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Sample records for b-induced skin tumor

  1. The Methoxyflavonoid Isosakuranetin Suppresses UV-B-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Expression and Collagen Degradation Relevant for Skin Photoaging

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    Hana Jung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar ultraviolet (UV radiation is a main extrinsic factor for skin aging. Chronic exposure of the skin to UV radiation causes the induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, such as MMP-1, and consequently results in alterations of the extracellular matrix (ECM and skin photoaging. Flavonoids are considered as potent anti-photoaging agents due to their UV-absorbing and antioxidant properties and inhibitory activity against UV-mediated MMP induction. To identify anti-photoaging agents, in the present study we examined the preventative effect of methoxyflavonoids, such as sakuranetin, isosakuranetin, homoeriodictyol, genkwanin, chrysoeriol and syringetin, on UV-B-induced skin photo-damage. Of the examined methoxyflavonoids, pretreatment with isosakuranetin strongly suppressed the UV-B-mediated induction of MMP-1 in human keratinocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Isosakuranetin inhibited UV-B-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling components, ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38 proteins. This result suggests that the ERK1/2 kinase pathways likely contribute to the inhibitory effects of isosakuranetin on UV-induced MMP-1 production in human keratinocytes. Isosakuranetin also prevented UV-B-induced degradation of type-1 collagen in human dermal fibroblast cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that isosakuranetin has the potential for development as a protective agent for skin photoaging through the inhibition of UV-induced MMP-1 production and collagen degradation.

  2. MR imaging manifestations of skin tumors

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    Kim, Jeong-hyon; Kim, Jee Young [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea); Chun, Kyung Ah [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary Hospital, Uijeongbu, Gyeonggi-do (Korea); Jee, Won-Hee [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Sung, Mi-Sook [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Holy family Hospital, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea)

    2008-11-15

    In this study, we evaluated MR imaging findings of skin tumors and categorized them into four types: (1) discrete mass lesions of the dermis and epidermis, (2) mass lesions of the subcutis with or without abutment to the skin, (3) diffuse or localized skin thickening without a true mass, and (4) a skin mass with bone destruction. The categorization of MR images may be useful in the differential diagnosis of skin tumors. (orig.)

  3. Protective Effects of Soy Oligopeptides in Ultraviolet B-Induced Acute Photodamage of Human Skin

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    Bing-rong Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We explored the effects of soy oligopeptides (SOP in ultraviolet B- (UVB- induced acute photodamage of human skin in vivo and foreskin ex vivo. Methods. We irradiated the forearm with 1.5 minimal erythemal dose (MED of UVB for 3 consecutive days, establishing acute photodamage of skin, and topically applied SOP. Erythema index (EI, melanin index, stratum corneum hydration, and transepidermal water loss were measured by using Multiprobe Adapter 9 device. We irradiated foreskin ex vivo with the same dose of UVB (180 mJ/cm2 for 3 consecutive days and topically applied SOP. Sunburn cells were detected by using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Apoptotic cells were detected by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs, p53 protein, Bax protein, and Bcl-2 protein were detected by using immunohistochemical staining. Results. Compared with UVB group, UVB-irradiated skin with topically applied SOP showed significantly decreased EI. Compared with UVB group, topical SOP significantly increased Bcl-2 protein expression and decreased CPDs-positive cells, sunburn cells, apoptotic cells, p53 protein expression, and Bax protein expressions in the epidermis of UVB-irradiated foreskin. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that topical SOP can protect human skin against UVB-induced photodamage.

  4. Nanodiamonds protect skin from ultraviolet B-induced damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Si; Sun, Der-Shan; Lin, Yu-Chung; Cheng, Chia-Liang; Hung, Shih-Che; Chen, Po-Kong; Yang, Jen-Hung; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2015-05-07

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes various deleterious effects, and UV blockage is recommended for avoiding sunburn. Nanosized titanium dioxide and zinc oxide offer effective protection and enhance cosmetic appearance but entail health concerns regarding their photocatalytic activity, which generates reactive oxygen species. These concerns are absent in nanodiamonds (NDs). Among the UV wavelengths in sunlight, UVB irradiation primarily threatens human health. The efficacy and safety of NDs in UVB protection were evaluated using cell cultures and mouse models. We determined that 2 mg/cm(2) of NDs efficiently reduced over 95% of UVB radiation. Direct UVB exposure caused cell death of cultured keratinocyte, fibroblasts and skin damage in mice. By contrast, ND-shielding significantly protected the aforementioned pathogenic alterations in both cell cultures and mouse models. NDs are feasible and safe materials for preventing UVB-induced skin damage.

  5. Pulsed laser radiation therapy of skin tumors

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    Kozlov, A.P.; Moskalik, K.G.

    1980-11-15

    Radiation from a neodymium laser was used to treat 846 patients with 687 precancerous lesions or benign tumors of the skin, 516 cutaneous carcinomas, 33 recurrences of cancer, 51 melanomas, and 508 metastatic melanomas in the skin. The patients have been followed for three months to 6.5 years. No relapses have been observed during this period. Metastases to regional lymph nodes were found in five patients with skin melanoma. Pulsed laser radiation may be successfully used in the treatment of precancerous lesions and benign tumors as well as for skin carcinoma and its recurrences, and for skin melanoma. Laser radiation is more effective in the treatment of tumors inaccessible to radiation therapy and better in those cases in which surgery may have a bad cosmetic or even mutilating effect. Laser beams can be employed in conjunction with chemo- or immunotherapy.

  6. ADNEXAL SKIN TUMORS IN ZARIA, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANNALS

    Forty-six lesions (88.5%) were benign and six (11.5%) malignant. Conclusion: Adnexal skin tumors have distinct histological patterns which differentiates them from other cutaneous tumors. They are commonly distributed in the head, neck and trunk. The commonest variants are those of eccrine sweat gland origin. Malignant ...

  7. Molecular Mechanisms of Mouse Skin Tumor Promotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundhaug, Joyce E.; Fischer, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple molecular mechanisms are involved in the promotion of skin carcinogenesis. Induction of sustained proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia by direct activation of mitotic signaling pathways or indirectly in response to chronic wounding and/or inflammation, or due to a block in terminal differentiation or resistance to apoptosis is necessary to allow clonal expansion of initiated cells with DNA mutations to form skin tumors. The mitotic pathways include activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Chronic inflammation results in inflammatory cell secretion of growth factors and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins, as well as production of reactive oxygen species, all of which can stimulate proliferation. Persistent activation of these pathways leads to tumor promotion

  8. Photoprotective effects of sulindac against ultraviolet B-induced phototoxicity in the skin of SKH-1 hairless mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athar, Mohammad; An, Kathy P.; Tang Xiuwei; Morel, Kimberly D.; Kim, Arianna L.; Kopelovich, Levy; Bickers, David R.

    2004-01-01

    Sulindac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with demonstrated potency as a chemopreventive agent in animal models of carcinogenesis and in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Because tumor promotion is generally associated with exposure to pro-inflammatory stimuli, it is likely that anti-inflammatory agents may have potent antitumor effects. In human skin, sulindac reduces bradykinin-induced edema. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the cyclooxygenase inhibitor sulindac can protect against ultraviolet (UVB)-induced injury that is crucial for the induction of cancer. Exposure of SKH-1 hairless mice to two consecutive doses of UVB (230 mJ/cm 2 ) induces various inflammatory responses including erythema, edema, epidermal hyperplasia, infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, etc. Topical application of sulindac (1.25-5.0 mg/0.2 ml acetone) to the dorsal skin of SKH-1 hairless mice either 1 h before or immediately after UVB exposure substantially inhibited these inflammatory responses in a dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of sulindac in drinking water (160 ppm) for 15 days before and during UVB irradiation similarly reduced these inflammatory responses. These potent anti-inflammatory effects of sulindac suggested the possibility that the drug could inhibit signaling processes that relate to carcinogenic insult by UVB. Accordingly, studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of sulindac in attenuating the expression of UVB-induced early surrogate molecular markers of photodamage and carcinogenesis. UVB exposure enhanced the expression of p53, c-fos, cyclins D1 and A, and PCNA 24 h after irradiation. Treatment of animals with either topical or oral administration of sulindac largely abrogated the expression of these UVB-induced surrogate markers. These results indicate that the cyclooxygenase inhibitor sulindac is effective in reducing UVB-induced events relevant to carcinogenesis and that this category of topically applied or

  9. Photoprotective effects of two natural products on ultraviolet B-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in SKH-1 mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Adriana; Daicoviciu, Doina; Clichici, Simona; Mocan, Teodora; Muresan, Adriana; Postescu, Ion Dan

    2011-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) is the major cause of nonmelanoma skin cancer in humans. Photochemoprevention with natural products represents a simple but very effective strategy for the management of cutaneous neoplasia. We studied the photoprotective activity of Calluna vulgaris and red grape seed (Vitis vinifera L, Burgund Mare variety [BM]) extracts in vivo in an SKH-1 hairless mice skin model. Fifty 8-week-old female SKH-1 hairless mice were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10 each): controls, UVB-irradiated, C. vulgaris plus UVB-irradiated, BM plus UVB-irradiated, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) plus UVB-irradiated. A dose of 4 mg/mouse per cm² of skin area for both extracts was topically applied to the mice 30 minutes before a single-dose (240 mJ/cm²) UVB exposure. EGCG dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 6.6; 0.067 M) was administered at 2 mg/mouse per cm². Glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities, reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and caspase 3 activity were determined in skin homogenates 24 hours after irradiation. A single dose of UVB increased GSH levels and glutathione peroxidase activity in the exposed skin. C. vulgaris and BM pretreatment significantly decreased GSH formation and glutathione peroxidase activity (P treatments with C. vulgaris and particularly BM extracts (P < .002) significantly reduced caspase 3 activity, indicating that the cells were protected against apoptosis. These results suggest that C. vulgaris and BM extracts might be chemopreventive candidates for reducing UV-induced risk for skin cancer.

  10. Royal jelly protects against ultraviolet B-induced photoaging in human skin fibroblasts via enhancing collagen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Min; Hwang, Eunson; Lee, Kwang Gill; Han, Sang-Mi; Cho, Yunhi; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2011-09-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) is a honeybee product containing proteins, carbohydrates, fats, free amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. As its principal unsaturated fatty acid, RJ contains 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), which may have antitumor and antibacterial activity and a capacity to stimulate collagen production. RJ has attracted interest in various parts of the world for its pharmacological properties. However, the effects of RJ on ultraviolet (UV)-induced photoaging of the skin have not been reported. In this study we measured the 10-HDA content of RJ by high-performance liquid chromatography and tested the effects of RJ on UVB-induced skin photoaging in normal human dermal fibroblasts. The effects of RJ and 10-HDA on UVB-induced photoaging were tested by measuring procollagen type I, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 after UVB irradiation. The RJ contained about 0.211% 10-HDA. The UVB-irradiated human skin fibroblasts treated with RJ and 10-HDA had increased procollagen type I and TGF-β1 productions, but the level of MMP-1 was not changed. Thus RJ may potentially protect the skin from UVB-induced photoaging by enhancing collagen production.

  11. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of skin and dorsal root ganglia after ultraviolet-B-induced inflammation.

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    John M Dawes

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet-B (UVB-induced inflammation produces a dose-dependent mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in both humans and rats, most likely via inflammatory mediators acting at the site of injury. Previous work has shown that the gene expression of cytokines and chemokines is positively correlated between species and that these factors can contribute to UVB-induced pain. In order to investigate other potential pain mediators in this model we used RNA-seq to perform genome-wide transcriptional profiling in both human and rat skin at the peak of hyperalgesia. In addition we have also measured transcriptional changes in the L4 and L5 DRG of the rat model. Our data show that UVB irradiation produces a large number of transcriptional changes in the skin: 2186 and 3888 genes are significantly dysregulated in human and rat skin, respectively. The most highly up-regulated genes in human skin feature those encoding cytokines (IL6 and IL24, chemokines (CCL3, CCL20, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3 and CXCL5, the prostanoid synthesising enzyme COX-2 and members of the keratin gene family. Overall there was a strong positive and significant correlation in gene expression between the human and rat (R = 0.8022. In contrast to the skin, only 39 genes were significantly dysregulated in the rat L4 and L5 DRGs, the majority of which had small fold change values. Amongst the most up-regulated genes in DRG were REG3B, CCL2 and VGF. Overall, our data shows that numerous genes were up-regulated in UVB irradiated skin at the peak of hyperalgesia in both human and rats. Many of the top up-regulated genes were cytokines and chemokines, highlighting again their potential as pain mediators. However many other genes were also up-regulated and might play a role in UVB-induced hyperalgesia. In addition, the strong gene expression correlation between species re-emphasises the value of the UVB model as translational tool to study inflammatory pain.

  12. The effect of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra var. henenis Strapf) leaf extract on ultraviolet B-induced skin damages in mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Se Lim; Lee, Hae June; Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Sung Ho; Jang, Jong Sik; Jo, Sung Kee

    2007-01-01

    The effects of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra var. henenis Strapf) Leaf Extract (BLE) on the changes of UltraViolet (UV) light B radiation-induced apoptotic SunBurn Cell (SBC) and epidermal ATPase-positive Dendritic Cell (DC) in SKHI-hr or ICR mouse were investigated. The mice were treated with UVB (200 mJ/cm 2 ) and were sacrificed 24 hours later. BLE (50 mg/kg of body weight) or vehicle (saline) was given i.p. at 36 and 12 hours before irradiation, and 30 minutes after irradiation. BLE cream (0.2%) or cream base (vehicle) was also topically treated at 24 hours and 15 minutes before irradiation, and immediately after irradiation. The skin of SKH1-hr mouse prepared from the back of untreated mice exhibited about 0.3 SBC/cm length of epidermis, and 24 hours after UV irradiation, the applied areas show an increased number of SBCs. But the frequency of UVB-induced SBC formation was significantly reduced by intraperitoneal injection (59.0%) and topical application (31.8%) of BLE extract. The numbers of DC in normal ICR mouse were 628.00±51.56 or 663.20±62.58 per mm 2 of ear epidermis. By 1 day after UVB treatment, the number of ATPase-positive cells/mm 2 were decreased by 39.0% or 27.1% in i.p. or topical application group with vehicle. The frequency of UVB(200 mJ/cm 2 )-induced DC decrease was reduced by treatment of BLE as 25.7% in i.p. group and 3.2% in topical application group compared with the irradiation control group. The results presented herein that BLE administration could reduce the extent of skin damages produced by UVB

  13. The effect of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra var. henenis Strapf) leaf extract on ultraviolet B-induced skin damages in mouse

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    Chae, Se Lim; Lee, Hae June; Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Sik [Sangju National Univ., Sangju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Sung Kee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    The effects of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra var. henenis Strapf) Leaf Extract (BLE) on the changes of UltraViolet (UV) light B radiation-induced apoptotic SunBurn Cell (SBC) and epidermal ATPase-positive Dendritic Cell (DC) in SKHI-hr or ICR mouse were investigated. The mice were treated with UVB (200 mJ/cm{sup 2}) and were sacrificed 24 hours later. BLE (50 mg/kg of body weight) or vehicle (saline) was given i.p. at 36 and 12 hours before irradiation, and 30 minutes after irradiation. BLE cream (0.2%) or cream base (vehicle) was also topically treated at 24 hours and 15 minutes before irradiation, and immediately after irradiation. The skin of SKH1-hr mouse prepared from the back of untreated mice exhibited about 0.3 SBC/cm length of epidermis, and 24 hours after UV irradiation, the applied areas show an increased number of SBCs. But the frequency of UVB-induced SBC formation was significantly reduced by intraperitoneal injection (59.0%) and topical application (31.8%) of BLE extract. The numbers of DC in normal ICR mouse were 628.00{+-}51.56 or 663.20{+-}62.58 per mm{sup 2} of ear epidermis. By 1 day after UVB treatment, the number of ATPase-positive cells/mm{sup 2} were decreased by 39.0% or 27.1% in i.p. or topical application group with vehicle. The frequency of UVB(200 mJ/cm{sup 2})-induced DC decrease was reduced by treatment of BLE as 25.7% in i.p. group and 3.2% in topical application group compared with the irradiation control group. The results presented herein that BLE administration could reduce the extent of skin damages produced by UVB.

  14. Plasma Rich in Growth Factors Inhibits Ultraviolet B Induced Photoageing of the Skin in Human Dermal Fibroblast Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Pino, Ander; Orive, Gorka

    Ultraviolet irradiation is able to deeply penetrate into the dermis and alter fibroblast structure and function, leading to a degradation of the dermal extracellular matrix. The regenerative effect of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) on skin ageing was investigated using UVB photo-stressed human dermal fibroblasts as an in vitro culture model. PRGF was assessed over the main indicative features of ultraviolet B irradiation, including ROS formation, cell viability and death detection, apoptosis/ necrosis analysis and biosynthetic activity measurement. Four different UV irradiation protocols were tested in order to analyze the beneficial effects of PRGF. Ultraviolet irradiation exhibited a dose dependent cytotoxicity and dose of 400mJ/cm2 was selected for subsequent experiments. PRGF increased the cell viability and decreased the cell death comparing to the non-treated group. The apoptosis and necrosis were significantly lower in PRGF treated fibroblasts. ROS production after UV irradiation was significantly reduced in the presence of PRGF. Procollagen type I, hyaluronic acid and TIMP-1 levels were higher in the when treated with PRGF. This preliminary in vitro study suggests that PRGF is able to prevent UVB derived photooxidative stress and to diminish the cell damage caused by ultraviolet irradiation.

  15. Early skin tumor detection from microscopic images through image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, A.A.; Narejo, G.B.; Khan, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The research is done to provide appropriate detection technique for skin tumor detection. The work is done by using the image processing toolbox of MATLAB. Skin tumors are unwanted skin growth with different causes and varying extent of malignant cells. It is a syndrome in which skin cells mislay the ability to divide and grow normally. Early detection of tumor is the most important factor affecting the endurance of a patient. Studying the pattern of the skin cells is the fundamental problem in medical image analysis. The study of skin tumor has been of great interest to the researchers. DIP (Digital Image Processing) allows the use of much more complex algorithms for image processing, and hence, can offer both more sophisticated performance at simple task, and the implementation of methods which would be impossibly by analog means. It allows much wider range of algorithms to be applied to the input data and can avoid problems such as build up of noise and signal distortion during processing. The study shows that few works has been done on cellular scale for the images of skin. This research allows few checks for the early detection of skin tumor using microscopic images after testing and observing various algorithms. After analytical evaluation the result has been observed that the proposed checks are time efficient techniques and appropriate for the tumor detection. The algorithm applied provides promising results in lesser time with accuracy. The GUI (Graphical User Interface) that is generated for the algorithm makes the system user friendly. (author)

  16. Differential effects of topical vitamin E and C E Ferulic® treatments on ultraviolet light B-induced cutaneous tumor development in Skh-1 mice.

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    Erin M Burns

    Full Text Available Because of the ever-increasing incidence of ultraviolet light B (UVB-induced skin cancer, considerable attention is being paid to prevention through the use of both sunscreens and after sun treatments, many of which contain antioxidants. Vitamin E is included as an antioxidant in many sunscreens and lotions currently on the market. Studies examining the efficacy of vitamin E as a topical preventative agent for UVB-induced skin cancer have yielded conflicting results. A likely contributor to differences in study outcome is the stability of vitamin E in the particular formulation being tested. In the current study we examined the effects of topical vitamin E alone as well as vitamin E combined with vitamin C and ferulic acid in a more stable topical formula (C E Ferulic®. Mice were exposed to UVB for 10 weeks in order to induce skin damage. Then, before the appearance of any cutaneous lesions, mice were treated for 15 weeks with a topical antioxidant, without any further UVB exposure. We found that topical C E Ferulic decreased tumor number and tumor burden and prevented the development of malignant skin tumors in female mice with chronically UVB-damaged skin. In contrast, female mice chronically exposed to UVB and treated topically with vitamin E alone showed a trend towards increased tumor growth rate and exhibited increased levels of overall DNA damage, cutaneous proliferation, and angiogenesis compared to vehicle-treated mice. Thus, we have demonstrated that topical 5% alpha tocopherol may actually promote carcinogenesis when applied on chronically UVB-damaged skin while treating with a more stable antioxidant compound may offer therapeutic benefits.

  17. Differential effects of topical vitamin E and C E Ferulic® treatments on ultraviolet light B-induced cutaneous tumor development in Skh-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erin M; Tober, Kathleen L; Riggenbach, Judith A; Kusewitt, Donna F; Young, Gregory S; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M

    2013-01-01

    Because of the ever-increasing incidence of ultraviolet light B (UVB)-induced skin cancer, considerable attention is being paid to prevention through the use of both sunscreens and after sun treatments, many of which contain antioxidants. Vitamin E is included as an antioxidant in many sunscreens and lotions currently on the market. Studies examining the efficacy of vitamin E as a topical preventative agent for UVB-induced skin cancer have yielded conflicting results. A likely contributor to differences in study outcome is the stability of vitamin E in the particular formulation being tested. In the current study we examined the effects of topical vitamin E alone as well as vitamin E combined with vitamin C and ferulic acid in a more stable topical formula (C E Ferulic®). Mice were exposed to UVB for 10 weeks in order to induce skin damage. Then, before the appearance of any cutaneous lesions, mice were treated for 15 weeks with a topical antioxidant, without any further UVB exposure. We found that topical C E Ferulic decreased tumor number and tumor burden and prevented the development of malignant skin tumors in female mice with chronically UVB-damaged skin. In contrast, female mice chronically exposed to UVB and treated topically with vitamin E alone showed a trend towards increased tumor growth rate and exhibited increased levels of overall DNA damage, cutaneous proliferation, and angiogenesis compared to vehicle-treated mice. Thus, we have demonstrated that topical 5% alpha tocopherol may actually promote carcinogenesis when applied on chronically UVB-damaged skin while treating with a more stable antioxidant compound may offer therapeutic benefits.

  18. Effect of skin tumor properties on laser penetration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Karsten, AE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer modeling can be a valuable tool to determine the absorption of laser light in different skin layers. For this study, the optical properties of three different skin tumors were used in the model to evaluate the effect on penetration depth...

  19. Tumors of the skin and soft tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    The majority of the body surface is covered by the skin. Many internal disorders are reflected in the condition of the skin. One of the major functions of the skin is protection of the other organ systems from a variety of environmental insults. In this role, the skin itself is exposed to factors that can ultimately cause chronic diseases and cancer. Since it is relatively easy to recognize skin abnormalities, most skin cancers are brought to professional attention sooner than other types of cancer. However, due to the close resemblance between many skin neoplasms and noncancerous dermatologic disorders, these neoplasms may be mistreated for months or even years. In veterinary oncology, as in human medicine, most cancers can be effectively treated or cured following an accurate diagnosis. Once diagnosed, skin neoplasms should be aggressively treated. If causal factors are known, exposure to these factors should be limited through removal of the agent (for chemical carcinogens) or limiting exposure to the agent (for other carcinogens such as sunlight). 10 tabs. (MHB)

  20. Mangiferin, a novel nuclear factor kappa B-inducing kinase inhibitor, suppresses metastasis and tumor growth in a mouse metastatic melanoma model

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    Takeda, Tomoya; Tsubaki, Masanobu; Sakamoto, Kotaro; Ichimura, Eri; Enomoto, Aya; Suzuki, Yuri [Division of Pharmacotherapy, Kinki University School of Pharmacy, Kowakae, Higashi-, Osaka (Japan); Itoh, Tatsuki [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Kinki University School of Agriculture, Nara, Nara (Japan); Imano, Motohiro [Department of Surgery, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osakasayama, Osaka (Japan); Tanabe, Genzoh; Muraoka, Osamu [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Kinki University, Kowakae, Higashi-, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Hideaki [Department of Natural Drugs Resources, Kinki University School of Pharmacy, Kowakae, Higashi-, Osaka (Japan); Satou, Takao [Department of Pathology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osakasayama, Osaka (Japan); Nishida, Shozo, E-mail: nishida@phar.kindai.ac.jp [Division of Pharmacotherapy, Kinki University School of Pharmacy, Kowakae, Higashi-, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-09-01

    Advanced metastatic melanoma, one of the most aggressive malignancies, is currently without reliable therapy. Therefore, new therapies are urgently needed. Mangiferin is a naturally occurring glucosylxanthone and exerts many beneficial biological activities. However, the effect of mangiferin on metastasis and tumor growth of metastatic melanoma remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effect of mangiferin on metastasis and tumor growth in a mouse metastatic melanoma model. We found that mangiferin inhibited spontaneous metastasis and tumor growth. Furthermore, mangiferin suppressed the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and expression of phosphorylated NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK), inhibitor of kappa B kinase (IKK), and inhibitor of kappa B (IκB) and increases the expression of IκB protein in vivo. In addition, we found that mangiferin inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and very late antigens (VLAs) in vivo. Mangiferin treatment also increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved Poly ADP ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1), p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), p53, and phosphorylated p53 proteins, and decreased the expression of Survivin and Bcl-associated X (Bcl-xL) proteins in vivo. These results indicate that mangiferin selectivity suppresses the NF-κB pathway via inhibition of NIK activation, thereby inhibiting metastasis and tumor growth. Importantly, the number of reported NIK selective inhibitors is limited. Taken together, our data suggest that mangiferin may be a potential therapeutic agent with a new mechanism of targeting NIK for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. - Highlights: • Mangiferin prolongs survival in mice by inhibiting metastasis and tumor growth • Mangiferin selectivity suppresses the NF-κB pathway via inhibition of NIK activation • Mangiferin regulates the expression of MMPs, VLAs, and apoptosis regulatory proteins.

  1. Analysis of hyperspectral fluorescence images for poultry skin tumor inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong G.; Chen, Yud-Ren; Kim, Intaek; Kim, Moon S.

    2004-02-01

    We present a hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system with a fuzzy inference scheme for detecting skin tumors on poultry carcasses. Hyperspectral images reveal spatial and spectral information useful for finding pathological lesions or contaminants on agricultural products. Skin tumors are not obvious because the visual signature appears as a shape distortion rather than a discoloration. Fluorescence imaging allows the visualization of poultry skin tumors more easily than reflectance. The hyperspectral image samples obtained for this poultry tumor inspection contain 65 spectral bands of fluorescence in the visible region of the spectrum at wavelengths ranging from 425 to 711 nm. The large amount of hyperspectral image data is compressed by use of a discrete wavelet transform in the spatial domain. Principal-component analysis provides an effective compressed representation of the spectral signal of each pixel in the spectral domain. A small number of significant features are extracted from two major spectral peaks of relative fluorescence intensity that have been identified as meaningful spectral bands for detecting tumors. A fuzzy inference scheme that uses a small number of fuzzy rules and Gaussian membership functions successfully detects skin tumors on poultry carcasses. Spatial-filtering techniques are used to significantly reduce false positives.

  2. Radiation-induced malignant tumors of skin and their histogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guomin; Chen Yunchi; Yang Yejing

    1987-01-01

    Seven cases of radiation-induced malignant tumors and 60 cases of chronic radiation damage of skin are reported. Severe hyperplasia, false epitheliomatoid hyperpiasia and atypical proliferation of epithelia and atypical proliferation of fibrohistocytes were the main changes found in chronic radiation damage of skin. The development of malignant tumors from chronic radiation damage of skin can be divided into 4 periods: necrotic and degenerative change period, benign proliferative period, atypical proliferative period and malignant change period. The incidence of hyperplastic changes of skin is related to the time elapse after irradiation and the integrated dose of radiation. The longer the duration after irradiation and the larger the integrated dose are, the higher will be the incidence of hyperplastic changes

  3. P63 marker Expression in Usual Skin Cancers Compared With Non Tumoral Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Esmaili

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-melanoma skin cancers including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common cancers in human. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of P63 marker in usual skin cancers compared with non-tomoral skin lesions. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, sampling was performed from archival blocks of Shahid Mohammadi hospital patients during 2010-2011. 60 samples (including 30 samples of non tumoral skin lesions and 30 samples of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma were studied and evaluation of p63 gene expression was done with Immunohistochemistry method. T-test and Chi-square were used for analysis of data. Results: P63 gene were expressed in 4 cases (13.33 % of non tumoral lesions and all tumoral lesions (100 %. In tumoral lesions, 5 cases (16.66 % showed 1+ severity experssion, 11 cases (36.66% 2 + severity experssion and 14 cases (46.66 % 3+severity experssion. All 4 non tumoral lesions shoed 1+ severity experssion of P63gene. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the incidence and severity of gene expression of P63 can be use for differentiation between basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma as well as non-tumoral skin lesions. 

  4. Echosonography and surgical therapy of facial skin tumors

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    Pešić Zoran U.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the 20 century, echosonography has been used in many medical specialties. In 1992 and 1993 highfrequencies echosonography was used in the examination of irritant and allergic skin lesions in order to examine the effects of different therapeuthical agents on the skin lesions [1-4]. Hoffmann used highfrequencies echosonography in the examination of healing of skin lesions [3]. By their incidence skin tumors are the largest group of newly discovered tumors, and their usual location is on the face [5-7]. By clinical examination it is not possible to precisely determine the depth of tumor border; therefore, the radically performed surgical excision is the only correct surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to estimate the results of preoperatively performed high frequencies echosonography in order to reduce the number of incorrectly performed surgical excisions of skin tumors. The group was composed of 40 patients with 45 tumors, who first underwent echosonographic diagnostic procedure (20 MHz, Hadsund electronic, Hadsund Technology, Denmark and then surgical excision; patients in control group (45 patients with 45 tumors were only subjected to surgical excision. Excised tumors were then pathohistologically analyzed, and measurements of tumor depth progression were performed. Margins of pathohistological specimen were controlled for the presence of tumor cells. Results of measurements of tumor depth obtained by echosonography and pathohistological measurements were compared. By Jate's modification of c2 test results regarding correct and incorrect surgical excision in patients and control group were compared. By linear regression analysis results of tumor depth obtained by echosonographic and pathohistologic examinations were compared. Hypoechogen zone echosonographic results were used like criteria for tumor expansion. Results of tumor depth measurements are presented in Table 1. Linear regression analysis showed (R = 0

  5. Computed tomography in diagnosis of skin tumors

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    Nishimura, Sunao; Yamashita, Noriko; Hidano, Akira; Kohno, Atsushi (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1983-02-01

    There has been no report of CT study in the dermatological field. CT was performed on 10 cases of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors (2 of steatoma, 2 of atheroma, 2 of calcified epithelioma, 1 of basal cell cancer, and 3 of angioma); and in some of them, this method appeared to be useful for diagnosis. In each case, a clinical picture and CT findings were compared, and further application of CT was discussed.

  6. Tumor Suppressor Function of CYLD in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

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    K. C. Masoumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-related proteins posttranslationally modify substrates, and thereby alter the functions of their targets. The ubiquitination process is involved in various physiological responses, and dysregulation of components of the ubiquitin system has been linked to many diseases including skin cancer. The ubiquitin pathways activated among skin cancers are highly diverse and may reflect the various characteristics of the cancer type. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the most common types of human skin cancer, are instances where the involvement of the deubiquitination enzyme CYLD has been recently highlighted. In basal cell carcinoma, the tumor suppressor protein CYLD is repressed at the transcriptional levels through hedgehog signaling pathway. Downregulation of CYLD in basal cell carcinoma was also shown to interfere with TrkC expression and signaling, thereby promoting cancer progression. By contrast, the level of CYLD is unchanged in squamous cell carcinoma, instead, catalytic inactivation of CYLD in the skin has been linked to the development of squamous cell carcinoma. This paper will focus on the current knowledge that links CYLD to nonmelanoma skin cancers and will explore recent insights regarding CYLD regulation of NF-κB and hedgehog signaling during the development and progression of these types of human tumors.

  7. Tumor Suppressor Function of CYLD in Non melanoma Skin Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoumi, K. C.; Hallgren, G. S.; Massoumi, R.

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-related proteins post translationally modify substrates, and thereby alter the functions of their targets. The ubiquitination process is involved in various physiological responses, and dysregulation of components of the ubiquitin system has been linked to many diseases including skin cancer. The ubiquitin pathways activated among skin cancers are highly diverse and may reflect the various characteristics of the cancer type. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the most common types of human skin cancer, are instances where the involvement of the deubiquitination enzyme CYLD has been recently highlighted. In basal cell carcinoma, the tumor suppressor protein CYLD is repressed at the transcriptional levels through hedgehog signaling pathway. Downregulation of CYLD in basal cell carcinoma was also shown to interfere with TrkC expression and signaling, thereby promoting cancer progression. By contrast, the level of CYLD is unchanged in squamous cell carcinoma, instead, catalytic inactivation of CYLD in the skin has been linked to the development of squamous cell carcinoma. This paper will focus on the current knowledge that links CYLD to non melanoma skin cancers and will explore recent insights regarding CYLD regulation of NF-κB and hedgehog signaling during the development and progression of these types of human tumors.

  8. Neuroendocrine tumor of the skin of head and neck

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    Stošić Srboljub

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Merkel cell carcinom is a rare neuroendrocine tumor of skin which manifests it self through aggressive growth and early regional metastasis. It develops mainly in older population. Locally, the tumor spreads intracutaneously. Case report. We showed two cases (females of 89 and 70 years old hospitalized within the last two years. The first patient was treated surgically three times. After the surgery, the patient was treated with radio therapy, and died 3 years from the beginning of the treatment. The second patient with this neuroendocrine tumor with the high malignancy potential and huge regional metastasis, was treated surgically, and died a month and a half after the operation. Conclusion. These two cases confirmed the aggressive and recidivant growth of this tumor with the difficult pathologic investigation, and the extremely bad prognosis inspite of the treatment.

  9. Chronic ionizing radiation exposure as a tumor promoter in mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, R.E.J.; Trivedi, A.

    1992-01-01

    We have tested a chronic exposure to 90 Y beta-radiation as a tumor promoter in mouse skin previously exposed to a chemical tumor initiator. Three different tests of radiation as a stage I tumor promoter, in skin subsequently given chemical stage II promotion, all indicated that the beta-radiation acted as a weak stage I skin tumor promoter. It showed no action as either a stage II or complete tumor promoter. (author)

  10. What is the microscopic tumor extent beyond clinically delineated gross tumor boundary in nonmelanoma skin cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Richard; Woo, Tony; Assaad, Dalal; Antonyshyn, Oleh; Barnes, Elizabeth A.; McKenzie, David; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Breen, Dale; Mamedov, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the microscopic tumor extension beyond clinically delineated gross tumor boundary in nonmelanoma skin cancers. Methods and Materials: A prospective, single arm, study. Preoperatively, a radiation oncologist outlined the boundary of a gross lesion, and drew 5-mm incremental marks in four directions from the delineated border. Under local anesthesia, the lesion was excised, and resection margins were assessed microscopically by frozen section. Once resection margins were clear, the microscopic tumor extent was calculated using the presurgical incremental markings as references. A potential relationship between the distance of microscopic tumor extension and other variables was analyzed. Results: A total of 71 lesions in 64 consecutive patients, selected for surgical excision with frozen-section-assisted assessment of resection margins, were accrued. The distance of microscopic tumor extension beyond a gross lesion varied from 1 mm to 15 mm, with a mean of 5.2 mm. A margin of 10 mm was required to provide a 95% chance of obtaining clear resection margins. The microscopic tumor extent was positively correlated with the size of gross lesion, but not with other variables. Conclusions: The distance of microscopic tumor extension beyond a gross nonmelanoma skin cancer was variable, with a mean of 5.2 mm. Such information is critical for the proper radiation planning of skin cancer therapy

  11. What is the microscopic tumor extent beyond clinically delineated gross tumor boundary in nonmelanoma skin cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Richard; Woo, Tony; Assaad, Dalal; Antonyshyn, Oleh; Barnes, Elizabeth A; McKenzie, David; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Breen, Dale; Mamedov, Alexander

    2005-07-15

    To quantify the microscopic tumor extension beyond clinically delineated gross tumor boundary in nonmelanoma skin cancers. A prospective, single arm, study. Preoperatively, a radiation oncologist outlined the boundary of a gross lesion, and drew 5-mm incremental marks in four directions from the delineated border. Under local anesthesia, the lesion was excised, and resection margins were assessed microscopically by frozen section. Once resection margins were clear, the microscopic tumor extent was calculated using the presurgical incremental markings as references. A potential relationship between the distance of microscopic tumor extension and other variables was analyzed. A total of 71 lesions in 64 consecutive patients, selected for surgical excision with frozen-section-assisted assessment of resection margins, were accrued. The distance of microscopic tumor extension beyond a gross lesion varied from 1 mm to 15 mm, with a mean of 5.2 mm. A margin of 10 mm was required to provide a 95% chance of obtaining clear resection margins. The microscopic tumor extent was positively correlated with the size of gross lesion, but not with other variables. The distance of microscopic tumor extension beyond a gross nonmelanoma skin cancer was variable, with a mean of 5.2 mm. Such information is critical for the proper radiation planning of skin cancer therapy.

  12. FLUORESCENT DIAGNOSTICS OF MALIGNANT SKIN TUMORS WITH CHLORIN SERIES PHOTOSENSITIZERS

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    E. V. Yaroslavtseva-Isaeva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows possibilities in fluorescence imaging of malignant skin tumors with chlorin series photosensitizers (PS photolon and fotoditazin. The regularities of photosensitizer accumulation from the data of local fluorescence spectroscopy depending on the PS and its dose, the clinical picture and the histological form of the malignant skin neoplasm is investigated. It is shown that the level and selectivity of PS accumulation in the tumor focus depends on the PS dose. In studies on 10 patients with basal cell skin cancer after the introduction of fotoditazin at a dose less than 1 mg/kg, fluorescent contrast between tumor and healthy tissue varied between 1.3 and 9.5, the average was 2.8±0.3; for patients who had the administered fotoditazin dose of 1 mg/kg, fluorescent contrast was 2.9±0.4, varying from 1.4 to 5. In a study with 127 patients after the introduction of photolon in the dose of 0.7-1 mg/kg, the average value of the fluorescence intensity in relative units in the intact skin was 6.9±0.3 (min 4.6, max 12.2, at a dose of 1.1 to 1.4 mg/kg – 8.0±0.3 (min 4.6, max 12.5, at a dose of 1.5-2 mg/kg – 9.9±0.7 (min 5.7, max 20.3. It is also shown that fluorescence intensity of malignant neoplasm of the skin with the same dose of the photosensitizer depends on the neoplasm’s clinical and histological forms. So, 3 hours after the introduction of photolon at a dose of 1.3 mg/kg the average fluorescent contrast in the surface type of skin cancer was 2.7±0.5, in the nodal form – 2.3±0.2, in erosive-ulcerative form – 3.6±0.3. In patients with nodular form of squamous skin cancer after the introduction of photolon at a dose of 1.3 mg/kg fluorescent contrast was significantly higher (p<0.05 (average of 2.8±0.2 than in the nodular form of basal cell carcinoma after the introduction of photolon at the same dose (average of 2.1±0.2.

  13. Sunscreens for delay of ultraviolet induction of skin tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, H.C.; Poulsen, T.; Brodthagen, H.; Hou-Jensen, K.

    1982-01-01

    Sunscreens with different sun protection factors (SPFs) have been tested for their capability of delaying or preventing actinic damage and skin cancer development in groups of hairless, pigmented mice exposed to artificial ultraviolet (UV) light of increasing intensity. The dose delivered was less than or equal to 1 minimal erythema dose (MED) in the group of untreated mice, so that the mice to which sunscreens were applied never obtained a sunburn after UV exposure. The quality of UV light was similar to bright midday sun at a latitude of 56 degrees (city of Copenhagen). Tumorigenesis was demonstrated to be delayed corresponding to the SPF claimed by the manufacturer, but almost all of the UV-irradiated mice developed skin tumors. Histologic examination revealed actinic degeneration and tumors of squamous cell type with marked variation in differentiation. Metastases to lymph nodes and lungs were found in only 10%. Toxic reactions, such as eczematous-like skin reactions, dark coloring, and amyloidosis, were observed predominantly in the group treated with the sunscreen of highest SPF value. Long-term investigations seem to be necessary to unveil these problems--in particular, the specific SPF value, in sunscreens, that should be recommended to the public for prevention or delay of actinic damage and/or cancer development

  14. PRIMARY PREVENTION OF MALIGNANT SKIN TUMORS – PHOTOPROTECTION

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    Ana Benedičič - Pilih

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing in the world as well as in our country. Decades of research have increased the understanding of the ethiopathogenetic influences and risk factors for development of malignant skin tumors and stimulated efforts to promote their prevention. There are successes of prevention programs in some places in the world expressing with the reduction of mortality because of the cutaneous malignant melanoma. A primary prevention of a skin cancer attempts to change population knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about sunlight, leading to reduce of sunlight exposure.Conclusions. In this article we are discussing guidelines for photoprevention. The best approach to it is a reduction in the overall exposure to sunlight. The natural protection with the use of shade, clothing and hats is promoted as the best protection. Sunscreens are assumed as an important component of adjuvant photoprotection based on their convenience of use and also on their widespread promotion. While it has been argued that all tanning is a manifestation of skin injury, avoiding of artificial tanning devices is proposed also.

  15. Skin tumor area extraction using an improved dynamic programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Qaisar; Celebi, M E; Fondón García, Irene

    2012-05-01

    Border (B) description of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions is one of the most important tasks for the clinical diagnosis of dermoscopy images using the ABCD rule. For an accurate description of the border, there must be an effective skin tumor area extraction (STAE) method. However, this task is complicated due to uneven illumination, artifacts present in the lesions and smooth areas or fuzzy borders of the desired regions. In this paper, a novel STAE algorithm based on improved dynamic programming (IDP) is presented. The STAE technique consists of the following four steps: color space transform, pre-processing, rough tumor area detection and refinement of the segmented area. The procedure is performed in the CIE L(*) a(*) b(*) color space, which is approximately uniform and is therefore related to dermatologist's perception. After pre-processing the skin lesions to reduce artifacts, the DP algorithm is improved by introducing a local cost function, which is based on color and texture weights. The STAE method is tested on a total of 100 dermoscopic images. In order to compare the performance of STAE with other state-of-the-art algorithms, various statistical measures based on dermatologist-drawn borders are utilized as a ground truth. The proposed method outperforms the others with a sensitivity of 96.64%, a specificity of 98.14% and an error probability of 5.23%. The results demonstrate that this STAE method by IDP is an effective solution when compared with other state-of-the-art segmentation techniques. The proposed method can accurately extract tumor borders in dermoscopy images. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Dramatic response to nivolumab in xeroderma pigmentosum skin tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambon, Fanny; Osdoit, Sophie; Bagny, Kelly; Moro, Anne; Nguyen, Jacqueline; Réguerre, Yves

    2018-02-01

    We report the case of a 6-year-old female with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) who developed a nonoperable scalp tumor, treated with anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) therapy (nivolumab). She presented with a sarcomatoid carcinoma of the scalp with bone lysis as well as vascular and meningeal contact. Nivolumab was initiated because it has emerged as a promising immunotherapy. We observed a dramatic tumor response with excellent tolerance. However, while on nivolumab therapy she developed two large skin melanomas and several squamous cell carcinomas, which have been resected. These results demonstrate that cancer immunotherapy in patients with XP can be impressive but complex and warrants further investigation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Protective effect of indole-3-pyruvate against ultraviolet b-induced damage to cultured HaCaT keratinocytes and the skin of hairless mice.

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    Reiji Aoki

    Full Text Available Previous investigations demonstrated that pyruvate protects human keratinocytes against cell damage stemming from exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB radiation. This study endeavoured to elucidate the protective capacity of aromatic pyruvates (e.g., phenylpyruvate (PPyr, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPPyr, and indole-3-pyruvate (IPyr against UVB-induced injury to skin cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Cultured human HaCaT keratinocytes were irradiated with UVB light (60 mJ/cm2 and maintained with or without test compounds (1-25 mM.In addition, the dorsal skin of hairless mice (HR-1 was treated with test compounds (10 μmol and exposed to UVB light (1 J/cm2 twice [corrected]. The ability of the test compounds to ameliorate UVB-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation was then assessed. Aromatic pyruvates reduced cytotoxicity in UVB-irradiated HaCaT keratinocytes, and also diminished the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β and interleukin 6 (IL-6. IPyr was more efficacious than either PPyr or HPPyr. Furthermore, only IPyr inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2 expression at both the mRNA and the protein level in UVB-treated keratinocytes. Topical application of IPyr to the dorsal skin of hairless mice reduced the severity of UVB-induced skin lesions, the augmentation of dermal thickness, and transepithelial water loss. Overproduction of IL-1β and IL-6 in response to UVB radiation was also suppressed in vivo by the topical administration of IPyr. These data strongly suggest that IPyr might find utility as a UVB-blocking reagent in therapeutic strategies to lessen UVB-induced inflammatory skin damage.

  18. Morphological changes in skin tumors caused by pulsed laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskalik, K G; Lipova, V A; Neyshtadt, E L

    1979-01-01

    Morphological changes induced by treating melanomas, basaloma and flatcell skin cancers with a pulsed neodymium laser at 1060 nm, pulse length 1 msec and energy 250 to 500 J/cm/sup 2/, were studied using impressions and scrapings from the affected area. Nuclear pyknosis, nuclear and cellular elongation, vacuolization, frequent complete loss of cytoplasm, particulaly in the zone of direct irradiation, and loss of cellular structure were seen. These dystrophic changes increased with closeness to the zone of direct irradiation, culminating in necrosis. Formed and decomposed blood elements and melanin accumulated in the intracellular spaces, due to disruption of capillaries and small arteries and veins. Fewer and more aggregated melanoblasts were found after melanoma irradiation. Nuclear chromatin fusion, cytoplasmic changes and altered cell shape were observed. Basaloma cells were clustered and elongated after irradiation, with many fibrous structures and loss of cellular elements. Cytoplasmic vacuolization and lysis, bare nuclei, karyolysis, karyorrhexis and karyopyknosis were seen in corneous flat-cell cancer. In the few cases in which malignant cells were found under the scab from the first treatment the procedure was repeated. The morphological changes induced by pulsed laser irradiation are very similar to electrocoagulation necrosis, but are more localized. The ability of low and middle energy lasers to induce thrombosis and coagulation in vascular walls reduced the probability of hematogenic tumor cell dissemination. Cytological examination is highly effective in determining the degree of radical skin cancer healing due to laser treatment. 12 references, 2 figures.

  19. Incidence of malignant skin tumors in 14,140 patients after grenz-ray treatment for benign skin disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeloef, B.E.; Eklund, G.

    1986-01-01

    During the years 1949 to 1975, 14,237 patients received therapeutic doses of grenz rays for the treatment of benign skin disorders such as chronic eczema, psoriasis, and warts. The records of 14,140 of these patients (99.3%) formed the basis for an epidemiologic study of the incidence of skin malignancies in this population. Information about the patients, diagnoses, doses, and sites of treatment was obtained from separate records. The follow-up time was 15 years on the average. We searched the Swedish Cancer Registry, Stockholm, for records reporting the incidence of malignant skin tumors in the study population (incidences of basal cell carcinoma are not registered). The expected number of malignancies was calculated on the basis of age- and sex-standardized incidence data from the Swedish Cancer Registry. In 58 patients, a malignant skin tumor was diagnosed more than five years after grenz-ray therapy had first been administered. Nineteen patients had malignant melanomas, and 39 patients had other malignant skin tumors. The expected number of melanomas was 17.8, and that of other malignant skin tumors was 26.9. None of the patients with melanomas, and only eight of the patients with other malignant skin tumors, had received grenz-ray therapy at the site of the tumor. Six of these eight patients had also been exposed to other known carcinogens. Four hundred eighty-one patients had received an accumulated high dose of grenz rays (greater than or equal to 10 000 rad [greater than or equal to 100 Gy]) on one and the same area. No malignancies were found on those areas. Although we cannot exclude grenz-ray therapy as a risk factor in the development of nonmelanoma skin malignancies, this risk, if any, is small, if recommendations for therapy are followed

  20. Skin metastasis from conventional giant cell tumor of bone: conceptual significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, W.; Barrett, T.; Frassica, F.; McCarthy, E.

    2002-01-01

    A conventional giant cell tumor of the proximal femur recurred twice locally and developed pulmonary nodules. The lung lesions were felt to be an example of ''benign'' metastases. Eight months after the initial presentation, the patient developed a single skin nodule on the contralateral leg. Histologic features of the skin nodule showed conventional giant cell tumor identical to the bone lesion. This nodule is a manifestation of arterial metastasis typical of any malignant tumor and seemingly contradicts the concept of ''benign '' metastasis. (orig.)

  1. Expression of p63 and Cyclooxygenase-2 and Their Correlation in Skin Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yan; LIU Houjun; LI Jiawen

    2007-01-01

    To study the expression of p63 and cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) in skin tumors and evaluate the correlation between p63 and cox-2, the expressions of cox-2 and p63 were measured by streptavidin-peroxidase complex immunohistochemical technique in 17 cases of skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 19 cases of Bowen's disease(Bowen), 11 cases of actinic keratosis(AK), 12 cases of seborreic keratosis(SK) and 13 specimens of normal skin. Our results showed that the expression of p63 in skin squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease and actinic keratosis were significantly higher than that in seborreic keratosis, while the expression of p63 in seborreic keratosis was significantly higher than that in normal skin. The expression of cox-2 in skin squamous cell carcinoma,Bowen's disease and actinic keratosis were significantly higher than that in seborreic keratosis, while no statistical difference was noted in the expression of cox-2 between seborreic keratosis and normal skin. Cox-2 expression was positively correlated with the high p63 expression in malignant skin tumors. The increased expression of cox-2 and p63 may play an important role in the development of skin tumors and work synergetically in malignant skin tumors.

  2. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with common tumor antigens on UV-induced tumors also react with hyperplastic UV-irradiated skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spellman, C.W.; Beauchamp, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Most murine skin tumors induced by ultraviolet light (UVB, 280-340 nm) can be successfully transplanted only into syngeneic hosts that have received subcarcinogenic doses of UVB. The tumor susceptible state is long-lived and mediated by T suppressor cells that control effector responses against common antigens on UV-induced tumors. Because antigen specific suppression arises prior to the appearance of a tumor, questions arise about the source of the original antigen. They have previously reported transplantation studies indicating that UV-irradiated skin is antigenically cross-reactive with UV-induced tumors. They now report on flow cytometry analyses showing that a series of MoAb reactive with common antigens expressed by UV-induced tumors are also reactive on cells from UV-irradiated skin. Various antigens appear at different times in the UV irradiation scheme, and some persist while others are transient. They speculate that the common antigens detected may be the ones to which functional suppression is directed. If true, these results suggest that successful tumors need not escape host defenses to emerge. Rather, tumors may arise and grow progressively if they express antigens that cross-react with specificities to which the host has previously mounted a suppressive response

  3. The role of UV induced lesions in skin carcinogenesis: an overview of oncogene and tumor suppressor gene modifications in xeroderma pigmentosum skin tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daya-Grosjean, Leela; Sarasin, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), a rare hereditary syndrome, is characterized by a hypersensitivity to solar irradiation due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair resulting in a predisposition to squamous and basal cell carcinomas as well as malignant melanomas appearing at a very early age. The mutator phenotype of XP cells is evident by the higher levels of UV specific modifications found in key regulatory genes in XP skin tumors compared to those in the same tumor types from the normal population. Thus, XP provides a unique model for the study of unrepaired DNA lesions, mutations and skin carcinogenesis. The high level of ras oncogene activation, Ink4a-Arf and p53 tumor suppressor gene modifications as well as alterations of the different partners of the mitogenic sonic hedgehog signaling pathway (patched, smoothened and sonic hedgehog), characterized in XP skin tumors have clearly demonstrated the major role of the UV component of sunlight in the development of skin tumors. The majority of the mutations are C to T or tandem CC to TT UV signature transitions, occurring at bipyrimidine sequences, the specific targets of UV induced lesions. These characteristics are also found in the same genes modified in sporadic skin cancers but with lower frequencies confirming the validity of studying the XP model. The knowledge gained by studying XP tumors has given us a greater perception of the contribution of genetic predisposition to cancer as well as the consequences of the many alterations which modulate the activities of different genes affecting crucial pathways vital for maintaining cell homeostasis

  4. The role of UV induced lesions in skin carcinogenesis: an overview of oncogene and tumor suppressor gene modifications in xeroderma pigmentosum skin tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daya-Grosjean, Leela [Laboratory of Genetic Instability and Cancer, UPR2169 CNRS, IFR 54, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)]. E-mail: daya@igr.fr; Sarasin, Alain [Laboratory of Genetic Instability and Cancer, UPR2169 CNRS, IFR 54, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2005-04-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), a rare hereditary syndrome, is characterized by a hypersensitivity to solar irradiation due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair resulting in a predisposition to squamous and basal cell carcinomas as well as malignant melanomas appearing at a very early age. The mutator phenotype of XP cells is evident by the higher levels of UV specific modifications found in key regulatory genes in XP skin tumors compared to those in the same tumor types from the normal population. Thus, XP provides a unique model for the study of unrepaired DNA lesions, mutations and skin carcinogenesis. The high level of ras oncogene activation, Ink4a-Arf and p53 tumor suppressor gene modifications as well as alterations of the different partners of the mitogenic sonic hedgehog signaling pathway (patched, smoothened and sonic hedgehog), characterized in XP skin tumors have clearly demonstrated the major role of the UV component of sunlight in the development of skin tumors. The majority of the mutations are C to T or tandem CC to TT UV signature transitions, occurring at bipyrimidine sequences, the specific targets of UV induced lesions. These characteristics are also found in the same genes modified in sporadic skin cancers but with lower frequencies confirming the validity of studying the XP model. The knowledge gained by studying XP tumors has given us a greater perception of the contribution of genetic predisposition to cancer as well as the consequences of the many alterations which modulate the activities of different genes affecting crucial pathways vital for maintaining cell homeostasis.

  5. Cytomorphology of skin adnexal tumors: A tale of two scalp swellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemlata Panwar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary and metastatic tumors of the skin can be effectively diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC; however, the cytomorphological features of skin adnexal tumors are rarely described in the literature. We hereby describe the cytological features of two histologically confirmed cases of benign skin adnexal tumors. Case 1 is of a 46-year-old female who presented with an elevated firm nodule over the scalp. A cytological diagnosis of benign adnexal tumor possibly of sebaceous origin was given. The nodule was excised and histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of sebaceoma. Case 2 is of a 19-year-old male who presented with a pigmented scalp swelling. Cytomorphological features were suggestive of benign skin adnexal tumor with foci of melanin pigment. The swelling was excised and histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of eccrine poroma. To the best of our knowledge, only one previous report of sebaceoma and no report of eccrine poroma describing the cytological findings of these two tumors exist. We report these two cases of benign skin adnexal tumors to discuss the cytological features and the potential diagnostic dilemma that they pose to the cytologist.

  6. Studies on reconstruction of large skin defects following mammary tumor excision in dogs

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    Sabarish Babu Malli Sadhasivan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main objective of the study was to describe the use of skin fold advancement flaps (SFAFs and other reconstructive techniques for closure of large skin defects following mammary tumor excision in dogs. Materials and Methods: Twelve dogs underwent reconstruction of large ventral skin defects following mammary tumor excision with wide margins. Skin fold flaps (flank fold flap and elbow fold flap were elevated from the flank and elbow region, respectively, and transposed and sutured onto the large ventral skin defect following mastectomy in all the dogs. In addition to the skin fold flaps, other reconstructive techniques such as undermining, walking sutures, and tension-relieving suture techniques were followed during surgery in the closure of large skin defects without skin tension and compromising limb mobility. The skin flap viability was assessed subjectively by gross observation of the flap such as color, temperature, capillary perfusion, and cosmetic appearance, and scoring (1-4 was done. Tissue samples were collected from a surgical site on days 3, 6, and 12 post-operatively for histopathological evaluation and healing status of the skin flap. Results: All the surgical wounds healed primarily, without any major complications and the skin flap remained healthy throughout the healing process post-operatively. Distal flap necrosis was noticed in one case and necrosis of skin flap between two suture lines was noticed in another case in which the necrotized distal portion healed by secondary intention after 7 days. The mean survival of subdermal plexus flap in the above cases was 98% which was a subjective evaluation based on surface area of the skin defect measured by Image 'J software and the flap dimensions. The average healing of skin flap in days was 14.91±0.86. Conclusion: The SFAFs along with other reconstructive techniques help in the reconstruction of large ventral skin defects following mastectomy in dogs without much

  7. Palytoxin: exploiting a novel skin tumor promoter to explore signal transduction and carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattenberg, Elizabeth V

    2007-01-01

    Palytoxin is a novel skin tumor promoter, which has been used to help probe the role of different types of signaling mechanisms in carcinogenesis. The multistage mouse skin model indicates that tumor promotion is an early, prolonged, and reversible phase of carcinogenesis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor promotion is therefore important for developing strategies to prevent and treat cancer. Naturally occurring tumor promoters that bind to specific cellular receptors have proven to be useful tools for investigating important biochemical events in multistage carcinogenesis. For example, the identification of protein kinase C as the receptor for the prototypical skin tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (also called phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, PMA) provided key evidence that tumor promotion involves the aberrant modulation of signaling cascades that govern cell fate and function. The subsequent discovery that palytoxin, a marine toxin isolated from zoanthids (genus Palythoa), is a potent skin tumor promoter yet does not activate protein kinase C indicated that investigating palytoxin action could help reveal new aspects of tumor promotion. Interestingly, the putative receptor for palytoxin is the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. This review focuses on palytoxin-stimulated signaling and how palytoxin has been used to investigate alternate biochemical mechanisms by which important targets in carcinogenesis can be modulated.

  8. Loss of Endogenous Interleukin-12 Activates Survival Signals in Ultraviolet-Exposed Mouse Skin and Skin Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed M. Meeran

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-12 (IL-12-deficiency promotes photocarcinogenesis in mice; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that long-term exposure to ultraviolet (UV radiation resulted in enhancement of the levels of cell survival kinases, such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K, Akt (Ser473, p-ERK1/2, and p-p38 in the skin of IL-12p40 knockout (IL-12 KO mice compared with the skin of wild-type mice. UV-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB/p65 in the skin of IL-12 KO mice was also more prominent. The levels of NF-κB-targeted proteins, such as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, cyclooxygenase-2, cyclin D1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, were higher in the UV-exposed skin of IL-12 KO mice than the UV-exposed skin of wild types. In short-term UV irradiation experiments, subcutaneous treatment of IL-12 KO mice with recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12 or topical treatment with oridonin, an inhibitor of NF-κB, resulted in the inhibition of UV-induced increases in the levels of PCNA, cyclin D1, and NF-κB compared with non-rIL-12- or non-oridonin-treated IL-12 KO mice. UV-induced skin tumors of IL-12 KO mice had higher levels of PI3K, p-Akt (Ser473, p-ERK1/2, p-p38, NF-κB, and PCNA and fewer apoptotic cells than skin tumors of wild types. Together, these data suggest that the loss of endogenous IL-12 activates survival signals in UV-exposed skin and that may lead to the enhanced photocarcinogenesis in mice.

  9. Automated Estimation of Melanocytic Skin Tumor Thickness by Ultrasonic Radiofrequency Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrekute, Kristina; Valiukeviciene, Skaidra; Raisutis, Renaldas; Linkeviciute, Gintare; Makstiene, Jurgita; Kliunkiene, Renata

    2016-05-01

    High-frequency (>20-MHz) ultrasound (US) is a noninvasive preoperative tool for assessment of melanocytic skin tumor thickness. Ultrasonic melanocytic skin tumor thickness estimation is not always easy and is related to the experience of the clinician. In this article, we present an automated thickness measurement method based on time-frequency analysis of US radiofrequency signals. The study was performed on 52 thin (≤1-mm) melanocytic skin tumors (46 melanocytic nevi and 6 melanomas). Radiofrequency signals were obtained with a single-element focused transducer (fundamental frequency, 22 MHz; bandwidth, 12-28 MHz). The radiofrequency data were analyzed in the time-frequency domain to make the tumor boundaries more noticeable. The thicknesses of the tumors were evaluated by 3 different metrics: histologically measured Breslow thickness, manually measured US thickness, and automatically measured US thickness. The results showed a higher correlation coefficient between the automatically measured US thickness and Breslow thickness (r= 0.83; Pmeasured US thickness (r = 0.68; P measurement algorithm was 96.55%, and the specificity was 78.26% compared with histologic measurement. The sensitivity of the manually measured US thickness was 75.86%, and the specificity was 73.91%. The efficient automated tumor thickness measurement method developed could be used as a tool for preoperative assessment of melanocytic skin tumor thickness. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  10. Ability of PABA to protect mammalian skin from ultraviolet light-induced skin tumors and actinic damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, D.S.; May, M.

    1975-01-01

    Application of 5% para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) to hairless mice one hour prior to ultraviolet light (UVL) irradiation will almost totally protect these animals from developing tumors induced by chronic exposure to UVL in the 290 to 320 nm range in conjunction with a chemical carcinogen. Mice exposed to UVL and not protected by PABA developed primarily squamous cell carcinomas. Two months after cessation of chronic UVL exposure, the non-PABA-treated irradiated mouse skin appeared thickened, yellow, and wrinkled while showing elevated DNA synthesis, hyperplasia, hypergranulosis, and increased amounts of elastotic material. The PABA-treated skin was grossly normal

  11. Radiotherapy and skin tumors; Radiotherapie et tumeurs curanees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calitchi, E.; KIrova, Y.; Le bourgeois, J.P. [Hopital Henri-Mondor, 94 - Creteil (France)

    1998-09-01

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in treatment of skin tumours. For skin carcinomas, external irradiation (kilo-voltage X-rays or electrons according to clinical characteristics) is more valuable than interstitial brachytherapy, which is recommended for tumours of the lip and of the nasal vestibule. In mycosis fungoides, total cutaneous electron beam radiation therapy is efficient for patients with limited superficial plaques. In the classical form of Kaposi`s sarcoma, radiotherapy can achieve local control-whereas it obtains good palliative results in the epidemic form. (author)

  12. Verification of skin dose according to the location of tumor in Tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Bo Reum; Park, Su Yeon; Park, Byoung Suk; KIm, Jong Sik; Song, Ki Won

    2014-01-01

    To verify the skin dose in Tomotherapy-based radiation treatment according to the change in tumor locations, skin dose was measured by using Gafchromic EBT3 film and compared with the planned doses to find out the gap between them. In this study, to measure the skin dose, I'm RT Phantom(IBA Dosimetry, Germany) was utilized. After obtaining the 2.5 mm CT images, tumor locations and skin dose measuring points were set by using Pinnacle(ver 9.2, Philips Medical System, USA). The tumor location was decided to be 5 mm and 10 mm away from surface of the phantom and center. Considering the attenuation of a Tomo-couch, we ensured a symmetric placement between the ceiling and floor directions of the phantom. The measuring point of skin doses was set to have 3 mm and 5 mm thickness from the surface. Measurement was done 3 times. By employing TomoHD(TomoHD treatment system, Tomotherapy Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA), we devised Tomotherapy plans, measured 3 times by inserting Gafchromic EBT3 film into the phantom and compared the measurement with the skin dose treatment plans. The skin doses in the upper part of the phantom, when the tumor was located in the center, were found to be 7.53 cGy and 7.25 cGy in 5 mm and 3 mm respectively. If placed 5 mm away from the skin in the ceiling direction, doses were 18.06 cGy and 16.89 cGy; if 10 mm away, 20.37 cGy and 18.27 cGy, respectively. The skin doses in the lower part of the phantom, when the tumor was located in the center, recorded 8.82 cGy and 8.29 cGy in 5 mm and 3 mm, each; if located 5mm away from the lower part skin, 21.69 cGy and 19.78 cGy were respectively recorded; and if 10 mm away, 20.48 cGy and 19.57 cGy were recorded. If the tumor was placed in the center, skin doses were found to increase by 3.2-17.1% whereas if the tumor is 5 mm away from the ceiling part, the figure decreased to 2.8-9.0%. To the Tomo-couch direction, skin doses showed an average increase of 11% or over, compared to the planned treatment

  13. SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET EXPOSURE AND MORTALITY FROM SKIN TUMORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, Marianne; Pestak, Claire; Thomas, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Solar UV radiation (UVR) exposure is clearly associated with increased mortality from nonmelanoma skin cancer—usually squamous cell carcinoma. However, the association with cutaneous melanoma is unclear from the evidence in ecologic studies and several analytic studies have conflicting results regarding the effect of high levels of intermittent UV exposure prior to diagnosis on mortality. Understanding this conundrum is critical to present coherent public health messages and to improve the mortality rates from melanoma. PMID:25207375

  14. Tumor induction and hair follicle damage for different electron penetrations in rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, F.J.; Sinclair, I.P.; Albert, R.E.; Vanderlaan, M.

    1976-01-01

    The penetration and dose of an electron beam were varied in an attempt to locate the depth in growing-phase rat skin where irradiation was most effective in inducing tumors and morphological damage to the hair follicles. The hair was plucked to initiate the growing phase of the hair cycle, and 12 days later the dorsal skin was irradiated with electrons penetrating 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mm at doses from 500 to 4000 rad. Differences in the curves of tumor incidence as a function of dose for different penetrations were best resolved by plotting the results against the 0.4 mm dose, while comparable curves for destruction of the follicles were best resolved by the 0.8 mm dose. Since 0.8 mm corresponded approximately to the depth of the follicles, these results indicated that the target tissues for follicular damage and tumor induction were separated in depth and that the target for tumor induction was probably located in the region above or near the midpoint of the follicles. When the radiation penetrated sufficiently to reach the entire follicle, the number of tumors produced was not significantly greater than the number observed previously in resting-phase skin, and it was inferred that the additional size and greater mitotic activity of the growing-phase follicles at the time of irradiation did not increase the probability of tumor induction

  15. Late health effects of childhood nasopharyngeal radium irradiation: nonmelanoma skin cancers, benign tumors, and hormonal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronckers, Cécile M.; Land, Charles E.; Hayes, Richard B.; Verduijn, Pieter G.; Stovall, Marilyn; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2002-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal radium irradiation (NRI) was widely used from 1940 through 1970 to treat otitis serosa in children and barotrauma in airmen and submariners. We assessed whether NRI-exposed individuals were at higher risk for benign tumors, nonmelanoma skin cancer, thyroid disorders, and conditions

  16. Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma of the breast: a very rare breast skin tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzabotta, Maurizio; Declich, Paolo; Cardarelli, Mery; Bellone, Stefano; Pacilli, Paolo; Riggio, Eliana; Pallino, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Hidradenocarcinoma is an uncommon malignant intradermal tumor of sweat gland origin with a predilection for the face and extremities. It is encountered equally in males and females, usually in the second half of life. These tumors tend to be locally aggressive. In our case, the tumor was located relatively superficially but without any apparent connection to the overlying skin. The typical disease course includes local and sometimes multiple recurrences, and some patients develop regional lymph node and distant metastases. These type of tumors in the parenchyma of the breast are extremely rare. We report a case of hidradenocarcinoma in a 77-year-old woman who presented with a palpable inflammatory nodule in the right breast.

  17. Studies on the tumor initiation/promotion potential of six middle distillates (MDs) in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungen, H; Mellert, W; Wenzel-Hartung, R

    1995-08-01

    Six middle distillates (MDs) were tested for tumor initiating/promoting activity after application to the skin of 30 male CD-1 (ICR) BR mice per group. As the control, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]-anthracene (DMBA) was used for initiation followed by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for promotion. For assessing the tumor-initiating activity, 50 microliters of neat MDs was administered for 5 days with subsequent TPA promotion. In the promotion bioassay, after DMBA initiation 50 microliters of the neat MDs was administered twice weekly until Week 28. For the examination of complete carcinogenic activity, one MD was given without DMBA initiation. Hyperkeratosis, hyperplasia, and dermal inflammation, occurring during the initiation with the MDs, were completely reversible during the 2-week treatment-free period after initiation. Similar skin findings were observed during promotion with the MDs. Regarding the number of affected animals and the severity of the response, TPA was more irritating than the MDs. The initiation study revealed skin tumors for the DMBA/TPA control (30/30), MD 57,389 (14/30), MD 57,396 (5/30), MD 57,383 (4/30) and MD 57,324 (2/30). The promotion study revealed tumor induction by MDs 57,389 (9/30), 57,324 (1/30), 57,393 (1/30), and 57,396 (1/30). Two of 30 animals treated with MD 57,389 developed tumors without DMBA initiation thus indicating that it also is a complete carcinogen. MD 57,399 caused neither initiating nor promoting effects. The tumors observed were diagnosed histopathologically predominantly as squamous cell papillomas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Salient points in reconstruction of nasal skin after tumor ablation with local flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ebrahimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A variety of nasal skin reconstruction methods are available to meet the esthetic patient's needs. In this article, we review some of modifications of these procedures and share our experience in reconstruction of different parts of the nasal skin following skin tumor ablation. Patients and Methods : From January 2010 to January 2014, 171 patients underwent nasal skin reconstruction after excising cancerous lesions of the involved nasal skin. The patient's history, pre- and post-operation photographs, and the surgery data were collected and assessed. Demographic data related to the type of cancer, defect size and location, type of reconstruction were collected. Results: A variety of local flaps were used based on location and defect features. Nearly all flaps healed primarily without postsurgical significant complications. Conclusion: According to the results and the outcomes of the operations, we concluded that a certain flaps are more effective than others in nasal skin reconstruction. Local flap reconstruction of the nose has good esthetic result with low complication rate.

  19. Influence of low-energy laser radiation on normal skin and certain tumor tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pletnev, S.D.; Karpenko, O.M.

    For some years, the authors' Institute has studied the influence of various types of low-energy laser radiation on normal tissue and the growth of tumors. Radiation at 3 and 30 J/cm/sup 2/ causes an increase in biological activity of various cell elements, manifested as an increase in mitotic activity of the cells in the basal layer of the epidermis, conglomeration of chromatin in the cell nuclei and an increase in degranulation of fat cells in the process of their migration to the reticular layer. Also noted was an increase in content of fibroblastic and lymphohistocytic elements in the dermis, as well as an increase in collagenization of connective tissue. It was found that irradiation of the skin by helium-neon, cadmium-helium and nitrogen lasers before and after grafting of the cells of various tumors modifies the course of the tumor process. This effect is apparently related to the fact that systematic irradiation results in changes creating a favorable background for survival and proliferation of tumor cells in the skin tissue medium. The changes facilitate an increase in survival and growth of both pigmented and nonpigmented tumors. Low power radiation stimulates the activity of the cells or cell structures; medium power stimulates their activity; high power suppresses activity.

  20. The role of dermal irritation in the skin tumor promoting activity of petroleum middle distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, C S; Freeman, J J; Forgash, R C; McKee, R H

    1999-05-01

    Petroleum middle distillates (PMDs), a class of hydrocarbons which boil between 350-700 degrees F, are tumor promoters in mouse skin. The promotional activity is produced under conditions that also result in local changes, including chronic irritation and epidermal hyperplasia. The present study was conducted by comparing equal weekly doses of irritating and minimally or nonirritating test materials, to assess whether tumor promotion was a secondary response to these effects. Four PMDs, C10-C14 normal paraffins (NP), lightly refined paraffinic oil (LRPO), Jet Fuel A (JF), and steam-cracked gas oil (SCGO), were evaluated. Test materials were applied undiluted (2x/week) or as 28.6% (7x/week) or 50% (4x/week) concentrations in mineral oil for 52 weeks following initiation with dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA). When applied undiluted, all materials produced moderate irritation and significant increase in tumor incidence. When NP, LRPO, or JF were applied in mineral oil diluent, skin irritation was generally ameliorated and few, if any, tumors were produced. SCGO was irritating and produced a significant increase in tumor frequency when administered in mineral-oil diluent. These data indicate that the promotional activity of straight-run PMDs is likely related to chronic irritation at the application site and not to dose. Thus, when used appropriately in the absence of prolonged irritation, these materials should not present a tumorigenic hazard to humans.

  1. Radiophosphorus (32P)-test on precancerosis and malignant tumors of the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Rodermund, O.E.; Meurin, G.; Winkler, C.; Bonn Univ.

    1976-01-01

    In 21 patients with a variety of skin tumors (squamous cell carcinomas, malignant melanomas, basal cell epitheliomas and mycosis fungoides) or precancerous lesions (Bowen's disease, actinic keratosis, junctional nevus cell nevus) the radioactive phosphorus uptake test demonstrates a sign ficantly increased concentration of P 32 in those tumors. There were no false negative tests. The possibility of differentiation of malignant melanoma from benign nevus cell nevus and the early recognition of cutaneous metastases is described. Furthermore recurrence of previously irradiated or excised basal cell epitheliomas can be detected without a biopsy. No hematological side-effects were observed. (orig.) [de

  2. Importance of tumor size and repopulation for radiocurability of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciejewski, B.A.; Zajusz, A.; Lange, D.

    1993-01-01

    Data on 946 skin cancers treated by radiation were used to estimate the importance of repopulation. Six different treatment regimes were used, from a single dose to 74 Gy given in 47 fractions. High local control of the small skin cancers (L 1 cm) was independent of dose fractionation. For large tumors, only 74 Gy in 47 fractions was the optimal treatment. Time factor analysis showed a steep increase in the NTD50 values between day 28 and 65 of treatment. This implies that tumor clonogen repopulation starts around 4 weeks of treatment. The present results show a three-component dose-response curve instead of the two-component curves which were found for head and neck and bladder cancer. (author) 1 tab., 2 figs., 15 refs

  3. Short-term biomarkers of tumor promotion in mouse skin treated with petroleum middle distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walborg, E F; DiGiovanni, J; Conti, C J; Slaga, T J; Freeman, J J; Steup, D R; Skisak, C M

    1998-10-01

    Topical application of certain petroleum middle distillates (PMD) to mice produces skin tumors after long latency, and initiation/promotion protocols indicate that this effect is associated with their tumor promoting activity. Since induction of sustained, potentiated epidermal hyperplasia is predictive of promoting activity, five compositionally distinct PMD [hydrodesulfurized kerosene (API 81-07); hydrodesulfurized PMD (API 81-10); odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons; severely hydrotreated light vacuum distillate (LVD); and lightly refined paraffinic oil (LRPO)] were assessed for their effects on epidermal hyperplasia. PMD were administered (2 x/week for 2 weeks) to skin of CD-1 mice. Four quantitative biomarkers of epidermal hyperplasia were evaluated: epidermal thickness, number of nucleated epidermal cells per unit length of basement membrane, labeling (BrdUrd) index of epidermal cells, and induction of epidermal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity. As positive controls, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and n-dodecane were utilized. PMD-induced skin irritation was evaluated visually and/or histopathologically. All five PMD produced dose-dependent, skin irritation and epidermal hyperplasia. On a weight basis the magnitude of the maximal PMD-induced effects was similar to that produced by n-dodecane, but > 1000-fold less than that produced by TPA. Epidermal hyperplasia and subacute skin irritancy produced by the five PMD were similar. Of the four short-term markers of tumor promotion assessed, labeling index and epidermal ODC activity were predictive of the relative promoting activities of those PMD for which tumorigenicity bioassay data are available, i.e., API 81-07 > API 81-10 > LRPO. An apparent discrepancy to the predictability of epidermal ODC activity occurred with LRPO:toluene [1:1 (v/v)]. This mixture is nontumorigenic, yet significantly induced epidermal ODC activity. This mixture, however, produced severe epidermal toxicity that

  4. Studies of skin cancer and thyroid tumors after irradiation of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.E.; Moseson, M.; Hildreth, N.

    1992-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies of children given medical X-irradiation to the head and neck are described, one of 2,650 infants who received x-ray treatment for enlarged thymus glands and the other of 2,200 children who received x-ray treatment for tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp). The thymus study showed a dose-related excess of thyroid cancer and a long period of excess risk. The tinea study also showed an excess of thyroid tumors even though the thyroid dose was only about 0.06 Gy. An excess of non-melanotic skin cancers has also occurred in the tinea study, but no evidence for excess malignant melanomas. The skin cancer excess is not evident among blacks in the study, and, among Caucasians, it is more prominent among those with a light complexion. This suggests that host-susceptibility to ultraviolet effects is an important modifier of skin cancer risk from ionizing irradiation. (author)

  5. Virtual microscopy: an evaluation of its validity and diagnostic performance in routine histologic diagnosis of skin tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Patricia Switten; Lindebjerg, Jan; Rasmussen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Digitization of histologic slides is associated with many advantages, and its use in routine diagnosis holds great promise. Nevertheless, few articles evaluate virtual microscopy in routine settings. This study is an evaluation of the validity and diagnostic performance of virtual microscopy...... in routine histologic diagnosis of skin tumors. Our aim is to investigate whether conventional microscopy of skin tumors can be replaced by virtual microscopy. Ninety-six skin tumors and skin-tumor-like changes were consecutively gathered over a 1-week period. Specimens were routinely processed, and digital...... slides were captured on Mirax Scan (Carl Zeiss MicroImaging, Göttingen, Germany). Four pathologists evaluated the 96 virtual slides and the associated 96 conventional slides twice with intermediate time intervals of at least 3 weeks. Virtual slides that caused difficulties were reevaluated to identify...

  6. Preventive effect of chemical peeling on ultraviolet induced skin tumor formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; Funasaka, Yoko; Kamo, Tsuneyoshi; Ooe, Masahiko; Matsunaka, Hiroshi; Yanagita, Emmy; Itoh, Tomoo; Nishigori, Chikako

    2010-10-01

    Chemical peeling is one of the dermatological treatments available for certain cutaneous diseases and conditions or improvement of cosmetic appearance of photoaged skin. We assessed the photochemopreventive effect of several clinically used chemical peeling agents on the ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated skin of hairless mice. Chemical peeling was done using 35% glycolic acid dissolved in distilled water, 30% salicylic acid in ethanol, 10% or 35% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in distilled water at the right back of UV-irradiated hairless mice every 2 weeks in case of glycolic acid, salicylic acid, and 10% TCA and every 4 weeks in case of 35% TCA for totally 18 weeks after the establishment of photoaged mice by irradiation with UVA+B range light three times a week for 10 weeks at a total dose of 420 J/cm(2) at UVA and 9.6 J/cm(2) at UVB. Tumor formation was assessed every week. Skin specimens were taken from treated and non-treated area for evaluation under microscopy, evaluation of P53 expression, and mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Serum level of prostaglandin E(2) was also evaluated. All types of chemical peeling reduced tumor formation in treated mice, mostly in the treated area but also non-treated area. Peeling suppressed clonal retention of p53 positive abnormal cells and reduced mRNA expression of COX-2 in treated skin. Further, serum prostaglandin E(2) level was decreased in chemical peeling treated mice. These results indicate that chemical peeling with glycolic acid, salicylic acid, and TCA could serve tumor prevention by removing photodamaged cells. Copyright © 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A dicyanotriterpenoid induces cytoprotective enzymes and reduces multiplicity of skin tumors in UV-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Jenkins, Stephanie N.; Wehage, Scott L.; Huso, David L.; Benedict, Andrea L.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Fahey, Jed W.; Liu Hua; Liby, Karen T.; Honda, Tadashi; Gribble, Gordon W.; Sporn, Michael B.; Talalay, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Inducible phase 2 enzymes constitute a primary line of cellular defense. The oleanane dicyanotriterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-onitrile (TP-225) is a very potent inducer of these systems. Topical application of TP-225 to SKH-1 hairless mice increases the levels of NAD(P)H-quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and protects against UV radiation-induced dermal thickening. Daily topical treatments of 10 nmol of TP-225 to the backs of mice that were previously subjected to low-level chronic UVB radiation (30 mJ/cm 2 /session, twice a week for 17 weeks), led to 50% reduction in multiplicity of skin tumors. In addition, the total tumor burden of squamous cell carcinomas was reduced by 5.5-fold. The identification of new agents for protection against UV radiation-induced skin cancer and understanding of their mechanism(s) of action is especially important in view of the fact that human skin cancers represent a significant source of increasing morbidity and mortality

  8. Gene expression in skin tumors induced in hairless mice by chronic exposure to ultraviolet B irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiromi; Tanaka, Misao; Kobayashi, Shizuko; Suzuki, Junko S.; Ogiso, Manabu; Tohyama, Chiharu

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the expressions of c-Ha-ras, c-jun, c-fos, c-myc genes and p53 protein in the development of skin tumours induced by chronic exposure to UVB without a photosensitizer using hairless mice. When mice were exposed to UVB at a dose of 2 kJ/m 2 three times a week, increased c-Ha-ras and c-myc transcripts were detected after only 5 weeks of exposure, while no tumour appeared on the exposed skin. The increase in gene expression continued until 25 weeks, when tumours, identified pathologically as mainly squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), developed in the dorsal skin. In these SCC, overexpression of c-fos mRNA was also observed along with the increases in c-Ha-ras and c-myc. A single dose of UVB (2 kJ/m 2 ) applied to the backs of hairless mice transiently induced overexpression of the early event genes c-fos, c-jun and c-myc, but not c-Ha-ras, in the exposed area of skin. Accumulation of p53 protein was determined by Western blotting analysis of immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies PAb 240 or 246, which recognize mutant or wide type, respectively. In the SCC, a mutant p53 protein accumulated in the cytoplasm and nucleus. After single-dose irradiation, the increased wild-type p53 protein was observed in the nuclei of epidermal cells. The present results suggest that overexpression of the c-fos, c-myc and c-Ha-ras genes, and the mutational changes in p53 protein might be associated with skin photocarcinogenesis. Moreover, overexpression of the c-Ha-ras and c-myc genes might be an early event in the development of UVB-induced skin tumors in mice. (author)

  9. Skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells as quantum dot vehicles to tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapkute D

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dominyka Dapkute,1,2 Simona Steponkiene,1 Danute Bulotiene,1 Liga Saulite,3 Una Riekstina,3 Ricardas Rotomskis1,4 1Biomedical Physics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, Vilnius, Lithuania; 2Institute of Biosciences, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania; 3Faculty of Medicine, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia; 4Biophotonics Group of Laser Research Center, Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania Purpose: Cell-mediated delivery of nanoparticles is emerging as a new method of cancer diagnostics and treatment. Due to their inherent regenerative properties, adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are naturally attracted to wounds and sites of inflammation, as well as tumors. Such characteristics enable MSCs to be used in cellular hitchhiking of nanoparticles. In this study, MSCs extracted from the skin connective tissue were investigated as transporters of semiconductor nanocrystals quantum dots (QDs.Materials and methods: Cytotoxicity of carboxylated CdSe/ZnS QDs was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase cell viability assay. Quantitative uptake of QDs was determined by flow cytometry; their intracellular localization was evaluated by confocal microscopy. In vitro tumor-tropic migration of skin-derived MSCs was verified by Transwell migration assay. For in vivo migration studies of QD-loaded MSCs, human breast tumor-bearing immunodeficient mice were used.Results: QDs were found to be nontoxic to MSCs in concentrations no more than 16 nM. The uptake studies showed a rapid QD endocytosis followed by saturating effects after 6 h of incubation and intracellular localization in the perinuclear region. In vitro migration of MSCs toward MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and their conditioned medium was up to nine times greater than the migration toward noncancerous breast epithelial cells MCF-10A. In vivo, systemically administered QD-labeled MSCs were mainly located in the tumor and metastatic tissues, evading most healthy organs with the

  10. Usefulness of V-Y Advancement Flap for Defects after Skin Tumor Excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hyun Kwon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAfter skin tumor excision on the face, extremities, or trunk, the choice of treatment for a skin defect is highly variable. Many surgeons prefer to use a local flap rather than a skin graft or free flap for small- or moderately-sized circular defects. We have used unilateral or bilateral V-Y advancement flaps, especially on the face. Here we evaluated the functional and aesthetic results of this technique.MethodsAll of the patients were pathologically diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, basal cell carcinoma (BCC, or malignant melanoma or premalignant lesion (Bowen's disease. Thirty-two patients underwent V-Y advancement flap repair (11 unilateral and 21 bilateral from January 2007 to June 2011. We analyzed the patients' age and satisfaction, and location and size of defect. The patients were followed up for 6 months or more.ResultsThere were 22 women and 10 men. The ages ranged from 47 to 93 years with a mean age of 66 years. The causes were SCC in 15 cases, BCC in 13 cases, malignant melanoma in 1 case, Bowen's disease in 2 cases, and another cause in 1 case. The tumor locations were the face in 28 patients, and the scalp, upper limb, and flank each in one patient. All of the flaps survived and the aesthetic results were good. Postoperative recovery was usually rapid, and no complication or tumor recurrence was observed.ConclusionsThe V-Y advancement flap is often used not only for facial circular defects but also for defects of the trunk and extremities. Its advantages are less scarring and superior aesthetic results as compared with other local flap methods, because of less scarification of adjacent tissue and because it is an easy surgical technique.

  11. Imatinib induced severe skin reactions and neutropenia in a patient with gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jun-Eul; Yoon, Ju-Young; Bae, Woo-Kyun; Shim, Hyun-Jeong; Cho, Sang-Hee; Chung, Ik-Joo

    2010-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate has been used for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). The current recommended dose of imatinib is 400 mg/day that is increased to 800 mg/day in cases with disease progression. However, imatinib can be associated with diverse adverse events, which has limited its use. We report a case of severe adverse skin reactions with neutropenic fever during imatinib treatment in a patient with GIST. A 71-year-old man was admitted with a one month history of epigastric pain and a palpable mass in the right upper quadrant. An abdominal CT scan revealed a 20 × 19 cm intraabdominal mass with tumor invasion into the peritoneum. Needle biopsy was performed and the results showed spindle shaped tumor cells that were positive for c-KIT. The patient was diagnosed with unresectable GIST. Imatinib 400 mg/day was started. The patient tolerated the first eight weeks of treatment. However, about three months later, the patient developed a grade 4 febrile neutropenia and a grade 3 exfoliative skin rash. The patient recovered from this serious adverse events after discontinuation of imatinib with supportive care. However, the skin lesions recurred whenever the patient received imatinib over 100 mg/day. Therefore, imatinib 100 mg/day was maintained. Despite the low dose imatinib, follow up CT showed a marked partial response without grade 3 or 4 toxicities. The recommended dose of imatinib for the treatment of GIST is 400 mg/day but patients at risk for adverse drug reaction may benefit from lower doses. Individualized treatment is needed for such patients, and we may also try sunitinib as a alternative drug

  12. Influence of the Human Skin Tumor Type in Photodynamic Therapy Analysed by a Predictive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Salas-García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic Therapy (PDT modeling allows the prediction of the treatment results depending on the lesion properties, the photosensitizer distribution, or the optical source characteristics. We employ a predictive PDT model and apply it to different skin tumors. It takes into account optical radiation distribution, a nonhomogeneous topical photosensitizer spatial temporal distribution, and the time-dependent photochemical interaction. The predicted singlet oxygen molecular concentrations with varying optical irradiance are compared and could be directly related with the necrosis area. The results show a strong dependence on the particular lesion. This suggests the need to design optimal PDT treatment protocols adapted to the specific patient and lesion.

  13. Merkel cell tumor of the skin treated with localized radiotherapy: are widely negative margins required?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Parda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Merkel’s cell carcinoma is a rare cutaneous tumor that can affect a wide variety of sites throughout the body. Commonly, it affects the skin alone and the management of limited disease can be confusing since the natural history of the disease involves distant metastasis. Traditional management has required wide local excision with negative margins of resection. We describe a case treated with local therapy alone and review the literature to suggest that complete microscopic excision may not be required if adjuvant radiotherapy is used.

  14. Sunlight suppressing rejection of 280- to 320-nm UV-radiation-induced skin tumors in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morison, W.L.; Kelley, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    Repeated exposure of female C3H/HeNCR- mice to sunlight prevented the normal immunologic rejection of a UV-induced tumor. This systemic immunologic alteration was transferred to syngeneic lethally X-irradiated animals with lymphoid cells from mice exposed to sunlight. The lymphoid cells also were able to suppress the capacity of lymphoid cells from normal animals to reject a UV-induced tumor. The 295- to 320-nm wave band appeared to be responsible for this immunosuppressive effect of sunlight because suppression was prevented by filtration of the radiation through Mylar and by application of a sunscreen containing para-aminobenzoic acid. These observations may have importance in understanding the pathogenesis of sunlight-induced skin cancer in humans

  15. Advances in the in Vivo Raman Spectroscopy of Malignant Skin Tumors Using Portable Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kourkoumelis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy has emerged as a promising tool for real-time clinical diagnosis of malignant skin tumors offering a number of potential advantages: it is non-intrusive, it requires no sample preparation, and it features high chemical specificity with minimal water interference. However, in vivo tissue evaluation and accurate histopathological classification remain a challenging task for the successful transition from laboratory prototypes to clinical devices. In the literature, there are numerous reports on the applications of Raman spectroscopy to biomedical research and cancer diagnostics. Nevertheless, cases where real-time, portable instrumentations have been employed for the in vivo evaluation of skin lesions are scarce, despite their advantages in use as medical devices in the clinical setting. This paper reviews the advances in real-time Raman spectroscopy for the in vivo characterization of common skin lesions. The translational momentum of Raman spectroscopy towards the clinical practice is revealed by (i assembling the technical specifications of portable systems and (ii analyzing the spectral characteristics of in vivo measurements.

  16. Analysis of 3D OCT images for diagnosis of skin tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupov, Dmitry S.; Myakinin, Oleg O.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Zakharov, Valery P.; Khramov, Alexander G.

    2018-04-01

    Skin cancer is one of the fastest growing type of cancer. It represents the most commonly diagnosed malignancy, surpassing lung, breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. So, diagnostics for different types of skin cancer on early stages is a very high challenge for medicine industry. New optical imaging techniques have been developed in order to improve diagnostics precision. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is based on low-coherence interferometry to detect the intensity of backscattered infrared light from biological tissues by measuring the optical path length. OCT provides the advantage of real-time, in vivo, low-cost imaging of suspicious lesions without having to proceed directly to a tissue biopsy. The post-processing techniques can be used for improving the precision of diagnostics and providing solutions to overcome limitations for OCT. Image processing can include noise filtration and evaluation of textural, geometric, morphological, spectral, statistic and other features. The main idea of this investigation is using information received from multiple analyze on 2D- and 3D-OCT images for skin tumors differentiating. At first, we tested the computer algorithm on OCT data hypercubes and separated B- and C-scans. Combination of 2D and 3D data give us an opportunity to receive common information about tumor (geometric and morphological characteristics) and use more powerful algorithms for features evaluation (fractal and textural) on these separated scans. These groups of features provide closer connection to classical wide-used ABCDE criteria (Asymmetry, Border irregularity, Color, Diameter, Evolution). We used a set of features consisting of fractal dimension, Haralick's, Gabor's, Tamura's, Markov random fields, geometric features and many others. We could note about good results on the test sets in differentiation between BCC and Nevus, MM and Healthy Skin. We received dividing MM from Healthy Skin with sensitivity more 90% and specificity more 92% (168 B

  17. Malignant Tumor Derived from Skin Melanocytes of a Bovine of Unusual Presentation: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Chaves Velásquez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Melanocytic tumors and melanomas in domestic animals include neoplasms composed of melanin-producing cells. In cattle, these tumors are rare and mostly benign, while malignant tumors are almost non-existent. The article reports the case of a female crossbred cow 38 months of age with a fluctuating mass located between the mandibular border and the left parotid region, about three months duration, with evident growth in the last thirty days. After surgical excision, a sample preserved in buffered formalin (10% was sent to the Laboratory of Pathology (University of Nariño—consisting of a fragment of 7.0 × 10.5 × 8.0 cm, ellipsoid, with skin and hair on one side, irregular surface, blackish brown, semi-soft consistency, and presence of shear translucent slimy content—for processing and inclusion in paraffin, cut to 5 μm thickness and stained with hematoxylin-eosin coloration. The forwarded tissue was classified as a neoplasm of malignant behavior derived from melanocytes, due to its cellular characteristics: growth pattern, pattern of distribution, severe cellular pleomorphism, anisocytosis, megalocytosis, nuclear pleomorphism, anisokaryosis, megalokaryosis, and involvement of blood vessel walls; additionally, the paraffin block was cut for immunohistochemical processing using monoclonal markers (S-100 DAKO® and Melan A DAKO®, contrasted with Mayer’s hematoxylin. Strong immunostaining of neoplastic cells is evident, and it constitutes the first reported case of this disease in Nariño (Colombia.

  18. Detection of new MHC mutations in mice by skin grafting, tumor transplantation and monoclonal antibodies: a comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, I.K.; Egorov, O.S.

    1988-01-01

    Two mechanisms of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) mutations have been described in mice: gene conversion and homologous but unequal recombination. However, the knowledge of mutations in MHC is incomplete because studies have been limited almost exclusively to two haplotypes, H-2/sup b/ and H-2/sup d/, while hundreds of haplotypes exist in nature; it has been biased by the use of only one procedure of screening for mutation, skin grafting. The authors used three procedures to screen for MHC mutations: (1) conventional techniques of skin grafting, (2) syngeneic tumor transplantation and (3) typing with monoclonal anti-MHC antibodies (mAbs) and complement. The faster technique of tumor transplantation detected mutants similar to those discovered by skin grafting technique. Screening with mAbs allowed us to detect both mutants that are capable of rejecting standard skin grafts and those that are silent in skin grafting tests, and which therefore resulted in a higher apparent mutation frequency. Two mutants of the H-2/sup a/ haplotype were found that carry concomitant class I and class II antigenic alterations. Both MHC mutants silent in skin grafting tests and mutants carrying concomitant class I and class II alterations have never been studied before and are expected to reveal new mechanisms of generating MHC mutations. 1-Ethyl-1-nitrosourea (ENU) failed to induce de novo MHC mutations in our skin grafting series

  19. TIG3 tumor suppressor-dependent organelle redistribution and apoptosis in skin cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany M Scharadin

    Full Text Available TIG3 is a tumor suppressor protein that limits keratinocyte survival during normal differentiation. It is also important in cancer, as TIG3 level is reduced in tumors and in skin cancer cell lines, suggesting that loss of expression may be required for cancer cell survival. An important goal is identifying how TIG3 limits cell survival. In the present study we show that TIG3 expression in epidermal squamous cell carcinoma SCC-13 cells reduces cell proliferation and promotes morphological and biochemical apoptosis. To identify the mechanism that drives these changes, we demonstrate that TIG3 localizes near the centrosome and that pericentrosomal accumulation of TIG3 alters microtubule and microfilament organization and organelle distribution. Organelle accumulation at the centrosome is a hallmark of apoptosis and we demonstrate that TIG3 promotes pericentrosomal organelle accumulation. These changes are associated with reduced cyclin D1, cyclin E and cyclin A, and increased p21 level. In addition, Bax level is increased and Bcl-XL level is reduced, and cleavage of procaspase 3, procaspase 9 and PARP is enhanced. We propose that pericentrosomal localization of TIG3 is a key event that results in microtubule and microfilament redistribution and pericentrosomal organelle clustering and that leads to cancer cell apoptosis.

  20. Chronic liver injury in mice promotes impairment of skin barrier function via tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Satoshi; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Koyama, Mayu; Ooi, Kazuya

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol is frequently used to induce chronic liver injury in laboratory animals. Alcohol causes oxidative stress in the liver and increases the expression of inflammatory mediators that cause hepatocellular damage. However, during chronic liver injury, it is unclear if/how these liver-derived factors affect distal tissues, such as the skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate skin barrier function during chronic liver injury. Hairless mice were administered 5% or 10% ethanol for 8 weeks, and damages to the liver and skin were assessed using histological and protein-analysis methods, as well as by detecting inflammatory mediators in the plasma. After alcohol administration, the plasma concentration of the aspartate and alanine aminotransferases increased, while albumin levels decreased. In mice with alcohol-induced liver injury, transepidermal water loss was significantly increased, and skin hydration decreased concurrent with ceramide and type I collagen degradation. The plasma concentrations of [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were significantly increased in mice with induced liver injury. TNF receptor (TNFR) 2 expression was upregulated in the skin of alcohol-administered mice, while TNFR1 levels remained constant. Interestingly, the impairment of skin barrier function in mice administered with 10% ethanol was ameliorated by administering an anti-TNF-α antibody. We propose a novel mechanism whereby plasma TNF-α, via TNFR2 alone or with TNFR1, plays an important role in skin barrier function during chronic liver disease in these mouse models.

  1. Radiolabeled F(ab')2-cetuximab for theranostic purposes in colorectal and skin tumor-bearing mice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaye, P-S; Moreau, M; Raguin, O; Oudot, A; Bernhard, C; Vrigneaud, J-M; Dumont, L; Vandroux, D; Denat, F; Cochet, A; Brunotte, F; Collin, B

    2018-05-17

    This study aimed to investigate theranostic strategies in colorectal and skin cancer based on fragments of cetuximab, an anti-EGFR mAb, labeled with radionuclide with imaging and therapeutic properties, 111 In and 177 Lu, respectively. We designed F(ab') 2 -fragments of cetuximab radiolabeled with 111 In and 177 Lu. 111 In-F(ab') 2 -cetuximab tumor targeting and biodistribution were evaluated by SPECT in BalbC nude mice bearing primary colorectal tumors. The efficacy of 111 In-F(ab') 2 -cetuximab to assess therapy efficacy was performed on BalbC nude mice bearing colorectal tumors receiving 17-DMAG, an HSP90 inhibitor. Therapeutic efficacy of the radioimmunotherapy based on 177 Lu-F(ab') 2 -cetuximab was evaluated in SWISS nude mice bearing A431 tumors. Radiolabeling procedure did not change F(ab') 2 -cetuximab and cetuximab immunoreactivity nor affinity for HER1 in vitro. 111 In-DOTAGA-F(ab') 2 -cetuximab exhibited a peak tumor uptake at 24 h post-injection and showed a high tumor specificity determined by a significant decrease in tumor uptake after the addition of an excess of unlabeled-DOTAGA-F(ab') 2 -cetuximab. SPECT imaging of 111 In-DOTAGA-F(ab') 2 -cetuximab allowed an accurate evaluation of tumor growth and successfully predicted the decrease in tumor growth induced by 17-DMAG. Finally, 177 Lu-DOTAGA-F(ab') 2 -cetuximab radioimmunotherapy showed a significant reduction of tumor growth at 4 and 8 MBq doses. 111 In-DOTAGA-F(ab') 2 -cetuximab is a reliable and stable tool for specific in vivo tumor targeting and is suitable for therapy efficacy assessment. 177 Lu-DOTAGA-F(ab') 2 -cetuximab is an interesting theranostic tool allowing therapy and imaging.

  2. Plasmin-driven fibrinolysis facilitates skin tumor growth in a gender-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Andreas; Eickhardt, Hanne; Maerkedahl, Rasmus Baadsgaard

    2012-01-01

    deficiency was due to thrombosis and lost patency of the tumor vasculature, resulting in tumor necrosis. The connection between plasmin-dependent fibrinolysis, vascular patency, and tumor growth was further substantiated as the effect of plasminogen deficiency on tumor growth could be reverted...

  3. Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Malignant disease involving the skin represents a significant work load to the general radiotherapist and can involve interesting diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Primary skin cancer is also relatively common and there is a need to provide an efficient service in which the first treatment is successful in the majority of patients. The reward for careful attention to technique is very considerable both in terms of clinical cancer control and functional results. Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and intra-epidermal carcinoma constitute the majority of the lesions dealt with clinically, but metastatic disease, lymphomas, and malignant melanomas are also referred regularly for opinions and may require radiotherapy. The general principle of the techniques of assessment and radiotherapeutic management to be described are equally applicable to any malignant skin tumour once the decision has been made to accept it for radiotherapy. Dosage and fractionation may have to be adjusted to allow for the nature of the disease process and the intent of the treatment

  4. Use of special radioactive molds of gold-198 foils for brachytherapy in skin tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Marco Antonio Rodrigues

    2000-01-01

    This work presents a methodology for manufacturing molds of radioactive gold-198 foils for treatment of skin tumors. The metallic purity of the gold foils produced by the Brazilian market is analyzed and compared to the characteristics of imported materials. Techniques for analyses of the activation homogeneity and dose profile in the plane of the mold are presented. The MicroShield, Version 4 System is used in the theoretical determination of the dose rate along the radioactive molds with different geometries and a comparison with experimental values obtained by optic density readings from special films used in quality control of radiotherapy equipment, dosimetry for thimble ionization chamber and thermoluminescent dosimeters is performed. The dosimeter calibration curve (dose-answer) obtained for the gold-198 energy, is compared with that obtained by a high dose rate iridium-192 small source, commonly used in the brachytherapy procedures. The studies show that the best homogeneity of dose distribution is obtained distributing the radioactive material in the form of concentric rings, with different activities, in number and dimensions dependent on the area to be treated. The method of the radiation dose calculation of the molds presented in this work, is compared with the traditional method used by brachytherapy services for low dose rate. Twenty lesions were treated with the proposed molds. The effectiveness of this methodology is further supported by the cosmetic-therapeutic results of the clinical applications, as well as cost analysis of the procedures. Also, it is analyzed the homogeneity of the dose rate distribution for an irradiated disk with attenuation by two silver coin, objectifying to eliminate loss of mass and consequently uncertainties in the activation when the sections of the disks are made in concentric rings. (author)

  5. Grape seed proanthocyanidins reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes in human skin cancer cells by targeting epigenetic regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaid, Mudit; Prasad, Ram; Singh, Tripti; Jones, Virginia; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2012-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been shown to have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in in vitro and in vivo models. However, the precise epigenetic molecular mechanisms remain unexplored. This study was designed to investigate whether GSPs reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes following epigenetic modifications in skin cancer cells. For this purpose, A431 and SCC13 human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were used as in vitro models. The effects of GSPs on DNA methylation, histone modifications and tumor suppressor gene expressions were studied in these cell lines using enzyme activity assays, western blotting, dot-blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that treatment of A431 and SCC13 cells with GSPs decreased the levels of: (i) global DNA methylation, (ii) 5-methylcytosine, (iii) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and (iv) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b in these cells. Similar effects were noted when these cancer cells were treated identically with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation. GSPs decreased histone deacetylase activity, increased levels of acetylated lysines 9 and 14 on histone H3 (H3-Lys 9 and 14) and acetylated lysines 5, 12 and 16 on histone H4, and reduced the levels of methylated H3-Lys 9. Further, GSP treatment resulted in re-expression of the mRNA and proteins of silenced tumor suppressor genes, RASSF1A, p16 INK4a and Cip1/p21. Together, this study provides a new insight into the epigenetic mechanisms of GSPs and may have significant implications for epigenetic therapy in the treatment/prevention of skin cancers in humans. -- Highlights: ►Epigenetic modulations have been shown to have a role in cancer risk. ►Proanthocyanidins decrease the levels of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. ►Proanthocyanidins inhibit histone deacetylase activity in skin cancer cells. ►Proanthocyanidins reactivate tumor suppressor genes in skin

  6. Intake of high-fat diet stimulates the risk of ultraviolet radiation-induced skin tumors and malignant progression of papillomas to carcinoma in SKH-1 hairless mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaid, Mudit; Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Katiyar, Santosh K., E-mail: skatiyar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that administration of a high-fat diet (HF-diet) to C57BL/6 mice exacerbates their response to short-term UVB radiation-induced inflammation in the skin. To explore the effects of an HF-diet on UVB-induced tumorigenesis, we have used the SKH-1 hairless mouse model in which the mice are exposed to UVB radiation (180 mJ/cm{sup 2}) three times a week for 24 weeks. The development of UVB-induced skin tumors was rapid and the tumor multiplicity and tumor size were significantly higher (P < 0.01–0.005) in the mice fed an HF-diet than the mice fed a control-diet (C-diet). Moreover, the malignant progression of UVB-induced papillomas to carcinomas was higher in HF-diet-fed mice. On analysis of tumors and tumor-uninvolved skin samples from the tumor-bearing mice, we found that administration of an HF-diet significantly enhanced the levels of UVB-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E{sub 2} (P < 0.01), and PGE{sub 2} receptors, and activation of NF-κB in the UVB-exposed skin as well as in tumors. In addition the HF-diet enhanced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (P < 0.01), interleukin (IL)-1β (P < 0.01) and IL-6 (P < 0.05) in the UVB-exposed skin as well as in tumors. Western blot analysis revealed that HF-diet enhanced the levels of epidermal cell proliferation, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phosphorylation of Akt at Ser{sup 473} in UVB-exposed skin and skin tumors. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the regular consumption of an HF-diet increases the risk of photocarcinogenesis in mice and that this is associated with enhanced expression of inflammatory mediators in the UVB-exposed skin and tumors. - Highlights: • Consumption of high-fat diet increases UVB-induced skin tumor development in mice. • Intake of high-fat diet stimulates progression of UV-induced papilloma to carcinoma. • Intake of high-fat diet enhances inflammation in UV-exposed skin • Regular

  7. SOCS3 inhibits the pathological effects of IL-22 in non-melanoma skin tumor-derived keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, Stefania; Scarponi, Claudia; Morelli, Martina; Sestito, Rosanna; Scognamiglio, Pasqualina Liana; Marasco, Daniela; Albanesi, Cristina

    2017-04-11

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and squamous-cell carcinomas (SCC) are common malignancies in humans, caused by neoplastic transformation of keratinocytes of the basal or suprabasal layers of epidermis, respectively. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are frequently found in BCC and SCC, and functionally promote epithelial carcinogenesis. TILs secreting IL-22, in particular, participate to BCC and SCC growth by inducing keratinocyte proliferation and migration, as well as the expression of inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic genes.In this study, we identified SOCS3 as a valid candidate to be manipulated for suppressing tumorigenic functions in BCC and SCC. We found that SOCS3 and SOCS1 expression was reduced in vivo, in tumor lesions of BCC and SCC, as compared to other skin inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis, despite the high number of IL-22-secreting TILs. Moreover, IL-22 was not able to induce in vitro the transcriptional expression of SOCS3 in BCC-or SCC-derived keratinocytes, contrarily to healthy cells. Aimed at rescuing SOCS3 activity in these tumor contexts, a SOCS3-derived peptide, named KIR-ESS, was synthesized, and its ability in suppressing IL-22-induced responses was evaluated in healthy and transformed keratinocytes. We found that KIR-ESS peptide efficiently suppressed the IL-22 molecular signaling in keratinocytes, by acting on STAT3 and Erk1/2 cascade, as well as on the expression of STAT3-dependent downstream genes. Interestingly, after treatment with peptide, both healthy and transformed keratinocytes could no longer aberrantly proliferate and migrate in response to IL-22. Finally, treatment of athymic nude mice bearing SCC xenografts with KIR-ESS peptide concomitantly reduced tumor growth and activated STAT3 levels. As a whole, these data provides the rationale for the use in BCC and SCC skin tumors of SOCS3 mimetics, being able to inhibit the deleterious effects of IL-22 in these contexts.

  8. Adnexal Tumors of Skin: An Experience at a Tertiary Care Center at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concordance of clinical and histopathological diagnosis was also assessed. Results: Most of the ATs were benign (24/25) with head and neck being the most common location (72%). Nearly 56% of the tumors exhibited sweat gland differentiation, 28% hair follicle differentiation, and sebaceous gland tumors accounted ...

  9. A case grafted with polyglycolic acid sheets and fibrin glue for protection after temporary resection of a metastatic cervical skin tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzuka, Takashi; Suzuki, Masahiro; Ikeda, Masakazu; Sato, Kaoru; Fujimoto, Junko; Hosaka, Rumi; Tanji, Yuko; Soeda, Shu; Murono, Shigeyuki

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this case report was to evaluate the usefulness of a grafting with polyglycolic acid sheet and a fibrin glue spray (PGA sheet grafting) after resection of a cervical skin tumor. A 61-year-old woman presented with left cervical skin tumor resistance to chemo-radiotherapy. She had been undergoing multimodal therapy for ovarian serous papillary adenocarcinoma for the previous six years. Although she had a poor general condition and a cervical skin tumor of 9cm in diameter, which was painful and easy bleeding, had offensive smell, she hoped to return to her job. Under local anesthesia, resection was performed, and PGA sheet grafting were used to shield the skin defect. After resection, she was relieved from pain, and could stay home without daily wound treatment. One and half months after resection, the wound was almost epithelialized. The PGA sheets consist of soft, elastic, nonwoven fabric made of PGA. In recent years, PGA sheet grafting has been widely used in the reconstruction and was chosen to shield the skin defect for this case. PGA sheet grafting after resection of cervical skin tumor can be an acceptable method for palliative care to relieve pain, bleeding, offensive smell, and ugly appearance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Transgenic Overexpression of the Proprotein Convertase Furin Enhances Skin Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Fu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Furin, one of the members of the family of proprotein convertases (PCs, ubiquitously expressed as a type I membrane-bound proteinase, activates several proteins that contribute to tumor progression. In vitro studies using cancer cell lines and clinical specimens demonstrated that furin processes important substrates such as insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R and transforming growth factor β, leading to increased tumor growth and progression. Despite the numerous studies associating furin with tumor development, its effects in preclinical models has not been comprehensively studied. In this study, we sought to determine the protumorigenic role of furin in vivo after a two-stage chemical carcinogenesis protocol in transgenic mice in which furin expression was targeted to the epidermal basal layer. We found that processing of the PC substrate IGF-1R and the proliferation rate of mouse epidermis was enhanced in transgenic mice when compared with their WT counterparts. Histopathologic diagnoses of the tumors demonstrated that furin transgenic mice (line F47 developed twice as many squamous carcinomas as the control, WT mice (P < .002. Similarly, tumors cells from transgenic mice were able to process PC substrates more efficiently than tumor cells from WT mice. Furthermore, furin expression resulted in a higher SCC volume in transgenic mice as well as an increase in the percentage of high-grade SCC, including poorly differentiated and spindle cell carcinomas. In conclusion, expression of furin in the basal layer of the epidermis increased tumor development and enhanced tumor growth, supporting the consideration of furin as a potential target for cancer treatment.

  11. Loss of Snail2 favors skin tumor progression by promoting the recruitment of myeloid progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villarejo, Ana; Molina-Ortiz, Patricia; Montenegro, Yenny

    2015-01-01

    showed that loss of Snail2 leads to a decrease in proliferation indicating a non-cell autonomous role for Snail2 in the skin carcinogenic response observed in vivo. Bone marrow (BM) cross-reconstitution assays between Snail2 wild-type and null mice showed that Snail2 absence in the hematopoietic system...

  12. Optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of malignant skin tumors: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yi-Quan; Mo, Yun; Wen, Yu-Qi; Cheng, Ming-Ji; Huo, Shu-Ting; Chen, Xue-Jiao; Chen, Qing

    2018-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emergent imaging tool used for noninvasive diagnosis of skin diseases. The present meta-analysis was carried out to assess the accuracy of OCT for the diagnosis of skin cancer. We conducted a systematic literature search though EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science database for relevant articles published up to June 6, 2017. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool and the Oxford Levels of Evidence Scale. Statistical analyses were conducted using the software Meta-Disc version 1.4 and STATA version 12.0. A total of 14 studies involving more than 813 patients with a total of 1958 lesions were included in our analyses. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of OCT for skin cancer diagnoses were 91.8% and 86.7%, respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that the pooled sensitivities of OCT for detecting basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), actinic keratosis, and malignant melanoma were 92.4%, 92.3%, 73.8%, and 81.0%, respectively. The pooled specificities were 86.9%, 99.5%, 91.5%, and 93.8%, respectively. OCT appears to be useful for the detection of BCC and SCC. It is a valuable diagnostic method when screening for early skin cancers.

  13. Tumor necrosis factor-α-accelerated degradation of type I collagen in human skin is associated with elevated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågren, Magnus S; Schnabel, Reinhild; Christensen, Lise H

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α induces matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that may disrupt skin integrity. We have investigated the effects and mechanisms of exogenous TNF-α on collagen degradation by incubating human skin explants in defined serum-free media with or without TNF-α (10ng/ml) in the a......Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α induces matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that may disrupt skin integrity. We have investigated the effects and mechanisms of exogenous TNF-α on collagen degradation by incubating human skin explants in defined serum-free media with or without TNF-α (10ng...... tissue-derived collagenolytic activity with TNF-α exposure was blocked by neutralizing MMP-1 monoclonal antibody and was not due to down-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1. TNF-α increased production (pendogenous MMP-1...

  14. Induction of short-term biomarkers of tumor promotion in skin of CD-1 mice by petroleum middle distillates: preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skisak, C; DiGiovanni, J; Conti, C J; Slaga, T J; Sharma, S; Sagartz, J W; Walborg, E F

    1995-01-01

    The induction of sustained epidermal hyperplasia in mouse skin has been shown to be a reliable predictor of tumor promoting activity for chemicals as diverse as phorbol esters, anthralins, n-dodecane and organic peroxides (DiGiovanni, 1992). The results contained herein demonstrate that API 81-07 and API 81-10, petroleum middle distillates that exhibit tumor promoting activity in mouse skin, induce epidermal hyperplasia and ODC activity. Other petroleum middle distillates (odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons, a light vacuum distillate, and a mineral seal oil) were also shown to share these activities. It should be emphasized that the relevance of these observations to human skin remains unresolved; however, the availability of these short-term biomarkers offers the opportunity to address the issue by performing comparative investigations on the effects of petroleum middle distillates on human skin xenografted to athymic (nude) mice. Such studies are being initiated.

  15. Elaboration of an algorithm for preserving a projective skin flap above the tumor when planning subcutaneous mastectomy from an aesthetically acceptable area in patients with breast nodule cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Khamitov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indications for the conservation of the skin flap over the tumor for potential offset of the operational access in aesthetically acceptable zone in patients with primary nodular breast cancer are discussed in the article. The survey results of 203 patients (T1–2N0–3M0 are analyzed. The study revealed that the risk factors affecting the skin flap involvement are the presence of the skin flattening as well as topographic and anatomical characteristics: tumor < 3 cm, located at a depth of < 0.46 ± 0.2 cm, tumor ≥ 3 cm located at a depth of < 1.66 cm. Based on the data the algorithm for immediate breast reconstruction from aesthetically acceptable zone for surgical oncologist is compiled.

  16. HMB-45 negative clear cell perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusiol, Teresa; Morichetti, Doriana; Zorzi, Maria Grazia; Dario, Surace

    2012-01-01

    The first case of cutaneous clear cell perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) with negative HMB-45 marker is presented. The tumor was a nodule 3x2 cm in size, located on the right foot in a 60-year-old man. The lesion consisted of large irregularly shaped cells with clear cytoplasm, negative for S-100 protein, HMB-45, Melan-A, pancytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen and CAM5.2. Multifocal positivity for desmin, microphthalmia transcription factor and tyrosinase was found. The diagnosis of cutaneous PEComa of clear cell type was made. Clear cell change is a very unusual finding in PEComa and may pose problems in diagnostic differentiation from other clear cell cutaneous lesions that may be excluded with immunohistochemistry. In our case, the HMB-45 negativity may be explained by extensive clear cell change. Additional studies are necessary to accept the clear cell cutaneous HMB-45 negative PEComa as a new variant of perivascular epithelioid cell tumor.

  17. A 28-Year-Old Male Patient with Nail Tumors, Skin Lesions, and Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balak, Deepak M W; Zonnenberg, Bernard A; Spitzer-Naaijkens, Juliette M J; Hulshof, Mieke M

    2017-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of benign hamartomas in multiple organs. Most patients with TSC exhibit cutaneous manifestations. We report a 28-year-old patient with multiple pink papules at the proximal nail fold of several toes. Histopathological analysis of a biopsy of a papule was consistent with an ungual fibroma. Histopathological analysis of a biopsy of an elevated skin-colored plaque at the lower back was diagnostic for a Shagreen patch. These findings were consistent with a clinical diagnosis of TSC. This patient was subsequently referred to a multidisciplinary TSC clinic for further screening, which revealed a giant cell astrocytoma and multiple subependymal tubers. Annual monitoring was recommended. The skin lesions were treated with topical rapamycin ointment. Recognizing dermatological manifestations of TSC is of importance to allow early diagnosis. TSC should be considered as a differential diagnosis in the case of ungual fibromas, even in older patients.

  18. 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) inhibits radiation induced carcinogenesis (skin tumors) in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Saurabh; Bhuria, Vikas; Pandey, Sanjay; Saluja, Daman; Dwarakanath, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    One of the late effects of radiation exposure i.e. carcinogenesis is exemplified by atomic bomb survivors, radiotherapy patients and occupational workers. Enhanced glucose metabolism (Warburg's effect) is a fundamental metabolic change in transformed cells which drives tumorigenesis. It is suggested that Dietary Energy Restriction (DER) that targets glucose metabolism may afford protection against radiation-induced carcinogenesis. However, DER is practically difficult to sustain in humans. Therefore, we have hypothesized that the glycolytic inhibitor, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a potential energy restriction mimetic agent (ERMA) may impair the process of tumorigenesis as an alternative to DER. In the present studies we investigated the effects of dietary 2-DG on radiation induced papillomas in mice. Swiss albino mice (male) were irradiated with a fractionated dose schedule (1.5 Gy ionizing radiation/week for four weeks) focally on the shaved back followed by the application of tumor promoting agent (TPA) once weekly till the termination of the study. Mice were administered 2-DG (0.2% and 0.4% w/v) containing water starting a week after last irradiation. A significant reduction in the tumor incidence, tumor burden, besides increase in the latency period was observed in the 2-DG fed mice. The average tumor incidence (papillomas formation) was reduced to 25% and 37% in 0.2% and 0.4% 2-DG group respectively from 47% in the control group with a significant delay in the onset. Under these conditions, 2-DG considerably enhanced the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) with a concomitant decrease in the lipid peroxidation. 2-DG fed tumor bearing mice showed decrease in splenic CD4 + to CD8 + T-cell ratio and prevented the tumor induced augmentation of T-regulatory cells (CD4 + CD25 + ) which correlated with an increase in CD8 + (CTLs) cells. Dietary 2-DG also reduced the tumor associated and radiation induced angiogenesis. These observations suggest that dietary 2-DG

  19. The comparison of nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinases substrate (NUCKS) with Ki67 proliferation marker expression in common skin tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zduniak, Krzysztof; Agrawal, Siddarth; Symonowicz, Krzysztof; Jurczyszyn, Kamil; Ziółkowski, Piotr

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinases substrate (NUCKS) is a chromosomal protein of unknown function. Its amino acid composition and structure of its DNA binding domain resemble those of high mobility group A (HMGA) proteins which are associated with various malignancies. Since changes in expression of HMGA are considered as a marker of tumor progression, it is possible that similar changes in expression of NUCKS could be a useful tool in diagnosis of malignant skin tumors. To investigate this assumption we used specific antibodies against NUCKS for immunohistochemistry of squamous (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) as well as keratoacanthoma (KA). We found high expression of NUCKS in nuclei of SCC and BCC cells which exceeded expression of the well-known proliferation marker Ki67. Expression of NUCKS in benign KA was much below that of malignant tumors. With the present study and based on our previous experience we would like to suggest the NUCKS protein as a novel proliferation marker for immunohistochemical evaluation of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded skin tumor specimens. We would like to emphasize that NUCKS abundance in malignant skin tumors is higher than that of the well-known proliferation marker Ki67, thus allowing more precise assessment of tumor proliferation potential.

  20. Codon 61 mutations in the c-Harvey-ras gene in mouse skin tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene plus okadaic acid class tumor promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, H; Suganuma, M; Yoshizawa, S; Kanazawa, H; Sugimura, T; Manam, S; Kahn, S M; Jiang, W; Hoshina, S; Weinstein, I B

    1989-01-01

    Three okadaic acid class tumor promoters, okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1, and calyculin A, have potent tumor-promoting activity in two-stage carcinogenesis experiments on mouse skin. DNA isolated from tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and each of these tumor promoters revealed the same mutation at the second nucleotide of codon 61 (CAA----CTA) in the c-Ha-ras gene, determined by the polymerase chain reaction procedure and DNA sequencing. Three potent 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-type tumor promoters, TPA, teleocidin, and aplysiatoxin, showed the same effects. These results provide strong evidence that this mutation in the c-Ha-ras gene is due to a direct effect of DMBA rather than a selective effect of specific tumor promoters.

  1. A 28-Year-Old Male Patient with Nail Tumors, Skin Lesions, and Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak M.W. Balak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of benign hamartomas in multiple organs. Most patients with TSC exhibit cutaneous manifestations. Methods: We report a 28-year-old patient with multiple pink papules at the proximal nail fold of several toes. Results: Histopathological analysis of a biopsy of a papule was consistent with an ungual fibroma. Histopathological analysis of a biopsy of an elevated skin-colored plaque at the lower back was diagnostic for a Shagreen patch. These findings were consistent with a clinical diagnosis of TSC. This patient was subsequently referred to a multidisciplinary TSC clinic for further screening, which revealed a giant cell astrocytoma and multiple subependymal tubers. Annual monitoring was recommended. The skin lesions were treated with topical rapamycin ointment. Conclusions: Recognizing dermatological manifestations of TSC is of importance to allow early diagnosis. TSC should be considered as a differential diagnosis in the case of ungual fibromas, even in older patients.

  2. Strain differences in mouse skin carcinogenesis experiments using ionizing radiation and the tumor promoter TPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, D.R.; Bowden, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been shown to be a complete carcinogen in rodent skin when administered repeatedly. The initiating potential of ionizing radiation in mouse skin was tested in a classical two-stage protocol in both CD-1 and Sencar mice. Beta radiation (0.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 5.0 Gy) was administered by a strontium 90 applicator followed two weeks later by twice weekly application of 5 μg TPA. A statistical difference in the papilloma incidence between radiation initiated, TPA promoted versus non-initiated TPA promoted groups was not found (25-35% animals with papillomas and 0.35-0.45 papillomas per mouse at 65 weeks of promotion for both initiated and non-initiated mice). There appeared to be no strain differences between the CD-1 and Sencar in response to the initiating effects if ionizing radiation. This is in direct contrast to the studies showing Sencar mice to be much more sensitive than CD-1 to the initiating effects of chemical carcinogens

  3. Rac1 is crucial for Ras-dependent skin tumor formation by controlling Pak1-Mek-Erk hyperactivation and hyperproliferation in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z; Pedersen, Esben Ditlev Kølle; Basse, A

    2010-01-01

    that Rac1 is essential for DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumor formation. This corresponded to a decreased keratinocyte hyperproliferation, although apoptosis was not detectably altered. Activated Rac1 promoted Erk-dependent hyperproliferation by Pak1-mediated Mek activation independent of Mek1 phosporylation...

  4. Inhibitory effect of flavonoids from citrus plants on Epstein-Barr virus activation and two-stage carcinogenesis of skin tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Y; Takemura, Y; Ju-ichi, M; Ito, C; Furukawa, H; Kawaii, S; Yano, M; Mou, X Y; Takayasu, J; Tokuda, H; Nishino, H

    2000-06-01

    To search for possible anti-tumor promoters, thirteen flavones (1-13) obtained from the peel of Citrus plants were examined for their inhibitory effects on the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation by a short-term in vitro assay. Of these flavones, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HPT) (13) exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the EBV-EA activation induced by the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Further, compound 13 exhibited remarkable inhibitory effects on mouse skin tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test.

  5. Anti-tumor activity of Aloe vera against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, M; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar; Chaudhary, Geeta

    2010-01-01

    Human populations are increasingly exposed to various carcinogens such as chemicals, radiation, and viruses in the environment. Chemopreventive drugs of plant origin are a promising strategy for cancer control because they are generally nontoxic or less toxic than synthetic che-mopreventive agents, and can be effective at different stages of carcinogenesis. The present investigation was undertaken to explore the antitumor activity of topical treatment with aloe vera (Aloe vera) gel, oral treatment with aloe vera extract, and topical and oral treatment with both gel and extract in stage-2 skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice induced by 7,12-dim ethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted croton (Croton tiglium) oil. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated as follows: Group I, DMBA + croton oil only (controls); Group II, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel; Group III, DMBA + croton oil + oral aloe vera extract; Group I V, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel + oral aloe vera extract. Results showed that body weight was significantly increased from 78.6% in the control group (Group I) to 92.5%, 87.5%, and 90.0% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. A 100% incidence of tumor development was noted in Group I, which was decreased to 50%, 60%, and 40% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. Also in Groups II, III, and IV, the cumulative number of papillomas was reduced significantly from 36 to 12, 15, and 11; tumor yield from 3.6 to 1.2, 1.5, and 1.1; and tumor burden from 3.6 to 2.4, 2.50, and 2.75, respectively, after treatment with aloe vera. Conversely, the average latent period increased significantly from 4.9 (Group I) to 5.23, 5.0, and 6.01 weeks in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. We conclude that aloe vera protects mice against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis, likely due to the chemopreventive activity of high concentrations of antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, and E; glutathione peroxidase; several

  6. Specific UV-induced mutation spectrum in the p53 gene of skin tumors from DNA-repair-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumaz, N.; Drougard, C.; Sarasin, A.; Daya-Grosjean, L.

    1993-01-01

    The UV component of sunlight is the major carcinogen involved in the etiology of skin cancers. The authors have studied the rare, hereditary syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), which is characterized by a very high incidence of cutaneous tumors on exposed skin at an early age, probably due to a deficiency in excision repair of UV-induced lesions. It is interesting to determine the UV mutation spectrum in XP skin tumors in order to correlate the absence of repair of specific DNA lesions and the initiation of skin tumors. The p53 gene is frequently mutated in human cancers and represents a good target for studying mutation spectra since there are >100 potential sites for phenotypic mutations. Using reverse transcription-PCR and single-strand conformation polymorphism to analyze >40 XP skin tumors (mainly basal and squamous cell carcinomas), the authors have found that 40% (17 out of 43) contained at least one point mutation on the p53 gene. All the mutations were located at dipyrimidine sites, essentially at CC sequences, which are hot spots for UV-induced DNA lesions. Sixty-one percent of these mutations were tandem CC → TT mutations considered to be unique to UV-induced lesions; these mutations are not observed in internal human tumors. All the mutations, except two, must be due to translesion synthesis of unrepaired dipyrimidine lesions left on the nontranscribed strand. These results show the existence of preferential repair of UV lesions [either pyrimidine dimers or pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts] on the transcribed strand in human tissues

  7. Effect of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles on Skin Tumor Cells and Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirija Alili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide (Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been used in many biomedical approaches. The toxicity of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on mammalian cells was published recently. Though, little is known about the viability of human cells after treatment with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Herein, we examined the toxicity, production of reactive oxygen species, and invasive capacity after treatment of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF and cells of the squamous tumor cell line (SCL-1 with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. These nanoparticles had an average size of 65 nm. Fe3O4 nanoparticles induced oxidative stress via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and subsequent initiation of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, the question was addressed of whether Fe3O4 nanoparticles affect myofibroblast formation, known to be involved in tumor invasion. Herein, Fe3O4 nanoparticles prevent the expression alpha-smooth muscle actin and therefore decrease the number of myofibroblastic cells. Moreover, our data show in vitro that concentrations of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which are nontoxic for normal cells, partially reveal a ROS-triggered cytotoxic but also a pro-invasive effect on the fraction of squamous cancer cells surviving the treatment with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The data herein show that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles appear not to be adequate for use in therapeutic approaches against cancer cells, in contrast to recently published data with cerium oxide nanoparticles.

  8. Efficiency of high- and low-voltage pulse combinations for gene electrotransfer in muscle, liver, tumor, and skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    André, F M; Gehl, J; Sersa, G

    2008-01-01

    Gene electrotransfer is gaining momentum as an efficient methodology for nonviral gene transfer. In skeletal muscle, data suggest that electric pulses play two roles: structurally permeabilizing the muscle fibers and electrophoretically supporting the migration of DNA toward or across the permeab......Gene electrotransfer is gaining momentum as an efficient methodology for nonviral gene transfer. In skeletal muscle, data suggest that electric pulses play two roles: structurally permeabilizing the muscle fibers and electrophoretically supporting the migration of DNA toward or across...... the permeabilized membrane. To investigate this further, combinations of permeabilizing short high-voltage pulses (HV; hundreds of V/cm) and mainly electrophoretic long low-voltage pulses (LV; tens of V/cm) were investigated in muscle, liver, tumor, and skin in rodent models. The following observations were made......, but not to liver; and (4) efficient gene electrotransfer was achieved with HV field strengths below the detectability thresholds for permeabilization; and (5) the lag time interval between the HV and LV pulses decreased sensitivity to the HV pulses, enabling a wider HV amplitude range. In conclusion, HV plus LV...

  9. Effect of treatment in fractionated schedules with the combination of x-irradiation and six cytotoxic drugs on the RIF-1 tumor and normal mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelieveld, P.; Scoles, M.A.; Brown, J.M.; Phil, D.; Kallman, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    RIF-1 tumors, implanted syngeneically in the gastrocnemius muscles of the right hind legs of C3H/Km mice, were treated either with X ray alone, drug alone, or drug and X ray combined. The drugs tested were bleomycin, BCNU, cis-diamminedichloro platinum, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, and actinomycin-D. All drugs were administered either in the maximum tolerated dose or a dose that causes minimal tumor growth delay. Both drugs and X rays were administered either as a single dose or in five daily fractions. In addition to the single modality controls, seven different schedules of combined modalities were tested. Tumors were measured periodically after treatment in order that the day at which each tumor reached 4 times its initial cross-sectional area, i.e., its size at the time of treatment, could be determined. The effect of treatment on tumors was based upon excess growth delay (GD), i.e., T400% (treated)-T400% (untreated control). Treatment effects for the same combined modality schedules were also determined for normal skin, using the early skin reaction as an endpoint. Dose effect factors (DEF) were computed for all combined modality schedules and were based upon calculated radiation dose equivalents. We also calculated supra-additivity ratios, SR/sub I/ and SR/sub II/, therapeutic gain factors and adjusted therapeutic gain factors. The only drugs to produce significant supra-additivity with X rays were cis-Pt and cyclo

  10. Differential tumor biology effects of double-initiation in a mouse skin chemical carcinogenesis model comparing wild type versus protein kinase Cepsilon overexpression mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yafan; Wheeler, Deric L; Ananthaswamy, Honnavara N; Verma, Ajit K; Oberley, Terry D

    2007-12-01

    Our previous studies showed that protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCepsilon) verexpression in mouse skin resulted in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) elicited by single 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiation and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promotion in the absence of preceding papilloma formation as is typically observed in wild type mice. The present study demonstrates that double-DMBA initiation modulates tumor incidence, multiplicity, and latency period in both wild type and PKCepsilon overexpression transgenic (PKCepsilon-Tg) mice. After 17 weeks (wks) of tumor promotion, a reduction in papilloma multiplicity was observed in double- versus single-DMBA initiated wild type mice. Papilloma multiplicity was inversely correlated with cell death indices of interfollicular keratinocytes, indicating decreased papilloma formation was caused by increased cell death and suggesting the origin of papillomas is in interfollicular epidermis. Double-initiated PKCepsilon-Tg mice had accelerated carcinoma formation and cancer incidence in comparison to single-initiated PKCepsilon-Tg mice. Morphologic analysis of mouse skin following double initiation and tumor promotion showed a similar if not identical series of events to those previously observed following single initiation and tumor promotion: putative preneoplastic cells were observed arising from hyperplastic hair follicles (HFs) with subsequent cancer cell infiltration into the dermis. Single-initiated PKCepsilon-Tg mice exhibited increased mitosis in epidermal cells of HFs during tumor promotion.

  11. A novel mechanism of skin tumor promotion involving interferon-gamma (IFNγ)/signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (Stat1) signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Ronald; Abel, Erika L; Macias, Everardo; Cheng, Tianyi; Beltran, Linda; DiGiovanni, John

    2015-08-01

    The current study was designed to explore the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (Stat1) during tumor promotion using the mouse skin multistage carcinogenesis model. Topical treatment with both 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and 3-methyl-1,8-dihydroxy-9-anthrone (chrysarobin or CHRY) led to rapid phosphorylation of Stat1 on both tyrosine (Y701) and serine (S727) residues in epidermis. CHRY treatment also led to upregulation of unphosphorylated Stat1 (uStat1) at later time points. CHRY treatment also led to upregulation of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) mRNA and protein, which was dependent on Stat1. Further analyses demonstrated that topical treatment with CHRY but not TPA upregulated interferon-gamma (IFNγ) mRNA in the epidermis and that the induction of both IRF-1 and uStat1 was dependent on IFNγ signaling. Stat1 deficient (Stat1(-/-) ) mice were highly resistant to skin tumor promotion by CHRY. In contrast, the tumor response (in terms of both papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas) was similar in Stat1(-/-) mice and wild-type littermates with TPA as the promoter. Maximal induction of both cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in epidermis following treatment with CHRY was also dependent on the presence of functional Stat1. These studies define a novel mechanism associated with skin tumor promotion by the anthrone class of tumor promoters involving upregulation of IFNγ signaling in the epidermis and downstream signaling through activated (phosphorylated) Stat1, IRF-1 and uStat1. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A novel p53 mutational hotspot in skin tumors from UV-irradiated Xpc mutant mice alters transactivation functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inga, Alberto; Nahari, Dorit; Velasco-Miguel, Susana; Friedberg, Errol C; Resnick, Michael A

    2002-08-22

    A mutation in codon 122 of the mouse p53 gene resulting in a T to L amino acid substitution (T122-->L) is frequently associated with skin cancer in UV-irradiated mice that are both homozygous mutant for the nucleotide excision repair (NER) gene Xpc (Xpc(-/-)) and hemizygous mutant for the p53 gene. We investigated the functional consequences of the mouse T122-->L mutation when expressed either in mammalian cells or in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Similar to a non-functional allele, high expression of the T122-->L allele in p53(-/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts and human Saos-2 cells failed to suppress growth. However, the T122-->L mutant p53 showed wild-type transactivation levels with Bax and MDM2 promoters when expressed in either cell type and retained transactivation of the p21 and the c-Fos promoters in one cell line. Using a recently developed rheostatable p53 induction system in yeast we assessed the T122-->L transactivation capacity at low levels of protein expression using 12 different p53 response elements (REs). Compared to wild-type p53 the T122-->L protein manifested an unusual transactivation pattern comprising reduced and enhanced activity with specific REs. The high incidence of the T122-->L mutant allele in the Xpc(-/-) background suggests that both genetic and epigenetic conditions may facilitate the emergence of particular functional p53 mutations. Furthermore, the approach that we have taken also provides for the dissection of functions that may be retained in many p53 tumor alleles.

  13. Inflammatory microenvironment and tumor necrosis factor alpha as modulators of periostin and CCN2 expression in human non-healing skin wounds and dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Christopher G; Forbes, Thomas L; Leask, Andrew; Hamilton, Douglas W

    2015-04-01

    Non-healing skin wounds remain a significant clinical burden, and in recent years, the regulatory role of matricellular proteins in skin healing has received significant attention. Periostin and CCN2 are both upregulated at day 3 post-wounding in murine skin, where they regulate aspects of the proliferative phase of repair including mesenchymal cell infiltration and myofibroblast differentiation. In this study, we examined 1) the wound phenotype and expression patterns of periostin and CCN2 in non-healing skin wounds in humans and 2) the regulation of their expression in wound fibroblasts by tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Chronic skin wounds had a pro-inflammatory phenotype, characterized by macrophage infiltration, TNFα immunoreactivity, and neutrophil infiltration. Periostin, but not CCN2, was significantly suppressed in non-healing wound edge tissue at the mRNA and protein level compared with non-involved skin. In vitro, human wound edge fibroblasts populations were still able to proliferate and contract collagen gels. Compared to cells from non-involved skin, periostin and α-SMA mRNA levels increased significantly in the presence of TGF-β1 in wound cells and were significantly decreased by TNFα, but not those of Col1A2 or CCN2. In the presence of both TGF-β1 and TNFα, periostin and α-SMA mRNA levels were significantly reduced compared to TGF-β1 treated wound cells. Effects of TGF-β1 and TNFα on gene expression were also more pronounced in wound edge cells compared to non-involved fibroblasts. We conclude that variations in the expression of periostin and CCN2, are related to an inflammatory microenvironment and the presence of TNFα in human chronic wounds. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Reducing morbidity with surgical adhesives following inguinal lymph node dissections for the treatment of malignant skin tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stollwerck, Peter. L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND is associated with a high rate of morbidity. To evaluate the clinical benefit of surgical adhesives to reduce complications in patients undergoing ILND, we compared the use of TissuGlu Surgical Adhesive and ARTISS fibrin sealant with a control population. Material and methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients undergoing ILND for metastatic malignant skin tumors at one hospital, Fachklinik Hornheide (Münster, Germany, from January 2011 through September 2013, assessing 137 patients with a total of 142 procedures. Results: Complications occurred in 22/60 procedures in the TissuGlu group (TG, in 8/17 in the ARTISS group (AG, and in 29/65 in the control group (CG. Prolonged drainage and seroma were recorded in four (23.5%, and 26 (40% respectively (non-significant. TG showed less extended drainage vs. CG (p=0.082. Mean daily drain volumes were significantly lower in AG vs. CG (p=0.000. With regard to wound infection, there was a 15% reduction in TG and 74% increase in AG group. Revision surgery was reduced by 36% in TG and increased by 54% in AG. Mean daily drain volumes were significantly lower in AG vs. CG (p=0.000. Mean total post-operative drain volume was lower in TG and AG vs. CG (p<0.001 among groups, CG vs. TG p<0.001, CG vs. AG p<0.001. The mean body mass index (BMI was significantly higher in patients with complications, 29.4±5.8 vs. 25.3±4.1 (p=0.000.Conclusion: The use of TissuGlu in our ILND patients was associated with a reduction in post-operative wound related complications and the need for revision surgeries compared to the control group. Daily drainage was significantly lower within the first 7 post-operative days with the use of ARTISS, but the benefit was lost due to the higher occurrence of wound infection and revision surgery. BMI above 29 is a risk factor for complications following ILND.(Level of evidence: level IV, retrospective case study

  15. High frequency ultrasonography of the skin and its role as an auxillary tool in diagnosis of benign and malignant cutaneous tumors--a comparison of two clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybiec, Ewa; Pietrzak, Aldona; Adamczyk, Michal; Michalska-Jakubus, Malgorzata; Wawrzycki, Bartlomiej; Lotti, Torello; Rutkowski, Piotr; Krasowska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The number of dermatologic entities that can be studied by ultrasound examination (US) of the skin is increasing. Conventional US and high frequency US (HFUS) are considered useful additional tools in improving the diagnosis and management of common benign and malignant skin tumors. US may help in positive and differential diagnosis of primary melanocytic neoplasms and of locoregional spread in melanoma patients. US preoperative evaluation of primary melanoma thickness correlates with histologically estimated melanoma thickness, and can help determine surgical margins and indications for sentinel lymph node biopsy. It is also useful during follow-up after surgical treatment for early detection of recurrence or metastases. In this case report, we present two cases of skin lesions clinically suspicious for malignancy. The first lesion was a round nodule 3 mm in diameter, resembling a blue nevus. In HFUS it was well delimited, hypoechoic, and well vascularized. The second lesion presented as an elevated, well-circumscribed nodule, 5-6 mm in diameter, inhomogeneous in color. HFUS depicted a poorly delimited, irregular, hypoechoic lesion crossing the dermoepidermal junction. At the first exam it was not vascularized, but 6 months later a number of vascular flow signals within the lesion were found. In histopathological examination the lesions were finally diagnosed as, respectively: benign cavernous hemangioma and melanoma. In both presented cases HFUS proved to be useful in a differential diagnosis of suspicious skin lesions. Noninvasive and easy to perform, HFUS is a valuable diagnostic method in dermatology.

  16. SU-F-T-189: Dosimetric Comparison of Spot-Scanning Proton Therapy Techniques for Liver Tumors Close to the Skin Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, S; Matsuzaki, Y; Matsuura, T; Umegaki, K; Fujii, Y; Fujii, T; Katoh, N; Shimizu, S; Shirato, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Spot-scanning technique has been utilized to achieve conformal dose distribution to large and complicated tumors. This technique generally does not require patient-specific devices such as aperture and compensator. The commercially available spot-scanning proton therapy (SSPT) systems, however, cannot deliver proton beams to the region shallower than 4 g/cm2. Therefore some range compensation device is required to treat superficial tumors with SSPT. This study shows dosimetric comparison of the following treatment techniques: (i) with a tabletop bolus, (ii) with a nozzle-mounted applicator, and (iii) without any devices and using intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) technique. Methods: The applicator composed of a combination of a mini-ridge filter and a range shifter has been manufactured by Hitachi, Ltd., and the tabletop bolus was made by .decimal, Inc. Both devices have been clinically implemented in our facility. Three patients with liver tumors close to the skin surface were examined in this study. Each treatment plan was optimized so that the prescription dose of 76 Gy(RBE) or 66 Gy(RBE) would be delivered to 99% of the clinical target volume in 20 fractions. Three beams were used for tabletop bolus plan and IMPT plan, whereas two beams were used in the applicator plan because the gantry angle available was limited due to potential collision to patient and couch. The normal liver, colon, and skin were considered as organs at risk (OARs). Results: The target heterogeneity index (HI = D_5/D_9_5) was 1.03 on average in each planning technique. The mean dose to the normal liver was considerably less than 20 Gy(RBE) in all cases. The dose to the skin could be reduced by 20 Gy(RBE) on average in the IMPT plan compared to the applicator plan. Conclusion: It has been confirmed that all treatment techniques met the dosimetric criteria for the OARs and could be implemented clinically.

  17. SU-F-T-189: Dosimetric Comparison of Spot-Scanning Proton Therapy Techniques for Liver Tumors Close to the Skin Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, S; Matsuzaki, Y [Proton Beam Therapy Center, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Matsuura, T; Umegaki, K [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education (GI-CoRE), Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Fujii, Y; Fujii, T [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Katoh, N [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Shimizu, S; Shirato, H [Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education (GI-CoRE), Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Spot-scanning technique has been utilized to achieve conformal dose distribution to large and complicated tumors. This technique generally does not require patient-specific devices such as aperture and compensator. The commercially available spot-scanning proton therapy (SSPT) systems, however, cannot deliver proton beams to the region shallower than 4 g/cm2. Therefore some range compensation device is required to treat superficial tumors with SSPT. This study shows dosimetric comparison of the following treatment techniques: (i) with a tabletop bolus, (ii) with a nozzle-mounted applicator, and (iii) without any devices and using intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) technique. Methods: The applicator composed of a combination of a mini-ridge filter and a range shifter has been manufactured by Hitachi, Ltd., and the tabletop bolus was made by .decimal, Inc. Both devices have been clinically implemented in our facility. Three patients with liver tumors close to the skin surface were examined in this study. Each treatment plan was optimized so that the prescription dose of 76 Gy(RBE) or 66 Gy(RBE) would be delivered to 99% of the clinical target volume in 20 fractions. Three beams were used for tabletop bolus plan and IMPT plan, whereas two beams were used in the applicator plan because the gantry angle available was limited due to potential collision to patient and couch. The normal liver, colon, and skin were considered as organs at risk (OARs). Results: The target heterogeneity index (HI = D{sub 5}/D{sub 95}) was 1.03 on average in each planning technique. The mean dose to the normal liver was considerably less than 20 Gy(RBE) in all cases. The dose to the skin could be reduced by 20 Gy(RBE) on average in the IMPT plan compared to the applicator plan. Conclusion: It has been confirmed that all treatment techniques met the dosimetric criteria for the OARs and could be implemented clinically.

  18. Applicability of the {sup 9}Be(d,n){sup 10}B reaction to AB-BNCT skin and deep tumor treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capoulat, M.E., E-mail: capoulat@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA. Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Avenida Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Minsky, D.M.; Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA. Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Avenida Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    In the range of low bombarding energies (less than about 1.5 MeV) the {sup 9}Be(d,n){sup 10}B reaction produces neutron spectra that can be moderated depending on the choice of the target thickness and the deuteron bombarding energy. In this work, a Monte Carlo simulation study to determine the capability of this reaction to deliver enough dose to efficiently control both skin and deep seated tumors has been performed by means of MCNP calculations using eight optimized {sup 9}Be targets.

  19. β-HPV Infection Correlates with Early Stages of Carcinogenesis in Skin Tumors and Patient-Derived Xenografts from a Kidney Transplant Recipient Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgogna, Cinzia; Olivero, Carlotta; Lanfredini, Simone; Calati, Federica; De Andrea, Marco; Zavattaro, Elisa; Savoia, Paola; Trisolini, Elena; Boldorini, Renzo; Patel, Girish K; Gariglio, Marisa

    2018-01-01

    Many malignancies that occur in high excess in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) are due to viruses that thrive in the setting of immunosuppression. Keratinocyte carcinoma (KC), the most frequently occurring cancer type in KTR, has been associated with skin infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) from the beta genus. In this report, we extend our previous investigation aimed at identifying the presence of active β-HPV infection in skin tumors from KTRs through detection of viral protein expression. Using a combination of antibodies raised against the E4 and L1 proteins of the β-genotypes, we were able to visualize infection in five tumors [one keratoacanthoma (KA), three actinic keratoses (AKs), and one seborrheic keratoses (SKs)] that were all removed from two patients who had been both transplanted twice, had developed multiple KCs, and presented with a long history of immunosuppression (>30 years). These infected tissues displayed intraepidermal hyperplasia and increased expression of the ΔNp63 protein, which extended into the upper epithelial layers. In addition, using a xenograft model system in nude mice displaying a humanized stromal bed in the site of grafting, we successfully engrafted three AKs, two of which were derived from the aforementioned KTRs and displayed β-HPV infection in the original tumor. Of note, one AK-derived xenograft, along with its ensuing lymph node metastasis, was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In the latter, both β-HPV infection and ΔNp63 expression were no longer detectable. Although the overall success rate of engrafting was very low, the results of this study show for the first time that β-HPV + and ΔNp63 + intraepidermal hyperplasia can indeed progress to an aggressive SCC able to metastasize. Consistent with a series of reports attributing a causative role of β-HPV at early stages of skin carcinogenesis through ΔNp63 induction and increased keratinocytes stemness, here we provide in vivo evidence that

  20. Dermal Delivery of Constructs Encoding Cre Recombinase to Induce Skin Tumors in PtenLoxP/LoxP;BrafCA/+ Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel A. Deken

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current genetically-engineered mouse melanoma models are often based on Tyr::CreERT2-controlled MAPK pathway activation by the BRAFV600E mutation and PI3K pathway activation by loss of PTEN. The major drawback of these models is the occurrence of spontaneous tumors caused by leakiness of the Tyr::CreERT2 system, hampering long-term experiments. To address this problem, we investigated several approaches to optimally provide local delivery of Cre recombinase, including injection of lentiviral particles, DNA tattoo administration and particle-mediated gene transfer, to induce melanomas in PtenLoxP/LoxP;BrafCA/+ mice lacking the Tyr::CreERT2 allele. We found that dermal delivery of the Cre recombinase gene under the control of a non-specific CAG promoter induced the formation of melanomas, but also keratoacanthoma and squamous cell carcinomas. Delivery of Cre recombinase DNA under the control of melanocyte-specific promoters in PtenLoxP/LoxP;BrafCA/+ mice resulted in sole melanoma induction. The growth rate and histological features of the induced tumors were similar to 4-hydroxytamoxifen-induced tumors in Tyr::CreERT2;PtenLoxP/LoxP;BrafCA/+ mice, while the onset of spontaneous tumors was prevented completely. These novel induction methods will allow long-term experiments in mouse models of skin malignancies.

  1. Potential of confocal laser scanning microscopy for non-invasive diagnostics of malignant epithelial skin tumors in the course of dermatoheliosis progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Snarskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cases of malignant epithelial skin neoplasms including actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma, which are characterized by the most complicated course and numerous clinical and morphological options, involve dermatoheliosis progression. The risk of actinic keratosis transformation into basal cell carcinoma varies from 0.1% to 20% and up to 80% in cases of multiple AK lesion foci. A non-invasive method known as reflectance confocal laser scanning microscopy is the most promising one for the purposes of early diagnostics of signs pointing at epithelial skin neoplasm development and makes it possible to monitor the tumor in progress in vivo to diagnose the presence of a pool of squamous cells on a timely basis. The confocal laser scanning microscopy method provides high-contrast images of for any horizontal-oriented morphologic structures in the epidermis and upper dermis with a resolution comparable to those characteristic of traditional optical microscopy of skin tissue samples. According to our data obtained as a result of studying dynamic changes and morphologic structures in actinic keratosis foci (50 cases using the confocal laser scanning microscopy method, we discovered a number of morphologic features, and their further analysis will distinguish the signs of progressing carcinogenesis in case of dermatoheliosis.

  2. Loss of a putative tumor suppressor locus after gamma-ray-induced neoplastic transformation of HeLa x Skin fibroblast human cell hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, M.S.; Redpath, J.L.; Fasching, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    The nontumorigenic HeLa x skin fibroblast hybrid cell line, CGL1, can be induced to re-express HeLa tumor-associated cell surface antigen, p75-IAP (intestinal alkaline phosphatase), with resulting neoplastic transformation, by exposure to γ radiation. This has allowed the human hybrid system to be developed into a quantitative in vitro model for radiation-induced neoplastic transformation of human cells. Recently, several γ-ray-induced IAP-expression mutants (GIMs) of the nontumorigenic HeLa x skin fibroblast hybrid CGL1 were isolated and all were tumorigenic when injected subcutaneously into nude mice. Control cell lines which were negative for p75-IAP (CONs) were also isolated from irradiated populations, and none were found to be tumorigenic. We have now begun to investigate the molecular basis of radiation-induced neoplastic transformation in this system by studying the potential genetic linkage between p75/IAP expression, tumorigenicity and damage to a putative tumor suppressor locus on fibroblast chromosome 11. Previous analysis of rare spontaneous segregants has indicated that this locus is involved in the regulation of tumorigenicity and in the expression of the HeLa tumor-associated cell surface marker intestinal alkaline phosphatase (p75-IAP) in this system. Therefore, analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism and chromosome painting have been performed for chromosome 11, and for chromosome 13 as a control, for the p75/IAP-positive GIM and p75/IAP-negative CON cell lines. We report that in five of eight of the GIMs large-scale damage to the fibroblast chromosome 11's is evident (four GIMs have lost one complete copy of a fibroblast chromosome 11 heavily damaged). None of the CONs, however (0/5), have lost a complete copy of either fibroblast chromosome 11. No large-scale damage to the control chromosome 13's was detected in the GIMs or CONs. 49 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Epidemiological profile of patients with malignant skin tumors at the plastic surgery secondary service in the countryside of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Simoneti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-melanoma skin tumor is the one with highest prevalence and incidence in Brazil, comprising squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and basal cell carcinoma (CBC. The main risk factor for the development of these tumors is chronic exposure to sunlight, justifying the most affected age group and anatomical locations. Treatment aims to excise the lesion with minimal deformity. Surgical excision with safe margins is the main therapeutic option; others depend on the number of lesions, location, histological type, general health and medical comorbidity. Objectives: To describe the epidemiological profile of patients with skin tumors; to identify the prevalence of non-melanoma; and to evaluate surgical margin. Methods: Observational, longitudinal and retrospective study of patients undergoing resection of suspicious lesions in secondary service. Results: We identified 140 lesions in 67 patients, 59% were male and 71.6% over 60 years of age. The most affected regions were head and neck (72.1%; 69.1% were CBC, 29.2% CBC, and 1.6% melanoma; 80.4% informed free margins, 7.3% indicated affected margins; the mean age of these patients was 75.2 years and the mean number of concomitant injuries was 8.7. The association was significant between female gender and presence of lesions <5 mm. Conclusions: The prevalence of lesions in elderly men (over 60 years is in accordance with the pattern described in literature. Free margins, which were obtained in most of the cases in this study, indicate therapeutic efficacy of the simple surgical excision. Marcroscopic margins adopted in the preoperative marking favor effectiveness, reserving Möhs surgery for recurrence or margin involvement. öhs para recidivas ou comprometimento de margem.

  4. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia masquerading as cutaneous indeterminate dendritic cell tumor: Expanding the spectrum of skin lesions in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loghavi, Sanam; Curry, Jonathan L; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Patel, Keyur P; Xu, Jie; Khoury, Joseph D; Torres-Cabala, Carlos A; Nagarajan, Priyadharsini; Aung, Phyu P; Gibson, Bernard R; Goodwin, Brandon P; Kelly, Brent C; Korivi, Brinda R; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Prieto, Victor G; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Tetzlaff, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a hematopoietic stem cell neoplasm exhibiting both myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative features. Cutaneous involvement by CMML is critical to recognize as it typically is a harbinger of disease progression and an increased incidence of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. Cutaneous lesions of CMML exhibit heterogeneous histopathologic features that can be challenging to recognize as CMML. We describe a 67-year-old man with a 3-year history of CMML who had been managed on single-agent azacitidine with stable disease before developing splenomegaly and acute onset skin lesions. Examination of these skin lesions revealed a dense infiltrate of histiocytic cells morphologically resembling Langerhans type cells (lacking frank histopathologic atypia), and with the immunophenotype of an indeterminate cell histiocytosis (S100+ CD1a+ and langerin-). Given the history of CMML, next-generation sequencing studies were performed on the skin biopsy. These revealed a KRAS (p.G12R) mutation identical to that seen in the CMML 3 years prior, establishing a clonal relationship between the 2 processes. This case expands the spectrum for and underscores the protean nature of cutaneous involvement by CMML and underscores the importance of heightened vigilance when evaluating skin lesions of CMML patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Combination photodynamic therapy using 5-fluorouracil and aminolevulinate enhances tumor-selective production of protoporphyrin IX and improves treatment efficacy of squamous skin cancers and precancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay

    2016-03-01

    In combination photodynamic therapy (cPDT), a small-molecule drug is used to modulate the physiological state of tumor cells prior to giving aminolevulinate (ALA; a precursor for protoporphyrin IX, PpIX). In our laboratory we have identified three agents (methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, and vitamin D) that can enhance therapeutic effectiveness of ALAbased photodynamic therapy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, only one (5-fluorouracil; 5-FU) is FDA-approved for skin cancer management. Here, we describe animal and human studies on 5-FU mechanisms of action, in terms of how 5-FU pretreatment leads to enhanced PpIX accumulation and improves selectivity of ALA-PDT treatment. In A431 subcutaneous tumors in mice, 5-FU changed expression of heme enzyme (upregulating coproporphyrinogen oxidase, and down-regulating ferrochelatase), inhibited tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67), enhanced differentiation (E-cadherin), and led to strong, tumor-selective increases in apoptosis. Interestingly, enhancement of apoptosis by 5-FU correlated strongly with an increased accumulation of p53 in tumor cells that persisted for 24 h post- PDT. In a clinical trial using a split-body, bilaterally controlled study design, human subjects with actinic keratoses (AK; preneoplastic precursors of SCC) were pretreated on one side of the face, scalp, or forearms with 5-FU cream for 6 days, while the control side received no 5-FU. On the seventh day, the levels of PpIX in 4 test lesions were measured by noninvasive fluorescence dosimetry, and then all lesions were treated with PDT using methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) and red light (635 nm). Relative amounts of PpIX were found to be increased ~2-fold in 5-FU pretreated lesions relative to controls. At 3 months after PDT, the overall clinical response to PDT (reduction in lesion counts) was 2- to 3-fold better for the 5-FU pretreated lesions, a clinically important result. In summary, 5-FU is a useful adjuvant to aminolevulinate-based PDT

  6. Epothilone B induces extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in human SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Aneta; Gajek, Arkadiusz; Marczak, Agnieszka

    2014-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying epothilone B (EpoB) induced apoptosis were investigated in SKOV-3 human ovarian cancer cells. The aim of this research was to compare EpoB's, which belongs to the new class of anticancer drugs, with paclitaxel's (PTX) ability to induce apoptosis. The mode of cell death was assessed colorimetrically, fluorimetrically and by immunoblot analyses through measuring DNA fragmentation, the level of intracellular calcium, the level of cytochrome c, TRAIL, the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and the activation of caspase-9, -8 and -3. EpoB leads to an increase of the cytosolic level of cytochrome c after 4 h of cell treatment. After 24 and 48 h of cell treatment the level of intracellular calcium also increased by about 21% and 24% respectively. Moreover, EpoB, similarly to PTX, promoted the expression of TRAIL in lymphocytes, although high TRAIL expression on tumor cells was detected only after adding EpoB to SKOV-3 cells. EpoB mediates caspases-8 and -3 activation, which is independent of the reduction in the amount of caspase-9. Epitope-specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies revealed characteristic apoptotic changes that included cleavage of the 116 kDa PARP polypeptide to 25 kDa fragments. The results of our study show that EpoB induces mainly the extrinsic pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ability of m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid to induce the ornithine decarboxylase marker of skin tumor promotion and inhibition of this response by gallotannins, oligomeric proanthocyanidins, and their monomeric units in mouse epidermis in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilan Chen; Elisabeth M. Perchellet; Xiao Mei Gao; Steven W. Newell; richard W. Hemingway; Vittorio Bottari; Jean-Pierre Perchellet

    1995-01-01

    m-Chloroperoxybenzoic acid (CPBA) was tested for its ability to induce the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) marker of skin tumor promotion. In contrast to benzoyl peroxide, dicumyl peroxide, and 2-butanol peroxide, 5 mg of CPBA applied twice at a 72-h interval induce ODC activity at least as much as 3 ug of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). ODC induction peaks...

  8. CENP-R acts bilaterally as a tumor suppressor and as an oncogene in the two-stage skin carcinogenesis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Kazuhiro; Kagawa, Naoko; Saito, Megumi; Yoshizawa, Yasuhiro; Munakata, Haruka; Isogai, Eriko; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Wakabayashi, Yuichi

    2017-11-01

    CENP-R is a component of the CENP-O complex, including CENP-O, CENP-P, CENP-Q, CENP-R, and CENP-U and is constitutively localized to kinetochores throughout the cell cycle in vertebrates. CENP-R-deficient chicken DT40 cells are viable and show a very minor effect on mitosis. To investigate the functional roles of CENP-R in vivo, we generated CENP-R-deficient mice (Cenp-r -/- ). Mice heterozygous or homozygous for Cenp-r null mutation are viable and healthy, with no apparent defect in growth and morphology, indicating Cenp-r is not essential for normal development. Accordingly, to investigate the role of the Cenp-r gene in skin carcinogenesis, we subjected Cenp-r -/- mice to the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)/TPA chemical carcinogenesis protocol and monitored tumor development. As a result, Cenp-r -/- mice initially developed significantly more papillomas than control wild-type mice. However, papillomas in Cenp-r -/- mice showed a decrease of proliferative cells and an increase of apoptotic cells. As a result, they did not grow bigger and some papillomas showed substantial regression. Furthermore, papillomas in Cenp-r -/- mice showed lower frequency of malignant conversion to squamous cell carcinomas. These results indicate Cenp-r functions bilaterally in cancer development: during early developmental stages, Cenp-r functions as a tumor suppressor, but during the expansion and progression of papillomas it functions as a tumor-promoting factor. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  9. Skin graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... donor site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  10. Modulation of miR-203 and its regulators as a function of time during the development of 7, 12 dimethylbenz [a] anthracene induced mouse skin tumors in presence or absence of the antitumor agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Prakash; Gupta, Krishna P.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the chemopreventive effects of naturally occurring compounds like butyric acid (BA), nicotinamide (NA) and calcium glucarate (CAG) individually or in combination in 7, 12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) treated mouse skin at 4 and 16 weeks, the time before and after the tumor development. DMBA application did not show any skin tumors at 4 weeks but well defined tumors appeared at 16 weeks. BA, NA or CAG prevented the tumor development significantly but the protection was highly enhanced when all these compounds were given together. In order to see the molecular changes progressing with tumors, we showed the downregulation of tumor suppressor miR-203 at 16 weeks and upregulation of histone deacetylases (HDAC), DNA methyltransferase, promoter methylation of miR-203 at 4 or 16 weeks. Regulators of micro RNA biogenesis such as DICER1 and Ago2 were also deregulated by DMBA. Proto-oncogene c-myc and BMI1 were upregulated and tumor suppressor gene p16 was downregulated by DMBA as a function of time. Effects of BA, NA or CAG were more pronounced after 16 weeks as compared to 4 weeks in preventing the tumor development and altered gene expression. Concomitant administration of BA, NA and CAG tried to prevent these alterations more effectively than that of individual compound possibly by regulating miR-203 status through epigenetic or biogenetic modulations before and after the tumor development. Study provides a rationale for chemoprevention by combination of different compounds targeting miR-203. - Highlights: • DMBA modulates miR-203 and its regulator before and after the onset of tumors. • Suppression of miR-203 and p16 could be the result of gene promoter methylation. • BA, NA or CAG prevents the effects of DMBA. • Combination of BA, NA or CAG is more effective in preventing the DMBA modulations

  11. Skin cancer associated with commonly prescribed drugs: tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (TNF-αIs), angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) and statins -weighing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Beatrice; Orrell, Kelsey A; Vakharia, Paras P; West, Dennis P

    2018-02-01

    Skin cancers, including both malignant melanoma (MM) and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), are the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the US. The incidence of both MM and NMSC continues to rise. Areas covered: Current evidence for an association between four of the most commonly prescribed classes of drugs in the U.S. and risk for MM and NMSC is reported. Medline was searched (January 2000 to May 2017) for each drug in the classes and for 'basal cell carcinoma', 'squamous cell carcinoma', 'non-melanoma skin cancer', 'skin cancer' and 'melanoma'. Skin cancer risk information was reported for: tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (TNF-αIs), angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA)-reductase inhibitors (statins). Expert opinion: Since skin cancer risk is associated with all four classes of these commonly prescribed drugs that represent nearly 20% of the Top 100 drugs in the U.S., these important findings warrant enhanced education, especially for prescribers and those patients at high risk for skin cancer.

  12. A comprehensive study of tumor necrosis factor-alpha genetic polymorphisms, its expression in skin and relation to histopathological features in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil N Moorchung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα is an important inflammatory mediator in psoriasis and several genetic polymorphisms of this cytokine have been reported. Majority of studies have focused on the increased G- A polymorphism at the -308 position in psoriasis. There has been no comprehensive study evaluating the genetic polymorphisms, TNFα expression in the skin and histopathology. We are undertaking this study to outline TNFα genetic polymorphisms, its skin expression and histopathological correlation to help determine its role at the genetic and protein level. Materials and Methods : 112 patients of psoriasis and 243 healthy controls were included in this prospective study. 5 ml of peripheral blood was collected to study the TNFα genetic polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Histopathological analysis of biopsies from the 112 patients were done using visual analogue scale and correlated with the findings. 61 of these cases were analyzed for TNFα expression by immunohistochemistry. The results of study were statistically analyzed using SPSS 13.0 statistical package program. Results: A strong association of TNFα -308 G/A polymorphism in psoriasis cases was detected. The A allele of the TNFα -308 G/A polymorphism occurs rarely in the Indian population, however there is an over representation of this allele in psoriatic patients. There was no association seen between TNFα genotype and histopathological severity of psoriasis. Conclusion: The study emphasized the central role of TNFα in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. TNFα genotyping may be helpful in identifying subjects in whom anti-TNFα therapeutic strategies may be tried.

  13. MicroRNA miR-125b induces senescence in human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glud, Martin; Manfé, Valentina; Biskup, Edyta; Holst, Line; Dirksen, Anne Marie Ahlburg; Hastrup, Nina; Nielsen, Finn C; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Gniadecki, Robert

    2011-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules involved in gene regulation. Aberrant expression of miRNA has been associated with the development or progression of several diseases, including cancer. In a previous study, we found that the expression of miRNA-125b (miR-125b) was two-fold lower in malignant melanoma producing lymph node micrometastases than in nonmetastasizing tumors. To get further insight into the functional role of miR-125b, we assessed whether its overexpression or silencing affects apoptosis, proliferation, or senescence in melanoma cell lines. We showed that overexpression of miR-125b induced typical senescent cell morphology, including increased cytoplasmatic/nucleus ratio and intensive cytoplasmatic β-galactosidase expression. In contrast, inhibition of miR-125b resulted in 30-35% decreased levels of spontaneous apoptosis. We propose that downregulation of miR-125b in an early cutaneous malignant melanoma can contribute to the increased metastatic capability of this tumor.

  14. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  15. D2-40 negative pyogenic granuloma-like Kaposi's sarcoma: Diagnostic features and histogenetic hypothesis of an uncommon skin tumor in HIV-negative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabibi, D; Giannone, A G; Guarnotta, C; Schillaci, O; Franco, V

    2015-07-01

    Pyogenic granuloma-like Kaposi's sarcoma (PGLKS) is a recently described skin tumor showing features both of pyogenic granuloma (PG) and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). The differential diagnosis is often challenging. We reviewed a series of 50 PG and 23 Ks located on distal extremities with the aid of an immunohistochemical panel comprising CD34, CD31, FVIII, SMA, D2-40, HHV8. After revision, 6/50 PG lesions previously diagnosed as PG, showed positive immunostaining for LNA1-HHV8 and focal positivity for CD31 and FVIII in the endothelial cells of the proliferating vessels, with some SMA positive pericytes. D2-40, a marker of lymphatic endothelium positive in KS, stained negatively. These lesions were renamed PGLKS. Of note, in our series, PGLKS represented the only form of KS localized in the hand; all the patients were HIV-negative, older than PG patients, with a prevalence for male gender. PGLKS and PG need a different management and a follow-up is advisable for PGLKS, as for the other variants of KS. To date, D2-40 negative immunostaining has not yet been reported in PGLKS and should not lead to a misdiagnosis of PG. The morphological similarities with PG and the immunohistochemical findings, showing a defective phenotype of the neoplastic cells, suggest a histogenetic hypothesis in which D2-40 negative PGLKS could represent an early stage of HHV8 infection of a pre-existing PG, whose vessels loose progressively their blood vascular markers but have not still acquired the lymphatic ones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Skin KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Skin What's in this ... body) are really dead skin cells. Bye-Bye Skin Cells These old cells are tough and strong, ...

  17. Sulfasalazine Attenuates Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B-Induced Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Krakauer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB and related exotoxins are important virulence factors produced by Staphylococcus aureus as they cause human diseases such as food poisoning and toxic shock. These toxins bind directly to cells of the immune system resulting in hyperactivation of both T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. The excessive release of proinflammatory cytokines from these cells mediates the toxic effects of SEB. This study examined the inhibitory activities of an anti-inflammatory drug, sulfasalazine, on SEB-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Sulfasalazine dose-dependently inhibited tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1 (IL-1 β, IL-2, IL-6, interferon γ (IFNγ, and various chemotactic cytokines from SEB-stimulated human PBMC. Sulfasalazine also potently blocked SEB-induced T cell proliferation and NFκB activation. These results suggest that sulfasalazine might be useful in mitigating the toxic effects of SEB by blocking SEB-induced host inflammatory cascade and signaling pathways.

  18. The Marine Fungal Metabolite, Dicitrinone B, Induces A375 Cell Apoptosis through the ROS-Related Caspase Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dicitrinone B, a rare carbon-bridged citrinin dimer, was isolated from the marine-derived fungus, Penicillium citrinum. It was reported to have antitumor effects on tumor cells previously; however, the details of the mechanism remain unclear. In this study, we found that dicitrinone B inhibited the proliferation of multiple tumor types. Among them, the human malignant melanoma cell, A375, was confirmed to be the most sensitive. Morphologic evaluation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis rate analysis results showed that dicitrinone B significantly induced A375 cell apoptosis. Subsequent observation of reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP reduction revealed that the apoptosis induced by dicitrinone B may be triggered by over-producing ROS. Further studies indicated that the apoptosis was associated with both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways under the regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. Caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3 were activated during the process, leading to PARP cleavage. The pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, could reverse dicitrinone B-induced apoptosis, suggesting that it is a caspase-dependent pathway. Our data for the first time showed that dicitrinone B inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells by inducing cell apoptosis. Moreover, compared with the first-line chemotherapy drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu, dicitrinone B showed much more potent anticancer efficacy, suggesting that it might serve as a potential antitumor agent.

  19. Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  20. Skin rash in patients treated with neoadjuvant erlotinib (Tarceva in resectable non-small cell lung cancer: Predictor for tumor response and survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Gool MH

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin rash during treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI has been reported to be predictive for response and survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate whether skin rash during treatment (as a biomarker in a preoperative setting was related to response and survival. Methods: This study was designed as an open-label phase II trial (also known as M06NEL. Patients received preoperative erlotinib (Tarceva 150 mg once daily for 3 weeks. Skin toxicity during treatment was analysed in relation to metabolic and histopathological response, overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS. Results: In total 59 patients (25 male, 34 female were eligible for analysis. In 39 patients (66% skin toxicity occurred. According to National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCICTC, Grade 1 toxicity was seen in 15 patients (25%, Grade 2 in 19 patients (32% and Grade 3 in five patients (8%. None of the patients showed skin toxicity Grade 4 and 5. The median follow up was 74 months. Thirty-six patients (61% were alive at time of analysis. Twenty-seven patients (46% showed disease progression during follow up. Hazard ratios (HR indicated lower risk of death (HR = 0.66, 95%CI: 0.29 - 1.50 and progression (HR = 0.64, 0.30 - 1.36, although in this small group results were not significant. Skin rash did not adequately predict response. Conclusions: In this neoadjuvant setting with limited treatment time in patients with early stage NSCLC, skin rash was not associated with response and survival and cannot be used as an early biomarker.

  1. Endocrine actions of vitamin D in skin: Relevance for photocarcinogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancer, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrath, Jörg; Saternus, Roman; Vogt, Thomas

    2017-09-15

    The skin represents a pivotal organ for the human body's vitamin D endocrine system, being both the site of ultraviolet (UV)-B-induced vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for the pluripotent effects of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 and other biologically active vitamin D metabolites. As many other steroid hormones, 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 exerts its effects via two independent signal transduction pathways: the classical genomic and the non-genomic pathway. While non-genomic effects of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 are in part exerted via effects on intracellular calcium, genomic effects are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Recent findings convincingly support the concept of a new function of the VDR as a tumor suppressor in skin, with key components of the vitamin D endocrine system, including VDR, CYP24A1, CYP27A1, and CYP27B1 being strongly expressed in non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). It has now been shown that anti-tumor effects of VDR, that include some of its ligand-induced growth-regulatory effects, are at least in part mediated by interacting in a highly coordinated manner with the p53 family (p53/p63/p73) in response to a large number of alterations in cell homeostasis, including UV-induced DNA damage, a hallmark for skin photocarcinogenesis. Considering the relevance of the vitamin D endocrine system for carcinogenesis of skin cancer, it is not surprising that low 25(OH)D serum concentrations and genetic variants (SNPs) of the vitamin D endocrine system have been identified as potential risk factors for occurrence and prognosis of skin malignancies. In conclusion, an increasing body of evidence now convincingly supports the concept that the vitamin D endocrine system is of relevance for photocarcinogenesis and progression of NMSC and that its pharmacologic modulation by vitamin D, 1,25(OH) 2 D 3, and analogs represents a promising new strategy for prevention and/or treatment of these malignancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... Skin abscesses are common and affect people of all ages. They occur when an infection causes pus ...

  3. Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Miguel A; Zakaria, Alan; Nizran, Parminder

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer accounts for most malignancies across the globe. They are primarily divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin malignancies. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Fair skin and chronic ultraviolet B exposure are the most important risk factors. Primary prevention is achieved by avoiding sun exposure and tanning beds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Kammer, Jenna N

    2011-01-01

    Skin tightening describes the treatment of skin laxity via radiofrequency (RF), ultrasound, or light-based devices. Skin laxity on the face is manifested by progressive loss of skin elasticity, loosening of the connective tissue framework, and deepening of skin folds. This results in prominence of submandibular and submental tissues. Genetic factors (chronological aging) and extrinsic factors (ultraviolet radiation) both contribute to skin laxity. There are many RF, ultrasound, and light-based devices directed at treating skin laxity. All of these devices target and heat the dermis to induce collagen contraction. Heating of the dermis causes collagen denaturation and immediate collagen contraction in addition to long-term collagen remodeling. Via RF, light, or ultrasound, these skin tightening devices deliver heat to the dermis to create new collagen and induce skin tightening. This chapter will provide an overview of the various skin tightening devices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Use of helium-neon laser for the prevention of acute radiation reaction of the skin in neutron-beam therapy of head and neck tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovich, V.I.; Musabaeva, L.I.; Kitsmanyuk, Z.D.; Lavrenkov, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary data on helium-neon laser usage to prevent acute radiation skinresponse in patients with head and neck neoplasm were presented in case of fast neutrons therapy with average energy of ≅ 6.3 MeV. Irradiation was performed by 2 fractions a week with single absorbed focal dose of 1.2-1.4 Gy and the dose for the skin was 2-2.2 Gy. RBE of the fast neutrons comprised ∼ 3. Some patients were subjected to neutron therapy in combination with helium-neon laser treatment, the others underwent only neutron therapy. Combination of neutron and helium-neon laser therapy increased skin resistance to neutron irradiation. Combined treatment with neutrons and helium-neon laser decreased development of humid epidermitis by half than in case of neutron treatment alone

  6. Characterization of the tumor-promoting activity of m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid in SENCAR mouse skin and its inhibition by gallotannin, oligomeric proanthocyanidin, and their monomeric units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilan Chen; Elisabeth M. Perchellet; Xiao Mei Gao; Fatima K. Johnson; Amy W. Davis; Steven W. Newell; Richard W. Hemingway; Vittorio Bottari; Jean-Pierre Perchellett

    1996-01-01

    m-Chloroperoxybenzoic acid (CPBA). Which induces ornithine decarboxylase activity as much as 12-0- terradecanoyIp horbol-13-acetate (TPA ). was tested for its ability to induce DNA synthesis. bydroperoxide (HPx) production. and tumor promotion in mouse epidermis in vivo. After an early inhibition. CPBA stimulates DNA synthesis. A response which is maintained between 16...

  7. Skin Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Skin Complications Diabetes can affect every part of the ... lipoidica diabeticorum, diabetic blisters, and eruptive xanthomatosis. General Skin Conditions Bacterial Infections Several kinds of bacterial infections ...

  8. Cryotherapy - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryosurgery - skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy; Actinic keratosis - cryotherapy; Solar keratosis - cryotherapy ... may be used to: Remove warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare ...

  9. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  10. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turkey neck,” this occurs as skin loses its elasticity and in cases where individuals have lost a ... technique or procedure is appropriate for my skin type? Did the doctor show me before-and-after ...

  11. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... like these: skin rashes or conditions, such as eczema or psoriasis skin infections, such as staph diseases, ...

  12. Skin Graft

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Ruka; Kishi, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Skin graft is one of the most indispensable techniques in plastic surgery and dermatology. Skin grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations, such as traumatic wounds, defects after oncologic resection, burn reconstruction, scar contracture release, congenital skin deficiencies, hair restoration, vitiligo, and nipple-areola reconstruction. Skin grafts are generally avoided in the management of more complex wounds. Conditions with deep spaces and exposed bones normally require the use o...

  13. Antimicrobial Peptide Lactoferricin B-Induced Rapid Leakage of Internal Contents from Single Giant Unilamellar Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Md; Alam, Jahangir Md; Dohra, Hideo; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2015-09-29

    Enzymatic digestion of bovine lactoferrin generates lactoferricin B (Lfcin B), a 25-mer peptide with strong antimicrobial activity of unknown mechanism. To elucidate the mechanistic basis of Lfcin B bactericidal activity, we investigated the interaction of Lfcin B with Escherichia coli and liposomes of lipid membranes. Lfcin B induced the influx of a membrane-impermeant fluorescent probe, SYTOX green, from the outside of E. coli into its cytoplasm. Lfcin B induced gradual leakage of calcein from large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) of dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG)/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) membranes. To clarify the cause of Lfcin B-induced leakage of calcein from the LUVs, we used the single giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) method to investigate the interaction of Lfcin B with calcein-containing DOPG/DOPC-GUVs. We observed that a rapid leakage of calcein from a GUV started stochastically; statistical analysis provided a rate constant for Lfcin B-induced pore formation, kp. On the other hand, phase-contrast microscopic images revealed that Lfcin B induced a rapid leakage of sucrose from the single GUVs with concomitant appearance of a spherical GUV of smaller diameter. Because of the very fast leakage, and at the present time resolution of the experiments (33 ms), we could not follow the evolution of pore nor the process of the structural changes of the GUV. Here we used the term "local rupture" to express the rapid leakage of sucrose and determined the rate constant of local rupture, kL. On the basis of the comparison between kp and kL, we concluded that the leakage of calcein from single GUVs occurred as a result of a local rupture in the GUVs and that smaller pores inducing leakage of calcein were not formed before the local rupture. The results of the effect of the surface charge density of lipid membranes and that of salt concentration in buffer on kp clearly show that kp increases with an increase in the extent of electrostatic interactions due to

  14. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  15. A role for b-cell-depleting agents in treating psoriatic skin lesions induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuta Codrina Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in understanding the pathological pathways, clinical pattern and management opportunities for new-onset psoriasis as a paradoxical adverse event in patients receiving TNF inhibitors for their immune-mediated disorder, there is a subset of patients who are either partial responders or non-responders, whatever the therapeutic scenario. We present the case of new-onset psoriasis and severe alopecia development in a case study of long-standing rheumatoid arthritis (RA treated with adalimumab (ADA and leflunomide. Since skin lesions and alopecia are resistant to the classic protocol (topical treatment, ADA discontinuation and RA becomes highly active, rituximab (RTX was started. Dramatic improvement in joint disease, total remission of alopecia and partial remission of pustular psoriasis were described after the first RTX cycle. Although B-cell-depleting agents result in controversial effects on psoriatic skin lesions, this is the first case of ADA-induced psoriasis and alopecia that improved under RTX, suggesting a possible role in treating such a patient population.

  16. Mouse Models of the Skin: Models to Define Mechanisms of Skin Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, D. L.; Verma, A. K.; Denning, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    The multistep model of mouse skin carcinogenesis has facilitated identification of irreversible genetic events of initiation and progression, and epigenetic events of tumor promotion. Mouse skin tumor initiation can be accomplished by a single exposure to a sufficiently small dose of a carcinogen, and this step is rapid and irreversible. However, promotion of skin tumor formation requires a repeated and prolonged exposure to a promoter, and that tumor promotion is reversible. Investigations focused on the mechanisms of mouse carcinogenesis have resulted in the identifications of potential molecular targets of cancer induction and progression useful in planning strategies for human cancer prevention trials. This special issue contains eight papers that focus on mouse models used to study individual proteins expressed in the mouse skin and the role they play in differentiation, tissue homeostasis, skin carcinogenesis, and chemo prevention of skin cancer.

  17. Mid-infrared spectroscopy in skin cancer cell type identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastl, Lena; Kemper, Björn; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Stone, Nick; Naranjo, Valery; Penaranda, Francisco; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2017-07-01

    Mid infrared spectroscopy samples were developed for the analysis of skin tumor cell types and three dimensional tissue phantoms towards the application of midIR spectroscopy for fast and reliable skin cancer diagnostics.

  18. Effect of chitosan-N-acetylcysteine conjugate in a mouse model of botulinum toxin B-induced dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyok, Teeravee; Chae, Jemin J; Shin, Young Joo; Na, Daero; Li, Li; Chuck, Roy S

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of a thiolated polymer lubricant, chitosan-N-acetylcysteine conjugate (C-NAC), in a mouse model of dry eye. Eye drops containing 0.5% C-NAC, 0.3% C-NAC, a vehicle (control group), artificial tears, or fluorometholone were applied in a masked fashion in a mouse model of induced dry eye from 3 days to 4 weeks after botulinum toxin B injection. Corneal fluorescein staining was periodically recorded. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining were performed at the end of the study to evaluate inflammatory cytokine expressions. Mice treated with C-NAC, 0.5%, and fluorometholone showed a downward trend that was not statistically significant in corneal staining compared with the other groups. Chitosan-NAC formulations, fluorometholone, and artificial tears significantly decreased IL-1beta (interleukin 1beta), IL-10, IL-12alpha, and tumor necrosis factor alpha expression in ocular surface tissues. The botulinum toxin B-induced dry eye mouse model is potentially useful in evaluating new dry eye treatment. Evaluation of important molecular biomarkers suggests that C-NAC may impart some protective ocular surface properties. However, clinical data did not indicate statistically significant improvement of tear production and corneal staining in any of the groups tested. Topically applied C-NAC might protect the ocular surface in dry eye syndrome, as evidenced by decreased inflammatory cytokine expression.

  19. The Ozobranchus leech is a candidate mechanical vector for the fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus found latently infecting skin tumors on Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenblatt, Rebecca J.; Work, Thierry M.; Balazs, George H.; Sutton, Claudia A.; Casey, Rufina N.; Casey, James W.

    2004-01-01

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP) of marine turtles is a neoplastic disease of ecological concern. A fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus (FPTHV) is consistently present, usually at loads exceeding one virus copy per tumor cell. DNA from an array of parasites of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) was examined with quantitative PCR (qPCR) to determine whether any carried viral loads are sufficient to implicate them as vectors for FPTHV. Marine leeches (Ozobranchus spp.) were found to carry high viral DNA loads; some samples approached 10 million copies per leech. Isopycnic sucrose density gradient/qPCR analysis confirmed that some of these copies were associated with particles of the density of enveloped viruses. The data implicate the marine leech Ozobranchus as a mechanical vector for FPTHV. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of FPTHV gene expression indicated that most of the FPTHV copies in a fibropapilloma have restricted DNA polymerase expression, suggestive of latent infection

  20. The Signaling Cascades of Ginkgolide B-Induced Apoptosis in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiung Chan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgolide B, the major active component of Ginkgo biloba extracts, can bothstimulate and inhibit apoptotic signaling. Here, we demonstrate that ginkgolide B caninduce the production of reactive oxygen species in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, leading toan increase in the intracellular concentrations of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ and nitric oxide(NO, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, activation of caspase-9 and -3,and increase the mRNA expression levels of p53 and p21, which are known to be involvedin apoptotic signaling. In addition, prevention of ROS generation by pretreatment withN-acetyl cysteine (NAC could effectively block intracellular Ca2+ concentrationsincreases and apoptosis in ginkgolide B-treated MCF-7 cells. Moreover, pretreatment withnitric oxide (NO scavengers could inhibit ginkgolide B-induced MMP change andsequent apoptotic processes. Overall, our results signify that both ROS and NO playedimportant roles in ginkgolide B-induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. Based on these studyresults, we propose a model for ginkgolide B-induced cell apoptosis signaling cascades inMCF-7 cells.

  1. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on a budget Skin care products Skin care secrets Skin lighteners Skin of color Summer skin problems ... condition, such as eczema. Additional related information Dermatologists' top tips for relieving dry skin FIND A DERMATOLOGIST ...

  2. Skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Michiko

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the development of skin cancer associated with radiation, focusing on the knowledge of A-bomb radiation-induced skin cancer. Since the discovery of X radiation in 1895, acute and chronic radiation dermatitis has been the first matter of concern. Then, in 1902, skin cancer found among radiological personnel has posed a social problem. In earlier study determining the relationship between skin cancer and A-bomb radiation, there is no increase in the incidence of either skin cancer or precancerous condition during the first 20 years after A-bombing. More recent studies have showed that there is a significant correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and distance from the hypocenter; and the incidence of skin cancer is found to be remarkably increased since 1975 in the group exposed at ≤2,000 m. Excess relative risk is 2.2 at one Gy dose. The incidence of skin cancer is also found to be extremely increased with aging. Relative risk is high in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Histologically, basal cell carcinoma is more senstitive to ionizing radiation than squamous cell carcinoma. (N.K.)

  3. Ultraviolet B irradiation induces expansion of intraepithelial tumor cells in a tissue model of early cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Adarsh V; Segal, Nadav; Andriani, Frank; Wang, Youai; Fusenig, Norbert E; Garlick, Jonathan A

    2003-07-01

    Ultraviolet B irradiation is thought to enable skin cancer progression as clones of genetically damaged keratinocytes escape apoptosis and expand at the expense of adjacent normal cells. Mechanisms through which potentially malignant cells in human skin undergo clonal expansion, however, are not well understood. The goal of this study was to characterize the role of ultraviolet B irradiation on the intraepithelial expansion of early stage human tumor cells in organotypic skin cultures. To accomplish this, we have studied the effect of ultraviolet B irradiation on organotypic cultures that were fabricated by mixing normal human keratinocytes with beta-galactosidase-marked, intraepithelial tumor cells (HaCaT-ras, clone II-4), which bear mutations in both p53 alleles and harbor an activated H-ras oncogene. We found that when organotypic mixtures were exposed to an ultraviolet B dose of 50 mJ per cm2, intraepithelial tumor cells underwent a significant degree of proliferative expansion compared to nonirradiated cultures. To understand this response, organotypic cultures of nor-mal keratinocytes were exposed to ultraviolet B and showed a dose-dependent increase in numbers of sunburn cells and TUNEL-positive cells although their proliferation was suppressed. In contrast, neither the apoptotic nor the proliferative response of II-4 cells was altered by ultraviolet B in organotypic cultures. The differential response of these cell types suggested that II-4 cells were resistant to ultraviolet-B-induced alterations, which allowed these intraepithelial tumor cells to gain a selective growth and survival advantage relative to neighboring normal cells. These findings demonstrate that ultraviolet B exposure can induce the intraepithelial expansion of apoptosis-resistant, p53-mutant, and ras-activated keratinocytes, suggesting that this agent can act to promote the early stages of epithelial carcinogenesis.

  4. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  5. Skin Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  6. Hyperelastic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present? Genetic counseling may ...

  7. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sunlamps. There are 2 types of UV rays: UVA rays (long-wave) – UVA rays penetrate clouds and glass. They penetrate the ... to cancer. But studies have shown that both UVA and UVB damage the skin and can cause ...

  8. UV-induced skin damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihashi, M.; Ueda, M.; Budiyanto, A.; Bito, T.; Oka, M.; Fukunaga, M.; Tsuru, K.; Horikawa, T.

    2003-01-01

    Solar radiation induces acute and chronic reactions in human and animal skin. Chronic repeated exposures are the primary cause of benign and malignant skin tumors, including malignant melanoma. Among types of solar radiation, ultraviolet B (290-320 nm) radiation is highly mutagenic and carcinogenic in animal experiments compared to ultraviolet A (320-400 nm) radiation. Epidemiological studies suggest that solar UV radiation is responsible for skin tumor development via gene mutations and immunosuppression, and possibly for photoaging. In this review, recent understanding of DNA damage caused by direct UV radiation and by indirect stress via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA repair mechanisms, particularly nucleotide excision repair of human cells, are discussed. In addition, mutations induced by solar UV radiation in p53, ras and patched genes of non-melanoma skin cancer cells, and the role of ROS as both a promoter in UV-carcinogenesis and an inducer of UV-apoptosis, are described based primarily on the findings reported during the last decade. Furthermore, the effect of UV on immunological reaction in the skin is discussed. Finally, possible prevention of UV-induced skin cancer by feeding or topical use of antioxidants, such as polyphenols, vitamin C, and vitamin E, is discussed

  9. UV Radiation and the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Scott

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available UV radiation (UV is classified as a “complete carcinogen” because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance.

  10. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  11. Characterization of nociceptive behavioural responses in the awake pig following UV–B-induced inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Petersen, Lars J.; Herskin, Mette S

    2014-01-01

    due to its great homology with humans. Methods The skin in the flank of awake pigs was irradiated by a UV-B light source (1 J/cm2) and changes in thermal and mechanical sensitivity 24 and 48 h following irradiation were measured via assessment of nociceptive behaviours. Results Thermal sensitivity...... skin site than at the control site 24 and 48 h following irradiation (P UV-B irradiation (P = 0.092). Following the inflammatory challenge, the mechanical sensitivity was higher at the site...... of irradiation compared with the control skin at both 24 and 48 h (P UV-B inflammation in porcine skin, but they were not capable of providing a clear indication...

  12. Skin decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehrle, G.

    1975-01-01

    A general survey of skin decontamination is given. The success of every decontamination treatments depends mainly on the speed, but also on the care, with which the action is taken. The best way to remove the skin contaminants is thorough washing under lukewarm running water with mild soap and a soft brush. This washing is to be repeated several times for a period of several minutes. If results are not satisfactory, light duty detergents and wetting agents available commercially may also be used. Some solutions which have proved useful are mentioned. The decontamination solutions are best used in the order given. When one has no satisfactory decontamination effect, the next one is to be used. If necessary, these agents must be used several times in the stated order as long as this does not involve too much strain for the skin. All the decontamination measures mentioned refer, of course, to intact healthy skin. After decontamination has been completed, the skin should be treated with a protective cream

  13. Enniatin B-induced cell death and inflammatory responses in RAW 267.4 murine macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammelsrud, A. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway); Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Solhaug, A. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway); Dendelé, B. [EA 4427 SeRAIC, IRSET, Université de Rennes 1, IFR 140, Rennes (France); Sandberg, W.J. [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Ivanova, L. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway); Kocbach Bølling, A. [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Lagadic-Gossmann, D. [EA 4427 SeRAIC, IRSET, Université de Rennes 1, IFR 140, Rennes (France); Refsnes, M.; Becher, R. [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Eriksen, G. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway); Holme, J.A., E-mail: jorn.holme@fhi.no [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway)

    2012-05-15

    The mycotoxin enniatin B (EnnB) is predominantly produced by species of the Fusarium genera, and often found in grain. The cytotoxic effect of EnnB has been suggested to be related to its ability to form ionophores in cell membranes. The present study examines the effects of EnnB on cell death, differentiation, proliferation and pro-inflammatory responses in the murine monocyte–macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Exposure to EnnB for 24 h caused an accumulation of cells in the G0/G1-phase with a corresponding decrease in cyclin D1. This cell cycle-arrest was possibly also linked to the reduced cellular ability to capture and internalize receptors as illustrated by the lipid marker ganglioside GM1. EnnB also increased the number of apoptotic, early apoptotic and necrotic cells, as well as cells with elongated spindle-like morphology. The Neutral Red assay indicated that EnnB induced lysosomal damage; supported by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showing accumulation of lipids inside the lysosomes forming lamellar structures/myelin bodies. Enhanced levels of activated caspase-1 were observed after EnnB exposure and the caspase-1 specific inhibitor ZYVAD-FMK reduced EnnB-induced apoptosis. Moreover, EnnB increased the release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in cells primed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and this response was reduced by both ZYVAD-FMK and the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074Me. In conclusion, EnnB was found to induce cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. Caspase-1 appeared to be involved in the apoptosis and release of IL-1β and possibly activation of the inflammasome through lysosomal damage and leakage of cathepsin B. -- Highlights: ► The mycotoxin EnnB induced cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. ► The G0/G1-arrest was linked to a reduced ability to internalize receptors. ► EnnB caused lysosomal damage, leakage of cathepsin B and caspase-1 cleavage. ► Caspase-1 was partly involved in both apoptosis and release of IL-1

  14. Enniatin B-induced cell death and inflammatory responses in RAW 267.4 murine macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammelsrud, A.; Solhaug, A.; Dendelé, B.; Sandberg, W.J.; Ivanova, L.; Kocbach Bølling, A.; Lagadic-Gossmann, D.; Refsnes, M.; Becher, R.; Eriksen, G.; Holme, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The mycotoxin enniatin B (EnnB) is predominantly produced by species of the Fusarium genera, and often found in grain. The cytotoxic effect of EnnB has been suggested to be related to its ability to form ionophores in cell membranes. The present study examines the effects of EnnB on cell death, differentiation, proliferation and pro-inflammatory responses in the murine monocyte–macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Exposure to EnnB for 24 h caused an accumulation of cells in the G0/G1-phase with a corresponding decrease in cyclin D1. This cell cycle-arrest was possibly also linked to the reduced cellular ability to capture and internalize receptors as illustrated by the lipid marker ganglioside GM1. EnnB also increased the number of apoptotic, early apoptotic and necrotic cells, as well as cells with elongated spindle-like morphology. The Neutral Red assay indicated that EnnB induced lysosomal damage; supported by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showing accumulation of lipids inside the lysosomes forming lamellar structures/myelin bodies. Enhanced levels of activated caspase-1 were observed after EnnB exposure and the caspase-1 specific inhibitor ZYVAD-FMK reduced EnnB-induced apoptosis. Moreover, EnnB increased the release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in cells primed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and this response was reduced by both ZYVAD-FMK and the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074Me. In conclusion, EnnB was found to induce cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. Caspase-1 appeared to be involved in the apoptosis and release of IL-1β and possibly activation of the inflammasome through lysosomal damage and leakage of cathepsin B. -- Highlights: ► The mycotoxin EnnB induced cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. ► The G0/G1-arrest was linked to a reduced ability to internalize receptors. ► EnnB caused lysosomal damage, leakage of cathepsin B and caspase-1 cleavage. ► Caspase-1 was partly involved in both apoptosis and release of IL-1

  15. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unni, K.K.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on bone tumors. Topics covered include: Bone tumor imaging: Contribution of CT and MRI, staging of bone tumors, perind cell tumors of bone, and metastatic bone disease

  16. Rhodamine B induces long nucleoplasmic bridges and other nuclear anomalies in Allium cepa root tip cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dehong; Bai, Bing; Jiang, Donghua; Shi, Lin; Cheng, Shunchang; Tao, Dongbing; Ji, Shujuan

    2014-03-01

    The cytogenetic toxicity of rhodamine B on root tip cells of Allium cepa was investigated. A. cepa were cultured in water (negative control), 10 ppm methyl methanesulfonate (positive control), and three concentrations of rhodamine B (200, 100, and 50 ppm) for 7 days. Rhodamine B inhibited mitotic activity; increased nuclear anomalies, including micronuclei, nuclear buds, and bridged nuclei; and induced oxidative stress in A. cepa root tissues. Furthermore, a substantial amount of long nucleoplasmic bridges were entangled together, and some nuclei were simultaneously linked to several other nuclei and to nuclear buds with nucleoplasmic bridges in rhodamine B-treated cells. In conclusion, rhodamine B induced cytogenetic effects in A. cepa root tip cells, which suggests that the A. cepa root is an ideal model system for detecting cellular interactions.

  17. Taurine Protects Lens Epithelial Cells Against Ultraviolet B-Induced Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayang, Wu; Dongbo, Pang

    2017-10-01

    The massive uptake of compatible osmolytes is a self-protective response shared by lens exposed to hypertonic stress and ultraviolet stress. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of taurine against ultraviolet B-induced cytotoxicity in the lens epithelial cells. Real-time PCR was used to measure osmolytes transport. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure osmolytes uptake. Cell counting kit-8 assays were used to measure cellular viability. Flow cytometry analysis was used to measure apoptosis level. Compared with normotonic stress, hypertonic stress-induced osmolytes uptake into the lens epithelial cells such as betaine, myoinositol and taurine. UVB exposure increased osmolytes transporter mRNA expression together with osmolytes uptake. Moreover, taurine suppressed UVB-induced cell apoptosis in the lens epithelial cells significantly. The effect of compatible osmolyte taurine on cell survival rate may play an important role in cell resistance and adaption to UVB exposure.

  18. Glomus tumor of penis- A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri S. Kate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomus tumors are rare, painful, and benign soft tissue tumors of the skin arising from the glomus body, an arteriovenous thermoregulatory structure. This lesion is usually found on the extremities. Glomus tumor involving the external genital organs including penis is extremely rare. Until now, only few cases have been reported in the available literature. A 22 year old male patient presented with a painful nodule over the penis. The pathologic diagnosis was glomus tumor of the glans penis. We report herewith a case of glomus tumor of penis diagnosed on histopathologic examination. Glomus tumor, being a benign neoplasm, complete extirpation of the glomus tumor is the treatment of choice.

  19. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  20. Superficial skin ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaila, Modupeola O.; Rafindadi, Abdulmumini H.; Oluwole, Olabode P.; Adewuyi, Sunday A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to determine the underlying cause of superficial skin ulcers over a 15-year period. A retrospective histopathological analysis of 670 cases of superficial skin ulcers diagnosed in the Dept. of Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria from January 1991 to December 2005. A total of 670 superficial skin ulcers were analyzed. The mail to female gender ratio was 409:261(1.5:1.0) and a peakage frequency of 44.3 %( 297) in the 5th and 6th decades. Spectrum of lesions encountered was categorized into inflammatory, infections, benign and malignant diseases. The malignant lesions were 309 (46.1%), non-specific inflammation 302 (45.1%), granulation tissue 25 (3.7%) and pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia 14 (2.1%). A total of 18(2.7%) specific infections were encountered, which included bacterial, fungal and viral infection. Benign lesions were 2(0.3%), comprising of neurofibroma and Bowen's disease. The most common malignant lesion was squamous cell carcinoma 203 (30.3%) with a male to female ratio of 128:75 (1.7:1.0). Of these 161 were well differentiated tumors. The lower limb was the prevalent site distribution of all the ulcers. Superficial ulcers may be harbinger of malignant diseases. Squamous cell carcinoma remains the most common malignant lesion arising from chronic superficial ulcers from our setting. Adequate tissue biopsy and early diagnosis may reduce the attendant morbidity of these ulcers. (author)

  1. Penile Shaft : An Unusual Location For Skin Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thami Gurvinder P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin tags or acrochordons, commonly observed in the flexural surfaces and various folds of skin, are more frequently encountered in presence of obesity, diagetes and old age. Although lesions are quite characteristic clinically, at times these need to be differentiated from warts, fibromas and other benign tumors of skin and their appendages. A rare case with presence of skin tags over the shaft of penis is described.

  2. PDT for malignant tumors: a clinical analysis of 152 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Shi-Zhang; Wang, Yun-Zhen; Li, Xin; Zhang, Changjun; Wang, Jian-Zhao; Zhang, Da-Ren

    1993-03-01

    Hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) laser photodynamic therapy (PDT) was applied for the patients of 152 cases of malignant tumors, including tumors of the lip, tongue, esophagus, urinary bladder, skin, larynx, vagina, etc. Since early 1981 good results have been obtained.

  3. [Skin cancer as occupational disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of epithelial skin neoplasms, such as squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma is significantly increasing worldwide. Leisure time solar UV exposure is causative in the overwhelming majority of cases in the general population; however, occupational exposure is responsible for a certain percentage of cases. Employees with a relevant exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances, to sunlight in outdoor occupations as well as to arsenic and ionizing radiation have a significantly increased risk to develop occupational skin cancer compared to the general population. In the official occupational disease list in the appendix of the German by-law on occupational diseases, the following occupational diseases concerning skin cancer are listed: BK 5102 "skin cancer and carcinoma in situ caused by soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances" (e.g. various solid paraffins, asphalt and mazut as well as mineral oils, grease, cylinder and drilling oils), BK 5103 "squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratosis caused by natural UV radiation", BK 1108 "diseases caused by arsenic and its compounds" and BK 2402 "diseases caused by ionizing radiation". For further occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances and potential occupationally acquired skin tumors, no official lists are currently available. These cancers might be considered under a special opt out paragraph in the German Social Law (§ 9 para 2 SGB VII). Tumors in scars after occupational skin trauma or occupational burns are compensated as consequences of work accidents. The current official list of occupational skin cancers and new developments for expert opinions are described in this article.

  4. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  5. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  6. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures ...

  7. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase ... is based on the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell ...

  8. Stages of Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase ... is based on the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell ...

  9. Cutaneous skin tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  10. Brevenal inhibits pacific ciguatoxin-1B-induced neurosecretion from bovine chromaffin cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mattei

    Full Text Available Ciguatoxins and brevetoxins are neurotoxic cyclic polyether compounds produced by dinoflagellates, which are responsible for ciguatera and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP respectively. Recently, brevenal, a natural compound was found to specifically inhibit brevetoxin action and to have a beneficial effect in NSP. Considering that brevetoxin and ciguatoxin specifically activate voltage-sensitive Na+ channels through the same binding site, brevenal has therefore a good potential for the treatment of ciguatera. Pacific ciguatoxin-1B (P-CTX-1B activates voltage-sensitive Na+ channels and promotes an increase in neurotransmitter release believed to underpin the symptoms associated with ciguatera. However, the mechanism through which slow Na+ influx promotes neurosecretion is not fully understood. In the present study, we used chromaffin cells as a model to reconstitute the sequence of events culminating in ciguatoxin-evoked neurosecretion. We show that P-CTX-1B induces a tetrodotoxin-sensitive rise in intracellular Na+, closely followed by an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ responsible for promoting SNARE-dependent catecholamine secretion. Our results reveal that brevenal and beta-naphtoyl-brevetoxin prevent P-CTX-1B secretagogue activity without affecting nicotine or barium-induced catecholamine secretion. Brevenal is therefore a potent inhibitor of ciguatoxin-induced neurotoxic effect and a potential treatment for ciguatera.

  11. Brevenal inhibits pacific ciguatoxin-1B-induced neurosecretion from bovine chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, César; Wen, Peter J; Nguyen-Huu, Truong D; Alvarez, Martha; Benoit, Evelyne; Bourdelais, Andrea J; Lewis, Richard J; Baden, Daniel G; Molgó, Jordi; Meunier, Frédéric A

    2008-01-01

    Ciguatoxins and brevetoxins are neurotoxic cyclic polyether compounds produced by dinoflagellates, which are responsible for ciguatera and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) respectively. Recently, brevenal, a natural compound was found to specifically inhibit brevetoxin action and to have a beneficial effect in NSP. Considering that brevetoxin and ciguatoxin specifically activate voltage-sensitive Na+ channels through the same binding site, brevenal has therefore a good potential for the treatment of ciguatera. Pacific ciguatoxin-1B (P-CTX-1B) activates voltage-sensitive Na+ channels and promotes an increase in neurotransmitter release believed to underpin the symptoms associated with ciguatera. However, the mechanism through which slow Na+ influx promotes neurosecretion is not fully understood. In the present study, we used chromaffin cells as a model to reconstitute the sequence of events culminating in ciguatoxin-evoked neurosecretion. We show that P-CTX-1B induces a tetrodotoxin-sensitive rise in intracellular Na+, closely followed by an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ responsible for promoting SNARE-dependent catecholamine secretion. Our results reveal that brevenal and beta-naphtoyl-brevetoxin prevent P-CTX-1B secretagogue activity without affecting nicotine or barium-induced catecholamine secretion. Brevenal is therefore a potent inhibitor of ciguatoxin-induced neurotoxic effect and a potential treatment for ciguatera.

  12. Evaluation of Cytochalasin B-Induced Membrane Vesicles Fusion Specificity with Target Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gomzikova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EV represent a promising vector system for biomolecules and drug delivery due to their natural origin and participation in intercellular communication. As the quantity of EVs is limited, it was proposed to induce the release of membrane vesicles from the surface of human cells by treatment with cytochalasin B. Cytochalasin B-induced membrane vesicles (CIMVs were successfully tested as a vector for delivery of dye, nanoparticles, and a chemotherapeutic. However, it remained unclear whether CIMVs possess fusion specificity with target cells and thus might be used for more targeted delivery of therapeutics. To answer this question, CIMVs were obtained from human prostate cancer PC3 cells. The diameter of obtained CIMVs was 962,13 ± 140,6 nm. We found that there is no statistically significant preference in PC3 CIMVs fusion with target cells of the same type. According to our observations, the greatest impact on CIMVs entry into target cells is by the heterophilic interaction of CIMV membrane receptors with the surface proteins of target cells.

  13. Neoplastic Multifocal Skin Lesions: Biology, Etiology, and Targeted Therapies for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana R; Santos, Ana C; Sanchez-Lopez, Elena; Kovačević, Andjekla B; Espina, Marta; Calpena, Ana C; Veiga, Francisco J; Garcia, Maria L; Souto, Eliana B

    2018-01-01

    Neoplastic skin lesions are multifocal, diffuse skin infiltrations of particular relevance in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative, nodular, or crusting skin lesions. Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), namely, basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and also actinic keratosis (AK), are the most common malignant tumors in humans. BCCs do not proliferate rapidly and most of the times do not metastasize, while SCCs are more infiltrative, metastatic, and destructive. AKs are precursor lesions of cutaneous SCCs. The classical therapy of NMSCs makes use of photodynamic therapy associated with chemotherapeutics. With improved understanding of the pathological mechanisms of tumor initiation, progression, and differentiation, a case is made towards the use of targeted chemotherapy with the intent to reduce the cytotoxicity of classical treatments. The present review aims to describe the current state of the art on the knowledge of NMSC, including its risks factors, oncogenes, and skin carcinogenesis, discussing the classical therapy against new therapeutic options. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Progress has occurred in several areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) Progression and multiple events in radiation carcinogenesis of rat skin as a function of LET; (2) cell cycle kinetics of irradiated rat epidermis as determined by double labeling and double emulsion autoradiography; (3) oncogene activation detected by in situ hybridization in radiation-induced rat skin tumors; (4) amplification of the c-myc oncogene in radiation-induced rat skin tumors as a function of LET; and (5) transformation of rat skin keratinocytes by ionizing radiation in combination with c-Ki-ras and c-myc oncogenes. 111 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs

  15. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke; Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov; Stender, Ida Marie; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst; Vestergaard, Tine; Thormann, Henrik; Hædersdal, Merete; Dam, Tomas Norman; Olesen, Anne Braae

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables in the NMSC database. Information on recurrence, cosmetic results, and complications are registered at two follow-up visits at 3 months (between 0 and 6 months) and 12 months (between 6 and 15 months) after treatment. In 2014, 11,522 patients with 17,575 tumors were registered in the database. Of tumors with a histological diagnosis, 13,571 were BCCs, 840 squamous cell carcinomas, 504 Bowen's disease, and 173 keratoakanthomas. The NMSC database encompasses detailed information on the type of tumor, a variety of prognostic factors, treatment modalities, and outcomes after treatment. The database has revealed that overall, the quality of care of NMSC in Danish dermatological clinics is high, and the database provides the necessary data for continuous quality assurance.

  16. Skin cancers in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Giordano, Maria; Cappellani, Alessandro; Berretta, Massimiliano; Malaguarnera, Michele; Perrotta, Rosario Emanuele

    2013-11-01

    Cancer in older people is a common problem worldwide. Among various types of cancer, skin cancers represent an important percentage. The principal risk factors are sun exposure, family history of skin cancer, fair skin color, but also the age plays an important role in the genesis of skin cancers. In older people there are a more prolonged exposure to carcinogenesis and a decreased functionality of reparation mechanisms of the cells so they acquire a selective advantage of growing and proliferating. At the same time age causes alteration in immune system by increasing NK-cells absolute number and decreasing both the endogenous and the lymphokine-induced lytic activities. The anti-tumor immune response is also mediated by the cytotoxic T- lymphocytes and in the elderly a strong reduction of T-cell function has been demonstrated. In elderly patients the diagnosis and the treatment of skin cancers can be different from younger counterpart. For example in older patients with melanoma is important to evaluate Breslow depth while higher mitotic rate has major value in younger patients. Moreover, the treatment should consider the performance status of patients and their compliance.

  17. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can ... rarely, younger children can develop skin cancer. How can people with dark skin get skin cancer? Although ...

  18. Neuroendocrine tumors and smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Miličević

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine cells are dispersed around the body and can be found within the gastrointestinal system, lungs, larynx, thymus, thyroid, adrenal, gonads, skin and other tissues. These cells form the so-called ''diffuse neuroendocrine system'' and tumors arising from them are defined as neuroendocrine tumors (NETs. The traditional classification of NETs based on their embryonic origin includes foregut tumors (lung, thymus, stomach, pancreas and duodenum, midgut tumors (beyond the ligament of Treitz of the duodenum to the proximal transverse colon and hindgut tumors (distal colon and rectum. NETs at each site are biologically and clinically distinct from their counterparts at other sites. Symptoms in patients with early disease are often insidious in onset, leading to a delay in diagnosis. The majority of these tumors are thus diagnosed at a stage at which the only curative treatment, radical surgical intervention, is no longer an option. Due to the increasing incidence and mortality, many studies have been conducted in order to identify risk factors for the development of NETs. Still, little is known especially when it comes to preventable risk factors such as smoking. This review will focus on smoking and its contribution to the development of different subtypes of NETs.

  19. The spectrum of skin biopsies and excisions in a pediatric skin center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiler, Martin; Neuhaus, Kathrin; Kerl, Katrin; Weibel, Lisa

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about the spectrum of pediatric skin disorders requiring biopsy/excision, their indication, impact on further management, and the accuracy of clinical diagnosis. We aimed to address these questions in the patient population seen at our Swiss University referral center for Pediatric Dermatology and Plastic Surgery. All skin biopsies/excisions performed in patients aged ≤ 16 years over a period of 2 years were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 506 samples were included. The majority of biopsies/excisions (n = 413, 82%) was performed for tumors, cysts, and hamartomas and 18% for other skin conditions. Malignant tumors were found in 12 samples (2%) from four patients. In 121 (24%) patients, the histopathology had an important impact on patient management. In 80 (16%) cases, the pathology did not match with the clinical diagnosis. In 382 (75%) cases, excision was the treatment of choice. Of these, the indication for surgery was based on patient's request in 181 (47%) cases. Surgical interventions for pediatric skin disorders are performed for diagnostic and therapeutic reasons. In this cohort, histopathology was essential for treatment in one quarter of cases. Skin tumors, cysts, and hamartomas often require excision during childhood, with families' request and esthetic considerations playing an important role. What is Known: • The spectrum of pediatric skin conditions has been studied in outpatient, inpatient, and emergency settings. • In contrast, no data exist on the spectrum of pediatric skin disorders undergoing biopsy/excision specifically. What is New: • We analyze biopsies/excisions in children, focusing on diagnosis, indication, and impact on patient management. • Surgical interventions for skin disorders in children are often performed for tumors and hamartomas with esthetic considerations playing a relevant role. If used for diagnostic purposes, they are often performed to confirm or rule out severe skin disease.

  20. Abnormally dark or light skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperpigmentation; Hypopigmentation; Skin - abnormally light or dark ... Normal skin contains cells called melanocytes. These cells produce melanin , the substance that gives skin its color. Skin with ...

  1. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  2. Histoplasma skin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histoplasmosis skin test ... health care provider cleans an area of your skin, usually the forearm. An allergen is injected just below the cleaned skin surface. An allergen is a substance that causes ...

  3. Skin Condition Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SKIN CONDITIONS HEALTH TOPICS FOR PROFESSIONALS Rash and Skin Condition Finder 1 Select Age Group Infant Child ... Toe Toe Webspace Toe Nail CLOSE About the Skin Condition Finder Have a health question or concern? ...

  4. Skin Complications of IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Resources > Skin Complications of IBD Go Back Skin Complications of IBD Email Print + Share After arthritis, ... about 5% of people with inflammatory bowel disease. SKIN DISORDERS COMMONLY SEEN IN IBD ERHTHEMA NODOSUM The ...

  5. Skin Peeling Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rajeev

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Peeling of the skin is an uncommonly encountered disorder. Occurrence of vesicles and bullae in peeling skin syndrome is very rare. We report a case of idiopathic peeling skin syndrome with vesicular lesions.

  6. Skin Cancer (Including Melanoma)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are referred to as nonmelanoma skin cancers. Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes, which make the melanin. Find evidence-based information on skin cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, genetics, and statistics.

  7. Clinical confrontation results of diagnostics and treatment of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter of book authors investigated the clinical confrontation results of diagnostics and treatment of skin cancer. They noted that diagnostic of skin cancer have to foresee the determination morphologic implements and degree of malignancy tumorous process why in general depend prognosis of illness

  8. Granular cell tumor: An uncommon benign neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirthankar Gayen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumor is a distinctly rare neoplasm of neural sheath origin. It mainly presents as a solitary asymptomatic swelling in the oral cavity, skin, and rarely internal organs in the middle age. Histopathology is characteristic, showing polyhedral cells containing numerous fine eosinophilic granules with indistinct cell margins. We present a case of granular cell tumor on the back of a 48-year-old woman which was painful, mimicking an adnexal tumor.

  9. Sinus Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RESOURCES Medical Societies Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > CONDITIONS > Sinus Tumors Adult Sinusitis Pediatric ... and they vary greatly in location, size and type. Care for these tumors is individualized to each ...

  10. Tumors markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi-Mizumoto, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study blood and cell components alterations (named tumor markers) that may indicate the presence of a tumor, several methods are presented. Aspects as diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic value and clinical evaluation are discussed. (M.A.C.)

  11. Wilms tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suggested. Alternative Names Nephroblastoma; Kidney tumor - Wilms Images Kidney anatomy Wilms tumor References Babaian KN, Delacroix SE, Wood CG, Jonasch E. Kidney cancer. In: Skorecki K, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, ...

  12. Hyperspectral signature analysis of skin parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Garza, Luis; Kang, Sewon; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    The temporal analysis of changes in biological skin parameters, including melanosome concentration, collagen concentration and blood oxygenation, may serve as a valuable tool in diagnosing the progression of malignant skin cancers and in understanding the pathophysiology of cancerous tumors. Quantitative knowledge of these parameters can also be useful in applications such as wound assessment, and point-of-care diagnostics, amongst others. We propose an approach to estimate in vivo skin parameters using a forward computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel Equations. We use this model to map the skin parameters to their corresponding hyperspectral signature. We then use machine learning based regression to develop an inverse map from hyperspectral signatures to skin parameters. In particular, we employ support vector machine based regression to estimate the in vivo skin parameters given their corresponding hyperspectral signature. We build on our work from SPIE 2012, and validate our methodology on an in vivo dataset. This dataset consists of 241 signatures collected from in vivo hyperspectral imaging of patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian and African American ethnicities. In addition, we also extend our methodology past the visible region and through the short-wave infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. We find promising results when comparing the estimated skin parameters to the ground truth, demonstrating good agreement with well-established physiological precepts. This methodology can have potential use in non-invasive skin anomaly detection and for developing minimally invasive pre-screening tools.

  13. A case of radiation-induced skin ulcer, cerebral meningioma and skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuki; Yano, Kenji

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of radiation-induced skin ulcer, cerebral meningioma, and skin cancer in a 69-year-old woman who had undergone local irradiation and application of radium directly to the skin for actinomycosis of the face at the age of twenty. Some forty to fifty years later, a skin ulcer in the preauricular area in the center of the radiodermatitis, cerebral meningioma in the right sphenoid ridge, and a keratotic skin tumor in the right auricle all developed within the previously irradiated region. The cerebral meningioma was extirpated. The skin ulcer was excised and covered with a forearm flap. After the skin tumor was excised and the subcutaneous tumor in the postauricular area was excised, the postoperative histopathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma with lymph node metastasis. It was considered that the squamous cell carcinoma was derived from irradiated keratosis. Four months later, right neck lymph node dissection was performed. Both the meningioma and squamous cell carcinoma satisfied Cahan's criteria for radiation-induced tumors. So we diagnosed these as radiation-induced cerebral meningioma and squamous cell carcinoma. We haven't detected any recurrence of the squamous cell carcinoma for two years. We learned from this case that chronic radiation disturbances cause an irreversible reaction and various radiolesions, including malignancies, can occur after a long period of latency. It is important to never underestimate a small lesion in the irradiated area, to plan early preventive surgical treatment to remove skin that may have been over-subjected to irradiation, and to continue long-term follow-up for patients with chronic radiodermatitis. (author)

  14. A case of radiation-induced skin ulcer, cerebral meningioma and skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Yuki; Yano, Kenji [Kure National Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    We report a case of radiation-induced skin ulcer, cerebral meningioma, and skin cancer in a 69-year-old woman who had undergone local irradiation and application of radium directly to the skin for actinomycosis of the face at the age of twenty. Some forty to fifty years later, a skin ulcer in the preauricular area in the center of the radiodermatitis, cerebral meningioma in the right sphenoid ridge, and a keratotic skin tumor in the right auricle all developed within the previously irradiated region. The cerebral meningioma was extirpated. The skin ulcer was excised and covered with a forearm flap. After the skin tumor was excised and the subcutaneous tumor in the postauricular area was excised, the postoperative histopathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma with lymph node metastasis. It was considered that the squamous cell carcinoma was derived from irradiated keratosis. Four months later, right neck lymph node dissection was performed. Both the meningioma and squamous cell carcinoma satisfied Cahan's criteria for radiation-induced tumors. So we diagnosed these as radiation-induced cerebral meningioma and squamous cell carcinoma. We haven't detected any recurrence of the squamous cell carcinoma for two years. We learned from this case that chronic radiation disturbances cause an irreversible reaction and various radiolesions, including malignancies, can occur after a long period of latency. It is important to never underestimate a small lesion in the irradiated area, to plan early preventive surgical treatment to remove skin that may have been over-subjected to irradiation, and to continue long-term follow-up for patients with chronic radiodermatitis. (author)

  15. Experimental skin carcinoma by UVB application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrada Iftode

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND The aim of this research study was to evaluate the harmful effects at skin level induced by concomitant and repeated exposure to three toxic agents: UVB radiation, DMBA and TPA. MATERIALS AND METHODS Experimental mice were divided in thw following groups (n=5 mice/group: group 1 – healthy mice, group 2 – mice exposed to UVB – radiation and topical administration of acetone and group 3 – mice exposed to UVB – radiation and topical application of DMBA and TPA solutions (phase I - double tumor initiation and phase II - tumor promotion. RESULTS Application of these compounds led to the development of skin papilloma and to significant changes in skin parameters. CONCLUSIONS The barrier function of the skin was degraded in UVB exposed mice. DMBA and TPA depended on carcinogens schedule and corelated with skin carcinoma. Graphical abstract: Schematic protocol of experimental skin carcinoma REFERENCES 1. Lee Ja, Ko Jh, Jung Bg, Kim Th, Hong Ji, Park Ys, Lee Bj. Fermented Prunus mume with Probiotics Inhibits 7,12- Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-OTetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate Induced Skin Carcinogenesis through Alleviation of Oxidative Stress. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14:2973-2978. 2. Firooz A, Sadr B, Babakoohi S, Sarraf-Yazdy M, Fanian F, Kazerouni-Timsar A, NassiriKashani M, Naghizadeh MM, Dowlati Y. Variation of Biophysical Parameters of the Skin with Age, Gender, and Body Region. Scientific World Journal. 2012; doi.org/10.1100/2012/386936 3. Gheorgheosu (Coricovac D, Borcan F, Balasz NI, Soica C, Simu G, Kemeny L, Dehelean CA. Evaluation of skin parameters in C57BL/6J mice exposed to chemical and environmental factors using non-invasive methods. J Agroalim Proc Technol. 2014;20:14-20.

  16. Spinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van; Hauwe, L. van den; Oezsarlak, Oe.; Schepper, A.M.A. de; Parizel, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Spinal tumors are uncommon lesions but may cause significant morbidity in terms of limb dysfunction. In establishing the differential diagnosis for a spinal lesion, location is the most important feature, but the clinical presentation and the patient's age and gender are also important. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a central role in the imaging of spinal tumors, easily allowing tumors to be classified as extradural, intradural-extramedullary or intramedullary, which is very useful in tumor characterization. In the evaluation of lesions of the osseous spine both computed tomography (CT) and MR are important. We describe the most common spinal tumors in detail. In general, extradural lesions are the most common with metastasis being the most frequent. Intradural tumors are rare, and the majority is extramedullary, with meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors being the most frequent. Intramedullary tumors are uncommon spinal tumors. Astrocytomas and ependymomas comprise the majority of the intramedullary tumors. The most important tumors are documented with appropriate high quality CT or MR images and the characteristics of these tumors are also summarized in a comprehensive table. Finally we illustrate the use of the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of neoplasms affecting the central nervous system

  17. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  18. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Moist skin care can diminish acute radiation-induced skin toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momm, F.; Weissenberger, C.; Bertelt, S.; Henke, M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Radiation treatment may induce acute skin reactions. There are several methods of managing them. Validity of these methods, however, is not sufficiently studied. We therefore investigated, whether moist skin care with 3% urea lotion will reduce acute radiation skin toxicity. Patients and Methods: 88 patients with carcinomas of the head and neck undergoing radiotherapy with curative intent (mean total dose 60 Gy, range: 50-74 Gy) were evaluated weekly for acute skin reactions according to the RTOG-CTC score. In 63 patients, moist skin care with 3% urea lotion was performed. The control group consisted of 25 patients receiving conventional dry skin care. The incidence of grade I, II, and III reactions and the radiation dose at occurrence of a particular reaction were determined and statistically analyzed using the log-rank test. The dose-time relations of individual skin reactions are described. Results: At some point of time during radiotherapy, all patients suffered from acute skin reactions grade I, > 90% from grade II reactions. 50% of patients receiving moist skin care experienced grade I reactions at 26 Gy as compared to 22 Gy in control patients (p = 0.03). Grade II reactions occurred at 51 Gy versus 34 Gy (p = 0.006). Further, 22% of the patients treated with moist skin care suffered from acute skin toxicity grade III as compared to 56% of the controls (p = 0.0007). Conclusion: Moist skin care with 3% urea lotion delays the occurrence and reduces the grade of acute skin reactions in percutaneously irradiated patients with head and neck tumors. (orig.)

  20. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Skin, Hair, and Nails KidsHealth / For Parents / Skin, Hair, and ... piel, el cabello y las uñas About Skin, Hair and Nails Skin is our largest organ. If ...

  1. Estrogens and aging skin

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity...

  2. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it well before you attach the pouch. Avoid skin care products that contain alcohol. These can make your skin ... the pouch to your skin. Use fewer special skin care products. This will make problems with your skin less ...

  3. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of skin cancer. Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about skin cancer: Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Genetics ...

  4. Ultraviolet Radiations: Skin Defense-Damage Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohania, Dheeraj; Chandel, Shikha; Kumar, Parveen; Verma, Vivek; Digvijay, Kumar; Tripathi, Deepika; Choudhury, Khushboo; Mitten, Sandeep Kumar; Shah, Dilip

    2017-01-01

    UV-radiations are the invisible part of light spectra having a wavelength between visible rays and X-rays. Based on wavelength, UV rays are subdivided into UV-A (320-400 nm), UV-B (280-320 nm) and UV-C (200-280 nm). Ultraviolet rays can have both harmful and beneficial effects. UV-C has the property of ionization thus acting as a strong mutagen, which can cause immune-mediated disease and cancer in adverse cases. Numbers of genetic factors have been identified in human involved in inducing skin cancer from UV-radiations. Certain heredity diseases have been found susceptible to UV-induced skin cancer. UV radiations activate the cutaneous immune system, which led to an inflammatory response by different mechanisms. The first line of defense mechanism against UV radiation is melanin (an epidermal pigment), and UV absorbing pigment of skin, which dissipate UV radiation as heat. Cell surface death receptor (e.g. Fas) of keratinocytes responds to UV-induced injury and elicits apoptosis to avoid malignant transformation. In addition to the formation of photo-dimers in the genome, UV also can induce mutation by generating ROS and nucleotides are highly susceptible to these free radical injuries. Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) has been known to be implicated in different UV-induced damages such as pigmentation, adaptive tanning, and skin cancer. UV-B induces the formation of pre-vitamin D3 in the epidermal layer of skin. UV-induced tans act as a photoprotection by providing a sun protection factor (SPF) of 3-4 and epidermal hyperplasia. There is a need to prevent the harmful effects and harness the useful effects of UV radiations.

  5. Malignant Glomus Tumor of the Peritoneum: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleato-González, Sandra; García-Figueiras, Roberto; Trujillo-Ariza, Maria Virginia [Department of Radiology, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, Choupana s/n, 15701 Santiago de Compostela (A Coruña) (Spain); Carrera-Álvarez, Juan Jose [Department of Pathology, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, Choupana s/n, 15701 Santiago de Compostela (A Coruña) (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Glomus tumors are usually benign tumors that occur in the skin and soft tissues of the extremities. Visceral locations, such as stomach, intestines or lung, are extremely rare because glomus bodies are rare or absent in these organs. This report describes our experience in a 47-year-old woman diagnosed with a peritoneal malignant glomus tumor. This finding has not been previously reported.

  6. Malignant Glomus Tumor of the Peritoneum: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleato-González, Sandra; García-Figueiras, Roberto; Trujillo-Ariza, Maria Virginia; Carrera-Álvarez, Juan Jose

    2014-01-01

    Glomus tumors are usually benign tumors that occur in the skin and soft tissues of the extremities. Visceral locations, such as stomach, intestines or lung, are extremely rare because glomus bodies are rare or absent in these organs. This report describes our experience in a 47-year-old woman diagnosed with a peritoneal malignant glomus tumor. This finding has not been previously reported

  7. Tumor immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, W. den

    1987-01-01

    Tumor immunology, the use of immunological techniques for tumor diagnosis and approaches to immunotherapy of cancer are topics covered in this multi-author volume. Part A, 'Tumor Immunology', deals with present views on tumor-associated antigens, the initiation of immune reactions of tumor cells, effector cell killing, tumor cells and suppression of antitumor immunity, and one chapter dealing with the application of mathematical models in tumor immunology. Part B, 'Tumor Diagnosis and Imaging', concerns the use of markers to locate the tumor in vivo, for the histological diagnosis, and for the monitoring of tumor growth. In Part C, 'Immunotherapy', various experimental approaches to immunotherapy are described, such as the use of monoclonal antibodies to target drugs, the use of interleukin-2 and the use of drugs inhibiting suppression. In the final section, the evaluation, a pathologist and a clinician evaluate the possibilities and limitations of tumor immunology and the extent to which it is useful for diagnosis and therapy. refs.; figs.; tabs

  8. Effect of Geranylgeranylacetone on Ultraviolet Radiation Type B-Induced Cataract in Heat-Shock Transcription Factor 1 Heterozygous Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Hashizume, Kouhei; Okuno, Takashi; Imaizumi, Toshiyasu; Inomata, Yui; Tezuka, Yu; Sanbe, Atushi; Kurosaka, Daijiro

    2017-05-01

    We investigated whether heat-shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) was involved in ultraviolet radiation type B (UVR-B)-induced lens opacity (cataract) using HSF1 heterozygous mice. We also examined the effects of geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), an inducer of heat-shock proteins via activation of HSF, on the UVR-B-induced cataract. Male HSF1 +/- and WT mice were unilaterally exposed to UVR-B (total: 1200mJ) at 16 weeks of age. At 48 h after the last UVR-B irradiation, the lens was isolated and the induction of the cataract was quantified as the cataract area ratio (opacity area/anterior capsule). GGA was orally administered at a dosage of 500 mg/kg once a day for two days before the first UVR-B exposure until the end of the experiment (21days in total). The HSF1 expression was more greatly decreased in the lens from HSF1 +/- mice than in that from WT mice (p B exposure could mainly induce cataracts in the anterior capsule in both HSF1 +/- and WT mice, while the opacity of the lens was markedly enhanced in HSF 1+/- mice compared to that in WT mice(p (0.01). GGA treatment could prevent the induction of lens opacity by UVR-B exposure in both WT and HSF1 +/- mice as compared with the non-administration group (p B radiation was seen in lens protein levels of αA-crystallin, αB-crystallin, or γ-crystallin with or without GGA administration among all groups of mice. In contrast to the crystallins, the lens protein level of HSP25 was decreased by UVR-B exposure in both HSF1 +/- and WT mice, and was significantly recovered in WT mice by the GGA treatment (p B-induced cataracts, possibly via regulation of HSPs such as HSP25.

  9. A fermented barley and soybean formula enhances skin hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sein; Kim, Jong-Eun; Suk, Sujin; Kwon, Oh Wook; Park, Gaeun; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Seo, Sang Gwon; Kim, Jong Rhan; Kim, Dae Eung; Lee, Miyeong; Chung, Dae Kyun; Jeon, Jong Eun; Cho, Dong Woon; Hurh, Byung Serk; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-09-01

    Skin hydration is one of the primary aims of beauty and anti-aging treatments. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and soybean (Glycine max) are major food crops, but can also be used as ingredients for the maintenance of skin health. We developed a natural product-based skin treatment using a barley and soybean formula (BS) incorporating yeast fermentation, and evaluated its skin hydration effects as a dietary supplement in a clinical study. Participants ingested a placebo- (n = 33) or BS- (3 g/day) containing drink (n = 32) for 8 weeks. A significant increase in hydration in the BS group as compared to the placebo group was observed on the faces of subjects after 4 and 8 weeks, and on the forearm after 4 weeks. Decreases in stratum corneum (SC) thickness were also observed on the face and forearm. BS enhanced hyaluronan (HA) and skin barrier function in vitro and reduced Hyal2 expression in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). BS also recovered ultraviolet (UV) B-induced downregulation of HA in HaCaT cells. These results suggest that BS has promising potential for development as a health functional food to enhance skin health.

  10. The Modulatory Effect of Ellagic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid on Ultraviolet-B-Induced Cytokine/Chemokine Gene Expression in Skin Keratinocyte (HaCaT Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Lembo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation (UV induces an increase in multiple cutaneous inflammatory mediators. Ellagic acid (EA and rosmarinic acid (RA are natural anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory compounds found in many plants, fruits, and nuts. We assessed the ability of EA and RA to modulate IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MCP-1, and TNF-α gene expression in HaCaT cells after UVB irradiation. Cells were treated with UVB (100 mJ/cm2 and simultaneously with EA (5 μM in 0.1% DMSO or RA (2.7 μM in 0.5% DMSO. Moreover, these substances were added to the UVB-irradiated cells 1 h or 6 h before harvesting, depending on the established UVB-induced cytokine expression peak. Cytokine gene expression was examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. RA produced a significant reduction in UVB-induced expression of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and TNF-α when applied at the same time as irradiation. EA showed milder effects compared with RA, except for TNF-α. Both substances decreased IL-6 expression, also when applied 5 h after irradiation, and always produced a significant increase in UVB-induced IL-10 expression. Our findings suggest that EA and RA are able to prevent and/or limit the UVB-induced inflammatory cascade, through a reduction in proinflammatory mediators and the enhancement of IL-10, with its protective function.

  11. Pacific ciguatoxin 1B-induced modulation of inflammatory mediators in a murine macrophage cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Mariko; Kumar-Roine, Shilpa; Darius, H Taiana; Chinain, Mireille; Laurent, Dominique; Pauillac, Serge

    2010-10-01

    Ciguatoxins, potent marine neurotoxins responsible for ciguatera, exert their numerous damaging effects through primary binding to the voltage-sensitive sodium channels of excitable cells. Using RAW 264.7 murine macrophages, we report the first experimental study presenting evidence that P-CTX-1B (the most potent congener from the Pacific) could modulate mRNA expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). P-CTX-1B, unlike other less potent marine polyether toxins, P-CTX-3C and PbTx-3, induced the overexpression of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and iNOS with different magnitude and kinetic profiles, as compared to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Unlike LPS, P-CTX-1B did not modulate IL-11 expression. In this report, we provide new evidence of the P-CTX-1B iNOS- and cytokines-inducing ability and shed new light on host response to potent neurotoxins. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of photosynthetically active radiation and spectral quality on UV-B-induced polyamine accumulation in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.F.; Krizek, D.T.; Mirecki, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    UV-B-sensitive (Essex) and -insensitive (Williams) cultivars of soybean (Glycine max) were grown in growth chambers at photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) levels of 300 or 600 μmol m −2 sec −1 provided by either red- and far-red-deficient (MH) or blue-deficient (HPS/DX) lamps or a combination of both. The combined treatment provided a balanced output, similar to that provided by fluorescent plus incandescent lighting across the visible spectrum. Under the combined lamps, plants were exposed to 12 kJ m −2 day −1 of biologically effective UV-B (UV-B BE ) with 6-hr irradiance periods centred midway through the photoperiod. This irradiance corresponded to a decrease in stratospheric ozone of ca 20% for clear sky conditions at Beltsville, MD on 21 June. Plant growth was significantly inhibited by UV-B at 300 but not at 600 μmol m −2 sec −1 PAR. No cultivar differences were noted in the UV-B-induced inhibition of growth, although visible injury was less in Williams than in Essex. PAR had a large effect on polyamine levels in leaves, with higher levels of putrescine (Put) and spermidine observed at 600 than at 300 μmol m −2 sec −1 in both cultivars. UV-B-induced polyamine accumulation was observed primarily in Williams. Under MH or HPS/DX lamps alone, plants were exposed to two different UV-B levels, 9.9 and 12 kJ m −2 day −1 , corresponding to stratospheric ozone reductions of ca 9 and 20%. UV-B inhibited growth at both 300 and 600 μmol m −2 sec −1 PAR under either radiation source. There was no effect of PAR on the UV-B-induced growth inhibition with the HPS/DX lamps, but a partial amelioration of this inhibition occurred in Williams at 600 μmol m −2 sec −1 PAR under MH lamps. Dose-dependent UV-B-induced polyamine accumulation was also observed in both cultivars. PAR increased Put levels under MH but not HPS/DX lamps. These results indicate that the inhibition of UV-B stress by high PAR may require a balance of red and blue

  13. Problems with ink skin markings for radiation field setups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Masaru; Saeki, Mituaki; Ishida, Yusei

    1982-01-01

    Ink skin markings are used in radiation therapy to aid in reproduction of treatment field setups or to indelibly outline field markings or tumors. We reported two cases of indelible ink skin for radiation field septa with minimal discomfort and dermatitis have been experienced for 6 months and above since end of radiotherapy. These indelible ink skin markings look like tattoo that will be big problems in the case of young female. We improved these problems by using of 10 percent silver nitrate instead of habitual skin ink. (author)

  14. Recommendations for standardized diagnostics, treatment and following care in tumor diseases. Geriatric patient with tumor disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagmueller, E.; Neises, M.; Queisser, W.; Richter, H.; Schneider, G.

    2001-01-01

    The recommendations for the treatment of geriatric patients with tumor disease, presented in the paper, cover: surgery; chemotherapy; radiotherapy and immunotherapy. Radiotherapy is recommended for skin tumors, pain treatment in the bone metastases (40 - 50 Gy), system diseases (with reduction of the usual size of the irradiated area), small size tumors etc. It is considered as an appropriate method (excluding wide fields) for geriatric outpatients

  15. Oily skin: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Thais H; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    Oily skin (seborrhea) is a common cosmetic problem that occurs when oversized sebaceous glands produce excessive amounts of sebum giving the appearance of shiny and greasy skin. This paper overviews the main concepts of sebaceous gland anatomy and physiology, including the biosynthesis, storage and release of sebum, as well as its relationship to skin hydration and water barrier function. We also address how skin oiliness may vary according to diet, age, gender, ethnicity and hot humid climates. The deeper understanding of this skin type provides the opportunity to better guide patients regarding skin care and also assist in the development of sebosuppressive agents. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Three-Dimensional In Vitro Skin and Skin Cancer Models Based on Human Fibroblast-Derived Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berning, Manuel; Prätzel-Wunder, Silke; Bickenbach, Jackie R; Boukamp, Petra

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional in vitro skin and skin cancer models help to dissect epidermal-dermal and tumor-stroma interactions. In the model presented here, normal human dermal fibroblasts isolated from adult skin self-assembled into dermal equivalents with their specific fibroblast-derived matrix (fdmDE) over 4 weeks. The fdmDE represented a complex human extracellular matrix that was stabilized by its own heterogeneous collagen fiber meshwork, largely resembling a human dermal in vivo architecture. Complemented with normal human epidermal keratinocytes, the skin equivalent (fdmSE) thereof favored the establishment of a well-stratified and differentiated epidermis and importantly allowed epidermal regeneration in vitro for at least 24 weeks. Moreover, the fdmDE could be used to study the features of cutaneous skin cancer. Complementing fdmDE with HaCaT cells in different stages of malignancy or tumor-derived cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, the resulting skin cancer equivalents (fdmSCEs) recapitulated the respective degree of tumorigenicity. In addition, the fdmSCE invasion phenotypes correlated with their individual degree of tissue organization, disturbance in basement membrane organization, and presence of matrix metalloproteinases. Together, fdmDE-based models are well suited for long-term regeneration of normal human epidermis and, as they recapitulate tumor-specific growth, differentiation, and invasion profiles of cutaneous skin cancer cells, also provide an excellent human in vitro skin cancer model.

  17. Effects of 24-epibrassinolide pre-treatment on UV-B-induced changes in the pigment content of pea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrikova, A.; Vladkova, R.; Stanoeva, D.; Popova, A.; Velitchkova, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, the effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the UV-B-induced changes in the pigment content of pea leaves were studied. Control (non-EBR-treated) and EBR-treated plants were irradiated with UV-B for 3 h and pigment analysis was performed after 24 and 48 h. The results show that EBR spraying of plants 48 h prior to UV-B exposure alleviates its detrimental effect on chlorophyll a and b (Chl a and Chl b) content in comparison with control pea leaves. An increase in carotenoids (Car) and UV-B absorbing compounds was also observed at low dose of UV-B radiation. For the first time, it is shown that UV-B damage effect on control leaves is accompanied by a significant (more than 50%) increase in their pheophytin a (Pheo a) content 48 h after the UV-B exposure and that the EBR pre-treatment prevents the increase of Pheo a content in UV-B irradiated leaves. In addition, it is demonstrated that EBR application modifies UV-B-induced alterations of energy distribution between the main pigment-protein complexes in pea thylakoid membranes

  18. Histatin 5 binds to Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin B (HagB) and alters HagB-induced chemokine responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgwardt, Derek S.; Martin, Aaron D.; van Hemert, Jonathan R.; Yang, Jianyi; Fischer, Carol L.; Recker, Erica N.; Nair, Prashant R.; Vidva, Robinson; Chandrashekaraiah, Shwetha; Progulske-Fox, Ann; Drake, David; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Vali, Shireen; Zhang, Yang; Brogden, Kim A.

    2014-01-01

    Histatins are human salivary gland peptides with anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we hypothesized that histatin 5 binds to Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin B (HagB) and attenuates HagB-induced chemokine responses in human myeloid dendritic cells. Histatin 5 bound to immobilized HagB in a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy-based biosensor system. SPR spectroscopy kinetic and equilibrium analyses, protein microarray studies, and I-TASSER structural modeling studies all demonstrated two histatin 5 binding sites on HagB. One site had a stronger affinity with a KD1 of 1.9 μM and one site had a weaker affinity with a KD2 of 60.0 μM. Binding has biological implications and predictive modeling studies and exposure of dendritic cells both demonstrated that 20.0 μM histatin 5 attenuated (p < 0.05) 0.02 μM HagB-induced CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, and TNFα responses. Thus histatin 5 is capable of attenuating chemokine responses, which may help control oral inflammation.

  19. Involvement of inositol biosynthesis and nitric oxide in the mediation of UV-B induced oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro I Lytvyn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of NO-signaling in ultraviolet B (UV-B induced oxidative stress in plants is an open question. Inositol biosynthesis contributes to numerous cellular functions, including the regulation of plants tolerance to stress. This work reveals the involvement of inositol-3-phosphate synthase 1 (IPS1, a key enzyme for biosynthesis of myo-inositol and its derivatives, in the response to NO-dependent oxidative stress in Arabidopsis. Homozygous mutants deficient for IPS1 (atips1 and wild-type plants were transformed with a reduction-oxidation-sensitive green fluorescent protein 2 (grx1-rogfp2 and used for the dynamic measurement of UV-B-induced and SNP (sodium nitroprusside-mediated oxidative stresses by confocal microscopy. atips1 mutants displayed greater tissue-specific resistance to the action of UV-B than the wild type. SNP can act both as an oxidant or repairer depending on the applied concentration, but mutant plants were more tolerant than the wild type to nitrosative effects of high concentration of SNP. Additionally, pretreatment with low concentrations of SNP (10, 100 μM before UV-B irradiation resulted in a tissue-specific protective effect that was enhanced in atips1. We conclude that the interplay between nitric oxide and inositol signaling can be involved in the mediation of UV-B-initiated oxidative stress in the plant cell.

  20. ATF3 activates Stat3 phosphorylation through inhibition of p53 expression in skin cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhen-Feng; Ao, Jun-Hong; Zhang, Jie; Su, You-Ming; Yang, Rong-Ya

    2013-01-01

    ATF3, a member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors, has been found to be selectively induced by calcineurin/NFAT inhibition and to enhance keratinocyte tumor formation, although the precise role of ATF3 in human skin cancer and possible mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, clinical analysis of 30 skin cancer patients and 30 normal donors revealed that ATF3 was accumulated in skin cancer tissues. Functional assays demonstrated that ATF3 significantly promoted skin cancer cell proliferation. Mechanically, ATF3 activated Stat3 phosphorylation in skin cancer cell through regulation of p53 expression. Moreover, the promotion effect of ATF3 on skin cancer cell proliferation was dependent on the p53-Stat3 signaling cascade. Together, the results indicate that ATF3 might promote skin cancer cell proliferation and enhance skin keratinocyte tumor development through inhibiting p53 expression and then activating Stat3 phosphorylation.

  1. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  2. Tumoral tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    Direct tumor tracers are subdivided in the following categories:metabolite tracers, antitumoral tracers, radioactive proteins and cations. Use of 67 Ga-citrate as a clinically important tumoral tracer is emphasized and gallium-67 whole-body scintigraphy is discussed in detail. (M.A.) [pt

  3. Knee glomangioma: a rare location for a glomus tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gonçalves

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Glomus tumor is a rare, benign neoplasm rising from the glomus apparatus of the skin. It occurs most frequently on fingers and toes and accounts for 1.6% of all soft tissue tumors. Clinical diagnosis may prove difficult if the tumor occurs on an extra digital location. We report a case of a vascular-type glomus tumor (glomangioma found in an atypical location, namely the lateral aspect of the knee joint.

  4. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  5. Examine Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  6. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  7. Bleeding into the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003235.htm Bleeding into the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bleeding into the skin can occur from broken blood ...

  8. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.

  9. Skin graft - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100100.htm Skin graft - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... entire body, and acts as a protective barrier. Skin grafts may be recommended for: Extensive wounds Burns Specific ...

  10. Laser surgery - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bleeding Problem not going away Infection Pain Scarring Skin color changes Some laser surgery is done when you are asleep and ... TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical ... lasers, lights, and tissue interactions. In: Hruza GJ, Avram ...

  11. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ...

  12. Studies on the production and utilization of radioisotopes - Treatment of= skin cancer with Ho-166 skin patch in an animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Rok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Doo [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Skin cancers were developed in 8 ICR mice and 2 hairless mice by topical application of chemical compound (TDA and NPO) for 35 wks. Specially designed= Ho-166 skin patches were applied over the skin cancer for 1-2 hrs to deliver 8000 rads to the tumors. Complete, destruction of tumors as well as regeneration of epithelium were observed after the treatment. In conclusion, Ho-166 patch is a useful treatment modality in superficial skin cancers. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs. (author)

  13. Systematic skin cancer screening in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbart, Eckhard W; Waldmann, Annika; Nolte, Sandra; Capellaro, Marcus; Greinert, Ruediger; Volkmer, Beate; Katalinic, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide. For decades, opportunistic melanoma screening has been carried out to respond to this burden. However, despite potential positive effects such as reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still a lack of evidence for feasibility and effectiveness of organized skin cancer screening. The main aim of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of systematic skin cancer screening. In 2003, the Association of Dermatological Prevention was contracted to implement the population-based SCREEN project (Skin Cancer Research to Provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany) in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. A two-step program addressing malignant melanoma and nonmelanocytic skin cancer was implemented. Citizens (aged ≥ 20 years) with statutory health insurance were eligible for a standardized whole-body examination during the 12-month study period. Cancer registry and mortality data were used to assess first effects. Of 1.88 million eligible citizens, 360,288 participated in SCREEN. The overall population-based participation rate was 19%. A total of 3103 malignant skin tumors were found. On the population level, invasive melanoma incidence increased by 34% during SCREEN. Five years after SCREEN a substantial decrease in melanoma mortality was seen (men: observed 0.79/100,000 and expected 2.00/100,000; women: observed 0.66/100,000 and expected 1.30/100,000). Because of political reasons (resistance as well as lack of support from major German health care stakeholders), it was not possible to conduct a randomized controlled trial. The project showed that large-scale systematic skin cancer screening is feasible and has the potential to reduce skin cancer burden, including mortality. Based on the results of SCREEN, a national statutory skin cancer early detection program was implemented in Germany in 2008. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  14. Skin self-exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Checking your skin regularly can help you notice any unusual changes. Follow your health care provider's recommendations on how often to ...

  15. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during pregnancy. For most skin changes, however, health care providers are not sure of the exact cause. Why do dark spots and patches appear on the skin during pregnancy? Dark spots and patches are caused by an increase in the body’s melanin—a natural substance that gives color to the skin and ...

  16. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman, Juan F

    2016-08-23

    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases.

  17. Skin layer mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerligs, M.

    2010-01-01

    The human skin is composed of several layers, each with an unique structure and function. Knowledge about the mechanical behavior of these skin layers is important for clinical and cosmetic research, such as the development of personal care products and the understanding of skin diseases. Until

  18. Taking Care of Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Taking Care of Your Skin KidsHealth / For Kids / Taking Care of Your Skin ... you're in. Why Be Nice to Your Skin? Like the heart, stomach, and brain, your skin ...

  19. Dichotomy in response to indomethacin in uv-C and uv-B induced ultraviolet light inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaglstein, W.H.; Marsico, A.R.

    1975-01-01

    In subjects irradiated with both UV-C and UV-B ultraviolet light (UVL), 10 μg of intradermal indomethacin decreased the redness in all 13 of the UV-B irradiated areas but in only 2 of 13 of the UV-C irradiated areas. Higher doses of intradermal indomethacin (50 μg and 100 μg) decreased the redness produced by UV-C irradiation in 6 subjects. It is suggested that the failure of 10 μg of indomethacin to decrease the redness of the UV-C induced inflammation, while decreasing the redness in the UV-B induced inflammation, is consistent with the possibility that prostaglandins participate in UV-B but not UV-C induced inflammation

  20. Investigation of pion-treated human skin nodules for therapeutic gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kligerman, M.M.; Sala, J.M.; Wilson, S.; Yuhas, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    A patient with multiple metastatic tumor nodules in the skin, from a primary breast carcinoma, was treated with graded doses of pions and x rays to establish skin tolerance. She was followed up for 346 days, permitting observation of time to regrowth of the tumor nodules. All 16 of these had disappeared after treatment, without significant correlation with type of radiation or dose, or with nodule size. However, time to regrowth depended both on the type and the dose of radiation. Earlier, relative biological effectiveness (RBE), was established at 1.42 for acute skin injury. Using this RBE to normalize doses of pions and x rays causing equivalent acute skin injury, and plotting those doses vs time to regrowth of tumor nodules, yielded a therapeutic gain (37.5%) in favor of pions. No late skin or subcutaneous tissue changes were seen, and no qualitative difference between pions and x rays in late skin effects was observed

  1. SKIN CARE IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zakharova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human skin is a complex organ in its structure. Numerous functions of the skin may be impaired in its pathology. Anatomical and physiological characteristics of the skin in children predispose to common diseases of the skin. Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin diseases during infancy and childhood. Diapered skin is exposed to friction and excessive hydration, has a higher pH than nondiapered skin, and is repeatedly soiled with feces that contains enzymes with high irritation potential for the skin. Diaper dermatitis may vary in clinical severity and course. Therapeutically, frequent diaper changes and adequate skin care are most important. Appropriate skin care can help to prevent the occurrence of diaper dermatitis and to speed up the healing of affected skin. This includes frequent diaper changes and aeration, gentle cleansing, and the use of a barrier cream. For the treatment of diaper dermatitis agents selected depending on the presence and severity of complications. For prevention and treatment of uncomplicated diaper dermatitis effective means of containing dexpantenol.

  2. Nutrition and skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Apostolos; Liakou, Aikaterini; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2016-09-01

    Nutrition has long been associated with skin health, including all of its possible aspects from beauty to its integrity and even the aging process. Multiple pathways within skin biology are associated with the onset and clinical course of various common skin diseases, such as acne, atopic dermatitis, aging, or even photoprotection. These conditions have been shown to be critically affected by nutritional patterns and dietary interventions where well-documented studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of essential nutrients on impaired skin structural and functional integrity and have restored skin appearance and health. Although the subject could be vast, the intention of this review is to provide the most relevant and the most well-documented information on the role of nutrition in common skin conditions and its impact on skin biology.

  3. Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association (ABTA) International RadioSurgery Association National Brain Tumor Society National Institute of Child Health and Human Development ... Definition The pituitary is a small, bean-sized gland ...

  4. Hypothalamic tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the brain to reduce spinal fluid pressure. Risks of radiation therapy include damage to healthy brain cells when tumor cells are destroyed. Common side effects from chemotherapy include loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, and fatigue.

  5. Skin absorption through atopic dermatitis skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, A-S; Kezic, S; Jakasa, I

    2017-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have skin barrier impairment in both lesional and non-lesional skin. They are typically exposed to emollients daily and topical anti-inflammatory medicaments intermittently, hereby increasing the risk of developing contact allergy and systemic exposed to chemicals...... ingredients found in these topical preparations. We systematically searched for studies that investigated skin absorption of various penetrants, including medicaments, in atopic dermatitis patients, but also animals with experimentally induced dermatitis. We identified 40 articles, i.e. 11 human studies...... examining model penetrants, 26 human studies examining atopic dermatitis drugs and 3 animal studies. We conclude that atopic dermatitis patients have nearly two-fold increased skin absorption when compared to healthy controls. There is a need for well-designed epidemiological and dermato...

  6. Study of mast cell count in skin tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Hesham

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin tags or acrochordons are common tumors of middle-aged and elderly subjects. They consist of loose fibrous tissue and occur mainly on the neck and major flexures as small, soft, pedunculated protrusions. Objectives: The aim was to compare the mast cells count in skin tags to adjacent normal skin in diabetic and nondiabetic participants in an attempt to elucidate the possible role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of skin tags. Participants and Methods: Thirty participants with skin tags were divided into group I (15 nondiabetic participants and group II (15 diabetic participants. Three biopsies were obtained from each participant: a large skin tag, a small skin tag and adjacent normal skin. Mast cell count from all the obtained sections was carried out, and the mast cell density was expressed as the average mast cell count/high power field (HPF. Results: A statistically significant increase in mast cells count in skin tags in comparison to normal skin was detected in group I and group II. There was no statistically significant difference between mast cell counts in skin tags of both the groups. Conclusion: Both the mast cell mediators and hyperinsulinemia are capable of inducing fibroblast proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia that are the main pathologic abnormalities seen in all types of skin tags. However, the presence of mast cells in all examined skin tags regardless of diabetes and obesity may point to the possible crucial role of mast cells in the etiogenesis of skin tags through its interaction with fibroblasts and keratinocytes.

  7. Skin Cancer Awareness and Sun Protection Behavior Before and Following Treatment Among Skin Cancer-Treated Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Robabeh; Nasimi, Maryam; Nourmohammad Pour, Pedram; Etesami, Ifa; Al-Asiri, Safa; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza

    2017-11-15

    There is little known about illness perception in patients with skin tumors. We conducted this study to investigate Iranian patients' understanding of skin tumors, and to evaluate their sun-protective behavior changes after treatment of skin cancer. Patients with a skin biopsy of basal cell carcinoma were asked to complete questionnaires. A total of 110 patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were mostly referred to our tumor clinic from rural areas. At the skin cancer perception investigation, 63% of patients did not consider their disease as a long-lasting situation. Besides, 45.4% of patients consider their illness as a serious condition which significantly affecting their lives. Our patients had a strong belief in treatment control (81%) and 81% of them also described worries about their skin cancer. The leading causes of skin cancer as assumed by patients were: history of skin cancer (37.4%), poor medical care in the past (36.4%), extreme sun exposure (31.5%), and lack of sun protection (27.5%). In regard to sun-protective behavior after treatment of skin cancer, 55.4% of patients showed no changes or even negative change in their sun-protective behavior, But 44.5% of the patients changed their sun-protective behavior in a positive way which was statically significant (P ≤ 0.001). Our study demonstrates how our patients with skin cancer perceive their disease and we need to educate our patients, considering diseases' aspects, causes and symptoms. This is of great value as dermatologists should be aware of patients' perceptions of their disease in order to improve patients' knowledge through educating more about different aspects of disease.

  8. Ability of spleen cells from tumor bearing mice to transfer immunologic memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plavsic, B.; Jurin, M. (Zagreb Univ. (Yugoslavia)); Ugarkovic, B. (Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb (Yugoslavia))

    1983-01-01

    The ability of splenocytes from tumorous mice to transfer immunologic memory was tested. Three syngeneic experimental tumors from highly inbred strains were used; fibrosarcoma, lymphoma and Lewis lung carcinoma. Splenocytes from tumorous mice were collected after rejection of allogeneic skin which had been grafted at different stages of the tumor disease, and injected into lethally irradiated syngeneic recipients. These secondary hosts were grafted with the same allogeneic skin graft as their donors and the ability of cells transplanted from tumorous donors to transfer memory to allograft was tested. Tumorous mice seemed to have more memory cells (T lymphocytes) in their spleens than the controls.

  9. Photocarcinogenesis and Skin Cancer Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebode, Christina; Lehmann, Janin; Emmert, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    In this review the basic principles of UV-induced carcinogenesis are summarized and the state of the art diagnosis and therapeutic strategies are discussed. The prevalent keratinocyte-derived neoplasms of the skin are basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Cutaneous melanoma is less frequent but associated with high mortality. Common risk factors for all three tumor entities include sun exposure and DNA-repair deficiencies. Photocarcinogenesis follows a multistep model of cancer development in which ultraviolet-induced DNA damage leads to mutations resulting in activation of oncogenes or silencing of tumor-suppressor genes. This ends in a cellular mutator phenotype even more prone to mutation acquisition. DNA repair, especially the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, counteracts mutation formation and skin cancer development. This is vividly demonstrated by the NER-defective disorder xeroderma pigmentosum. Primary skin cancer preventative strategies, therefore, include reduction of DNA photodamage by protection from the sun. Secondary preventative strategies include skin cancer screening. This implies standard examination techniques with the naked eye, an epiluminescence microscope, or digital epiluminescence microscopy. More advanced techniques include confocal laser scan microscopy. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May cause excessive secretion of hormones Common among men and women in their 50s-80s Accounts for about 13 percent of all brain tumors Symptoms Headache Depression Vision loss Nausea or vomiting Behavioral and cognitive ...

  11. Fractionated laser resurfacing corrects the inappropriate UVB response in geriatric skin

    OpenAIRE

    Spandau, Dan F; Lewis, Davina A.; Somani, Ally-Khan; Travers, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is a disease primarily afflicting geriatric patients as evidenced by the fact that 80% of all non-melanoma skin cancers are diagnosed in patients over the age of 60 years. As such, geriatric skin responds to cancer-inducing UVB irradiation in a manner that allows the establishment of tumor cells. Currently, the only effective treatment for non-melanoma skin cancer is the removal of the tumors after they appear, indicating the need for a more cost-effective prophylacti...

  12. Immune response to UV-induced tumors: mediation of progressor tumor rejection by natural killer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeter, P.R.; Fortner, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    Skin tumors induced in mice by chronic ultraviolet (UV) irradiation are highly antigenic and can induce a state of transplantation immunity in syngeneic animals. In the present study, the authors compared the in vitro cytolytic activity of splenic lymphocytes from mice immunized with either regressor or progressor UV-tumors. The results of this comparison implicated tumor-specific cytolytic T (Tc) lymphocytes in rejection of regressor UV-tumors, and revealed that immunization with the progressor UV-tumor 2237 failed to elicit detectable levels of progressor tumor-specific Tc cells even as the tumors rejected. Following in vitro resensitization of spleen cells from either regressor or progressor tumor immune animals, the authors found NK-like lymphocytes with anti-tumor activity. As the authors had not detected cells with this activity in splenic lymphocyte preparations prior to in vitro resensitization, the authors examined lymphocytes from the local tumor environment during the course of progressor tumor rejection for this activity. This analysis revealed NK lymphocytes exhibiting significant levels of cytolytic activity against UV-tumors. These results implicate NK cells as potential effector cells in the rejection of progressor UV-tumors by immune animals, and suggests that these cells may be regulated by T lymphocytes

  13. Mouse Genetic Models Reveal Surprising Functions of IκB Kinase Alpha in Skin Development and Skin Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Xiaojun [The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Park, Eunmi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Fischer, Susan M. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX 78967 (United States); Hu, Yinling, E-mail: huy2@mail.nih.gov [Cancer and Inflammation Program, Center for Cancer Research, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD 21701 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Gene knockout studies unexpectedly reveal a pivotal role for IκB kinase alpha (IKKα) in mouse embryonic skin development. Skin carcinogenesis experiments show that Ikkα heterozygous mice are highly susceptible to chemical carcinogen or ultraviolet B light (UVB) induced benign and malignant skin tumors in comparison to wild-type mice. IKKα deletion mediated by keratin 5 (K5).Cre or K15.Cre in keratinocytes induces epidermal hyperplasia and spontaneous skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in Ikkα floxed mice. On the other hand, transgenic mice overexpressing IKKα in the epidermis, under the control of a truncated loricrin promoter or K5 promoter, develop normal skin and show no defects in the formation of the epidermis and other epithelial organs, and the transgenic IKKα represses chemical carcinogen or UVB induced skin carcinogenesis. Moreover, IKKα deletion mediated by a mutation, which generates a stop codon in the Ikkα gene, has been reported in a human autosomal recessive lethal syndrome. Downregulated IKKα and Ikkα mutations and deletions are found in human skin SCCs. The collective evidence not only highlights the importance of IKKα in skin development, maintaining skin homeostasis, and preventing skin carcinogenesis, but also demonstrates that mouse models are extremely valuable tools for revealing the mechanisms underlying these biological events, leading our studies from bench side to bedside.

  14. Mouse Genetic Models Reveal Surprising Functions of IκB Kinase Alpha in Skin Development and Skin Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Xiaojun; Park, Eunmi; Fischer, Susan M.; Hu, Yinling

    2013-01-01

    Gene knockout studies unexpectedly reveal a pivotal role for IκB kinase alpha (IKKα) in mouse embryonic skin development. Skin carcinogenesis experiments show that Ikkα heterozygous mice are highly susceptible to chemical carcinogen or ultraviolet B light (UVB) induced benign and malignant skin tumors in comparison to wild-type mice. IKKα deletion mediated by keratin 5 (K5).Cre or K15.Cre in keratinocytes induces epidermal hyperplasia and spontaneous skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in Ikkα floxed mice. On the other hand, transgenic mice overexpressing IKKα in the epidermis, under the control of a truncated loricrin promoter or K5 promoter, develop normal skin and show no defects in the formation of the epidermis and other epithelial organs, and the transgenic IKKα represses chemical carcinogen or UVB induced skin carcinogenesis. Moreover, IKKα deletion mediated by a mutation, which generates a stop codon in the Ikkα gene, has been reported in a human autosomal recessive lethal syndrome. Downregulated IKKα and Ikkα mutations and deletions are found in human skin SCCs. The collective evidence not only highlights the importance of IKKα in skin development, maintaining skin homeostasis, and preventing skin carcinogenesis, but also demonstrates that mouse models are extremely valuable tools for revealing the mechanisms underlying these biological events, leading our studies from bench side to bedside

  15. Tumor prevalence and biomarkers of genotoxicity in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkney, Alfred E., E-mail: Fred_Pinkney@fws.gov [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Chesapeake Bay Field Office, 177 Admiral Cochrane Drive, Annapolis, MD 21401 (United States); Harshbarger, John C., E-mail: jcharshbarger@verizon.net [Department of Pathology, George Washington University Medical Center, 2300 I Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Karouna-Renier, Natalie K., E-mail: nkarouna@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, BARC, Bldg. 308, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Jenko, Kathryn [U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, BARC, Bldg. 308, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Balk, Lennart, E-mail: lennart.balk@itm.su.se [Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Skarphe Latin-Small-Letter-Eth insdottir, Halldora; Liewenborg, Birgitta [Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Rutter, Michael A., E-mail: mar36@psu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Penn State Erie, The Behrend College, 5091 Station Road, Erie, PA 16563 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    We surveyed four Chesapeake Bay tributaries for skin and liver tumors in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). We focused on the South River, where the highest skin tumor prevalence (53%) in the Bay watershed had been reported. The objectives were to 1) compare tumor prevalence with nearby rivers (Severn and Rhode) and a more remote river (Choptank); 2) investigate associations between tumor prevalence and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylating agents; and 3) statistically analyze Chesapeake Bay bullhead tumor data from 1992 through 2008. All four South River collections exhibited high skin tumor prevalence (19% to 58%), whereas skin tumor prevalence was 2%, 10%, and 52% in the three Severn collections; 0% and 2% in the Choptank collections; and 5.6% in the Rhode collection. Liver tumor prevalence was 0% to 6% in all but one South River collection (20%) and 0% to 6% in the three other rivers. In a subset of samples, PAH-like biliary metabolites and {sup 32}P-DNA adducts were used as biomarkers of exposure and response to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Adducts from alkylating agents were detected as O6-methyl-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (O6Me-dG) and O6-ethyl-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (O6Et-dG) modified DNA. Bullheads from the contaminated Anacostia River were used as a positive control for DNA adducts. {sup 32}P-DNA adduct concentrations were significantly higher in Anacostia bullhead livers compared with the other rivers. We identified alkyl DNA adducts in bullhead livers from the South and Anacostia, but not the Choptank. Neither the PAH-like bile metabolite data, sediment PAH data, nor the DNA adduct data suggest an association between liver or skin tumor prevalence and exposure to PACs or alkylating agents in the South, Choptank, Severn, or Rhode rivers. Logistic regression analysis of the Chesapeake Bay database revealed that sex and length were significant covariates for liver tumors and length was a significant covariate for skin tumors

  16. Tumor prevalence and biomarkers of genotoxicity in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkney, Alfred E.; Harshbarger, John C.; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Jenko, Kathryn; Balk, Lennart; Skarphéðinsdóttir, Halldóra; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Rutter, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed four Chesapeake Bay tributaries for skin and liver tumors in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). We focused on the South River, where the highest skin tumor prevalence (53%) in the Bay watershed had been reported. The objectives were to 1) compare tumor prevalence with nearby rivers (Severn and Rhode) and a more remote river (Choptank); 2) investigate associations between tumor prevalence and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylating agents; and 3) statistically analyze Chesapeake Bay bullhead tumor data from 1992 through 2008. All four South River collections exhibited high skin tumor prevalence (19% to 58%), whereas skin tumor prevalence was 2%, 10%, and 52% in the three Severn collections; 0% and 2% in the Choptank collections; and 5.6% in the Rhode collection. Liver tumor prevalence was 0% to 6% in all but one South River collection (20%) and 0% to 6% in the three other rivers. In a subset of samples, PAH-like biliary metabolites and 32 P-DNA adducts were used as biomarkers of exposure and response to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Adducts from alkylating agents were detected as O6-methyl-2′-deoxyguanosine (O6Me-dG) and O6-ethyl-2′-deoxyguanosine (O6Et-dG) modified DNA. Bullheads from the contaminated Anacostia River were used as a positive control for DNA adducts. 32 P-DNA adduct concentrations were significantly higher in Anacostia bullhead livers compared with the other rivers. We identified alkyl DNA adducts in bullhead livers from the South and Anacostia, but not the Choptank. Neither the PAH-like bile metabolite data, sediment PAH data, nor the DNA adduct data suggest an association between liver or skin tumor prevalence and exposure to PACs or alkylating agents in the South, Choptank, Severn, or Rhode rivers. Logistic regression analysis of the Chesapeake Bay database revealed that sex and length were significant covariates for liver tumors and length was a significant covariate for skin tumors. - Highlights: ► We

  17. Tumor immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Lise, Mario; Nitti, Donato

    2007-01-01

    Advances in tumor immunology are supporting the clinical implementation of several immunological approaches to cancer in the clinical setting. However, the alternate success of current immunotherapeutic regimens underscores the fact that the molecular mechanisms underlying immune-mediated tumor rejection are still poorly understood. Given the complexity of the immune system network and the multidimensionality of tumor/host interactions, the comprehension of tumor immunology might greatly benefit from high-throughput microarray analysis, which can portrait the molecular kinetics of immune response on a genome-wide scale, thus accelerating the discovery pace and ultimately catalyzing the development of new hypotheses in cell biology. Although in its infancy, the implementation of microarray technology in tumor immunology studies has already provided investigators with novel data and intriguing new hypotheses on the molecular cascade leading to an effective immune response against cancer. Although the general principles of microarray-based gene profiling have rapidly spread in the scientific community, the need for mastering this technique to produce meaningful data and correctly interpret the enormous output of information generated by this technology is critical and represents a tremendous challenge for investigators, as outlined in the first section of this book. In the present Chapter, we report on some of the most significant results obtained with the application of DNA microarray in this oncology field.

  18. Pancreatic islet cell tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors; Peptic ulcer - islet cell tumor; Hypoglycemia - islet cell tumor ... stomach acid. Symptoms may include: Abdominal pain Diarrhea ... and small bowel Vomiting blood (occasionally) Glucagonomas make ...

  19. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Renowned experts present the latest knowledge Although a very fragile structure, the skin barrier is probably one of the most important organs of the body. Inward/out it is responsible for body integrity and outward/in for keeping microbes, chemicals, and allergens from penetrating the skin. Since...... the role of barrier integrity in atopic dermatitis and the relationship to filaggrin mutations was discovered a decade ago, research focus has been on the skin barrier, and numerous new publications have become available. This book is an interdisciplinary update offering a wide range of information...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  20. Recommendations for skin decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Further to the reecommendations for determining the surface contamination of the skin and estimating the radiation exposure of the skin after contamination (SAAS-Mitt--89-16), measures for skin decontamination are recommended. They are necessary if (1) after simple decontamination by means of water, soap and brush without damaging the skin the surface contamination limits are exceeded and the radiation exposure to be expected for the undamaged healthy skin is estimated as to high, and if (2) a wound is contaminated. To remove skin contaminations, in general universally applicable, non-aggressive decontamination means and methods are sufficient. In special cases, nuclide-specific decontamination is required taking into account the properties of the radioactive substance

  1. Imaging of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaensler, E.H.L.

    1995-01-01

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.)

  2. Imaging of brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaensler, E H.L. [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.).

  3. Radionuclide therapy of skin cancers and Bowen's disease using specially designed skin patch: A pilot study in an animal model and clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. D.; Park, K. K.; Lee, M. G.; Lee, J. T.; Yoo, H. S.; Kim, E. H.; Rhim, K. J.; Kim, Y. M.; Park, K. B.; Kim, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common malignant tumors in human. Therapeutic modalities of the skin cancers are local destruction, radiotherapy and surgery. External radiation therapy leads to good results, however, overall 5-6 weeks of treatment period is needed to deliver optimal radiation dose to tumors. In this study, β-emitting radionuclide, Ho-166, impregnated in a specially designed patch was utilized to superficial skin cancers and Bowen's disease for local irradiation. Methods; Animal study was employed in 10 mice with chemically induced skin tumors. Five- mm size patches containing 22.2 -72.15 MBq(0.6 - 1.95 mCi) of Ho-166 were applied to the tumor surface for 1 -2 hr. In clinical trial, patients with squamous carcinoma(n=3), basal cell carcinoma(n=1), and Bowen's disease(n=1) were treated with patches containing 273.8 - 999 MBq (7.4 - 27 mCi) of Ho-166 for 30 minutes to 1 hour. Pathologic examination was performed 4 - 7 weeks after the treatment in animal model. Skin biopsy was performed 8 weeks post-treatment in four patients. Results; Tumor destruction was seen 1 week post the treatment, however, radiation dermatitis or ulceration developed at the site of radionuclide application. Those reactions healed gradually with fibrosis or epithelialization, which was confirmed pathologically. No significant adverse reaction to radiation except subcutaneous fibrosis was found. Conclusion; Superficial skin tumors could be successfully treated by topical application of β-emitting radionuclides. (author)

  4. Gender affects skin wound healing in plasminogen deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønø, Birgitte; Engelholm, Lars Henning; Lund, Leif Røge

    2013-01-01

    closure in female versus male plasmin deficient mice. Further studies showed that this gender effect could not be reversed by ovariectomy, suggesting that female sex-hormones did not mediate the accelerated skin wound healing in plasmin deficient female mice. Histological examination of healed wounds...... functional plasmin thus display decreased tumor growth in a variety of cancer models. Interestingly, this role of plasmin has, in regard to skin cancer, been shown to be restricted to male mice. It remains to be clarified whether gender also affects other phenotypic characteristics of plasmin deficiency...... or if this gender effect is restricted to skin cancer. To investigate this, we tested the effect of gender on plasmin dependent immune cell migration, accumulation of hepatic fibrin depositions, skin composition, and skin wound healing. Gender did not affect immune cell migration or hepatic fibrin accumulation...

  5. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moylan, D.J.; Yelovich, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Primary bone malignancies are relatively rare with less than 4,000 new cases per year. Multiple myeloma (more correctly a hematologic malignancy) accounts for 40%; osteosarcomas, 28%; chondrosarcomas, 13%; fibrosarcomas arising in bone, 4%; and Ewing's sarcoma, 7%. The authors discuss various treatments for bone tumors, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery

  6. Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a child's general health and to detect any adverse side effects (such as low red or white blood cell ... medicine needed, which helps reduce long-term side effects. The most common ... can be completely removed by surgery. About 41% of all Wilms tumors are stage ...

  7. Nephrogenic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesbauer, P.

    2008-01-01

    Nephroblastomas are the most common malignant renal tumors in childhood. According to the guidelines of the SIOP (Societe Internationale d'Oncologie Pediatrique) and GPOH (Gesellschaft fuer Paediatrische Onkologie und Haematologie) pre-operative chemotherapy can be started without histological confirmation and thus initial imaging studies, in particular ultrasound, play an outstanding role for diagnostic purposes

  8. Acute skin reactions observed in fractionated proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimoto, Takuro; Maruhashi, Noboru; Takada, Yoshihisa; Hayakawa, Yoshinori; Inada, Tetsuo; Kitagawa, Toshio

    1989-01-01

    Between May 1985 and July 1987, 49 skin reactions of 43 patients treated by proton irradiation were observed at the Particle Radiation Medical Science Center (PARMS), the University of Tsukuba. Taking the peak skin score as an endpoint, the radiobiological effects [relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and time-dose relationship] of the proton beam in multi-fractionated treatments were estimated. Factors influencing the skin dose, such as the prescribed tumor dose, tumor site, and number of applied fields, were also analyzed. The following conclusions regarding acute skin reactions to the clinical use of proton irradiation were obtained: 1) the physical skin-sparing effect of proton irradiation in single-field irradiation, especially in superficial regions, is not large compared with that of high-energy photon irradiation; 2) multidirectional proton irradiation significantly reduced the skin dose and severity of acute reasons; 3) the radiobiological effects of the proton beam, RBE and the time factor, estimated in human skin in multi-fractional treatment were slightly smaller than those of X-rays, i.e., 0.92 and -0.25±0.09, respectively. (author)

  9. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is ...

  10. Cell-type-specific roles for COX-2 in UVB-induced skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschman, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    In human tumors, and in mouse models, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels are frequently correlated with tumor development/burden. In addition to intrinsic tumor cell expression, COX-2 is often present in fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and endothelial cells of the tumor microenvironment, and in infiltrating immune cells. Intrinsic cancer cell COX-2 expression is postulated as only one of many sources for prostanoids required for tumor promotion/progression. Although both COX-2 inhibition and global Cox-2 gene deletion ameliorate ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced SKH-1 mouse skin tumorigenesis, neither manipulation can elucidate the cell type(s) in which COX-2 expression is required for tumorigenesis; both eliminate COX-2 activity in all cells. To address this question, we created Cox-2 flox/flox mice, in which the Cox-2 gene can be eliminated in a cell-type-specific fashion by targeted Cre recombinase expression. Cox-2 deletion in skin epithelial cells of SKH-1 Cox-2 flox/flox;K14Cre + mice resulted, following UVB irradiation, in reduced skin hyperplasia and increased apoptosis. Targeted epithelial cell Cox-2 deletion also resulted in reduced tumor incidence, frequency, size and proliferation rate, altered tumor cell differentiation and reduced tumor vascularization. Moreover, Cox-2 flox/flox;K14Cre + papillomas did not progress to squamous cell carcinomas. In contrast, Cox-2 deletion in SKH-1 Cox-2 flox/flox; LysMCre + myeloid cells had no effect on UVB tumor induction. We conclude that (i) intrinsic epithelial COX-2 activity plays a major role in UVB-induced skin cancer, (ii) macrophage/myeloid COX-2 plays no role in UVB-induced skin cancer and (iii) either there may be another COX-2-dependent prostanoid source(s) that drives UVB skin tumor induction or there may exist a COX-2-independent pathway(s) to UVB-induced skin cancer. PMID:24469308

  11. Skin tribology: Science friction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Emile; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Masen, Marc Arthur

    2013-01-01

    The application of tribological knowledge is not just restricted to optimizing mechanical and chemical engineering problems. In fact, effective solutions to friction and wear related questions can be found in our everyday life. An important part is related to skin tribology, as the human skin is

  12. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, PhD, Professor of Dermatology, Brown University, for permission to use this video. UPDATED: ... Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention ...

  13. Bionanomaterials for skin regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Leonida, Mihaela D

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a concise overview of bionanomaterials with applications for skin regeneration. The advantages and challenges of nanoscale materials are covered in detail, giving a basic view of the skin structure and conditions that require transdermal or topical applications. Medical applications, such as wound healing, care for burns, skin disease, and cosmetic care, such as aging of the skin and photodamage, and how they benefit from bionanomaterials, are described in detail. A final chapter is devoted to the ethical and social issues related to the use of bionanomaterials for skin regeneration. This is an ideal book for researchers in materials science, medical scientists specialized in dermatology, and cosmetic chemists working in formulations. It can also serve as a reference for nanotechnologists, dermatologists, microbiologists, engineers, and polymer chemists, as well as students studying in these fields.

  14. Detection of human papillomavirus in nonmelanoma skin cancer lesions and healthy perilesional skin in kidney transplant recipients and immunocompetent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat-García, J; Morales Suárez-Varela, M; Vilata-Corell, J J; Marquina-Vila, A

    2014-04-01

    The influence of human papillomavirus (HPV) on the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is a topic of debate. HPV types from the beta genus (HPV-β) have been most frequently associated with the development of skin cancer. To analyze the prevalence and range of HPV types in NMSC lesions and healthy perilesional skin in immunodepressed and immunocompetent patients and to evaluate the influence of various clinical factors on the prevalence of HPV in skin cancer. Nested polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to detect HPV in 120 NMSC samples obtained by biopsy from 30 kidney transplant recipients and 30 immunocompetent patients. In all cases, a sample was taken from the tumor site and the surrounding healthy skin. Potential confounders were assessed and the data analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. HPV DNA was detected in 44 (73.3%) of the 60 samples from immunodepressed patients and in 32 (53.3%) of the 60 samples from immunocompetent patients (adjusted odds ratio, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.2-9.6). In both groups of patients, HPV was more common in healthy perilesional skin than in lesional skin. HPV-β was the most common type isolated. We found a wide range of HPV types (mostly HPV-β) in the skin of kidney transplant recipients and immunocompetent patients with skin cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  15. The Relative Utility of Skin Resistance and Skin Conductance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barland, Gordon

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of two circuits (constant current = skin resistance; constant voltage = skin conductance) used for measuring electrodermal activity during a psychophysiological detection of deception...

  16. Biopsy in Musculoskeletal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharehdaghi

    2014-09-01

    proximity to the skin incision, because this tract is also contaminated and must be excised with the surgical specimen. Imaging-guided core needle biopsy is a well-established technique for the diagnosis of bone and soft tissue tumors and tumor-like lesions in specialized orthopedic oncology centers. Although large lesions of the limbs can easily be biopsied without image guidance, lesions in the spine, para spinal area, and pelvis are difficult to target, therefore taking the advantage of C.T. guidance will improve the accuracy of targeting the lesion for biopsy purposes. We can benefit from image intensifiers for targeting limb lesions rather than C.T. guidance. Also sonographic guide can be applied for soft tissue lesions (Figure D, E, F. In soft tissue tumors, the results of percutaneous CNB are relatively inferior compared to open biopsy whereas almost equal results are expected for bony tumors except for low-grade chondrosarcoma. CNB is a safe, minimally invasive, and cost effective technique for the diagnosis of bone lesions if done by an experienced orthopedic oncologic surgeon and be evaluated by an experienced anatomical bone pathologist (1, 3. For soft tissue tumors, CNB results depend on the size of the lesion, its location and amount of tumor necrosis. Guided needle biopsy have become the standard technique in most orthopedic oncologic centers. The accuracy of this method in our center is more than 90% for bone tumors. Cores should be taken in different directions including areas of central necrotic tissues but from a single well planned entrance. The procedure is quick, especially for bone CNB or soft tissue FNA and CNB, and the diagnosis can be achieved within 24 – 48 hours. The material should be sufficient for immunohistochemistry evaluations as well (1-3. Because I have seen 3 cases of tumor implantation at the towel clips puncture site including 2 chondrosarcomas and a case of malignant schowanoma, so I highly suggest that never crush the skin by towel

  17. Dry skin - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pat skin dry then apply your moisturizer. Avoid skin care products and soaps that contain alcohol, fragrances, dyes, or other chemicals. Take short, warm baths or showers. Limit your ... gentle skin cleansers or soap with added moisturizers. Only use ...

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer ...

  19. Cryogen therapy of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter authors studied the cure of skin cancer in particular cryogen therapy of skin cancer. They noted that cryogen therapy of skin cancer carried new possibilities and improved results of neoplasms treatment

  20. Radiation-induced skin cancer and radiodermatitis of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Vloten, W.A.; Hermans, J.; van Daal, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    From a cohort of 2400 patients who had been irradiated 19 to 48 years previously for benign diseases in the head and neck region a randomly selected group of 605 patients was selected and traced back. From the 360 patients alive, 257 were examined clinically and 49 were examined by questionnaire for radiation-induced skin tumors and radiodermatitis. In 21 patients, a total of 30 skin tumors were diagnosed. In 8 of 21 patients, 10 skin carcinomas were detected at recall. A dose-effect relationship of 40 carcinomas/10(4) persons/Gy for a median follow-up period of 41 years for the area exposed was calculated. The severity of radiodermatitis is associated with a higher prevalence of skin cancer. The number of radiation-induced skin cancers rises with the post-treatment time. Because of these late radiation effects, radiotherapy of benign skin lesions is contraindicated, especially now that other therapy modalities are available

  1. "Cancer tumor".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronshtehn, V. A.

    The title is a phrase borrowed from a speech by a Leningrad pressman, V. E. Lvov, who called upon those attending a theoretical conference on ideological issues in astronomy held by the Leningrad Branch of the All-Union Astronomic and Geodetic Society (13 - 4 December 1948), "to make a more radical emphasis on the negative role of relativistic cosmology which is a cancer tumor disintegrating the contemporary astronomy theory, and a major ideological enemy of a materialist astronomy".

  2. Radiation Therapy in Elderly Skin Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To evaluate the long term results (local control, survival, failure, and complications) after radiation therapy for skin cancer in elderly patients. The study spanned from January 1990 to October 2002. Fifteen elderly patients with skin cancer were treated by radiotherapy at the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. The age distribution of the patients surveyed was 72 to 95 years, with a median age of 78.8 years. The pathologic classification of the 15 patients included squamous cell carcinoma (10 patients), basal cell carcinoma (3 patients), verrucous carcinoma (1 patient) and skin adnexal origin carcinoma (1 patient). The most common tumor location was the head (13 patients). The mean tumor diameter was 4.9 cm (range 2 to 9 cm). The radiation dose was delivered via an electron beam of 6 to 15 MeV. The dose range was adjusted to the tumor diameter and depth of tumor invasion. The total radiation dose ranged from 50{approx}80 Gy (mean: 66 Gy) with a 2 Gy fractional dose prescribed to the 80% isodose line once a day and 5 times a week. One patient with lymph node metastasis was treated with six MV photon beams boosted with electron beams. The length of the follow-up periods ranged from 10 to 120 months with a median follow-up period of 48 months. The local control rates were 100% (15/15). In addition, the five year disease free survival rate (5YDFS) was 80% and twelve patients (80%) had no recurrence and skin cancer recurrence occurred in 3 patients (20%). Three patients have lived an average of 90 months (68{approx}120 months) without recurrence or metastasis. A total of 9 patients who died as a result of other causes had a mean survival time of 55.8 months after radiation therapy. No severe acute or chronic complications were observed after radiation therapy. Only minor complications including radiation dermatitis was treated with supportive care. The results suggest that radiation therapy is an effective and safe treatment method for the treatment of skin

  3. Skin and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  4. Occupational skin cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawkrodger, D.J. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Dermatology

    2004-10-01

    Skin cancer due to occupation is more common than is generally recognized, although it is difficult to obtain an accurate estimate of its prevalence. Over the past two centuries, occupational skin cancers have particularly been due to industrial exposure of men (it seems more so than women) to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons (e.g. from coal tar products) or to arsenic. Industrial processes have improved in most Western countries to limit this type of exposure, but those with outdoor occupations are still exposed to solar ultraviolet irradiation without this being widely recognized as an industrial hazard. Ionizing radiation such as X-rays can also cause skin cancer. Occupational skin cancers often resemble skin tumours found in non-occupational subjects, e.g. basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, but some pre-malignant lesions can be more specific and point to an occupational origin, e.g. tar keratoses or arsenical keratoses. An uncommon but well-recognized cause of occupational skin cancer is that which results from scar formation following an industrial burn. In the future it will be necessary to focus on preventative measures, e.g. for outdoor workers, the need to cover up in the sun and use sun protective creams and a campaign for earlier recognition of skin cancers, which are usually curable if treated in their early stages.

  5. Skin Picking Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cetinay Aydin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Skin picking disorder is not a dermatological disorder and it is a table characterized with picking skin excessively and repetitively, leading to damage in skin tissue. Unlike normal picking behaviour, psychogenic skin picking is repetitive and it can lead to severe damage in the skin and even complications which constitute vital danger. While some patients define frequent but short lasting picking attacks, others define rarer attacks which last a few hours. Skin picking disorder, which is not included in the classification systems up to DSM-5 as a separate diagnosis category, is included as an independent diagnosis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Associated Disorders category in DSM-5. In case reports, open label studies and double blind studies selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are shown to be effective in the treatment of skin picking disorder. Mostly, cognitive-behaviourial techniques are used and have been proven to be useful in psychotherapy. Habit reversal is one of the behaviourial techniques which are frequently applied, give positive results in which well-being state can be maintained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 401-428

  6. Although Abundant in Tumor Tissue, Mast Cells Have No Effect on Immunological Micro-milieu or Growth of HPV-Induced or Transplanted Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanawaz Mohammed Ghouse

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: High numbers of mast cells populate the stroma of many types of neoplasms, including human papilloma virus-induced benign and malignant tumors in man and mouse. Equipped with numerous pattern recognition receptors and capable of executing important pro-inflammatory responses, mast cells are considered innate sentinels that significantly impact tumor biology. Mast cells were reported to promote human papilloma virus (HPV-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and neo-angiogenesis in an HPV-driven mouse model of skin cancer. We analyzed HPV-induced epithelial hyperplasia and squamous cell carcinoma formation, as well as growth of tumors inoculated into the dermis, in mice lacking skin mast cells. Unexpectedly, the absence of mast cells had no effect on HPV-induced epithelial growth or angiogenesis, on growth kinetics of inoculated tumors, or on the immunological tumor micro-milieu. Thus, the conspicuous recruitment of mast cells into tumor tissues cannot necessarily be equated with important mast cell functions in tumor growth. : Mast cells accumulate in high numbers in many human tumors, and they are widely viewed as important promoters of tumor growth. Ghouse et al. show that growth, angiogenesis, and the immunological micro-milieu of tumors growing in mice genetically deficient for mast cells are unchanged compared to control tumors. Keywords: mast cells, HPV-induced skin cancer, tumor angiogenesis, tumor micro-milieu

  7. Ultrasound skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkis, Kira; Alam, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound skin tightening is a noninvasive, nonablative method that allows for energy deposition into the deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue while avoiding epidermal heating. Ultrasound coagulation is confined to arrays of 1-mm(3) zones that include the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and connective tissue. This technology gained approval from the Food and Drug Administration as the first energy-based skin "lifting" device, specifically for lifting lax tissue on the neck, submentum, and eyebrows. Ultrasound has the unique advantage of direct visualization of treated structures during treatment. Ultrasound is a safe and efficacious treatment for mild skin tightening and lifting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An Algorithmic Approach for the Reconstruction of Nasal Skin Defects: Retrospective Analysis of 130 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrak Akşam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Most of the malignant cutaneous carcinomas are seen in the nasal region. Reconstruction of nasal defects is challenging because of the unique anatomic properties and complex structure of this region. In this study, we present our algorithm for the nasal skin defects that occurred after malignant skin tumor excisions. Material and Methods: Patients whose nasal skin was reconstructed after malignant skin tumor excision were included in the study. These patients were evaluated by their age, gender, comorbities, tumor location, tumor size, reconstruction type, histopathological diagnosis, and tumor recurrence. Results: A total of 130 patients (70 female, 60 male were evaluated. The average age of the patients was 67.8 years. Tumors were located mostly at the dorsum, alar region, and tip of the nose. When reconstruction methods were evaluated, primary closure was preferred in 14.6% patients, full thickness skin grafts were used in 25.3% patients, and reconstruction with flaps were the choice in 60% patients. Different flaps were used according to the subunits. Mostly, dorsal nasal flaps, bilobed flaps, nasolabial flaps, and forehead flaps were used. Conclusion: The defect-only reconstruction principle was accepted in this study. Previously described subunits, such as the dorsum, tip, alar region, lateral wall, columella, and soft triangles, of the nose were further divided into subregions by their anatomical relations. An algorithm was planned with these sub regions. In nasal skin reconstruction, this algorithm helps in selection the methods for the best results and minimize the complications.

  9. Proliferating Trichilemmal Tumor of the Knee Mimicking Prepatellar Bursitis on Ultrasonogram: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Il Jin; Kim, Tae Eun; Lee, Il Gi; Shin, Hyeon Woong [Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Proliferating trichilemmal tumor is a rare benign tumor of skin appendage. It is usually solitary, more common in women after the fourth decade of life, and almost exclusively confined to the scalp and back of the neck. We report herein an unusual case of proliferating trchilemmal tumor which occurred on the knee

  10. Proliferating Trichilemmal Tumor of the Knee Mimicking Prepatellar Bursitis on Ultrasonogram: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Il Jin; Kim, Tae Eun; Lee, Il Gi; Shin, Hyeon Woong

    2011-01-01

    Proliferating trichilemmal tumor is a rare benign tumor of skin appendage. It is usually solitary, more common in women after the fourth decade of life, and almost exclusively confined to the scalp and back of the neck. We report herein an unusual case of proliferating trchilemmal tumor which occurred on the knee

  11. Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  12. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  13. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  14. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  15. Confocal microscopy patterns in nonmelanoma skin cancer and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, S; Sánchez, V; González-Rodríguez, A; Parrado, C; Ullrich, M

    2014-06-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy is currently the most promising noninvasive diagnostic tool for studying cutaneous structures between the stratum corneum and the superficial reticular dermis. This tool gives real-time images parallel to the skin surface; the microscopic resolution is similar to that of conventional histology. Numerous studies have identified the main confocal features of various inflammatory skin diseases and tumors, demonstrating the good correlation of these features with certain dermatoscopic patterns and histologic findings. Confocal patterns and diagnostic algorithms have been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity in melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Possible present and future applications of this noninvasive technology are wide ranging and reach beyond its use in noninvasive diagnosis. This tool can also be used, for example, to evaluate dynamic skin processes that occur after UV exposure or to assess tumor response to noninvasive treatments such as photodynamic therapy. We explain the characteristic confocal features found in the main nonmelanoma skin tumors and discuss possible applications for this novel diagnostic technique in routine dermatology practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  16. Origin of malignant tumors of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts and the ear. Pt. 4. Malignant tumors caused by irradiation. B. Special part

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leicher, H [Mainz Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenklinik

    1979-12-01

    The problem of radiation induced tumors is explained in detail in the following chapters: 1. Malignant tumors in dial painters using luminous paint, 2. Malignant tumors after injection of Thorotrast, 3. Bronchial tumors in Uran-mineworkers, 4. Malignant tumors caused by radium-compresses and radium-moulages, 5. Thyroid cancer caused by irradiation, 6. Leukemia and malignant tumors following the atomic bomb detonation in Hiroshima and Nakasaki, 7. Malignant tumors in Lupus vulgaris, 8. Development of malignant tumors following the irradiation of praecancerous alterations, of benign tumors and other benign changes in head and neck, 9. Radiation induced soft-tissue and bone sarcoma in the skull, 10. Radiation-induced cancers in hypopharynx diverticula, 11. Radiation-induced cancers in the antethoracic skin graft esophagus, 12. Radiation-induced second-tumors, 13. Cancer caused by ultraviolet rays, 14. Increase of hematogenic metastases by irradiation. 15. Malignant tumors caused by irradiation of the fetus in utero.

  17. Liposomalization of oxaliplatin induces skin accumulation of it, but negligible skin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Kentaro; Kashiwagi, Misaki; Shiba, Shunsuke; Muroki, Kiwamu; Ohishi, Akihiro; Doi, Yusuke; Ando, Hidenori; Ishida, Tatsuhiro; Nagasawa, Kazuki

    2017-12-15

    Liposomalization causes alteration of the pharmacokinetics of encapsulated drugs, and allows delivery to tumor tissues through passive targeting via an enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil ® , Lipo-DXR), a representative liposomal drug, is well-known to reduce cardiotoxicity and increase the anti-tumor activity of DXR, but to induce the hand-foot syndrome (HFS) as a result of skin DXR accumulation, which is one of its severe adverse effects. We have developed a new liposomal preparation of oxaliplatin (l-OHP), an important anti-tumor drug for treatment of colorectal cancer, using PEGylated liposomes (Lipo-l-OHP), and showed that Lipo-l-OHP exhibits increased anti-tumor activity in tumor-bearing mice compared to the original preparation of l-OHP. However, whether Lipo-l-OHP causes HFS-like skin toxicity similar to Lipo-DXR remains to be determined. Administration of Lipo-l-OHP promoted accumulation of platinum in rat hind paws, however, it caused negligible morphological and histological alterations on the plantar surface of the paws. Administration of DiI-labeled empty PEGylated liposomes gave almost the same distribution profile of dyes into the dermis of hind paws with DXR as in the case of Lipo-DXR. Treatment with Lipo-l-OHP, Lipo-DXR, DiI-labeled empty PEGylated liposomes or empty PEGylated liposomes caused migration of CD68 + macrophages into the dermis of hind paws. These findings suggest that the skin toxicity on administration of liposomalized drugs is reflected in the proinflammatory characteristics of encapsulated drugs, and indicate that Lipo-l-OHP with a higher anti-cancer effect and no HFS may be an outstanding l-OHP preparation leading to an improved quality of life of cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation-induced vascular lesions of the skin: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flucke, U.E.; Requena, L.; Mentzel, T.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced cutaneous vascular neoplasms occur infrequently and comprise benign, so-called atypical vascular lesions (AVL) and angiosarcomas (AS), often being high-grade malignant tumors. Both arise most frequently within previously irradiated skin in breast-conserving-treated mammary cancer

  19. Analysis of a Mouse Skin Model of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Guo

    Full Text Available Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC is an autosomal dominant tumor suppressor gene syndrome in which patients develop several types of tumors, including facial angiofibroma, subungual fibroma, Shagreen patch, angiomyolipomas, and lymphangioleiomyomatosis. It is due to inactivating mutations in TSC1 or TSC2. We sought to generate a mouse model of one or more of these tumor types by targeting deletion of the Tsc1 gene to fibroblasts using the Fsp-Cre allele. Mutant, Tsc1ccFsp-Cre+ mice survived a median of nearly a year, and developed tumors in multiple sites but did not develop angiomyolipoma or lymphangioleiomyomatosis. They did develop a prominent skin phenotype with marked thickening of the dermis with accumulation of mast cells, that was minimally responsive to systemic rapamycin therapy, and was quite different from the pathology seen in human TSC skin lesions. Recombination and loss of Tsc1 was demonstrated in skin fibroblasts in vivo and in cultured skin fibroblasts. Loss of Tsc1 in fibroblasts in mice does not lead to a model of angiomyolipoma or lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

  20. Ultraviolet radiation, cancer of the skin and immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suurmond, D.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of near and far ultraviolet radiation on the development of skin neoplasms are reviewed. Especially the role of ultraviolet radiation in immunosuppression is discussed as a possible working mechanism of the tumor promoting the effect of this radiation, beside effects on DNA-repair. (Auth.)

  1. Allele-specific deletions in mouse tumors identify Fbxw7 as germline modifier of tumor susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Perez-Losada

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have been successful in finding associations between specific genetic variants and cancer susceptibility in human populations. These studies have identified a range of highly statistically significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and susceptibility to development of a range of human tumors. However, the effect of each SNP in isolation is very small, and all of the SNPs combined only account for a relatively minor proportion of the total genetic risk (5-10%. There is therefore a major requirement for alternative routes to the discovery of genetic risk factors for cancer. We have previously shown using mouse models that chromosomal regions harboring susceptibility genes identified by linkage analysis frequently exhibit allele-specific genetic alterations in tumors. We demonstrate here that the Fbxw7 gene, a commonly mutated gene in a wide range of mouse and human cancers, shows allele-specific deletions in mouse lymphomas and skin tumors. Lymphomas from three different F1 hybrids show 100% allele-specificity in the patterns of allelic loss. Parental alleles from 129/Sv or Spretus/Gla mice are lost in tumors from F1 hybrids with C57BL/6 animals, due to the presence of a specific non-synonymous coding sequence polymorphism at the N-terminal portion of the gene. A specific genetic test of association between this SNP and lymphoma susceptibility in interspecific backcross mice showed a significant linkage (p = 0.001, but only in animals with a functional p53 gene. These data therefore identify Fbxw7 as a p53-dependent tumor susceptibility gene. Increased p53-dependent tumor susceptibility and allele-specific losses were also seen in a mouse skin model of skin tumor development. We propose that analysis of preferential allelic imbalances in tumors may provide an efficient means of uncovering genetic variants that affect mouse and human tumor susceptibility.

  2. Pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poussaint, Tina Y. [Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children' s Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Among all causes of death in children from solid tumors, pediatric brain tumors are the most common. This article includes an overview of a subset of infratentorial and supratentorial tumors with a focus on tumor imaging features and molecular advances and treatments of these tumors. Key to understanding the imaging features of brain tumors is a firm grasp of other disease processes that can mimic tumor on imaging. We also review imaging features of a common subset of tumor mimics. (orig.)

  3. A Case Report: Krukenberg Tumour with Nodular Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özden Demir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Krukenberg tumor is a rare variety of metastatic cancer to the ovary. The stomach is the most common site for the primary tumor, followed by the breast, gall bladder, colon and pancreas. It is not always possible to distinguish ovarian metastasis from primary ovarian masses in patients in whom the malignancy center is unidentified. This case report firstly aims to present a patient who presented with common nodular skin lesions, migrating arthritis and severe clinical characteristics, and diagnosed with Krukenberg tumor with further examinations.

  4. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenefelt PD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious

  5. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  6. Cure of skin cancer. Surgical cure of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter authors studied the cure of skin cancer in particular the surgical cure of skin cancer. They noted that surgical cure of skin cancer is remain one of the primary and most important methods in treatment of skin cancer

  7. Artificial skin and patient simulator comprising the artificial skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to an artificial skin (10, 12, 14), and relates to a patient simulator (100) comprising the artificial skin. The artificial skin is a layered structure comprising a translucent cover layer (20) configured for imitating human or animal skin, and comprising a light emitting layer

  8. Allergy Skin Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and symptoms. Medications can interfere with results Before scheduling a skin test, bring your doctor a list ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  9. Caring for Tattooed Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  10. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  11. Impairments in Skin Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphree, Rose W

    2017-09-01

    Altered skin integrity increases the chance of infection, impaired mobility, and decreased function and may result in the loss of limb or, sometimes, life. Skin is affected by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors can include altered nutritional status, vascular disease issues, and diabetes. Extrinsic factors include falls, accidents, pressure, immobility, and surgical procedures. Ensuring skin integrity in the elderly requires a team approach and includes the individual, caregivers, and clinicians. The twenty-first century clinician has several online, evidence-based tools to assist with optimal treatment plans. Understanding best practices in addressing skin integrity issues can promote positive outcomes with the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test; Allergic rhinitis - allergy testing; Asthma - allergy testing; Eczema - allergy testing; Hayfever - allergy testing; Dermatitis - allergy testing; Allergy testing; ...

  13. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma Treatment: Stages I & II Melanoma Treatment: Stage III Melanoma ...

  14. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... We Are Be On Our PAGE MIF Staff Programs & Services Scientific Advisory Board Advisory Board Patrons & Sponsors ... us for One-on-One Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video ...

  15. Occupational skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, V; Aalto-Korte, K; Alfonso, J H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Work-related skin diseases (WSD) are caused or worsened by a professional activity. Occupational skin diseases (OSD) need to fulfil additional legal criteria which differ from country to country. OSD range amongst the five most frequently notified occupational diseases (musculoskeletal...... diseases, neurologic diseases, lung diseases, diseases of the sensory organs, skin diseases) in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To retrieve information and compare the current state of national frameworks and pathways to manage patients with occupational skin disease with regard to prevention, diagnosis, treatment...... in Science and Technology (COST) Action TD 1206 (StanDerm) (www.standerm.eu). RESULTS: Besides a national health service or a statutory health insurance, most European member states implemented a second insurance scheme specifically geared at occupational diseases [insurance against occupational risks...

  16. Skin care and incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin care; Incontinence - pressure sore; Incontinence - pressure ulcer Patient Instructions Preventing pressure ulcers Images Male urinary system References Holroyd S. Incontinence-associated dermatitis: identification, prevention and care. Br J Nurs . 2015;24( ...

  17. Healthy Skin Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin. If you’re helping out in the kitchen, make sure you use hot pads or wear ... in humans, plants, and animals, while others are essential for a healthy life. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) ( ...

  18. Tuberculin Skin Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Interim Laboratory Biosafety Guidance for XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains Data & Statistics ... The Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST) is the standard method of determining whether a person is infected ...

  19. [Currently available skin substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravcová, Darina; Koller, Ján

    2014-01-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. Autologous split or full-thickness skin graft are the best definitive burn wound coverage, but it is constrained by the limited available sources, especially in major burns. Donor site morbidities in term of additional wounds and scarring are also of concern of the autograft application. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. This paper reviews currently available skin substitutes, produced in not for-profit skin banks as well as commercially available. They are divided according to type of material included, as biological, biosynthetic and synthetic and named respectively.

  20. Parasites and the skin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-11

    Jun 11, 2009 ... those conditions that are encountered in daily practice and to remind you of those ... care conditions. Parasitic infections can be solely confined to the skin, as seen ..... endemic areas or may become chronic and disseminate.

  1. Skin or nail culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  2. Fungal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... touching the infected area. Diagnosis Skin scrapings or cultures Doctors may suspect a fungal infection when they ...

  3. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a Patient Navigation Card Events, Webinars & Videos Events, Webinars & Videos Melanoma Patient Video Events Host an Event Past Webinars Upcoming ...

  4. Allergic Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common types are atopic dermatitis (often called eczema) and contact dermatitis. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema) Eczema is a chronic ... contact with your skin, they may cause a rash called contact dermatitis. There are two kinds of contact dermatitis: ...

  5. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Light treatment to the skin and Restylane to tear troughs and outer eyebrow. Photo courtesy of Rebecca Fitzagerald, MD - Los Angeles, California Possible risks Soreness Mild bruising Temporary weakness of surrounding muscles Headache Drooping eyelid Why choose neuromodulators for aging ...

  6. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctor Glossary of Terms Resources Resources Global Resources Cancer Centers Online Resources The Melanoma Book Clinical Trials Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a Patient Navigation Card ...

  7. ReciPlySkin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic Larsen, Olga; Andersen, Mikkel; Munk-Andersen, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    The report presents process that enbabled the production of the ReciPlySkin structure exhibited at the Circular Economy Exhibition at KADK during the Autumn 2017. The concept, design, detailed design and production are presented in this report.......The report presents process that enbabled the production of the ReciPlySkin structure exhibited at the Circular Economy Exhibition at KADK during the Autumn 2017. The concept, design, detailed design and production are presented in this report....

  8. Adnexal Tumours Of Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parate Sanjay N

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A total 120 cases of epidermal appendage tumours of skin were analysed and classified according to the classification provided by WHO’. Epidermal appendage tumours accounted for 12.87% of all skin tumours, of which 29.17% were benign and 70.83% were malignant. Most of the tumours (75.83% were in the head and face region. The most common tumour was basal cell epithelioma (55%.

  9. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-11-22

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.  Created: 11/22/2006 by National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 12/12/2006.

  10. Stressed skin panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-07-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of stressed skin panels, also known as structural insulated panels (SIPs), are discussed as material and labour-saving alternatives to traditional stick framing. Stressed skin panels are manufactured 'sandwich' assemblies with a rigid insulating polystyrene foam core, whose interior and exterior surfaces are bonded into panels. The skins distribute and carry the structural loading while the bonded foam core provides insulation and keeps the two skins aligned. Since there are fewer framing members, there is little thermal bridging and the R-value remains high. SIPs are usually manufactured in four feet by eight feet panels, although some manufacturers can produce panels up to eight feet by forty feet. SIPs are resource efficient as they use less wood than conventional framing (about 25 per cent less); can structurally cover large spans, requiring less supplementary framing. Use of SIPs eliminate the need for headers over small openings; provide the ability to nail anywhere; create less scrap and waste; lessen vulnerability to unfavourable weather and other job-site hazards, can reduce delays, and often can produce significant savings in material and labour costs. Limitations include the more complex approaches to plumbing and electrical systems, although this can be minimized by designers by incorporating much of the plumbing and electrical work on interior (non-panel) walls. Most stressed skin panels require one-half inch interior gypsum drywall. If become wet, stressed skin panels take a long time to dry out and may harbour mold growth. Larger stressed-skin panels used in floors and roofs, may require cranes or other machinery for handling because of their weight. Although not without some environmental impact, overall, stressed skin panels are judged to be a resource-efficient building technology with significant energy-efficiency benefits and distinct advantages over stick framing. 3 photos.

  11. Testis tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.L.; Maier, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Clinical trials are evaluating new combinations of drugs with the goal of diminishing the toxicity associated with the current regimens while not compromising the chance for cure. The evolution of information and staging studies such as tumor markers, CT scanning and MR scanning has made possible the detection of residual metastatic disease while obviating the need for surgical staging procedures. This has made less treatment possible for a large number of patients. The regularity of follow-up studies has made early detection of recurrences a possibility, so that effective and curative treatment is generally possible

  12. Teratoid Wilms′ tumor - A rare renal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratoid Wilms′ tumor is an extremely rare renal tumor. We report a case of unilateral teratoid Wilms′ tumor in a 4-year-old girl. The patient was admitted with a right-sided abdominal mass. The mass was arising from the right kidney. Radical nephrectomy was done and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Histopathology report showed teratoid Wilms′ tumor.

  13. IL-1β upregulates Muc5ac expression via NF-κB-induced HIF-1α in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shouzhen; Li, Hailong; Yu, Lijuan; Wang, Ning; Li, Xu; Chen, Wei

    2017-12-01

    The manifest and important feature in respiratory diseases, including asthma and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), is the increased numbers and hypersecretion of goblet cells and overexpression of mucins, especially Muc5ac. Many proinflammatory cytokines play important roles in goblet cell metaplasia and overproduction of Muc5ac. However, the effect of IL-1β on Muc5ac expression in asthma remains unknown. Here, we detected the correlation between IL-1β and Muc5ac in asthma patients and further explored the mechanism of IL-1β-induced Muc5ac overexpression. Our results showed that Muc5ac and IL-1β were up-regulated in 41 patients with asthma and that Muc5ac overexpression was related with IL-1β in asthma (R 2 =0.668, p≪0.001). Furthermore, the correlation between IL-1β and Muc5ac is higher in severe group than that in moderate group. In vitro experiments with normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBECs) showed that IL-1β up-regulated Muc5ac expression in NHBEC in a time- and dosage-dependent manner. Hypoxia-induced HIF-1α was responsible for Muc5ac expression mediated by IL-1β. Knocking down HIF-1α by siRNA decreased Muc5ac expression under hypoxia even in IL-1β-treated NHBEC cells. Luciferase reporter assay showed that HIF-1α enhanced Muc5ac promoter activity in HEK293T cells. HIF-1α could specifically bind to the promoter of Muc5ac by EMSA. The correlation among IL-1β, HIF-1α and Muc5ac was observed in patients with asthma. Mechanically, NF-κB activation was essential to IL-1β-induced HIF-1α upregulation via the canonical pathway of NF-κB. The level of nuclear p65, a subunit of NF-κB, was obviously increased in NHBEC cells under IL-1β treatment. IL-1β did not change either HIF-1α or Muc5ac expression when inhibiting NF-κB signaling with Bay11-7082, an inhibitor of NF-κB. Collectively, we concluded that IL-1β up-regulated Muc5ac expression via NF-κB-induced HIF-1α in asthma and provided a potential therapeutic target for

  14. Exogenous and Endogeneous Disialosyl Ganglioside GD1b Induces Apoptosis of MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Hyung Ha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gangliosides have been known to play a role in the regulation of apoptosis in cancer cells. This study has employed disialyl-ganglioside GD1b to apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells using exogenous treatment of the cells with GD1b and endogenous expression of GD1b in MCF-7 cells. First, apoptosis in MCF-7 cells was observed after treatment of GD1b. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with GD1b reduced cell growth rates in a dose and time dependent manner during GD1b treatment, as determined by XTT assay. Among the various gangliosides, GD1b specifically induced apoptosis of the MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence assays showed that GD1b specifically induces apoptosis in the MCF-7 cells with Annexin V binding for apoptotic actions in early stage and propidium iodide (PI staining the nucleus of the MCF-7 cells. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with GD1b activated apoptotic molecules such as processed forms of caspase-8, -7 and PARP (Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase, without any change in the expression of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis molecules such as Bax and Bcl-2. Second, to investigate the effect of endogenously produced GD1b on the regulation of cell function, UDP-gal: β1,3-galactosyltransferase-2 (GD1b synthase, Gal-T2 gene has been transfected into the MCF-7 cells. Using the GD1b synthase-transfectants, apoptosis-related signal proteins linked to phenotype changes were examined. Similar to the exogenous GD1b treatment, the cell growth of the GD1b synthase gene-transfectants was significantly suppressed compared with the vector-transfectant cell lines and transfection activated the apoptotic molecules such as processed forms of caspase-8, -7 and PARP, but not the levels of expression of Bax and Bcl-2. GD1b-induced apoptosis was blocked by caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD. Therefore, taken together, it was concluded that GD1b could play an important role in the regulation of breast cancer apoptosis.

  15. Controversial role of mast cells in skin cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varricchi, Gilda; Galdiero, Maria R; Marone, Giancarlo; Granata, Francescopaolo; Borriello, Francesco; Marone, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    Cancer development is a multistep process characterized by genetic and epigenetic alterations during tumor initiation and progression. The stromal microenvironment can promote tumor development. Mast cells, widely distributed throughout all tissues, are a stromal component of many solid and haematologic tumors. Mast cells can be found in human and mouse models of skin cancers such as melanoma, basal and squamous cell carcinomas, primary cutaneous lymphomas, haemangiomas and Merkel cell carcinoma. However, human and animal studies addressing potential functions of mast cells and their mediators in skin cancers have provided conflicting results. In several studies, mast cells play a pro-tumorigenic role, whereas in others, they play an anti-tumorigenic role. Other studies have failed to demonstrate a clear role for tumor-associated mast cells. Many unanswered questions need to be addressed before we understand whether tumor-associated mast cells are adversaries, allies or simply innocent bystanders in different types and subtypes of skin cancers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Morphological and clinical characteristics of the head epidermal skin carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijović M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common skin malignant tumor of the epidermoid origin are basal cell (BCC and squamous cell (SCC carcinoma. They occur at the photoexposed parts of the body in 90% of cases and are directly associated with skin damage caused by long term exposure to UV rays, usually in older persons and light skin. Almost 65,000 people die annually in the world from their consequences. The most important link in preventing the occurrence of these tumors is prevention, but their early identification allows adequate surgical treatment with sparing surrounding tissue. The main objective of this paper is to examine the histopathological and clinical-morphological characteristics of BCC and SCC of the skin of the head. The analysis included 439 cancer (297 (67.7% BCC, 126 (28.7% SCK and 16 (3.6% BCK + SCK, among which over 60% were diagnosed in men, usually in the seventh and eighth decade of life, with the highest incidence of BCC on the nose or on the skin of the upper half of the face and SCK on the lips or the skin of the lower half of face. All skin cancers of the head were more common on the right side. Clinical and morphological, most of the BCC were manifested by ulcerative form of average size 1.2cm and mixed histological type, and SCK by vegetative form of average size 1.55cm and histological grade I. The highest number of BCC and SCC was completly removed, in contrast to the combination of these two tumors among them in most cases the subsequent surgical intervention was necessary.

  17. Erbb2 up-regulation of ADAM12 expression accelerates skin cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Velidi H; Vogel, Kristen; Yanagida, Jodi K; Marwaha, Nitin; Kandel, Amrit; Trempus, Carol; Repertinger, Susan K; Hansen, Laura A

    2015-10-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause severe damage to the skin and is the primary cause of most skin cancer. UV radiation causes DNA damage leading to mutations and also activates the Erbb2/HER2 receptor through indirect mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that Erbb2 activation accelerates the malignant progression of UV-induced skin cancer. Following the induction of benign squamous papillomas by UV exposure of v-ras(Ha) transgenic Tg.AC mice, mice were treated topically with the Erbb2 inhibitor AG825 and tumor progression monitored. AG825 treatment reduced tumor volume, increased tumor regression, and delayed the development of malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Progression to malignancy was associated with increased Erbb2 and ADAM12 (A Disintegin And Metalloproteinase 12) transcripts and protein, while inhibition of Erbb2 blocked the increase in ADAM12 message upon malignant progression. Similarly, human SCC and SCC cell lines had increased ADAM12 protein and transcripts when compared to normal controls. To determine whether Erbb2 up-regulation of ADAM12 contributed to malignant progression of skin cancer, Erbb2 expression was modulated in cultured SCC cells using forced over-expression or siRNA targeting, demonstrating up-regulation of ADAM12 by Erbb2. Furthermore, ADAM12 transfection or siRNA targeting revealed that ADAM12 increased both the migration and invasion of cutaneous SCC cells. Collectively, these results suggest Erbb2 up-regulation of ADAM12 as a novel mechanism contributing to the malignant progression of UV-induced skin cancer. Inhibition of Erbb2/HER2 reduced tumor burden, increased tumor regression, and delayed the progression of benign skin tumors to malignant SCC in UV-exposed mice. Inhibition of Erbb2 suppressed the increase in metalloproteinase ADAM12 expression in skin tumors, which in turn increased migration and tumor cell invasiveness. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Statistical observations on postirradiation skin malignancies reported in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, Michiharu; Ogata, Katsumi; Inoue, Shouhei (Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan))

    1989-01-01

    A review was made on 412 cases of postirradiation skin malignancies reported in Japan up to March 1988. The ratio of male to female was 2:1. Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma occupied 60% of all cases. The incidence of sarcoma has recently been increased. Sixty percent of all skin malignancies resulted from irradiation for benign diseases. Radiotherapy has recently become the treatment of choice for malignancy. The incidence of malignancy resulting from occupational exposure has remained unchanged. The latency period before the development of radiation-induced malignancy varied in the following order with cause or primary disease: occupation>benign tumors>malignant tumors; and it varied with histology in the following order: basal cell epithelioma>squamous cell carcinoma>sarcoma. Malignant tumors treated with large doses of high energy photon beams were likely to develop sarcomas in a relatively short latency period of time. (N.K.).

  19. Laser-induced fluorescence for the detection of esophageal and skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.; Julius, Clark E.; Overholt, Suzanne; Phan, Mary N.

    2003-07-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is used for in-vivo cancer diagnosis of the esophagus and skin cancer. For esophageal measurements a fiberoptic probe inserted through an endoscope was used. Autofluorescence of normal and malignant tissues were measured directly on patient skin without requiring an endoscope. Measurement of the fluorescence signal from the tissue was performed using laser excitation at 410 nm. The methodology was applied to differentiate normal and malignant tumors of the esophagus and malignant skin lesions. The results of this LIF approach were compared with histopathology results of the biopsy samples and indicated excellent agreement in the classification of normal and malignant tumors for the samples investigated.

  20. Papillary endothelial hyperplasia (Masson's tumor) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liné, A; Sanchez, J; Jayyosi, L; Birembaut, P; Ohl, X; Poli-Mérol, M-L; François, C

    2017-06-01

    The intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH/Masson's tumor) is a rare benign tumor of the skin and subcutaneous vessels. We report, in four pediatric cases, clinical presentation, care (diagnostic and surgical) of Masson's tumor in children. Two boys (two years) and two girls (four and six years) showed a pain subcutaneous tumor (one to five centimeters). They were in the transverse abdominal muscle, between two metatarsals, at the front of thigh and in the axilla. Imaging performed (MRI, Doppler ultrasound) evoked either a hematoma, a lymphangioma or hemangioma. The indication for removal was selected from pain and/or parental concern. The diagnosis was histologically. A lesion persisted in residual form (incomplete initial resection), and is currently not scalable for eleven years. This tumor is characterized by excessive proliferation and papillary endothelial cells in the vessels, following a thrombotic event. It is found mainly in adults (no specific age), and preferentially localizes in the face and limbs. The clinical differential diagnosis of this tumor is angiosarcoma. The imagery has not allowed in our series to diagnose but still essential to eliminate differential diagnoses. Only surgical excision with histological examination can differentiate. Our study emphasizes the possibility of pediatric cases with two cases of unusual locations (abdominal and axilla). Clinical presentations we met, now lead us to direct our histologist looking for a Masson tumor in any child with a subcutaneous tumor and/or intramuscular pain, sudden onset, and vascular appearance (after excluding an arteriovenous malformation). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Importance of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BKCa) in interleukin-1b-induced adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgazli, K M; Venker, C J; Mericliler, M; Atmaca, N; Parahuleva, M; Erdogan, A

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of the large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BKCa) in interleukin-1b (IL-1b) induced inflammation. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were isolated and cultured. Endothelial cell membrane potential measurements were accomplished using the fluorescent dye DiBAC4(3). The role of BKCa was assessed using iberiotoxin, a highly selective BKCa inhibitor. Changes in the calcium intracellular calcium were investigated using Fura-2-AM imaging. Fluorescent dyes DCF-AM and DAF-AM were further used in order to measure the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, respectively. Endothelial cell adhesion tests were conducted with BCECF-AM adhesion assay and tritium thymidine uptake using human monocytic cells (U937). Expression of cellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1) was determined by flow cytometer. Interleukin-1b induced a BKCa dependent hyperpolarization of HUVECs. This was followed by an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration. Furthermore, IL-1b significantly increased the synthesis of NO and ROS. The increase of intracellular calcium, radicals and NO resulted in a BKCa dependent adhesion of monocytes to HUVECs. Endothelial cells treated with IL-1b expressed both ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in significantly higher amounts as when compared to controls. It was further shown that the cellular adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were responsible for the BKCa-dependent increase in cellular adhesion. Additionally, inhibition of the NADPH oxidase with DPI led to a significant downregulation of IL-1b-induced expression of ICAM and VCAM, as well as inhibition of eNOS by L-NMMA, and intracellular calcium by BAPTA. Activation of the endothelial BKCa plays an important role in the IL-1b-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells.

  2. The effect of microneedles on the skin permeability and antitumor activity of topical 5-fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef W. Naguib

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU is approved for the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis. However, 5-FU suffers from poor skin permeation. Microneedles have been successfully applied to improve the skin permeability of small and large molecules, and even nanoparticles, by creating micron-sized pores in the stratum corneum layer of the skin. In this report, the feasibility of using microneedles to increase the skin permeability of 5-FU was tested. Using full thickness mouse skin mounted on Franz diffusion apparatus, it was shown that the flux of 5-FU through the skin was increased by up to 4.5-fold when the skin was pretreated with microneedles (500 μm in length, 50 μm in base diameter. In a mouse model with B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells implanted in the subcutaneous space, the antitumor activity of a commercially available 5-FU topical cream (5% was significantly enhanced when the cream was applied on a skin area that was pretreated with microneedles, as compared to when the cream was simply applied on a skin area, underneath which the tumor cells were implanted, and without pretreatment of the skin with microneedles. Fluorouracil is not approved for melanoma therapy, but the clinical efficacy of topical 5-FU against tumors such as basal cell carcinoma may be improved by integrating microneedle technology into the therapy.

  3. Immunological tolerance and tumor rejection in embryo-aggregated chimeric mice – Lessons for tumor immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Alexander Y; Holle, Eric; Holle, Lori; Yu, Xianzhong; Schwamberger, Günter

    2008-01-01

    Rejection of transplanted tumors by the immune system is a rare event in syngeneic hosts, and is considered to be dependent on the local interaction of defensive immune reactions and tumor tolerance mechanisms. Here, we have enlisted the aid of a unique set of embryo-aggregated lineage chimeric mice derived from C57/BL6 and FVB donors to study the interplay between local and systemic tumor immunity and tolerance in rejection of mouse B16 melanoma cells, syngeneic to the C57/BL6 donor strain. Two variants of embryo-aggregated chimeric mice with either variable or no contribution of C57-derived cells to their skin were generated by the fusion of different ratios of morula stage blastomers. Chimeric mice were analyzed for s.c. growth of B16 tumors in comparison to their respective donor strains as well as normal F1 hybrids, and the relative frequencies of cellular components of the immune system by FACS analysis of peripheral blood or lymph node cells. B16 tumors grew significantly faster in mice with full chimerism in their skin as compared to syngeneic C57 or semi-syngeneic C57 × FVB F1 hosts. In contrast, s.c. tumor growth was either absent or significantly reduced in chimeric mice lacking C57-derived cells in their skin, but tolerant to C57 tissue in other organs. Comparison of the relative frequencies of various immune cells in the periphery via FACS-analysis did not reveal any significant differences between the two types of chimeric mice with respect to their donor strains. Our data suggest a complex interplay between mechanisms of local peripheral tolerance and innate antitumor mechanisms possibly involving NK cell allorecognition as a basis for the differential growth or rejection of B16 tumors in these unique chimeric mice, which we suggest to constitute a valuable new model system for the study of immune-mediated tumor rejection

  4. Factors affecting UV-B-induced changes in Arabidopsis thaliana L. gene expression: The role of development, protective pigments and the chloroplast signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, B.R.; James, P.E.; Mackerness, S.A.H.

    1998-01-01

    Gene expression is known to change in response to UV-B radiation. In this paper, we have investigated three factors in Arabidopsis leaves that are likely to influence these changes: development, protective pigments and the 'chloroplast signal'. During late leaf development the major change in pigment composition, after exposure to UV-B radiation, is an increase in UV-absorbing pigments. Chl and Chl a/b ratio do not change substantially. Similarly Chl fluorescence is not altered. In contrast, RNA transcripts of photosynthetic proteins are reduced more in older leaves than in young leaves. To determine the role of flavonoids in UV-B protection, plants of Arabidopsis mutant tt-5, which have reduced flavonoids and sinapic esters, were exposed to UV-B and RNA transcript levels determined. The tt-mutants were more sensitive to UV-B radiation than wild-type. To examine the role of the chloroplast signal in regulating UV-B induced changes in gene expression, Arabidopsis gun mutants (genome uncoupled) have been used. The results show that UV-B-induced down-regulation still takes place in gun mutants and strongly suggests that the chloroplast signal is not required. Overall, this study clearly demonstrates that UV-B-induced changes in gene expression are influenced by both developmental and cellular factors but not chloroplastic factors

  5. Tumor Macroenvironment and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S.; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organ...

  6. Screening for skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, M; Mahon, S M; Eden, K B; Frame, P S; Orleans, C T

    2001-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is often lethal, and its incidence in the United States has increased rapidly over the past 2 decades. Nonmelanoma skin cancer is seldom lethal, but, if advanced, can cause severe disfigurement and morbidity. Early detection and treatment of melanoma might reduce mortality, while early detection and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer might prevent major disfigurement and to a lesser extent prevent mortality. Current recommendations from professional societies regarding screening for skin cancer vary. To examine published data on the effectiveness of routine screening for skin cancer by a primary care provider, as part of an assessment for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. We searched the MEDLINE database for papers published between 1994 and June 1999, using search terms for screening, physical examination, morbidity, and skin neoplasms. For information on accuracy of screening tests, we used the search terms sensitivity and specificity. We identified the most important studies from before 1994 from the Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, second edition, and from high-quality reviews. We used reference lists and expert recommendations to locate additional articles. Two reviewers independently reviewed a subset of 500 abstracts. Once consistency was established, the remainder were reviewed by one reviewer. We included studies if they contained data on yield of screening, screening tests, risk factors, risk assessment, effectiveness of early detection, or cost effectiveness. We abstracted the following descriptive information from full-text published studies of screening and recorded it in an electronic database: type of screening study, study design, setting, population, patient recruitment, screening test description, examiner, advertising targeted at high-risk groups or not targeted, reported risk factors of participants, and procedure for referrals. We also abstracted the yield of screening data including probabilities and numbers

  7. Effect of hyperthermia on epithelial microneoplastic cell populations induced by irradiation of rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gragtmans, N.J.; McGregor, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Two groups of male rats of the Charles River CD stock received a dose of 1,600 rad beta-radiation (700 rad/min) on the skin of the dorsum. Two months later, the site of irradiation of one of the groups was treated with hyperthermia at 44 degrees C for 2.5 minutes. A third control group received only the hyperthermic treatment. Over 90% of the animals in the 2 irradiated groups developed skin tumors (benign and malignant epithelial) at the irradiated site. There was no significant difference between these 2 groups in incidence of animals with tumors, incidence of tumors, distribution of tumor types, or rate of tumor appearance. The incidence of animals with tumors in the control group was less than 4% at any time

  8. Studies into the transplantation biology of ultraviolet light-induced tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daynes, R.A.; Spellman, C.W.; Woodward, J.G.; Stewart, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The majority of skin tumors induced in mice by ultraviolet (uv) light are rejected when implanted into normal syngeneic recipients. Subcarcinogenic levels of uv light exposure render the normally resistant mice susceptible to tumor challenge. The immunoregulatory effect of uv light appears to be additive, since the growth rate of a tumor transplant is dependent upon the length of uv exposure administered prior to implantation. This suppressive influence does not appear to be directly mediated by the uv light, because the amputation of uv-irradiated tail skin allows for a retention of tumor resistance in otherwise tumor-susceptible hosts. uv-irradiated mice could also be immunized against uv tumors, which suggests that immune recognition of tumor-specific transplantation antigens has not been inhibited. The ability of uv exposure to alter normal immunological reactivity to uv-induced tumors is possibly an integral factor in the mechanism underlying uv carcinogenesis

  9. Gender affects skin wound healing in plasminogen deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Rønø

    Full Text Available The fibrinolytic activity of plasmin plays a fundamental role in resolution of blood clots and clearance of extravascular deposited fibrin in damaged tissues. These vital functions of plasmin are exploited by malignant cells to accelerate tumor growth and facilitate metastases. Mice lacking functional plasmin thus display decreased tumor growth in a variety of cancer models. Interestingly, this role of plasmin has, in regard to skin cancer, been shown to be restricted to male mice. It remains to be clarified whether gender also affects other phenotypic characteristics of plasmin deficiency or if this gender effect is restricted to skin cancer. To investigate this, we tested the effect of gender on plasmin dependent immune cell migration, accumulation of hepatic fibrin depositions, skin composition, and skin wound healing. Gender did not affect immune cell migration or hepatic fibrin accumulation in neither wildtype nor plasmin deficient mice, and the existing differences in skin composition between males and females were unaffected by plasmin deficiency. In contrast, gender had a marked effect on the ability of plasmin deficient mice to heal skin wounds, which was seen as an accelerated wound closure in female versus male plasmin deficient mice. Further studies showed that this gender effect could not be reversed by ovariectomy, suggesting that female sex-hormones did not mediate the accelerated skin wound healing in plasmin deficient female mice. Histological examination of healed wounds revealed larger amounts of fibrotic scars in the provisional matrix of plasmin deficient male mice compared to female mice. These fibrotic scars correlated to an obstruction of cell infiltration of the granulation tissue, which is a prerequisite for wound healing. In conclusion, the presented data show that the gender dependent effect of plasmin deficiency is tissue specific and may be secondary to already established differences between genders, such as skin

  10. Mechanisms of Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis in TSC Skin Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    professional and personal life. I enjoyed tasting all the different cuisines as part of our birthday celebrations and also his Christmas decorations. I...associated with tuberous sclerosis complex, Am J Kidney Dis 2006, 48:e27-29 78. Hofbauer GF, Marcollo-Pini A, Corsenca A, Kistler AD, French LE, Wuthrich

  11. Adnexal skin tumors. | Samaila | Annals of African Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tumours of the sweat gland were the commonest– 41(78.8%); they comprised predominantly eccrine acrospiroma(17), characterized histologically by solid nests of round to polygonal cells with clear to eosinophilic cytoplasm, forming tubules in areas. Tumours of sebaceous gland were 7 (13.5%); they comprised mainly ...

  12. Skin metastases from lung cancer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajaziti, Laura; Hapçiu, Syzana Rexhepi; Dobruna, Shkendije; Hoxha, Naim; Kurshumliu, Fisnik; Pajaziti, Artina

    2015-04-11

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies, with high mortality rates. It can metastasize in almost all organs, but more often invades hilar nodes, liver, adrenal glands, bones and brain. There are various data on the incidence of lung cancer metastases in the skin. In 1-12% of patients with lung cancer are developed skin metastases. Metastases in the skin may be the first sign of lung cancer. Forty-five years old Albanian male, smoker, was admitted to our department with multiple nodules localized in the skin of the head, neck, back and chest. The nodules measuring 5-15 millimeters in greatest dimension were round and skin-colored, with telangiectasias, firm and tender. They appeared in an eruptive form about two weeks before being admitted at our hospital. In addition, the patient exhibited signs of weight loss, anorexia and fatigue. Excisional biopsy was performed to one of the lesions. Histopathology confirmed metastatic nature of the lesion namely, malignant tumor of neuroendocrine phenotype consistent with small-cell carcinoma. Chest X-ray and computed tomography revealed an expansive process in the 7(th) segment of the left lung, left hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy and a suspicious initial secondary deposit in the left adrenal gland. The patient was referred to the department of oncology for further treatment. After the third cycle of chemotherapy, the magnetic resonance imaging revealed brain metastases. The patient passed away four months after the diagnosis of lung cancer first presented with skin metastases. Metastases in skin may be the first sign of lung cancer. Although rare appearing, we should raise suspicion in cases of atypical lesions in the skin not only of the smokers, but also of the non-smokers. Skin metastases from small-cell lung carcinoma are a poor prognostic indicator. The appearance of multiple skin metastases with other internal metastases shorten the survival time.

  13. [A case of skin autograft for skin ulcers in ichthyosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiwei; Yang, Xiaodong; Liu, Lijun; Tang, Xueyang

    2017-10-28

    Ichthyosis refers to a group of skin diseases characterized by abnormal keratinization of the epidermis, resulting in dryness, roughness and scale of the skin. A girl with ichthyosis, who presented with skin ulcers and infection of the right dorsal foot, was admitted to our department. An autologous razor-thin skin grafting procedure was performed to repair the skin ulcers after debridement and vacuum sealing drain. After 8 months of follow-up, both the donor and recipient site healed well and there were no newly formed ulcers or infections. Although the skin quality of ichthyosis is poor, the lesion area can still be used as donor or recipient cite.

  14. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  15. Sprayed skin turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  16. Thyroid and skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra Alka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of thyroid disorders with skin manifestations is complex. Both hypothryoidism and hyperthyroidism are known to cause these changes. In order to study this association of skin changes in relation to hypothyroidism, a study was carried out in the outpatients department of Dermatology of Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, over a period of 3 months from Jan-March 2005. Thirty two patients were enrolled in the study and parameters were noted regarding history, general symptoms, cutaneous signs and associated diseases. We found gain in weight (71.85% and lethargy (65.62% to be the most common complaints. On cutaneous examination, dry, coarse texture of the skin (56%, pigmentary disorders (37.5% and telogen effluvium (40.62% were the most common findings. Other associated disorders were vitiligo, melasma, pemphigus, alopecia areata, xanthelasma palpebrarum, etc.

  17. Environment and the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suskind, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The skin is an important organ of defense adaptation and a portal of entry for xenobiotics. It is vulnerable to physical, chemical, and biologic agents and capable of expressing responses to these agents in a variety of pathologic patterns. These patterns are characterized by morphologic and functional features which are elicited by careful examination and test procedures. Cutaneous cancer may result from exposure to nonionizing as well as ionizing radiation, to specific identifiable chemical hazards, and may be enhanced by trauma. Cutaneous hazards of chemical sources are largely found in the workplace and among consumer products, including drugs and toilet goods. Environmental skin diseases and injuries are preventable. Prior to use assessment for safety and for possible risks from exposure to an agent, product, or process is of primary importance in the prevention and control of environmental skin disease and injury

  18. Evolution of metastasis revealed by mutational landscapes of chemically induced skin cancers | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human tumors show a high level of genetic heterogeneity, but the processes that influence the timing and route of metastatic dissemination of the subclones are unknown. Here we have used whole-exome sequencing of 103 matched benign, malignant and metastatic skin tumors from genetically heterogeneous mice to demonstrate that most metastases disseminate synchronously from the primary tumor, supporting parallel rather than linear evolution as the predominant model of metastasis.

  19. Immune response to uv-induced tumors: transplantation immunity and lymphocyte populations exhibiting anti-tumor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeter, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    Ultraviolet light-induced murine skin tumors were analyzed for their ability to induce tumor-specific and cross-protective transplantation immunity in immunocompetent syngeneic mice. These studies revealed that progressor UV-tumors, like regressor UV-tumors, possess tumor-specific transplantation antigens. Cross-protective transplantation immunity to UV-tumors, however, was associated with sensitization to the serum used to culture the tumor lines rather than to cross-reactive or common determinants on UV-tumors. An analysis of the cytolytic activity of lymphocytes from the spleens of mice immunized with either regressor or progressor UV-tumors revealed a striking difference between the two immune splenocyte populations. From regressor tumor-immune animals, cytolytic T (Tc) lymphocytes with specificity for the immunizing tumor were found. However, the analysis of splenic lymphocytes from progressor tumor immune animals revealed no such effector cells. To more effectively examine those lymphocytes exhibiting cytolytic activity in vitro, T lymphocyte cloning technology was used as a means of isolating homogeneous lymphocyte populations with the effector activities described above. The mechanisms where NK cells and other nonspecific effector cells could be induced in tumor-immune animals are discussed in the context of class II restricted immune responses

  20. Precancerous Skin Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrándiz, C; Malvehy, J; Guillén, C; Ferrándiz-Pulido, C; Fernández-Figueras, M

    Certain clinically and histologically recognizable skin lesions with a degree of risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma have been traditionally grouped as precancerous skin conditions but now tend to be classified as in situ carcinomas. This consensus statement discusses various aspects of these lesions: their evaluation by means of clinical and histopathologic features, the initial evaluation of the patient, the identification of risk factors for progression, and the diagnostic and treatment strategies available today. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Skin graft viability test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahner, H.W.; Robertson, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    With respect to skin pedicles (tubular pedicle or direct flap), an estimation of the blood supply is of great importance in making a decision as to when to perform the separation from the original blood supply. This decision is based on empiric observation of the normal time of healing and varies greatly with the site and the concepts of the individual surgery. A number of methods have been proposed for testing the circulation of pedicle skin flaps or tubes, and these methods all seem more complicated and less accurate than the isotope method that is described in this chapter

  2. Skin innate immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Aksoy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available All multicellular organisms protect themselves from external universe and microorganisms by innate immune sytem that is constitutively present. Skin innate immune system has several different components composed of epithelial barriers, humoral factors and cellular part. In this review information about skin innate immune system and its components are presented to the reader. Innate immunity, which wasn’t adequately interested in previously, is proven to provide a powerfull early protection system, control many infections before the acquired immunity starts and directs acquired immunity to develop optimally

  3. Experimental tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    This is a report on the work of the joint research group of the Institute of Radiation Biology (Strahlenbiologisches Institut) of the university of Munich and the Department of Radiation Biology of the Society for Radiation and Environmental Research (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- u. Umweltforschung - GSF -) at Neuherberg. The presented results are not in all cases definitely confirmed or have, in part, merely provisional character. It is the target of the joint research to investigate problems of cancer therapy of practical impact in model form and to develop recommendations in discussions with therapists. Thus, the aim is not so much to examine mechanisms of action of certain radiations in detail but to look for the general rules they are governed by and to analyze the quantitative aspects of cancer therapy. To achieve this, a great variety of test models must be at hand. Numerous cell cultivies and tumors of mice resp. rats are therefore used. The acute reactions to irradiation are examined on the skin, the small intestine crypts, the bone marrow and spleen colonies of mice and the chronic reactions are tested on the colon and heart of rats and on the vascular connective tissue and kidneys of mice. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Photodynamic therapy for skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjehpour, Masoud; Julius, Clark E.; Hartman, Donald L.

    1996-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy was used to treat 111 lesions in 27 cases with squamous and basal cell carcinoma. There were 82 squamous cell carcinomas and 29 basal cell carcinomas. Photofrin was administered intravenously at either 1.0 mg/kg or 0.75 mg/kg. An argon/dye laser was used to deliver 630 nm light to the lesion superficially at either 215 J/cm2 or 240 J/cm2. In some cases the laser light was delivered both superficially and interstitially. The laser light was delivered two to four days after the Photofrin injection. There were 105 complete responses and 5 partial responses. One patient was lost to follow-up. Among partial responses were basal cell carcinoma on the tip of the nose and morphea basal cell carcinoma of the left cheek. Another partial response occurred in a basal cell carcinoma patient where insufficient margins were treated due to the proximity to the eye. When 0.75 mg/kg drug dose was used, the selectivity of tumor necrosis was improved. Decreased period of skin photosensitivity was documented in some cases.

  5. Chronic ultraviolet exposure-induced p53 gene alterations in sencar mouse skin carcinogenesis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Ying; Smith, M.A.; Tucker, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    Alterations of the tumor suppressor gene p53 have been found in ultraviolet radiation (UVR) related human skin cancers and in UVR-induced murine skin tumors. However, links between p53 gene alterations and the stages of carcinogenesis induced by UVR have not been clearly defined. We established a chronic UVR exposure-induced Sencar mouse skin carcinogenesis model to determine the frequency of p53 gene alterations in different stages of carcinogenesis, including UV-exposed skin, papillomas, squamous-cell carcinomas (SCCs), and malignant spindle-cell tumors (SCTs). A high incidence of SCCs and SCTs were found in this model. Positive p53 nuclear staining was found in 10137 (27%) of SCCs and 12124 (50%) of SCTs, but was not detected in normal skin or papillomas. DNA was isolated from 40 paraffin-embedded normal skin, UV-exposed skin, and tumor sections. The p53 gene (exons 5 and 6) was amplified from the sections by using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Subsequent single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) assay and sequencing analysis revealed one point mutation in exon 6 (coden 193, C → A transition) from a UV-exposed skin sample, and seven point mutations in exon 5 (codens 146, 158, 150, 165, and 161, three C → T, two C → A, one C → G, and one A → T transition, respectively) from four SCTs, two SCCs and one UV-exposed skin sample. These experimental results demonstrate that alterations in the p53 gene are frequent events in chronic UV exposure-induced SCCs and later stage SCTs in Sencar mouse skin. 40 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  6. Polyradiomodification. Evaluation of the efficacy of the utilization of hyperglycemia in experimental hypoxiradiotherapy of tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozin, S.V.; Dyuskaliev, Zh.D.; Yarmonenko, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of the appropriateness of the use of short-term hyperglycemia combined with hypoxiradiotherapy of solid tumors is given. In comparing the response of tumors and overlying skin a conclusion has been made that gaseous hypoxia and the use of hyperglycemia separately yield in a considerable therapeutic benefit, and the use of the combination of these agents in some cases produces a greater therapeutic interval between tumor destruction and normal tissues. The mechanisms of the modification of radiation injuries of tumors and skin under the influence of the above two factors are discussed

  7. Vascular thermal adaptation in tumors and normal tissue in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nah, Byung Sik; Choi, Ihl-Bohng; Oh, Won Young; Osborn, James L.; Song, Chang W.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The vascular thermal adaptation in the R3230 adenocarcinoma, skin and muscle in the legs of Fischer rats was studied. Methods and Materials: The legs of Fischer rats bearing the R3230 AC adenocarcinoma (subcutaneously) were heated once or twice with a water bath, and the blood flow in the tumor, skin and muscle of the legs was measured with the radioactive microsphere method. Results: The blood flow in control R3230 AC tumors was 23.9 ml/100 g/min. The tumor blood flow increased about 1.5 times in 30 min and then markedly decreased upon heating at 44.5 deg. C for 90 min. In the tumors preheated 16 h earlier at 42.5 deg. C for 60 min, reheating at 44.5 deg. C increased the tumor blood flow by 2.5-fold in 30 min. Contrary to the decline in blood flow following an initial increase during the 44.5 deg. C heating without preheating, the tumor blood flow remained elevated throughout the 90 min reheating at 44.5 deg. C. These results indicated that thermal adaptation or thermotolerance developed in the tumor vasculatures after the preheating at 42.5 deg. C for 60 min. The magnitude of vascular thermal adaptation in the tumors 24 h and 48 h after the preheating, as judged from the changes in blood flow, were smaller than that 16 h after the preheating. Heating at 42.5 deg. C for 60 min induced vascular thermal adaptation also in the skin and muscle, which peaked in 48 h and 24 h, respectively, after the heating. Conclusion: Heating at 42.5 deg. C for 1 h induced vascular thermal adaptation in the R3230 AC tumor, skin, and muscle of rats that peaked 16-48 h after the heating. When the tumor blood vessels were thermally adapted, the tumor blood flow increased upon heating at temperatures that would otherwise reduce the tumor blood flow. Such an increase in tumor blood flow may hinder raising the tumor temperature while it may increase tumor oxygenation.

  8. Eriocalyxin B induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells through caspase- and p53-dependent pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lin; Yue, Grace G.L.; Lau, Clara B.S.; Sun, Handong; Fung, Kwok Pui; Leung, Ping Chung; Han, Quanbin; Leung, Po Sing

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to detect early and responds poorly to chemotherapy. A breakthrough in the development of new therapeutic agents is urgently needed. Eriocalyxin B (EriB), isolated from the Isodon eriocalyx plant, is an ent-kaurane diterpenoid with promise as a broad-spectrum anti-cancer agent. The anti-leukemic activity of EriB, including the underlying mechanisms involved, has been particularly well documented. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time EriB's potent cytotoxicity against four pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines, namely PANC-1, SW1990, CAPAN-1, and CAPAN-2. The effects were comparable to that of the chemotherapeutic camptothecin (CAM), but with much lower toxicity against normal human liver WRL68 cells. EriB's cytoxicity against CAPAN-2 cells was found to involve caspase-dependent apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. Moreover, the p53 pathway was found to be activated by EriB in these cells. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that EriB inhibited the growth of human pancreatic tumor xenografts in BALB/c nude mice without significant secondary adverse effects. These results suggest that EriB should be considered a candidate for pancreatic cancer treatment. -- Highlights: ► We study Eriocalyxin B (EriB)'s cytotoxic effects on pancreatic cancer cell lines. ► EriB inhibits cell proliferation via mediation of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. ► The effects are involved in caspase-dependent apoptosis and p53 pathway. ► In vivo study also shows EriB inhibits the growth of human pancreatic tumor. ► EriB can be a good candidate for chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer.

  9. Eriocalyxin B induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells through caspase- and p53-dependent pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lin [School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Yue, Grace G.L. [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Lau, Clara B.S. [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Sun, Handong [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, CAS, Yunnan (China); Fung, Kwok Pui [School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Leung, Ping Chung [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Han, Quanbin, E-mail: simonhan@hkbu.edu.hk [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); School of Chinese Medicine, The Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China); Leung, Po Sing, E-mail: psleung@cuhk.edu.hk [School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to detect early and responds poorly to chemotherapy. A breakthrough in the development of new therapeutic agents is urgently needed. Eriocalyxin B (EriB), isolated from the Isodon eriocalyx plant, is an ent-kaurane diterpenoid with promise as a broad-spectrum anti-cancer agent. The anti-leukemic activity of EriB, including the underlying mechanisms involved, has been particularly well documented. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time EriB's potent cytotoxicity against four pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines, namely PANC-1, SW1990, CAPAN-1, and CAPAN-2. The effects were comparable to that of the chemotherapeutic camptothecin (CAM), but with much lower toxicity against normal human liver WRL68 cells. EriB's cytoxicity against CAPAN-2 cells was found to involve caspase-dependent apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. Moreover, the p53 pathway was found to be activated by EriB in these cells. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that EriB inhibited the growth of human pancreatic tumor xenografts in BALB/c nude mice without significant secondary adverse effects. These results suggest that EriB should be considered a candidate for pancreatic cancer treatment. -- Highlights: ► We study Eriocalyxin B (EriB)'s cytotoxic effects on pancreatic cancer cell lines. ► EriB inhibits cell proliferation via mediation of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. ► The effects are involved in caspase-dependent apoptosis and p53 pathway. ► In vivo study also shows EriB inhibits the growth of human pancreatic tumor. ► EriB can be a good candidate for chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer.

  10. Skin carcinogenesis in man and in experimental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, E.; Jung, E.G.; Marks, F.; Tilgen, W.

    1993-01-01

    This book presents an updated overview of the current state of the art in scientific, experimental and clinical investigations on the generation and the prevention of cancer of the skin. From the achievements presented, marked refinements in the assessment of the risk of cancer, by environmental and endogenous factors, including tumor virus, will be stimulated. They include the problem of the stratospheric 'ozone holes' above both poles of the earth causing much public concern as expressed by current headlines in the media and by the United Nations Environmental Program. Moreover, new ideas will merge for developing specific approaches to explore the mechanistic, i.e. ultimately the molecular-biological, causes of skin cancer and others. In addition, the experimental utilization of oncogens and of other techniques of molecular biology at all levels of the biology of tissues and cells, may open up entirely new facets in the research on skin cancer. Detailed knowledge of the mechanistic aspects of skin carcinogenesis may give important hints with respect to 'tailor-make' and utilize new anti-tumor agents in the therapy of skin cancer for the benefit of the cancer patient. (orig.). 67 figs., 44 tabs

  11. Radiation-induced cancer of the skin in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyono, Kunihiro; Moriya, Kumiko; Kobayashi, Toshio

    1981-01-01

    Eight cases of radiation induced cancer of the skin observed at the Shinshu University during 30 years from 1951 to 1938 were reported. All of the tumors were squamous cell carcinomas; 7 out of 8 cases occurred in males. Primary conditions for which irradiation was given were 6 cases of benign disorders of various skin disease and 2 cases of spinal tuberculosis. The mean age at which these patients were first subjected to radiation therapy was 31 years. At the time when the diagnosis of skin cancer was established, the mean age was 47 years, with a range from 35 to 58 years. The latent period distributed between 9 and 28 years, with the average of 16.4 years. The estimated radiation doses sufficient to induce cancer of the skin was found to be some thousands R or more, the lowest irradiation dose being about 2,000 R. There was no close correlation between the radiation dose and the latent period, nor between the age of the patient at the time of irradiation and the latent period. The tumors usually occurred in the skin areas where extensive irradiation changes were shown, especially in ulcerative area. (author)

  12. Skin dosimetry - radiological protection aspects of skin dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Following a Workshop in Skin Dosimetry, a summary of the radiological protection aspects is given. Aspects discussed include routine skin monitoring and dose limits, the need for careful skin dosimetry in high accidental exposures, techniques for assessing skin dose at all relevant depths and the specification of dose quantities to be measured by personal dosemeters and the appropriate methods to be used in their calibration. (UK)

  13. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigate their brain tumor diagnosis. WATCH AND SHARE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Pediatric Central Nervous System Cancers Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  14. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Brain Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Brain Tumors What's in ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  15. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  16. Malignant bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    Clinicoroentgenologic semiotics of malignant bone tumors as well as metastatic bone tumors are presented. Diagnosis of malignant and metastatic bone tumors should be always complex, representing a result of cooperation of a physician, roentgenologist, pathoanatomist

  17. Tumors and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  18. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 01/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on the survival rates for people with a ...

  19. Frog skin function revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid Larsen, Erik; Ramløv, Hans

    2013-01-01

    of the epidermis. These mechanisms have evolved pari passu with life alternating between aquatic and terrestrial habitats associated with permeabilities of the skin controlled by external ion- and osmotic concentrations (loc. cit.). This allows for fast switching of the cutaneous uptake of chloride between active...

  20. Skin Cut Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    of the exhibition is to create a connection between the artistic and technological development through Danish rms and researchers who represent the newest technology in concrete treatment. The rst part exhibition (skin) will focus on the surface treatment of concrete (’graphical concrete’), the second (cut...

  1. Mechanical modeling of skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, C.W.J.; Peters, G.W.M.; Kassab, G.S.; Sacks, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter describes the work that was performed in the soft tissue biomechanics laboratory at Eindhoven University of Technology on the biomechanics of skin. A rationale is given for the changes from standard testing methods to inverse methods, from in vitro to in vivo and back to in vitro testing

  2. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  3. Skin Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children from the Sun? Are There Benefits to Spending Time Outdoors? The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer Related Resources Sun Safety Tips for Men Tips for Families Tips for Schools Tips for Employers Tips for ...

  4. Immunity and skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.B.; Brysk, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Observations in humans and animal studies support the theory that immunologic surveillance plays an important role in limiting the development of skin malignancies. These immune responses undergo progressive diminution with age. In addition, other factors, such as bereavement, poor nutrition, and acute and chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, can further diminish immune mechanisms

  5. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... us for One-on-One Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video ... 29498 © 2013 Melanoma International Foundation. All Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy | Terms of Use Toll-free: 866-463- ...

  6. Skin lesion removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to be done when there is a concern about a skin cancer. Most often, an area the shape of an ellipse is removed, as this makes it easier to close with stitches. The entire lesion is removed, going as deep as the fat, if needed, to ...

  7. Skin painting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witschi, H.P.; Smith, L.H.; Goad, M.E.; Anthony, W.B.; Gipson, L.C.; Stephens, T.J.; Whitaker, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    In order to estimate eventual risks to human health as a consequence of incidental and prolonged skin contact, it is necessary to obtain some information on the potential of coal-derived liquids to elicit skin cancer. In addition, it also must be established whether prolonged dermal exposure will produce signs of toxicity not only on the skin but to internal organs. During the past 2 years, they completed a life-long skin painting study with mice designed to answer some of these questions. The following materials were tested: Raw H-coal blend, containing 5700 ppm N; H-coal blend after low hydrotreatment (2650 ppm N); H-coal blend after high hydrotreatment (0.2 ppm N); H-coal home heating oil, a devolatilized version of the high-hydrotreatment H-coal blend; and an H-coal reformed naphtha. Two petroleum-derived references samples were used: Petroleum No. 2 fuel oil and high catalytically cracked naphtha. Benzo(a)pyrene was used as reference substance. Experimental animals were male and female C3H mice

  8. Light and skin disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the depletion of ozone in the stratosphere due to chlorofluorocarbons, the screening effect of this ozone layer on ultraviolet radiation (especially the so-called UV-B component) is reduced. This paper describes the impact of increased UV radiation on the human skin. Because of the 'ozone-hole', a distinct increase in the rate of skin cancer is to be expected which will affect all living beings but most of all man - an indirect consequence of the climate development. What makes the increased intensity of UV-B radiation so harmful is the fact that light-induced skin damage accumulates for the period of the life-time of the individual and cannot be reversed. A further thinning of stratospheric ozone would let through, in addition, the more short-waved ('harder') UV-C radiation. The latter, though clinically not significant currently, would then account for a further increase in the rate of malignant skin disease world-wide. (orig.) [de

  9. Skin peeling syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharpuray Mohan

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a case of skin peeling syndrome, a rare disorder in which sudden generalized exfoliation of the stratum corneum occurs. Histopathologically, there was well formed subcorneal pustule filled with polymorphs and nuclear dust, considering this to be a varient of subcorneal pustular dermatosis, we have put the patient on Dapsone.

  10. Skin color independent assessment of aging using skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, M.; Nur, Erfan; Chunmao, Han; Lutgers, Helen L.; Links, Thera P.; Smit, Andries J.; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Graaff, Reindert

    2010-01-01

    Skin autofluorescence (AF) for the non-invasive assessment of the amount of accumulated tissue Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) increases with aging. In subjects with darker skin colors, measurements typically result in lower AF values than in subjects with fair skin colors, e.g. due to

  11. Skin color independent assessment of aging using skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, M.; Nur, E.; Chunmao, H.; Lutgers, H.L.; Links, T.P.; Smit, A.J.; Rakhorst, G.; de Graaff, R.

    2010-01-01

    Skin autofluorescence (AF) for the non-invasive assessment of the amount of accumulated tissue Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) increases with aging. In subjects with darker skin colors, measurements typically result in lower AF values than in subjects with fair skin colors, e. g. due to

  12. A new method for skin color enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2012-01-01

    Skin tone is the most important color category in memory colors. Reproducing it pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the skin color preference on photographic color reproduction. Two key factors to successfully enhance skin colors are: a method to detect original skin colors effectively even if they are shifted far away from the regular skin color region, and a method to morph skin colors toward a preferred skin color region properly without introducing artifacts. A method for skin color enhancement presented by the authors in the same conference last year applies a static skin color model for skin color detection, which may miss to detect skin colors that are far away from regular skin tones. In this paper, a new method using the combination of face detection and statistical skin color modeling is proposed to effectively detect skin pixels and to enhance skin colors more effectively.

  13. Mobile phone use and the risk of skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Friis, Søren; Johansen, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified radiofrequency radiation as possibly carcinogenic. Previous studies have focused on intracranial tumors, although the skin receives much radiation. In a nationwide cohort study, 355,701 private mobile phone subscribers in Denmark from......% confidence interval: 0.54, 2.00). A similar risk pattern was seen among women, though it was based on smaller numbers. In this large, population-based cohort study, little evidence of an increased skin cancer risk was observed among mobile phone users....

  14. Peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carzoglio, J.; Tancredi, N.; Capurro, S.; Ravecca, T.; Scarrone, P.

    2006-01-01

    A new case of peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) is reported. It is localized in the superior right gingival region, a less frequent site, and has the histopathological features previously reported. Immunochemical studies were performed, revealing a differential positive stain to cytokeratins in tumor cells deeply seated in the tumor mass, probably related to tumoral cell heterogeneity.Interestingly, in this particular case S-100 protein positive reactivity was also detected in arborescent cells intermingled with tumoral cells, resembling Langerhans cells. Even though referred in the literature in central Pindborg tumors, no references were found about their presence in peripheral tumors, like the one that is presented here

  15. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Candida infection of the skin is a yeast infection ...

  16. Two-step Raman spectroscopy method for tumor diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, V. P.; Bratchenko, I. A.; Kozlov, S. V.; Moryatov, A. A.; Myakinin, O. O.; Artemyev, D. N.

    2014-05-01

    Two-step Raman spectroscopy phase method was proposed for differential diagnosis of malignant tumor in skin and lung tissue. It includes detection of malignant tumor in healthy tissue on first step with identification of concrete cancer type on the second step. Proposed phase method analyze spectral intensity alteration in 1300-1340 and 1640-1680 cm-1 Raman bands in relation to the intensity of the 1450 cm-1 band on first step, and relative differences between RS intensities for tumor area and healthy skin closely adjacent to the lesion on the second step. It was tested more than 40 ex vivo samples of lung tissue and more than 50 in vivo skin tumors. Linear Discriminant Analysis, Quadratic Discriminant Analysis and Support Vector Machine were used for tumors type classification on phase planes. It is shown that two-step phase method allows to reach 88.9% sensitivity and 87.8% specificity for malignant melanoma diagnosis (skin cancer); 100% sensitivity and 81.5% specificity for adenocarcinoma diagnosis (lung cancer); 90.9% sensitivity and 77.8% specificity for squamous cell carcinoma diagnosis (lung cancer).

  17. Targeted Therapy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Spallone

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC is the most prevalent cancer in light-skinned populations, and includes mainly Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCC, representing around 75% of NMSC and Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC. The incidence of these tumors is continuously growing. It was found that the overall number of procedures for NMSC in US rose by 76%, from 1,158,298 in 1992 to 2,048,517 in 2006. Although mortality from NMSC tends to be very low, clearly the morbidity related to these skin cancers is very high. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and nonsurgical interventions. Surgery was considered the gold standard therapy, however, advancements in the knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms of NMSCs led to the identification of key targets for drug intervention and to the consequent development of several targeted therapies. These represent the future in treatment of these common forms of cancer ensuring a high cure rate, preservation of the maximal amount of normal surrounding tissue and optimal cosmetic outcome. Here, we will review recent advancements in NMSC targeted therapies focusing on BCC and SCC.

  18. Targeted Therapy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spallone, Giulia; Botti, Elisabetta; Costanzo, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most prevalent cancer in light-skinned populations, and includes mainly Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCC), representing around 75% of NMSC and Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC). The incidence of these tumors is continuously growing. It was found that the overall number of procedures for NMSC in US rose by 76%, from 1,158,298 in 1992 to 2,048,517 in 2006. Although mortality from NMSC tends to be very low, clearly the morbidity related to these skin cancers is very high. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and nonsurgical interventions. Surgery was considered the gold standard therapy, however, advancements in the knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms of NMSCs led to the identification of key targets for drug intervention and to the consequent development of several targeted therapies. These represent the future in treatment of these common forms of cancer ensuring a high cure rate, preservation of the maximal amount of normal surrounding tissue and optimal cosmetic outcome. Here, we will review recent advancements in NMSC targeted therapies focusing on BCC and SCC

  19. Investigation on the effect of developed product and new food for radiation-induced skin damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Kim, Jong Chun; Bae, Chun Sik; Kim, Se Ra; Lee, Hae Jun; Bang, Dae Won; Lee, Jin Hee; Kim, Joong Sun; Ki, Sun Ah; Song, Myung Seop [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    In vivo evaluation of the developed pilot product on the skin protection against UV irradiation and screening of new candidate materials. Project Results are Establishment of experimental methods for 3 morphological indices of UV-induced skin damages -Establishment of experimental methods for whitening effect evaluation -Evaluation of HemoHIM administration on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoHIM skin application on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoTonic administration on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoTonic skin application on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 1 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 2 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 3 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the TNBS-induced colitis -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the anti-wrinkle effects in the skin -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the protective effects on the skin tissue (epidermal thickening, dermal cellularity, dermal cyst) -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the protective effects on the skin tumor development

  20. Investigation on the effect of developed product and new food for radiation-induced skin damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Kim, Jong Chun; Bae, Chun Sik; Kim, Se Ra; Lee, Hae Jun; Bang, Dae Won; Lee, Jin Hee; Kim, Joong Sun; Ki, Sun Ah; Song, Myung Seop

    2007-07-01

    In vivo evaluation of the developed pilot product on the skin protection against UV irradiation and screening of new candidate materials. Project Results are Establishment of experimental methods for 3 morphological indices of UV-induced skin damages -Establishment of experimental methods for whitening effect evaluation -Evaluation of HemoHIM administration on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoHIM skin application on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoTonic administration on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoTonic skin application on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 1 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 2 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 3 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the TNBS-induced colitis -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the anti-wrinkle effects in the skin -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the protective effects on the skin tissue (epidermal thickening, dermal cellularity, dermal cyst) -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the protective effects on the skin tumor development

  1. Flavonoids Derived from Abelmoschus esculentus Attenuates UV-B Induced Cell Damage in Human Dermal Fibroblasts Through Nrf2-ARE Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Juilee; Bhatt, Purvi

    2016-05-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is a smaller fraction of the total radiation reaching the Earth but leads to extensive damage to the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and other biomolecules through formation of free radicals altering redox homeostasis of the cell. Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) has been known in Ayurveda as antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, demulscent, antispasmodic, diuretic, purgative, etc. The aim of this study is to evaluate the protective effect of flavonoids from A. esculentus against UV-B-induced cell damage in human dermal fibroblasts. UV-B protective activity of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of okra was studied against UV-B-induced cytotoxicity, antioxidant regulation, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, apoptotic morphological changes, and regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2-antioxidant response element (Nrf2-ARE) pathway. Flavonoid-rich EA fraction depicted a significant antioxidant potential also showing presence of rutin. Pretreatment of cells with EA fraction (10-30 μg/ml) prevented UV-B-induced cytotoxicity, depletion of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular ROS production, apoptotic changes, and overexpression of Nrf2 and HO-1. Our study demonstrated for the 1(st) time that EA fraction of okra may reduce oxidative stress through Nrf2-ARE pathway as well as through endogenous enzymatic antioxidant system. These results suggested that flavonoids from okra may be considered as potential UV-B protective agents and may also be formulated into herbal sunscreen for topical application. Flavonoid-enriched ethyl acetate (EA) fraction from A. esculentus protected against ultraviolet-B (UV-B)-induced oxidative DNA damageEA fraction prevented UV-B-induced cytotoxicity, depletion of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants, and intracellular reactive oxygen species productionEA fraction could reduce oxidative stress through the Nrf2-ARE

  2. Folate in Skin Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, J.D.; Jacobson, Elaine L.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.; Jacobson, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Skin, the largest, most exposed organ of the body, provides a protective interface between humans and the environment. One of its primary roles is protection against exposure to sunlight, a major source of skin damage where the UV radiation (UVR) component functions as a complete carcinogen. Melanin pigmentation and the evolution of dark skin is an adaptive protective mechanism against high levels of UVR exposure. Recently, the hypothesis that skin pigmentation balances folate preservation an...

  3. Raman spectroscopy reveals biophysical markers in skin cancer surgical margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xu; Moy, Austin J.; Nguyen, Hieu T. M.; Zhang, Yao; Fox, Matthew C.; Sebastian, Katherine R.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Markey, Mia K.; Tunnell, James W.

    2018-02-01

    The recurrence rate of nonmelanoma skin cancer is highly related to the residual tumor after surgery. Although tissueconserving surgery, such as Mohs surgery, is a standard method for the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer, they are limited by lengthy and costly frozen-section histopathology. Raman spectroscopy (RS) is proving to be an objective, sensitive, and non-destructive tool for detecting skin cancer. Previous studies demonstrated the high sensitivity of RS in detecting tumor margins of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). However, those studies rely on statistical classification models and do not elucidate the skin biophysical composition. As a result, we aim to discover the biophysical differences between BCC and primary normal skin structures (including epidermis, dermis, hair follicle, sebaceous gland and fat). We obtained freshly resected ex vivo skin samples from fresh resection specimens from 14 patients undergoing Mohs surgery. Raman images were acquired from regions containing one or more structures using a custom built 830nm confocal Raman microscope. The spectra were grouped using K-means clustering analysis and annotated as either BCC or each of the five normal structures by comparing with the histopathology image of the serial section. The spectral data were then fit by a previously established biophysical model with eight primary skin constituents. Our results show that BCC has significant differences in the fit coefficients of nucleus, collagen, triolein, keratin and elastin compared with normal structures. Our study reveals RS has the potential to detect biophysical changes in resection margins, and supports the development of diagnostic algorithms for future intraoperative implementation of RS during Mohs surgery.

  4. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  5. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and SCI • Depression and SCI • Taking Care of Pressure Sores • Maintaining Healthy Skin (Part I) • Maintaining Healthy Skin ( ... For information on establishing skin tolerance, see our “Pressure Sores” pamphlet.) Pressure releases in a wheelchair can be ...

  6. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with no breaks in the surface. It is warm (not hot or red) and neither dry and flaky nor moist and wrinkled. Healthy skin is a mirror of a healthy body. How to take care of your skin NUTRITION: To keep your skin healthy, eat a well- ...

  7. Skin Cancers of the Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foot Health Awareness Month Diabetes Awareness What Are Skin Cancers of the Feet? Skin cancer can develop anywhere on the body, including ... cell carcinoma is the most common form of cancer on the skin of the feet. Most types of early squamous ...

  8. ICRP-26 and skin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnigan, T.; Huda, W.; Newbery, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    The experience of dealing with skin contamination incidents at The Radiochemical Centre over a 3-year period is presented. Data are given for the primary isotopes involved, the duration of skin contamination, and the skin doses that arise from these incidents. The methods employed in performing dosimetry for skin contamination are discussed and examples involving the isotopes carbon-14 and indium-111 are described. For skin contamination incidents, the mode of penetration of the activity into skin is normally not known and this can be of major significance for the final skin dose estimate. The operational health physics difficulties encountered in complying with both ICRP-26 and UK legislation for skin contamination are considered. In the event of multiple exposure (i.e. skin doses calculated from whole body film badges, extremity TLD dose meters and skin contamination) there is ambiguity in the precise meaning of the skin dose. The usefulness of Derived Working Levels is also discussed. Experience at The Radiochemical Centre has shown that good plant design, proper training and prompt action in dealing with contamination incidents ensures that overexposures to skin from accidental contamination are rare occurrences. (author)

  9. Radiological diagnostics of skeletal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhl, M.; Herget, G.W.

    2008-01-01

    The book contains contributions concerning the following topics: 1. introduction and fundamentals: WHO classification of bone tumors, imaging diagnostics and their function; localization, typical clinical and radiological criteria, TNM classification and status classification, invasive tumor diagnostics; 2. specific tumor diagnostics: chondrogenic bone tumors, osseous tumors, connective tissue bony tumors, osteoclastoma, osteomyelogenic bone tumors, vascular bone tumors, neurogenic bone tumors, chordoma; adamantinoma of the long tubular bone; tumor-like lesions, bony metastases, bone granulomas, differential diagnostics: tumor-like lesions

  10. The incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 1955 - 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Yoshida, Hikotaro; Ichimaru, Michito; Honda, Takeo; Yoshida, Katsuro; Fujiwara, Naoko; Sadamori, Michiko.

    1988-01-01

    Of 20,348 persons included in the extended Life Span Study in Nagasaki, 59 persons were registered as having skin tumors during the years 1955 - 1984. Included in this study were 40 patients with histologically proven skin cancer. Thirty five patients were considered to be exposed to ≥ one cGy. There was statistically significant correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and exposure doses in both men and women (p < 0.01). Overall, the incidence of skin cancer was significantly correlated as well with the distance from the hypocenter; however, this was not significant when restricted to either men or women. Because the incidence of skin cancer has definitively increased since 1955 among A-bomb survivors, follow-up of A-bomb survivors is warranted with respect to atomic bomb-related skin cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  12. Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it might mean for you. What is skin cancer? Skin cancer is cancer that occurs in different kinds ... squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Facts About Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: acral peeling skin syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Acral peeling skin syndrome Acral peeling skin syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Acral peeling skin syndrome is a skin disorder characterized by ...

  14. Red tattoos, ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerche, Catharina M; Heerfordt, Ida M; Serup, Jørgen; Poulsen, Thomas; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2017-11-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces skin cancer. The combination of UVR and red tattoos may be associated with increased risk of skin cancer due to potential carcinogens in tattoo inks. This combination has not been studied previously. Immunocompetent C3.Cg/TifBomTac hairless mice (n=99) were tattooed on their back with a popular red tattoo ink. This often used ink is banned for use on humans because of high content of the potential carcinogen 2-anisidine. Half of the mice were irradiated with three standard erythema doses UVR thrice weekly. Time to induction of first, second and third squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was measured. All UV-irradiated mice developed SCCs. The time to the onset of the first and second tumor was identical in the red-tattooed group compared with the control group (182 vs 186 days and 196 vs 203 days, P=ns). Statistically, the third tumor appeared slightly faster in the red-tattooed group than in the controls (214 vs 224 days, P=.043). For the second and third tumor, the growth rate was faster in the red-tattooed group compared with the control (31 vs 49 days, P=.009 and 30 vs 38 days, P=.036). In conclusion, no spontaneous cancers were observed in skin tattooed with a red ink containing 2-anisidine. However, red tattoos exposed to UVR showed faster tumor onset regarding the third tumor, and faster growth rate of the second and third tumor indicating red ink acts as a cocarcinogen with UVR. The cocarcinogenic effect was weak and may not be clinically relevant. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Indian Hedgehog Controls Proliferation and Differentiation in Skin Tumorigenesis and Protects against Malignant Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Kakanj

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the hedgehog pathway drive the formation of tumors in many different organs, including the development of basal cell carcinoma in the skin. However, little is known about the role of epidermal Indian hedgehog (Ihh in skin physiology. Using mouse genetics, we identified overlapping and distinct functions of Ihh in different models of epidermal tumorigenesis. Epidermal deletion of Ihh resulted in increased formation of benign squamous papilloma. Strikingly, Ihh-deficient mice showed an increase in malignant squamous cell carcinoma and developed lung and lymph node metastases. In a sebaceous gland tumor model, Ihh deficiency inhibited tumor cell differentiation. More mechanistically, IHH stimulated cell proliferation by activating the transcription factor GLI2 in human keratinocytes and human tumors. Thus, our results uncover important functions for Ihh signaling in controlling proliferation, differentiation, malignant progression, and metastasis of epithelial cancer, establishing Ihh as a gatekeeper for controlling the grade of tumor malignancy.

  16. Topical Curcumin-Based Cream Is Equivalent to Dietary Curcumin in a Skin Cancer Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonavane, K.; Phillips, J.; Lakshmaiah, R. R.; Ekshyyan, O.; Moore-Medlin, T.; Rong, X.; Nathan, C. O.; Ekshyyan, O.; Moore-Medlin, T.; Rong, X.; Nathan, C.O.; Gill, J. R.; Clifford, J. L.; Abreo, F.; Boudreaux, D.; Nathan, C. O.

    2012-01-01

    Skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), the most common cancer in the USA, is a growing problem with the use of tanning booths causing sun-damaged skin. Antiproliferative effects of curcumin were demonstrated in an aggressive skin cancer cell line SRB12-p9 (ρ< 0.05 compared to control). Topical formulation was as effective as oral curcumin at suppressing tumor growth in a mouse skin cancer model. Curcumin at 15 mg administered by oral, topical, or combined formulation significantly reduced tumor growth compared to control (ρ=0.004). Inhibition of pAKT, pS6, p-4EBP1, pSTAT3, and pERK 1/2 was noted in SRB12-p9 cells post-curcumin treatment compared to control (ρ<0.05). Inhibition of pSTAT3 and pERK 1/2 was also noted in curcumin-treated groups in vivo. IHC analysis revealed human tumor specimens that expressed significantly more activated pERK ( ρ=0.006) and pS6 (ρ< 0.0001) than normal skin samples. This is the first study to compare topical curcumin to oral curcumin. Our data supports the use of curcumin as a chemo preventive for skin SCC where condemned skin is a significant problem. Prevention strategies offer the best hope of future health care costs in a disease that is increasing in incidence due to increased sun exposure.

  17. Number of Langerhans cells is decreased in premalignant keratosis and skin cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchuk, Z; Filip, A; Shevchuk, V; Kashuba, E

    2014-03-01

    It was shown earlier that a number of CD207 positive Langerhans cells was lower in basal cell carcinomas than in the normal epidermis. Moreover, benign skin lesions presented a higher number of Langerhans cells when they were compared to malignant tumors. To count Langerhans cells, assessing expression levels of CD1A and CD207 markers in actinic keratosis, basal and squamous cell carcinomas, compared with the normal skin. Comparison of Langerhans cells might give a valuable prognostic marker for skin cancer. Immunohistochemistry and methods of statistics were used. Expression of CD1A and CD207 markers was assessed in tumor samples of actinic keratosis, cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas, in comparison with the normal skin. In each cohort there were 40 patients (and 11 healthy individuals). We have shown that the number of Langerhans cells is considerably lower in cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas, compared with their number in the normal skin (p keratosis, basal and squamous cell carcinoma. This may suggest an alteration of Langerhans cells phenotype in skin neoplastic diseases, making the number of Langerhans cells a valuable prognostic factor for skin tumors.

  18. Evidence that arsenite acts as a cocarcinogen in skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossman, Toby G.; Uddin, Ahmed N.; Burns, Fredric J.

    2004-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (arsenite and arsenate) in drinking water has been associated with skin cancers in several countries such as Taiwan, Chile, Argentina, Bangladesh, and Mexico. This association has not been established in the United States. In addition, inorganic arsenic alone in drinking water does not cause skin cancers in animals. We recently showed that concentrations as low as 1.25 mg/l sodium arsenite were able to enhance the tumorigenicity of solar UV irradiation in mice. The tumors were almost all squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). These data suggest that arsenic in drinking water may need a carcinogenic partner, such as sunlight, in the induction of skin cancers. Arsenite may enhance tumorigenicity via effects on DNA repair and DNA damage-induced cell cycle effects, leading to genomic instability. Others have found that dimethlyarsinic acid (DMA), a metabolite of arsenite, can induce bladder cancers at high concentrations in drinking water. In those experiments, skin cancers were not produced. Taken together, these data suggest that arsenite (or possibly an earlier metabolite), and not DMA, is responsible for the skin cancers, but a second genotoxic agent may be a requirement. The differences between the US and the other arsenic-exposed populations with regard to skin cancers might be explained by the lower levels of arsenic in the US, less sun exposure, better nutrition, or perhaps genetic susceptibility differences

  19. Skin contamination dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, David M [Corvallis, OR; Farsoni, Abdollah T [Corvallis, OR; Cazalas, Edward [Corvallis, OR

    2011-06-21

    A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

  20. Ablative skin resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Nidhi; Smith, Greg; Heffelfinger, Ryan

    2014-02-01

    Ablative laser resurfacing has evolved as a safe and effective treatment for skin rejuvenation. Although traditional lasers were associated with significant thermal damage and lengthy recovery, advances in laser technology have improved safety profiles and reduced social downtime. CO2 lasers remain the gold standard of treatment, and fractional ablative devices capable of achieving remarkable clinical improvement with fewer side effects and shorter recovery times have made it a more practical option for patients. Although ablative resurfacing has become safer, careful patient selection and choice of suitable laser parameters are essential to minimize complications and optimize outcomes. This article describes the current modalities used in ablative laser skin resurfacing and examines their efficacy, indications, and possible side effects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Development of human skin equivalents to unravel the impaired skin barrier in atopic dermatitis skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eweje, M.O.

    2016-01-01

    The studies in this thesis describes the barrier defects in Atopic Dermatitis (AD) skin and various techniques to develop AD Human Skin Equivalents (HSEs) which can be used to better understand the role of several factors in the pathogenesis of AD skin. The results described show that Inflammation

  2. Vibroacoustic Skin Diagnostics Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana М. Yatsun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the mathematical modeling of biological diagnosis of complex heterogeneous structure (skin, using non-destructive control method. The mathematical model, describing interaction of the material with electrodynamic vibration generator and sensor system, controlling the propagation of small disturbances was developed. The influence of material model parameters on the spectrum in the course of the propagation of the surface disturbance

  3. Skin barrier composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osburn, F.G.

    1985-01-01

    A skin barrier composition comprises a mixture of a copolymer resin of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA), and a water-insoluble dry tack-providing elastomer such as polyisobutylene. The composition after mixing and molding, is subjected to ionizing irradiation to form cross-linked polymer networks of the EVA. The compositions have exceptional properties for use as barrier sheets, rings, or strips in ostomy, wound drainage, and incontinence devices. (author)

  4. Skin barrier composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osburn, F G

    1985-06-12

    A skin barrier composition comprises a mixture of a copolymer resin of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA), and a water-insoluble dry tack-providing elastomer such as polyisobutylene. The composition after mixing and molding, is subjected to ionizing irradiation to form cross-linked polymer networks of the EVA. The compositions have exceptional properties for use as barrier sheets, rings, or strips in ostomy, wound drainage, and incontinence devices.

  5. Effect of gene-targeted mutation in TNF receptor (p55) on contact hypersensitivity and ultraviolet B-induced immunosuppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Seiji; Wang, Binghe; Fujisawa, Hiroshi [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-10-15

    Tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine. TNF-{alpha} has been implicated in the pathogenesis of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions such as allergic contact hypersensitivity and has been suggested as a mediator of ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced immunosuppression. Conflicting reports, however, exist concerning the effects of TNF-{alpha} on contact hypersensitivity (CHS). To determine the role of TNF-{alpha} in the generation and regulation of CHS, gene-targeted mutant mice lacking TNF-receptor (p55) gene (TNF-R1(-) mice) were treated with dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) to induce CHS. TNF-R1(-) mice showed significant hyperresponsiveness in CHS (152.8 {+-} 20.9%, p < 0.025) compared with normal syngeneic mice (C57BL/6) assessed by ear swelling. To determine whether UVB can induce suppression in TNF-R1(-) mice, mice were irradiated on the shaved abdomen with 96 ml/cm{sup 2} UVB and 3 days later they were painted with 0.5% DNFB (sensitization dose), followed 5 days later with 0.2% DNFB to the left ear (challenge dose). Significant suppression of CHS was observed both locally (sensitization on irradiated site) and systemically (sensitization on unirradiated site) in UVB-irradiated TNF-R1(-) mice as well as in normal mice. To rule out possible signaling through p75 TNF-R, the mice were treated with anti-TNF-{alpha} Ab (V1q), which can neutralize any TNF effects through either receptor. V1q had no effect on these phenomena observed in TNF-R1(-) mice. These results suggest that TNF-{alpha} plays a regulatory role in CHS but is not required to induce UVB-mediated immunosuppression. 45 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Liver Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Liver Tumors What's in this article? Types of Tumors ... Cancerous) Tumors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping Print The liver is the body's largest solid organ. Lying next ...

  7. SKIN RADIATION IN PANORAMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Irawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental panoramic radiograph in Indonesia has been widely used. Modern diagnostic imaging equipment with minimum radiation is still very limited. One of the conditions in nuclear safety law, UU 10/1997, is an optimization of all radiation sources with DRL through skin dose measurements. In Indonesia, the national DRL has not been established yet, and there were no reports on the study of panoramic skin dose in Indonesia. The aim of this preliminary study was to obtain a panoramic skin dose radiation as reference to establish DRL in Indonesia. Panoramic radiographs of sixteen female and fifteen male patients, aged 4 – 48 years, were taken using the standard conventional method, with TLD chips attached in location groups. The chips were then read with the detector and integrator of BATAN, in high and low temperature condition at the same time. It was revealed that behind the right and left ear were the regions with the highest radiation dose received, followed by the back of the neck, left jaw, right jaw, and chin. The result of this study has shown the importance of DRL in Indonesia since the use of modern diagnostic imaging equipement that limits radiation dose to the minimum level is still very limited.

  8. Plasma skin regeneration technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogle, M A

    2006-09-01

    Plasma skin regeneration (PSR) technology uses energy delivered from plasma rather than light or radiofrequency. Plasma is the fourth state of matter in which electrons are stripped from atoms to form an ionized gas. The plasma is emitted in a millisecond pulse to deliver energy to target tissue upon contact without reliance on skin chromophores. The technology can be used at varying energies for different depths of effect, from superficial epidermal sloughing to deeper dermal heating. With the Portrait PSR device (Rhytec, Inc.) there are three treatment guidelines termed PSR1, PSR2, and PSR3. The PSR1 protocol uses a series of low-energy treatments (1.0,1.2 Joules) spaced 3 weeks apart. The PSR2 protocol uses one high-energy pass (3.0, 4.0 Joules) performed in a single treatment, and the PSR3 protocol uses two high-energy passes (3.0 4.0 Joules) performed in a single treatment. All protocols improve fine lines, textural irregularities, and dyspigmentation; however, skin tightening is probably more pronounced with the high-energy treatments.

  9. Endocrine tumors other than thyroid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Norio; Dohi, Kiyohiko

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the tendency for the occurrence of tumors in the endocrine glands, other than the thyroid gland, in A-bomb survivors using both autopsy and clinical data. ABCC-RERF sample data using 4136 autopsy cases (1961-1977) revealed parathyroid tumors in 13 A-bomb survivors, including 3 with the associated hyperparathyroidism, with the suggestion of dose-dependent increase in the occurrence of tumors. Based on clinical data from Hiroshima University, 7 (46.7%) of 15 parathyroid tumors cases were A-bomb survivors. Data (1974-1987) from the Tumor Registry Committee (TRC) in Hiroshima Prefecture revealed that a relative risk of parathyroid tumors was 5.6 times higher in the entire group of A-bomb survivors and 16.2 times higher in the group of heavily exposed A-bomb survivors, suggesting the dose-dependent increase in their occurrence. Adrenal tumors were detected in 47 of 123 cases from the TRC data, and 15 (31.5%) of these 47 were A-bomb survivors. Particularly, 11 cases of adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome included 6 A-bomb survivors (54.5%). The incidence of multiple endocrine gonadial tumors (MEGT) tended to be higher with increasing exposure doses; and the 1-9 rad group, the 10-99 rad group, and the 100 or more rad group had a risk of developing MEGT of 4.1, 5.7, and 7.1, respectively, relative to both the not-in the city group and the 0 rad group. These findings suggested that there is a correlation between A-bomb radiation and the occurrence of parathyroid tumors (including hyperparathyroidism), adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome and MEGT (especially, the combined thyroid and ovarian tumors and the combined thyroid and parathyroid tumors). (N.K.)

  10. Evaluation of the contribution of chronic skin irritation and selected compositional parameters to the tumorigenicity of petroleum middle distillates in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J J; Federici, T M; McKee, R H

    1993-07-28

    Two-year skin carcinogenicity studies were conducted in C3H mice to assess the effects of irritation and selected compositional parameters on the carcinogenic potential of four petroleum liquids. Three samples (lightly refined paraffinic oil, LRPO; lightly hydrodesulfurized specialty oil, LHSO; jet fuel, JF) can be generically classified as middle distillates, i.e. distillation occurs between 350 and 700 degrees F (175-370 degrees C). The fourth sample was a Steam Cracked Gas Oil (SCGO) that distilled within the same range. In studies that assess the effects of irritation on tumorigenicity, LRPO was tested undiluted or was diluted to 50% and 25% in either mineral oil (which eliminated irritation of the skin) or toluene (which did not). Undiluted LRPO elicited tumors in 8% of the mice. Both dilution procedures eliminated tumorigenic potential. Thus, it was possible to maintain a visible level of skin irritation equivalent to that elicited by undiluted LRPO without inducing tumors. SCGO elicited a chronic irritant state grossly equivalent to LRPO but was not tumorigenic. Jet Fuel A (JF) was tested undiluted using both a standard skin painting protocol and an intermittent dosing schedule in which treatment was suspended periodically to allow skin irritation to resolve. The standard treatment protocol of JF resulted in both marked skin irritation and tumors in 44% of the mice. However, using the intermittent schedule, the tumor yield was reduced to 2%. Collectively these data demonstrate that tumor formation is not a necessary sequelae to chronic skin irritation. Conversely, prevention of a marked chronic irritant state was accompanied by decreased tumor yield. These data suggest that the chronic irritant state may be a necessary but not sufficient condition for tumor formation. In studies to assess the effects of compositional parameters, a lightly hydrodesulfurized specialty oil (LHSO) similar to LRPO but refined to have negligible levels of sulfur compounds (3 ppm

  11. Photothermal Radiometry for Skin Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Xiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Photothermal radiometry is an infrared remote sensing technique that has been used for skin and skin appendages research, in the areas of skin hydration, hydration gradient, skin hydration depth profiling, skin thickness measurements, skin pigmentation measurements, effect of topically applied substances, transdermal drug delivery, moisture content of bio-materials, membrane permeation, and nail and hair measurements. Compared with other technologies, photothermal radiometry has the advantages of non-contact, non-destructive, quick to make a measurement (a few seconds, and being spectroscopic in nature. It is also colour blind, and can work on any arbitrary sample surfaces. It has a unique depth profiling capability on a sample surface (typically the top 20 µm, which makes it particularly suitable for skin measurements. In this paper, we present a review of the photothermal radiometry work carried out in our research group. We will first introduce the theoretical background, then illustrate its applications with experimental results.

  12. Effects of radiation on the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopewell, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of X-irradiation on pig skin are described, comparing and contrasting the effects seen in human and rodent skin. It is concluded that, anatomically, pig skin is the best animal model for human skin. The applications of the 'pig skin model' to investigations of the problems of radiation therapy and radiological protection of human skin are discussed. (U.K.)

  13. Estudio sobre los tumores malignos maxilofaciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Quintana Díaz

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis durante el trienio 1994-1996 y se estudiaron los tumores malignos de la región maxilofacial tratados en el Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial de Artemisa. El sexo masculino fue más afectado que el femenino, los tumores de la piel fueron los más frecuentes, afectaron en elevado porcentaje a los pacientes de tez blanca, y el carcinoma basocelular fue el tipo histológico que más se observó. En cuanto a la localización más frecuente en la cavidad bucal fue el labio inferior, y el tipo histológico que más predominó fue el carcinoma epidermoide. El 3 % de todos los tumores encontrados correspondieron con metástasis, que debutaron por la zona bucofacial.An analytical study of the maxillofacial region malignant tumors treated in the Maxillofacial Surgery Service of Artemisa municipality was conducted from 1994-1996. Males were the most affected; skin tumors were the most frequent, a higher percentage of white people were affected and the most observed histological type was the basal cell carcinoma. The most common location in the oral cavity was the lower lip and the most predominant histological type was the epidermoid carcinoma. 3 % of all tumors found resulted in metastasis which started in the buccofacial area.

  14. The Pharmaceutical Device Prisma® Skin Promotes in Vitro Angiogenesis through Endothelial to Mesenchymal Transition during Skin Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvedere, Raffaella; Bizzarro, Valentina; Parente, Luca; Petrella, Francesco; Petrella, Antonello

    2017-07-25

    Glycosaminoglycans are polysaccharides of the extracellular matrix supporting skin wound closure. Mesoglycan is a mixture of glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin-, dermatan-, heparan-sulfate and heparin and is the main component of Prisma ® Skin, a pharmaceutical device developed by Mediolanum Farmaceutici S.p.a. Here, we show the in vitro effects of this device in the new vessels formation by endothelial cells, since angiogenesis represents a key moment in wound healing. We found a strong increase of migration and invasion rates of these cells treated with mesoglycan and Prisma ® Skin which mediate the activation of the pathway triggered by CD44 receptor. Furthermore, endothelial cells form longer capillary-like structures with a great number of branches, in the presence of the same treatments. Thus, the device, thanks to the mesoglycan, leads the cells to the Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition, suggesting the switch to a fibroblast-like phenotype, as shown by immunofluorescence assays. Finally, we found that mesoglycan and Prisma ® Skin inhibit inflammatory reactions such as nitric oxide secretion and NF-κB nuclear translocation in endothelial cells and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α production by macrophages. In conclusion, based on our data, we suggest that Prisma ® Skin may be able to accelerate angiogenesis in skin wound healing, and regulate inflammation avoiding chronic, thus pathological, responses.

  15. The Pharmaceutical Device Prisma® Skin Promotes in Vitro Angiogenesis through Endothelial to Mesenchymal Transition during Skin Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Belvedere

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Glycosaminoglycans are polysaccharides of the extracellular matrix supporting skin wound closure. Mesoglycan is a mixture of glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin-, dermatan-, heparan-sulfate and heparin and is the main component of Prisma® Skin, a pharmaceutical device developed by Mediolanum Farmaceutici S.p.a. Here, we show the in vitro effects of this device in the new vessels formation by endothelial cells, since angiogenesis represents a key moment in wound healing. We found a strong increase of migration and invasion rates of these cells treated with mesoglycan and Prisma® Skin which mediate the activation of the pathway triggered by CD44 receptor. Furthermore, endothelial cells form longer capillary-like structures with a great number of branches, in the presence of the same treatments. Thus, the device, thanks to the mesoglycan, leads the cells to the Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition, suggesting the switch to a fibroblast-like phenotype, as shown by immunofluorescence assays. Finally, we found that mesoglycan and Prisma® Skin inhibit inflammatory reactions such as nitric oxide secretion and NF-κB nuclear translocation in endothelial cells and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α production by macrophages. In conclusion, based on our data, we suggest that Prisma® Skin may be able to accelerate angiogenesis in skin wound healing, and regulate inflammation avoiding chronic, thus pathological, responses.

  16. Risk reduction for nonmelanoma skin cancer with childhood sunscreen use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, R.S.; Weinstein, M.C.; Baker, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the principle cause of basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin, which are the most frequent tumors occurring in white residents of the United States. Using a mathematical model based on epidemiologic data, we quantified the potential benefits of using a sunscreen with a sun protective factor of 15 and estimate that regular use of such a sunscreen during the first 18 years of life would reduce the lifetime incidence of these tumors by 78%. Additional benefits of sunscreen use during childhood include reduced risk of sunburn, retarding the pace of skin aging, and possible reduction in melanoma risk. We recommend that pediatricians encourage sunscreen use and sun avoidance as a regular part of pediatric preventive health care

  17. Proposed derivation of skin contamination and skin decontamination limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieferdecker, H.; Koelzer, W.; Henrichs, K.

    1986-01-01

    From the primary dose limits for the skin, secondary dose limits were derived for skin contamination which can be used in practical radiation protection work. Analogous to the secondary dose limit for the maximum permissible body burden in the case of incorporation, dose limits for the 'maximum permissible skin burden' were calculated, with the help of dose factors, for application in the case of skin contamination. They can be derived from the skin dose limit values. For conditions in which the skin is exposed to temporary contamination, a limit of skin contamination was derived for immediately removable contamination and for one day of exposure. For non-removable contamination a dose limit of annual skin contamination was defined, taking into account the renewal of the skin. An investigation level for skin contamination was assumed, as a threshold, above which certain measures must be taken; these to include appropriate washing not more than three times, with the subsequent procedure determined by the level of residual contamination. The dose limits are indicated for selected radionuclides. (author)

  18. Skin carcinomas: radiobiological principles, radiotherapeutic techniques and clinical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Ullrich, Rupert K. A.; Johnson, Christopher R.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The course will be divided into three major topics: (1) Review of radiobiological principles as they apply to the radiotherapeutic management of skin carcinomas; (2) review of radiotherapeutic techniques including beam qualities, beam collimation, tissue dose profiles, and the relative indications of external beam irradiation vs. brachytherapy; (3) comprehensive review of the tumor biology of skin malignancies, including malignant melanoma, and of the relative indications for radiotherapeutic and/or surgical management. (1) Review of critical data which have lead to currently applied principles of time-dose-volume concepts in the radiotherapeutic management of skin carcinomas. Emphasis will be placed on the relative importance of fraction size and overall treatment time on tumor control probability and acute and late normal tissue toxicity. (2) Considering that radiotherapy in the management of skin carcinomas is often used to minimize patient disfiguration and to preserve critical body functions (e.g. eye lids) the technical aspects of radiotherapy delivery are most critical. Careful evaluation of the extent of the lesions including evaluation of their depth of invasion will determine the quality of the radiation beams, orthovoltage and low energy electrons being the most useful. Beam harding for orthovoltage beams and secondary and tertiary (skin) collimation of appropriate electron beams are critical. For more extensive and deeply invasive lesions contour-shaping through customized bolus material is essential. Equally important is the familiarity with custom shielding of critical structures, such as eyes, ears, oral cavity and central nervous system structures. Brachytherapy applications in the treatment of skin carcinomas is limited but should be considered when implants with high dose uniformity can be constructed. (3) The discussion of clinical management will start with a discussion of tumor biological properties of the diverse malignant

  19. CT of abdominal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Satoshi; Yamada, Kenji; Ito, Masatoshi; Ito, Hisao; Yamaura, Harutsugu

    1981-01-01

    CT findings in 33 patients who had an abdominal tumor were evaluated. CT revealed a tumor in 31 cases. The organ from which the tumor originated was correctly diagnosed in 18 patients. Whether the tumor was solid or cystic was correctly predicted in 28 patients. The diagnosis malignant or benign nature of tumor was correct, incorrect and impossible, in 23, 3, and five patiens, respectively. (Kondo, M.)

  20. Specifically activated memory T cell subsets from cancer patients recognize and reject xenotransplanted autologous tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckhove, Philipp; Feuerer, Markus; Dolenc, Mathias; Schuetz, Florian; Choi, Carmen; Sommerfeldt, Nora; Schwendemann, Jochen; Ehlert, Katrin; Altevogt, Peter; Bastert, Gunther; Schirrmacher, Volker; Umansky, Viktor

    2004-01-01

    Bone marrow of breast cancer patients was found to contain CD8+ T cells specific for peptides derived from breast cancer–associated proteins MUC1 and Her-2/neu. Most of these cells had a central or effector memory phenotype (CD45RA–CD62L+ or CD45RA–CD62L–, respectively). To test their in vivo function, we separated bone marrow–derived CD45RA+ naive or CD45RA–CD45RO+ memory T cells, stimulated them with autologous dendritic cells pulsed with tumor lysate, and transferred them into NOD/SCID mice bearing autologous breast tumors and normal skin transplants. CD45RA– memory but not CD45RA+ naive T cells infiltrated autologous tumor but not skin tissues after the transfer. These tumor-infiltrating cells had a central or effector memory phenotype and produced perforin. Many of them expressed the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 and were found around P-selectin+ tumor endothelium. Tumor infiltration included cluster formation in tumor tissue by memory T cells with cotransferred dendritic cells. It was associated with the induction of tumor cell apoptosis and significant tumor reduction. We thus demonstrate selective homing of memory T cells to human tumors and suggest that tumor rejection is based on the recognition of tumor-associated antigens on tumor cells and dendritic cells by autologous specifically activated central and effector memory T cells. PMID:15232613

  1. Fractionated laser resurfacing corrects the inappropriate UVB response in geriatric skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandau, Dan F; Lewis, Davina A; Somani, Ally-Khan; Travers, Jeffrey B

    2012-06-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is a disease primarily afflicting geriatric patients as evidenced by the fact that 80% of all non-melanoma skin cancers are diagnosed in patients over the age of 60 years. As such, geriatric skin responds to cancer-inducing UVB irradiation in a manner that allows the establishment of tumor cells. Currently, the only effective treatment for non-melanoma skin cancer is the removal of the tumors after they appear, indicating the need for a more cost-effective prophylactic therapy. Geriatric volunteers were treated with fractionated laser resurfacing therapy on either sun-protected (upper buttocks) or chronically sun-exposed (dorsal forearm) skin. Fractionated laser resurfacing therapy was shown to decrease the occurrence of senescent fibroblasts in geriatric dermis, increase the dermal expression of IGF-1, and correct the inappropriate UVB response observed in untreated geriatric skin. These responses to fractionated laser resurfacing were equal to the effects seen previously using the more aggressive wounding following dermabrasion. Furthermore, fractionated laser resurfacing was equally effective in both sun-protected and sun-exposed skin. The ability of fractionated laser resurfacing treatment to protect against the occurrence of UVB-damaged proliferating keratinocytes indicates the potential of fractionated laser resurfacing to reduce or prevent aging-associated non-melanoma skin cancer.

  2. Effects of UV irradiation on a living skin equivalent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, D; Gay, R J [Organogenesis Incorporated, Camton, MA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The Living Skin Equivalent is an organotypic coculture composed of human dermal fibroblasts interspersed in a collagen-containing matrix and overlaid with human keratinocytes forming a stratified epidermis. The LSE has a dry, air-exposed epidermal surface suitable for the application of oils, creams and emulsions. The protective effects of an 8% homosylate standard and of five UV-A sunscreens, topically applied to the LSE, were determined and compared with their reported protection factors in human skin. Morphological changes and the release of proinflammatory mediators (interleukin-1-''alpha, tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] and prostaglandin E2) implicated in UV-induced erythema were also demonstrated in the LSE exposed to UV-A or UV-B. The data suggest that the LSE can be used for studying the effects of UV radiation on skin and may have utility for assessing the efficacy of certain sunscreens against UV-B and UV-A. (Author).

  3. Effects of UV irradiation on a living skin equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.; Gay, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Living Skin Equivalent is an organotypic coculture composed of human dermal fibroblasts interspersed in a collagen-containing matrix and overlaid with human keratinocytes forming a stratified epidermis. The LSE has a dry, air-exposed epidermal surface suitable for the application of oils, creams and emulsions. The protective effects of an 8% homosylate standard and of five UV-A sunscreens, topically applied to the LSE, were determined and compared with their reported protection factors in human skin. Morphological changes and the release of proinflammatory mediators (interleukin-1-''alpha, tumor necrosis factor-α and prostaglandin E2) implicated in UV-induced erythema were also demonstrated in the LSE exposed to UV-A or UV-B. The data suggest that the LSE can be used for studying the effects of UV radiation on skin and may have utility for assessing the efficacy of certain sunscreens against UV-B and UV-A. (Author)

  4. Skin carcinomas: Radiobiological principles, radiotherapeutic techniques and clinical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Ullrich, Rupert K.; Johnson, Christopher R.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The course will be divided into three major topics: (1) Review of radiobiological principles as they apply to the radiotherapeutic management of skin carcinomas; (2) review of radiotherapeutic techniques including beam qualities, beam collimation, tissue dose profiles, and the relative indications of external beam irradiation vs. brachytherapy; (3) comprehensive review of the tumor biology of skin malignancies, including malignant melanoma, and of the relative indications for radiotherapeutic and/or surgical management. (1) Review of critical data which have led to currently applied principles of time-dose-volume concepts in the radiotherapeutic management of skin carcinomas. Emphasis will be placed on the relative importance of fraction size and overall treatment time on tumor control probability and acute and late normal tissue toxicity. (2) Considering that radiotherapy in the management of skin carcinomas is often used to minimize patient disfiguration and to preserve critical body functions (e.g. eye lids) the technical aspects of radiotherapy delivery are most critical. Careful evaluation of the extent of the lesions including evaluation of their depth of invasion will determine the quality of the radiation beams, orthovoltage and low energy electrons being the most useful. Beam harding for orthovoltage beams and secondary and tertiary (skin) collimation of appropriate electron beams are critical. For more extensive and deeply invasive lesions contour-shaping through customized bolus material is essential. Equally important is the familiarity with custom shielding of critical structures, such as eyes, ears, oral cavity and central nervous system structures. Brachytherapy applications in the treatment of skin carcinomas is limited but should be considered when implants with high dose uniformity can be constructed. (3) The discussion of clinical management will start with a discussion of properties and routes of spread of the diverse

  5. Development of radiolabelled compound using reactor produced RI - Development of Ho-166 skin patch for treatment of skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Bae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea); Ryu, Jei Man [Dong Wha Pharm. Ind. Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    A radioactive patch which can be treat the skin cancer by direct irradiation was prepared by blending Ho(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, 5H{sub 2}O and polyurethane(PU) and then irradiating with neutron in the nuclear reactor. The blend formation of the film was fonfirmed by FT-IR. Degree of the distribution of holmium and solvent in remaining in the film was determined. Physical properties of the film by thermal analysis, mechanical measurement and surface analysis were characterized, respectively. To evaluate efficacy of the patch, it was applied to the tumor surface of the hairlessmous. Until 6 weeks of the patch treatment 7 mice with skin tumor were cured totally (7/13). And the other nuclear except for holmium was in patch was not detected. Furthermore, the patch was stable at room temperature, 40 deg C and 60 deg C. (author). 17 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Survey on skin aging status and related influential factors in Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-na WANG; Hong FANG; Wei-fang ZHU

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cutaneous aging patterns of residents in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, and their contributing 2004. Results: Facial wrinkling first occurred at 21 years of age and skin elasticity began to lose at 22 years of age. In middle-aged and old people, facial wrinkling and looseness escalated with the increase of ultraviolet (UV)-exposure time, indicating the ac-celerating effect of a higher accumulative dose of UV radiation on skin aging. Only Fitzpatrick types Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ were found in the skin phototypes of residents in Hangzhou area, and Fitzpatrick type Ⅱ seemed to be much more subject to severe wrinkling, elasticity destruction and skin tumors than types Ⅲ and Ⅳ. The oily skin was more protected against wrinkling and facial looseness than dry skin. However, as to concomitant cutaneous diseases, no difference was found among different skin types. Conclusion: Age, solar-exposure time, Fitzpatrick type and skin type are the associated forces in promoting skin aging, and emotional factor seems to be another independent risk factor. The age of 49 years and 2 h/d of solar-exposure time seem to be the turning points responsible for dramatic changes of cutaneous appearance in the process of skin aging in Southeast China.

  7. Skin Cancer: ClinicoPathological Study of 204 Patients in Southern Governorates of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlZou, Amer Bin; Thabit, Mazen Abood Bin; AlSakkaf, Khalid Abdulla; Basaleem, Huda Omer

    2016-01-01

    Skin cancer is a group of heterogeneous malignancies, in general classified into nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and melanoma skin cancer (MSC). Incidences are high in many parts in the world with considerable geographical and racial variation. In the Yemen, there has been scarce information about skin cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic characteristics and histological trend of skin cancer in Southern Governorates of Yemen. This retrospective study covered 204 cases of skin cancer at the Modern Histopathology Laboratory and Aden Cancer Registry and Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Aden, for the period 20062013. Data were classified regarding different demographic and tumor related variables and analyzed using CanReg4 for cancer registry and SPSS (version 21). The commonest encountered skin cancer was NMSC (93.1%). Generally, skin cancer appears slightly more frequently in females than males with a 1:1.06 male: female ratio, with a mean age of 62.9 years. Slightly higher than onethird (36.3%) were from Aden governorate. The head and neck proved to be the most common site in both males and females (58%). Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common histological type of skin cancer (50.5%). Skin cancer is a common cancer in patients living in southern governorates of Yemen. The pattern appears nearly similar to the international figures with a low incidence of MSC.

  8. Skin moisturization mechanisms: new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonté, F

    2011-05-01

    The main function of the skin is to protect the body against exogenous substances and excessive water loss. The skin barrier is located in the outermost layer of the skin, called the stratum corneum, which is composed of corneocytes, originating from the keratinocytes differentiation process, embedded in organized complex lipid domains. Moisturizing of the skin is recognized as the first anti-aging skin care. Skin moisturization is essential for its appearance, protection, complexion, softness and the reinforcement of its barrier properties against deleterious and exogenous environmental factors. The intrinsic water binding capacity of skin is not only due to the complex natural moisturizing factor present in corneocytes, but also to hyaluronic acid and a regulated water transport within the skin. Recent data shows that the water movements between the cells at the different levels of the epidermis are due to dedicated water and glycerol transport proteins named aquaporins. Their role in the skin moisturization is completed by corneodesmosomes and tight junctions. Water and pH are now shown to be of prime importance in the regulation of the epidermal enzymes linked to corneocytes desquamation and lipid synthesis. Furthermore, the level of moisturization of the skin is important in its protection against repeated exposure to various irritant agents or phenomena such as very frequent washing with strong tensioactive materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Oncogenic Radiation Abscopal Effects In Vivo: Interrogating Mouse Skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, Mariateresa, E-mail: mariateresa.mancuso@enea.it [Laboratory of Radiation Biology and Biomedicine, Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostenibile (ENEA), Casaccia Research Centre, Rome (Italy); Leonardi, Simona [Laboratory of Radiation Biology and Biomedicine, Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostenibile (ENEA), Casaccia Research Centre, Rome (Italy); Giardullo, Paola; Pasquali, Emanuela [Department of Radiation Physics, Guglielmo Marconi University, Rome (Italy); Tanori, Mirella [Laboratory of Radiation Biology and Biomedicine, Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostenibile (ENEA), Casaccia Research Centre, Rome (Italy); De Stefano, Ilaria [Department of Radiation Physics, Guglielmo Marconi University, Rome (Italy); Casciati, Arianna [Laboratory of Radiation Biology and Biomedicine, Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostenibile (ENEA), Casaccia Research Centre, Rome (Italy); Naus, Christian C. [Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, The Life Sciences Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Saran, Anna [Laboratory of Radiation Biology and Biomedicine, Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostenibile (ENEA), Casaccia Research Centre, Rome (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate the tissue dependence in transmission of abscopal radiation signals and their oncogenic consequences in a radiosensitive mouse model and to explore the involvement of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in mediating radiation tumorigenesis in off-target mouse skin. Methods and Materials: Patched1 heterozygous (Ptch1{sup +/−}) mice were irradiated at postnatal day 2 (P2) with 10 Gy of x-rays. Individual lead cylinders were used to protect the anterior two-thirds of the body, whereas the hindmost part was directly exposed to radiation. To test the role of GJICs and their major constituent connexin43 (Cx43), crosses between Ptch1{sup +/−} and Cx43{sup +/−} mice were similarly irradiated. These mouse groups were monitored for their lifetime, and skin basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) were counted and recorded. Early responses to DNA damage - Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) and apoptosis - were also evaluated in shielded and directly irradiated skin areas. Results: We report abscopal tumor induction in the shielded skin of Ptch1{sup +/−} mice after partial-body irradiation. Endpoints were induction of early nodular BCC-like tumors and macroscopic infiltrative BCCs. Abscopal tumorigenesis was significantly modulated by Cx43 status, namely, Cx43 reduction was associated with decreased levels of DNA damage and oncogenesis in out-of-field skin, suggesting a key role of GJIC in transmission of oncogenic radiation signals to unhit skin. Conclusions: Our results further characterize the nature of abscopal responses and the implications they have on pathologic processes in different tissues, including their possible underlying mechanistic bases.

  10. Oncogenic Radiation Abscopal Effects In Vivo: Interrogating Mouse Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancuso, Mariateresa; Leonardi, Simona; Giardullo, Paola; Pasquali, Emanuela; Tanori, Mirella; De Stefano, Ilaria; Casciati, Arianna; Naus, Christian C.; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Saran, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the tissue dependence in transmission of abscopal radiation signals and their oncogenic consequences in a radiosensitive mouse model and to explore the involvement of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in mediating radiation tumorigenesis in off-target mouse skin. Methods and Materials: Patched1 heterozygous (Ptch1 +/− ) mice were irradiated at postnatal day 2 (P2) with 10 Gy of x-rays. Individual lead cylinders were used to protect the anterior two-thirds of the body, whereas the hindmost part was directly exposed to radiation. To test the role of GJICs and their major constituent connexin43 (Cx43), crosses between Ptch1 +/− and Cx43 +/− mice were similarly irradiated. These mouse groups were monitored for their lifetime, and skin basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) were counted and recorded. Early responses to DNA damage - Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) and apoptosis - were also evaluated in shielded and directly irradiated skin areas. Results: We report abscopal tumor induction in the shielded skin of Ptch1 +/− mice after partial-body irradiation. Endpoints were induction of early nodular BCC-like tumors and macroscopic infiltrative BCCs. Abscopal tumorigenesis was significantly modulated by Cx43 status, namely, Cx43 reduction was associated with decreased levels of DNA damage and oncogenesis in out-of-field skin, suggesting a key role of GJIC in transmission of oncogenic radiation signals to unhit skin. Conclusions: Our results further characterize the nature of abscopal responses and the implications they have on pathologic processes in different tissues, including their possible underlying mechanistic bases

  11. Clinico-roentgenological semiotics of malignant contact bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akperbekov, A.A.; Polatkhanova, K.B.; Murtuzaeva, Z.D.

    1986-01-01

    Bone changes were analyzed in 42 patients (aged 18 to 65) with malignant contact bone tumors. Probable causes of their origin were discussed. Of 42 patients corticopleural cancer (Pancoast's tumor) was noted in 24, skin cancer developing against a background of a chronic inflammatory process or trauma, was noted in 13, sarcomatous soft tissue tumors in 5. A method of roentgenography using routine and spot radiographs was used for X-ray examination of the patients. In some cases the examination was supplemented with hard and soft X-ray films, tomography and electroroentgenography

  12. Tumor macroenvironment and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zoughbi, Wael; Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald

    2014-04-01

    In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organs. Amino acids, and distinct lipid and lipoprotein species can be essential for further tumor growth. The role of glucose in tumor metabolism has been studied extensively. Cancer-associated cachexia is the most important tumor-associated systemic syndrome and not only affects the quality of life of patients with various malignancies but is estimated to be the cause of death in 15%-20% of all cancer patients. On the other hand, systemic metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes are known to influence tumor development. Furthermore, the clinical implications of the tumor macroenvironment are explored in the context of the patient's outcome with special consideration for pediatric tumors. Finally, ways to target the tumor macroenvironment that will provide new approaches for therapeutic concepts are described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-tumor activity of tetrodotoxin extracted from the Masked Puffer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-tumor activity of tetrodotoxins extracted from the skin of the Masked Puffer fish (Arothron diadematus) from the Red Sea was evaluated using the Ehrlich ascite carcinoma tumor model in mice. Activity was assessed using a variety of cellular and liver biochemical parameters. Experimental mice were divided into 4 equal ...

  14. A case of likely radiation-induced synchronous esophageal and skin carcinoma following post-operative radiation for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanogawa, Naoya; Shimada, Hideaki; Kainuma, Osamu; Cho, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Itami, Makiko; Nagata, Matsuo

    2009-01-01

    A 71-year-old woman was admitted in January 2008 with on upper thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and a right chest wall skin tumor. When she was 32 years old, she had a radical mastectomy for right breast cancer and received postoperative radiation. Due to the presence of lung adhesions, trans-thoracic esophagectomy could not be done; thus, a blunt dissection was performed. She was discharged on the 19 th postoperative day. On pathology, a pT2N0M0 (pStage II) esophageal tumor was diagnosed. A resection of her skin tumor underwent 79 days after the esophageal surgery; on pathology, the skin tumor was diagnosed as a basal cell carcinoma. Since the esophageal tumor and the skin tumor occurred in the same area that had received radiation therapy, these tumors were diagnosed as being radiation-induced secondary tumors. In the English language medical literature, several reports of radiation-induced esophageal cancer occurring as a second cancer after radiotherapy for breast cancer have been published. Radiation-induced esophageal cancer rates may increase in Japan given the number of women who previously received radiotherapy for breast cancer. (author)

  15. Ionizing radiation in tumor promotion and progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, R.E.J.

    1990-08-01

    Chronic exposure to beta radiation has been tested as a tumor promoting or progressing agent. The dorsal skins of groups of 25 female SENCAR mice were chemically initiated with a single exposure to DMBA, and chronic exposure to strontium-90/yttrium-90 beta radiation was tested as a stage 1, stage 2 or complete skin tumor promoter. Exposure of initiated mice to 0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks produced no papillomas, indicating no action as a complete promoter. Another similar group of animals was chemically promoted through stage 1 (with TPA) followed by 0.5 gray of beta radiation twice a week for 13 weeks. Again no papillomas developed indicating no action of chronic radiation as a stage 2 tumor promoter. The same radiation exposure protocol in another DMBA initiated group receiving both stage 1 and 2 chemical promotion resulted in a decrease in papilloma frequency, compared to the control group receiving no beta irradiation, indicating a tumor preventing effect of radiation at stage 2 promotion, probably by killing initiated cells. Chronic beta radiation was tested three different ways as a stage 1 tumor promoter. When compared to the appropriate control, beta radiation given after initiation as a stage 1 promoter (0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks), after initiation and along with a known stage 1 chemical promoter (1.0 gray twice a week for 2 weeks), or prior to initiation as a stage 1 promoter (0.5 gray twice a week for 4 weeks), each time showed a weak (∼ 15% stimulation) but statistically significant (p<0.01) ability to act as a stage 1 promoter. When tested as a tumor progressing agent delivered to pre-existing papillomas, beta radiation (0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks) increased carcinoma frequency from 0.52 to 0.68 carcinoma/animal, but this increase was not statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. We conclude that in the addition to the known initiating, progressing and complete carcinogenic action of acute exposures to ionizing

  16. Skin tightening technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ryan M; Green, Jeremy B

    2014-02-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) and intense focused ultrasound (IFUS) are increasingly used to address skin laxity of the face and neck. Both nonablative RF and ultrasound create a heat-induced tissue response that leads to collagen remodeling and other ultrastructural changes. Although these treatments are not meant to replace surgical procedures, patient satisfaction in the majority of studies has been consistently high. This article discusses the various RF and IFUS technologies currently in use and reviews pertinent clinical studies evaluating their efficacy and safety. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Oncogenic action of beta, proton, alpha and electron radiation on the rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Rat skin is being utilized as an empirical model for testing dose and time related aspects of the oncogenic action of ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Molecular lesions in the skin DNA, including, strand breaks and thymine dimers, are being measured and compared to tumor induction. The induction and repair kinetics of molcular lesions are being compared to split dose repair. Modifiers and radiosensitizers are being utilized to test specific aspects of a chromosome breakage theory of radiation oncogenesis

  18. Contamination and decontamination of skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, J.; Knajfl, J.

    1983-01-01

    In external contamination the beta radiation dose is the prevalent component of the total dose absorbed by the skin. There exist four types of radionUclide bonds to the skin: mechanical retention of solid particles or solution on the surface and in the pores, physical adsorption of nondissociated molecules or colloids, the ion exchange effect, and chemisorption. Radionuclides then penetrate the skin by transfollicular transfer. The total amount of radioactive substances absorbed into the skin depends on the condition of the skin. Skin is decontaminated by washing with lukewarm water and soap or with special decontamination solutions. The most widely used components of decontamination solutions are detergents, chelaton, sodium hexametaphosphate, oxalic acid, citric acid. The main principles of the decontamination of persons are given. (M.D.)

  19. Bronchial carcinoid tumors: A rare malignant tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-03

    Feb 3, 2015 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Sep-Oct 2015 • Vol 18 • Issue 5. Abstract. Bronchial carcinoid tumors (BCTs) are an uncommon group of lung tumors. They commonly affect the young adults and the middle aged, the same age group affected by other more common chronic lung conditions such as ...

  20. Skin contamination - prevention and decontaminating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, K.

    2001-01-01

    A detailed examination is made of the structure of human skin. Measures were drawn up to prevent skin contamination in nuclear installations as well as contaminated skin was decontaminated from the personnel. By systematically applying these measures a significant level of success was achieved in preventing contamination in nuclear installations. Cases where more far-reaching chemical methods had to be used were kept to a minimum. (R.P.)

  1. Protecting the skin during thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Bezerra Lira

    Full Text Available In this note we describe the standard technical maneuver used in our department to protect the skin during thyroidectomy in order to get the best aesthetic result. We use surgical gloves to protect the skin during these operations to reduce the negative impact of thermal trauma and mechanical retractors and energy delivery devices at the edges of the skin incised. This practice is effective, inexpensive, rapid, reproducible and showed no complication in our experience of over 2,500 thyroidectomies.

  2. Neutron Skins and Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Piekarewicz, J.

    2013-01-01

    The neutron-skin thickness of heavy nuclei provides a fundamental link to the equation of state of neutron-rich matter, and hence to the properties of neutron stars. The Lead Radius Experiment ("PREX") at Jefferson Laboratory has recently provided the first model-independence evidence on the existence of a neutron-rich skin in 208Pb. In this contribution we examine how the increased accuracy in the determination of neutron skins expected from the commissioning of intense polarized electron be...

  3. Skin hydration, microrelief and greasiness of normal skin in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsankov, N; Mateev, D; Darlenski, R

    2018-03-01

    The skin is the primary defence of the human body against external factors from physical, chemical, mechanical and biologic origin. Climatic factors together with low temperature and sun radiation affect the skin. The effect of climatic conditions in Antarctica on healthy skin has not been previously addressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the skin hydration, greasiness and microrelief due to the extreme climatic environmental factors during the stay of the members of the Bulgarian Antarctic expedition. Fifty-nine Caucasian healthy subjects, 42 men and 17 women with mean age 50.9 years (27-68), were enrolled. The study was performed in five consecutive years from 2011 to 2016 at the Bulgarian Antarctic base camp at Livingston Island. The study protocol consisted of two parts: study A: duration of 15 days with measurement of skin physiology parameters on a daily basis, and study B: five measurements at baseline and at days 14, 30, 45 and 50 upon arrival in Antarctica. We measured three biophysical parameters related to skin physiology at cheek skin by an impedance measuring device. No statistically significant difference between parameters at the different measurement points. There is a variation in skin hydration reaching its lower point at day 11 and then returning to values similar to baseline. Initially, an increase in skin greasiness was witnessed with a sharp depression at day 11 and final values at day 15 resembling the ones at baseline. An increase, although not statistically significant, in skin roughness was observed in the first 15 days of the study. Study B showed no statistically significant variances between values of the three parameters. Our studies show the pioneer results of the effect of Antarctic climate on human skin physiology. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Fractional laser skin resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiades-Armenakas, Macrene R; Dover, Jeffrey S; Arndt, Kenneth A

    2012-11-01

    Laser skin resurfacing (LSR) has evolved over the past 2 decades from traditional ablative to fractional nonablative and fractional ablative resurfacing. Traditional ablative LSR was highly effective in reducing rhytides, photoaging, and acne scarring but was associated with significant side effects and complications. In contrast, nonablative LSR was very safe but failed to deliver consistent clinical improvement. Fractional LSR has achieved the middle ground; it combined the efficacy of traditional LSR with the safety of nonablative modalities. The first fractional laser was a nonablative erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser that produced microscopic columns of thermal injury in the epidermis and upper dermis. Heralding an entirely new concept of laser energy delivery, it delivered the laser beam in microarrays. It resulted in microscopic columns of treated tissue and intervening areas of untreated skin, which yielded rapid reepithelialization. Fractional delivery was quickly applied to ablative wavelengths such as carbon dioxide, Er:YAG, and yttrium scandium gallium garnet (2,790 nm), providing more significant clinical outcomes. Adjustable laser parameters, including power, pitch, dwell time, and spot density, allowed for precise determination of percent surface area, affected penetration depth, and clinical recovery time and efficacy. Fractional LSR has been a significant advance to the laser field, striking the balance between safety and efficacy.

  5. Infrared sensing based sensitive skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zheng-cai; FU Yi-li; WANG Shu-guo; JIN Bao

    2006-01-01

    Developed robotics sensitive skin is a modularized, flexible, mini-type array of infrared sensors with data processing capabilities, which can be used to cover the body of a robot. Depending on the infrared sensors and periphery processing circuit, robotics sensitive skin can in real-time provide existence and distance information about obstacles for robots within sensory areas. The methodology of designing sensitive skin and the algorithm of a mass of IR data fusion are presented. The experimental results show that the multi-joint robot with this sensitive skin can work autonomously in an unknown environment.

  6. Menstrual cycle and skin reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Damm, P; Skouby, S O

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that a cyclic variation exists in skin reactivity to irritant stimuli. Twenty-nine healthy women with regular menstrual cycles were challenged with sodium lauryl sulfate as an irritant patch test at day 1 and at days 9 through 11 of the menstrual cycle. The skin response...... to the applied irritant stimulus was evaluated by visual scoring and also quantified by measurements of transepidermal water loss, edema formation, and blood flow in the skin. The skin response to challenge with sodium lauryl sulfate was found to be significantly stronger at day 1 than at days 9 through 11...

  7. Skin decontamination: principles and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Heidi P; Zhai, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-11-01

    Skin decontamination is the primary intervention needed in chemical, biological and radiological exposures, involving immediate removal of the contaminant from the skin performed in the most efficient way. The most readily available decontamination system on a practical basis is washing with soap and water or water only. Timely use of flushing with copious amounts of water may physically remove the contaminant. However, this traditional method may not be completely effective, and contaminants left on the skin after traditional washing procedures can have toxic consequences. This article focuses on the principles and practices of skin decontamination.

  8. Successful Preoperative Chemoembolization in the Treatment of a Giant Malignant Phyllodes Tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Kazuki, E-mail: kazkik1980@gmail.com; Mimura, Hidefumi; Arai, Yasunori [St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Doi, Masatomo [St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology (Japan); Kojima, Yasuyuki; Tsugawa, Koichiro [St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Division of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery (Japan); Nakajima, Yasuo [St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    The malignant phyllodes tumor is a relatively rare neoplasm and has not previously been a therapeutic target of interventional radiology. Herein, we report a successful case of preoperative chemoembolization of a giant malignant phyllodes tumor. The objective was to achieve sufficient tumor shrinkage before surgery to avoid the requirement for skin grafting after resection. Intra-arterial epirubicin infusion and subsequent embolization with Embosphere Microspheres (BioSphere Medical, Rockland, MA, USA) was undertaken three times over the course of 6 weeks and was well tolerated. The patient underwent surgery without skin grafting. Neither local recurrence nor distant metastasis was observed at 6 months after surgery.

  9. Successful Preoperative Chemoembolization in the Treatment of a Giant Malignant Phyllodes Tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Kazuki; Mimura, Hidefumi; Arai, Yasunori; Doi, Masatomo; Kojima, Yasuyuki; Tsugawa, Koichiro; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    The malignant phyllodes tumor is a relatively rare neoplasm and has not previously been a therapeutic target of interventional radiology. Herein, we report a successful case of preoperative chemoembolization of a giant malignant phyllodes tumor. The objective was to achieve sufficient tumor shrinkage before surgery to avoid the requirement for skin grafting after resection. Intra-arterial epirubicin infusion and subsequent embolization with Embosphere Microspheres (BioSphere Medical, Rockland, MA, USA) was undertaken three times over the course of 6 weeks and was well tolerated. The patient underwent surgery without skin grafting. Neither local recurrence nor distant metastasis was observed at 6 months after surgery.

  10. Basal cell carcinoma arising on the skin with chronic radiation dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yukiko; Ogusa, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Shinya

    1986-01-01

    In a 86-year-old woman, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) arose on the skin with chronic radiation dermatitis. She, at the age of 46, received irradiation to the abdomen for cancer of the uterine cervix. Radiation source and dose were unknown. A verrucous eruption appeared on the irradiated field of the right abdomen, and gradually expanded. Histological examination showed that proliferation of tumor cells with adenoid and cystose structure extended to the epidermis. Electron microscopic study showed both clear and dark tumor cells, although dark cells were few in number. A review of the literature showed that BCC arising on the skin with chronic radiation dermatitis is uncommon in Japan. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Evaluation of the Photoprotective Effect of Dongchongxiacao (Paecilomyces japonica) Extract against Ultraviolet Radiation-induced Skin Wrinkling and Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hae June; Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Jong Choon; Kim Sung Ho; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung Kee; Jang, Jong Sik

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of Dongchongxiacao (Paecilomyces japonica ) extract (PJE) to protect the skin from photo damage, the gross and microscopic changes in the skin of hairless mice and PJE-treated mice exposed chronically to ultraviolet (UV) were examined. The skin of the UV-irradiated mice showed characteristic signs of photo aging, such as deep wrinkles across the back. PJE-treated mice showed a significantly decreased wrinkling score. By the 22nd week, 88.9% (i.p. with saline) or 44.4% (topical administration with cream base) of the UV-irradiated mice developed at least one tumor. PJE delayed tumor onset significantly. PJE (i.p.) was also effective in reducing the occurrence of UV radiation-induced skin tumors and reduced the number of tumors per mouse. After 22 weeks of treatment, 80.0% (i.p.) and 75.0% (topical) of the mice treated with PJE were tumor-free. Tumor multiplicity was reduced by 96.2% (i.p.) in the PJE treated groups. It is noted that skin that is chronically exposed to UV is subject to photo aging and photo carcinogenesis and regular use of PJE would prevent these photo damaging effects of UV.

  12. Amelioration of ultraviolet-B-induced down-regulation of mRNA levels for chloroplast proteins, by high irradiance, is mediated by photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackerness, S.A. H.; Butt, P.J.; Jordan, B.R.; Thomas, B.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism by which increasing photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) reduces the sensitivity of RNA transcripts to UV-B radiation was studied in pea (Pisum sativum L.). mRNA transcript levels for rbc S, rbc L, cab and psb A were measured over an 8 d experimental period in pea, plants supplemented with UV-B radiation under a range of conditions. Under low light (150 mu-mol m -2 s -1 ), UV-B resulted in a significant decline in the levels of transcripts for all four genes which was prevented by increasing the background irradiance to 350 mu-mol m -2 s -1 (high light) with white light from fluorescent lamps. Increasing CO 2 levels to give photosynthesis rates equivalent to the high light treatment partially protected rbc S and cab transcripts and fully protected rbc L transcripts but did not prevent visible injury. Increasing light with low pressure sodium lamps, which increase photosynthesis but are not effective for activation of the DNA repair enzyme, photolyase, gave results which were not significantly different from white fluorescent high light treatments. Protection by high light was lost in the presence of the photosynthesis inhibitors CCCP and DCMU. The UV-B induced increase in the expression of chalcone synthase (chs) genes was delayed by the treatments which increased photosynthesis rates and conferred protection. The results indicate that photosynthesis plays a key role in the amelioration of UV-B induced decline in mRNA levels for proteins. The minimal role of DNA repair by photolyase indicates that reduction in photosynthesis gene transcripts in response to UV-B represents a specific regulation rather than being a consequence of DNA damage. (author)

  13. Laser photoradiation therapy in the treatment of malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomio, L.; Corti, L.; Polico, C.

    1987-01-01

    Photoradiation theraphy or, as more recently defined, photodynamic theraphy (PDT) has been effective in the treatment of several kinds of cancers, above all the skin, lung, esophagus and bladder. It is based on the preferential retention by tumor and photosensitizing properties of certains porphyrins.It has been initiated to investigate this technique experimentally in 1978 and clinically in september 1982, with report of the initial results in 38 patients in 1985. In this paper the more recent experience of PDT in 18 patients affected by different tumors and treated with a new double argon-dye laser system is described. These tumors included 8 carcinomas of the esophagus, 5 basal cell skin cancers, 2 carcinomas of the lung, 2 squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and 1 early gastric cancer. Clinical results and technical problems of PDT are discussed

  14. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Family Donate Volunteer Justin's Hope Fund Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  15. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, L.F.; Hemais, P.M.P.G.; Aymore, I.L.; Carmo, M.C.R. do; Cunha, M.E.P.R. da; Resende, C.M.C.

    1986-01-01

    Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it. Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed. (Author) [pt

  16. Testicular germinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresco, R.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of testicular germinal tumors. The presumed diagnosis is based in the anamnesis, clinical examination, testicular ultrasound and tumor markers. The definitive diagnosis is obtained through the inguinal radical orchidectomy

  17. Skin cancer of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Noda, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Naoko; Takahara, Osamu; Sadamori, Michiko; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Ota, Hisahiro.

    1990-01-01

    We already reported that there was a high correlation between the exposure dose and the incidence of skin cancer in A-bomb survivors using the data of the Nagasaki Life Span Study of Radiation Effects Research Foundation and Nagasaki Tumor Registry. In Report 3 of this series, we confirmed that the correlation between the exposure distance and the incidence of skin cancer was statistically significant. In Report 4, we clarified that the incidence of skin cancer in proximally exposed Nagasaki A-bomb survivors when compared to distally exposed victims appears to be increasing since 1975. In this final report of the series, we examined the characteristics of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors using 140 skin cancer cases collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City and adjacent districts on the basis of the data of a total of 66,276 A-bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine. Among the various items examined, the only item that showed a statistical significance was the age at exposure in the cases of squamous cell carcinoma, i.e., those exposed within 2.5 km from the hypocenter were significantly younger than those exposed at 3.0 km or more. (author)

  18. Radiation-induced skin carcinomas of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Modan, B.; Preston, D.; Alfandary, E.; Stovall, M.; Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation exposures to the scalp during childhood for tinea capitis were associated with a fourfold increase in skin cancer, primarily basal cell carcinomas, and a threefold increase in benign skin tumors. Malignant melanoma, however, was not significantly elevated. Overall, 80 neoplasms were identified from an extensive search of the pathology logs of all major hospitals in Israel and computer linkage with the national cancer registry. Radiation dose to the scalp was computed for over 10,000 persons irradiated for ringworm (mean 7 Gy), and incidence rates were contrasted with those observed in 16,000 matched comparison subjects. The relative risk of radiogenic skin cancer did not differ significantly between men or women or by time since exposure; however, risk was greatest following exposures in early childhood. After adjusting for sex, ethnic origin, and attained age, the estimated excess relative risk was 0.7 per Gy and the average excess risk over the current follow-up was 0.31/10(4) PY-Gy. The risk per Gy of radiation-induced skin cancer was intermediate between the high risk found among whites and no risk found among blacks in a similar study conducted in New York City. This finding suggests the role that subsequent exposure to uv radiation likely plays in the expression of a potential radiation-induced skin malignancy

  19. Skin cancer of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Noda, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Naoko; Takahara, Osamu; Sadamori, Michiko; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Ota, Hisahiro.

    1990-01-01

    We previously reported that there was a high correlation between the exposure dose and the incidence of skin cancer in A-bomb survivors using the data of the Nagasaki Life Span Study of Radiation Effects Research Foundation and Nagasaki Tumor Registry. In Report 3 of this series, we clarified that the correlation between the exposure distance and the incidence of skin cancer was statistically significant in 140 cases of skin cancer collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City and adjacent districts on the basis of the data of the total 66,276 A-bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, and that the correlation was the same even when the cases were divided by sex. In this report, we examined the chronological change of the incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, using the data of the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster. It is likely that the incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors has increased after 1962, especially after 1975 in those exposed within 2.5km from the hypocenter compared to those exposed at 3.0km or more. (author)

  20. The relevance of piroxicam for the prevention and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer and its precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione, Elena; Paternò, Evelin Jasmine; Candi, Eleonora; Falconi, Mattia; Costanza, Gaetana; Diluvio, Laura; Terrinoni, Alessandro; Bianchi, Luca; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Piroxicam (PXM), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is an enolic benzothiazine and a potent member of the oxicam series. The drug suppresses the synthesis of proinflammatory enzymes, such as cyclo-oxygenases-1 and -2 (COX-1 and 2), downregulates the production of prostaglandins (PGs) and tromboxanes, and inhibits polyamines production by blocking ornithine decarboxylase induction involved in nonmelanoma skin carcinogenesis. In addition, PXM is able to induce tumor cell apoptosis and suppresses metalloproteinase 2 activities. Skin carcinogenesis is a multistep process in which the accumulation of genetic events leads to a gradually dysplastic cellular expression, deregulation of cell growth, and carcinomatous progression. COX-1 upregulation plays a significant role in PG and vascular epidermal growth factor production supporting tumor growth. Increased level of PGs in premalignant and/or malignant cutaneous tumors is also favored by upregulation of COX-2 and downregulation of the tumor suppressor gene 15-hydroxy-prostaglandin dehydrogenase. Chemoprevention can be a hopeful approach to inhibit carcinoma occurrence before an invasive tumor develops. The chemopreventive effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on nonmelanoma skin cancers has been established. In this study, we highlighted the different modalities of action of PXM on the pathogenesis of nonmelanoma skin cancer, analyzing and evaluating binding modes and energies between COX-1 or COX-2 and PXM by protein-ligand molecular docking. Our clinical experience about the local use of PXM on actinic keratoses and field cancerization is also reported, confirming its efficacy as target therapy.