos foram atribuídos ao parvovírus B19 e dois destes ocorreram em gestantes residentes na zona oeste da cidade, em fevereiro de 2005. Resultados positivos para anticorpos IgG antiparvovírus B19 foram encontrados em 172 (71,6% gestantes (IC 95% 65,5-77,7%, sendo esta prevalência de anticorpos comparável à encontrada em outras cidades brasileiras. A única variável associada com aquisição prévia de anticorpos IgG foi número de gestações anteriores maior que um(p= 0,02, IC 95% 0,36-0,94.With the aim of measuring the prevalence of anti-parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies during pregnancy up to 24 weeks of gestation and detecting cases of nonimmune hydrops fetalis, 249 sera from pregnant women attending a reference hospital in Rio de Janeiro city, from June 2003 to November 2004 were collected. They were followed-up until the end of pregnancy, with 17 cases of fetal hydrops detected. Four cases were caused by parvovirus B19 and two of them occurred in pregnant women living in the western zone of the city, during February 2005. Anti-parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies were found in 172 (71.6% pregnant women (CI 95% 65.5%-77.7%; this antibody prevalence is similar to results found for others Brazilian cities. The only variable associated with previous acquisition of IgG antibodies to parvovirus B19 was number of pregnancies greater than one (p= 0.02, CI 95% 0.36-0.94.

  5. Association of atopic diseases and parvovirus B19 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood and adolescence in the northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Conceição Nunes, Joacilda; de Araujo, Georgia Véras; Viana, Marcelo Tavares; Sarinho, Emanuel Sávio Cavalcanti

    2016-10-01

    Several factors related to the immune system, such as a history of allergies and virus infections, may be associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The purpose of this study was to analyze whether the presence of atopic diseases and previous infection with parvovirus B19 and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are associated with the development of ALL. This case-control study was performed in two tertiary hospitals located in northeastern Brazil. The study population included 60 patients who were diagnosed with non-T-cell ALL using myelogram and immunophenotyping and 120 patients in the control group. Atopy was evaluated via a parent questionnaire and medical records. Total immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG levels of parvovirus B19 and EBV were measured in the serum. Logistic regression was performed to assess the association between variables and odds of ALL. We identified a significant inverse association between rhinitis, urticaria and elevated IgE serum levels with ALL. A history of parvovirus B19 infection showed a significant association with this type of cancer [OR (95 % CI) 2.00 (1.94-4.26); P = 0.050]. In logistic regression, the presence of atopy was a protective factor [OR (95 % CI) 0.57 (0.38-0.83); P = 0.004], and the presence of IgG for parvovirus B19 was an important risk factor for ALL [OR (95 % CI) 2.20 (1.02-4.76); P = 0.043]. These results suggest that atopic diseases and elevated total IgE levels are associated with a potential protective effect on the development of ALL. Previous infection with parvovirus B19 contributed to ALL susceptibility.

  6. High-sensitivity virus and mycoplasma screening test reveals high prevalence of parvovirus B19 infection in human synovial tissues and bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Otabe, Koji; Shimizu, Norio; Komori, Keiichirou; Mizuno, Mitsuru; Katano, Hisako; Koga, Hideyuki; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2018-03-27

    Latent microorganism infection is a safety concern for the clinical application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The aim of this study is to investigate the frequencies and sensitivities of the latent virus and mycoplasma infections in synovium, bone marrow, peripheral blood cells, and blood plasma and cultured synovial MSCs. Total DNA and RNA of the synovium (n = 124), bone marrow (n = 123), peripheral blood cells (n = 121), plasma (n = 121), and 14-day cultured synovial MSCs (n = 63) were collected from patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty or anterior ligament reconstruction after written informed consents were obtained. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed to quantitatively measure the representative genomes of 13 DNA viruses, 6 RNA viruses, and 9 mycoplasmas. Multi-spliced mRNA detection and virus spike test were also performed to demonstrate the sensitivity of synovial MSCs to the candidate pathogens. In synovium and bone marrow, the positive rates of parvovirus B19 genome were significantly higher than in peripheral blood cells (18.7% and 22% vs. 0.8%, respectively). Multi-alignment analysis of amplified and sequenced viral target genes showed the proximity of the parvovirus B19 gene from different tissue in the same patients. Synovial MSCs cultured for 14 days were positive for virus infection only in two patients (2/62 = 3%). Parvovirus B19 multi-spliced mRNAs were not detected in these two samples. Virus spike test demonstrated the sensitivity of synovial MSCs to herpes simplex virus (HSV)1 and cytomegalovirus (CMV), but not to parvovirus B19. This study revealed a relatively high incidence of latent parvovirus B19 in synovium and bone marrow tissue.

  7. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of human parvovirus B19 infection in an urban area in Brazil (Niterói city area, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Solange Artimos de Oliveira

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to analyse the clinical and epidemiological data from human parvovirus B19 cases in a six-year study of rash diseases conduct in an urban area in Brazil (Niterói city area, State of Rio de Janeiro. A total of 673 patients with acute rash diseases were seen at two primary health care units and at a general hospital. A clotted blood sample was collected from all subjects at the time of consultation. Forty-nine per cent (330 cases of the patients were negative for dengue, rubella and measles IgM or for low avidity IgG to HHV-6. Of these 330, 105 (31.8% were identified as IgM positive to parvovirus B19 by using an antibody capture EIA. During the study period, three distinct peaks of parvovirus infection were detected, suggesting that the disease appears to cycle in approximately 4-5 years. B19 infection was characterized by variable combinations of fever, flu-like symptoms, arthropathy, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Frequency of fever and arthropathy was substantially higher in adults, 75% [chi2 (1 D.F. = 11.39, p = 0.0007] and 62.5% [chi2 (1 D.F. = 29.89, p = 0.0000], respectively. "Slapped-cheek" appearance and reticular or lace-like rash were seen in only 30.1% of the children. No adult presented this typical rash. The lack of the typical rash pattern in a large proportion of parvovirus B19 and the similarity of clinical manifestations to other rash diseases, specially to rubella, highlight the difficulty of diagnosing B19 infection on clinical grounds alone.

  8. Human parvovirus B19, varicella zoster virus, and human herpesvirus-6 in mesenchymal stem cells of patients with osteoarthritis: analysis with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollín, R; Alvarez-Lafuente, R; Marco, F; Jover, J A; Hernández-García, C; Rodríguez-Navas, C; López-Durán, L; Fernández-Gutiérrez, B

    2007-04-01

    To investigate whether there is a possible viral transmission using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in autologous or allogeneic transplantation in the context of osteoarthritis (OA) patients. The presence of parvovirus B19 (B19), varicella zoster virus (VZV), and human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) was studied in MSCs from bone marrow of patients with OA and healthy controls. MSCs were prepared from bone marrow aspirates obtained from 18 patients undergoing joint replacement as a result of OA and from 10 healthy controls. DNA was extracted from primary MSCs' culture established from these cells and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyse the prevalence and viral load of B19, VZV and HHV-6. The prevalence of total viral DNA among patients with OA was 16.7% (3/18), with a mean viral load of 29.7 copies/microg of DNA. One out of 18 was positive for B19 (viral load, 61.2 copies/microg of DNA), two for VZV (mean viral load, 14.4 copies/microg of DNA), and none for HHV-6. The prevalence of total viral DNA in the control group was 20% (2/10), with a mean viral load of 13.4 copies/microg of DNA. Both positive results were of B19 parvoviruses. There were no statistically significant differences among patients and controls. This first approach to the viral prevalence in MSCs of bone marrow in OA patients and healthy controls seems to show a very low risk of viral transmission or reactivation in a possible MSCs' transplantation.

  9. Response of a Habitat-Forming Marine Plant to a Simulated Warming Event Is Delayed, Genotype Specific, and Varies with Phenology.

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    Laura K Reynolds

    Full Text Available Growing evidence shows that increasing global temperature causes population declines and latitudinal shifts in geographical distribution for plants living near their thermal limits. Yet, even populations living well within established thermal limits of a species may suffer as the frequency and intensity of warming events increase with climate change. Adaptive response to this stress at the population level depends on the presence of genetic variation in thermal tolerance in the populations in question, yet few data exist to evaluate this. In this study, we examined the immediate effects of a moderate warming event of 4.5°C lasting 5 weeks and the legacy effects after a 5 week recovery on different genotypes of the marine plant Zostera marina (eelgrass. We conducted the experiment in Bodega Bay, CA USA, where average summer water temperatures are 14-15°C, but extended warming periods of 17-18°C occur episodically. Experimental warming increased shoot production by 14% compared to controls held at ambient temperature. However, after returning temperature to ambient levels, we found strongly negative, delayed effects of warming on production: shoot production declined by 27% and total biomass decreased by 50% relative to individuals that had not been warmed. While all genotypes' production decreased in the recovery phase, genotypes that grew the most rapidly under benign thermal conditions (control were the most susceptible to the detrimental effects of warming. This suggests a potential tradeoff in relative performance at normal vs. elevated temperatures. Modest short-term increases in water temperature have potentially prolonged negative effects within the species' thermal envelope, but genetic variation within these populations may allow for population persistence and adaptation. Further, intraspecific variation in phenology can result in maintenance of population diversity and lead to enhanced production in diverse stands given sufficient

  10. Total and cause-specific mortality by elevated transferrin saturation and hemochromatosis genotype in individuals with diabetes - two general population studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    ObjectiveMortality is increased in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis, in individuals from the general population with increased transferrin saturation(TS), and also in patients with diabetes type 1 and increased TS from a highly specialised diabetes clinic. Thus, we have recommended targeted...... and hemochromatosis genotype(HFE) C282Y/C282Y in individuals with diabetes(type 1,N=118;type 2,N=3228;total,N=3346).ResultsThe cumulative survival was reduced in individuals with diabetes with TS≥50% vs....

  11. Compromised Photosynthetic Electron Flow And H2O2 Generation Correlate with Genotype-Specific Stomatal Dysfunctions During Resistance Against Powdery Mildew In Oats.

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    Javier Sánchez-Martín

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stomatal dysfunction known as locking has been linked to the elicitation of a hypersensitive response (HR following attack of fungal pathogens in cereals. We here assess how spatial and temporal patterns of different resistance mechanisms, such as HR and penetration resistance influence stomatal and photosynthetic parameters in oat (Avena sativa and the possible involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in the dysfunctions observed. Four oat cultivars with differential resistance responses (i.e. penetration resistance, early and late HR to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae, Bga were used. Results demonstrated that stomatal dysfunctions were genotype but not response-type dependent since genotypes with similar resistance responses when assessed histologically showed very different locking patterns. Maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm of photosystem II were compromised in most Bga–oat interactions and photoinhibition increased. However, the extent of the photosynthetic alterations was not directly related to the extent of HR. H2O2 generation is triggered during the execution of resistance responses and can influence stomatal function. Artificially increasing H2O2 by exposing plants to increased light intensity further reduced Fv/Fm ratios and augmented the patterns of stomatal dysfunctions previously observed. The latter results suggest that the observed dysfunctions and hence a cost of resistance may be linked with oxidative stress occurring during defence induced photosynthetic disruption.

  12. Somatic cell count and milk neutrophil viability of dairy heifers with specific CXCR1 genotypes following experimental intramammary infection with Staphylococcus chromogenes originating from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Joren; Piccart, Kristine; Piepers, Sofie; Van Poucke, Mario; Peelman, Luc; De Visscher, Anneleen; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2015-06-01

    Previous observational studies suggest an association between polymorphism c.980A>G in the CXCR1 gene, encoding the chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 1, and the innate immunity and infection status of the mammary gland. Mammary glands of eight Holstein heifers were experimentally infected with a Staphylococcus chromogenes isolate originating from a chronic intramammary infection (IMI) to study differences between CXCR1 genotypes c.980AG and c.980GG. Quarters from heifers with genotypes c.980AG and c.980GG developed subclinical mastitis but showed differences in the early response at 6-18 h post challenge. Bacterial count at 18 h post challenge tended to be higher in quarters from c.980AG heifers compared to c.980GG heifers. Somatic cell count (SCC) was higher at 6 h post challenge and tended to be higher at 9 h post challenge in c.980AG heifers compared to c.980GG heifers. Milk production decreased similarly. Milk neutrophils of c.980AG heifers showed more apoptosis at 9 h post challenge and tended to show more necrosis at 6, 9 and 12 h post challenge than c.980GG heifers. Differences were less pronounced in the later stage (>18 h) of infection. The results demonstrate that CXCR1 polymorphism can influence SCC and milk neutrophil viability following experimental IMI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sequence-specific label-free nucleic acid biosensor for the detection of the hepatitis C virus genotype 1a using a disposable pencil graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donmez, Soner; Arslan, Fatma; Arslan, Halit

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple, sensitive, inexpensive, disposable and label-free electrochemical nucleic acid biosensor for the detection of the hepatitis C virus genotype 1a (HCV1a). The nucleic acid biosensor was designed with the amino-linked inosine-substituted 20-mer probes, which were immobilized onto a disposable pencil graphite electrode (PGE) by covalent linking. The proposed nucleic acid biosensor was linear in the range of 0.05 and 0.75 μM, exhibiting a limit of detection of 54.9 nM. The single-stranded synthetic PCR product analogs of HCV1a were also detected with satisfactory results under optimal conditions, showing the potential application of this biosensor.

  14. Parvovirus B19 infection in an adult presenting with connective tissue disease-like symptoms: a report of the clinical and histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, J E; Shalin, S C; White, B A; Trigg, L B; Kaley, J R

    2017-06-15

    Parvovirus B19 infections in adults are usually associated with nonspecific and mild symptoms. However, cases presenting with a lupus-like syndrome have been described, leading to the hypothesis that parvovirus infection can induce connective tissue disease. Various histopathologic features of cutaneous manifestations of parvovirus have been reported, including features which overlap with those of connective tissue disease. Herein, we discuss an unusual case of Parvovirus  B19 infection in a middle-aged woman. The biopsy results showed granulomatous vasculitis and were consistent with the previously described superantigen id reaction. This case demonstrates that infectious causes should be considered in the differential diagnosis for granulomatous vasculitis and clinicopathologic correlation is required for accurate diagnosis. We also provide a review of the literature highlighting the possible role of parvovirus in induction of a connective tissue disease-like presentation.

  15. Primary Epstein–Barr virus infection and probable parvovirus B19 reactivation resulting in fulminant hepatitis and fulfilling five of eight criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Karrasch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A case of primary Epstein–Barr virus (EBV infection/parvovirus B19 reactivation fulfilling five of eight criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH is presented. Despite two coinciding viral infections, massive splenomegaly, and fulminant hepatitis, the patient had a good clinical outcome, probably due to an early onset form of HLH with normal leukocyte count, normal natural killer (NK cell function, and a lack of hemophagocytosis.

  16. Primary Epstein-Barr virus infection and probable parvovirus B19 reactivation resulting in fulminant hepatitis and fulfilling five of eight criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrasch, Matthias; Felber, Jörg; Keller, Peter M; Kletta, Christine; Egerer, Renate; Bohnert, Jürgen; Hermann, Beate; Pfister, Wolfgang; Theis, Bernhard; Petersen, Iver; Stallmach, Andreas; Baier, Michael

    2014-11-01

    A case of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection/parvovirus B19 reactivation fulfilling five of eight criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is presented. Despite two coinciding viral infections, massive splenomegaly, and fulminant hepatitis, the patient had a good clinical outcome, probably due to an early onset form of HLH with normal leukocyte count, normal natural killer (NK) cell function, and a lack of hemophagocytosis.

  17. Primary Epstein–Barr virus infection and probable parvovirus B19 reactivation resulting in fulminant hepatitis and fulfilling five of eight criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Karrasch, Matthias; Felber, Jörg; Keller, Peter M.; Kletta, Christine; Egerer, Renate; Bohnert, Jürgen; Hermann, Beate; Pfister, Wolfgang; Theis, Bernhard; Petersen, Iver; Stallmach, Andreas; Baier, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A case of primary Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection/parvovirus B19 reactivation fulfilling five of eight criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is presented. Despite two coinciding viral infections, massive splenomegaly, and fulminant hepatitis, the patient had a good clinical outcome, probably due to an early onset form of HLH with normal leukocyte count, normal natural killer (NK) cell function, and a lack of hemophagocytosis.

  18. Collapsing glomerulopathy in a young woman with APOL1 risk alleles following acute parvovirus B19 infection: a case report investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Whitney; Mansour, Sherry; Jatwani, Karan; Nast, Cynthia C; Brewster, Ursula C

    2016-09-06

    Collapsing Glomerulopathy (CG), also known as the collapsing variant of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), is distinct in both its clinical severity and its pathophysiologic characteristics from other forms of FSGS. This lesion occurs disproportionally in patients carrying two APOL1 risk alleles, and is the classic histologic lesion resulting from Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection of podocytes. Other viral infections, including parvovirus B19, and drugs such as interferon that perturb the immune system, have also been associated with CG. Despite significant advances, explaining such genetic and immune/infectious associations with causative mechanisms and supporting evidence has proven challenging. We report the case of a healthy (HIV-negative) pregnant 36 year-old Caribbean-American woman who presented with nephrotic syndrome and fetal demise in the setting of acute parvovirus B19 infection. A series of three renal biopsies and rapid clinical course showed progression from significant podocyte injury with mild light microscopy findings to classic viral-associated CG to ESRD in less than 3 months. Genetic analysis revealed two APOL1 G1 risk alleles. This is the first published case report of CG in the setting of acute parvovirus infection in a patient with two APOL1 risk allelles, and parvoviral proteins identified in renal epithelium on kidney biopsy. These findings support the causative role of parvovirus B19 infection in the development of CG on the background of APOL1 genetic risk.

  19. Parvovirus B19 presenting with persistent pancytopenia in a patient of T-ALL post induction chemotherapy diagnosed on bone marrow examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya S Gadage

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Manifestations of parvovirus B19 vary even in the normal host from asymptomatic or subclinical infection to a spectrum of illness with symptoms during viremic and immune complex mediated stage of disease. We report the morphological findings of parvovirus B19 infection (confirmed on serology in a patient of T-acute lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-ALL who underwent induction phase of chemotherapy (MCP 842 protocol. Persistent pancytopenia in the bone marrow aspirate with mild increase in blasts was thought to be due to failure to achieve marrow remission. However, giant pronormoblasts with prominent intranuclear inclusions confirmed on trephine biopsy led to the suspicion of parvovirus B19 infection which was later confirmed on serology. This case is presented to report the rarely seen classical morphological feature of parvovirus infection on bone marrow examination which was incidentally the first investigation to diagnose the viremic phase of the infection, indicating that a high index of suspicion needs to be kept in mind while examining bone marrows of susceptible patients.

  20. Multiple single nucleotide polymorphism analysis and association of specific genotypes in FHIT, SAMD4A, and ANKRD17 in Indian patients with oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Wendy; Pradhan, Sultan; Saranath, Dhananjaya

    2017-08-01

    Oral cancer has a high incidence primarily because of tobacco chewing habits. However, a small proportion of habitués develop oral cancer, implying a role for genomic variants in its susceptibility. Thirteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an Indian cohort comprising patients with oral cancer (n = 500) and healthy controls (n = 500) were genotyped using allelic discrimination real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Prevalence of SNPs rs11130760, rs1957358, rs2306058, rs4883543, rs12637722, rs1457115, rs2353292, rs709821, rs2194861, rs4789378, rs3827538, rs2667552, and rs2886093 was determined in the Indian cohort. A significant association of rs11130760 GG (odds ratio [OR] 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.84) and rs1957358 TT (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.10-1.90) indicated increased risk; whereas rs1957358 TC (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.53-0.87) and rs2306058 CT (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.56-0.93) reflected decreased risk. The SNP rs11130760 wild-type (WT) allele G indicated an increased risk for oral cancer (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.09-1.73), whereas SNP allele T indicated a decreased risk (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.58-0.92) for oral cancer. Our study identified SNPs with susceptibility to oral cancer in high-risk populations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Emerging Chlamydia psittaci infections in the chicken industry and pathology of Chlamydia psittaci genotype B and D strains in specific pathogen free chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lizi; Kalmar, Isabelle D; Lagae, Stefanie; Vandendriessche, Stien; Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Butaye, Patrick; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2013-03-23

    Sera of 30 Belgian and 10 Northern French chicken farms were tested by a Chlamydia (C.) psittaci major outer membrane protein (MOMP) based ELISA. Ninety-six percent, 93% and 90% of the Belgian broilers, broiler breeders and layers were seropositive. Ninety-one percent of the French broilers were seropositive. In addition, tissues of 5 Belgian and 5 French broiler farms were examined at slaughter. All French farms were culture positive while C. psittaci was cultured from the lungs of 80% of examined Belgian farms. C. psittaci infections are apparently emerging in chickens raised in Belgium and Northern France. We could proof Hill-Evans postulates for chicken-derived C. psittaci genotype B and D strains. Chicken-processing plant employees should be considered a risk group for human psittacosis. There is a need for higher awareness and for efficient risk assessment and management of C. psittaci infections in chickens as chlamydiosis in broilers seems to be underdiagnosed and infections with highly virulent strains do occur. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genotype-specific risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus in Swiss dairy herds with an elevated yield-corrected herd somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, B; Bodmer, M; van den Borne, B H P; Reist, M; Graber, H U; Steiner, A; Boss, R; Wohlfender, F

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a frequent problem in Swiss dairy herds. One of the main pathogens causing significant economic loss is Staphylococcus aureus. Various Staph. aureus genotypes with different biological properties have been described. Genotype B (GTB) of Staph. aureus was identified as the most contagious and one of the most prevalent strains in Switzerland. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with the herd-level presence of Staph. aureus GTB and Staph. aureus non-GTB in Swiss dairy herds with an elevated yield-corrected herd somatic cell count (YCHSCC). One hundred dairy herds with a mean YCHSCC between 200,000 and 300,000cells/mL in 2010 were recruited and each farm was visited once during milking. A standardized protocol investigating demography, mastitis management, cow husbandry, milking system, and milking routine was completed during the visit. A bulk tank milk (BTM) sample was analyzed by real-time PCR for the presence of Staph. aureus GTB to classify the herds into 2 groups: Staph. aureus GTB-positive and Staph. aureus GTB-negative. Moreover, quarter milk samples were aseptically collected for bacteriological culture from cows with a somatic cell count ≥150,000cells/mL on the last test-day before the visit. The culture results allowed us to allocate the Staph. aureus GTB-negative farms to Staph. aureus non-GTB and Staph. aureus-free groups. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression models were built to identify risk factors associated with the herd-level presence of Staph. aureus GTB and Staph. aureus non-GTB. The prevalence of Staph. aureus GTB herds was 16% (n=16), whereas that of Staph. aureus non-GTB herds was 38% (n=38). Herds that sent lactating cows to seasonal communal pastures had significantly higher odds of being infected with Staph. aureus GTB (odds ratio: 10.2, 95% CI: 1.9-56.6), compared with herds without communal pasturing. Herds that purchased heifers had significantly higher odds of being infected with

  3. Genome-scale multilocus microsatellite typing of Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing unit I reveals phylogeographic structure and specific genotypes linked to human infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin S Llewellyn

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is the most important parasitic infection in Latin America and is also genetically highly diverse, with at least six discrete typing units (DTUs reported: Tc I, IIa, IIb, IIc, IId, and IIe. However, the current six-genotype classification is likely to be a poor reflection of the total genetic diversity present in this undeniably ancient parasite. To determine whether epidemiologically important information is "hidden" at the sub-DTU level, we developed a 48-marker panel of polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate population structure among 135 samples from across the geographic distribution of TcI. This DTU is the major cause of resurgent human disease in northern South America but also occurs in silvatic triatomine vectors and mammalian reservoir hosts throughout the continent. Based on a total dataset of 12,329 alleles, we demonstrate that silvatic TcI populations are extraordinarily genetically diverse, show spatial structuring on a continental scale, and have undergone recent biogeographic expansion into the southern United States of America. Conversely, the majority of human strains sampled are restricted to two distinct groups characterised by a considerable reduction in genetic diversity with respect to isolates from silvatic sources. In Venezuela, most human isolates showed little identity with known local silvatic strains, despite frequent invasion of the domestic setting by infected adult vectors. Multilocus linkage indices indicate predominantly clonal parasite propagation among all populations. However, excess homozygosity among silvatic strains and raised heterozygosity among domestic populations suggest that some level of genetic recombination cannot be ruled out. The epidemiological significance of these findings is discussed.

  4. Impact of low-level fluoroquinolone resistance genes qnrA1, qnrB19 and qnrS1 on ciprofloxacin treatment of isogenic Escherichia coli strains in a murine urinary tract infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Cattoir, Vincent; Jensen, Klaus S

    2012-01-01

    To study the impact of qnrA1, qnrB19 and qnrS1 on the ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI).......To study the impact of qnrA1, qnrB19 and qnrS1 on the ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI)....

  5. Development & standardization of an in-house IgM indirect ELISA for the detection of parvovirus B19 infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaran Vadivel

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The in-house IgM indirect ELISA was found to be simple with high sensitivity and specificity when compared with nPCR and could be used as an alternative to expensive commercial kits in resource-poor settings.

  6. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica food and animal isolates from Colombia: identification of a qnrB19-mediated quinolone resistance marker in two novel serovars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karczmarczyk, M.; Martins, M.; McCusker, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ninety-three Salmonella isolates recovered from commercial foods and exotic animals in Colombia were studied. The serotypes, resistance profiles and where applicable the quinolone resistance genes were determined. Salmonella Anatum (n=14), Uganda (19), Braenderup (10) and Newport (10) were the most...... plasmids, two of which were completely sequenced. These exhibited 97% (serovar 6,7:d:- isolate) and 100% (serovar Infantis isolate) nucleotide sequence identity with previously identified ColE-like plasmids. This study demonstrates the occurrence of the qnrB19 gene associated with small ColE plasmids...

  7. Genotypic diversity of european Phytophthora ramorum isolates based on SSR analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kris Van Poucke; Annelies Vercauteren; Martine Maes; Sabine Werres; Kurt Heungens

    2013-01-01

    in Scotland were genotyped using seven microsatellite markers as described by Vercauteren et al. (2010). Thirty multilocus genotypes were identified within the Scottish population, with 51 percent of the isolates belonging to the main European genotype EU1MG1 and 13 unique detected genotypes. Ten of those genotypes were site specific, often represented by...

  8. Maternal exposure to Western diet affects adult body composition and voluntary wheel running in a genotype-specific manner in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Layla; Kay, Jarren C; Thompson, Zoe; Singleton, Jennifer M; Claghorn, Gerald C; Albuquerque, Ralph L; Ho, Brittany; Ho, Brett; Sanchez, Gabriela; Garland, Theodore

    2017-10-01

    Some human diseases, including obesity, Type II diabetes, and numerous cancers, are thought to be influenced by environments experienced in early life, including in utero. Maternal diet during the perinatal period may be especially important for adult offspring energy balance, potentially affecting both body composition and physical activity. This effect may be mediated by the genetic background of individuals, including, for example, potential "protective" mechanisms for individuals with inherently high levels of physical activity or high basal metabolic rates. To examine some of the genetic and environmental factors that influence adult activity levels, we used an ongoing selection experiment with 4 replicate lines of mice bred for high voluntary wheel running (HR) and 4 replicate, non-selected control lines (C). Dams (half HR and half C) were fed a "Western" diet (WD, high in fat and sucrose) or a standard diet (SD) from 2weeks prior to mating until their pups could feed on solid food (14days of age). We analyzed dam and litter characteristics from birth to weaning, and offspring mass and physical activity into adulthood. One male offspring from each litter received additional metabolic and behavioral tests. Maternal WD caused pups to eat solid food significantly earlier for C litters, but not for HR litters (interaction of maternal environment and genotype). With dam mass as a covariate, mean pup mass was increased by maternal WD but litter size was unaffected. HR dams had larger litters and tended to have smaller pups than C dams. Home-cage activity of juvenile focal males was increased by maternal WD. Juvenile lean mass, fat mass, and fat percent were also increased by maternal WD, but food consumption (with body mass as a covariate) was unaffected (measured only for focal males). Behavior in an elevated plus maze, often used to indicate anxiety, was unaffected by maternal WD. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO 2 max) was also unaffected by maternal WD, but HR had

  9. Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema associated with parvovirus B19 infection: two new cases and review of the comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Agnoletti, Arianna F; Cogorno, Ludovica; Muda, Alessandro; Cozzani, Emanuele; Parodi, Aurora

    2015-10-01

    Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) is a rare syndrome consisting of acute symmetrical tenosynovitis of the hands and wrists associated with pain and marked pitting edema of the dorsum of the hands or the feet. Persistent rheumatoid factor seronegativity and elevated acute phase reactants are the rule, while radiographic findings are characterized by the absence of bony erosions. The syndrome has occasionally been associated with a wide range of diseases including solid and hematological malignancies, polymyalgia rheumatica, and other inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Two patients with skin eruption on hands and feet associated with arthromyalgias have been investigated to confirm diagnosis of RS3PE and to detect comorbidities. A revision of all the possible medical conditions correlated to RS3PE has been performed. We report two cases of RS3PE associated with Parvovirus B19 infection/reactivation. There are very few reports on the association between RS3PE and infectious agents, and in only one case the syndrome has been correlated to parvovirus infection. We want to underline the importance for patients with RS3PE to be seen by dermatologists who should become familiar with this syndrome and remark that Parvovirus B19 infection may be a potential cause of RS3PE. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. Children’s 5-HTTLPR genotype moderates the link between maternal criticism and attentional biases specifically for facial displays of anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Brandon E.; Johnson, Ashley L.; Benas, Jessica S.; Uhrlass, Dorothy J.; Knopik, Valerie S.; McGeary, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Theorists have proposed that negative experiences in childhood may contribute to the development of experience-specific information-processing biases, including attentional biases. There are also clear genetic influences on cognitive processes, with evidence that polymorphisms in specific candidate genes may moderate the impact of environmental stress on attentional biases (e.g., a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene [5-HTTLPR]). In the current study, we tested a gene × environment (G × E) model of risk for attentional biases. We hypothesized that children whose mothers exhibit high levels of expressed emotion criticism (EE-Crit) would display attentional biases specifically for angry, but not happy or sad, faces, and that this link would be stronger among children carrying one or two copies of the 5-HTTLPR short allele than among those homozygous for the long allele. Results generally supported these hypotheses, though we found that carriers of the 5-HTTLPR short allele who also had a critical mother exhibited attentional avoidance of angry faces rather than preferential attention. PMID:21895572

  11. Prevalence of IgG antibodies to human parvovirus B19 in haemophilia children treated with recombinant factor (F)VIII only or with at least one plasma-derived FVIII or FIX concentrate: results from the French haemophilia cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaboulaud, Valérie; Parquet, Armelle; Tahiri, Cedric; Claeyssens, Ségolène; Potard, Valérie; Faradji, Albert; Peynet, Jocelyne; Costagliola, Dominique

    2002-02-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19) has been transmitted by some brands of virally attenuated plasma-derived factor VIII (FVIII) or IX (FIX) concentrates. To quantify the differences of human parvovirus B19 risk transmission between albumin-stabilized recombinant factor and plasma-derived factor, we studied the prevalence of IgG antibodies to B19 (anti-B19) in 193 haemophiliac children between 1 and 6-years of age who had previously been treated with albumin-stabilized recombinant FVIII only (n = 104), and in children previously treated with solvent/detergent high-purity non-immunopurified and non-nanofiltered FVIII or IX concentrates (n = 89). Association between the prevalence of anti-B19 and the treatment group was analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Age, severity and type of haemophilia, number of cumulative days of exposure to factor VIII or IX, previous history of red blood cells or plasma transfusion were considered as potential confounding variables. A higher prevalence of anti-B19 was found in children previously treated with solvent/detergent high-purity non-immunopurified and non-nanofiltered FVIII or IX concentrates than in children treated with albumin- stabilized recombinant FVIII only (OR: 22.3; CI: 7.9-62.8), independently of the other factors studied.

  12. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Nan Nwe; Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yokosuka, Osamu; Shirasawa, Hiroshi

    2016-07-21

    Myanmar is adjacent to India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Laos and China. In Myanmar, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is 2%, and HCV infection accounts for 25% of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we reviewed the prevalence of HCV genotypes in Myanmar. HCV genotypes 1, 3 and 6 were observed in volunteer blood donors in and around the Myanmar city of Yangon. Although there are several reports of HCV genotype 6 and its variants in Myanmar, the distribution of the HCV genotypes has not been well documented in areas other than Yangon. Previous studies showed that treatment with peginterferon and a weight-based dose of ribavirin for 24 or 48 wk could lead to an 80%-100% sustained virological response (SVR) rates in Myanmar. Current interferon-free treatments could lead to higher SVR rates (90%-95%) in patients infected with almost all HCV genotypes other than HCV genotype 3. In an era of heavy reliance on direct-acting antivirals against HCV, there is an increasing need to measure HCV genotypes, and this need will also increase specifically in Myanmar. Current available information of HCV genotypes were mostly from Yangon and other countries than Myanmar. The prevalence of HCV genotypes in Myanmar should be determined.

  13. Heterogeneous recombination among Hepatitis B virus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelhano, Nadine; Araujo, Natalia M; Arenas, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    The rapid evolution of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) through both evolutionary forces, mutation and recombination, allows this virus to generate a large variety of adapted variants at both intra and inter-host levels. It can, for instance, generate drug resistance or the diverse viral genotypes that currently exist in the HBV epidemics. Concerning the latter, it is known that recombination played a major role in the emergence and genetic diversification of novel genotypes. In this regard, the quantification of viral recombination in each genotype can provide relevant information to devise expectations about the evolutionary trends of the epidemic. Here we measured the amount of this evolutionary force by estimating global and local recombination rates in >4700 HBV complete genome sequences corresponding to nine (A to I) HBV genotypes. Counterintuitively, we found that genotype E presents extremely high levels of recombination, followed by genotypes B and C. On the other hand, genotype G presents the lowest level, where recombination is almost negligible. We discuss these findings in the light of known characteristics of these genotypes. Additionally, we present a phylogenetic network to depict the evolutionary history of the studied HBV genotypes. This network clearly classified all genotypes into specific groups and indicated that diverse pairs of genotypes are derived from a common ancestor (i.e., C-I, D-E and, F-H) although still the origin of this virus presented large uncertainty. Altogether we conclude that the amount of observed recombination is heterogeneous among HBV genotypes and that this heterogeneity can influence on the future expansion of the epidemic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mendelian randomization shows sex-specific associations between long-chain PUFA-related genotypes and cognitive performance in Danish schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Sorensen, Louise B.; Harslof, Laurine B.

    2017-01-01

    , and performance in the d2 Test of Attention and a reading test were analyzed in multiple regression models including all SNPs, SNP-sex interactions, and covariates related to testing conditions.Results:FADS, rs1535 minor allele carriage associated with lower whole-blood arachidonic acid (P ≤ 0.002), and minor...... alleles of rs174448 tended to associate with lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (P = 0.052). We identified sex interactions in 50% of the SNP performance sets. Sex-dependent associations were observed for rs174448 and rs1535 on the d2 Test of Attention outcomes (P ... reading scores and rs174448 and rs2397142 (P sex-specific analyses showed associations in opposite directions in girls and boys. The minor allele carriage of rs174448 was associated with lower d2 Test of Attention performance (P

  15. Core Gene Expression and Association of Genotypes with Viral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine genotypic distribution, ribonucleic acid (RNA) RNA viral load and express core gene from Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infected patients in Punjab, Pakistan. Methods: A total of 1690 HCV RNA positive patients were included in the study. HCV genotyping was tested by type-specific genotyping assay, viral ...

  16. Genotype x Environment Interaction for Tuber Yield, Dry Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine stability of tuber yield, dry matter content and specific gravity, and the nature and magnitude of genotype x environment (G x E) interaction in elite tetraploid potato genotypes. Eleven potato genotypes including two standard checks were evaluated in the eastern part of Ethiopia at ...

  17. Analysis of the beak and feather disease viral genome indicates the existence of several genotypes which have a complex psittacine host specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, E; de Kloet, S R

    2004-12-01

    A study was made of the phylogenetic relationships between fifteen complete nucleotide sequences as well as 43 nucleotide sequences of the putative coat protein gene of different strains belonging to the virus species Beak and feather disease virus obtained from 39 individuals of 16 psittacine species. The species included among others, cockatoos ( Cacatuini), African grey parrots ( Psittacus erithacus) and peach-faced lovebirds ( Agapornis roseicollis), which were infected at different geographical locations, within and outside Australia, the native origin of the virus. The derived amino acid sequences of the putative coat protein were highly diverse, with differences between some strains amounting to 50 of the 250 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the putative coat gene sequences form six clusters which show a varying degree of psittacine species specificity. Most, but not all strains infecting African grey parrots formed a single cluster as did the strains infecting the cockatoos. Strains infecting the lovebirds clustered with those infecting such Australasian species as Eclectus roratus, Psittacula kramerii and Psephotus haematogaster. Although individual birds included in this study were, where studied, often infected by closely related strains, infection by highly diverged trains was also detected. The possible relationship between BFD viral strains and clinical disease signs is discussed.

  18. Quasispecies evolution of the prototypical genotype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus early during in vivo infection is rapid and tissue specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zen H; Wang, Xinglong; Wilson, Alison D; Dorey-Robinson, Daniel L W; Archibald, Alan L; Ait-Ali, Tahar; Frossard, Jean-Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major infectious threat to the pig industry worldwide. Increasing evidence suggests that microevolution within a quasispecies population can give rise to high sequence heterogeneity in PRRSV; potentially impacting the pathogenicity of the virus. Here, we report on micro-evolutionary events taking place within the viral quasispecies population in lung and lymph node 3 days post infection (dpi) following experimental in vivo infection with the prototypical Lelystad PRRSV (LV). Sequence analysis revealed 16 high frequency single nucleotide variants (SNV) or differences from the reference LV genome which are assumed to be representative of the consensus inoculum genome. Additionally, 49 other low frequency SNVs were also found in the inoculum population. At 3 dpi, a total of 9 and 10 SNVs of varying frequencies could already be detected in the LV population infecting the lung and lymph nodes, respectively. Interestingly, of these, three and four novel SNVs emerged independently in the two respective tissues when compared to the inoculum. The remaining variants, though already present at lower frequencies in the inoculum, were positively selected and their frequency increased within the quasispecies population. Hence, we were able to determine directly from tissues infected with PRRSV the repertoire of genetic variants within the viral quasispecies population. Our data also suggest that microevolution of these variants is rapid and some may be tissue-specific.

  19. Effect of grain size of parent phase on twinning modes of B19` martensite in an equiatomic Ti-Ni shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, M. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Resource Eng.; Itai, I. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Resource Eng.; Kitamura, K. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Resource Eng.; Chiba, A. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Resource Eng.; Yamauchi, K. [Tokin Corp., Sendai (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    The effect of grain size of B2 parent phase on the twinning modes of B19` martensite in a Ti-50.0 at% Ni shape memory alloy has been studied. The grain size of parent phase was controlled from submicrons to several ten microns by cold-rolling and subsequent annealing. (001) compound twins were dominantly observed in the grain less than 4 {mu}m in diameter, although the (001) compound twinning did not give a solution to the phenomenological crystallographic theory. The triangular self-accommodating morphology of the martensite variants consisting of left angle 011 right angle Type II twins which were theoretically and experimentally recognized as a lattice invariant shear of the present transformation appeared in the whole grain more than 4 {mu}m in diameter. The formation mechanism of the (001) compound twinning in the fine grain is also discussed. (orig.).

  20. Fifth Disease (Parvovirus B19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations ...

  1. Seroprevalence of human parvovirus B19 in a suburban population in São Paulo, Brazil Soroprevalência do parvovírus humano B19 em população de subúrbio no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E M M Huatuco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of IgG antibodies to human parvovirus B19. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in a suburban community in São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between November 1990 and January 1991. Randomly selected (N=435 representative samples of sera were collected from healthy children older than 15 days old and adults up to 40 years old. IgG antibodies were detected using ELISA. RESULTS: High prevalence of IgG antibodies to B19 parvovirus was found in 87% of newborns. The prevalence of maternally derived IgG antibodies exponentially plunged up to the 19th month of age. Low prevalence of antibodies was found in the first 4 years of life, increasing up to 72% in those aged 31-40 years. It was estimated that the average age of first infection in this population is 21 ± 7 years old and the optimal age for vaccination with a hypothetical vaccine would be 1 year of age. CONCLUSIONS: Parvovirus B19 IgG antibody prevalence was high in newborns and those aged 31-40 years. The analysis by age groups showed a pattern similar to that found in previous studies, i.e., low prevalence of infection in children that increases with age.OBJETIVO: Analisar a prevalência de anticorpos IgG ao parvovírus humano B19. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal em uma comunidade de subúrbio de São Paulo, Brasil, de novembro 1990 a janeiro de 1991. Amostras aleatórias (N=435 e representativas de soro foram coletadas de crianças sadias a partir de 15 dias de idade e de adultos com até 40 anos. Os anticorpos IgG ao parvovírus humano B19 foram detectados pelo teste ELISA. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de anticorpos IgG ao parvovírus B19 foi de 87% dos recém-nascidos. A prevalência de anticorpos IgG de origem materna decaiu exponencialmente até o 19o mês de idade. Baixa prevalência de anticorpos foi observada nos primeiros quatro anos de vida, aumentando até 72% no grupo etário de 31-40 anos. A idade média de aquisição da primeira infecção nesta

  2. A locus-specific database for mutations in GDAP1 allows analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations in Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseases type 4A and 2K

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    Cassereau Julien

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 gene (GDAP1, which is involved in the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT, the most commonly inherited peripheral neuropathy, encodes a protein anchored to the mitochondrial outer membrane. The phenotypic presentations of patients carrying GDAP1 mutations are heterogeneous, making it difficult to determine genotype-phenotype correlations, since the majority of the mutations have been found in only a few unrelated patients. Locus-specific databases (LSDB established in the framework of the Human Variome Project provide powerful tools for the investigation of such rare diseases. Methods and Results We report the development of a publicly accessible LSDB for the GDAP1 gene. The GDAP1 LSDB has adopted the Leiden Open-source Variation Database (LOVD software platform. This database, which now contains 57 unique variants reported in 179 cases of CMT, offers a detailed description of the molecular, clinical and electrophysiological data of the patients. The usefulness of the GDAP1 database is illustrated by the finding that GDAP1 mutations lead to primary axonal damage in CMT, with secondary demyelination in the more severe cases of the disease. Conclusion Findings of this nature should lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of CMT. Finally, the GDAP1 LSDB, which is part of the mitodyn.org portal of databases of genes incriminated in disorders involving mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetics, should yield new insights into mitochondrial diseases.

  3. Frequency of Natural Resistance within NS5a Replication Complex Domain in Hepatitis C Genotypes 1a, 1b: Possible Implication of Subtype-Specific Resistance Selection in Multiple Direct Acting Antivirals Drugs Combination Treatment

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    Sabrina Bagaglio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Different HCV subtypes may naturally harbor different resistance selection to anti-NS5a inhibitors. 2761 sequences retrieved from the Los Alamos HCV database were analyzed in the NS5a domain 1, the target of NS5a inhibitors. The NS5a resistance-associated polymorphisms (RAPs were more frequently detected in HCV G1b compared to G1a. The prevalence of polymorphisms associated with cross-resistance to compounds in clinical use (daclatasvir, DCV, ledipasvir, LDV, ombitasvir, and OMV or scheduled to come into clinical use in the near future (IDX719, elbasvir, and ELV was higher in G1b compared to G1a (37/1552 (2.4% in 1b sequences and 15/1209 (1.2% in 1a isolates, p = 0.040. Interestingly, on the basis of the genotype-specific resistance pattern, 95 (6.1% G1b sequences had L31M RAP to DCV/IDX719, while 6 sequences of G1a (0.5% harbored L31M RAP, conferring resistance to DCV/LDV/IDX719/ELV (p < 0.0001. Finally, 28 (2.3% G1a and none of G1b isolates harbored M28V RAP to OMV (p < 0.0001. In conclusion, the pattern of subtype-specific resistance selection in the naturally occurring strains may guide the treatment option in association with direct acting antivirals (DAAs targeting different regions, particularly in patients that are difficult to cure, such as those with advanced liver disease or individuals who have failed previous DAAs.

  4. Detailed molecular analyses of the hexon loop-1 and fibers of fowl aviadenoviruses reveal new insights into the antigenic relationship and confirm that specific genotypes are involved in field outbreaks of inclusion body hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Anna; Marek, Ana; Grafl, Beatrice; Hess, Michael

    2016-04-15

    Forty-eight fowl aviadenoviruses (FAdVs) isolated from recent IBH outbreaks across Europe were investigated, by utilizing for the first time the two major adenoviral antigenic domains, hexon loop-1 and fiber, for compound molecular characterization of IBH-associated FAdVs. Successful target gene amplification, following virus isolation in cell culture or from FTA-card samples, demonstrated presence of FAdVs in all cases indicative for IBH. Based on hexon loop-1 analysis, 31 European field isolates exhibited highest nucleotide identity (>97.2%) to reference strains FAdV-2 or -11 representing FAdV-D, while 16 and one European isolates shared >96.0% nucleotide identity with FAdV-8a and -8b, or FAdV-7, the prototype strains representing FAdV-E. These results extend recognition of specific FAdV-D and FAdV-E affiliate genotypes as causative agents of IBH to the European continent. In all isolates, species specificity determined by fiber gene analysis correlated with hexon-based typing. A threshold of 72.0% intraspecies nucleotide identity between fibers from investigated prototype and field strains corresponded with demarcation criteria proposed for hexon, suggesting fiber-based analysis as a complementary tool for molecular FAdV typing. A limited number of strains exhibited inconsistencies between hexon and fiber subclustering, indicating potential constraints for single-gene based typing of those FAdVs. Within FAdV-D, field isolate fibers shared a high degree of nucleotide (>96.7%) and aa (>95.8%) identity, while FAdV-E field isolate fibers displayed greater nucleotide divergence of up to 22.6%, resulting in lower aa identities of >81.7%. Furthermore, comparison with FAdVs from IBH outbreaks outside Europe revealed close genetic relationship in the fiber, independent of the strains' geographic origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A case of recurrent autoimmune hemolytic anemia during remission associated with acute pure red cell aplasia and hemophagocytic syndrome due to human parvovirus B19 infection successfully treated by steroid pulse therapy with a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yasunobu; Shimada, Asami; Imai, Hidenori; Wakabayashi, Mutsumi; Sugimoto, Keiji; Nakamura, Noriko; Sawada, Tomohiro; Komatsu, Norio; Noguchi, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    The patient was a 47-year-old man diagnosed as having autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) in April 2011. He also had a congenital chromosomal abnormality, a balanced translocation. Treatment with prednisolone (PSL) 60 mg/day resulted in resolution of the AIHA, and the treatment was completed in November 2011. While the patient no longer had anemia, the direct and indirect Coombs tests remained positive. In May 2013, he developed recurrent AIHA associated with acute pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) caused by human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19) infection. Tests for anti-erythropoietin and anti-erythropoietin receptor antibodies were positive. Steroid pulse therapy resulted in resolution of the AIHA, PRCA, as well as HPS. The serum test for anti-erythropoietin antibodies also became negative after the treatment. However, although the serum was positive for anti-HPV B19 IgG antibodies, the patient continued to have a low CD4 lymphocyte count (CD4, B19 infection (HPV B19 DNA remained positive), suggesting the risk of recurrence and bone marrow failure.

  6. Developmental plasticity: re-conceiving the genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sonia E

    2017-10-06

    In recent decades, the phenotype of an organism (i.e. its traits and behaviour) has been studied as the outcome of a developmental 'programme' coded in its genotype. This deterministic view is implicit in the Modern Synthesis approach to adaptive evolution as a sorting process among genetic variants. Studies of developmental pathways have revealed that genotypes are in fact differently expressed depending on environmental conditions. Accordingly, the genotype can be understood as a repertoire of potential developmental outcomes or norm of reaction. Reconceiving the genotype as an environmental response repertoire rather than a fixed developmental programme leads to three critical evolutionary insights. First, plastic responses to specific conditions often comprise functionally appropriate trait adjustments, resulting in an individual-level, developmental mode of adaptive variation. Second, because genotypes are differently expressed depending on the environment, the genetic diversity available to natural selection is itself environmentally contingent. Finally, environmental influences on development can extend across multiple generations via cytoplasmic and epigenetic factors transmitted to progeny individuals, altering their responses to their own, immediate environmental conditions and, in some cases, leading to inherited but non-genetic adaptations. Together, these insights suggest a more nuanced understanding of the genotype and its evolutionary role, as well as a shift in research focus to investigating the complex developmental interactions among genotypes, environments and previous environments.

  7. [Evaluation of hepatitis B virus genotyping EIA kit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhito; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Matsuuraa, Kentaro; Naganuma, Hatsue; Tatematsu, Kanako; Takagi, Kazumi; Hiramatsu, Kumiko; Kani, Satomi; Gotoh, Takaaki; Wakimoto, Yukio; Mizokami, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    Clinical significance of Hepatitis B virus(HBV) genotyping is increasingly recognized. The aim of this study was to evaluate reproducibility, accuracy, and sensitivity of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) based HBV genotyping kit, which designed to discriminate between genotypes to A, B, C, or D by detecting genotype-specific epitopes in PreS2 region. Using the four genotypes panels, the EIA demonstrated complete inter and intra-assay genotyping reproducibility. Serum specimens had stable results after 8 days at 4 degrees C, or 10 cycles of freezing-thawing. In 91 samples that have been genotyped by DNA sequencing, 87(95.6%) were in complete accordance with EIA genotyping. Of examined 344 HBsAg-positive serum specimens, genotypes A, B, C and D were determined in 26 (7.6%), 62 (18.0%), 228 (66.3%), and 9 (2.6%) cases, respectively. Of 19 (5.5%) specimens unclassified by the EIA, 13 were found to have low titer of HBsAg concentration (< 3 IU/ml), and the other 5 had amino acid mutations or deletions within targeted PreS2 epitopes. The EIA allowed genotyping even in HBV DNA negative samples (96.2%). In conclusion, HBV genotype EIA is reliable, sensitive and easy assay for HBV genotyping. The assay would be useful for clinical use.

  8. APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At a ... help understand the role of genetic factors in cardiovascular disease . However, the testing is sometimes used in clinical ...

  9. Radiosensitivity of fingermillet genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raveendran, T S; Nagarajan, C; Appadurai, R; Prasad, M N; Sundaresan, N [Tamil Nadu Agricultural Univ., Coimbatore (India)

    1984-07-01

    Varietal differences in radiosensitivity were observed in a study involving 4 genotypes of fingermillet (Eleusine coracana (Linn.) Gaertn.) subjected to gamma-irradiation. Harder seeds were found to tolerate a higher dose of the mutagen.

  10. The presence of enterovirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus B19 in myocardial tissue samples from autopsies: an evaluation of their frequencies in deceased individuals with myocarditis and in non-inflamed control hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Trine Skov; Hansen, Jakob; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Baandrup, Ulrik Thorngren; Banner, Jytte

    2014-09-01

    Multiple viruses have been detected in cardiac tissue, but their role in causing myocarditis remains controversial. Viral diagnostics are increasingly used in forensic medicine, but the interpretation of the results can sometimes be challenging. In this study, we examined the prevalence of adenovirus, enterovirus, and parvovirus B19 (PVB) in myocardial autopsy samples from myocarditis related deaths and in non-inflamed control hearts in an effort to clarify their significance as the causes of myocarditis in a forensic material. We collected all autopsy cases diagnosed with myocarditis from 1992 to 2010. Eighty-four suicidal deaths with morphologically normal hearts served as controls. Polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of the viral genomes (adenovirus, enterovirus, and PVB) in myocardial tissue specimens. The distinction between acute and persistent PVB infection was made by the serological determination of PVB-specific immunoglobulins M and G. PVB was detected in 33 of 112 (29 %) myocarditis cases and 37 of 84 (44 %) control cases. All of the samples were negative for the presence of adenovirus and enterovirus. Serological evidence of an acute PVB infection, determined by the presence of immunoglobulin M, was only present in one case. In the remaining cases, PVB was considered to be a bystander with no or limited association to myocardial inflammation. In this study, adenovirus, enterovirus, and PVB were found to be rare causes of myocarditis. The detection of PVB in myocardial autopsy samples most likely represents a persistent infection with no or limited association with myocardial inflammation. The forensic investigation of myocardial inflammation demands a thorough examination, including special attention to non-viral causes and requires a multidisciplinary approach.

  11. Green fluorescent protein (GFP color reporter gene visualizes parvovirus B19 non-structural segment 1 (NS1 transfected endothelial modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wurster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human Parvovirus B19 (PVB19 has been associated with myocarditis putative due to endothelial infection. Whether PVB19 infects endothelial cells and causes a modification of endothelial function and inflammation and, thus, disturbance of microcirculation has not been elucidated and could not be visualized so far. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To examine the PVB19-induced endothelial modification, we used green fluorescent protein (GFP color reporter gene in the non-structural segment 1 (NS1 of PVB19. NS1-GFP-PVB19 or GFP plasmid as control were transfected in an endothelial-like cell line (ECV304. The endothelial surface expression of intercellular-adhesion molecule-1 (CD54/ICAM-1 and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN/CD147 were evaluated by flow cytometry after NS-1-GFP or control-GFP transfection. To evaluate platelet adhesion on NS-1 transfected ECs, we performed a dynamic adhesion assay (flow chamber. NS-1 transfection causes endothelial activation and enhanced expression of ICAM-1 (CD54: mean ± standard deviation: NS1-GFP vs. control-GFP: 85.3 ± 11.2 vs. 61.6 ± 8.1; P<0.05 and induces endothelial expression of EMMPRIN/CD147 (CD147: mean ± SEM: NS1-GFP vs. control-GFP: 114 ± 15.3 vs. 80 ± 0.91; P<0.05 compared to control-GFP transfected cells. Dynamic adhesion assays showed that adhesion of platelets is significantly enhanced on NS1 transfected ECs when compared to control-GFP (P<0.05. The transfection of ECs was verified simultaneously through flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis. CONCLUSIONS: GFP color reporter gene shows transfection of ECs and may help to visualize NS1-PVB19 induced endothelial activation and platelet adhesion as well as an enhanced monocyte adhesion directly, providing in vitro evidence of possible microcirculatory dysfunction in PVB19-induced myocarditis and, thus, myocardial tissue damage.

  12. Genotype x environment interaction for grain yield of wheat genotypes tested under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sail, M.A.; Dahot, M.U.; Mangrio, S.M.; Memon, S.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of water stress on grain yield in different wheat genotypes was studied under field conditions at various locations. Grain yield is a complex polygenic trait influenced by genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction. To understand the stability among genotypes for grain yield, twenty-one wheat genotypes developed Through hybridization and radiation-induced mutations at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) TandoJam were evaluated with four local check varieties (Sarsabz, Thori, Margalla-99 and Chakwal-86) in multi-environmental trails (MET/sub s/). The experiments were conducted over 5 different water stress environments in Sindh. Data on grain yield were recorded from each site and statistically analyzed. Combined analysis of variance for all the environments indicated that the genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction were highly significant (P greater then 0.01) for grain yield. Genotypes differed in their response to various locations. The overall highest site mean yield (4031 kg/ha) recorded at Moro and the lowest (2326 kg/ha) at Thatta. Six genotypes produced significantly (P=0.01) the highest grain yield overall the environments. Stability analysis was applied to estimate stability parameters viz., regression coefficient (b), standard error of regression coefficient and variance due to deviation from regression (S/sub 2/d) genotypes 10/8, BWS-78 produced the highest mean yield over all the environments with low regression coefficient (b=0.68, 0.67 and 0.63 respectively and higher S/sup 2/ d value, showing specific adaptation to poor (un favorable) environments. Genotype 8/7 produced overall higher grain yield (3647 kg/ha) and ranked as third high yielding genotype had regression value close to unity (b=0.9) and low S/sup d/ value, indicating more stability and wide adaptation over the all environments. The knowledge of the presence and magnitude of genotype x environment (GE) interaction is important to

  13. Population-specific gene expression in the plant pathogenic nematode Heterodera glycines exists prior to infection and during the onset of a resistant or susceptible reaction in the roots of the Glycine max genotype Peking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkharouf Nadim W

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A single Glycine max (soybean genotype (Peking reacts differently to two different populations of Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode within the first twelve hours of infection during resistant (R and susceptible (S reactions. This suggested that H. glycines has population-specific gene expression signatures. A microarray analysis of 7539 probe sets representing 7431 transcripts on the Affymetrix® soybean GeneChip® were used to identify population-specific gene expression signatures in pre-infective second stage larva (pi-L2 prior to their infection of Peking. Other analyses focused on the infective L2 at 12hours post infection (i-L212h, and the infective sedentary stages at 3days post infection (i-L23d and 8days post infection (i-L2/L38d. Results Differential expression and false discovery rate (FDR analyses comparing populations of pi-L2 (i.e., incompatible population, NL1-RHg to compatible population, TN8 identified 71 genes that were induced in NL1-RHg as compared to TN8. These genes included putative gland protein G23G12, putative esophageal gland protein Hgg-20 and arginine kinase. The comparative analysis of pi-L2 identified 44 genes that were suppressed in NL1-RHg as compared to TN8. These genes included a different Hgg-20 gene, an EXPB1 protein and a cuticular collagen. By 12 h, there were 7 induced genes and 0 suppressed genes in NL1-RHg. By 3d, there were 9 induced and 10 suppressed genes in NL1-RHg. Substantial changes in gene expression became evident subsequently. At 8d there were 13 induced genes in NL1-RHg. This included putative gland protein G20E03, ubiquitin extension protein, putative gland protein G30C02 and β-1,4 endoglucanase. However, 1668 genes were found to be suppressed in NL1-RHg. These genes included steroid alpha reductase, serine proteinase and a collagen protein. Conclusion These analyses identify a genetic expression signature for these two populations both prior to and subsequently

  14. Genotype X Fertility Interactions in Seedling Sweetgum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott X. Chang; Daniel J. Robison

    2002-01-01

    Genotype x fertility interactions may affect the suitability of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) for specific sites or the efficiency of nutrient use. To gain a better understanding of these interactions, 2-year-old sweetgum seedlings from two half-sib families were tested for growth response to N (0 and 100 kg/ha equivalent) and P (0 and 50 kg...

  15. Genomic Analysis of 15 Human Coronaviruses OC43 (HCoV-OC43s Circulating in France from 2001 to 2013 Reveals a High Intra-Specific Diversity with New Recombinant Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Kin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43 is one of five currently circulating human coronaviruses responsible for respiratory infections. Like all coronaviruses, it is characterized by its genome’s high plasticity. The objectives of the current study were to detect genetically distinct genotypes and eventually recombinant genotypes in samples collected in Lower Normandy between 2001 and 2013. To this end, we sequenced complete nsp12, S, and N genes of 15 molecular isolates of HCoV-OC43 from clinical samples and compared them to available data from the USA, Belgium, and Hong-Kong. A new cluster E was invariably detected from nsp12, S, and N data while the analysis of nsp12 and N genes revealed the existence of new F and G clusters respectively. The association of these different clusters of genes in our specimens led to the description of thirteen genetically distinct genotypes, among which eight recombinant viruses were discovered. Identification of these recombinant viruses, together with temporal analysis and tMRCA estimation, provides important information for understanding the dynamics of the evolution of these epidemic coronaviruses.

  16. Precise genotyping and recombination detection of Enterovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) with different genotypes cause diverse infectious diseases in humans and mammals. A correct EV typing result is crucial for effective medical treatment and disease control; however, the emergence of novel viral strains has impaired the performance of available diagnostic tools. Here, we present a web-based tool, named EVIDENCE (EnteroVirus In DEep conception, http://symbiont.iis.sinica.edu.tw/evidence), for EV genotyping and recombination detection. We introduce the idea of using mixed-ranking scores to evaluate the fitness of prototypes based on relatedness and on the genome regions of interest. Using phylogenetic methods, the most possible genotype is determined based on the closest neighbor among the selected references. To detect possible recombination events, EVIDENCE calculates the sequence distance and phylogenetic relationship among sequences of all sliding windows scanning over the whole genome. Detected recombination events are plotted in an interactive figure for viewing of fine details. In addition, all EV sequences available in GenBank were collected and revised using the latest classification and nomenclature of EV in EVIDENCE. These sequences are built into the database and are retrieved in an indexed catalog, or can be searched for by keywords or by sequence similarity. EVIDENCE is the first web-based tool containing pipelines for genotyping and recombination detection, with updated, built-in, and complete reference sequences to improve sensitivity and specificity. The use of EVIDENCE can accelerate genotype identification, aiding clinical diagnosis and enhancing our understanding of EV evolution. PMID:26678286

  17. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Bahawalpur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, M.A.; Fayyaz, M.; Chaudhry, G.M.D.; Jamil, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted at Medical Unit-II Bahawal Victoria Hospital / Quaid-e-Azam Medical College Bahawalpur from May 1st , 2005 to December 31st 2005. The objective of this study was to determine hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. In consecutive 105 anti-HCV (ELISA-3) positive patients, complete history and physical examination was performed. Liver function tests, complete blood counts and platelet count, blood sugar fasting and 2 hours after breakfast, prothrombin time, serum albumin, serum globulin and abdominal ultrasound were carried out in all the patients. Tru cut biopsy was performed on 17 patients. We studied HCV RNA in all these patients by Nested PCR method. HCV RNA was detected in 98 patients and geno typing assay was done by genotype specific PCR. Among total of 105 anti-HCV positive patients, HCV-RNA was detected in 98 patients. Out of these 98 patients there were 57 (58.2%) males and 41 (42.8%) females. Their age range was 18-75 years. The age 18-29 years 26 (26.5%), 30-39 years 35 (35.7%) and 40-75 37 (37.8%), while 10 (10.2%) patients were diabetics and 34 (34.7%) patients were obese. Liver cirrhosis was present in 10 (10.2%) patients. Forty two (43.9%) patients were symptomatic while 56 (57.1%) were asymptomatic. Out of 98 patients 11 (11.2%) were un type-able and 87 (88.8%) were type able. 70/98 (71.4%) were genotype 3; 10/98 (10.2%) were genotype 1; 03/98 (3.1%) were genotype 2; 03/98 (3.1%) were mixed genotype 2 and 3; 01/98 (1%) were mixed genotype 3a and 3b. Genotype 3 is the most common HCV virus in our area which shows that both virological and biochemical response will be better. Because HCV genotype 3 is more frequent among the drug users which points towards unsafe injection practices in our area. (author)

  18. Genomic Variants Revealed by Invariably Missing Genotypes in Nelore Cattle.

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    Joaquim Manoel da Silva

    Full Text Available High density genotyping panels have been used in a wide range of applications. From population genetics to genome-wide association studies, this technology still offers the lowest cost and the most consistent solution for generating SNP data. However, in spite of the application, part of the generated data is always discarded from final datasets based on quality control criteria used to remove unreliable markers. Some discarded data consists of markers that failed to generate genotypes, labeled as missing genotypes. A subset of missing genotypes that occur in the whole population under study may be caused by technical issues but can also be explained by the presence of genomic variations that are in the vicinity of the assayed SNP and that prevent genotyping probes from annealing. The latter case may contain relevant information because these missing genotypes might be used to identify population-specific genomic variants. In order to assess which case is more prevalent, we used Illumina HD Bovine chip genotypes from 1,709 Nelore (Bos indicus samples. We found 3,200 missing genotypes among the whole population. NGS re-sequencing data from 8 sires were used to verify the presence of genomic variations within their flanking regions in 81.56% of these missing genotypes. Furthermore, we discovered 3,300 novel SNPs/Indels, 31% of which are located in genes that may affect traits of importance for the genetic improvement of cattle production.

  19. Discovery of novel variants in genotyping arrays improves genotype retention and reduces ascertainment bias

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    Didion John P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-density genotyping arrays that measure hybridization of genomic DNA fragments to allele-specific oligonucleotide probes are widely used to genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genetic studies, including human genome-wide association studies. Hybridization intensities are converted to genotype calls by clustering algorithms that assign each sample to a genotype class at each SNP. Data for SNP probes that do not conform to the expected pattern of clustering are often discarded, contributing to ascertainment bias and resulting in lost information - as much as 50% in a recent genome-wide association study in dogs. Results We identified atypical patterns of hybridization intensities that were highly reproducible and demonstrated that these patterns represent genetic variants that were not accounted for in the design of the array platform. We characterized variable intensity oligonucleotide (VINO probes that display such patterns and are found in all hybridization-based genotyping platforms, including those developed for human, dog, cattle, and mouse. When recognized and properly interpreted, VINOs recovered a substantial fraction of discarded probes and counteracted SNP ascertainment bias. We developed software (MouseDivGeno that identifies VINOs and improves the accuracy of genotype calling. MouseDivGeno produced highly concordant genotype calls when compared with other methods but it uniquely identified more than 786000 VINOs in 351 mouse samples. We used whole-genome sequence from 14 mouse strains to confirm the presence of novel variants explaining 28000 VINOs in those strains. We also identified VINOs in human HapMap 3 samples, many of which were specific to an African population. Incorporating VINOs in phylogenetic analyses substantially improved the accuracy of a Mus species tree and local haplotype assignment in laboratory mouse strains. Conclusion The problems of ascertainment bias and missing

  20. Cloning of the unculturable parasite Pasteuria ramosa and its Daphnia host reveals extreme genotype-genotype interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijckx, Pepijn; Ben-Ami, Frida; Mouton, Laurence; Du Pasquier, Louis; Ebert, Dieter

    2011-02-01

    The degree of specificity in host-parasite interactions has important implications for ecology and evolution. Unfortunately, specificity can be difficult to determine when parasites cannot be cultured. In such cases, studies often use isolates of unknown genetic composition, which may lead to an underestimation of specificity. We obtained the first clones of the unculturable bacterium Pasteuria ramosa, a parasite of Daphnia magna. Clonal genotypes of the parasite exhibited much more specific interactions with host genotypes than previous studies using isolates. Clones of P. ramosa infected fewer D. magna genotypes than isolates and host clones were either fully susceptible or fully resistant to the parasite. Our finding enhances our understanding of the evolution of virulence and coevolutionary dynamics in this system. We recommend caution when using P. ramosa isolates as the presence of multiple genotypes may influence the outcome and interpretation of some experiments. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  1. Avaliação longitudinal da infecção por parvovírus B19 entre grávidas em Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil Longitudinal evaluation of parvovirus B19 infection among pregnant women at Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Vitola Gonçalves

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a taxa de soroprevalência contra o parvovírus B19 (PB19 entre grávidas e a taxa de soroconversão dessa infecção durante a gravidez. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo realizado no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo. Na primeira fase do estudo foram avaliadas 245 grávidas com idade gestacional menor que 16 semanas, para aferição da soroprevalência da infecção PB19, utilizando o método ELISA. De acordo com os resultados sorológicos, classificou-se a infecção pelo PB19 em aguda (IgM positivo e IgG negativo ou positivo ou remota (IgM negativo e IgG positivo. Na segunda fase do estudo, 73 grávidas soronegativas foram novamente testadas durante a internação para o parto (IgM e IgG, objetivando aferir a taxa de soroconversão durante a gravidez. RESULTADOS: a prevalência da infecção PB19 até a 16ª semana de gravidez foi de 62,9% (IC 95%: 56,8-68,9, divididas em infecção aguda (8,1% e remota (54,8%. Das 73 grávidas soronegativas que submeteram-se a novo teste no momento do parto, sete (9,6% apresentaram soroconversão durante a gravidez (IC 95%: 2,8-16,3, sendo duas com infecção aguda (2,7% e cinco com infecção remota (6,9%. A prevalência final da infecção por PB19 durante a gravidez foi de 72,5%. CONCLUSÕES: considerando que apenas a infecção aguda pelo PB19 está associada a risco de transmissão vertical, a soroprevalência relativamente alta desta infecção entre grávidas estaria protegendo os fetos contra esta forma de disseminação do vírus. Apesar da elevada taxa de soroconversão para PB19 durante a gravidez, não foi observado nenhum caso de infecção sintomática entre os recém-nascidos.PURPOSE: to evaluate the rate of seropositivity for parvovirus B19 (PB19 among pregnant women and the rate of seroconversion against this infection during pregnancy. METHODS: prospective study carried out in the Hospital of the Medical School of

  2. Novel approach for CES1 genotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Ditte; Berg Rasmussen, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    AIM: Development of a specific procedure for genotyping of CES1A1 (CES1) and CES1A2, a hybrid of CES1A1 and the pseudogene CES1P1. MATERIALS & METHODS: The number of CES1A1 and CES1A2 copies and that of CES1P1 were determined using real-time PCR. Long range PCRs followed by secondary PCRs allowed...

  3. Prevalencia de anticuerpos antirrubéola y antiparvovirus B19 en embarazadas de la ciudad de Córdoba y en mujeres en edad fértil de la ciudad de Villa Mercedes, San Luis Prevalence of anti-rubella and anti-parvovirus B19 antibodies in pregnant women in the city of Córdoba, and in women of fertile age in the city of Villa Mercedes, province of San Luis

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    M. S. Pedranti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la prevalencia de anticuerpos contra virus rubéola en 100 muestras de suero de mujeres embarazadas que concurrían a chequeos de rutina en una institución privada de la ciudad de Córdoba y en 100 muestras de suero de mujeres en edad fértil (42 de ellas embarazadas que concurrían a dispensarios de la ciudad de Villa Mercedes, provincia de San Luis. En las muestras tomadas en la ciudad de Córdoba también se determinaron anticuerpos IgG contra parvovirus B19. Por inhibición de la hemoaglutinación, los resultados de los sueros de Córdoba mostraron una prevalencia de anticuerpos antirrubéola del 98%; en las muestras de Villa Mercedes se observó una prevalencia del 96%. La prevalencia de anticuerpos antiparvovirus B19 en los sueros de Córdoba fue del 66%. Estos datos se asemejan a los de la bibliografía mundial y fundamentan el interés en continuar estudios de este tipo para monitorear el plan de inmunización para rubéola, que en Argentina se lleva a cabo desde 1997, como así también la relevancia de la determinación de IgM antiparvovirus B19 en aquellas embarazadas sintomáticas con resultado negativo para rubéola, a fin de elaborar un diagnóstico diferencial.We determined the prevalence of anti-rubella antibodies in 100 serum samples from pregnant women who attended routine examination at a private institution in the city of Córdoba, and in 100 serum samples from women of gestational age, 42 of whom were pregnant, attending health centres in the city of Villa Mercedes, province of San Luis. IgG antibodies against parvovirus B19 were also determined in the serum samples from Córdoba. Using the hemmagglutination inhibition test, we found a 98 % prevalence of anti-rubella antibodies among pregnant women in Córdoba and of 96 % among the women in Villa Mercedes, whereas the prevalence of anti-parvovirus B19 was 66% in the serum samples from Córdoba. These results coincide with those reported for other cities in the

  4. HBV genotypic variability in Cuba.

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    Carmen L Loureiro

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%, mainly A2 (149, 60% but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%, with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7. Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions.

  5. HBV Genotypic Variability in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Carmen L.; Aguilar, Julio C.; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions. PMID:25742179

  6. Establishment of a novel two-probe real-time PCR for simultaneously quantification of hepatitis B virus DNA and distinguishing genotype B from non-B genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liang, Hongpin; Zeng, Yongbin; Lin, Jinpiao; Liu, Can; Jiang, Ling; Yang, Bin; Ou, Qishui

    2014-11-01

    Establishment of a simple, rapid and economical method for quantification and genotyping of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is of great importance for clinical diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis B patients. We hereby aim to develop a novel two-probe real-time PCR for simultaneous quantification of HBV viral concentration and distinguishing genotype B from non-B genotypes. Conserved primers and TaqMan probes for genotype B and non-B genotypes were designed. The linear range, detection sensitivity, specificity and repeatability of the method were assessed. 539 serum samples from HBV-infected patients were assayed, and the results were compared with commercial HBV quantification and HBV genotyping kits. The detection sensitivity of the two-probe real-time PCR was 500IU/ml; the linear range was 10(3)-10(9)IU/ml, and the intra-assay CVs and inter-assay CVs were between 0.84% and 2.80%. No cross-reaction was observed between genotypes B and non-B. Of the 539 detected samples, 509 samples were HBV DNA positive. The results showed that 54.0% (275/509) of the samples were genotype B, 39.5% (201/509) were genotype non-B and 6.5% (33/509) were mixed genotype. The coincidence rate between the method and a commercial HBV DNA genotyping kit was 95.9% (488/509, kappa=0.923, PDNA qPCR kit were achieved. A novel two-probe real-time PCR method for simultaneous quantification of HBV viral concentration and distinguishing genotype B from non-B genotypes was established. The assay was sensitive, specific and reproducible which can be applied to areas prevalent with HBV genotypes B and C, especially in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rotavirus genotype shifts among Swedish children and adults-Application of a real-time PCR genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Maria; Lindh, Magnus

    2017-11-01

    It is well known that human rotavirus group A is the most important cause of severe diarrhoea in infants and young children. Less is known about rotavirus infections in other age groups, and about how rotavirus genotypes change over time in different age groups. Develop a real-time PCR to easily genotype rotavirus strains in order to monitor the pattern of circulating genotypes. In this study, rotavirus strains in clinical samples from children and adults in Western Sweden during 2010-2014 were retrospectively genotyped by using specific amplification of VP 4 and VP 7 genes with a new developed real-rime PCR. A genotype was identified in 97% of 775 rotavirus strains. G1P[8] was the most common genotype representing 34.9%, followed by G2P[4] (28.3%), G9P[8] (11.5%), G3P[8] (8.1%), and G4P[8] (7.9%) The genotype distribution changed over time, from predominance of G1P[8] in 2010-2012 to predominance of G2P[4] in 2013-2014. There were also age-related differences, with G1P[8] being the most common genotype in children under 2 years (47.6%), and G2P[4] the most common in those over 70 years of age (46.1%.). The shift to G2P[4] in 2013-2014 was associated with a change in the age distribution, with a greater number of rotavirus positive cases in elderly than in children. By using a new real-time PCR method for genotyping we found that genotype distribution was age related and changed over time with a decreasing proportion of G1P[8]. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. COMT genotype, gambling activity, and cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Leppink, Eric W; Redden, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    adjustment and delay aversion) and the Spatial Working Memory task (total errors). This study adds to the growing literature on the role of COMT in impulsive behaviors by showing that the Val/Val genotype was associated with specific clinical and cognitive elements among young adults who gamble......Neuropsychological studies of adults with problem gambling indicate impairments across multiple cognitive domains. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays a unique role in the regulation of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex, and has been implicated in the cognitive dysfunction evident in problem...... gambling. This study examined adults with varying levels of gambling behavior to determine whether COMT genotype was associated with differences in gambling symptoms and cognitive functioning. 260 non-treatment-seeking adults aged 18-29 years with varying degrees of gambling behavior provided saliva...

  9. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Moazeni, Mohammad; Yousefi, Morteza; Saneie, Behnam; Hosseini-Safa, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Hydatidosis, caused by Echinococcus granulosus is one of the most important zoonotic diseases, throughout most parts of the world. Hydatidosis is endemic in Iran and responsible for approximately 1% of admission to surgical wards. There are extensive genetic variations within E. granulosus and 10 different genotypes (G1–G10) within this parasite have been reported. Identification of strains is important for improvement of control and prevention of the disease. No new review article presented the situation of Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran in the recent years; therefore in this paper we reviewed the different studies regarding Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran. PMID:24834298

  10. Short communication: relationship of call rate and accuracy of single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, T A; Wiggans, G R; VanRaden, P M

    2013-05-01

    Call rates on both a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) basis and an animal basis are used as measures of data quality and as screening tools for genomic studies and evaluations of dairy cattle. To investigate the relationship of SNP call rate and genotype accuracy for individual SNP, the correlation between percentages of missing genotypes and parent-progeny conflicts for each SNP was calculated for 103,313 Holsteins. Correlations ranged from 0.14 to 0.38 for the BovineSNP50 and BovineLD (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) and GeneSeek Genomic Profiler (Neogen Corp., Lincoln, NE) chips, with lower correlations for newer chips. For US genomic evaluations, genotypes are excluded for animals with a call rate of call rate for 220,175 Holstein, Jersey, and Brown Swiss genotypes was 99.6%. Animal genotypes with a call rate of ≤99% were examined from the US Department of Agriculture genotype database to determine how genotype call rate is related to accuracy of calls on an animal basis. Animal call rate was determined from SNP used in genomic evaluation and is the number of called autosomal and X-specific SNP genotypes divided by the number of SNP from that type of chip. To investigate the relationship of animal call rate and parentage validation, conflicts between a genotyped animal and its sire or dam were determined through a duo test (opposite homozygous SNP genotypes between sire and progeny; 1,374 animal genotypes) and a trio test (also including conflicts with dam and heterozygous SNP genotype for the animal when both parents are the same homozygote; 482 animal genotypes). When animal call rate was ≤ 80%, parentage validation was no longer reliable with the duo test. With the trio test, parentage validation was no longer reliable when animal call rate was ≤ 90%. To investigate how animal call rate was related to genotyping accuracy for animals with multiple genotypes, concordance between genotypes for 1,216 animals that had a genotype with a call rate of ≤ 99

  11. Transforming microbial genotyping: a robotic pipeline for genotyping bacterial strains.

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