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Sample records for b-induced skin tumor

  1. The Methoxyflavonoid Isosakuranetin Suppresses UV-B-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Expression and Collagen Degradation Relevant for Skin Photoaging

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    Jung, Hana; Lee, Eunjoo H.; Lee, Tae Hoon; Cho, Man-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a main extrinsic factor for skin aging. Chronic exposure of the skin to UV radiation causes the induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), such as MMP-1, and consequently results in alterations of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and skin photoaging. Flavonoids are considered as potent anti-photoaging agents due to their UV-absorbing and antioxidant properties and inhibitory activity against UV-mediated MMP induction. To identify anti-photoaging agents, in the present study we examined the preventative effect of methoxyflavonoids, such as sakuranetin, isosakuranetin, homoeriodictyol, genkwanin, chrysoeriol and syringetin, on UV-B-induced skin photo-damage. Of the examined methoxyflavonoids, pretreatment with isosakuranetin strongly suppressed the UV-B-mediated induction of MMP-1 in human keratinocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Isosakuranetin inhibited UV-B-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling components, ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38 proteins. This result suggests that the ERK1/2 kinase pathways likely contribute to the inhibitory effects of isosakuranetin on UV-induced MMP-1 production in human keratinocytes. Isosakuranetin also prevented UV-B-induced degradation of type-1 collagen in human dermal fibroblast cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that isosakuranetin has the potential for development as a protective agent for skin photoaging through the inhibition of UV-induced MMP-1 production and collagen degradation. PMID:27598131

  2. The Methoxyflavonoid Isosakuranetin Suppresses UV-B-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Expression and Collagen Degradation Relevant for Skin Photoaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hana; Lee, Eunjoo H; Lee, Tae Hoon; Cho, Man-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a main extrinsic factor for skin aging. Chronic exposure of the skin to UV radiation causes the induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), such as MMP-1, and consequently results in alterations of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and skin photoaging. Flavonoids are considered as potent anti-photoaging agents due to their UV-absorbing and antioxidant properties and inhibitory activity against UV-mediated MMP induction. To identify anti-photoaging agents, in the present study we examined the preventative effect of methoxyflavonoids, such as sakuranetin, isosakuranetin, homoeriodictyol, genkwanin, chrysoeriol and syringetin, on UV-B-induced skin photo-damage. Of the examined methoxyflavonoids, pretreatment with isosakuranetin strongly suppressed the UV-B-mediated induction of MMP-1 in human keratinocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Isosakuranetin inhibited UV-B-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling components, ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38 proteins. This result suggests that the ERK1/2 kinase pathways likely contribute to the inhibitory effects of isosakuranetin on UV-induced MMP-1 production in human keratinocytes. Isosakuranetin also prevented UV-B-induced degradation of type-1 collagen in human dermal fibroblast cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that isosakuranetin has the potential for development as a protective agent for skin photoaging through the inhibition of UV-induced MMP-1 production and collagen degradation. PMID:27598131

  3. The Methoxyflavonoid Isosakuranetin Suppresses UV-B-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Expression and Collagen Degradation Relevant for Skin Photoaging

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    Hana Jung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar ultraviolet (UV radiation is a main extrinsic factor for skin aging. Chronic exposure of the skin to UV radiation causes the induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, such as MMP-1, and consequently results in alterations of the extracellular matrix (ECM and skin photoaging. Flavonoids are considered as potent anti-photoaging agents due to their UV-absorbing and antioxidant properties and inhibitory activity against UV-mediated MMP induction. To identify anti-photoaging agents, in the present study we examined the preventative effect of methoxyflavonoids, such as sakuranetin, isosakuranetin, homoeriodictyol, genkwanin, chrysoeriol and syringetin, on UV-B-induced skin photo-damage. Of the examined methoxyflavonoids, pretreatment with isosakuranetin strongly suppressed the UV-B-mediated induction of MMP-1 in human keratinocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Isosakuranetin inhibited UV-B-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling components, ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38 proteins. This result suggests that the ERK1/2 kinase pathways likely contribute to the inhibitory effects of isosakuranetin on UV-induced MMP-1 production in human keratinocytes. Isosakuranetin also prevented UV-B-induced degradation of type-1 collagen in human dermal fibroblast cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that isosakuranetin has the potential for development as a protective agent for skin photoaging through the inhibition of UV-induced MMP-1 production and collagen degradation.

  4. Protective Effects of Soy Oligopeptides in Ultraviolet B-Induced Acute Photodamage of Human Skin.

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    Zhou, Bing-Rong; Ma, Li-Wen; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Jia-An; Xu, Yang; Wu, Di; Permatasari, Felicia; Luo, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We explored the effects of soy oligopeptides (SOP) in ultraviolet B- (UVB-) induced acute photodamage of human skin in vivo and foreskin ex vivo. Methods. We irradiated the forearm with 1.5 minimal erythemal dose (MED) of UVB for 3 consecutive days, establishing acute photodamage of skin, and topically applied SOP. Erythema index (EI), melanin index, stratum corneum hydration, and transepidermal water loss were measured by using Multiprobe Adapter 9 device. We irradiated foreskin ex vivo with the same dose of UVB (180 mJ/cm(2)) for 3 consecutive days and topically applied SOP. Sunburn cells were detected by using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Apoptotic cells were detected by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), p53 protein, Bax protein, and Bcl-2 protein were detected by using immunohistochemical staining. Results. Compared with UVB group, UVB-irradiated skin with topically applied SOP showed significantly decreased EI. Compared with UVB group, topical SOP significantly increased Bcl-2 protein expression and decreased CPDs-positive cells, sunburn cells, apoptotic cells, p53 protein expression, and Bax protein expressions in the epidermis of UVB-irradiated foreskin. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that topical SOP can protect human skin against UVB-induced photodamage. PMID:27478534

  5. Skin manifestations of endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors.

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    Leventhal, Jonathan S; Braverman, Irwin M

    2016-06-01

    The skin signs of benign and malignant endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors are manifold and early identification of these dermatologic features is crucial in initiating timely diagnosis and management. This article reviews the salient cutaneous features of these tumors that arise in the classic endocrine glands, lung and gastrointestinal tract either as individual neoplasms or as part of a syndrome.

  6. Photoprotective effects of sulindac against ultraviolet B-induced phototoxicity in the skin of SKH-1 hairless mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulindac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with demonstrated potency as a chemopreventive agent in animal models of carcinogenesis and in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Because tumor promotion is generally associated with exposure to pro-inflammatory stimuli, it is likely that anti-inflammatory agents may have potent antitumor effects. In human skin, sulindac reduces bradykinin-induced edema. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the cyclooxygenase inhibitor sulindac can protect against ultraviolet (UVB)-induced injury that is crucial for the induction of cancer. Exposure of SKH-1 hairless mice to two consecutive doses of UVB (230 mJ/cm2) induces various inflammatory responses including erythema, edema, epidermal hyperplasia, infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, etc. Topical application of sulindac (1.25-5.0 mg/0.2 ml acetone) to the dorsal skin of SKH-1 hairless mice either 1 h before or immediately after UVB exposure substantially inhibited these inflammatory responses in a dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of sulindac in drinking water (160 ppm) for 15 days before and during UVB irradiation similarly reduced these inflammatory responses. These potent anti-inflammatory effects of sulindac suggested the possibility that the drug could inhibit signaling processes that relate to carcinogenic insult by UVB. Accordingly, studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of sulindac in attenuating the expression of UVB-induced early surrogate molecular markers of photodamage and carcinogenesis. UVB exposure enhanced the expression of p53, c-fos, cyclins D1 and A, and PCNA 24 h after irradiation. Treatment of animals with either topical or oral administration of sulindac largely abrogated the expression of these UVB-induced surrogate markers. These results indicate that the cyclooxygenase inhibitor sulindac is effective in reducing UVB-induced events relevant to carcinogenesis and that this category of topically applied or

  7. Multiple skin tumors of indeterminate cells in an adult.

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    Kolde, G; Bröcker, E B

    1986-10-01

    An adult patient with multiple unusual histiocytic tumors of the skin is described. As shown by immunohistologic study, electron microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy, the tumors represent circumscribed proliferations of the Langerhans cell-related indeterminate dendritic cells of the skin. This distinct cutaneous histiocytosis may represent a paraneoplastic syndrome.

  8. Usefulness of Ω-shaped Incision in Skin Tumor Excision

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    Naoshige Iida, MD, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We devised the Ω-shaped incision as a technique for skin tumor resection on the areas of skin with an arc-shaped fold. With this technique, the dog-ear that is formed during 6 wound closure can be resected within the range of the first skin incision. We report this technique after performing it on the face or trunk of 18 patients and confirmed its usefulness.

  9. Identification of potential biomarkers of hepatitis B-induced acute liver failure using hepatic cells derived from human skin precursors.

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    Rodrigues, Robim M; Sachinidis, Agapios; De Boe, Veerle; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara; De Kock, Joery

    2015-09-01

    Besides their role in the elucidation of pathogenic processes of medical and pharmacological nature, biomarkers can also be used to document specific toxicological events. Hepatic cells generated from human skin-derived precursors (hSKP-HPC) were previously shown to be a promising in vitro tool for the evaluation of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. In this study, their capacity to identify potential liver-specific biomarkers at the gene expression level was investigated with particular emphasis on acute liver failure (ALF). To this end, a set of potential ALF-specific biomarkers was established using clinically relevant liver samples obtained from patients suffering from hepatitis B-associated ALF. Subsequently, this data was compared to data obtained from primary human hepatocyte cultures and hSKP-HPC, both exposed to the ALF-inducing reference compound acetaminophen. It was found that both in vitro systems revealed a set of molecules that was previously identified in the ALF liver samples. Yet, only a limited number of molecules was common between both in vitro systems and the ALF liver samples. Each of the in vitro systems could be used independently to identify potential toxicity biomarkers related to ALF. It seems therefore more appropriate to combine primary human hepatocyte cultures with complementary in vitro models to efficiently screen out potential hepatotoxic compounds.

  10. Tumors of the skin and soft tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    The majority of the body surface is covered by the skin. Many internal disorders are reflected in the condition of the skin. One of the major functions of the skin is protection of the other organ systems from a variety of environmental insults. In this role, the skin itself is exposed to factors that can ultimately cause chronic diseases and cancer. Since it is relatively easy to recognize skin abnormalities, most skin cancers are brought to professional attention sooner than other types of cancer. However, due to the close resemblance between many skin neoplasms and noncancerous dermatologic disorders, these neoplasms may be mistreated for months or even years. In veterinary oncology, as in human medicine, most cancers can be effectively treated or cured following an accurate diagnosis. Once diagnosed, skin neoplasms should be aggressively treated. If causal factors are known, exposure to these factors should be limited through removal of the agent (for chemical carcinogens) or limiting exposure to the agent (for other carcinogens such as sunlight). 10 tabs. (MHB)

  11. Multistage skin tumor promotion: involvement of a protein kinase

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    Mamrack, M.; Slaga, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    Current information suggests that chemical carcinogenesis is a multistep process with one of the best studied models in this regard being the two-stage carcinogenesis system using mouse skin. The effects of several carcinogens and tumor promoters in various sequences of application were studied to examine the nature of the process. The actions of several tumor inhibitors were compared. (ACR)

  12. Indication guidelines for Mohs micrographic surgery in skin tumors*

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    Cernea, Selma Schuartz; Gontijo, Gabriel; Pimentel, Eugenio Raul de Almeida; Tarlé, Roberto Gomes; Tassara, Glaysson; Ferreira, Juliana Areas de Souza Lima Beltrame; Fernandes, Victor Miguel Coutinho; Bernardo, Wanderley Marques

    2016-01-01

    Mohs micrographic surgery is a technique used to excise skin tumors based on comprehensive surgical mapping, in which the surgeon removes the tumor, followed by a complete histological evaluation of the tumor's margins. The correlation of the presence of a tumor in histological examinations and its precise location on the surgical map result in a complete removal of the tumor with maximum normal tissue preservation. The present article seeks to provide general practitioners and healthcare specialists with guidelines regarding recommendations for Mohs micrographic surgery to treat skin tumors, based on the most reliable evidence available in medical literature on the subject. This bibliographic review of scientific articles in this line of research was conducted based on data collected from MEDLINE/PubMed. The search strategy used in this study was based on structured questions in the Patient, Intervention, Control, and Outcome (PICO) format. MeSH terms were used as descriptors. The indications of this technique are related to recurrence, histology, size, definition of tumor margins, and location of tumors. These guidelines attempt to establish the indications of Mohs surgery for different types of skin tumors.

  13. Differential effects of topical vitamin E and C E Ferulic® treatments on ultraviolet light B-induced cutaneous tumor development in Skh-1 mice.

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    Erin M Burns

    Full Text Available Because of the ever-increasing incidence of ultraviolet light B (UVB-induced skin cancer, considerable attention is being paid to prevention through the use of both sunscreens and after sun treatments, many of which contain antioxidants. Vitamin E is included as an antioxidant in many sunscreens and lotions currently on the market. Studies examining the efficacy of vitamin E as a topical preventative agent for UVB-induced skin cancer have yielded conflicting results. A likely contributor to differences in study outcome is the stability of vitamin E in the particular formulation being tested. In the current study we examined the effects of topical vitamin E alone as well as vitamin E combined with vitamin C and ferulic acid in a more stable topical formula (C E Ferulic®. Mice were exposed to UVB for 10 weeks in order to induce skin damage. Then, before the appearance of any cutaneous lesions, mice were treated for 15 weeks with a topical antioxidant, without any further UVB exposure. We found that topical C E Ferulic decreased tumor number and tumor burden and prevented the development of malignant skin tumors in female mice with chronically UVB-damaged skin. In contrast, female mice chronically exposed to UVB and treated topically with vitamin E alone showed a trend towards increased tumor growth rate and exhibited increased levels of overall DNA damage, cutaneous proliferation, and angiogenesis compared to vehicle-treated mice. Thus, we have demonstrated that topical 5% alpha tocopherol may actually promote carcinogenesis when applied on chronically UVB-damaged skin while treating with a more stable antioxidant compound may offer therapeutic benefits.

  14. Benign skin tumors in association with systemic malignancy

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    K. Didem Yazganoğlu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are various types of benign skin tumors in association with the complex nature of the skin. A minor part of them may be associated with visceral malignancies. This review focuses on the benign skin tumors that are described to have well-known associations with systemic malignancies or those with controversial associations. These tumors and the associated conditions are as follows: seborrheic keratosis/ Leser-Trélat sign, lentigo simplex/Peutz Jeghers and Carney syndrome, sebaceous tumors/ Muir-Torre syndrome, fibrofolliculoma- trichodiskoma/ Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, trichoepitheliomacylindroma- spiradenoma/ Brooke-Spiegler syndrome, leiomyoma/multiple cutaneous and uterin leiomyomatosis syndrome, glomeruloid hemangioma/ POEMS syndrome, venous malformation/ Maffucci syndrome, mucosal neuroma/ multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B, juvenile xanthogranuloma/ juvenile chronic myeloid leukemia. It is important to know the skin tumors related with visceral malignancies in part of a syndrome or in association with a sign as this may yield an earlier recognition of these malignancies.

  15. Echosonography and surgical therapy of facial skin tumors

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    Pešić Zoran U.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the 20 century, echosonography has been used in many medical specialties. In 1992 and 1993 highfrequencies echosonography was used in the examination of irritant and allergic skin lesions in order to examine the effects of different therapeuthical agents on the skin lesions [1-4]. Hoffmann used highfrequencies echosonography in the examination of healing of skin lesions [3]. By their incidence skin tumors are the largest group of newly discovered tumors, and their usual location is on the face [5-7]. By clinical examination it is not possible to precisely determine the depth of tumor border; therefore, the radically performed surgical excision is the only correct surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to estimate the results of preoperatively performed high frequencies echosonography in order to reduce the number of incorrectly performed surgical excisions of skin tumors. The group was composed of 40 patients with 45 tumors, who first underwent echosonographic diagnostic procedure (20 MHz, Hadsund electronic, Hadsund Technology, Denmark and then surgical excision; patients in control group (45 patients with 45 tumors were only subjected to surgical excision. Excised tumors were then pathohistologically analyzed, and measurements of tumor depth progression were performed. Margins of pathohistological specimen were controlled for the presence of tumor cells. Results of measurements of tumor depth obtained by echosonography and pathohistological measurements were compared. By Jate's modification of c2 test results regarding correct and incorrect surgical excision in patients and control group were compared. By linear regression analysis results of tumor depth obtained by echosonographic and pathohistologic examinations were compared. Hypoechogen zone echosonographic results were used like criteria for tumor expansion. Results of tumor depth measurements are presented in Table 1. Linear regression analysis showed (R = 0

  16. Antiviral signaling protein MITA acts as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer by regulating NF-κB induced cell death.

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    Bhatelia, Khyati; Singh, Aru; Tomar, Dhanendra; Singh, Kritarth; Sripada, Lakshmi; Chagtoo, Megha; Prajapati, Paresh; Singh, Rochika; Godbole, Madan M; Singh, Rajesh

    2014-02-01

    Emerging evidences suggest that chronic inflammation is one of the major causes of tumorigenesis. The role of inflammation in regulation of breast cancer progression is not well established. Recently Mediator of IRF3 Activation (MITA) protein has been identified that regulates NF-κB and IFN pathways. Role of MITA in the context of inflammation and cancer progression has not been investigated. In the current report, we studied the role of MITA in the regulation of cross talk between cell death and inflammation in breast cancer cells. The expression of MITA was significantly lower on in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer cells than ER negative cells. Similarly, it was significantly down regulated in tumor tissue as compared to the normal tissue. The overexpression of MITA in MCF-7 and T47D decreases the cell proliferation and increases the cell death by activation of caspases. MITA positively regulates NF-κB transcription factor, which is essential for MITA induced cell death. The activation of NF-κB induces TNF-α production which further sensitizes MITA induced cell death by activation of death receptor pathway through capsase-8. MITA expression decreases the colony forming units and migration ability of MCF-7 cells. Thus, our finding suggests that MITA acts as a tumor suppressor which is down regulated during tumorigenesis providing survival advantage to tumor cell.

  17. Skin tumors Rb(eing uncovered

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    CLOTILDE eCOSTA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Rb1 gene was the first bona fide tumor suppressor identified and cloned more than 25 years ago. Since then, a plethora of studies have revealed the functions of pRb and the existence of a sophisticated and strictly regulated pathway that modulates such functional roles. An emerging paradox affecting Rb1 in cancer connects the relatively low number of mutations affecting Rb1 gene in specific human tumors, compared with the widely functional inactivation of pRb in most, if not in all, human cancers. The existence of a retinoblastoma family of proteins pRb, p107 and p130 and their potential unique and overlapping functions as master regulators of cell cycle progression and transcriptional modulation by similar processes, may provide potential clues to explain such conundrum. Here, we will review the development of different genetically engineered mouse models, in particular those affecting stratified epithelia, and how they have offered new avenues to understand the roles of the Rb family members and their targets in the context of tumor development and progression.

  18. Calcium Glucarate Prevents Tumor Formation in Mouse Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective Calcium Glucarate (Cag), Ca salt of D-glucaric acid is a naturally occurring non-toxic compound present in fruits, vegetables and seeds of some plants, and suppress tumor growth in different models. Due to lack of knowledge about its mode of action its uses are limited in cancer chemotherapy thus the objective of the study was to study the mechanism of action of Cag on mouse skin tumorigenesis. Methods We have estimated effect of Cag on DMBA induced mouse skin tumor development following complete carcinogenesis protocol. We measured, epidermal transglutaminase activity (TG), a marker of cell differentiation after DMBA and/or Cag treatment and [3H] thymidine incorporation into DNA as a marker for cell proliferation. Results Topical application of Cag suppressed the DMBA induced mouse skin tumor development. Topical application of Cag significantly modifies the critical events of proliferation and differentiation TG activity was found to be reduced after DMBA treatment. Reduction of the TG activity was dependent on the dose of DMBA and duration of DMBA exposure. Topical application of Cag significantly alleviated DMBA induced inhibition of TG. DMBA also caused stimulation of DNA synthesis in epidermis, which was inhibited by Cag. Conclusion Cag inhibits DMBA induced mouse skin tumor development. Since stimulation of DNA synthesis reflects proliferation and induction of TG represents differentiation, the antitumorigenic effect of Cag is considered to be possibly due to stimulation of differentiation and suppression of proliferation.

  19. The clinical characteristics and the frequency of metastatic cutaneous tumors among primary skin tumors

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    Güldehan Atış

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Our aim was to find out the ratio of cutaneous metastatic tumors among all cutaneous and skin appendage tumors and to establish their clinical characteriaMaterial-methods: We scanned the histopathological diagnoses of all the skin tumors records from the archives between 2006 to 2012 and recorded the age, gender, the diagnosis of internal malignancy, the type of cutenous lesion, the location and the period between the appearance of the primary malignancies and cutaneous metastases.Results: We found that 20 (0,48% out of 4126 skin tumors were diagnosed as cutaneous metastatic tumors. Ten of the patients were men and ten of them were women ( median age of 51,3±18,34. When considered primary internal malignancies of these patients 6 patients with gastroenterologic malignancy, 4 patients with lung cancer, 4 patients with breast cancer, 3 patients with malignant melanoma, 1 patient with Ewing sarcoma, 1 with acute myeloblastic leukemia and 1 with prostatic cancer were diagnosed. The clinical appearance of the tumors were as follows; 14 nodule, 2 eczematized plaque, 2 papule, 1 papulonodule, 1 infitrated plaque. The localizations of the cutaneous metastatic tumors were as follows; 7 lesions on the anterior trunk, 5 lesions on the abdominal wall, 2 lesions on the back, 2 lesions on the thigh, 2 lesions on the scalp, 1 on the anterior arm, 1 on the inguinal site. We found that 3 patients (15 % attended with cutaneous metastatic tumors before the diagnosis of internal malignancies while 17 patients (85 % attended 18,97±24,76 months (1,5 -109 months after the diagnosis of internal malignancies.Conclusion: Cutaneous metastatic tumors are rarely seen skin lesions. We found that cutaneous metastatic tumors are mostly nodular and with trunk localization. It is important to recogniza these tumors, because they address primary internal tumor

  20. Tumor Suppressor Function of CYLD in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

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    K. C. Masoumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-related proteins posttranslationally modify substrates, and thereby alter the functions of their targets. The ubiquitination process is involved in various physiological responses, and dysregulation of components of the ubiquitin system has been linked to many diseases including skin cancer. The ubiquitin pathways activated among skin cancers are highly diverse and may reflect the various characteristics of the cancer type. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the most common types of human skin cancer, are instances where the involvement of the deubiquitination enzyme CYLD has been recently highlighted. In basal cell carcinoma, the tumor suppressor protein CYLD is repressed at the transcriptional levels through hedgehog signaling pathway. Downregulation of CYLD in basal cell carcinoma was also shown to interfere with TrkC expression and signaling, thereby promoting cancer progression. By contrast, the level of CYLD is unchanged in squamous cell carcinoma, instead, catalytic inactivation of CYLD in the skin has been linked to the development of squamous cell carcinoma. This paper will focus on the current knowledge that links CYLD to nonmelanoma skin cancers and will explore recent insights regarding CYLD regulation of NF-κB and hedgehog signaling during the development and progression of these types of human tumors.

  1. Tumors involving the skin of the upper extremity.

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    Fleegler, E J

    1987-05-01

    This review can only introduce the subject of tumors found involving the skin of the upper extremity. Many benign masses as well as some malignant tumors have to be considered when a patient calls to the physician's attention a lump, firm area, color change, ulcer, or other alteration in the skin. In response, the physician must have a high index of suspicion, take a careful history, and carry out a thorough examination in order to develop a safe approach. Thought has to be given to the complex anatomy of this area. Understanding of the pathophysiology of tumors and of possible later additional therapy is needed to plan an appropriate biopsy. In the brief discussions of treatment, the difficulty in choosing margins of resection and assessing the efficacy of lymph node dissection is mentioned. An open mind and assessment of future reports of studies in progress may be helpful. Whatever treatment is applied to the malignant tumors under consideration, it is my opinion that one must persist in this until one obtains tumor-free margins. The surgeon undertaking this responsibility must apply the same tumor techniques including operating room discipline that would be applied to any serious malignancy. Consultation and careful work with colleagues that are able to assess the potential for response to chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and/or radiotherapy, should be sought. Subtle hazards in our environment, such as changing risk of sun exposure, industrial chemicals, and irradiation should be pointed out to our patients. These are a challenge to the student of this subject, just as tobacco products are to those involved with malignancies of the head and neck, respiratory, and other systems. All of the previously mentioned methods must be used in the anatomically complex upper extremity to preserve function while ridding the patient of the burden of a disfiguring or painful benign process, or even a life-threatening malignancy. PMID:3034925

  2. Plasmin-driven fibrinolysis facilitates skin tumor growth in a gender-dependent manner

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    Hald, Andreas; Eickhardt, Hanne; Maerkedahl, Rasmus Baadsgaard;

    2012-01-01

    the development of skin cancer. To test this, we set up a chemically induced skin tumor model in a cohort of mice and found that skin tumor growth in Plg(-)(/)(-) male mice was reduced by 52% compared with wild-type controls. Histological analyses suggested that the growth-restricting effect of plasminogen...

  3. The effect of various dietary fats on skin tumor initiation.

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    Locniskar, M; Belury, M A; Cumberland, A G; Patrick, K E; Fischer, S M

    1991-01-01

    The type of dietary fat has been shown to modulate the initiation stage of mammary tumorigenesis, with saturated fat fed before and/or during carcinogen treatment resulting in increased tumor incidence. This study was designed to determine whether different types of dietary fat alter the initiation stage of skin carcinogenesis by use of the initiation-promotion mouse skin carcinogenesis model. Sencar mice were divided into three groups and maintained on one of the experimental diets. The AIN-76-based diets consisted of 10% total fat with various types of fat: 8.5% menhaden oil plus 1.5% corn oil, 8.5% coconut oil plus 1.5% corn oil, and 10% corn oil. After three weeks mice were initiated with 10 nmol dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Two weeks later, all mice were switched to a diet containing 5% corn oil. Promotion began four weeks after initiation with twice-weekly application of 1 microgram 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and continued for 12 weeks. No statistically significant differences in kilocalories of food consumed or body weights were observed between diet groups during the study. The final papilloma incidence, yield, and size were not significantly different among the diet groups. In a parallel study, [3H]DMBA binding to epidermal DNA showed no dietary differences. Unlike the mammary carcinogenesis model, these data suggest that the type of fat fed during DMBA initiation had minimal effects on this stage of skin carcinogenesis.

  4. P16 UV mutations in human skin epithelial tumors.

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    Soufir, N; Molès, J P; Vilmer, C; Moch, C; Verola, O; Rivet, J; Tesniere, A; Dubertret, L; Basset-Seguin, N

    1999-09-23

    The p16 gene expresses two alternative transcripts (p16alpha and p16beta) involved in tumor suppression via the retinoblastoma (Rb) or p53 pathways. Disruption of these pathways can occur through inactivation of p16 or p53, or activating mutations of cyclin dependant kinase 4 gene (Cdk4). We searched for p16, Cdk4 and p53 gene mutations in 20 squamous cell carcinomas (SSCs), 1 actinic keratosis (AK), and 28 basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), using PCR-SSCP. A deletion and methylation analysis of p16 was also performed. Six different mutations (12%) were detected in exon 2 of p16 (common to p16alpha and p16beta), in five out of 21 squamous lesions (24%) (one AK and four SCCs) and one out of 28 BCCs (3.5%). These included four (66%) ultraviolet (UV)-type mutations (two tandems CC : GG to TT : AA transitions and two C : G to T : A transitions at dipyrimidic site) and two transversions. P53 mutations were present in 18 samples (37%), mostly of UV type. Of these, only two (one BCC and one AK) harboured simultaneously mutations of p16, but with no consequence on p16beta transcript. Our data demonstrate for the first time the presence of p16 UV induced mutations in non melanoma skin cancer, particularly in the most aggressive SCC type, and support that p16 and p53 are involved in two independent pathways in skin carcinogenesis.

  5. Protective effect of indole-3-pyruvate against ultraviolet b-induced damage to cultured HaCaT keratinocytes and the skin of hairless mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiji Aoki

    Full Text Available Previous investigations demonstrated that pyruvate protects human keratinocytes against cell damage stemming from exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB radiation. This study endeavoured to elucidate the protective capacity of aromatic pyruvates (e.g., phenylpyruvate (PPyr, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPPyr, and indole-3-pyruvate (IPyr against UVB-induced injury to skin cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Cultured human HaCaT keratinocytes were irradiated with UVB light (60 mJ/cm2 and maintained with or without test compounds (1-25 mM.In addition, the dorsal skin of hairless mice (HR-1 was treated with test compounds (10 μmol and exposed to UVB light (1 J/cm2 twice [corrected]. The ability of the test compounds to ameliorate UVB-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation was then assessed. Aromatic pyruvates reduced cytotoxicity in UVB-irradiated HaCaT keratinocytes, and also diminished the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β and interleukin 6 (IL-6. IPyr was more efficacious than either PPyr or HPPyr. Furthermore, only IPyr inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2 expression at both the mRNA and the protein level in UVB-treated keratinocytes. Topical application of IPyr to the dorsal skin of hairless mice reduced the severity of UVB-induced skin lesions, the augmentation of dermal thickness, and transepithelial water loss. Overproduction of IL-1β and IL-6 in response to UVB radiation was also suppressed in vivo by the topical administration of IPyr. These data strongly suggest that IPyr might find utility as a UVB-blocking reagent in therapeutic strategies to lessen UVB-induced inflammatory skin damage.

  6. Elevated VEGF-D Modulates Tumor Inflammation and Reduces the Growth of Carcinogen-Induced Skin Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Hanne-Kaisa; Izzi, Valerio; Petäistö, Tiina; Holopainen, Tanja; Harjunen, Vanessa; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Alitalo, Kari; Heljasvaara, Ritva

    2016-07-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) promotes the lymph node metastasis of cancer by inducing the growth of lymphatic vasculature, but its specific roles in tumorigenesis have not been elucidated. We monitored the effects of VEGF-D in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) by subjecting transgenic mice overexpressing VEGF-D in the skin (K14-mVEGF-D) and VEGF-D knockout mice to a chemical skin carcinogenesis protocol involving 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatments. In K14-mVEGF-D mice, tumor lymphangiogenesis was significantly increased and the frequency of lymph node metastasis was elevated in comparison with controls. Most notably, the papillomas regressed more often in K14-mVEGF-D mice than in littermate controls, resulting in a delay in tumor incidence and a remarkable reduction in the total tumor number. Skin tumor growth and metastasis were not obviously affected in the absence of VEGF-D; however, the knockout mice showed a trend for reduced lymphangiogenesis in skin tumors and in the untreated skin. Interestingly, K14-mVEGF-D mice showed an altered immune response in skin tumors. This consisted of the reduced accumulation of macrophages, mast cells, and CD4(+) T-cells and an increase of cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cells. Cytokine profiling by flow cytometry and quantitative real time PCR revealed that elevated VEGF-D expression results in an attenuated Th2 response and promotes M1/Th1 and Th17 polarization in the early stage of skin carcinogenesis, leading to an anti-tumoral immune environment and the regression of primary tumors. Our data suggest that VEGF-D may be beneficial in early-stage tumors since it suppresses the pro-tumorigenic inflammation, while at later stages VEGF-D-induced tumor lymphatics provide a route for metastasis. PMID:27435926

  7. Sauchinone, a lignan from Saururus chinensis, protects human skin keratinocytes against ultraviolet B-induced photoaging by regulating the oxidative defense system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight induces matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression, which are responsible for collagenous extracellular matrix proteins breakdown in skin, causing photoaging. Sauchinone is reported to have various bioactivity such as antioxidative, hepatoprotective, and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of sauchinone against UVB (50 mJ/cm2)-induced photoaging in HaCaT human epidermal keratinocytes. Sauchinone, at 5-40 μM, significantly protected keratinocytes against UVB-induced damage as assessed by cell viability and toxicity assay. Additionally, sauchinone, at 20-40 μM, prevented the upregulation of MMP-1 proteins and reduction of type 1 collagen induced by UVB. Other assays revealed that, in keratinocytes, sauchinone decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and increased glutathione levels and heme oxygenase-1. Sauchinone also inhibited UVB-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. These results demonstrated that sauchinone protects skin keratinocytes through inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 MAPK signaling via upregulation of oxidative defense enzymes. (author)

  8. Expression of p63 and Cyclooxygenase-2 and Their Correlation in Skin Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yan; LIU Houjun; LI Jiawen

    2007-01-01

    To study the expression of p63 and cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) in skin tumors and evaluate the correlation between p63 and cox-2, the expressions of cox-2 and p63 were measured by streptavidin-peroxidase complex immunohistochemical technique in 17 cases of skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 19 cases of Bowen's disease(Bowen), 11 cases of actinic keratosis(AK), 12 cases of seborreic keratosis(SK) and 13 specimens of normal skin. Our results showed that the expression of p63 in skin squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease and actinic keratosis were significantly higher than that in seborreic keratosis, while the expression of p63 in seborreic keratosis was significantly higher than that in normal skin. The expression of cox-2 in skin squamous cell carcinoma,Bowen's disease and actinic keratosis were significantly higher than that in seborreic keratosis, while no statistical difference was noted in the expression of cox-2 between seborreic keratosis and normal skin. Cox-2 expression was positively correlated with the high p63 expression in malignant skin tumors. The increased expression of cox-2 and p63 may play an important role in the development of skin tumors and work synergetically in malignant skin tumors.

  9. Recent Skin Self-Examination and Doctor Visits in Relation to Melanoma Risk and Tumor Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, L.J.; Clough-Gorr, K.; Mackenzie, T.A.; Perry, A.; Spencer, S.K.; Weiss, J.; Abrahams-Gessel, S.; Ernstoff, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the potential benefit of skin self-examination for melanoma prevention and early detection. Objectives To determine whether skin self-examination is associated with reduced melanoma risk, self-detection of tumors, and reduced risk of deeper melanomas. Methods We used data from a population-based case-control study (423 cases, 678 controls) to assess recent skin self-examination in relation to self-detection, melanoma risk and tumor depth (<1 mm; ≥1 mm). Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) for associations of interest. Results Skin self-examination conducted 1–11 times during a recent year was associated with a possible decrease in melanoma risk (OR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.54, 1.02). Melanoma risk was decreased for those who conducted skin self-examination and saw a doctor (OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.79). Among cases, those who examined their skin were twice as likely to self-detect the melanoma (OR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.47, 3.38), but self-detection was not associated with shallower tumors. Tumor depth was reduced for those who conducted skin self-examination 1–11 times during a recent year (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.81), but was not influenced by seeing a doctor, or by conducting skin self-examination and seeing a doctor. Conclusions Risk of a deeper tumor and possibly risk of melanoma were reduced by skin self-examination 1–11 times annually. Melanoma risk was markedly reduced by skin self-examination coupled with a doctor visit. We cannot, however, exclude the possibility that our findings reflect bias or confounding. Additional studies are needed to elucidate the potential benefits of skin self-examination for melanoma prevention and early detection. PMID:22897437

  10. The role of UV induced lesions in skin carcinogenesis: an overview of oncogene and tumor suppressor gene modifications in xeroderma pigmentosum skin tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daya-Grosjean, Leela [Laboratory of Genetic Instability and Cancer, UPR2169 CNRS, IFR 54, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)]. E-mail: daya@igr.fr; Sarasin, Alain [Laboratory of Genetic Instability and Cancer, UPR2169 CNRS, IFR 54, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2005-04-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), a rare hereditary syndrome, is characterized by a hypersensitivity to solar irradiation due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair resulting in a predisposition to squamous and basal cell carcinomas as well as malignant melanomas appearing at a very early age. The mutator phenotype of XP cells is evident by the higher levels of UV specific modifications found in key regulatory genes in XP skin tumors compared to those in the same tumor types from the normal population. Thus, XP provides a unique model for the study of unrepaired DNA lesions, mutations and skin carcinogenesis. The high level of ras oncogene activation, Ink4a-Arf and p53 tumor suppressor gene modifications as well as alterations of the different partners of the mitogenic sonic hedgehog signaling pathway (patched, smoothened and sonic hedgehog), characterized in XP skin tumors have clearly demonstrated the major role of the UV component of sunlight in the development of skin tumors. The majority of the mutations are C to T or tandem CC to TT UV signature transitions, occurring at bipyrimidine sequences, the specific targets of UV induced lesions. These characteristics are also found in the same genes modified in sporadic skin cancers but with lower frequencies confirming the validity of studying the XP model. The knowledge gained by studying XP tumors has given us a greater perception of the contribution of genetic predisposition to cancer as well as the consequences of the many alterations which modulate the activities of different genes affecting crucial pathways vital for maintaining cell homeostasis.

  11. The role of UV induced lesions in skin carcinogenesis: an overview of oncogene and tumor suppressor gene modifications in xeroderma pigmentosum skin tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), a rare hereditary syndrome, is characterized by a hypersensitivity to solar irradiation due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair resulting in a predisposition to squamous and basal cell carcinomas as well as malignant melanomas appearing at a very early age. The mutator phenotype of XP cells is evident by the higher levels of UV specific modifications found in key regulatory genes in XP skin tumors compared to those in the same tumor types from the normal population. Thus, XP provides a unique model for the study of unrepaired DNA lesions, mutations and skin carcinogenesis. The high level of ras oncogene activation, Ink4a-Arf and p53 tumor suppressor gene modifications as well as alterations of the different partners of the mitogenic sonic hedgehog signaling pathway (patched, smoothened and sonic hedgehog), characterized in XP skin tumors have clearly demonstrated the major role of the UV component of sunlight in the development of skin tumors. The majority of the mutations are C to T or tandem CC to TT UV signature transitions, occurring at bipyrimidine sequences, the specific targets of UV induced lesions. These characteristics are also found in the same genes modified in sporadic skin cancers but with lower frequencies confirming the validity of studying the XP model. The knowledge gained by studying XP tumors has given us a greater perception of the contribution of genetic predisposition to cancer as well as the consequences of the many alterations which modulate the activities of different genes affecting crucial pathways vital for maintaining cell homeostasis

  12. Tumor initiating and promoting activities of various benzo(a)pyrene metabolites in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaga, T J; Bracken, W M; Viaje, A; Berry, D L; Fischer, S M; Miller, D R; Levin, W; Conney, A H; Yagi, H; Jerina, D M

    1977-01-01

    The skin tumor-initiating activities of the twelve isomeric phenols of BP revealed that 2-OHBP was as potent as BP while 11-OHBP was moderately active and the others were weak or inactive. However, 2-OHBP has not been shown to be formed from BP in the skin or any other tissue. The (-)-trans-7,8-diol of BP skin was found to be more active as a skin tumor initiator than BP suggesting that it is a proximal carcinogen. The data on carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and metabolism suggest that BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide is the ultimate carcinogenic form of BP. The skin tumor-initiating activities of the various BP metabolites correlate very well with their complete carcinogenic in mouse skin except for BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide. It was found to have skin tumor initiating activity but not complete carcinogenic activity. However, BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide was found to be a very potent complete carcinogen in newborn mice. It is possible that BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide is only a tumor initiator in which a promoting stimulus must be supplied for carcinogenic activity. A natural tumor promoting stimulus may be present in the newborn mouse. There is also a good correlation between the skin tumor initiating activities of the various BP metabolites and their mutagenic activity in the V79 mammalian cell mediated mutagenesis system.

  13. Loss of Endogenous Interleukin-12 Activates Survival Signals in Ultraviolet-Exposed Mouse Skin and Skin Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed M. Meeran

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-12 (IL-12-deficiency promotes photocarcinogenesis in mice; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that long-term exposure to ultraviolet (UV radiation resulted in enhancement of the levels of cell survival kinases, such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K, Akt (Ser473, p-ERK1/2, and p-p38 in the skin of IL-12p40 knockout (IL-12 KO mice compared with the skin of wild-type mice. UV-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB/p65 in the skin of IL-12 KO mice was also more prominent. The levels of NF-κB-targeted proteins, such as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, cyclooxygenase-2, cyclin D1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, were higher in the UV-exposed skin of IL-12 KO mice than the UV-exposed skin of wild types. In short-term UV irradiation experiments, subcutaneous treatment of IL-12 KO mice with recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12 or topical treatment with oridonin, an inhibitor of NF-κB, resulted in the inhibition of UV-induced increases in the levels of PCNA, cyclin D1, and NF-κB compared with non-rIL-12- or non-oridonin-treated IL-12 KO mice. UV-induced skin tumors of IL-12 KO mice had higher levels of PI3K, p-Akt (Ser473, p-ERK1/2, p-p38, NF-κB, and PCNA and fewer apoptotic cells than skin tumors of wild types. Together, these data suggest that the loss of endogenous IL-12 activates survival signals in UV-exposed skin and that may lead to the enhanced photocarcinogenesis in mice.

  14. New adaptive branch and bound algorithm for hyperspectral waveband selection for chicken skin tumor detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakariyakul, Songyot; Casasent, David

    2006-10-01

    Detection of skin tumors on chicken carcasses is considered. A chicken skin tumor consists of an ulcerous lesion region surrounded by a region of thickened-skin. We use a new adaptive branch-and-bound (ABB) feature selection algorithm to choose only a few useful wavebands from hyperspectral data for use in a real-time multispectral camera. The ABB algorithm selects an optimal feature subset and is shown to be much faster than any other versions of the branch and bound algorithm. We found that the spectral responses of the lesion and the thickened-skin regions of tumors are considerably different; thus we train our feature selection algorithm to separately detect the lesion regions and thickened-skin regions of tumors. We then fuse the two HS detection results of lesion and thickened-skin regions to reduce false alarms. Initial results on six hyperspectral cubes show that our method gives an excellent tumor detection rate and a low false alarm rate.

  15. [Current surgical and adjuvant therapy concepts of malignant tumors of the facial skin and the pinna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolk, A; Wermker, K; Bier, H; Götz, C; Eckert, A W

    2015-02-01

    Malignant tumors of the skin had been a rare entity 2 decades ago. Today they are spread rapidly worldwide. Malignant neoplasms of the skin, the largest human organ, may occur from all structures and layers. While previously skin cancer -occurred mainly after the age of 60, the incidence increases now in younger ages. Strong sunburns in the childhood and before the age of 20 are important risk factors for the development of malignancies of the skin. An increased exposure to UV rays is found especially in the facial skin, where basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma and Merkel cell carcinomas are the most common malignancies. Early diagnosis of malignancies and therapy-oriented mostly surgical approaches are crucial for the prognosis of all skin cancers. Therefore under the aspect of the increasing incidence these topics will be pointed out according to the latest findings including current multimodal therapy concepts and future treatment options. PMID:25658862

  16. Radiotherapy and skin tumors; Radiotherapie et tumeurs curanees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calitchi, E.; KIrova, Y.; Le bourgeois, J.P. [Hopital Henri-Mondor, 94 - Creteil (France)

    1998-09-01

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in treatment of skin tumours. For skin carcinomas, external irradiation (kilo-voltage X-rays or electrons according to clinical characteristics) is more valuable than interstitial brachytherapy, which is recommended for tumours of the lip and of the nasal vestibule. In mycosis fungoides, total cutaneous electron beam radiation therapy is efficient for patients with limited superficial plaques. In the classical form of Kaposi`s sarcoma, radiotherapy can achieve local control-whereas it obtains good palliative results in the epidemic form. (author)

  17. Induction of megakaryocytic colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by inflammatory agents and tumor promoters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.A.; Dessypris, E.N.; Koury, M.J.

    1987-03-01

    The production of megakaryocytic colony-stimulating activity (MEG-CSA) was assayed in acetic acid extracts of skin from mice topically treated with inflammatory and tumor-promoting agents. A rapid induction of MEG-CSA was found in skin treated both with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a strong tumor promoter, and with mezerein, a weak tumor promoter, but no induction was found in untreated skin. The time course of induction of MEG-CSA following treatment of skin with PMA or mezerein was very similar to that previously demonstrated for the induction of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by these agents. The induced MEG-CSA was found in both the epidermis and the dermis. Pretreatment of the skin with US -methasone abrogated the MEG-CSA induction. The cell number response curve suggests that the MEG-CSA acts directly on the progenitor cells of the megakaryocyte colonies. That topical administration of diterpene esters results in the rapid, local induction of MEG-CSA which can be blocked by US -methasone pretreatment suggests a mechanism for the thrombocytosis associated with some inflammatory states. The indirect action in which diterpene esters induce in certain cells the production or release of growth regulatory factors for other cell types may also aid in understanding their carcinogenic properties.

  18. Tumor induction and hair follicle damage for different electron penetrations in rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The penetration and dose of an electron beam were varied in an attempt to locate the depth in growing-phase rat skin where irradiation was most effective in inducing tumors and morphological damage to the hair follicles. The hair was plucked to initiate the growing phase of the hair cycle, and 12 days later the dorsal skin was irradiated with electrons penetrating 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mm at doses from 500 to 4000 rad. Differences in the curves of tumor incidence as a function of dose for different penetrations were best resolved by plotting the results against the 0.4 mm dose, while comparable curves for destruction of the follicles were best resolved by the 0.8 mm dose. Since 0.8 mm corresponded approximately to the depth of the follicles, these results indicated that the target tissues for follicular damage and tumor induction were separated in depth and that the target for tumor induction was probably located in the region above or near the midpoint of the follicles. When the radiation penetrated sufficiently to reach the entire follicle, the number of tumors produced was not significantly greater than the number observed previously in resting-phase skin, and it was inferred that the additional size and greater mitotic activity of the growing-phase follicles at the time of irradiation did not increase the probability of tumor induction

  19. cdk4 Deficiency Inhibits Skin Tumor Development but Does Not Affect Normal Keratinocyte Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L.; Miliani de Marval, Paula L.; LaCava, Margaret; Moons, David S.; Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Conti, Claudio J.

    2002-01-01

    Most human tumors have mutations that result in deregulation of the cdk4/cyclin-Ink4-Rb pathway. Overexpression of D-type cyclins or cdk4 and inactivation of Ink4 inhibitors are common in human tumors. Conversely, lack of cyclin D1 expression results in significant reduction in mouse skin and mammary tumor development. However, complete elimination of tumor development was not observed in these models, suggesting that other cyclin/cdk complexes play an important role in tumorigenesis. Here we described the effects of cdk4 deficiency on mouse skin proliferation and tumor development. Cdk4 deficiency resulted in a 98% reduction in the number of tumors generated through the two-stage carcinogenesis model. The absence of cdk4 did not affect normal keratinocyte proliferation and both wild-type and cdk4 knockout epidermis are equally affected after topical treatment with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), resulting in epidermal hyperplasia. In similar fashion, cdk4 knockout keratinocytes proliferated well in an in vivo model of wound-induced proliferation. Biochemical studies in mouse epidermis showed that cdk6 activity increased twofold in cdk4-deficient mice compared to wild-type siblings. These results suggest that therapeutic approaches to inhibit cdk4 activity could provide a target to inhibit tumor development with minimal or no effect in normal tissue. PMID:12163365

  20. Phenotype diversity in familial cylindromatosis: a frameshift mutation in the tumor suppressor gene CYLD underlies different tumors of skin appendages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete Gutiérrez, Pamela; Eggermann, Thomas; Höller, Daniela; Jugert, Frank K; Beermann, Torsten; Grussendorf-Conen, Elke-Ingrid; Zerres, Klaus; Merk, Hans F; Frank, Jorge

    2002-08-01

    Familial cylindromatosis (turban tumor syndrome; Brooke-Spiegler syndrome) (OMIM numbers 123850, 132700, 313100, and 605041) is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited tumor syndrome. The disorder can present with cutaneous adnexal tumors such as cylindromas, trichoepitheliomas, and spiradenomas, and tumors preferably develop in hairy areas of the body such as head and neck. In affected families, mutations have been demonstrated in the CYLD gene located on chromosome 16q12-13 and reveal the characteristic attributes of a tumor suppressor. Here, we studied familial cylindromatosis in a multigeneration family of German origin. Clinically, some individuals only revealed discrete small skin-colored tumors localized in the nasolabial region whereas one family member showed expansion of multiple big tumors on the trunk and in a turban-like fashion on the scalp. Histologically, cylindromas as well as epithelioma adenoides cysticum were found. We detected a frameshift mutation in the CYLD gene, designated 2253delG, underlying the disorder and were able to show that a single mutation can result in distinct clinical and histologic expression in familial cylindromatosis. The reasons for different expression patterns of the same genetic defect in this disease remain elusive, however. Identification of mutations in the CYLD gene enable us to rapidly confirm putative diagnoses on the genetic level and to provide affected families with genetic counseling.

  1. CD133 Expression in Normal Skin and in Epithelial Cutaneous Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Nam-Cha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Expression of human CD133 (human prominin-1 in cancer cells has been postulated to be a marker of stemness and is considered as a putative marker of cancer stem cells (CSCs. We designed a study to describe the expression pattern of CD133 in normal skin and in epithelial cutaneous neoplasms. Methods. The CD133 immunohistochemical expression of forty-three eccrine and apocrine tumors was compared to that observed in other epithelial tumors of the skin. In addition, flow cytometry was used to detect the CD133 expression of four epithelial skin neoplasms, including one porocarcinoma. Results. CD133 immunoreactivity at the apical or at the apicolateral surface of cells forming glandular structures was observed. Cells from solid areas of benign or malignant tumors were not stained. The porocarcinoma derived culture cells showed a 22% of CD133 positive cells using flow cytometry, while squamous cell carcinoma cultures contained less than 0.1%. Conclusions. These observations indicate that CD133 is a specific marker of glandular differentiation that could be included in the diagnostic panel of cutaneous tumors with possible eccrine or apocrine differentiation. However, the use of CD133 expression as a marker of CSCs should be interpreted with caution in experiments of skin.

  2. Management of a Gastrobronchial Fistula Connected to the Skin in a Giant Extragastric Stromal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors first treatment should be surgical resection, but when metastases are diagnosed or the tumor is unresectable, imatinib must be the first option. This treatment could induce some serious complications difficult to resolve. Case Report. We present a 47-year-old black man with a giant unresectable gastric stromal tumor under imatinib therapy who presented serious complications such as massive gastrointestinal bleeding and a gastrobronchial fistula connected with the skin, successfully treated by surgery and gastroscopy. Discussion. Complications due to imatinib therapy can result in life threatening. They represent a challenge for surgeons and digestologists; creative strategies are needed in order to resolve them.

  3. Slit2 promotes tumor growth and invasion in chemically induced skin carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Cuiling; Lan, Haimei; Ye, Jie; Li, Weidong; Wei, Ping; Yang, Yang; Guo, Simei; Lan, Tian; Li, Jiangchao; Zhang, Qianqian; He, Xiaodong; Wang, Lijing

    2014-07-01

    Slit, a neuronal guidance cue, binds to Roundabout (Robo) receptors to modulate neuronal, leukocytic, and endothelial migration. Slit has been reported to have an important effect on tumor growth and metastasis. In the current study, we evaluated the role of Slit2 in skin tumor growth and invasion in mice using a two-step chemical carcinogenesis protocol. We found that Slit2 expression correlated with the loss of basement membrane in the samples of human skin squamous cell carcinoma at different stages of disease progression. Slit2-Tg mice developed significantly more skin tumors than wild-type mice. Furthermore, the skin tumors that occurred in Slit2-Tg mice were significantly larger than those in the wild-type mice 10 weeks after 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene initiation until the end of the experiment. We also found that pathological development of the wild-type mice was delayed compared with that of Slit2-Tg mice. To further investigate the mechanism of increasing tumors in Slit2-Tg mice, we analyzed the expression of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in mouse skin lesions and found that the number of BrdU-positive cells and microvessel density in skin lesions were significantly higher in Slit2-Tg mice than in wild-type mice. Histological staining of PAS and type IV collagen and the colocalization of Slit2 and type IV collagen demonstrated varying degrees of loss of the basement membrane in the skin lesions from Slit2-Tg mice that were at the stage of carcinoma in situ. However, the basement membrane was well defined in the wild-type mice. In addition, MMP2, but not MMP9, was upregulated in the skin tissue of Slit2-Tg mice. Interruption of Slit2-Robo1 signaling by the antibody R5 significantly repressed the invasive capability of the squamous cell carcinoma cell line A431. Taken together, our findings reveal that Slit2 promotes DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumorigenesis by increasing cell proliferation, microvessel density, and invasive behavior of cutaneous squamous

  4. Spontaneous skin canine tumors: toluidine blue stain detection of mast cells in tissue section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALKETA QOKU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dog mast cell tumor (MCT is common in dog. The etiology of canine MCTs is unknown, but it is probably multi-factorial. Its incidence is higher than it has found in human. There are demonstrated several common biological and clinical characteristics in both species. Cutaneous mast cells are located in the dermis and hypodermis. The objective of this study is to detect of MC on Toluidine Blue stained slides. There were examined 74 dogs of difference breeds and aged, from Tirana city. Six of them demonstrated the skin canine tumors. Skin samples were obtained from these animals. Macroscopic examination of the tumor revealed nodular ulcerated lesion with areas of necrosis and hemorrhage, accompanied with normal superjacent epidermis and annexes. Serial sections obtained from biopsy specimens were processed with toluidine blue staining pH 4.5, specific for MC identification. This study suggests that Toluidine blue, pH 4.5 stain may give a good information about skin tumors in dog, histologically with benign behavior.

  5. Salient Points in Reconstruction of Nasal Skin after Tumor Ablation with Local Flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein Kalantar; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Azin; Rasouli, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A variety of nasal skin reconstruction methods are available to meet the esthetic patient's needs. In this article, we review some of modifications of these procedures and share our experience in reconstruction of different parts of the nasal skin following skin tumor ablation. Patients and Methods: From January 2010 to January 2014, 171 patients underwent nasal skin reconstruction after excising cancerous lesions of the involved nasal skin. The patient's history, pre- and post-operation photographs, and the surgery data were collected and assessed. Demographic data related to the type of cancer, defect size and location, type of reconstruction were collected. Results: A variety of local flaps were used based on location and defect features. Nearly all flaps healed primarily without postsurgical significant complications. Conclusion: According to the results and the outcomes of the operations, we concluded that a certain flaps are more effective than others in nasal skin reconstruction. Local flap reconstruction of the nose has good esthetic result with low complication rate.

  6. Effects of Nicotinamide on Mouse Skin Tumor Development and lts Mode of Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KRISHNA P. GUPTA

    1999-01-01

    Nicotinamide (NA), a naturally occuring vitamin and a protease inhibitor, has been shown to be effective in treating some skin ailments. It inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell differentiation. This report shows the effects of NA on mouse skin tumor development and on the critical events involved in this process. NA reduced tumor growth, inhibited the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol- 13-acetate (TPA) induced ornithine decarboxylase activity, but induced the transglutaminase activity which was inhibited by TPA under different experimental conditions.The effects of NA on ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and transglutaminase (TG) indicated that nicotinamide (NA) probably programmmed the cells for their death in the natural course of time, I.e. Programed cell death. This observation indicates that NA might be a better agent for the detailed study and for the better use in prevention of cancer alone or in combination with other drugs.

  7. The impact of intensity modulated radiotherapy on the skin dose for deep seated tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. S. Abou-Elenein; Ehab M. Attalla; Hany Ammar; Ismail Eldesoky; Mohamed Farouk; Shaimaa Shoer

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) on surface doses for brain, abdomen and pelvis deep located tumors treated with 6 MV photon and to evaluate the skin dose calculation accuracy of the XIO 4.04 treatment planning system. Methods: More investigations for the influences of IMRT on skin doses would increase its applications for many treatment sites. Measuring skin doses in real treatment situations would reduce the uncertainty of skin dose prediction. In this work a pediatric human phantom was covered by a layer of 1 mm bolus at three treatment sites and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips were inserted into the bolus at each treatment site before CT scan. Two different treatment plans [three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and IMRT] for each treatment sites were performed on XIO 4.04 treatment planning system using superposition algorism. Results: The results showed that the surface doses for 3DCRT were higher than the surface doses in IMRT by 1.6%, 2.5% and 3.2% for brain, abdomen and pelvis sites respectively. There was good agreement between measured and calculated surface doses, where the calculated surface dose was 15.5% for brain tumor calculated with 3DCRT whereas the measured surface dose was 12.1%. For abdomen site the calculated surface dose for IMRT treatment plan was 16.5% whereas the measured surface dose was 12.6%. Conclusion: The skin dose in IMRT for deep seated tumors is lower than that in 3DCRT which is another advantage for the IMRT. The TLD readings showed that the difference between the calculated and measured point dose is negligible. The superposition calculation algorism of the XIO 4.04 treatment planning system modeled the superficial dose well.

  8. Mechanisms of action of okadaic acid class tumor promoters on mouse skin

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    Fujiki, Hirota; Suganuma, Masami; Yoshizawa, Seiji; Nishiwaki, Shinji; Winyar, Boonsong (National Cancer Center Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)); Sugimura, Takashi (National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-06-01

    Okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 (35-methylokadaic acid), and calyculin A are the okadaic acid class of non-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-type tumor promoters, which do not bind to the phorbol ester receptors in cell membranes or activate protein kinase C in vitro. They have potent tumor-promoting activities on mouse skin, as strong as TPA-type tumor promoters, such as TPA, teleocidin, and aplysiatoxin. DNA samples isolated from tumors induced by dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and each of the okadaic acid class tumor promoters had the same mutation at the second nucleotide of codon 61 (CAA to CTA) in the c-H-ras gene. Okadaic acid receptors, protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, are present in the particulate as well as cytosolic fractions of various mouse tissues. The apparent activation of protein kinases by the okadaic acid class tumor promoters, after their incubation with {sup 32}P-ATP, protein kinases, and protein phosphatases, was observed. This activation was caused by inhibition of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A by the okadaic acid class tumor promoters. Treatment of primary human fibroblasts and human keratinocytes with the okadaic acid class tumor promoters induced the hyperphosphorylation of a 60-k-Da protein in nuclear and cytosolic fractions, due to the inhibition of protein phosphatases. The 60-kDa protein is a proteolytic fragment of nucleolin, a major nonhistone protein and is designated as N-60. The mechanisms of action of the okadaic acid class tumor promoters are discussed with emphasis on the inhibition of protein phosphatase activity.

  9. Plastic surgery for large wound defects using vascularized flops in treatment of skin and soft-tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results were presented on plastic and reconstructive -anaplastic surgery in resection of locally spread and relapse tumors of the skin and soft tissues after multiple courses of radiation and combined treatment. 38 patients with skin melanoma and softtissue sarcomas received radio- and/or chemotherapy in preoperative period under conditions of local hyperthermia of the tumor. Two types of plasty of large wound defects using vascularized flaps were considered

  10. A dicyanotriterpenoid induces cytoprotective enzymes and reduces multiplicity of skin tumors in UV-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inducible phase 2 enzymes constitute a primary line of cellular defense. The oleanane dicyanotriterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-onitrile (TP-225) is a very potent inducer of these systems. Topical application of TP-225 to SKH-1 hairless mice increases the levels of NAD(P)H-quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and protects against UV radiation-induced dermal thickening. Daily topical treatments of 10 nmol of TP-225 to the backs of mice that were previously subjected to low-level chronic UVB radiation (30 mJ/cm2/session, twice a week for 17 weeks), led to 50% reduction in multiplicity of skin tumors. In addition, the total tumor burden of squamous cell carcinomas was reduced by 5.5-fold. The identification of new agents for protection against UV radiation-induced skin cancer and understanding of their mechanism(s) of action is especially important in view of the fact that human skin cancers represent a significant source of increasing morbidity and mortality

  11. Modulatory influence of Phyllanthus niruri on oxidative stress, antioxidant defense and chemically induced skin tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Parmar, Jyoti; Verma, Preeti; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluates the modulatory potential of Phyllanthus niruri on chemically induced skin carcinogenesis, and its influence on oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system. Oral administration of P. niruri extract (PNE), during peri- (Gr. III), post- (Gr. IV), or peri- and post- (Gr. V) initiational stages of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (DMBA)-croton oil–induced papillomagenesis considerably reduced tumor burden to 4.20, 4.00, and 3.33(positive control value 6.20); cumulative number of papillomas to 21, 16, and 10, respectively, (positive control value 62); and incidence of mice bearing papillomas to 50, 40, and 30%, respectively (positive control value 100%), but significantly increased the average latent period to 10.14, 10.62, and 11.60, and inhibition of tumor multiplicity to 66, 74,and 83%, respectively. Enzyme analysis of skin and liver showed a significant (p ≤ 0.05, ≤ 0.01, ≤ 0.001) elevation in antioxidant parameters such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and vitamin C in PNE-treated groups (Gr. III–V) when compared with the carcinogen-treated control (Gr. II). The elevated level of lipid peroxidation in the carcinogen-treated positive control group was significantly (p ≤ 0.05, ≤ 0.01, ≤ 0.001) inhibited by PNE administration. These results indicate that P. niruri extract has potentiality to reduce skin papillomas by enhancing antioxidant defense system. PMID:21609315

  12. Granulomatous slack skin T-cell lymphoma: an important differential diagnosis with giant cell tumor of soft tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriano, André Ricardo; Lima, Tiago Silveira; Battistella, Maxime; Bagot, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Granulomatous slack skin is an indolent T-cell lymphoma, considered to be a variant of mycosis fungoides. Clinically it is characterized by areas of redundant skin, wrinkled, inelastic, with variable erythema and infiltration besides a poikilodermic surface. A differential diagnosis unknown to most dermatologists is the giant cell tumor of soft tissue, which is an extremely rare low-grade sarcoma. The authors report a patient who had undergone extensive surgery because of a primary diagnosis of giant cell tumor of soft tissue, but which proved to be granulomatous slack skin after a second interventional procedure with confirmatory histopathology. PMID:26734874

  13. Granulomatous slack skin T-cell lymphoma: an important differential diagnosis with giant cell tumor of soft tissue*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriano, André Ricardo; Lima, Tiago Silveira; Battistella, Maxime; Bagot, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Granulomatous slack skin is an indolent T-cell lymphoma, considered to be a variant of mycosis fungoides. Clinically it is characterized by areas of redundant skin, wrinkled, inelastic, with variable erythema and infiltration besides a poikilodermic surface. A differential diagnosis unknown to most dermatologists is the giant cell tumor of soft tissue, which is an extremely rare low-grade sarcoma. The authors report a patient who had undergone extensive surgery because of a primary diagnosis of giant cell tumor of soft tissue, but which proved to be granulomatous slack skin after a second interventional procedure with confirmatory histopathology. PMID:26734874

  14. Skin tumor-initiating activities of the twelve isomeric phenols of benzo(a)pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The skin tumor-initiating activities of the 12 isomeric phenols of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) were determined in mice by use of a two-stage system of tumorigenesis. 11-Hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene was moderately active, whereas 2-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene and BP were strong tumor initiators when applied topically to CD-1 mice and followed by twice-weekly applications of the promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. 1-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, 7-, 8-, 9-, 10-, and 12-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene had less than 5% of the tumor-initiating activity of BP when the data were expressed as papillomas per mouse. After 30 weeks of promotion, the number of papillomas per mouse was 8.4, 8.5, and 2.8, respectively, for the animals treated with BP, 2-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene, and 11-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene. A 5-week latency period before the appearance of the first tumor was observed after the application of either 2-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene or BP, whereas a slightly longer latency period of 7 weeks was observed following application of 11-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene. The time required for 50% of the animals to develop tumors was 13 weeks for animals treated with BP and 15 weeks for animals treated with 2- or 11-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene

  15. Spectrum of malignant skin adnexal tumors and ndash; a single institution study of 17 cases with clinicopathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima Vijayan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin adnexal tumors are a rare, assorted group of tumors with differentiation towards hair follicle, sebaceous glands or sweat glands. A vast majority of them are benign. But for every benign adnexal tumor, a malignant counterpart exists. Many histological subtypes of these malignant tumors been described, but only in short series or individual case reports. So, not much is known about their incidence or prognosis simply because of the limited number of cases available for analysis. This study was undertaken to contribute towards this less traversed area of dermatopathology. Methods: In the present study, a total of 60 cases with a histopathological diagnosis of skin adnexal tumors were studied. The slides and blocks were retrieved from the archives and were reviewed and were reclassified and subtyped as per WHO classification of skin tumors, 2006. Results: Among the 60 cases of adnexal tumors documented and reviewed over the four year study period, 17 cases of malignant adnexal tumors were encountered. Of these, 10 (58% were tumors with eccrine or apocrine differentiation, 5 (29% were of follicular differentiation and two (12% were of sebaceous differentiation. Mammary paget disease (MPD was the most frequent malignant tumor encountered both overall and among the tumors with eccrine and apocrine differentiation. Other tumors encountered in their order of frequency were Malignant proliferating trichelemmal tumor, apocrine carcinoma, sebaceous carcinoma and extramammary paget disease, trichelemmal carcinoma and eccrine carcinoma. These tumors were evaluated with regard to their age, site, gender distribution, clinical characters and histopathological features. Conclusion: Malignant adnexal tumors are extremely rare with indistinct clinical characteristics. They are locally aggressive, and have the potential for nodal involvement and distant metastasis, with a poor clinical outcome. A high index of suspicion is necessary to establish a

  16. Rare Skin Adnexal and Melanocytic Tumors Arising in Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratomas: A Report of 3 Cases and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulla, Alexandra A; Magdy, Nesreen; Francis, Nicholas; Taube, Janis; Ronnett, Brigitte M; El-Bahrawy, Mona

    2016-09-01

    Mature teratoma of the ovary is the most common primary ovarian tumor accounting for 15% (10%-20%) of all ovarian neoplasms. Skin and skin adnexal structures are the most common elements identified in mature teratomas. Benign and malignant skin tumors can arise in ovarian teratomas, the most common being epithelial tumors. Melanocytic and adnexal tumors developing in a teratoma are rare and can be easily overlooked. We report 3 cases and review melanocytic and skin adnexal tumors encountered in ovarian teratomas. PMID:26974995

  17. Topical photodynamic therapy with 5-ALA in the treatment of arsenic-induced skin tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrer, Sigrid; Szeimies, Rolf-Markus; Landthaler, Michael

    1995-03-01

    A case of a 62-year-old woman suffering from psoriasis who was treated orally with arsenic 25 years ago is reported. The cumulative dose of arsenic trioxide was 800 mg. Since 10 years ago arsenic keratoses, basal cell carcinomas, Bowen's disease and invasive squamous cell carcinomas mainly on her hands and feet have developed, skin changes were clearly a sequence of arsenic therapy. Control of disease was poor, her right little finger had to be amputated. Topical photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid was performed on her right hand. Clinical and histological examinations 6 months after treatment showed an excellent cosmetic result with no signs of tumor residue.

  18. Merkel cell tumor of the skin treated with localized radiotherapy: are widely negative margins required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Mark; Packard, Matthew; Velosa, Claudia; Silverman, Jan; Werts, Day; Parda, David

    2011-03-30

    Merkel's cell carcinoma is a rare cutaneous tumor that can affect a wide variety of sites throughout the body. Commonly, it affects the skin alone and the management of limited disease can be confusing since the natural history of the disease involves distant metastasis. Traditional management has required wide local excision with negative margins of resection. We describe a case treated with local therapy alone and review the literature to suggest that complete microscopic excision may not be required if adjuvant radiotherapy is used.

  19. Merkel cell tumor of the skin treated with localized radiotherapy: are widely negative margins required?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Parda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Merkel’s cell carcinoma is a rare cutaneous tumor that can affect a wide variety of sites throughout the body. Commonly, it affects the skin alone and the management of limited disease can be confusing since the natural history of the disease involves distant metastasis. Traditional management has required wide local excision with negative margins of resection. We describe a case treated with local therapy alone and review the literature to suggest that complete microscopic excision may not be required if adjuvant radiotherapy is used.

  20. Feasibility of multi-spectral imaging system to provide enhanced demarcation for skin tumor resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roode, Rowland; Noordmans, Herke Jan; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf

    2007-02-01

    Invading tumors like basal cell carcinoma have usually no distinct demarcation for the human eye. Therefore, during resection, an additional rim around the tumor is removed. However, extending sprouts can be missed since most lesions are not uniform. To improve the visualization of the tumor demarcation, we developed a multi-spectral imaging system especially adapted for dermatological applications based on tunable liquid crystal spectral tunable filter technology and LED illumination. Enhanced visualization of skin tumor demarcation was achieved using three strategies. The first strategy is based on creating false color images by combining narrow band spectral filtered images by placing them into the red, green and blue image components of a color image at three specific wavelengths. These specific wavelengths were determined using a trial on error tool to achieve the highest contrast between malignant and healthy tissue. The second strategy is to make ratio images of narrow band spectral filtered images at specific wavelengths. A trail on error tool was created which enables the user to try multiple wavelengths to obtain optimal contrast. This method could be applied in realtime. For the third strategy, on pixel spectral segmentation is applied by selecting the pixel spectra in the center of a tumor, surrounding tissue and healthy tissue far away from the tumor. The correlation between these specific spectra and all image pixels is calculated using a fast algorithm. The degree is correlation is graded by color coding and presented in a false color images showing a detailed demarcation of suspicious regions in the tissue. Although this strategy is expected to provide a higher specificity, it takes more time to calculate than the first strategy.

  1. Tumor-suppressor genes, cell cycle regulatory checkpoints, and the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cell cycle (or cell-division cycle is a series of events that take place in a cell, leading to its division and duplication. Cell division requires cell cycle checkpoints (CPs that are used by the cell to both monitor and regulate the progress of the cell cycle. Tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs or antioncogenes are genes that protect the cell from a single event or multiple events leading to cancer. When these genes mutate, the cell can progress to a cancerous state. We aimed to perform a narrative review, based on evaluation of the manuscripts published in MEDLINE-indexed journals using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms "tumor suppressor′s genes," "skin," and "cell cycle regulatory checkpoints." We aimed to review the current concepts regarding TSGs, CPs, and their association with selected cutaneous diseases. It is important to take into account that in some cell cycle disorders, multiple genetic abnormalities may occur simultaneously. These abnormalities may include intrachromosomal insertions, unbalanced division products, recombinations, reciprocal deletions, and/or duplication of the inserted segments or genes; thus, these presentations usually involve several genes. Due to their complexity, these disorders require specialized expertise for proper diagnosis, counseling, personal and family support, and genetic studies. Alterations in the TSGs or CP regulators may occur in many benign skin proliferative disorders, neoplastic processes, and genodermatoses.

  2. Topical application of ochratoxin A causes DNA damage and tumor initiation in mouse skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kumar

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer and 2-3 million new cases are being diagnosed globally each year. Along with UV rays, environmental pollutants/chemicals including mycotoxins, contaminants of various foods and feed stuffs, could be one of the aetiological factors of skin cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the DNA damaging potential and dermal carcinogenicity of a mycotoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA, with the rationale that dermal exposure to OTA in workers may occur during their involvement in pre and post harvest stages of agriculture. A single topical application of OTA (20-80 µg/mouse resulted in significant DNA damage along with elevated γ-H2AX level in skin. Alteration in oxidative stress markers such as lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl, glutathione content and antioxidant enzymes was observed in a dose (20-80 µg/mouse and time-dependent (12-72 h manner. The oxidative stress was further emphasized by the suppression of Nrf2 translocation to nucleus following a single topical application of OTA (80 µg/mouse after 24 h. OTA (80 µg/mouse application for 12-72 h caused significant enhancement in- (a reactive oxygen species generation, (b activation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK MAPKs, (c cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase (37-67%, (d induction of apoptosis (2.0-11.0 fold, (e expression of p53, p21/waf1, (f Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, (g cytochrome c level, (h activities of caspase 9 (1.2-1.8 fold and 3 (1.7-2.2 fold as well as poly ADP ribose polymerase cleavage. In a two-stage mouse skin tumorigenesis protocol, it was observed that a single topical application of OTA (80 µg/mouse followed by twice weekly application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate for 24 week leads to tumor formation. These results suggest that OTA has skin tumor initiating property which may be related to oxidative stress, MAPKs signaling and DNA damage.

  3. Increased IKKα expression in the basal layer of the epidermis of transgenic mice enhances the malignant potential of skin tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa P Alameda

    Full Text Available Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in humans. In this study we demonstrate that elevated IKKα expression in murine epidermis increases the malignancy potential of skin tumors. We describe the generation of transgenic mice overexpressing IKKα in the basal, proliferative layer of the epidermis and in the outer root sheath of hair follicles. The epidermis of K5-IKKα transgenic animals shows several alterations such as hyperproliferation, mislocalized expression of integrin-α6 and downregulation of the tumor suppressor maspin. Treatment of the back skin of mice with the mitogenic agent 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate causes in transgenic mice the appearance of different preneoplastic changes such as epidermal atypia with loss of cell polarity and altered epidermal tissue architecture, while in wild type littermates this treatment only leads to the development of benign epidermal hyperplasia. Moreover, in skin carcinogenesis assays, transgenic mice carrying active Ha-ras (K5-IKKα-Tg.AC mice develop invasive tumors, instead of the benign papillomas arising in wild type-Tg-AC mice also bearing an active Ha-ras. Therefore we provide evidence for a tumor promoter role of IKKα in skin cancer, similarly to what occurs in other neoplasias, including hepatocarcinomas and breast, prostate and colorectal cancer. The altered expression of cyclin D1, maspin and integrin-α6 in skin of transgenic mice provides, at least in part, the molecular bases for the increased malignant potential found in the K5-IKKα skin tumors.

  4. Malignant Tumor Derived from Skin Melanocytes of a Bovine of Unusual Presentation: A Case Study

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    Carlos Alberto Chaves Velásquez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Melanocytic tumors and melanomas in domestic animals include neoplasms composed of melanin-producing cells. In cattle, these tumors are rare and mostly benign, while malignant tumors are almost non-existent. The article reports the case of a female crossbred cow 38 months of age with a fluctuating mass located between the mandibular border and the left parotid region, about three months duration, with evident growth in the last thirty days. After surgical excision, a sample preserved in buffered formalin (10% was sent to the Laboratory of Pathology (University of Nariño—consisting of a fragment of 7.0 × 10.5 × 8.0 cm, ellipsoid, with skin and hair on one side, irregular surface, blackish brown, semi-soft consistency, and presence of shear translucent slimy content—for processing and inclusion in paraffin, cut to 5 μm thickness and stained with hematoxylin-eosin coloration. The forwarded tissue was classified as a neoplasm of malignant behavior derived from melanocytes, due to its cellular characteristics: growth pattern, pattern of distribution, severe cellular pleomorphism, anisocytosis, megalocytosis, nuclear pleomorphism, anisokaryosis, megalokaryosis, and involvement of blood vessel walls; additionally, the paraffin block was cut for immunohistochemical processing using monoclonal markers (S-100 DAKO® and Melan A DAKO®, contrasted with Mayer’s hematoxylin. Strong immunostaining of neoplastic cells is evident, and it constitutes the first reported case of this disease in Nariño (Colombia.

  5. Disruption of protein kinase Ceta results in impairment of wound healing and enhancement of tumor formation in mouse skin carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Kazuhiro; Hara, Takeshi; Hirai, Takaaki; Konishi, Chieko; Nakamura, Kenji; Nakao, Kazuki; Aiba, Atsu; Katsuki, Motoya; Kuroki, Toshio

    2003-05-15

    We have generated a mouse strain lacking protein kinase C (PKC) eta to evaluate its significance in epithelial organization and tumor formation. The PKCeta-deficient mice exhibited increased susceptibility to tumor formation in two-stage skin carcinogenesis by single application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) for tumor initiation and repeated applications of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for tumor promotion. The tumor formation was not enhanced by DMBA or TPA treatment alone, suggesting that PKCeta suppresses tumor promotion. Epidermal hyperplasia induced by topical TPA treatment was prolonged in the mutant mice. The enhanced tumor formation may be closely associated with the prolonged hyperplasia induced by topical TPA treatment. In the mutant mice, after inflicting injury by punch biopsy, wound healing on the dorsal skin, particularly reepithelialization, was significantly delayed and impaired in structure. Impairment of epithelial regeneration in wound healing indicates a possibility that PKCeta plays a role in maintenance of epithelial architecture. Homeostasis in epithelial tissues mediated by PKCeta is important for tumor formation in vivo. We propose that PKCeta is involved in tumor formation modulated by regulation of proliferation and remodeling of epithelial cells in vivo. PMID:12750259

  6. Loss of integrin α3 prevents skin tumor formation by promoting epidermal turnover and depletion of slow-cycling cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sachs, Norman; Secades, Pablo; van Hulst, Laura; Kreft, Maaike; Song, Ji-Ying; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2012-01-01

    Progression through the various stages of skin tumorigenesis is correlated with an altered expression of the integrin α3β1, suggesting that it plays an important role in the tumorigenic process. Using epidermis-specific Itga3 KO mice subjected to the 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate two-stage skin carcinogenesis protocol, we demonstrate that efficient tumor development is critically dependent on the presence of α3β1. In the absence of α3β1, tumor initiat...

  7. Oncogene activation in human benign tumors of the skin (keratoacanthomas): Is HRAS involved in differentiation as well as proliferation

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    Corominas, M.; Kamino, Hideko; Leon, J.; Pellicer, A. (New York Univ. Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1989-08-01

    In vitro DNA amplification followed by oligonucleotide mismatch hybridization was used to study the frequency of HRAS mutations in the benign self-regressing skin tumors keratoacanthomas and in squamous cell carcinomas. The authors used freshly obtained keratoacanthomas as well as Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from both types of tumors. DNA from 50 samples of each tumor type was analyzed for activating mutations involving codons 12 and 61. A relatively high percentage (30%) of HRAS mutations was found in the keratoacanthomas compared with 13% in the squamous cell carcinomas. The most frequent mutation identified is the A{center dot}T-to-T{center dot}A transversion in the second position of codon 61. The present findings demonstrate the involvement of the HRAS oncogene in human benign tumors. Moreover, they indicate that an activated HRAS oncogene is not sufficient to maintain a neoplastic phenotype and argue against a role of HRAS in the progression of skin tumorigenesis.

  8. Dietary proanthocyanidins inhibit UV radiation-induced skin tumor development through functional activation of the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Santosh K

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is equivalent to the incidence of malignancies in all other organs combined. The main risk factor for this disease is overexposure of the skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV irradiation induces inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and suppression of the immune system in the skin, which together contribute to carcinogenesis. The use of dietary phytochemicals shows great promise as a complementary and alternative strategy for skin cancer prevention. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been tested extensively for their anti-skin cancer effect using in vivo animal models. Supplementation of an AIN76A control diet with GSPs (0.2 and 0.5%, w/w) significantly inhibits UV radiation-induced skin tumor development as well as malignant transformation of papillomas to carcinoma in mice. The inhibition of UVB-induced skin tumor development by GSPs is mediated through interrelated mechanisms of action including: (i) inhibition of inflammation, (ii) rapid repair of damaged DNA, and (iii) stimulation of immune system. Additionally, the chemopreventive effects of GSPs involve DNA repair-dependent functional activation of antigen-presenting cells and stimulation of CD8(+) effector T cells. These effects of GSPs could be useful in attenuation of the adverse effects of UV radiation and may have health benefits in humans. PMID:26991736

  9. Mixed germ cell tumor metastatic to the skin: Case report and literature review

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    Chang Ying-Hsu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Testicular cancer is the most common cancer for males aged 15~35 years old. The initial presentation is typically an asymptomatic enlarged testicle. The retroperitoneum is the most common metastatic area. Other metastatic sites include the lung, liver, brain, adrenal glands, gastrointestinal tract and spleen. Skin metastasis is a rare event and frequently associated with poor prognosis. Case presentation A 19-year old male was diagnosed testicular mixed germ cell tumor with initial presentation of cutaneous metastasis at scalp and upper abdomen. After radical orchiectomy and four courses of cisplatin-based chemotherapy, the scalp and upper abdominal lesions regressed completely. The size of lung metastases remained unchanged. Conclusions For advanced stage testicular cancer, cisplatin-based chemotherapy is still effective to achieve partial response.

  10. TIG3 tumor suppressor-dependent organelle redistribution and apoptosis in skin cancer cells.

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    Tiffany M Scharadin

    Full Text Available TIG3 is a tumor suppressor protein that limits keratinocyte survival during normal differentiation. It is also important in cancer, as TIG3 level is reduced in tumors and in skin cancer cell lines, suggesting that loss of expression may be required for cancer cell survival. An important goal is identifying how TIG3 limits cell survival. In the present study we show that TIG3 expression in epidermal squamous cell carcinoma SCC-13 cells reduces cell proliferation and promotes morphological and biochemical apoptosis. To identify the mechanism that drives these changes, we demonstrate that TIG3 localizes near the centrosome and that pericentrosomal accumulation of TIG3 alters microtubule and microfilament organization and organelle distribution. Organelle accumulation at the centrosome is a hallmark of apoptosis and we demonstrate that TIG3 promotes pericentrosomal organelle accumulation. These changes are associated with reduced cyclin D1, cyclin E and cyclin A, and increased p21 level. In addition, Bax level is increased and Bcl-XL level is reduced, and cleavage of procaspase 3, procaspase 9 and PARP is enhanced. We propose that pericentrosomal localization of TIG3 is a key event that results in microtubule and microfilament redistribution and pericentrosomal organelle clustering and that leads to cancer cell apoptosis.

  11. Correlations between skin lesions induced by anti-tumor necrosis factor-α and selected cytokines in Crohn's disease patients

    OpenAIRE

    Włodarczyk, Marcin; Sobolewska, Aleksandra; Wójcik, Bartosz; Loga, Karolina; Fichna, Jakub; Wiśniewska-Jarosińska, Maria

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation between the appearance of skin lesions and concentration of interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-23 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients during anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) therapy

  12. Determinants of prognosis in breast cancer patients with tumor involvement of the skin (pT4b).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieland, A.W.; Louwman, M.W.; Voogd, A.C.; Beek, M.W. van; Vreugdenhil, G.R.; Roumen, R.M.H.

    2004-01-01

    Determinants of prognosis were studied in patients with breast cancer with histologically proven tumor extension to the skin without clinical evidence of distant metastases (i.e., pT4b N0-3 M0). Data were collected retrospectively on 77 consecutive patients diagnosed in one community teaching hospit

  13. Targeted expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL in skin protects mice against chemical carcinogenesis

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    Gronemeyer Hinrich

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene ablation studies have revealed that tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, Apo2L, TNFSF10 plays a crucial role in tumor surveillance, as TRAIL-deficient mice exhibit an increased sensitivity to different types of tumorigenesis. In contrast, possible tumor-protective effect of increased levels of endogenous TRAIL expression in vivo has not been assessed yet. Such models will provide important information about the efficacy of TRAIL-based therapies and potential toxicity in specific tissues. Methods To this aim, we engineered transgenic mice selectively expressing TRAIL in the skin and subjected these mice to a two-step chemical carcinogenesis protocol that generated benign and preneoplastic lesions. We were therefore able to study the effect of increased TRAIL expression at the early steps of skin tumorigenesis. Results Our results showed a delay of tumor appearance in TRAIL expressing mice compared to their wild-type littermates. More importantly, the number of tumors observed in transgenic animals was significantly lower than in the control animals, and the lesions observed were mostly benign. Interestingly, Wnt/β-catenin signaling differed between tumors of wild-type and TRAIL transgenics. Conclusion Altogether, these data reveal that, at least in this model, TRAIL is able on its own to act on pre-transformed cells, and reduce their tumorigenic potential.

  14. Oncogene amplification detected by in situ hybridization in radiation induced rat skin tumors. [C-myc:a3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Jin.

    1991-02-01

    Oncogene activation may play an important role in radiation induced carcinogenesis. C-myc oncogene amplification was detected by in situ hybridization in radiation-induced rat skin tumors, including squamous and basal cell carcinomas. In situ hybridization was performed with a biotinylated human c-myc third exon probe, visualized with an avidin-biotinylated alkaline phosphate detection system. No c-myc oncogene amplification was detected in normal rat skin at very early times after exposure to ionizing radiation, which is consistent with the view that c-myc amplification is more likely to be related to carcinogenesis than to normal cell proliferation. The incorporation of tritiated thymidine into the DNA of rat skin cells showed that the proliferation of epidermal cells reached a peak on the seventh day after exposure to ionizing radiation and then decreased. No connection between the proliferation of epidermal cell and c-myc oncogene amplification in normal or irradiated rat skin was found. The results indicated that c-myc amplification as measured by in situ hybridization was correlated with the Southern bolt results, but only some of the cancer cells were amplified. The c-myc positive cells were distributed randomly within regions of the tumor and exhibited a more uniform nuclear structure in comparison to the more vacuolated c-myc negative cells. No c-myc signal was detected in unirradiated normal skin or in irradiated skin cells near the tumors. C-myc amplification appears to be cell or cell cycle specific within radiation-induced carcinomas. 28 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Effects of type and amount of dietary fat on mouse skin tumor promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, H H; Locniskar, M F; Bechtel, D; Fischer, S M

    1994-01-01

    In a previous study (Cancer Res 51, 907, 1991) in which we found an inverse relationship between quantity of dietary corn oil and saturated fat, in a constant 15% fat diet, on the tumor promotion stage of skin carcinogenesis, it was not clear whether one or both types of fat played a modulatory role. The purpose of the present study therefore was to compare the effect of 1) increasing corn oil in corn oil-only diets and 2) increasing saturated fat, with a constant level of 5% corn oil, on tumor promotion. In the first study, the effects of five levels of dietary corn oil (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%) on the incidence and rat of papilloma and carcinoma development were determined in female Sencar mice fed these diets one week after initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and three weeks before the start of promotion with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. A papilloma incidence of 100% was reached first in the 5% corn oil group, at 10 weeks, followed by the 10% group at 13 weeks and the 15% and 20% group at 16 weeks. The highest corn oil group achieved a 90% incidence. There were marked differences in latency of carcinoma development among the diet groups. At Week 29, the cumulative carcinoma incidence was 56% and 32%, respectively, in the 5% and 10% corn oil groups, whereas the incidence in the two highest corn oil (20% and 25%) groups was only 8% and 4%, respectively. In the second study, the effects of diets containing 5% corn oil and increasing levels of coconut oil (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) on the incidence and rat of papilloma and carcinoma development were determined, as described above. No significant difference in latency or incidence of papillomas or carcinomas was noted among these saturated fat diet groups. It thus appears that higher levels of dietary corn oil are associated with a reduced cancer incidence in this model system.

  16. Resveratrol and black tea polyphenol combination synergistically suppress mouse skin tumors growth by inhibition of activated MAPKs and p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine George

    Full Text Available Cancer chemoprevention by natural dietary agents has received considerable importance because of their cost-effectiveness and wide safety margin. However, single agent intervention has failed to bring the expected outcome in clinical trials; therefore, combinations of chemopreventive agents are gaining increasing popularity. The present study aims to evaluate the combinatorial chemopreventive effects of resveratrol and black tea polyphenol (BTP in suppressing two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis induced by DMBA and TPA. Resveratrol/BTP alone treatment decreased tumor incidence by ∼67% and ∼75%, while combination of both at low doses synergistically decreased tumor incidence even more significantly by ∼89% (p<0.01. This combination also significantly regressed tumor volume and number (p<0.01. Mechanistic studies revealed that this combinatorial inhibition was associated with decreased expression of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase family proteins: extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2, p38 and increased in total p53 and phospho p53 (Ser 15 in skin tissue/tumor. Treatment with combinations of resveratrol and BTP also decreased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in mouse skin tissues/tumors than their solitary treatments as determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, histological and cell death analysis also confirmed that resveratrol and BTP treatment together inhibits cellular proliferation and markedly induces apoptosis. Taken together, our results for the first time lucidly illustrate that resveratrol and BTP in combination impart better suppressive activity than either of these agents alone and accentuate that development of novel combination therapies/chemoprevention using dietary agents will be more beneficial against cancer. This promising combination should be examined in therapeutic trials of skin and possibly other cancers.

  17. Identification of an mtDNA mutation hot spot in UV-induced mouse skin tumors producing altered cellular biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandova, Jana; Eshaghian, Alex; Shi, Mingjian; Li, Meiling; King, Lloyd E; Janda, Jaroslav; Sligh, James E

    2012-02-01

    There is increasing awareness of the role of mtDNA alterations in the development of cancer, as mtDNA point mutations are found at high frequency in a variety of human tumors. To determine the biological effects of mtDNA mutations in UV-induced skin tumors, hairless mice were irradiated to produce tumors, and the tumor mtDNAs were screened for single-nucleotide changes using temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis (TGCE), followed by direct sequencing. A mutation hot spot (9821insA) in the mitochondrially encoded tRNA arginine (mt-Tr) locus (tRNA(Arg)) was discovered in approximately one-third of premalignant and malignant skin tumors. To determine the functional relevance of this particular mutation in vitro, cybrid cell lines containing different mt-Tr (tRNA(Arg)) alleles were generated. The resulting cybrid cell lines contained the same nuclear genotype and differed only in their mtDNAs. The biochemical analysis of the cybrids revealed that the mutant haplotype is associated with diminished levels of complex I protein (CI), resulting in lower levels of baseline oxygen consumption and lower cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. We hypothesize that this specific mtDNA mutation alters cellular biochemistry, supporting the development of keratinocyte neoplasia.

  18. Loss of integrin α3 prevents skin tumor formation by promoting epidermal turnover and depletion of slow-cycling cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Norman; Secades, Pablo; van Hulst, Laura; Kreft, Maaike; Song, Ji-Ying; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2012-12-26

    Progression through the various stages of skin tumorigenesis is correlated with an altered expression of the integrin α3β1, suggesting that it plays an important role in the tumorigenic process. Using epidermis-specific Itga3 KO mice subjected to the 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate two-stage skin carcinogenesis protocol, we demonstrate that efficient tumor development is critically dependent on the presence of α3β1. In the absence of α3β1, tumor initiation is dramatically decreased because of increased epidermal turnover, leading to a loss of DMBA-initiated label-retaining keratinocytes. Lineage tracing revealed emigration of α3-deficient keratinocytes residing in the bulge of the hair follicle toward the interfollicular epidermis. Furthermore, tumor growth and cell proliferation were strongly reduced in mice with an epidermis-specific deletion of Itga3. However, the rate of progression of α3β1-null squamous cell carcinomas to undifferentiated, invasive carcinomas was increased. Therefore, α3β1 critically affects skin carcinogenesis with opposing effects early and late in tumorigenesis. PMID:23236172

  19. The Rho exchange factors Vav2 and Vav3 favor skin tumor initiation and promotion by engaging extracellular signaling loops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Menacho-Márquez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic activity of GDP/GTP exchange factors (GEFs is considered critical to maintain the typically high activity of Rho GTPases found in cancer cells. However, the large number of them has made it difficult to pinpoint those playing proactive, nonredundant roles in tumors. In this work, we have investigated whether GEFs of the Vav subfamily exert such specific roles in skin cancer. Using genetically engineered mice, we show here that Vav2 and Vav3 favor cooperatively the initiation and promotion phases of skin tumors. Transcriptomal profiling and signaling experiments indicate such function is linked to the engagement of, and subsequent participation in, keratinocyte-based autocrine/paracrine programs that promote epidermal proliferation and recruitment of pro-inflammatory cells. This is a pathology-restricted mechanism because the loss of Vav proteins does not cause alterations in epidermal homeostasis. These results reveal a previously unknown Rho GEF-dependent pro-tumorigenic mechanism that influences the biology of cancer cells and their microenvironment. They also suggest that anti-Vav therapies may be of potential interest in skin tumor prevention and/or treatment.

  20. Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Anthony J

    2004-04-01

    Human skin provides a barrier between the host and the physical, chemical, and biological environment. It is also a potential portal of entry for hazardous or infectious agents and a potential target of environmental toxins. Cutaneous vulnerability may take on many forms in the embryo, infant, child, and adolescent. Teratogenic agents may occasionally target skin, as appreciated in the proposed association of the antithyroid medication methimazole, with the congenital malformation known as aplasia cutis congenita. Percutaneous absorption of topically applied substances and the potential for resultant drug toxicities are important considerations in the child. Many topical agents have been associated with systemic toxicity, including alcohol, hexachlorophene, iodine-containing compounds, eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, and lindane. Percutaneous toxicity is of greatest concern in the premature infant, in whom immaturity of the epidermal permeability barrier results in disproportionately increased absorption. Immature drug metabolism capabilities may further contribute to the increased risk in this population. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure, which increases an individual's risk of cutaneous carcinogenesis, may be a particularly significant risk factor when it occurs during childhood. The "critical period hypothesis" suggests that UV exposure early in life increases the risk of eventual development of malignant melanoma. Other risk factors for malignant melanoma may include severe sunburns during childhood, intense intermittent UV exposure, and increased susceptibility of pediatric melanocytes to UV-induced DNA damage. Last, percutaneous exposure to environmental toxins and chemicals, such as insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls, may differ between children and adults for several reasons, including behavioral patterns, anatomic and physiologic variations, and developmental differences of vital organs. PMID:15060207

  1. Tumor Vascularity Is Not a Prognostic Factor for Malignant Melanoma of the Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Busam, Klaus J.; Berwick, Marianne; Blessing, Karen; Fandrey, Katrin; Kang, Sewon; Karaoli, Themis; Fine, Judy; Cochran, Alistair J.; White, Wain L.; Rivers, Jason; Elder, David E; Po Wen, Duan-Ren; Heyman, Bradley H.; Barnhill, Raymond L.

    1995-01-01

    Tumor vascularity has been proposed as a prognostic indicator for a number of solid tumors. Although a correlation between microvessel number and metastatic behavior has also been suggested for cutaneous melanoma, the small number of cases studied to date allows one to draw only preliminary conclusions. In this study, we have assessed tumor vascularity in cutaneous melanoma by comparing 60 cases of metastasizing and non-metastasizing tumors matched for tumor thickness, age, sex, and anatomic ...

  2. CDK2 Activation in Mouse Epidermis Induces Keratinocyte Proliferation but Does Not Affect Skin Tumor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Everardo; Miliani de Marval, Paula L.; De Siervi, Adriana; Conti, Claudio J.; Senderowicz, Adrian M.; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L.

    2008-01-01

    It has been widely assumed that elevated CDK2 kinase activity plays a contributory role in tumorigenesis. We have previously shown that mice overexpressing CDK4 under control of the keratin 5 promoter (K5CDK4 mice) develop epidermal hyperplasia and increased susceptibility to squamous cell carcinomas. In this model, CDK4 overexpression results in increased CDK2 activity associated with the noncatalytic function of CDK4, sequestration of p21Cip1 and p27Kip1. Furthermore, we have shown that ablation of Cdk2 reduces Ras-Cdk4 tumorigenesis, suggesting that increased CDK2 activity plays an important role in Ras-mediated tumorigenesis. To investigate this hypothesis, we generated two transgenic mouse models of elevated CDK2 kinase activity, K5Cdk2 and K5Cdk4D158N mice. The D158N mutation blocks CDK4 kinase activity without interfering with its binding capability. CDK2 activation via overexpression of CDK4D158N, but not of CDK2, resulted in epidermal hyperplasia. We observed elevated levels of p21Cip1 in K5Cdk2, but not in K5Cdk4D158N, epidermis, suggesting that CDK2 overexpression elicits a p21Cip1 response to maintain keratinocyte homeostasis. Surprisingly, we found that neither CDK2 overexpression nor the indirect activation of CDK2 enhanced skin tumor development. Thus, although the indirect activation of CDK2 is sufficient to induce keratinocyte hyperproliferation, activation of CDK2 alone does not induce malignant progression in Ras-mediated tumorigenesis. PMID:18599613

  3. Grape seed proanthocyanidins reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes in human skin cancer cells by targeting epigenetic regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been shown to have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in in vitro and in vivo models. However, the precise epigenetic molecular mechanisms remain unexplored. This study was designed to investigate whether GSPs reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes following epigenetic modifications in skin cancer cells. For this purpose, A431 and SCC13 human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were used as in vitro models. The effects of GSPs on DNA methylation, histone modifications and tumor suppressor gene expressions were studied in these cell lines using enzyme activity assays, western blotting, dot-blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that treatment of A431 and SCC13 cells with GSPs decreased the levels of: (i) global DNA methylation, (ii) 5-methylcytosine, (iii) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and (iv) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b in these cells. Similar effects were noted when these cancer cells were treated identically with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation. GSPs decreased histone deacetylase activity, increased levels of acetylated lysines 9 and 14 on histone H3 (H3-Lys 9 and 14) and acetylated lysines 5, 12 and 16 on histone H4, and reduced the levels of methylated H3-Lys 9. Further, GSP treatment resulted in re-expression of the mRNA and proteins of silenced tumor suppressor genes, RASSF1A, p16INK4a and Cip1/p21. Together, this study provides a new insight into the epigenetic mechanisms of GSPs and may have significant implications for epigenetic therapy in the treatment/prevention of skin cancers in humans. -- Highlights: ►Epigenetic modulations have been shown to have a role in cancer risk. ►Proanthocyanidins decrease the levels of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. ►Proanthocyanidins inhibit histone deacetylase activity in skin cancer cells. ►Proanthocyanidins reactivate tumor suppressor genes in skin cancer

  4. Grape seed proanthocyanidins reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes in human skin cancer cells by targeting epigenetic regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaid, Mudit; Prasad, Ram; Singh, Tripti; Jones, Virginia [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Katiyar, Santosh K., E-mail: skatiyar@uab.edu [Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been shown to have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in in vitro and in vivo models. However, the precise epigenetic molecular mechanisms remain unexplored. This study was designed to investigate whether GSPs reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes following epigenetic modifications in skin cancer cells. For this purpose, A431 and SCC13 human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were used as in vitro models. The effects of GSPs on DNA methylation, histone modifications and tumor suppressor gene expressions were studied in these cell lines using enzyme activity assays, western blotting, dot-blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that treatment of A431 and SCC13 cells with GSPs decreased the levels of: (i) global DNA methylation, (ii) 5-methylcytosine, (iii) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and (iv) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b in these cells. Similar effects were noted when these cancer cells were treated identically with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation. GSPs decreased histone deacetylase activity, increased levels of acetylated lysines 9 and 14 on histone H3 (H3-Lys 9 and 14) and acetylated lysines 5, 12 and 16 on histone H4, and reduced the levels of methylated H3-Lys 9. Further, GSP treatment resulted in re-expression of the mRNA and proteins of silenced tumor suppressor genes, RASSF1A, p16{sup INK4a} and Cip1/p21. Together, this study provides a new insight into the epigenetic mechanisms of GSPs and may have significant implications for epigenetic therapy in the treatment/prevention of skin cancers in humans. -- Highlights: ►Epigenetic modulations have been shown to have a role in cancer risk. ►Proanthocyanidins decrease the levels of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. ►Proanthocyanidins inhibit histone deacetylase activity in skin cancer cells. ►Proanthocyanidins reactivate tumor suppressor genes in skin

  5. Intake of high-fat diet stimulates the risk of ultraviolet radiation-induced skin tumors and malignant progression of papillomas to carcinoma in SKH-1 hairless mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaid, Mudit; Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Katiyar, Santosh K., E-mail: skatiyar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that administration of a high-fat diet (HF-diet) to C57BL/6 mice exacerbates their response to short-term UVB radiation-induced inflammation in the skin. To explore the effects of an HF-diet on UVB-induced tumorigenesis, we have used the SKH-1 hairless mouse model in which the mice are exposed to UVB radiation (180 mJ/cm{sup 2}) three times a week for 24 weeks. The development of UVB-induced skin tumors was rapid and the tumor multiplicity and tumor size were significantly higher (P < 0.01–0.005) in the mice fed an HF-diet than the mice fed a control-diet (C-diet). Moreover, the malignant progression of UVB-induced papillomas to carcinomas was higher in HF-diet-fed mice. On analysis of tumors and tumor-uninvolved skin samples from the tumor-bearing mice, we found that administration of an HF-diet significantly enhanced the levels of UVB-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E{sub 2} (P < 0.01), and PGE{sub 2} receptors, and activation of NF-κB in the UVB-exposed skin as well as in tumors. In addition the HF-diet enhanced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (P < 0.01), interleukin (IL)-1β (P < 0.01) and IL-6 (P < 0.05) in the UVB-exposed skin as well as in tumors. Western blot analysis revealed that HF-diet enhanced the levels of epidermal cell proliferation, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phosphorylation of Akt at Ser{sup 473} in UVB-exposed skin and skin tumors. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the regular consumption of an HF-diet increases the risk of photocarcinogenesis in mice and that this is associated with enhanced expression of inflammatory mediators in the UVB-exposed skin and tumors. - Highlights: • Consumption of high-fat diet increases UVB-induced skin tumor development in mice. • Intake of high-fat diet stimulates progression of UV-induced papilloma to carcinoma. • Intake of high-fat diet enhances inflammation in UV-exposed skin • Regular

  6. Dynamic changes of interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor in i ntermingled skin graft in burned rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the dynamic changes of int erleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in intermingled skin graft with those in other types of skin grafts in rats.   Methods: A 10%-15% third-degree burn was created in 180 Spreg ue-Dawley (SD) rats. After removing the scar, skin grafts were performed on the open wounds immediately with autoskin (aus, n=54), allosk in (als, n=54) and intermingled skin (n=36). That is to say, in the intermingled skin graft, a big piece of alloskin (mals) was grafted first, and 3 days later, small pieces of autoskin (maus) wer e embedded in the alloskin. The rest 36 rats were taken as the controls. And the biological activities of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF in graft sheets in each group wer e detected after skin graft.   Results: The levels of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF in the aus group de creased steadily after their initial elevations, whereas in the als group they i ncreased significantly and kept on the peak level in the later phases. In the in termingled group, there appeared a lowest IL-1 level in the mals and a highest one in the maus simultaneously at 7 (4) days (The number out of parenthesis is t he days after transplanting with alloskin sheets, and the number in parenthesis is the days after embedding autoskin sheets in the intermingled skin graft. Simi larly hereinafter.) after skin graft (P<0.01), and the high level in the maus abruptly decreased at 14 (11) days after skin graft. At exactly the same phase on day 7 (4), a prominent peaked IL-6 in the mals occurr ed. In the later phases, the levels of TNF remained relatively low both in the m als and in the maus. From day 7 (4) on, each cytokine fluctuation in the mals sy nchronized with that in the maus. The longer the post transplantation period las ted, the more the positive cytokine correlated between the mals and the maus.   Conclusions: The low levels of IL-1 and TNF may be important f actors to lighten the intensity of local

  7. Combined effect of cyclin D3 expression and abrogation of cyclin D1 prevent mouse skin tumor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian; Sistrunk, Christopher; Miliani de Marval, Paula L; Kim, Yongbaek

    2012-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that ras-mediated skin tumorigenesis depends on signaling pathways that act preferentially through cyclin D1 and D2. Interestingly, the expression of cyclin D3 inhibits skin tumor development, an observation that conflicts with the oncogenic role of D-type cyclins in the mouse epidermis. Here, we show that simultaneous up and downregulation of particular members of the D-type cyclin family is a valuable approach to reduce skin tumorigenesis. We developed the K5D3/cyclin D1−/− compound mouse, which overexpresses cyclin D3 but lacks expression of cyclin D1 in the skin. Similar to K5D3 transgenic mice, keratinocytes from K5D3/cyclin D1−/− compound mice show a significant reduction of cyclin D2 levels. Therefore, this model allows us to determine the effect of cyclin D3 expression when combined with reduced or absent expression of the remaining two members of the D-type cyclin family in mouse epidermis. Our data show that induced expression of cyclin D3 compensates for the reduced level of cyclin D1 and D2, resulting in normal keratinocyte proliferation. However, simultaneous ablation of cyclin D1 and downregulation of cyclin D2 via cyclin D3 expression resulted in a robust reduction in ras-mediated skin tumorigenesis. We conclude that modulation of the levels of particular members of the D-type cyclin family could be useful to inhibit tumor development and, in particular, ras-mediated tumorigenesis. PMID:22214766

  8. Deoxynivalenol induced mouse skin tumor initiation: Elucidation of molecular mechanisms in human HaCaT keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sakshi; Tewari, Prachi; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Dwivedi, Premendra D; Pandey, Haushila P; Das, Mukul

    2016-11-01

    Among food contaminants, mycotoxins are toxic to both human and animal health. Our prior studies suggest that Deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin, behaves as a tumor promoter by inducing edema, hyperplasia, ODC activity and activation of MAPK's in mouse skin. In this study, topical application of DON, 336 and 672 nmol significantly enhanced ROS levels, DNA damage and apoptosis with concomitant downregulation of Ki-67, cyclin D, cyclin E, cyclin A and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4 and CDK2) thereby resulting in tumor initiation in mouse skin. Further, the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of tumor initiation by DON (0.42-3.37 nmol/ml) in HaCaT keratinocytes, revealed (i) enhanced ROS generation with cell cycle phase arrest in G0/G1 phase, (ii) increase in levels of 8-OxoG (6-24 hr) and γH2AX protein, (iii) significant enhancement in oxidative stress marker enzymes LPO, GSH, GR with concomitant decrease in antioxidant enzymes catalase, GPx, GST, SOD and mitochondrial membrane potential after DON (1.68 nmol) treatment, (iv) suppression of Nrf2 translocation to nucleus, enhanced phosphorylation with subsequent activation ERK1/2, p38 and JNK MAPK's following DON (1.68 nmol) treatment, (v) overexpression of c-jun, c-fos proteins, upregulation of Bax along with downregulation of Bcl-2 proteins, (vi) increase in cytochrome-c, caspase-9, caspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase levels leads to apoptosis. Pretreatment of superoxide dismutase, mannitol and ethanol to HaCaT cells resulted in significant reduction in ROS levels and apoptosis indicating the role of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in DON induced apoptosis as an early event and skin tumor initiation as a late event. PMID:27389473

  9. Deoxynivalenol induced mouse skin tumor initiation: Elucidation of molecular mechanisms in human HaCaT keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sakshi; Tewari, Prachi; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Dwivedi, Premendra D; Pandey, Haushila P; Das, Mukul

    2016-11-01

    Among food contaminants, mycotoxins are toxic to both human and animal health. Our prior studies suggest that Deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin, behaves as a tumor promoter by inducing edema, hyperplasia, ODC activity and activation of MAPK's in mouse skin. In this study, topical application of DON, 336 and 672 nmol significantly enhanced ROS levels, DNA damage and apoptosis with concomitant downregulation of Ki-67, cyclin D, cyclin E, cyclin A and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4 and CDK2) thereby resulting in tumor initiation in mouse skin. Further, the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of tumor initiation by DON (0.42-3.37 nmol/ml) in HaCaT keratinocytes, revealed (i) enhanced ROS generation with cell cycle phase arrest in G0/G1 phase, (ii) increase in levels of 8-OxoG (6-24 hr) and γH2AX protein, (iii) significant enhancement in oxidative stress marker enzymes LPO, GSH, GR with concomitant decrease in antioxidant enzymes catalase, GPx, GST, SOD and mitochondrial membrane potential after DON (1.68 nmol) treatment, (iv) suppression of Nrf2 translocation to nucleus, enhanced phosphorylation with subsequent activation ERK1/2, p38 and JNK MAPK's following DON (1.68 nmol) treatment, (v) overexpression of c-jun, c-fos proteins, upregulation of Bax along with downregulation of Bcl-2 proteins, (vi) increase in cytochrome-c, caspase-9, caspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase levels leads to apoptosis. Pretreatment of superoxide dismutase, mannitol and ethanol to HaCaT cells resulted in significant reduction in ROS levels and apoptosis indicating the role of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in DON induced apoptosis as an early event and skin tumor initiation as a late event.

  10. Tumorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prause, J.U.; Heegaard, S.

    2005-01-01

    oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer......oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer...

  11. Anti-tumor activity of Phyllanthus niruri (a medicinal plant) on chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Parmar, Jyoti; Verma, Preeti; Sharma, Priyanka; Goyal, P K

    2009-01-01

    Chemoprevention is an important strategy to control the process of carcinogenesis. The potential of using medicinal herbs as cancer chemopreventive nutraceuticals and functional food is promising. Thus, there is a need for exploring drugs/agents which act as chemopreventive agents. Phyllanthus niruri is a well known medicinal plant which has been used in Ayurvedic medicine as hepatoprotective, antiviral, antibacterial, analgesic, antispasmodic and antidiabetic. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of a hydro-alcoholic extract of the whole plant, in 7-9 week old male Swiss albino mice, on the two stage process of skin carcinogenesis induced by a single topical application of 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a)anthracene (100 microg/100 microl acetone) and two weeks later promoted by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone/three times a week) till the end of experiment (16 weeks). The oral administration of P. niruri at a dose of 1000 mg/kg/b.wt. at peri- (i.e. 7 days before and 7 days after DMBA application) and post- (i.e. starting from the croton oil application) initiational phase of papillomagenesis caused significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor yield, tumor burden and cumulative number of papillomas as compared to carcinogen-treated controls. Furthermore, the average latent period was significantly increased in the PNE treated group. The results thus suggest that P. niruri extract exhibits significant anti-tumor activity, which supports the traditional medicinal utilization of this plant. PMID:20192590

  12. Effects of high-fat diets rich in either omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids on UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, You-Rong; Peng, Qing-Yun; Li, Tao; Medvecky, Christopher M.; Lin, Yong; Shih, Weichung Joe; Conney, Allan H.; Shapses, Sue; Wagner, George C.; Lu, Yao-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Our previous studies reported that caffeine or voluntary exercise decreased skin tumor multiplicity, in part, by decreasing fat levels in the dermis. These data suggest that tissue fat may play an important role in regulating ultraviolet light (UV) B-induced skin tumor development. In the present study, we explored the effects of high-fat diets rich in either omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids on UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis. SKH-1 mice were irradiated with 30 mJ/cm2 of UVB once a day, two tim...

  13. The use of reflectance confocal microscopy for examination of benign and malignant skin tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Wielowieyska-Szybińska, Dorota; Białek-Galas, Kamila; Podolec, Katarzyna; Wojas-Pelc, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a modern, non-invasive diagnostic method that enables real-time imaging of epidermis and upper layers of the dermis with a nearly histological precision and high contrast. The application of this technology in skin imaging in the last few years has resulted in the progress of dermatological diagnosis, providing virtual access to the living skin erasing the need for conventional histopathology. The RCM has a potential of wide application in the dermatol...

  14. The effect of dietary lipid on skin tumor promotion by benzoyl peroxide: comparison of fish, coconut and corn oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locniskar, M; Belury, M A; Cumberland, A G; Patrick, K E; Fischer, S M

    1991-06-01

    Fish or vegetable oils were fed during the promotion stage of a mouse skin carcinogenesis model in order to investigate the effects of dietary fat on tumor development. Two weeks after initiation with 10 nmol dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, SENCAR mice were divided into five groups and maintained on one of the following semipurified diets containing 10% total fat and varying the type of fat: 8.5% coconut oil (CT)/1.5% corn oil (CO); 1% menhaden oil (MO)/7.5% CT/1.5% CO; 4% MO/4.5% CT/1.5% CO; 8.5% MO/1.5% CO; or 10% CO. Promotion with twice-weekly applications of 40 mg benzoyl peroxide was begun 2 weeks later and continued for 52 weeks. No statistically significant differences in kcal food consumed or body weights were observed between diet groups. Papilloma latency, incidence and yield differed among the diet groups with the group fed the 8.5% CT/1.5% CO diet having the shortest latency and highest papilloma incidence and number. In addition, carcinoma latency and incidence was assessed and the first carcinoma appeared in the group fed 8.5% CT/1.5% CO after 20 weeks of benzoyl peroxide treatment; this group yielded the highest carcinoma incidence throughout the study. In comparison, the group fed the 10% CO diet had the longest latency period, and among the lowest papilloma and carcinoma incidence and fewest tumors. In parallel studies, ornithine decarboxylase activity, vascular permeability and hyperplasia were elevated in the epidermis of benzoyl peroxide-treated mice but the extent of the response did not correlate with the different rates of tumor formation observed among the diet groups. These data indicate that dietary fat modulates tumor promotion by benzoyl peroxide in this skin carcinogenesis model with the predominantly saturated fat diet producing the highest rates of papilloma and carcinogen formation and the polyunsaturated fat diet the lowest.

  15. The effect of dietary lipid on skin tumor promotion by benzoyl peroxide: comparison of fish, coconut and corn oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locniskar, M; Belury, M A; Cumberland, A G; Patrick, K E; Fischer, S M

    1991-06-01

    Fish or vegetable oils were fed during the promotion stage of a mouse skin carcinogenesis model in order to investigate the effects of dietary fat on tumor development. Two weeks after initiation with 10 nmol dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, SENCAR mice were divided into five groups and maintained on one of the following semipurified diets containing 10% total fat and varying the type of fat: 8.5% coconut oil (CT)/1.5% corn oil (CO); 1% menhaden oil (MO)/7.5% CT/1.5% CO; 4% MO/4.5% CT/1.5% CO; 8.5% MO/1.5% CO; or 10% CO. Promotion with twice-weekly applications of 40 mg benzoyl peroxide was begun 2 weeks later and continued for 52 weeks. No statistically significant differences in kcal food consumed or body weights were observed between diet groups. Papilloma latency, incidence and yield differed among the diet groups with the group fed the 8.5% CT/1.5% CO diet having the shortest latency and highest papilloma incidence and number. In addition, carcinoma latency and incidence was assessed and the first carcinoma appeared in the group fed 8.5% CT/1.5% CO after 20 weeks of benzoyl peroxide treatment; this group yielded the highest carcinoma incidence throughout the study. In comparison, the group fed the 10% CO diet had the longest latency period, and among the lowest papilloma and carcinoma incidence and fewest tumors. In parallel studies, ornithine decarboxylase activity, vascular permeability and hyperplasia were elevated in the epidermis of benzoyl peroxide-treated mice but the extent of the response did not correlate with the different rates of tumor formation observed among the diet groups. These data indicate that dietary fat modulates tumor promotion by benzoyl peroxide in this skin carcinogenesis model with the predominantly saturated fat diet producing the highest rates of papilloma and carcinogen formation and the polyunsaturated fat diet the lowest. PMID:1904320

  16. Diagnostics of pigmented skin tumors based on laser-induced autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of investigation of cutaneous benign and malignant pigmented lesions by laser-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy (LIAFS) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) are presented. The autofluorescence of human skin was excited by a 337-nm nitrogen laser. A broadband halogen lamp (400-900 nm) was used for diffuse reflectance measurements. A microspectrometer detected in vivo the fluorescence and reflectance signals from human skin. The main spectral features of benign (dermal nevi, compound nevi, dysplastic nevi) and malignant (melanoma) lesions are discussed. The combined usage of the fluorescence and reflectance spectral methods to determine the type of the lesion, which increases the total diagnostic accuracy, is compared with the usage of LIAFS or DRS only. We also applied colorimetric transformation of the reflectance spectra detected and received additional evaluation criteria for determination of type of the lesion under study. Spectra from healthy skin areas near the lesion were detected and changes between healthy and lesion skin spectra were revealed. The influence of the main skin pigments on the detected spectra is discussed and evaluation of possibilities for differentiation between malignant and benign lesions is performed based on their spectral properties. This research shows that the non-invasive and high-sensitive in vivo detection by means of appropriate light sources and detectors should be possible, related to the real-time determination of existing pathological conditions. (special issue devoted to application of laser technologies in biophotonics and biomedical studies)

  17. Transcription-coupled repair: Impact on UV-induced mutagenesis in cultured rodent cells and mouse skin tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) are removed with accelerated speed from the transcribed strand of expressed genes in cultured mammalian cells by a process called transcription-coupled repair (TCR). It has been previously shown that this phenomenon has consequences for the molecular nature of the mutations induced by UV-light. Here, we review these data and show that TCR has not only a clear impact on UV-induced mutations in cultured mammalian cells but also on genes involved in tumor formation in the skin of UV-exposed mice. Mutations observed in the p53 gene in UV-induced squamous cell carcinoma are predominantly found at sites of dipyrimidines in the non-transcribed strand. In contrast, in UVC-irradiated Csb -/- Chinese hamster cells and in UVB-induced tumors in the Csb -/- mouse, almost all mutations are at positions of dipyrimidine sites in the transcribed strand of the mutated gene. Csb -/- mice appear to be susceptible to UVB-induced skin cancer in contrast to the human CSB patients. We speculate that the UVB-induced cancer susceptibility of Csb -/- mice is related to the absence of TCR as well as to a lack of a compensating global genome repair system for CPDs in mice

  18. The effects of dissociated glucocorticoids RU24858 and RU24782 on TPA-induced skin tumor promotion biomarkers in SENCAR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Junco, Jacob J; Kowalczyk, Magdalena C; Sosnowska, Renata; Tolstykh, Olga; Walaszek, Zbigniew; Hanausek, Margaret; Slaga, Thomas J

    2014-06-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are very effective at preventing carcinogen- and tumor promoter-induced skin inflammation, hyperplasia, and mouse skin tumor formation. The effects of GCs are mediated by a well-known transcription factor, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). GR acts via two different mechanisms: transcriptional regulation that requires DNA-binding (transactivation) and DNA binding-independent protein-protein interactions between GR and other transcription factors, such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) or activator protein 1 (AP-1; transrepression). We hypothesize that the transrepression activities of the GR are sufficient to suppress skin tumor promotion. We obtained two GCs (RU24858 and RU24782) that have dissociated downstream effects and induce only transrepression activities of the GR in a number of systems. These compounds bind the GR with high affinity and repress AP-1 and NF-κB activities while showing a lack of GR transactivation. RU24858, RU24782, or control full GCs desoximetasone (DES) and fluocinolone acetonide (FA) were applied to the dorsal skin of SENCAR mice prior to application of the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), two times per week for 2 weeks. DES, FA and RU24858 reversed TPA-induced epidermal hyperplasia and proliferation, while RU24782 treatment had no effect on these markers of skin tumor promotion. All tested compounds decreased TPA-induced c-jun mRNA levels in skin. DES, FA, and RU24858, but not RU24782, were also able to reverse TPA-induced increases in the mRNA levels of COX-2 and iNOS. These findings show that RU24858 but not RU24782 reduced TPA-induced epidermal hyperplasia, proliferation, and inflammation, while both compounds reversed c-jun mRNA increases in the skin. PMID:23852815

  19. Keratinocyte p38δ loss inhibits Ras-induced tumor formation, while systemic p38δ loss enhances skin inflammation in the early phase of chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Alexi; Koppel, Aaron C; Anders, Joanna; Cataisson, Christophe; Yuspa, Stuart H; Blumenberg, Miroslav; Efimova, Tatiana

    2016-05-01

    p38δ expression and/or activity are increased in human cutaneous malignancies, including invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and head and neck SCC, but the role of p38δ in cutaneous carcinogenesis has not been well-defined. We have reported that mice with germline loss of p38δ exhibited a reduced susceptibility to skin tumor development compared with wild-type mice in the two-stage 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) chemical skin carcinogenesis model. Here, we report that p38δ gene ablation inhibited the growth of tumors generated from v-ras(Ha) -transformed keratinocytes in skin orthografts to nude mice, indicating that keratinocyte-intrinsic p38δ is required for Ras-induced tumorigenesis. Gene expression profiling of v-ras(Ha) -transformed p38δ-null keratinocytes revealed transcriptional changes associated with cellular responses linked to tumor suppression, such as reduced proliferation and increased differentiation, cell adhesion, and cell communications. Notably, a short-term DMBA/TPA challenge, modeling the initial stages of chemical skin carcinogenesis treatment, elicited an enhanced inflammation in p38δ-null skin compared with skin of wild-type mice, as assessed by measuring the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and TNFα. Additionally, p38δ-null skin and p38δ-null keratinocytes exhibited increased p38α activation and signaling in response to acute inflammatory challenges, suggesting a role for p38α in stimulating the elevated inflammatory response in p38δ-null skin during the initial phases of the DMBA/TPA treatment compared with similarly treated p38δ(+/+) skin. Altogether, our results indicate that p38δ signaling regulates skin carcinogenesis not only by keratinocyte cell-autonomous mechanisms, but also by influencing the interaction between between the epithelial compartment of the developing skin tumor and its stromal microenvironment.

  20. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibits DMBA/croton oil induced skin tumor growth by modulating NF-κB, MMPs, and infiltrating mast cells in swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Vimala; Vellaichamy, Elangovan

    2014-10-01

    Cardiac hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and its receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A) are implicated as a vital regulator of cancer cell growth and tumor progression. However, the underlying mechanism by which ANP opposes the cancer growth in in-vivo remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the anti-cancer activity of ANP on 7, 12-dimethyl benzanthracence (DMBA)/Croton oil- induced two-step skin carcinogenic mouse model. Skin tumor incidence and tumor volume were recorded during the experimental period of 16 weeks. ANP (1 μg/kg body weight/alternate days for 4 weeks) was injected subcutaneously from the 13th week of DMBA/Croton oil induction. ANP treatment markedly inhibited the skin tumor growth (P<0.001). A significant reduction in the level of NF-κB activation (P<0.001), infiltrating mast cell count (P<0.01) and MMP-2/-9 (P<0.001, respectively) were noticed in the ANP treated mice skin tissue. Further, ANP treatment revert back the altered levels of serum LDH-4, C-reactive protein (CRP), and enzymatic antioxidants (SOD and CAT activities) to near normal level. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that ANP opposes the skin carcinogenesis by suppressing the inflammatory response and MMPs.

  1. Poroma with sebaceous differentiation: Dermoscopy for the diagnosis of skin tumor with sebaceous differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamichi Ito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although divergent adnexal differentiations are occasionally seen in poroma, poroma with sebaceous differentiation is extremely rare. We present here the second case of dermoscopy on poroma with sebaceous differentiation. A 38-year-old Japanese female presented with a 2-year history of a slow-growing nodule on her left forearm. Dermoscopically, fine hairpin-like vessels, beige lobular structures were seen in the nodule. Many small yellow dots were scattered between beige lobular structures, giving orange-beige in color as a whole. On the basis of histopathologic findings, a diagnosis of poroma with sebaceous differentiation was made. Some sebaceous tumors are known to exhibit yellowish structures on dermoscopy. Tumors with sebaceous differentiation, as well as conventional sebaceous tumors, can show yellow structures on dermoscopy.

  2. Dendritic cell plasticity in tumor-conditioned skin: CD14+ cells at the cross-roads of immune activation and suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rieneke evan de Ven

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tumors abuse myeloid plasticity to re-direct dendritic cell (DC differentiation from T cell stimulatory subsets to immune suppressive subsets that can interfere with antitumor immunity. Lined by a dense network of easily accessible DC the skin is a preferred site for the delivery of DC-targeted vaccines. Various groups have recently been focusing on functional aspects of DC subsets in the skin and how these may be affected by tumor-derived suppressive factors. IL-6, Prostaglandin-E2 and IL-10 were identified as factors in cultures of primary human tumors responsible for the inhibited development and activation of skin DC as well as monocyte-derived DC. IL-10 was found to be uniquely able to convert fully developed DC to immature macrophage-like cells with functional M2 characteristics in a physiologically highly relevant skin explant model in which the phenotypic and functional traits of crawl-out DC were studied. Mostly from mouse studies, the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway has emerged as a master switch of tumor-induced immune suppression. Our lab has additionally identified p38-MAPK as an important signaling element in human DC suppression, and recently validated it as such in ex vivo cultures of single-cell suspensions from melanoma metastases. Through the identification of molecular mechanisms and signaling events that drive myeloid immune suppression in human tumors, more effective DC-targeted cancer vaccines may be designed.

  3. Free radical-derived quinone methide mediates skin tumor promotion by butylated hydroxytoluene hydroperoxide: expanded role for electrophiles in multistage carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Guyton, K Z; Bhan, P; Kuppusamy, P.; Zweier, J L; Trush, M A; Kensler, T W

    1991-01-01

    Free radical derivatives of peroxides, hydroperoxides, and anthrones are thought to mediate tumor promotion by these compounds. Further, the promoting activity of phorbol esters is attributed, in part, to their ability to stimulate the cellular generation of oxygen radicals. A hydroperoxide metabolite of butylated hydroxytoluene, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroperoxyl-4-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone (BHTOOH), has previously been shown to be a tumor promoter in mouse skin. BHTOOH is extensively metabo...

  4. Lack of a protective effect of menhaden oil on skin tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locniskar, M; Belury, M A; Cumberland, A G; Patrick, K E; Fischer, S M

    1990-09-01

    Fish oil has been shown to have a protective effect in some cancer models. To determine whether fish oil alters skin tumorigenesis, a study was designed using the initiation-promotion mouse skin carcinogenesis model, feeding mice during the promotion stage a constant overall amount of dietary fat (10%) in which the levels of menhaden oil (MO) varied from 0 to 8.5% or corn oil (CO) at 10%. SENCAR mice were initiated with 10 nmol dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Two weeks later mice were divided into five groups and maintained on one of the following AIN-76 based diets consisting of: 8.5% coconut oil (CT)/1.5% CO (diet A); 1% MO/7.5% CT/1.5% CO (diet B); 4% MO/4.5% CT/1.5% CO (diet C); 8.5% MO/1.5% CO (diet D); or 10% CO (diet E). Two weeks later, promotion with twice weekly applications of 1 micrograms 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was begun and continued for 24 weeks. No statistically significant differences in kcal food consumed or body wts were observed between diet groups during the study. The final papilloma and carcinoma incidence was not different among the diet groups. However, differences were seen in the rate of papilloma appearance with the group fed diet E (10% CO) being the slowest and diet B being the most rapid. In a parallel study, ornithine decarboxylase activity, a suggested marker of promotion, was greatly elevated in the epidermis of all TPA-treated mice and the effect of diet tended to reflect the different rates of tumor formation observed among the groups. These data indicate that the diets containing fish oil were not protective in the final incidence of tumor formation and suggest that a better understanding of the complex interactions is warranted before recommendations are made to alter the human diet for cancer prevention.

  5. Lack of a protective effect of menhaden oil on skin tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locniskar, M; Belury, M A; Cumberland, A G; Patrick, K E; Fischer, S M

    1990-09-01

    Fish oil has been shown to have a protective effect in some cancer models. To determine whether fish oil alters skin tumorigenesis, a study was designed using the initiation-promotion mouse skin carcinogenesis model, feeding mice during the promotion stage a constant overall amount of dietary fat (10%) in which the levels of menhaden oil (MO) varied from 0 to 8.5% or corn oil (CO) at 10%. SENCAR mice were initiated with 10 nmol dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Two weeks later mice were divided into five groups and maintained on one of the following AIN-76 based diets consisting of: 8.5% coconut oil (CT)/1.5% CO (diet A); 1% MO/7.5% CT/1.5% CO (diet B); 4% MO/4.5% CT/1.5% CO (diet C); 8.5% MO/1.5% CO (diet D); or 10% CO (diet E). Two weeks later, promotion with twice weekly applications of 1 micrograms 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was begun and continued for 24 weeks. No statistically significant differences in kcal food consumed or body wts were observed between diet groups during the study. The final papilloma and carcinoma incidence was not different among the diet groups. However, differences were seen in the rate of papilloma appearance with the group fed diet E (10% CO) being the slowest and diet B being the most rapid. In a parallel study, ornithine decarboxylase activity, a suggested marker of promotion, was greatly elevated in the epidermis of all TPA-treated mice and the effect of diet tended to reflect the different rates of tumor formation observed among the groups. These data indicate that the diets containing fish oil were not protective in the final incidence of tumor formation and suggest that a better understanding of the complex interactions is warranted before recommendations are made to alter the human diet for cancer prevention. PMID:2401054

  6. Increased Skin Tumor Incidence and Keratinocyte Hyper-Proliferation in a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Annan; Currier, Duane; Poitras, Jennifer L; Reeves, Roger H

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of an extra copy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). People with DS display multiple clinical traits as a result of the dosage imbalance of several hundred genes. While many outcomes of trisomy are deleterious, epidemiological studies have shown a significant risk reduction for most solid tumors in DS. Reduced tumor incidence has also been demonstrated in functional studies using trisomic DS mouse models. Therefore, it was interesting to find that Ts1Rhr trisomic mice developed more papillomas than did their euploid littermates in a DMBA-TPA chemical carcinogenesis paradigm. Papillomas in Ts1Rhr mice also proliferated faster. The increased proliferation was likely caused by a stronger response of trisomy to TPA induction. Treatment with TPA caused hyperkeratosis to a greater degree in Ts1Rhr mice than in euploid, reminiscent of hyperkeratosis seen in people with DS. Cultured trisomic keratinocytes also showed increased TPA-induced proliferation compared to euploid controls. These outcomes suggest that altered gene expression in trisomy could elevate a proliferation signalling pathway. Gene expression analysis of cultured keratinocytes revealed upregulation of several trisomic and disomic genes may contribute to this hyperproliferation. The contributions of these genes to hyper-proliferation were further validated in a siRNA knockdown experiment. The unexpected findings reported here add a new aspect to our understanding of tumorigenesis with clinical implications for DS and demonstrates the complexity of the tumor repression phenotype in this frequent condition.

  7. Quantitative analysis of viral load per haploid genome revealed the different biological features of Merkel cell polyomavirus infection in skin tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ota

    Full Text Available Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV has recently been identified in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC, an aggressive cancer that occurs in sun-exposed skin. Conventional technologies, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR and immunohistochemistry, have produced conflicting results for MCPyV infections in non-MCC tumors. Therefore, we performed quantitative analyses of the MCPyV copy number in various skin tumor tissues, including MCC (n = 9 and other sun exposure-related skin tumors (basal cell carcinoma [BCC, n = 45], actinic keratosis [AK, n = 52], Bowen's disease [n = 34], seborrheic keratosis [n = 5], primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma [n = 5], malignant melanoma [n = 5], and melanocytic nevus [n = 6]. In a conventional PCR analysis, MCPyV DNA was detected in MCC (9 cases; 100%, BCC (1 case; 2%, and AK (3 cases; 6%. We then used digital PCR technology to estimate the absolute viral copy number per haploid human genome in these tissues. The viral copy number per haploid genome was estimated to be around 1 in most MCC tissues, and there were marked differences between the MCC (0.119-42.8 and AK (0.02-0.07 groups. PCR-positive BCC tissue showed a similar viral load as MCC tissue (0.662. Immunohistochemistry with a monoclonal antibody against the MCPyV T antigen (CM2B4 demonstrated positive nuclear localization in most of the high-viral-load tumor groups (8 of 9 MCC and 1 BCC, but not in the low-viral-load or PCR-negative tumor groups. These results demonstrated that MCPyV infection is possibly involved in a minority of sun-exposed skin tumors, including BCC and AK, and that these tumors display different modes of infection.

  8. Relative biological effectiveness of carbon ions for tumor control, acute skin damage and late radiation-induced fibrosis in a mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brita Singers; Horsman, Michael Robert; Alsner, Jan;

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of the present study was to compare the biological effectiveness of carbon ions relative to x-rays between tumor control, acute skin reaction and late RIF of CDF1 mice. Material and methods. CDF1 mice with a C3H mouse mammary carcinoma implanted subcutaneously on the foot of t...

  9. Anti-tumor activity of Aloe vera against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, M; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar; Chaudhary, Geeta

    2010-01-01

    Human populations are increasingly exposed to various carcinogens such as chemicals, radiation, and viruses in the environment. Chemopreventive drugs of plant origin are a promising strategy for cancer control because they are generally nontoxic or less toxic than synthetic che-mopreventive agents, and can be effective at different stages of carcinogenesis. The present investigation was undertaken to explore the antitumor activity of topical treatment with aloe vera (Aloe vera) gel, oral treatment with aloe vera extract, and topical and oral treatment with both gel and extract in stage-2 skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice induced by 7,12-dim ethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted croton (Croton tiglium) oil. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated as follows: Group I, DMBA + croton oil only (controls); Group II, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel; Group III, DMBA + croton oil + oral aloe vera extract; Group I V, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel + oral aloe vera extract. Results showed that body weight was significantly increased from 78.6% in the control group (Group I) to 92.5%, 87.5%, and 90.0% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. A 100% incidence of tumor development was noted in Group I, which was decreased to 50%, 60%, and 40% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. Also in Groups II, III, and IV, the cumulative number of papillomas was reduced significantly from 36 to 12, 15, and 11; tumor yield from 3.6 to 1.2, 1.5, and 1.1; and tumor burden from 3.6 to 2.4, 2.50, and 2.75, respectively, after treatment with aloe vera. Conversely, the average latent period increased significantly from 4.9 (Group I) to 5.23, 5.0, and 6.01 weeks in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. We conclude that aloe vera protects mice against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis, likely due to the chemopreventive activity of high concentrations of antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, and E; glutathione peroxidase; several

  10. Specific UV-induced mutation spectrum in the p53 gene of skin tumors from DNA-repair-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UV component of sunlight is the major carcinogen involved in the etiology of skin cancers. The authors have studied the rare, hereditary syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), which is characterized by a very high incidence of cutaneous tumors on exposed skin at an early age, probably due to a deficiency in excision repair of UV-induced lesions. It is interesting to determine the UV mutation spectrum in XP skin tumors in order to correlate the absence of repair of specific DNA lesions and the initiation of skin tumors. The p53 gene is frequently mutated in human cancers and represents a good target for studying mutation spectra since there are >100 potential sites for phenotypic mutations. Using reverse transcription-PCR and single-strand conformation polymorphism to analyze >40 XP skin tumors (mainly basal and squamous cell carcinomas), the authors have found that 40% (17 out of 43) contained at least one point mutation on the p53 gene. All the mutations were located at dipyrimidine sites, essentially at CC sequences, which are hot spots for UV-induced DNA lesions. Sixty-one percent of these mutations were tandem CC → TT mutations considered to be unique to UV-induced lesions; these mutations are not observed in internal human tumors. All the mutations, except two, must be due to translesion synthesis of unrepaired dipyrimidine lesions left on the nontranscribed strand. These results show the existence of preferential repair of UV lesions [either pyrimidine dimers or pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts] on the transcribed strand in human tissues

  11. Protective vaccination against papillomavirus-induced skin tumors under immunocompetent and immunosuppressive conditions: a preclinical study using a natural outbred animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina E Vinzón

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Certain cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs, which are ubiquitous and acquired early during childhood, can cause a variety of skin tumors and are likely involved in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer, especially in immunosuppressed patients. Hence, the burden of these clinical manifestations demands for a prophylactic approach. To evaluate whether protective efficacy of a vaccine is potentially translatable to patients, we used the rodent Mastomys coucha that is naturally infected with Mastomys natalensis papillomavirus (MnPV. This skin type papillomavirus induces not only benign skin tumours, such as papillomas and keratoacanthomas, but also squamous cell carcinomas, thereby allowing a straightforward read-out for successful vaccination in a small immunocompetent laboratory animal. Here, we examined the efficacy of a virus-like particle (VLP-based vaccine on either previously or newly established infections. VLPs raise a strong and long-lasting neutralizing antibody response that confers protection even under systemic long-term cyclosporine A treatment. Remarkably, the vaccine completely prevents the appearance of benign as well as malignant skin tumors. Protection involves the maintenance of a low viral load in the skin by an antibody-dependent prevention of virus spread. Our results provide first evidence that VLPs elicit an effective immune response in the skin under immunocompetent and immunosuppressed conditions in an outbred animal model, irrespective of the infection status at the time of vaccination. These findings provide the basis for the clinical development of potent vaccination strategies against cutaneous HPV infections and HPV-induced tumors, especially in patients awaiting organ transplantation.

  12. Tumor necrosis factor-α-accelerated degradation of type I collagen in human skin is associated with elevated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågren, Magnus S; Schnabel, Reinhild; Christensen, Lise H;

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α induces matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that may disrupt skin integrity. We have investigated the effects and mechanisms of exogenous TNF-α on collagen degradation by incubating human skin explants in defined serum-free media with or without TNF-α (10ng...... activator MMP-3. Type I collagen degradation correlated with MMP-3 tissue levels (rs=0.68, pcollagen formation was down-regulated in cultured compared with native skin explants but was not reduced further by TNF-α. TNF-α had no significant...... effect on epidermal apoptosis. Our data indicate that TNF-α augments collagenolytic activity of MMP-1, possibly through up-regulation of MMP-3 leading to gradual loss of type I collagen in human skin....

  13. Effect of gold nanoparticles in the local heating of skin tumors induced by phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-García, I.; Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Ortega-Quijano, N.; Lavín-Castanedo, A.; Mingo-Ortega, P.; López-Escobar, M.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2011-07-01

    During optical therapies, several types of interaction between the optical radiation and the target tissue can occur. The application of different power densities and the variation of the exposure time can cause from photochemical reactions to photodisruption. Photothermal therapy (PTT) is based in the thermal interactions, where the biological injury is provoked by a given increase of their temperature during the exposition to the optical source. Another treatment option very extended in several clinical fields due to its promising results is Photodynamic Therapy. This treatment modality is based in photochemical reactions where it is also required oxygen and the administration of a photosensitive substance known as photosensitizer. The use of nanotechnology in optical therapeutic techniques, constitutes a novel promising treatment strategy. Specifically, gold nanoparticles can improve different issues related to the transport of photosensitizers or the light energy absorption and the subsequent heat generation. This work focuses in the effects that can produce the use of gold nanoparticles in Photothermal and Photodynamic Therapies applied to skin diseases commonly treated by means of these techniques. We present a thermal model that permits to calculate the temperature distribution in different kinds of pathological dermatological tissues depending on the optical power provided by the optical source. The results obtained permit to compare the thermal injury produced depending on not only the provided power but also the type of pathology and the incorporation or not of gold nanoparticles in the target tissue.

  14. High-LET radiation-induce malignant and benign tumors in rat skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, F.J. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Zhao, P.; Hiz, Z.; Chen, S.; Roy, N.

    1999-03-01

    In the multistage theory of carcinogenesis, cells progress to cancer through a series of mutations in cancer-relevant genes, and sometimes the intermediate stages become benign neoplastic lesions. Although cancer induction by low LET radiation is subject to repair or recovery in the sense that multiple exposures produce fewer cancers than the same single dose, this recovery is not seen following exposure to high LET radiation. Data are presented on squamous and basal cell carcinoma and fibroma induction in rat skin exposed to: 1. an electron beam (LET=0.34 kV/{mu}), 2. a neon ion beam (LET=30 kV/{mu} ) and 3. an argon ion beam (LET=125 kV/{mu}). Cancer yields were fitted by a LET-dependent quadratic equation, and equation parameters were estimated by regression analysis for each type of radiation. The results are consistent with the interpretation that carcinoma induction can be explained by a pathway involving 2 radiation-induced events, 1 radiation-induced mutation and 1 spontaneous mutation, while benign fibromas can be explained by a pathway involving 1 radiation-induced event and 1 radiation-induced mutation. (author)

  15. p53-related apoptosis resistance and tumor suppression activity in UVB-induced premature senescent human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenqi; Kang, Jian; Xia, Jiping; Li, Yanhua; Yang, Bo; Chen, Bin; Sun, Weiling; Song, Xiuzu; Xiang, Wenzhong; Wang, Xiaoyong; Wang, Fei; Wan, Yinsheng; Bi, Zhigang

    2008-05-01

    Chronic exposure to solar UV irradiation leads to photoaging, immunosuppression, and ultimately carcinogenesis. Cellular senescence is thought to play an important role in tumor suppression and apoptosis resistance. However, the relationships among stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS), tumorigenesis and apoptosis induced by UVB remain unknown. We developed a model of UVB-induced premature senescence in human skin fibroblasts (HSFs). After five repeated subcytotoxic UVB exposures at a dose of 10 mJ/cm2, the following biomarkers of senescence were markedly present: senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA beta-gal) activity, growth arrest, and the overexpression of senescence-associated genes. Firstly, there was an increase in the proportion of cells positive for SA beta-gal activity. Secondly, there was a loss of replicative potential as assessed by MTT assay. FACS analysis showed that UVB-stressed HSFs were blocked mostly in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and replicative senescence, and protein expression of p53, p21(WAF-1) and p16(INK-4a) increased significantly. Thirdly, the mRNA levels of three senescence-associated genes, fibronectin, osteonectin and SM22, also increased. A real time PCR array to investigate the mRNA expression of p53-related genes involved in growth arrest, apoptosis and tumorigenesis indicated that p53, p21, p19, Hdm2, and Bax were up-regulated, and bcl, HIF-1alpha and VEGF were down-regulated. Collectively, our data suggest that UVB-induced SIPS plays an important role in p53-related apoptosis resistance and tumor suppression activity. PMID:18425358

  16. Dose-Response on the Chemopreventive Effects of Sarcophine-Diol on UVB-Induced Skin Tumor Development in SKH-1 Hairless Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandradhar Dwivedi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcophine-diol (SD is a lactone ring-opened analogue of sarcophine. It has shown chemopreventive effects on chemically-induced skin tumor development in female CD-1 mice, as well as in a UVB-induced skin tumor development model in hairless SKH-1 mice at a dose of 30 μg SD applied topically and 180 mJ/cm2 UVB. The objective of this study was to determine the dose-response on the chemopreventive effects of SD on SKH-1 hairless mice when exposed to a UVB radiation dose of 30 mJ/cm2. This UVB dose better represents chronic human skin exposure to sunlight leading to skin cancer than previous studies applying much higher UVB doses. Carcinogenesis was initiated and promoted by UVB radiation. Female hairless SKH-1 mice were divided into five groups. The control group was topically treated with 200 μL of acetone (vehicle, and the SD treatment groups were topically treated with SD (30 μg, 45 μg, and 60 μg dissolved in 200 μL of acetone 1 h before UVB radiation (30 mJ/cm2. The last group of animals received 60 μg SD/200 μL acetone without UVB exposure. These treatments were continued for 27 weeks. Tumor multiplicity and tumor volumes were recorded on a weekly basis for 27 weeks. Weight gain and any signs of toxicity were also closely monitored. Histological characteristics and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA were evaluated in the mice skin collected at the end of the experiment. The dose-response study proved a modest increase in chemopreventive effects with the increase in SD dose. SD reduced the number of cells positively stained with PCNA proliferation marker in mice skin. The study also showed that SD application without UVB exposure has no effect on the structure of skin. The results from this study suggest that broader range doses of SD are necessary to improve the chemopreventive effects.

  17. Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008479 Preliminary study of MR elastography in brain tumors. XU Lei(徐磊), et al.Neurosci Imaging Center, Beijing Tiantan Hosp, Capital Med Univ, Beijing 100050.Chin J Radiol 2008;42(6):605-608. Objective To investigate the potential values of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for evaluating the brain tumor consistency in vivo. Methods Fourteen patients with known solid brain tumor (5 male, 9 female; age range: 16-63 years)

  18. The prognostic significance of tumor vascularity in intermediate-thickness (0.76-4.0 mm thick) skin melanoma. A quantitative histologic study.

    OpenAIRE

    A Srivastava; Laidler, P; Davies, R. P.; K. Horgan; Hughes, L E

    1988-01-01

    The vascularity of 20 primary skin melanomas was assessed histologically. These cases were selected from patients with intermediate thickness melanomas (0.76-4.0 mm thick) treated surgically to provide two groups of ten patients. One group had no evidence of recurrence with a minimum follow-up of 9 years. The second group of ten patients developed locoregional or systemic metastasis under follow-up, and seven of these patients died of disseminated melanoma. Age, sex, Breslow's tumor thickness...

  19. Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid from Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata Mitigates 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate-Induced Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Responses of Tumor Promotion Cascade in Mouse Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakilur Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA is a phenolic antioxidant found in the leaves and twigs of the evergreen desert shrub, Larrea tridentata (Sesse and Moc. ex DC Coville (creosote bush. It has a long history of traditional medicinal use by the Native Americans and Mexicans. The modulatory effects of topically applied NDGA was studied on acute inflammatory and oxidative stress responses in mouse skin induced by stage I tumor promoting agent, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA. Double TPA treatment adversely altered many of the marker responses of stage I skin tumor promotion cascade. Pretreatment of NDGA in TPA-treated mice mitigated cutaneous lipid peroxidation and inhibited production of hydrogen peroxide. NDGA treatment also restored reduced glutathione level and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Elevated activities of myeloperoxidase, xanthine oxidase and skin edema formation in TPA-treated mice were also lowered by NDGA indicating a restrained inflammatory response. Furthermore, results of histological study demonstrated inhibitory effect of NDGA on cellular inflammatory responses. This study provides a direct evidence of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of NDGA against TPA-induced cutaneous inflammation and oxidative stress corroborating its chemopreventive potential against skin cancer.

  20. Gross and microscopic lesions in the female SENCAR mouse skin and lung in tumor initiation and promotion studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Knutsen, G L; Kovatch, R M; Robinson, M.

    1986-01-01

    The skin and lung tissues from SENCAR mice used as part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Carcinogenesis Testing Matrix were examined. This study included SENCAR mice used in three different short-term bioassay protocols in which the skin papilloma assay was used to identify initiators, promoters, and complete carcinogens. Also included were the pathology findings from SENCAR mice used in the combined bioassay in which the skin assay and the lung adenoma assay were conducted si...

  1. Tumor initiating activities of various derivatives of benz(a)anthracene and 7, 12-dimethyl-benz(a)anthracene in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaga, T.J.; Gleason, G.L.; DiGiovanni, J.; Berry, D.L.; Juchau, M.R.; Harvey, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Current information indicates that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) exert their toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic activities after they have been metabolically activated by target cells to reactive epoxides. The results obtained from IN VIVO and IN VITRO binding, mutagenicity, metabolism, and carcinogenicity studies have led to the conclusion that BP-7, 8-diol is a proximate carcinogenic metabolite of BP, and the BP-diol-epoxide is an ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of BP. Recent results concerning the strong carcinogenicity of BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha..,10..cap alpha..-epoxide in newborn mice and in mouse skin strongly indicate that it is the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of BP. Since diol-epoxides may be responsible for the carcinogenicity of PAH other than BP, diols and diol-epoxides as well as other derivatives of PAH were tested for skin tumor-initiation in a two-stage system of tumorigenesis. In addition, since activation of methylated PAH may involve the side-chain methyl group, the skin tumor-initiating activity of various side-chain derivatives of methylated PA were determined. In this report, the skin tumor initiation of various derivatives of a nonmethylated PAH, BA as well as a methylated PAH, DMBA are compared. The data suggest that bay region diol-epoxides may be important in BA and DMBA carcinogenicity in mice which is supportive of the theory proposed by Jerina and co-workers which predicts that diol-epoxides in the bay region are the major determinants of PAH carcinogenicity.

  2. Changes in the spectral index of skin-surface laser Doppler signals of nude mice following the injection of CT26 tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ju-Chi; Hsiu, Hsin; Hsu, Yi-Ping; Tsai, Hung-Chi; Kuo, Chung-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated microcirculatory-blood-flow responses in nude mice following the injection of CT26 tumor cells by analyzing the frequency content of skin blood-flow signals recorded on the skin surface. CT26 cells were injected subcutaneously (10^4/100 μl) into the right back flank of each 7-week-old mouse. Three-minute laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals were measured in 60 nude mice. The data sequences were obtained at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after injecting CT26 cells. Mouse tissue samples were cut into sections and examined microscopically to determine the condition of cancer metastasis. Spectral analysis performed after 1 week revealed a significant decrease in the relative energy contribution of the endothelium-related frequency band, and significant increases in those of the myogenic and respiration-related frequency bands of the LDF signals in the metastasis group (n=12). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the feasibility of evaluating metastasis in animal subjects based on changes in noninvasively measured LDF parameters. Changes in the LDF spectral indexes can be attributed to differences in the microcirculatory regulatory activities. The present measurements performed on the skin surface provide a noninvasive and real-time method for evaluating the microcirculatory responses induced by implanting CT26 tumor cells.

  3. Bromelain inhibits COX-2 expression by blocking the activation of MAPK regulated NF-kappa B against skin tumor-initiation triggering mitochondrial death pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhui, Kulpreet; Prasad, Sahdeo; George, Jasmine; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2009-09-18

    Chemoprevention impels the pursuit for either single targeted or cocktail of multi-targeted agents. Bromelain, potential agent in this regard, is a pharmacologically active compound, present in stems and fruits of pineapple (Ananas cosmosus), endowed with anti-inflammatory, anti-invasive and anti-metastatic properties. Herein, we report the anti tumor-initiating effects of bromelain in 2-stage mouse skin tumorigenesis model. Pre-treatment of bromelain resulted in reduction in cumulative number of tumors (CNT) and average number of tumors per mouse. Preventive effect was also comprehended in terms of reduction in tumor volume up to a tune of approximately 65%. Components of the cell signaling pathways, connecting proteins involved in cell death were targeted. Bromelain treatment resulted in upregulation of p53 and Bax and subsequent activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9 with concomitant decrease in Bcl-2. A marked inhibition in cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression and inactivation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) was recorded, as phosphorylation and consequent degradation of I kappa B alpha was blocked by bromelain. Also, bromelain treatment curtailed extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt activity. The basis of anti tumor-initiating activity of bromelain was revealed by its time dependent reduction in DNA nick formation and increase in percentage prevention. Thus, modulation of inappropriate cell signaling cascades driven by bromelain is a coherent approach in achieving chemoprevention.

  4. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 antagonists alleviate inflammatory skin changes associated with epidermal growth factor receptor antibody therapy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surguladze, David; Deevi, Dhanvanthri; Claros, Nidia; Corcoran, Erik; Wang, Su; Plym, Mary Jane; Wu, Yan; Doody, Jacqueline; Mauro, David J; Witte, Larry; Busam, Klaus J; Pytowski, Bronek; Rodeck, Ulrich; Tonra, James R

    2009-07-15

    Cancer patients receiving epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody therapy often experience an acneiform rash of uncertain etiology in skin regions rich in pilosebaceous units. Currently, this condition is treated symptomatically with very limited, often anecdotal success. Here, we show that a monoclonal antibody targeting murine EGFR, ME1, caused a neutrophil-rich hair follicle inflammation in mice, similar to that reported in patients. This effect was preceded by the appearance of lipid-filled hair follicle distensions adjacent to enlarged sebaceous glands. The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), localized immunohistochemically to this affected region of the pilosebaceous unit, was specifically up-regulated by ME1 in skin but not in other tissues examined. Moreover, skin inflammation was reduced by cotreatment with the TNFalpha signaling inhibitor, etanercept, indicating the involvement of TNFalpha in this inflammatory process. Interleukin-1, a cytokine that frequently acts in concert with TNFalpha, is also involved in this process given the efficacy of the interleukin-1 antagonist Kineret. Our results provide a mechanistic framework to develop evidence-based trials for EGFR antibody-induced skin rash in patients with cancer. PMID:19584274

  5. Applicability of the {sup 9}Be(d,n){sup 10}B reaction to AB-BNCT skin and deep tumor treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capoulat, M.E., E-mail: capoulat@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA. Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Avenida Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Minsky, D.M.; Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA. Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Avenida Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    In the range of low bombarding energies (less than about 1.5 MeV) the {sup 9}Be(d,n){sup 10}B reaction produces neutron spectra that can be moderated depending on the choice of the target thickness and the deuteron bombarding energy. In this work, a Monte Carlo simulation study to determine the capability of this reaction to deliver enough dose to efficiently control both skin and deep seated tumors has been performed by means of MCNP calculations using eight optimized {sup 9}Be targets.

  6. Impact of mTORC1 Inhibition on Keratinocyte Proliferation During Skin Tumor Promotion in Wild-Type and BK5.AktWT Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Rho, Okkyung; Kiguchi, Kaoru; Jiang, Guiyu; DiGiovanni, John

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined the impact of rapamycin on mTORC1 signaling during 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced keratinocyte proliferation and skin tumor promotion in both wild-type (FVB/N) and BK5.AktWT mice. TPA activated mTORC1 signaling in a time-dependent manner in cultured primary mouse keratinocytes and a mouse keratinocyte cell line. Early activation (15–30 min) of mTORC1 signaling induced by TPA was mediated in part by PKC activation, whereas later activation (2–4 h)...

  7. [Basal cell carcinoma of the skin--biological behaviour of the tumor and a review of the most important molecular predictors of disease progression in pathological practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, V; Adamicová, K; Kullová, M; Péc, M

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the skin is currently the most frequent malignancy in human population. Basal cell carcinoma represents a heterogeneous group of tumors with a variable clinical and morphological picture. Based on its biological behaviour, we generally differentiate between indolent (superficial and nodular) and aggressive type (infiltrative, micronodular, and metatypical) of basal cell carcinoma. Because of the different biological characteristics of these tumors, it is questionable whether they are a part of a continuous spectrum of carcinogenesis, starting with indolent and ending with aggressive forms, or they represent separate developmental lines. In the current clinical practice, there is an increasing demand for identification of tumors that are prognostically more adverse and their impact on the overall health status of patients is more serious. Recent advances in pathology and molecular medicine allow identification of various biomarkers from tumor tissue that are significantly involved in the mechanisms of malignant cell transformation. Detection of these biomarkers is of great importance in predicting further clinical behaviour of the cancer. The authors of the paper present basic information about biological behaviour of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and provide an overview of the most important biomarkers that influence the clinical outcome and disease progression and are detectable through a routine biopsy tissue examination. It is now necessary to search for novel histological and molecular parameters that, in the future, could have a prognostic value in diagnostic and therapeutic process of this disorder. PMID:21542271

  8. Wedelolactone mitigates UVB induced oxidative stress, inflammation and early tumor promotion events in murine skin: plausible role of NFkB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farrah; Khan, Bilal Azhar; Sultana, Sarwat

    2016-09-01

    UVB (Ultra-violet B) radiation is one of the major etiological factors in various dermal pathology viz. dermatitis, actinic folliculitis, solar urticaria, psoriasis and cancer among many others. UVB causes toxic manifestation in tissues by inciting inflammatory and tumor promoting events. We have designed this study to assess the anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor promotion effect of Wedelolactone (WDL) a specific IKK inhibitor. Results indicate significant restoration of anti-oxidative enzymes due to WDL treatments. We also found that WDL was effective in mitigating inflammatory markers consisting of MPO (myeloperoxidase), Mast cells trafficking, Langerhans cells suppression and COX 2 expression up regulation due to UVB exposure. We also deduce that WDL presented a promising intervention in attenuating early tumor promotion events caused by UVB exposure as indicated by the results of ODC (Ornithine Decarboxylase), Thymidine assay, Vimentin and VEGF (Vascular-endothelial growth factor) expression. This study was able to provide substantial cues for the therapeutic ability of Wedelolactone against inflammatory and tumor promoting events in murine skin depicting plausible role of NFkB pathway.

  9. Transcriptional analysis of an E2F gene signature as a biomarker of activity of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor PHA-793887 in tumor and skin biopsies from a phase I clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Giuseppe; Bosotti, Roberta; Ciomei, Marina; Brasca, Maria G; Calogero, Raffaele; Mercurio, Ciro; Fiorentini, Francesco; Bertolotti, Matteo; Scacheri, Emanuela; Scaburri, Angela; Galvani, Arturo; Pesenti, Enrico; De Baere, Thierry; Soria, Jean-Charles; Lazar, Vladimir; Isacchi, Antonella

    2010-05-01

    A transcriptional signature of the pan-cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor PHA-793887 was evaluated as a potential pharmacodynamic and/or response biomarker in tumor and skin biopsies from patients treated in a phase I clinical study. We first analyzed the expression of a number of known E2F-dependent genes that were predicted to be modulated after Cdk2 and Cdk4 inhibition in xenograft tumor and skin samples of mice treated with the compound. This panel of 58 selected genes was then analyzed in biopsies from seven patients treated with PHA-793887 in a phase I dose escalation clinical trial in solid tumors. Quantitative real-time PCR or microarray analyses were done in paired skin and tumor biopsies obtained at baseline and at cycle 1. Analysis by quantitative real-time PCR of the signature in skin biopsies of patients treated at three different doses showed significant transcriptional downregulation with a dose-response correlation. These data show that PHA-793887 modulates genes involved in cell cycle regulation and proliferation in a clinical setting. The observed changes are consistent with its mechanism of action and correlate with target modulation in skin and with clinical benefit in tumors. PMID:20423997

  10. Differentiating intratumoral melanocytes from Langerhans cells in nonmelanocytic pigmented skin tumors in vivo by label-free third-harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wei-Hung; Liao, Yi-Hua; Tsai, Ming-Rung; Wei, Ming-Liang; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2016-07-01

    Morphology and distribution of melanocytes are critical imaging information for the diagnosis of melanocytic lesions. However, how to image intratumoral melanocytes noninvasively in pigmented skin tumors is seldom investigated. Third-harmonic generation (THG) is shown to be enhanced by melanin, whereas high accuracy has been demonstrated using THG microscopy for in vivo differential diagnosis of nonmelanocytic pigmented skin tumors. It is thus desirable to investigate if label-free THG microscopy was capable to in vivo identify intratumoral melanocytes. In this study, histopathological correlations of label-free THG images with the immunohistochemical images stained with human melanoma black (HMB)-45 and cluster of differentiation 1a (CD1a) were made. The correlation results indicated that the intratumoral THG-bright dendritic-cell-like signals were endogenously derived from melanocytes rather than Langerhans cells (LCs). The consistency between THG-bright dendritic-cell-like signals and HMB-45 melanocyte staining showed a kappa coefficient of 0.807, 84.6% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. In contrast, a kappa coefficient of -0.37, 21.7% sensitivity, and 30% specificity were noted between the THG-bright dendritic-cell-like signals and CD1a staining for LCs. Our study indicates the capability of noninvasive label-free THG microscopy to differentiate intratumoral melanocytes from LCs, which is not feasible in previous in vivo label-free clinical-imaging modalities.

  11. Impact of mTORC1 inhibition on keratinocyte proliferation during skin tumor promotion in wild-type and BK5.AktWT mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Okkyung; Kiguchi, Kaoru; Jiang, Guiyu; DiGiovanni, John

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we examined the impact of rapamycin on mTORC1 signaling during 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced keratinocyte proliferation and skin tumor promotion in both wild-type (FVB/N) and BK5.Akt(WT) mice. TPA activated mTORC1 signaling in a time-dependent manner in cultured primary mouse keratinocytes and a mouse keratinocyte cell line. Early activation (15-30 min) of mTORC1 signaling induced by TPA was mediated in part by PKC activation, whereas later activation (2-4 h) was mediated by activation of EGFR and Akt. BK5.Akt(WT) transgenic mice, where Akt1 is overexpressed in basal epidermis, are highly sensitive to TPA-induced epidermal proliferation and two-stage skin carcinogenesis. Targeting mTORC1 with rapamycin effectively inhibited TPA-induced epidermal hyperplasia and hyperproliferation as well as tumor promotion in a dose-dependent manner in both wild-type and BK5.Akt(WT) mice. A significant expansion (∼threefold) of the label retaining cell (LRC) population per hair follicle was observed in BK5.Akt(WT) mice compared to FVB/N mice. There was also a significant increase in K15 expressing cells in the hair follicle of transgenic mice that coincided with expression of phospho-Akt, phospho-S6K, and phospho-PRAS40, suggesting an important role of mTORC1 signaling in bulge-region keratinocyte stem cell (KSC) homeostasis. After 2 weeks of TPA treatment, LRCs had moved upward into the interfollicular epidermis from the bulge region of both wild-type and BK5.Akt(WT) mice. TPA-mediated LRC proliferation and migration was significantly inhibited by rapamycin. Collectively, the current data indicate that signaling through mTORC1 contributes significantly to the process of skin tumor promotion through effects on proliferation of the target cells for tumor development.

  12. Impact of mTORC1 inhibition on keratinocyte proliferation during skin tumor promotion in wild-type and BK5.AktWT mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Okkyung; Kiguchi, Kaoru; Jiang, Guiyu; DiGiovanni, John

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we examined the impact of rapamycin on mTORC1 signaling during 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced keratinocyte proliferation and skin tumor promotion in both wild-type (FVB/N) and BK5.Akt(WT) mice. TPA activated mTORC1 signaling in a time-dependent manner in cultured primary mouse keratinocytes and a mouse keratinocyte cell line. Early activation (15-30 min) of mTORC1 signaling induced by TPA was mediated in part by PKC activation, whereas later activation (2-4 h) was mediated by activation of EGFR and Akt. BK5.Akt(WT) transgenic mice, where Akt1 is overexpressed in basal epidermis, are highly sensitive to TPA-induced epidermal proliferation and two-stage skin carcinogenesis. Targeting mTORC1 with rapamycin effectively inhibited TPA-induced epidermal hyperplasia and hyperproliferation as well as tumor promotion in a dose-dependent manner in both wild-type and BK5.Akt(WT) mice. A significant expansion (∼threefold) of the label retaining cell (LRC) population per hair follicle was observed in BK5.Akt(WT) mice compared to FVB/N mice. There was also a significant increase in K15 expressing cells in the hair follicle of transgenic mice that coincided with expression of phospho-Akt, phospho-S6K, and phospho-PRAS40, suggesting an important role of mTORC1 signaling in bulge-region keratinocyte stem cell (KSC) homeostasis. After 2 weeks of TPA treatment, LRCs had moved upward into the interfollicular epidermis from the bulge region of both wild-type and BK5.Akt(WT) mice. TPA-mediated LRC proliferation and migration was significantly inhibited by rapamycin. Collectively, the current data indicate that signaling through mTORC1 contributes significantly to the process of skin tumor promotion through effects on proliferation of the target cells for tumor development. PMID:24114993

  13. Combination photodynamic therapy using 5-fluorouracil and aminolevulinate enhances tumor-selective production of protoporphyrin IX and improves treatment efficacy of squamous skin cancers and precancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay

    2016-03-01

    In combination photodynamic therapy (cPDT), a small-molecule drug is used to modulate the physiological state of tumor cells prior to giving aminolevulinate (ALA; a precursor for protoporphyrin IX, PpIX). In our laboratory we have identified three agents (methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, and vitamin D) that can enhance therapeutic effectiveness of ALAbased photodynamic therapy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, only one (5-fluorouracil; 5-FU) is FDA-approved for skin cancer management. Here, we describe animal and human studies on 5-FU mechanisms of action, in terms of how 5-FU pretreatment leads to enhanced PpIX accumulation and improves selectivity of ALA-PDT treatment. In A431 subcutaneous tumors in mice, 5-FU changed expression of heme enzyme (upregulating coproporphyrinogen oxidase, and down-regulating ferrochelatase), inhibited tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67), enhanced differentiation (E-cadherin), and led to strong, tumor-selective increases in apoptosis. Interestingly, enhancement of apoptosis by 5-FU correlated strongly with an increased accumulation of p53 in tumor cells that persisted for 24 h post- PDT. In a clinical trial using a split-body, bilaterally controlled study design, human subjects with actinic keratoses (AK; preneoplastic precursors of SCC) were pretreated on one side of the face, scalp, or forearms with 5-FU cream for 6 days, while the control side received no 5-FU. On the seventh day, the levels of PpIX in 4 test lesions were measured by noninvasive fluorescence dosimetry, and then all lesions were treated with PDT using methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) and red light (635 nm). Relative amounts of PpIX were found to be increased ~2-fold in 5-FU pretreated lesions relative to controls. At 3 months after PDT, the overall clinical response to PDT (reduction in lesion counts) was 2- to 3-fold better for the 5-FU pretreated lesions, a clinically important result. In summary, 5-FU is a useful adjuvant to aminolevulinate-based PDT

  14. Effects of Selenium on DNA Binding Activity of Nuclear Factor-κB Induced by Arsenic in Mouse Skin JB6-CI41 Cells in vitro%硒对砷诱导小鼠皮肤JB6-CI41细胞核因子κB的DNA结合活性体外实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余日安; 贺凌飞; 鲁文清; 李晓暖; 王艺陪; 陈秉; 戴文涛

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究硒对砷诱导小鼠皮肤JB6-CI41细胞核因子κB(nuclear factor κB,NF-κB)的DNA结合活性和细胞凋亡的作用.方法 调整JB6-CI41细胞密度为1×105/孔,分别设立对照(生理盐水)组,不同浓度的亚砷酸(3.125、6.25、12.5 μmol/L)和亚硒酸钠(2.5 μmol/L)单独染毒组,亚硒酸钠(2.5μmol/L)+不同浓度的亚砷酸(3.125、6.25和12.5μmol/L)联合染毒组,NF-κB特异化学抑制剂二乙基二硫代氨基甲酸盐(diethyldithiocarbamate,DTYC,100 μmol/L,提前染毒2 h)+亚砷酸(6.25 μmol/L)联合染毒组.采用凝胶阻滞电泳法(electrophoretic mobility shift assay,EMSA)检测NF-κB的DNA结合活性,采用流式细胞术检测细胞凋亡情况.结果 2.5 μmol/L亚硒酸钠对小鼠皮肤JB6-CI41细胞NF-κB的DNA结合活性和细胞凋亡无显著影响(P>0.05).6.25和12.5 μmol/L的亚砷酸能够增强小鼠皮肤JB6-CI41细胞NF-κB的DNA结合活性(P<0.01),具有明显剂量-效应关系(r=0.942 6,P<0.01).3.125、6.25和12.5 μmol/L亚砷酸诱导小鼠皮肤JB6-CI41细胞凋亡(P<0.01),呈现显著剂量-反应关系(r=0.991 8,P<0.01).NF-κB的DNA结合活性与细胞凋亡率呈显著正相关(r=0.977 5,P<0.01).2.5 μmol/L亚硒酸钠能抑制6.25和12.5 μmol/L亚砷酸作用下的小鼠皮肤JB6-CI41细胞NF-κB的DNA结合活性(P<0.01),对3.125、6.25和12.5 μmol/L的亚砷酸引起的小鼠皮肤JB6-CI41细胞凋亡率也表现出显著抑制作用(P<0.01).100 μmol/L的DTYC对6.25μmol/L亚砷酸引起的小鼠皮肤JB6-CI41细胞NF-κB的DNA结合活性和细胞凋亡率具有显著抑制作用(P<0.01).结论 在本实验中,一定剂量(6.25~12.5 μmol/L)的砷能够使小鼠皮肤JB6-CI41细胞NF-κB的DNA结合活性显著增高并诱导细胞凋亡,2.5 μmol/L的硒能抑制砷引起的NF-κB的活化和细胞凋亡.%Objective To explore the effects of selenium on arsenic-induced DNA binding activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and apoptosis in mouse skin JB6-CI

  15. Modulation of miR-203 and its regulators as a function of time during the development of 7, 12 dimethylbenz [a] anthracene induced mouse skin tumors in presence or absence of the antitumor agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Prakash; Gupta, Krishna P

    2014-07-15

    We investigated the chemopreventive effects of naturally occurring compounds like butyric acid (BA), nicotinamide (NA) and calcium glucarate (CAG) individually or in combination in 7, 12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) treated mouse skin at 4 and 16 weeks, the time before and after the tumor development. DMBA application did not show any skin tumors at 4 weeks but well defined tumors appeared at 16 weeks. BA, NA or CAG prevented the tumor development significantly but the protection was highly enhanced when all these compounds were given together. In order to see the molecular changes progressing with tumors, we showed the downregulation of tumor suppressor miR-203 at 16 weeks and upregulation of histone deacetylases (HDAC), DNA methyltransferase, promoter methylation of miR-203 at 4 or 16 weeks. Regulators of micro RNA biogenesis such as DICER1 and Ago2 were also deregulated by DMBA. Proto-oncogene c-myc and BMI1 were upregulated and tumor suppressor gene p16 was downregulated by DMBA as a function of time. Effects of BA, NA or CAG were more pronounced after 16 weeks as compared to 4 weeks in preventing the tumor development and altered gene expression. Concomitant administration of BA, NA and CAG tried to prevent these alterations more effectively than that of individual compound possibly by regulating miR-203 status through epigenetic or biogenetic modulations before and after the tumor development. Study provides a rationale for chemoprevention by combination of different compounds targeting miR-203. PMID:24792773

  16. Assay Development for the Discovery of Semaphorin 3B Inducing Agents from Natural Product Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Yeonjoong; Pan, Li; Ren, Yulin; Fatima, Nighat; Ahmed, Safia; Chang, Leng Chee; Zhang, Xiaoli; Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Swanson, Steven M.; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J.

    2014-01-01

    Semaphorins are a class of membrane-bound and secreted proteins. They have been found to regulate basic cell functions such as axonal growth cone guidance and recent studies have focused on their effect on tumor progression. Semaphorin 3B (Sema 3B) particularly is a secreted protein that has been known to modulate proliferation and apoptosis, processes that are critical for tumor progression and development. In spite of its importance, there is yet no high-throughput screening assay available to detect or quantify the expression of Sema 3B for natural product anticancer drug discovery purposes. Therefore, the development of a new high-throughput bioassay for the discovery of Sema 3B inducing agents from natural product sources is described herein. A wide variety of pure compounds and extracts from plants and microorganisms has been found suitable for screening using this Sema 3B assay to detect and quantify the effect of Sema 3B inducing agents and thereby identify new selective bioactive Sema 3B lead compounds for anticancer drug discovery and development. Also, this new bioassay procedure is based on a high-throughput platform using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that involves the optimization of sensitivity and selectivity levels as well as accuracy, reproducibility, robustness, and cost effectiveness. PMID:25016954

  17. Mouse skin tumor initiation-promotion and complete carcinogenesis bioassays: mechanisms and biological activities of emission samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Nesnow, S; Triplett, L L; Slaga, T J

    1983-01-01

    Extracts of soots obtained from various sources were applied to the skin of mice in an effort to identify carcinogens in these mixtures and to link these materials to the etiology of human cancer. Samples of coal chimney soot, coke oven materials, industrial carbon black, oil shale soot, and gasoline vehicle exhaust materials have been examined by this method. The studies reported here have been constructed to compare the carcinogenic and tumorigenic potency of extracts from various particula...

  18. Rare emerging malignant skin tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongioletti, F; Ferreli, C; Pinna, A L; Atzori, L

    2015-08-01

    As clinical skills improve and innovative diagnostic techniques become available in the field of dermatology and dermatopathology, new types or additional variants of malignant skin tumors are described. This article reviews the current nomenclature, clinico-pathological features, differential diagnosis, prognostic and therapeutic implications of some new dermato(patho)logical rare emerging skin tumors, including epithelial tumors (squamous cell carcinoma with mucinous metaplasia), adnexal tumors (endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma), soft tissue tumors of vascular differentiation (pseudolymphomatous cutaneous angiosarcoma, pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma), hematopoietic tumors (blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm) and mixed epithelial/melanocytic tumor (squamomelanocytic tumor). PMID:26086411

  19. Modulation of miR-203 and its regulators as a function of time during the development of 7, 12 dimethylbenz [a] anthracene induced mouse skin tumors in presence or absence of the antitumor agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the chemopreventive effects of naturally occurring compounds like butyric acid (BA), nicotinamide (NA) and calcium glucarate (CAG) individually or in combination in 7, 12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) treated mouse skin at 4 and 16 weeks, the time before and after the tumor development. DMBA application did not show any skin tumors at 4 weeks but well defined tumors appeared at 16 weeks. BA, NA or CAG prevented the tumor development significantly but the protection was highly enhanced when all these compounds were given together. In order to see the molecular changes progressing with tumors, we showed the downregulation of tumor suppressor miR-203 at 16 weeks and upregulation of histone deacetylases (HDAC), DNA methyltransferase, promoter methylation of miR-203 at 4 or 16 weeks. Regulators of micro RNA biogenesis such as DICER1 and Ago2 were also deregulated by DMBA. Proto-oncogene c-myc and BMI1 were upregulated and tumor suppressor gene p16 was downregulated by DMBA as a function of time. Effects of BA, NA or CAG were more pronounced after 16 weeks as compared to 4 weeks in preventing the tumor development and altered gene expression. Concomitant administration of BA, NA and CAG tried to prevent these alterations more effectively than that of individual compound possibly by regulating miR-203 status through epigenetic or biogenetic modulations before and after the tumor development. Study provides a rationale for chemoprevention by combination of different compounds targeting miR-203. - Highlights: • DMBA modulates miR-203 and its regulator before and after the onset of tumors. • Suppression of miR-203 and p16 could be the result of gene promoter methylation. • BA, NA or CAG prevents the effects of DMBA. • Combination of BA, NA or CAG is more effective in preventing the DMBA modulations

  20. Modulation of miR-203 and its regulators as a function of time during the development of 7, 12 dimethylbenz [a] anthracene induced mouse skin tumors in presence or absence of the antitumor agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Prakash; Gupta, Krishna P., E-mail: krishnag522@yahoo.co.in

    2014-07-15

    We investigated the chemopreventive effects of naturally occurring compounds like butyric acid (BA), nicotinamide (NA) and calcium glucarate (CAG) individually or in combination in 7, 12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) treated mouse skin at 4 and 16 weeks, the time before and after the tumor development. DMBA application did not show any skin tumors at 4 weeks but well defined tumors appeared at 16 weeks. BA, NA or CAG prevented the tumor development significantly but the protection was highly enhanced when all these compounds were given together. In order to see the molecular changes progressing with tumors, we showed the downregulation of tumor suppressor miR-203 at 16 weeks and upregulation of histone deacetylases (HDAC), DNA methyltransferase, promoter methylation of miR-203 at 4 or 16 weeks. Regulators of micro RNA biogenesis such as DICER1 and Ago2 were also deregulated by DMBA. Proto-oncogene c-myc and BMI1 were upregulated and tumor suppressor gene p16 was downregulated by DMBA as a function of time. Effects of BA, NA or CAG were more pronounced after 16 weeks as compared to 4 weeks in preventing the tumor development and altered gene expression. Concomitant administration of BA, NA and CAG tried to prevent these alterations more effectively than that of individual compound possibly by regulating miR-203 status through epigenetic or biogenetic modulations before and after the tumor development. Study provides a rationale for chemoprevention by combination of different compounds targeting miR-203. - Highlights: • DMBA modulates miR-203 and its regulator before and after the onset of tumors. • Suppression of miR-203 and p16 could be the result of gene promoter methylation. • BA, NA or CAG prevents the effects of DMBA. • Combination of BA, NA or CAG is more effective in preventing the DMBA modulations.

  1. Ophiopogonin B induces apoptosis, mitotic catastrophe and autophagy in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meijuan; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Ruolin; Wang, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Miao; Fu, Haian; Zhang, Xu

    2016-07-01

    Ophiopogonin B (OP-B), a saponin compound isolated from Radix Ophiopogon japonicus, was verified to inhibit cell proliferation in numerous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in our previous study. However, the precise mechanisms of action have remained unclear. In the present study, we mainly investigated the effects of OP-B on adenocarcinoma A549 cells to further elaborate the underlying mechanisms of OP-B in different NSCLC cell lines. Detection by high content screening (HCS) and TUNEL assay verified that OP-B induced apoptosis in this cell line, while detection of Caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax showed that OP-B induced cell death was caspase and mitochondrial independent. Further experiments showed that OP-B induced cell cycle arrest in the S and G2/M phases by inhibiting the expression of Myt1 and phosphorylation of Histone H3 (Ser10), which resulted in mitotic catastrophe in the cells. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of cell micro-morphology combined with detection of Atgs by western blot analysis showed that OP-B induced autophagy in this cell line. Autophagy inhibition by the lysosome inhibitor CQ or Beclin1-siRNA knockdown both attenuated cell viability, demonstrated that autophagy also being the vital reason resulted in cell death. More importantly, the xenograft model using A549 cells provided further evidence of the inhibition of OP-B on tumor proliferation. Immunohistochemistry detection of LC3 and Tunel assay both verified that high dose of OP-B (75 mg/kg) induced autophagy and apoptosis in vivo, and western blot detection of p-Histone H3 (Ser10), Survivin and XIAP further indicated the molecular mechanism of OP-B in vivo. As our findings revealed, multiple types of cell death overlapped in OP-B treated A549 cells, it displayed multitarget characteristics of the compounds extracted from the Chinese herbal, which may be used as candidate anticancer medicine in clinic.

  2. Ophiopogonin B induces apoptosis, mitotic catastrophe and autophagy in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meijuan; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Ruolin; Wang, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Miao; Fu, Haian; Zhang, Xu

    2016-07-01

    Ophiopogonin B (OP-B), a saponin compound isolated from Radix Ophiopogon japonicus, was verified to inhibit cell proliferation in numerous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in our previous study. However, the precise mechanisms of action have remained unclear. In the present study, we mainly investigated the effects of OP-B on adenocarcinoma A549 cells to further elaborate the underlying mechanisms of OP-B in different NSCLC cell lines. Detection by high content screening (HCS) and TUNEL assay verified that OP-B induced apoptosis in this cell line, while detection of Caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax showed that OP-B induced cell death was caspase and mitochondrial independent. Further experiments showed that OP-B induced cell cycle arrest in the S and G2/M phases by inhibiting the expression of Myt1 and phosphorylation of Histone H3 (Ser10), which resulted in mitotic catastrophe in the cells. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of cell micro-morphology combined with detection of Atgs by western blot analysis showed that OP-B induced autophagy in this cell line. Autophagy inhibition by the lysosome inhibitor CQ or Beclin1-siRNA knockdown both attenuated cell viability, demonstrated that autophagy also being the vital reason resulted in cell death. More importantly, the xenograft model using A549 cells provided further evidence of the inhibition of OP-B on tumor proliferation. Immunohistochemistry detection of LC3 and Tunel assay both verified that high dose of OP-B (75 mg/kg) induced autophagy and apoptosis in vivo, and western blot detection of p-Histone H3 (Ser10), Survivin and XIAP further indicated the molecular mechanism of OP-B in vivo. As our findings revealed, multiple types of cell death overlapped in OP-B treated A549 cells, it displayed multitarget characteristics of the compounds extracted from the Chinese herbal, which may be used as candidate anticancer medicine in clinic. PMID:27175570

  3. A comprehensive study of tumor necrosis factor-alpha genetic polymorphisms, its expression in skin and relation to histopathological features in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil N Moorchung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα is an important inflammatory mediator in psoriasis and several genetic polymorphisms of this cytokine have been reported. Majority of studies have focused on the increased G- A polymorphism at the -308 position in psoriasis. There has been no comprehensive study evaluating the genetic polymorphisms, TNFα expression in the skin and histopathology. We are undertaking this study to outline TNFα genetic polymorphisms, its skin expression and histopathological correlation to help determine its role at the genetic and protein level. Materials and Methods : 112 patients of psoriasis and 243 healthy controls were included in this prospective study. 5 ml of peripheral blood was collected to study the TNFα genetic polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Histopathological analysis of biopsies from the 112 patients were done using visual analogue scale and correlated with the findings. 61 of these cases were analyzed for TNFα expression by immunohistochemistry. The results of study were statistically analyzed using SPSS 13.0 statistical package program. Results: A strong association of TNFα -308 G/A polymorphism in psoriasis cases was detected. The A allele of the TNFα -308 G/A polymorphism occurs rarely in the Indian population, however there is an over representation of this allele in psoriatic patients. There was no association seen between TNFα genotype and histopathological severity of psoriasis. Conclusion: The study emphasized the central role of TNFα in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. TNFα genotyping may be helpful in identifying subjects in whom anti-TNFα therapeutic strategies may be tried.

  4. MicroRNA miR-125b induces senescence in human melanoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Martin; Manfé, Valentina; Biskup, Edyta;

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules involved in gene regulation. Aberrant expression of miRNA has been associated with the development or progression of several diseases, including cancer. In a previous study, we found that the expression of miRNA-125b (miR-125b) was two-fold lower...... in malignant melanoma producing lymph node micrometastases than in nonmetastasizing tumors. To get further insight into the functional role of miR-125b, we assessed whether its overexpression or silencing affects apoptosis, proliferation, or senescence in melanoma cell lines. We showed that overexpression...... of miR-125b induced typical senescent cell morphology, including increased cytoplasmatic/nucleus ratio and intensive cytoplasmatic ß-galactosidase expression. In contrast, inhibition of miR-125b resulted in 30-35% decreased levels of spontaneous apoptosis. We propose that downregulation of miR-125b...

  5. Skin Cancers of the Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin of the lower legs and feet. Skin cancers affecting the feet may have a very different appearance from those arising on the rest of the body. For this reason, a podiatrist's knowledge and clinical training is of ... and malignant skin tumors. Learn the ABCDs of melanoma. If you notice ...

  6. Coping and quality of life in patients with skin tumors in the follow-up stage: The mediating role of body image and psychological morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M Graça; Baia, Vânia; Machado, José C

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between coping style, body image, psychological morbidity, and quality of life. A total of 58 patients who were diagnosed with skin tumors, had been submitted to surgery, and were in the follow-up phase answered the following instruments: dermatology life quality index (DLQI), hospital anxiety and depression scales (HADS), body image scale (BIS), and the mini mental adjustment to cancer scale (Mini-MAC). The results showed that patients with a higher use of the coping styles of helplessness/hopelessness, anxious preoccupation, and cognitive avoidance reported a worse quality of life. Body image mediated the relationship between the coping styles of anxious preoccupation, helplessness/hopelessness, and quality of life. Psychological morbidity mediated the relationship between helplessness/hopelessness and quality of life. Therefore, even in the follow-up phase, it is important that health professionals are aware of the patient's emotional distress and body image to identify those at a higher risk of having a poorer quality of life. PMID:27564996

  7. Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 Released by Skin-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Is Critical for Inhibiting Th17 Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Fang; Zhang, Lingyun; Liu, Zhaoyuan; Yan, Sha; Xu, Zhenyao; Bai, Jing; Zhu, Huiyuan; Lou, Fangzhou; Cai, Wei; Sun, Yang; Gao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Hong; Wang, Honglin

    2016-03-01

    T helper 17 (Th17) cells play an important role in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Th17 cell differentiation from naïve T cells can be induced in vitro by the cytokines transforming growth factor β1 and interleukin-6. However, it remains unclear whether other regulatory factors control the differentiation of Th17 cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising candidate for inhibiting Th17 cell differentiation and autoimmune diseases. Despite the fact that several molecules have been linked to the immunomodulatory function of MSCs, many other key MSC-secreted regulators that are involved in inhibiting Th17 cell polarization are ill-defined. In this study, we demonstrated that the intraperitoneal administration of skin-derived MSCs (S-MSCs) substantially ameliorated the development of EAE in mice. We found that the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a key mediator in the pathophysiology of MS and EAE, was capable of promoting Th17 cell differentiation. Moreover, under inflammatory conditions, we demonstrated that S-MSCs produced high amounts of soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNFR1), which binds TNF-α and antagonizes its function. Knockdown of sTNFR1 in S-MSCs decreased their inhibitory effect on Th17 cell differentiation ex vivo and in vivo. Thus, our data identified sTNFR1 and its target TNF-α as critical regulators for Th17 cell differentiation, suggesting a previously unrecognized mechanism for MSC therapy in Th17-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  8. Soft tissue mixed tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Eiichi Hiraishi; Hiroshi Sakihara; Michiro Susa; Takayuki Honma; Hiroshi Shimosawa

    2009-01-01

    Mixed tumors are relatively common in the skin and salivary glands, but extremely rare in soft tissues, often resulting in diagnostic problems. The occurrence of these tumors in the hand is especially limited. In this article we report the clinical, radiological, and histological features of a mixed tumor of the hypothenar region of the right hand.

  9. Assessment of Augmented Immune Surveillance and Tumor Cell Death by Cytoplasmic Stabilization of p53 as a Chemopreventive Strategy of 3 Promising Medicinal Herbs in Murine 2-Stage Skin Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farrah; Khan, Rehan; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Lateef, Md Abdul; Maqbool, Tahir; Sultana, Sarwat

    2014-07-01

    Cancer is the final outcome of a plethora of events. Targeting the proliferation or inducing programmed cell death in a proliferating population is a major standpoint in the cancer therapy. However, proliferation is regulated by several cellular and immunologic processes. This study reports the inhibition of proliferation by augmenting immune surveillance, silencing acute inflammation, and inducing p53-mediated apoptosis of skin cancer by 3 promising medicinal extracts. We used the well-characterized model for experimental skin carcinogenesis in mice for 32 weeks to study the chemopreventive effect of the methanolic extracts of Trigonella foenumgraecum, Eclipta alba, and Calendula officinalis. All 3 extracts reduced the number, incidence, and multiplicity of tumors, which was confirmed by the pathologic studies that showed regressed tumors. There was a significant reduction in the PCNA+ nuclei in all treatment groups 32 weeks after the initiation. Mechanistic studies revealed that proliferative population in tumors is diminished by the restoration of the endogenous antioxidant defense, inhibition of the stress-related signal-transducing element NFκB, reduction of inflammation, enhancement of immunosurveillance of the genetically mutated cells, along with silencing of the cell cycle progression signals. Finally, all 3 medicinal extracts induced stable expression of p53 within the tumors, confirmed by the CFDA-Cy3 apoptosis assay. Results of our study confirm that these extracts not only limit the rate of proliferation by inhibition of the processes integral to cancer development but also induce stable cytoplasmic expression of p53-mediated apoptosis, leading to fewer and regressed tumors in mice.

  10. Assessment of Augmented Immune Surveillance and Tumor Cell Death by Cytoplasmic Stabilization of p53 as a Chemopreventive Strategy of 3 Promising Medicinal Herbs in Murine 2-Stage Skin Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farrah; Khan, Rehan; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Lateef, Md Abdul; Maqbool, Tahir; Sultana, Sarwat

    2014-07-01

    Cancer is the final outcome of a plethora of events. Targeting the proliferation or inducing programmed cell death in a proliferating population is a major standpoint in the cancer therapy. However, proliferation is regulated by several cellular and immunologic processes. This study reports the inhibition of proliferation by augmenting immune surveillance, silencing acute inflammation, and inducing p53-mediated apoptosis of skin cancer by 3 promising medicinal extracts. We used the well-characterized model for experimental skin carcinogenesis in mice for 32 weeks to study the chemopreventive effect of the methanolic extracts of Trigonella foenumgraecum, Eclipta alba, and Calendula officinalis. All 3 extracts reduced the number, incidence, and multiplicity of tumors, which was confirmed by the pathologic studies that showed regressed tumors. There was a significant reduction in the PCNA+ nuclei in all treatment groups 32 weeks after the initiation. Mechanistic studies revealed that proliferative population in tumors is diminished by the restoration of the endogenous antioxidant defense, inhibition of the stress-related signal-transducing element NFκB, reduction of inflammation, enhancement of immunosurveillance of the genetically mutated cells, along with silencing of the cell cycle progression signals. Finally, all 3 medicinal extracts induced stable expression of p53 within the tumors, confirmed by the CFDA-Cy3 apoptosis assay. Results of our study confirm that these extracts not only limit the rate of proliferation by inhibition of the processes integral to cancer development but also induce stable cytoplasmic expression of p53-mediated apoptosis, leading to fewer and regressed tumors in mice. PMID:24363284

  11. Mouse Prkar1a haploinsufficiency leads to an increase in tumors in the Trp53+/− or Rb1+/− backgrounds and chemically induced skin papillomas by dysregulation of the cell cycle and Wnt signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Madson Q.; Muchow, Michael; Boikos, Sosipatros; Bauer, Andrew J.; Griffin, Kurt J.; Tsang, Kit Man; Cheadle, Chris; Watkins, Tonya; Wen, Feng; Starost, Matthew F.; Bossis, Ioannis; Nesterova, Maria; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2010-01-01

    PRKAR1A inactivation leads to dysregulated cAMP signaling and Carney complex (CNC) in humans, a syndrome associated with skin, endocrine and other tumors. The CNC phenotype is not easily explained by the ubiquitous cAMP signaling defect; furthermore, Prkar1a+/− mice did not develop skin and other CNC tumors. To identify whether a Prkar1a defect is truly a generic but weak tumorigenic signal that depends on tissue-specific or other factors, we investigated Prkar1a+/− mice when bred within the Rb1+/− or Trp53+/− backgrounds, or treated with a two-step skin carcinogenesis protocol. Prkar1a+/− Trp53+/− mice developed more sarcomas than Trp53+/− mice (P < 0.05) and Prkar1a+/− Rb1+/− mice grew more (and larger) pituitary and thyroid tumors than Rb1+/− mice. All mice with double heterozygosity had significantly reduced life-spans compared with their single-heterozygous counterparts. Prkar1a+/− mice also developed more papillomas than wild-type animals. A whole-genome transcriptome profiling of tumors produced by all three models identified Wnt signaling as the main pathway activated by abnormal cAMP signaling, along with cell cycle abnormalities; all changes were confirmed by qRT–PCR array and immunohistochemistry. siRNA down-regulation of Ctnnb1, E2f1 or Cdk4 inhibited proliferation of human adrenal cells bearing a PRKAR1A-inactivating mutation and Prkar1a+/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts and arrested both cell lines at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. In conclusion, Prkar1a haploinsufficiency is a relatively weak tumorigenic signal that can act synergistically with other tumor suppressor gene defects or chemicals to induce tumors, mostly through Wnt-signaling activation and cell cycle dysregulation, consistent with studies in human neoplasms carrying PRKAR1A defects. PMID:20080939

  12. Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  13. Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  14. Micronucleus assay prediction and application optimized by cytochalasin B-induced binucleated tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvement in the predictive assertion of the micronucleus assay was achieved by treating human malignant melanoma cells (Mewo) with cytochalasin B (CB), generating binucleated cells (BNC) representing cells after a single karyokinesis. Optimal cell binucleation was determined by testing several cytochalasin B concentrations and different incubation times. On average, 56% binucleated cells were found after incubation with 2 to 3 μg/ml cytochalasin B for 48 h. Cells with at least one micronucleus (Mn) were defined as fraction of cells with micronuclei and describes the degree of damaged cells. We found in binucleated cells 2.2fold the fraction of cells with micronuclei than in mononucleated cells (MNC), as expected assuming that an induced micronucleus is associated with only one single daughter cell after mitosis. The mean of micronuclei per binucleated cells, however, was enhanced about 2.9fold in relation to that of micronuclei per mononucleated cells and is related to the nucelar damage per cell. The application of cytochalasin B did not enhance the fraction of damaged cells although the degree of the injury per cell is intensified. A micronuclei promoting or inhibiting effect of the experimental design due to changes in cell proliferation was excluded by cytofluorometric investigations of DNA content and synthesis after cytochalasin B application. A comparison of the modified with the conventional micronucleus assay shows the superiority of the former. (orig.)

  15. Clinical significance and expression of C-FLIP in human non-melanocytic skin tumors%c-FLIP在人非黑素细胞性皮肤肿瘤组织中的表达及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓庆; 涂亚庭

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Human non-melanocytic skin tumors are the most common forms of skin tumors. Recent studies showed that c-FLIP plays a key role in the development of tumors. This study aimed to investigate the expression of c-FLIP protein in human non-melanocytic skin tumors and its clinical significance. Methods: The immunohistochemical method was used to determine the expression of c-FLIP in 81 human nonmelanocytic skin tumors. Results: The positive expressive rate of c-FLIP in 4 research groups are all significantly higher than in the normal control group, and therefore showed a statistical differences (P<0.01). The abnormal expression of c-FLIP in four research groups increase with malignancy of these diseases, but there were no statistical differences (P>0.05). The abnormal expression of c-FLIP in the SCC stage Ⅱ - Ⅲ were higher than that in the stage Ⅰ, but there were also no statistical differences (P>0.05). The positive expressive rate of c-FLIP in SCC correlated with the extent of infiltration and tumor metastasis (P<0.05). Conclusion: c-FLIP proteins play an important role in the genesis and progress of human non-melanocytic skin tumors.%背景与目的:非黑素细胞性皮肤肿瘤是皮肤肿瘤中最常见的一组类型,近来研究发现,c-FLIP在肿瘤的发生发展中发挥重要作用.本研究探讨c-FLIP在人非黑素细胞性皮肤肿瘤组织中的表达及其临床意义.方法:采用免疫组织化学SABC法检测81例人非黑素细胞性皮肤肿瘤组织标本和20例肿瘤周围正常皮肤组织和正常包皮组织标本中c-FLIP的表达水平,81例人非黑素细胞性皮肤肿瘤组织标本中,光线性角化病(actinic keratosis,AK)18例(AK组),鲍温样丘疹病(Bowenoid papulosiS,BP)15例(BP组),鲍温病(Bowen's disease,BD)16例(BD组),鳞状细胞癌(squamous cell carcinoma,SCC)32例(SCC组).分别统计比较各组c-FLIP阳性表达率在各临床病理学分级不同的疾病组

  16. Radiotherapy of skin cancer. Delineation of GTV and CTV; Radiotherapie des cancers cutanes. Definition du volume tumoral macroscopique et du volume-cible anatomoclinique. Implications pratiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calitchi, E. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Henri-Mondor, Service de Radiotherapie, 94 - Creteil (France)

    2001-10-01

    Delineation of GTV and CTV for radiotherapy of skin cancer depends on the natural history of each cancer type and on the clinical presentation of the disease. It is fundamental for the choice of the most adapted radiation technique. (author)

  17. IL1B induced Smad 7 negatively regulates gastrin expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipanjana Datta De

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori elicited IL1B is one of the various modulators responsible for perturbation of acid secretion in gut. We have earlier reported that IL1B activated NFkB downregulates gastrin, a major modulator of acid secretion. However, we hypothesized that regulation of gastrin by IL1B would depend on the cell's ability to integrate inputs from multiple signaling pathways to generate appropriate biological response. PRINCIPAL FINDING: In this study, we report that IL1B induces Smad 7 expression by about 4.5 fold in gastric carcinoma cell line, AGS. Smad 7 resulted in transcriptional repression of gastrin promoter by about 6.5 fold when co-transfected with Smad 7 expression vector and gastrin-promoter luciferase in AGS cells. IL1B inhibited phosphorylation of Smad 3 and subsequently interfered with nuclear translocation of the positive Smad complex, thus occluding it off the gastrin promoter. IL1B promoter polymorphisms (-511T/-31C IL1B are known to be associated with H. pylori associated gastro-duodenal ulcer. We observed that IL1B expressed from -31T promoter driven IL1B cDNA elicited 3.5 fold more Smad 7 than that expressed from the IL1B-31C variant in AGS cells. This differential activation of Smad 7 by IL1B promoter variants translated into differential downregulation of gastrin expression. We further analyzed Smad 7, NFkB, IL1B and gastrin expression in antral gut biopsy samples of patients with H. pylori associated duodenal ulcer and normal individuals. We observed that individuals with duodenal ulcer had significantly lower levels of IL1B, Smad 7, NFkB and corresponding higher level of gastrin expression. CONCLUSION: Pro-inflammatory cytokine IL1B repress gastrin expression by activating Smad 7 and subsequent inhibition of nuclear localization of Smad 3/4 complex. Polymorphic promoter variants of IL1B gene can modulate the IL1B expression which resulted in differential activation Smad 7 and consequent repression of

  18. Skin Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  19. Management of Skin Toxicities of Anti-EGFR Agents in Patients with Pancreatic Cancer and Other GI Tumors by Using Electronic Communication: Effective and Convenient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Erlotinib has been FDA approved to be used in combination with gemcitabine as the first line treatment in advanced pancreatic cancer patients. Skin rash has been documented as one of the commonest adverse reactions in patients receiving erlotinib and other EGFR inhibitors. Draw back to this reaction leads to: 1 drug discontinuation or dose reduction; 2 impairs quality of life; and 3 Puts patients at risk of superinfection. Monitoring patients closely and initiating immediate skin care is recommended. However, patients forget how the rash started and when. No standard treatments exist secondary to the diversity of symptoms, variability and intermittent occurrence in relation to the cancer therapy. In addition, there is slow improvement with medical treatment. Also, patients need to make extra visits to doctor’s office for skin management when in needed in addition to chemotherapy appointments. Late presentation for medical attention leading to complications, such as sepsis. We here experience a novel way of assessing and managing the skin rash using the electronic media. We suggest that electronic communication is of crucial importance to detect early, diagnose and treat anti-EGFR related skin rash in order to continue the benefit of anti-EGFR.

  20. Afatinib-Associated Cutaneous Toxicity: A Correlation of Severe Skin Reaction with Dramatic Tumor Response in a Woman with Exon 19 Deletion Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors are biological factors used in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) that are positive for EGFR mutations. Afatinib is one such drug that has been approved for use in this capacity. Cutaneous toxicity is the second most commonly reported adverse event with the use of afatinib. A 39-year-old woman with inoperative right lung adenocarcinoma was initially treated with afatinib. She not only developed a severe papulopustular eruption but also had a dramatic reduction of her tumor. Her cutaneous symptoms and lesions were effectively treated with oral and topical corticosteroids, oral antibiotics, and oral antihistamines. After one month of afatinib treatment, her tumor was resected, and there was no evidence of metastases. Afatinib-induced cutaneous toxicity has a positive correlation with tumor response to anti-neoplastic therapy. Supplemental systemic and topical treatments can be initiated to palliate adverse skin events in order to enable adequate duration of treatment with afatinib.

  1. The Marine Fungal Metabolite, Dicitrinone B, Induces A375 Cell Apoptosis through the ROS-Related Caspase Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dicitrinone B, a rare carbon-bridged citrinin dimer, was isolated from the marine-derived fungus, Penicillium citrinum. It was reported to have antitumor effects on tumor cells previously; however, the details of the mechanism remain unclear. In this study, we found that dicitrinone B inhibited the proliferation of multiple tumor types. Among them, the human malignant melanoma cell, A375, was confirmed to be the most sensitive. Morphologic evaluation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis rate analysis results showed that dicitrinone B significantly induced A375 cell apoptosis. Subsequent observation of reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP reduction revealed that the apoptosis induced by dicitrinone B may be triggered by over-producing ROS. Further studies indicated that the apoptosis was associated with both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways under the regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. Caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3 were activated during the process, leading to PARP cleavage. The pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, could reverse dicitrinone B-induced apoptosis, suggesting that it is a caspase-dependent pathway. Our data for the first time showed that dicitrinone B inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells by inducing cell apoptosis. Moreover, compared with the first-line chemotherapy drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu, dicitrinone B showed much more potent anticancer efficacy, suggesting that it might serve as a potential antitumor agent.

  2. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turkey neck,” this occurs as skin loses its elasticity and in cases where individuals have lost a ... technique or procedure is appropriate for my skin type? Did the doctor show me before-and-after ...

  3. Skin Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  4. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin condition cannot be diagnosed by the patient's history and what the physician finds on examination alone. Confirming a clinical diagnosis may also be necessary prior to starting therapy. Skin biopsy types are as follows: Shave biopsies Punch biopsies ...

  5. Skin tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranoski, S

    2001-08-01

    Skin tears are a serious, painful problem for older patients. Find out how your staff can recognize patients at risk, what they can do to prevent skin tears, and how to manage them effectively if they occur.

  6. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  7. SKIN CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Made Putri Hendaria; AAGN Asmarajaya; Sri Maliawan

    2013-01-01

    Skin is an organ which protect the human body from the environment. It was build by milion cells. According to the changes in human lifestyle which tends to unhealthy life, increasing ultraviolet radiation, toxins, and genetics makes the cells who build the skin do the abnormal growth being cancer cells. Classification of skin cancer is according the most common three types, they are Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Malignant Melanoma. More than 3,5 milion skin cancer cases ...

  8. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  9. Effects of high-fat diets rich in either omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids on UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, You-Rong; Peng, Qing-Yun; Li, Tao; Medvecky, Christopher M; Lin, Yong; Shih, Weichung Joe; Conney, Allan H; Shapses, Sue; Wagner, George C; Lu, Yao-Ping

    2011-07-01

    Our previous studies reported that caffeine or voluntary exercise decreased skin tumor multiplicity, in part, by decreasing fat levels in the dermis. These data suggest that tissue fat may play an important role in regulating ultraviolet light (UV) B-induced skin tumor development. In the present study, we explored the effects of high-fat diets rich in either omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids on UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis. SKH-1 mice were irradiated with 30 mJ/cm(2) of UVB once a day, two times per week for 39 weeks. During UVB treatment, one group of mice was given a high-fat fish oil (HFFO) diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids and the other group of mice was given a high-fat mixed-lipids (HFMLs) diet rich in omega-6 fatty acids. The results showed that, compared with HFML diet, HFFO treatment (i) increased latency for the development of UVB-induced skin tumors; (ii) decreased the formation of papilloma, keratoacanthoma and carcinoma by 64, 52 and 46%, respectively and (iii) decreased the size of papilloma, keratoacanthoma and carcinoma by 98, 80 and 83%, respectively. Mechanistic studies with antibody array revealed that compared with HFML diet, administration of HFFO to the mice significantly decreased the UVB-induced increases in the levels of TIMP-1, LIX and sTNF R1 as well as other several proinflammatory cytokines and stimulated the UVB-induced apoptosis in the epidermis. Our results indicate that omega-3 fatty acids in HFFO diet have beneficial effects against UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis, and these effects may be associated with an inhibition on UVB-induced inflammatory response. PMID:21525235

  10. Superior Orbital Fissure Syndrome and Ophthalmoplegia Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus with No Skin Eruption in a Patient Treated with Tumor Necrosis Alpha Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Helene; Thomsen, Sidsel Thorup; Hansen, Stine Scott; Munksgaard, Signe Bruun; Lindelof, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus lies dormant in the dorsal root ganglia after symptomatic chicken pox infection, usually in childhood. If the virus reactivates in the trigeminal ganglia, it can cause varicella zoster ophthalmicus, which can have severe ocular complications. We report a case of a 73-year-old woman in severe immunosuppression due to treatment with mycophenolate mofetil, glucocorticosteroids and a tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor. The reactivation caused superior orbital fissure syn...

  11. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Usually the cause is staphylococcal (staph), but sometimes streptococcus (strep) can cause it, too. It is most ... color or outline, or in any other way. Psoriasis © 2008 Logical Images, Inc. Psoriasis —A skin disease ...

  12. A role for b-cell-depleting agents in treating psoriatic skin lesions induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuta Codrina Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in understanding the pathological pathways, clinical pattern and management opportunities for new-onset psoriasis as a paradoxical adverse event in patients receiving TNF inhibitors for their immune-mediated disorder, there is a subset of patients who are either partial responders or non-responders, whatever the therapeutic scenario. We present the case of new-onset psoriasis and severe alopecia development in a case study of long-standing rheumatoid arthritis (RA treated with adalimumab (ADA and leflunomide. Since skin lesions and alopecia are resistant to the classic protocol (topical treatment, ADA discontinuation and RA becomes highly active, rituximab (RTX was started. Dramatic improvement in joint disease, total remission of alopecia and partial remission of pustular psoriasis were described after the first RTX cycle. Although B-cell-depleting agents result in controversial effects on psoriatic skin lesions, this is the first case of ADA-induced psoriasis and alopecia that improved under RTX, suggesting a possible role in treating such a patient population.

  13. Curious Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Angel, G.

    2010-01-01

    Some of Henry Wellcome’s collection of tattoos on human skin will be on display in our forthcoming Skin exhibition. But how did the Parisian doctor from whom they were acquired come by his macabre collection of tattoos in the first place, and what did they mean to those whose skin they were on? It’s Gemma Angel‘s job to find out…

  14. Superior Orbital Fissure Syndrome and Ophthalmoplegia Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus with No Skin Eruption in a Patient Treated with Tumor Necrosis Alpha Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Helene; Thomsen, Sidsel Thorup; Hansen, Stine Scott; Munksgaard, Signe Bruun; Lindelof, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus lies dormant in the dorsal root ganglia after symptomatic chicken pox infection, usually in childhood. If the virus reactivates in the trigeminal ganglia, it can cause varicella zoster ophthalmicus, which can have severe ocular complications. We report a case of a 73-year-old woman in severe immunosuppression due to treatment with mycophenolate mofetil, glucocorticosteroids and a tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor. The reactivation caused superior orbital fissure syndrome, which has only rarely been described in relation to varicella zoster virus reactivation. In our case, the syndrome was seen along with severe encephalitis. PMID:26600786

  15. Optical coherence tomography for imaging of skin and skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini;

    2009-01-01

    , as have many diseases. The method can provide accurate measures of epidermal and nail changes in normal tissue. Skin cancer and other tumors, as well as inflammatory diseases, have been studied and good agreement found between OCT images and histopathological architecture. OCT also allows noninvasive......Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging imaging technology based on light reflection. It provides real-time images with up to 2-mm penetration into the skin and a resolution of approximately 10 μm. It is routinely used in ophthalmology. The normal skin and its appendages have been studied...... monitoring of morphologic changes in skin diseases and may have a particular role in the monitoring of medical treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. The technology is however still evolving and continued technological development will necessitate an ongoing evaluation of its diagnostic accuracy. Several...

  16. Myeloid Sarcoma of the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruksan Elal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid sarcoma (MS (granulocytic sarcoma, extramedullary myeloid tumor, chloroma is a rare malignant extramedullary neoplasms of myeloid precursor cells. Skin is one of the most common localization of MS. The tumor may be isolated or associated with acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, primary myelofibrosis, hypereosinophilic syndrome and polycythemia vera. MS is a disease that is rare and difficult to diagnose. Perhaps the most important factor in the diagnosis is suggestion of MS. In this article, clinicopathological features of skin localized MS case are presented.

  17. Oily skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep your skin clean using warm water and soap, or a soapless cleanser. Clean your face with astringent pads if frequent face washing causes irritation. Use only water-based or oil-free cosmetics if you have oily skin. Your ...

  18. The Ozobranchus leech is a candidate mechanical vector for the fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus found latently infecting skin tumors on Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP) of marine turtles is a neoplastic disease of ecological concern. A fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus (FPTHV) is consistently present, usually at loads exceeding one virus copy per tumor cell. DNA from an array of parasites of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) was examined with quantitative PCR (qPCR) to determine whether any carried viral loads are sufficient to implicate them as vectors for FPTHV. Marine leeches (Ozobranchus spp.) were found to carry high viral DNA loads; some samples approached 10 million copies per leech. Isopycnic sucrose density gradient/qPCR analysis confirmed that some of these copies were associated with particles of the density of enveloped viruses. The data implicate the marine leech Ozobranchus as a mechanical vector for FPTHV. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of FPTHV gene expression indicated that most of the FPTHV copies in a fibropapilloma have restricted DNA polymerase expression, suggestive of latent infection

  19. The Ozobranchus leech as a mechanical vector for the fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpes virus found latently infecting skin tumors on Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, R.J.; Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.; Sutton, C.A.; Casey, R.N.; Casey, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP) of marine turtles is a neoplastic disease of ecological concern. A fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus (FPTHV) is consistently present, usually at loads exceeding one virus copy per tumor cell. DNA from an array of parasites of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) was examined with quantitative PCR (qPCR) to determine whether any carried viral loads are sufficient to implicate them as vectors for FPTHV. Marine leeches (Ozobranchus spp.) were found to carry high viral DNA loads; some samples approached 10 million copies per leech. Isopycnic sucrose density gradient/qPCR analysis confirmed that some of these copies were associated with particles of the density of enveloped viruses. The data implicate the marine leech Ozobranchus as a mechanical vector for FPTHV. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of FPTHV gene expression indicated that most of the FPTHV copies in a fibropapilloma have restricted DNA polymerase expression, suggestive of latent infection.

  20. Four cases of Japanese patients with psoriatic arthritis in whom effective treatments by anti-tumor necrosis factor-α drugs were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging together with improvement of skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonenaga, Takenori; Saeki, Hidehisa; Nakagawa, Hidemi; Fukuchi, Osamu; Umezawa, Yoshinori; Hayashi, Mitsuha; Ito, Toshihiro; Yanaba, Koichi; Tojyo, Shinjiro; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2015-01-01

    Because psoriatic skin lesions of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) usually precede the onset of joint symptom, dermatologists are in an ideal position to screen and find individuals with PsA early in the disease course. There have been no reports from the dermatology field evaluating the effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α drugs on joint disorders using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in PsA patients. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effectiveness of MRI in the evaluation of anti-TNF-α drugs on joint disease of Japanese PsA patients. Data were collected from four adult Japanese male PsA patients. MRI of the affected hand was performed at baseline and 1-7 months after infliximab or adalimumab treatment. T1 -weighted gadolinium-enhanced images with fat suppression were acquired in the coronal, sagittal and/or axial planes. We determined the apparent improvement of synovitis, periarticular inflammation, tenosynovitis and/or bone marrow edema by MRI after anti-TNF-α treatments in all the patients together with the improvement of skin lesions. We also determined in one patient that these symptoms detected by MRI before treatment were alleviated within 1 month and had disappeared 6 months after treatment, suggesting the potentially early detection of the effect of anti-TNF-α drugs on joint disease. We present four cases of Japanese patients with PsA in whom effective treatments by anti-TNF-α drugs were evaluated by contrast-enhanced MRI. This imaging enables dermatologists and radiologists to assess and monitor early inflammatory changes, and to grant PsA patients earlier access to modern treatment such as biologics.

  1. Inhibitory Effects of Resveratrol on Melanin Synthesis in Ultraviolet B-Induced Pigmentation in Guinea Pig Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Taek Hwan; Seo, Jae Ok; Baek, So-Hyeon; KIM, Sun Yeou

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound found in various natural products such as grapes and berries and possesses anti-cancer, anti-hyperlipidemia, and anti-aging properties. Recently, it has been reported that resveratrol inhibits α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone signaling, viability, and migration in melanoma cells. However, these effects have not been confirmed in vivo, specifically brownish guinea pigs. To evaluate the potential of resveratrol as a regulator of melanin for hyperpigmentati...

  2. Skin Cancer in Skin of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Bradford, Porcia T.

    2009-01-01

    Skin cancers in skin of color often present atypically or with advanced stage in comparison to Caucasian patients. Health care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when examining skin lesions in skin of color.

  3. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection (often staphylococcus) A minor wound or injury Boils Folliculitis (infection in a hair follicle) A skin ... Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009:chap 90. Read More Boils Endocarditis Folliculitis MRSA Osteomyelitis Update Date 11/12/ ...

  4. Skin graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been ... Smoking increases your chance of problems such as slow healing. Ask your doctor or nurse for help ...

  5. Skin Pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This Article Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Vitiligo (Video) Hives Additional Content Medical News Overview of ... Version Pigment Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Hyperpigmentation Melasma Melanin is the brown pigment that ...

  6. UV Radiation and the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Scott

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available UV radiation (UV is classified as a “complete carcinogen” because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance.

  7. UV-induced skin damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar radiation induces acute and chronic reactions in human and animal skin. Chronic repeated exposures are the primary cause of benign and malignant skin tumors, including malignant melanoma. Among types of solar radiation, ultraviolet B (290-320 nm) radiation is highly mutagenic and carcinogenic in animal experiments compared to ultraviolet A (320-400 nm) radiation. Epidemiological studies suggest that solar UV radiation is responsible for skin tumor development via gene mutations and immunosuppression, and possibly for photoaging. In this review, recent understanding of DNA damage caused by direct UV radiation and by indirect stress via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA repair mechanisms, particularly nucleotide excision repair of human cells, are discussed. In addition, mutations induced by solar UV radiation in p53, ras and patched genes of non-melanoma skin cancer cells, and the role of ROS as both a promoter in UV-carcinogenesis and an inducer of UV-apoptosis, are described based primarily on the findings reported during the last decade. Furthermore, the effect of UV on immunological reaction in the skin is discussed. Finally, possible prevention of UV-induced skin cancer by feeding or topical use of antioxidants, such as polyphenols, vitamin C, and vitamin E, is discussed

  8. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  9. The Signaling Cascades of Ginkgolide B-Induced Apoptosis in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiung Chan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgolide B, the major active component of Ginkgo biloba extracts, can bothstimulate and inhibit apoptotic signaling. Here, we demonstrate that ginkgolide B caninduce the production of reactive oxygen species in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, leading toan increase in the intracellular concentrations of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ and nitric oxide(NO, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, activation of caspase-9 and -3,and increase the mRNA expression levels of p53 and p21, which are known to be involvedin apoptotic signaling. In addition, prevention of ROS generation by pretreatment withN-acetyl cysteine (NAC could effectively block intracellular Ca2+ concentrationsincreases and apoptosis in ginkgolide B-treated MCF-7 cells. Moreover, pretreatment withnitric oxide (NO scavengers could inhibit ginkgolide B-induced MMP change andsequent apoptotic processes. Overall, our results signify that both ROS and NO playedimportant roles in ginkgolide B-induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. Based on these studyresults, we propose a model for ginkgolide B-induced cell apoptosis signaling cascades inMCF-7 cells.

  10. COP1 is required for UV-B-induced nuclear accumulation of the UVR8 photoreceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ruohe; Skvortsova, Mariya Y; Loubéry, Sylvain; Ulm, Roman

    2016-07-26

    The UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) promotes UV-B acclimation and tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana UVR8 localizes to both cytosol and nucleus, but its main activity is assumed to be nuclear. UV-B photoreception stimulates nuclear accumulation of UVR8 in a presently unknown manner. Here, we show that CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) is required for UV-B-induced nuclear accumulation of UVR8, but bypassing the COP1 requirement for UVR8 nuclear accumulation did not rescue the cop1 mutant UV-B phenotype. Using a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-based fusion protein system to conditionally localize GR-UVR8 to the nucleus, we have demonstrated that both photoactivation and nuclear localization of UVR8 are required for UV-B-induced photomorphogenic responses. In contrast, there was no UV-B response when UV-B-activated UVR8 was artificially retained in the cytosol. In agreement with a predominantly nuclear activity, constitutively active UVR8(W285A) accumulated in the nucleus also in the absence of UV-B. Furthermore, GR-COP1 expression lines suggested that UV-B-activated UVR8 can be coimported into the nucleus by COP1. Our data strongly support localization of UVR8 signaling in the nucleus and a dual role for COP1 in the regulation of UV-B-induced UVR8 nuclear accumulation and in UVR8-mediated UV-B signaling. PMID:27407149

  11. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  12. Penile Shaft : An Unusual Location For Skin Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thami Gurvinder P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin tags or acrochordons, commonly observed in the flexural surfaces and various folds of skin, are more frequently encountered in presence of obesity, diagetes and old age. Although lesions are quite characteristic clinically, at times these need to be differentiated from warts, fibromas and other benign tumors of skin and their appendages. A rare case with presence of skin tags over the shaft of penis is described.

  13. Skin Care and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It ... if they bother you. See additional resources on aging skin, including information on treatment options, specific conditions, ...

  14. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics The Skin Cancer Foundation's Champions for Change Gala 2016 Learn ...

  15. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  16. Skin Substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    Zavan, Barbara; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Cortivo, Roberta; Abatangelo, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    The many studies conducted so far reveal that Tissue Engineering of the skin is only at the beginning of its use in human applications. Burns patients were the first targets for such tissue substitutes, then chronic diseases, such as venous ulcers, have followed. The more experience is gained from the surgeon, the more feedback for the basic scientist to improve the product and to broaden clinical indications. Nowadays, progress in cell culture and biomedical material technologies have added ...

  17. Skin aging:

    OpenAIRE

    Puizina-Ivić, Neira

    2008-01-01

    There are two main processes that induce skin aging: intrinsic and extrinsic. A stochastic process that implies random cell damage as a result of mutations during metabolic processes due to the production of free radicals is also implicated. Extrinsic aging is caused by environmental factors such as sun exposure, air pollution, smoking, alcohol abuse, and poor nutrition. Intrinsicaging reflects the genetic background and depends on time. Various expressions of intrinsic aging include smooth, ...

  18. Cutaneous skin tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  19. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  20. Glomus tumor of penis- A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri S. Kate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomus tumors are rare, painful, and benign soft tissue tumors of the skin arising from the glomus body, an arteriovenous thermoregulatory structure. This lesion is usually found on the extremities. Glomus tumor involving the external genital organs including penis is extremely rare. Until now, only few cases have been reported in the available literature. A 22 year old male patient presented with a painful nodule over the penis. The pathologic diagnosis was glomus tumor of the glans penis. We report herewith a case of glomus tumor of penis diagnosed on histopathologic examination. Glomus tumor, being a benign neoplasm, complete extirpation of the glomus tumor is the treatment of choice.

  1. "Osseous tumors of the hand "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Farzan M

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The majority of osseous tumors of the hand are benign. The surgeon who evaluates and treats osseous tumors of the hand has to be familiar with limb anatomy, tumor biology, various presentations of the tumors and the range of treatment possibilities and their limitations. Lesions in the hand more often present earlier in their course than those at other sites, just because they are more likely to superficial and easily noticed. A review of all cases of osseous tumors of the hand, seen by a hand surgeon over the last 10 years, at Imam Khomeini hospital was performed. Among 55 cases with osseous tumors of hand, 48 primary benign bone tumors, 3 primary malignant bone tumors, and 4 metastatic bone tumors were found. Enchondroma was the most common benign bone tumor followed by osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, aneurismal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, epidermoid cyst, and osteochondroma. There were two chondrosarcoma and one Ewing’s sarcoma as primary malignant bone tumors. Metastasis to the hand from colon, esophagus, and breast were also found. There were also two cases with Brown tumor secondary to hyperparathyroidism, we conclude that a variety of osseous tumors could occur in the hand, and usually they are benign. Although malignant neoplasms in the hand that arise from tissues other than the skin are very rare, the hand may be the site of distant breast, lung, kidney, esophagus, or colon adenocarcinoma metastases, most of which have a predilection for the distal phalanges.

  2. Pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 and related skin diseases%垂体肿瘤转换基因1与皮肤相关疾病的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蔚然; 范星; 杨森

    2015-01-01

    随着全基因组关联分析等技术的广泛应用,逐渐发现许多复杂性皮肤病的相关易感基因,能更好地解释其发病机制.垂体肿瘤转换基因1是一种常见的原癌基因,在许多肿瘤的发生和发展中起到一定作用.垂体肿瘤转换基因1也称为分离酶蛋白抑制基因,其编码产物为细胞周期调节蛋白,在细胞分裂周期中参与调节姐妹染色单体的分离和细胞周期由中期向后期的过度.同时,垂体肿瘤转换基因1的过度表达也可促进上皮细胞的增生和干扰细胞的分化,进而参与银屑病、皮肤鳞状细胞癌等疾病的发生.另外,该基因也能通过调节干扰素通路而参与系统性红斑狼疮的发病.%With the extensive application of genome-wide association study (GWAS) and other technologies,susceptibility genes of many complex skin diseases have been gradually discovered,which have facilitated the interpretation of pathogenesis of these diseases.Pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) is a common protooncogene,and plays an important role in the occurrence and development of many kinds of cancer.PTTG1 is also named securin gene,codes for cyclin,and takes part in the regulation of sister chromatid separation in cell division cycle and transition from metaphase to anaphase in cell cycle.Moreover,the overexpression of PTTG1 can enhance the proliferation of epithelial cells and interfere with cell differentiation,and then result in the occurrence of psoriasis,squamous cell carcinoma and other diseases.Further more,PTTG1 participates in the occurrence of systemic lupus erythematosus through regulation of the interferon signaling pathway.

  3. [Tumor surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausamen, J E

    2000-05-01

    Surgery is still the primary therapeutic approach in treatment of tumors in the head and neck area, dating back to the early nineteenth century. More than 150 years ago, hemimaxillectomies and mandibular resections as well as hemiglossectomies were already performed by leading surgeons. The block principle we are now following dates back to Crile, who also established the principle of cervical lymph node dissection. Ablative oncologic surgery has always been closely linked with plastic and reconstructive surgery, rendering radical surgical interventions possible without disfiguring patients. The development of facial reconstructive surgery proceeded in stages, in the first instance as secondary reconstruction using tube pedicled flaps. The change to the concept of primary reconstruction occurred via arterialized skin flaps and myocutaneous flaps to the widely accepted and performed free tissue transfer. Free bone grafting, inaugurated earlier and still representing the majority of bone grafting, has been supplemented for certain reconstructive purposes by free vascularized bone transfer from various donor sites. Although the five-year-survival rate of carcinoma of the oral cavity has remained unchanged in the past 30 years, distinctive improvements in tumor surgery can be recorded. This is primarily based on improved diagnostics such as modern imaging techniques and the refinement of surgical techniques. The DOSAK has worked out distinctive guidelines for effective ablative oncologic surgery. Surgical approaches offering wide exposure and carrying low morbidity play a decisive role in radical resections. For this reason, midfacial degloving offers an essential improvement for the resection of midface tumors, especially from an aesthetic point of view. Tumors situated deep behind the viscerocranium at the skull base can be clearly exposed either through a lateral approach following a temporary osteotomy of the mandibular ramus or a transmandibular, transmaxillar, or

  4. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Progress has occurred in several areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) Progression and multiple events in radiation carcinogenesis of rat skin as a function of LET; (2) cell cycle kinetics of irradiated rat epidermis as determined by double labeling and double emulsion autoradiography; (3) oncogene activation detected by in situ hybridization in radiation-induced rat skin tumors; (4) amplification of the c-myc oncogene in radiation-induced rat skin tumors as a function of LET; and (5) transformation of rat skin keratinocytes by ionizing radiation in combination with c-Ki-ras and c-myc oncogenes. 111 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Skin Keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin.

  6. Everolimus and Vatalanib in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-18

    Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Pheochromocytoma; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Pheochromocytoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Somatostatinoma; Stage III Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage IV Melanoma; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  7. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer ... true that only people with light skin get skin cancer? No. Anyone can get skin cancer. It's more ...

  8. Enniatin B-induced cell death and inflammatory responses in RAW 267.4 murine macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammelsrud, A. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway); Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Solhaug, A. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway); Dendelé, B. [EA 4427 SeRAIC, IRSET, Université de Rennes 1, IFR 140, Rennes (France); Sandberg, W.J. [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Ivanova, L. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway); Kocbach Bølling, A. [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Lagadic-Gossmann, D. [EA 4427 SeRAIC, IRSET, Université de Rennes 1, IFR 140, Rennes (France); Refsnes, M.; Becher, R. [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Eriksen, G. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway); Holme, J.A., E-mail: jorn.holme@fhi.no [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway)

    2012-05-15

    The mycotoxin enniatin B (EnnB) is predominantly produced by species of the Fusarium genera, and often found in grain. The cytotoxic effect of EnnB has been suggested to be related to its ability to form ionophores in cell membranes. The present study examines the effects of EnnB on cell death, differentiation, proliferation and pro-inflammatory responses in the murine monocyte–macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Exposure to EnnB for 24 h caused an accumulation of cells in the G0/G1-phase with a corresponding decrease in cyclin D1. This cell cycle-arrest was possibly also linked to the reduced cellular ability to capture and internalize receptors as illustrated by the lipid marker ganglioside GM1. EnnB also increased the number of apoptotic, early apoptotic and necrotic cells, as well as cells with elongated spindle-like morphology. The Neutral Red assay indicated that EnnB induced lysosomal damage; supported by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showing accumulation of lipids inside the lysosomes forming lamellar structures/myelin bodies. Enhanced levels of activated caspase-1 were observed after EnnB exposure and the caspase-1 specific inhibitor ZYVAD-FMK reduced EnnB-induced apoptosis. Moreover, EnnB increased the release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in cells primed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and this response was reduced by both ZYVAD-FMK and the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074Me. In conclusion, EnnB was found to induce cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. Caspase-1 appeared to be involved in the apoptosis and release of IL-1β and possibly activation of the inflammasome through lysosomal damage and leakage of cathepsin B. -- Highlights: ► The mycotoxin EnnB induced cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. ► The G0/G1-arrest was linked to a reduced ability to internalize receptors. ► EnnB caused lysosomal damage, leakage of cathepsin B and caspase-1 cleavage. ► Caspase-1 was partly involved in both apoptosis and release of IL-1

  9. UV-B-induced Oxidative Damage and Protective Role of Exopolysaccharides in Desert Cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan-Zhou Chen; Gao-Hong Wang; Song Hong; An Liu; Cheng Li; Yong-Ding Liu

    2009-01-01

    UV-B-induced oxidative damage and the protective effect of exopolysaccharides (EPS) in Microcoleus vaginatus, a cyanobacterium isolated from desert crust, were investigated. After being irradiated with UV-B radiation, photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm), cellular total carbohydrates, EPS and sucrose production of irradiated cells decreased, while reducing sugars, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, malondialdehyde (MDA) production and DNA strand breaks increased significantly. However, when pretreated with 100 mg/L exogenous EPS, EPS production in the culture medium of UV-B stressed cells decreased significantly; Fv/Fm, cellular total carbohydrates, reducing sugars and sucrose synthase (SS) activity of irradiated cells increased significantly, while ROS generation, MDA production and DNA strand breaks of irradiated cells decreased significantly. The results suggested that EPS exhibited a significant protective effect on DNA strand breaks and lipid peroxidation by effectively eliminating ROS induced by UV-B radiation in M. vaginatus.

  10. Learning about Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Deadly Skin Cancers Spread 2000 News Release Learning About Skin Cancer What are the most common ... skin surface. When a melanoma becomes thick and deep, the disease often spreads to other parts of ...

  11. Skin care and incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incontinence - skin care ... or bowels (called incontinence) are at risk of skin problems around the buttocks, hips, genitals, and the ... rectum (perineum). Excess moisture in these areas makes skin problems such as redness, peeling, irritation, and yeast ...

  12. Iatrogenic Tumor Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Ma; Ping Bai

    2008-01-01

    Iatrogenic tumor implantation is a condition that results from various medical procedures used during diagnosis or treatment of a malignancy. It involves desquamation and dissemination of tumor cells that develop into a local recurrence or distant metastasis from the tumor under treatment. The main clinical feature of the condition is nodules at the operation's porous channel or incision, which is easily diagnosed in accordance with the case history. Final diagnosis can be made based on pathological examination. Tumor implantation may occur in various puncturing porous channels, including a laparoscopic port, abdominal wall incision, and perineal incision, etc. Besides a malignant tumor,implantation potential exists with diseases, such as a borderline tumor and endometriosis etc. Once a tumor implantation is diagnosed, or suspected, surgical resection is usually conducted.During the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, avoiding and reducing iatrogenic implantation and dissemination has been regarded as an important principle for surgical treatment of tumors. In a clinical practice setting, if possible, excisional biopsy should be employed, if a biopsy is needed. Repeated puncturing should be avoided during a paracentesis. In a laparoscopic procedure, the tissue is first put into a sample bag and then is taken out from the point of incision. After a laparoscopic procedure, the peritoneum, abdominal muscular fasciae, and skin should be carefully closed, and/or the punctured porous channel be excised. In addition, the sample/tissue should be rinsed with distilled water before surgical closure of the abdominal cavity,allowing the exfoliated tumor cells to swell and rupture in the hypo-osmolar solution. Then surgical closure can be conducted following a change of gloves and equipment. The extent of hysteromyomectomy should as far as possible be away from the uterine cavity. The purpose of this study is to make clinicians aware of the possibility of tumor implantation

  13. Profil Kadar Glukosa Darah Pada Pasien Skin Tag

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Riana Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Skin tag (acrochordon) is benign tumor of connective tissue in the dermis of the most frequently encountered. Skin tag have a relationship with glucose metabolism disorders, especially diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. Increased fasting blood glucose levels with polyury, polydipsy dan polyphagy one of the criteria for diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Increased blood glucose levels may occur in patient skin tag. Objective: To determine the profile of fasting blood glucos...

  14. Spent coffee ground extract suppresses ultraviolet B-induced photoaging in hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Park, Eu Ddeum; Park, Yooheon; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of spent coffee ground (SCG) ethanol extract on UVB-induced skin aging in hairless mice. An ethanol extract of SCG (ESCG) was prepared using the residue remaining after extraction of oil from roasted SCG. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the content of caffeine (41.58 ± 0.54 μg/mg) was higher than that of chlorogenic acid isomers (~9.17 μg/mg) in ESCG. ESCG significantly decreased the UVB-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species in HaCaT cells. UVB-induced wrinkle formation in mice dorsal skin was effectively reduced by ESCG administration; high dose of ESCG (5 g/L) caused the reduction of wrinkle area by 30% compared with UVB-treated control (UVBC). This result correlated with the ESCG-mediated decrease in epidermis thickness (25%). In addition, ESCG administration significantly reduced transdermal water loss (20%) and erythema formation (35%) derived from UVB exposure. Collagen type I (COL-1) level in dorsal skin was effectively recovered by ESCG administration. These results were supported by down-regulation of collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and 9 (MMP9) expressions. Our results indicate that ESCG protects mouse skin from UVB-induced photoaging by suppressing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases. Our study suggests that ESCG may be anti-photoaging agent.

  15. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... Dry skin public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ...

  16. Estrogens and aging skin

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity...

  17. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower part of the epidermis. They make melanin , the pigment that gives skin its natural color. When skin is exposed to the sun, melanocytes make more pigment, causing the skin to tan, or darken. The dermis contains blood and lymph vessels , hair follicles , and glands . Enlarge Anatomy of the skin, ...

  18. Stiff skin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, S; Lei, X; Toyohara, J P; Zhan, P; Wang, J; Tan, S

    2006-07-01

    Stiff skin syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by pronounced skin induration, mild hypertrichosis and limited joint mobility, predominantly on the buttocks and thighs. Many heterogeneous cases have been reported under the name of stiff skin syndrome. We present a case of stiff skin syndrome from China, the diagnosis based on the patient's typical clinical and histopathological features. PMID:16836505

  19. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, most often ...

  20. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  1. Brevenal inhibits pacific ciguatoxin-1B-induced neurosecretion from bovine chromaffin cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mattei

    Full Text Available Ciguatoxins and brevetoxins are neurotoxic cyclic polyether compounds produced by dinoflagellates, which are responsible for ciguatera and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP respectively. Recently, brevenal, a natural compound was found to specifically inhibit brevetoxin action and to have a beneficial effect in NSP. Considering that brevetoxin and ciguatoxin specifically activate voltage-sensitive Na+ channels through the same binding site, brevenal has therefore a good potential for the treatment of ciguatera. Pacific ciguatoxin-1B (P-CTX-1B activates voltage-sensitive Na+ channels and promotes an increase in neurotransmitter release believed to underpin the symptoms associated with ciguatera. However, the mechanism through which slow Na+ influx promotes neurosecretion is not fully understood. In the present study, we used chromaffin cells as a model to reconstitute the sequence of events culminating in ciguatoxin-evoked neurosecretion. We show that P-CTX-1B induces a tetrodotoxin-sensitive rise in intracellular Na+, closely followed by an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ responsible for promoting SNARE-dependent catecholamine secretion. Our results reveal that brevenal and beta-naphtoyl-brevetoxin prevent P-CTX-1B secretagogue activity without affecting nicotine or barium-induced catecholamine secretion. Brevenal is therefore a potent inhibitor of ciguatoxin-induced neurotoxic effect and a potential treatment for ciguatera.

  2. An elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine response is linked to development of amphotericin B-induced nephrotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, L.Y.; Netea, M.G.; Tai, B.C.; Khin, L.W.; Vonk, A.G.; Teo, B.W.; Schlamm, H.T.; Herbrecht, R.; Donnelly, J.P.; Troke, P.F.; Kullberg, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The underlying mechanism for amphotericin B-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) remains poorly understood and may be immunologically mediated. We assessed whether the development of nephrotoxicity is linked to a distinct cytokine profile in patients receiving amphotericin B deoxycholate (A

  3. Multistage chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaga, T.J.; Fischer, S.M.; Weeks, C.E.; Klein-Szanto, A.J.P.

    1979-01-01

    Skin tumors in mice can be induced by the sequential application of a subthreshold dose of a carcinogen (initiation phase) followed by repetitive treatment with a noncarcinogenic tumor promoter. The initiation phase requires only a single application of either a direct acting carcinogen or a procarcinogen which has to be metabolized before being active and is essentially an irreversible step which probably involves a somatic cell mutation. There is a good correlation between the skin tumor initiating activites of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their ability to bind covalently to epidermal DNA. Laboratory results suggest that bay region diol-epoxides are the ultimate carcinogenic form of PAH carcinogens. Potent inhibitors and stimulators of PAH tumor initiation appear to affect the level of the PAH diol-epoxide reacting with specific DNA bases. Reecent data suggests that the tumor promotion stage involves at least three important steps: (1) the induction of embryonic looking cells (dark cells) in adult epidermis; (2) an increased production of epidermal prostaglandins and polyamines; (3) sustained proliferation of dark cells. Retinoic acid specifically inhibits step two whereas the anti-inflammatory steriod fluocinolone acetonide is a potent inhibitor of steps one and three. The mechanism and the importance of a specific sequence for each step in chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin are detailed.

  4. Optical mapping of nonmelanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavsky, Anna N.; Neel, Victor; Anderson, Richard R.

    2004-07-01

    More than two million cases of nonmelanoma skin cancers are diagnosed every year. Therefore, there is a strong need for practical, reliable, rapid, and precise methods for tumor delineation, to guide surgery and other treatments of skin cancer. Once developed, such methods may be useful for squamous cell carcinomas of other organs. Non-invasive optical imaging techniques including polarization sensitive reflectance and fluorescence imaging were evaluated for the demarcation of nonmelanoma skin tumors. Thick freshly excised tumor specimens obtained from Mohs surgery were used for the experiments. Imaging was performed using linearly polarized incident light in the visible and near infrared spectral range from 577 nm to 750 nm. Non-toxic absorbing and fluorescent dyes (Toluidine Blue O, Methylene Blue) were employed to enhance tumor contrast in the images. The images were acquired using the remitted light polarized in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the polarization of incident light. Reflectance and fluorescence polarization images were evaluated. The data were processed and analyzed for dependence of the remitted light polarization on the tissue type (cancerous/normal). The data obtained so far from fresh tumor specimens in vitro using dye-enhanced polarized light reflectance, and exogenous fluorescence polarization imaging suggest that optical mapping can become a valuable guidance tool in nonmelanoma cancer surgery.

  5. MicroRNA-125b Induces Cancer Cell Apoptosis Through Suppression of Bcl-2 Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aihua Zhao; Quan Zeng; Xiaoyan Xie; unnian Zhou; Wen Yue; Yali Li; Xuetao Pei

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small,noncoding RNAs which can often act as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor.Several miRNAs are associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).We demonstrated that miR-125b significantly suppresses HCC cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis by inhibiting the gene expression of the anti-apoptotic protein,Bcl-2.Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the 3'UTR of Bcl-2 has binding sites for miR-125b.Luciferase reporter assay confirmed the ability of miR-125b to dramatically suppress Bcl-2 transcription,suggesting that Bcl-2 is a target gene for miR-125b.We concluded that miR-125b acts as a tumor suppressor in hepatic tumor development by targeting Bcl-2 and inducing cancer cell apoptosis.

  6. Tumor vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor vaccines have several potential advantages over standard anticancer regiments. They represent highly specific anticancer therapy. Inducing tumor-specific memory T-lymphocytes, they have potential for long-lived antitumor effects. However, clinical trials, in which cancer patients were vaccinated with tumor vaccines, have been so far mainly disappointing. There are many reasons for the inefficiency of tumor vaccines. Most cancer antigens are normal self-molecules to which immune tolerance exists. That is why the population of tumor-specific lymphocytes is represented by a small number of low-affinity T-lymphocytes that induce weak antitumor immune response. Simultaneously, tumors evolve many mechanisms to actively evade immune system, what makes them poorly immunogenic or even tolerogenic. Novel immunotherapeutic strategies are directed toward breaking immune tolerance to tumor antigens, enhancing immunogenicity of tumor vaccines and overcoming mechanisms of tumor escape. There are several approaches, unfortunately, all of them still far away from an ideal tumor vaccine that would reject a tumor. Difficulties in the activation of antitumor immune response by tumor vaccines have led to the development of alternative immunotherapeutic strategies that directly focus on effector mechanisms of immune system (adoptive tumor- specific T-lymphocyte transfer and tumor specific monoclonal antibodies). (author)

  7. Granular Cell Tumor: An Uncommon Benign Neoplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Tirthankar Gayen; Anupam Das; Kaushik Shome; Debabrata Bandyopadhyay; Dipti Das; Abanti Saha

    2015-01-01

    Granular cell tumor is a distinctly rare neoplasm of neural sheath origin. It mainly presents as a solitary asymptomatic swelling in the oral cavity, skin, and rarely internal organs in the middle age. Histopathology is characteristic, showing polyhedral cells containing numerous fine eosinophilic granules with indistinct cell margins. We present a case of granular cell tumor on the back of a 48-year-old woman which was painful, mimicking an adnexal tumor.

  8. Granular cell tumor: An uncommon benign neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirthankar Gayen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumor is a distinctly rare neoplasm of neural sheath origin. It mainly presents as a solitary asymptomatic swelling in the oral cavity, skin, and rarely internal organs in the middle age. Histopathology is characteristic, showing polyhedral cells containing numerous fine eosinophilic granules with indistinct cell margins. We present a case of granular cell tumor on the back of a 48-year-old woman which was painful, mimicking an adnexal tumor.

  9. NFκB-inducing kinase inhibits NFκB activity specifically in neurons of the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xianrong; Phanavanh, Bounleut; Hamdan, Hamdan; Moerman-Herzog, Andréa M; Barger, Steven W

    2016-04-01

    The control of NFκB in CNS neurons appears to differ from that in other cell types. Studies have reported induction of NFκB in neuronal cultures and immunostaining in vivo, but others have consistently detected little or no transcriptional activation by NFκB in brain neurons. To test if neurons lack some component of the signal transduction system for NFκB activation, we transfected cortical neurons with several members of this signaling system along with a luciferase-based NFκB-reporter plasmid; RelA was cotransfected in some conditions. No component of the NFκB pathway was permissive for endogenous NFκB activity, and none stimulated the activity of exogenous RelA. Surprisingly, however, the latter was inhibited by cotransfection of NFκB-inducing kinase (NIK). Fluorescence imaging of RelA indicated that co-expression of NIK sequestered RelA in the cytoplasm, similar to the effect of IκBα. NIK-knockout mice showed elevated expression of an NFκB-reporter construct in neurons in vivo. Cortical neurons cultured from NIK-knockout mice showed elevated expression of an NFκB-reporter transgene. Consistent with data from other cell types, a C-terminal fragment of NIK suppressed RelA activity in astrocytes as well as neurons. Therefore, the inhibitory ability of the NIK C-terminus was unbiased with regard to cell type. However, inhibition of NFκB by full-length NIK is a novel outcome that appears to be specific to CNS neurons. This has implications for unique aspects of transcription in the CNS, perhaps relevant to aspects of development, neuroplasticity, and neuroinflammation. Full-length NIK was found to inhibit (down arrow) transcriptional activation of NFκB in neurons, while it elevated (up arrow) activity in astrocytes. Deletion constructs corresponding to the N-terminus or C-terminus also inhibited NFκB in neurons, while only the C-terminus did so in astrocytes. One possible explanation is that the inhibition in neurons occurs via two different

  10. Hsp90 regulates processing of NF-κB2 p100 involving protection of NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) from autophagy-mediated degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoliang Qing; Pengrong Yan; Zhaoxia Qu; Hudan Liu; Gutian Xiao

    2007-01-01

    NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) is required for NF-κB activation based on the processing of NF-κB2 p100. Here we report a novel mechanism of NIK regulation involving the chaperone 90 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) and autophagy.Functional inhibition of lisp90 by the anti-tumor agent geldanamycin (GA) efficiently disrupts its interaction with NIK,resulting in NIK degradation and subsequent blockage of p100 processing. Surprisingly, GA-induced NIK degradation is mediated by autophagy, but largely independent of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Hsp90 seems to be specifically involved in the folding/stabilization of NIK protein, because GA inhibition does not affect NIK mRNA transcription and translation. Furthermore, Hsp90 is not required for NIK-mediated recruitment of the α subunit of IκB kinase to p100, a key step in induction of p100 processing. These findings define an alternative mechanism for Hsp90 client degradation and identify a novel function of autophagy in NF-κB regulation. These findings also suggest a new therapeutic strategy for diseases associated with p100 processing.

  11. [Sarcoidosis of the skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Y; Ogawa, H

    1994-06-01

    Sarcoidosis is characterized by formation of epithelioid-cell tubercules, without caseation, of the affected organ systems. The mediastinum, peripheral lymph nodes and eyes, in addition to the skin, are most frequently affected. Between 10% and 30% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis in Japan have skin lesions. Skin sarcoidosis is morphologically classified into three basic groups, erythema nodosum, scar sarcoidosis and skin sarcoid. Skin sarcoid is characterized by specific cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis, and may take nodular, plaque, angiolupoid, subcutaneous and some other forms. Clinical manifestations of the cutaneous lesions are usually asymptomatic and polymorphous. Skin biopsy is, however, often highly useful for confirming a diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  12. Shikonin Suppresses Skin Carcinogenesis via Inhibiting Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjuan; Zhang, Chunjing; Ren, Amy; Li, Teena; Jin, Rong; Li, Guohong; Gu, Xin; Shi, Runhua; Zhao, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    The M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has been shown to be up-regulated in human skin cancers. To test whether PKM2 may be a target for chemoprevention, shikonin, a natural product from the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon and a specific inhibitor of PKM2, was used in a chemically-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis study. The results revealed that shikonin treatment suppressed skin tumor formation. Morphological examinations and immunohistochemical staining of the skin epidermal tissues suggested that shikonin inhibited cell proliferation without inducing apoptosis. Although shikonin alone suppressed PKM2 activity, it did not suppress tumor promoter-induced PKM2 activation in the skin epidermal tissues at the end of the skin carcinogenesis study. To reveal the potential chemopreventive mechanism of shikonin, an antibody microarray analysis was performed, and the results showed that the transcription factor ATF2 and its downstream target Cdk4 were up-regulated by chemical carcinogen treatment; whereas these up-regulations were suppressed by shikonin. In a promotable skin cell model, the nuclear levels of ATF2 were increased during tumor promotion, whereas this increase was inhibited by shikonin. Furthermore, knockdown of ATF2 decreased the expression levels of Cdk4 and Fra-1 (a key subunit of the activator protein 1. In summary, these results suggest that shikonin, rather than inhibiting PKM2 in vivo, suppresses the ATF2 pathway in skin carcinogenesis. PMID:25961580

  13. Shikonin Suppresses Skin Carcinogenesis via Inhibiting Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjuan; Zhang, Chunjing; Ren, Amy; Li, Teena; Jin, Rong; Li, Guohong; Gu, Xin; Shi, Runhua; Zhao, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    The M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has been shown to be up-regulated in human skin cancers. To test whether PKM2 may be a target for chemoprevention, shikonin, a natural product from the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon and a specific inhibitor of PKM2, was used in a chemically-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis study. The results revealed that shikonin treatment suppressed skin tumor formation. Morphological examinations and immunohistochemical staining of the skin epidermal tissues suggested that shikonin inhibited cell proliferation without inducing apoptosis. Although shikonin alone suppressed PKM2 activity, it did not suppress tumor promoter-induced PKM2 activation in the skin epidermal tissues at the end of the skin carcinogenesis study. To reveal the potential chemopreventive mechanism of shikonin, an antibody microarray analysis was performed, and the results showed that the transcription factor ATF2 and its downstream target Cdk4 were up-regulated by chemical carcinogen treatment; whereas these up-regulations were suppressed by shikonin. In a promotable skin cell model, the nuclear levels of ATF2 were increased during tumor promotion, whereas this increase was inhibited by shikonin. Furthermore, knockdown of ATF2 decreased the expression levels of Cdk4 and Fra-1 (a key subunit of the activator protein 1. In summary, these results suggest that shikonin, rather than inhibiting PKM2 in vivo, suppresses the ATF2 pathway in skin carcinogenesis.

  14. Immune response associated with nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, F M; Kripke, M L

    1997-10-01

    It is now clear that UV radiation causes nonmelanoma skin cancer in at least two ways: by causing permanent changes in the genetic code and by preventing immunologic recognition of mutant cells. These are interacting rather than separate mechanisms. Damage to DNA results in disregulation of cellular proliferation and initiates immune suppression by stimulating the production of suppressive cytokines. These cytokines contribute to the loss of immunosurveillance. Ultraviolet radiation has both local and systemic immunosuppressive effects. Locally, it depletes and alters antigen-presenting LC at the site of UV irradiation. Systemic suppression results when Ts cells are induced, by altered LC, by inflammatory macrophages that enter the skin following UV irradiation, or by the action of cytokines. Damage to DNA appears to be one of the triggering events in inducing systemic immunosuppression via the release of immunosuppressive cytokines and mediators. Immunologic approaches to treating skin cancers so far have concentrated on nonspecifically stimulating immune cells that infiltrate these tumors, but induction of specific immune responses against these tumors with antitumor vaccines has received little attention as yet. Preventive measures include sun avoidance and the use of sunscreens to prevent DNA damage by UV light. Future strategies may employ means to reverse UV-induced immunosuppression by using anti-inflammatory agents, biologicals that accelerate DNA repair or prevent the generation of immunosuppressive cytokines, and specific immunotherapy with tumor antigens. New approaches for studying the immunology of human skin cancers are needed to accelerate progress in this field.

  15. Malignant Glomus Tumor of the Peritoneum: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glomus tumors are usually benign tumors that occur in the skin and soft tissues of the extremities. Visceral locations, such as stomach, intestines or lung, are extremely rare because glomus bodies are rare or absent in these organs. This report describes our experience in a 47-year-old woman diagnosed with a peritoneal malignant glomus tumor. This finding has not been previously reported

  16. Malignant Glomus Tumor of the Peritoneum: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleato-González, Sandra; García-Figueiras, Roberto; Trujillo-Ariza, Maria Virginia [Department of Radiology, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, Choupana s/n, 15701 Santiago de Compostela (A Coruña) (Spain); Carrera-Álvarez, Juan Jose [Department of Pathology, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, Choupana s/n, 15701 Santiago de Compostela (A Coruña) (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Glomus tumors are usually benign tumors that occur in the skin and soft tissues of the extremities. Visceral locations, such as stomach, intestines or lung, are extremely rare because glomus bodies are rare or absent in these organs. This report describes our experience in a 47-year-old woman diagnosed with a peritoneal malignant glomus tumor. This finding has not been previously reported.

  17. Effects of modified operation combined with secondary disc method in benign tumor of parotid gland on sensory recovery of auricular lobule and auricle skin%改良术式结合二次翻瓣法在腮腺良性肿瘤治疗中对耳垂及外耳廓区皮肤感觉恢复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文泽; 孙道成; 邹家华

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较腮腺良性肿瘤改良术式结合二次翻瓣法较传统术式对患者耳垂及外耳廓区皮肤感觉恢复的影响。方法选择2005年7月至2014年6月在我院行腮腺良性肿瘤切除术患者22例,随机分为实验组和对照组,每组11例。实验组行保留腮腺咬肌筋膜,二次翻瓣法,解剖并保留耳大神经耳后、耳垂支和腮腺区域性切除术的腮腺良性肿瘤改良手术方式。对照组按常规行腮腺肿瘤及腮腺浅叶或全叶切除术。术后观察、随访6个月。采用SPSS 13.0统计软件包中的检验,对两组患者术后耳垂及外耳廓区皮肤感觉恢复情况进行χ2比较。结果实验组中患者耳垂及外耳廓区感觉恢复情况明显优于对照组,差异具有显著性(P<0.05)。结论改良术式结合二次翻瓣法比传统手术方式在腮腺良性肿瘤治疗中对保存耳垂及外耳廓皮肤感觉具有明显优势。%Objective To compare the effects of modified operation combined with secondary disc method in benign tumor of parotid gland and traditional surgery on the sensory recovery of the auricular lobule and auricle skin.Methods 22 patients with parotid benign tumor who received parotidectomy in our hospital from2005.7 to 201.6 were randomly divided into experimental group ( n =11 ) and control group ( n =11 ) .In experimental group, the modified operation of benign tumor in parotid gland included regional ectomy of parotid, secondary disc method, reservation of fascia parotidea masseterica and dissection and reservation of the post aurem and auricular lobule branches of great auricular nerve.In the control group, the 11 patients were operated by the conventional technique.After 6 months, the effects of 2 groups on the sensory recovery of the skin of the auricular lobule and auricle region were evaluated.The data were analyzed with SPSS 13.0 software package for x2test. Results The sensory recovery of the skin of the auricular

  18. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  19. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Odontogenic Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    TAHSİNOĞLU, Melih

    2013-01-01

    DefinitionThe neoplasms that consist of the cells considered specialized for odontogenesis, and their product (dentin, enamel, cementum) are called odontogenic tumors.ClassificationTo initiate odontogenesis, epithelium is a must. Same rule holds for the odontogenic tumors: without odontogenic epithelium, odontogenic tumors cannot be, without the induction of odontogenic epithelium odontogenic mesenchyme cannot develop.

  1. Tumor Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... guidelines on a variety of topics, including tumor markers for breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and others. The ... of recurrence 70-Gene signature (Mammaprint®) Cancer type: Breast ... Can tumor markers be used in cancer screening? Because tumor markers ...

  2. Healthy Skin Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your health, talk to your doctor or a physical therapist to find out what kinds of activities are ... the treatment of diseases of the skin. Follicle (FALL-lick-el). The opening in the skin where ...

  3. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  4. CSD skin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003385.htm CSD skin test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The cat scratch disease (CSD) skin test was once used to help ...

  5. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... earliest form of squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type ... cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin Images Bowen's disease on the hand Keratoacanthoma Keratoacanthoma Skin cancer, squamous ...

  6. Skin lesion KOH exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KOH exam is a test to diagnose a fungal infection of the skin . How the Test is Performed ... Performed This test is done to diagnose a fungal infection of the skin. Normal Results No fungus is ...

  7. Stages of Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells than in normal cells. For skin cancer, laser light is shined onto the skin and the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy causes little damage to healthy tissue. Biologic therapy ...

  8. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells than in normal cells. For skin cancer, laser light is shined onto the skin and the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy causes little damage to healthy tissue. Biologic therapy ...

  9. Skin Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Skin Cancer Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Lung Ovarian Prostate Cancer Home Skin Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  10. Chemically induced skin carcinogenesis: Updates in experimental models (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neagu, Monica; Caruntu, Constantin; Constantin, Carolina; Boda, Daniel; Zurac, Sabina; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2016-05-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting humans worldwide, and its incidence is rapidly increasing. The study of skin carcinogenesis is of major interest for both scientific research and clinical practice and the use of in vivo systems may facilitate the investigation of early alterations in the skin and of the mechanisms involved, and may also lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for skin cancer. This review outlines several aspects regarding the skin toxicity testing domain in mouse models of chemically induced skin carcinogenesis. There are important strain differences in view of the histological type, development and clinical evolution of the skin tumor, differences reported decades ago and confirmed by our hands‑on experience. Using mouse models in preclinical testing is important due to the fact that, at the molecular level, common mechanisms with human cutaneous tumorigenesis are depicted. These animal models resemble human skin cancer development, in that genetic changes caused by carcinogens and pro‑inflammatory cytokines, and simultaneous inflammation sustained by pro‑inflammatory cytokines and chemokines favor tumor progression. Drugs and environmental conditions can be tested using these animal models. keeping in mind the differences between human and rodent skin physiology. PMID:26986013

  11. Photoprotective Activity of Vulpinic and Gyrophoric Acids Toward Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Mehmet; Türk, Ayşen; Candan, Mehmet; Tay, Turgay; Koparal, Ayşe Tansu

    2016-01-01

    Vulpinic and gyrophoric acids are known as ultraviolet filters for natural lichen populations because of their chemical structures. However, to the best of our knowledge, there has been no reference to their cosmetic potential for skin protection against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced damage and, consequently, we propose to highlight their photoprotective profiles in human keratinocytes (HaCaT). Therefore, vulpinic acid and gyrophoric acid were isolated from acetone extracts of Letharia vulpina and Xanthoparmelia pokornyi, respectively. Their photoprotective activities on irradiated HaCaT cells and destructive effects on non-irradiated HaCaT cells were compared through in vitro experimentation: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays, 4',6-diamino-2-phenylindole and tetramethylrhodamine B isothiocyanate-phalloidin staining protocols. Both of the lichen substances effectively prevented cytotoxic, apoptotic and cytoskeleton alterative activities of 2.5 J/cm(2) UVB in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, vulpinic and gyrophoric acids showed no toxic, apoptotic or cytoskeleton alterative effects on non-irradiated HaCaT cells, except at high doses (≥400 μM) of gyrophoric acid. The findings suggest that vulpinic and gyrophoric acids can be promising cosmetic ingredients to photo-protect human skin cells and should therefore be further investigated by in vitro and in vivo multiple bioassays. PMID:26463741

  12. Protective effects of myricetin against ultraviolet-B-induced damage in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jheng-Hua; Huang, Chieh-Chen; Fang, Jia-You; Yang, Cheng; Chan, Chi-Ming; Wu, Nan-Lin; Kang, Shung-Wen; Hung, Chi-Feng

    2010-02-01

    Myricetin is a flavonoid similar to quercetin, which is commonly found in natural foods such as berries, vegetables, teas, wine, and herbs. It is considered to be an antioxidant which is capable of quenching photoaging-causing free radicals within the skin. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying protective effect of myricetin on ultraviolet-B (UVB)-induced damage to keratinocytes. We found that myricetin concentration-dependently attenuated UVB-induced keratinocyte death as determined by a cell viability assay. Pretreatment with myricetin also reduced the UVB-induced malondialdehyde level. Moreover, UVB-induced H(2)O(2) generation in keratinocytes was inhibited by myricetin according to flow cytometry, suggesting that myricetin can act as a free radical scavenger when keratinocytes experience photodamage. Furthermore, UVB-induced activation of c-jun-NH(2) terminal kinase (JNK) in keratinocytes was inhibited by myricetin. UVB-induced pre-G(1) phase arrest leading to apoptotic changes in keratinocytes was blocked by myricetin. Taken together, the protective mechanisms of keratinocyte by myricetin against UVB-induced photodamage occur by the inhibition of UVB-induced intracellular hydrogen peroxide production, lipid peroxidation and JNK activation. Therefore, myricetin is suitable for further development as an anti-aging agent for skin care. PMID:19778600

  13. MALIGNANT MELANOMA OF THE HEAD SKIN

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia Tamas; Doinita Radulescu; Lucian Popa; C. Tarasi; Cristina Stanescu; R. Nita

    2006-01-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is known as a tumor with high malignancy. The development of a melanoma on the head skin is even more severe, as prognosis, because of the limitted possibilities for large excision and high potential of diffusion in the wide vascular network. We treated 11 cases with MM head localisation in a period of 10 years. The rate of survival is very poor (6 months – 4 years after surgery). We used skin graft or fasciocutaneous flap for the regional reconstruction after exc...

  14. The interplay of transcription factors in suppression of UV-B induced flavonol accumulation by flg22

    OpenAIRE

    Schenke, Dirk; Cai, Daguang

    2014-01-01

    Biotic stress can be mimicked by application of elicitors, which comprise of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Treatment of plant cell cultures with MAMPs such as flg22 suppressed the expression of UV-B-induced flavonol pathway genes (FPGs) in parsley, carrot and Arabidopsis. This is thought to allow the plant focusing its secondary metabolism on the pathogen defense during MAMP-triggered immunity (MTI). Recently we reported that this suppression also depends on prevention of his...

  15. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. Recent findings: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing technolog

  16. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing technolog

  17. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman, Juan F

    2016-08-23

    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases.

  18. Skin self-exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Experts do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is ...

  19. Regulation of plant MSH2 and MSH6 genes in the UV-B-induced DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lario, Luciana D; Ramirez-Parra, Elena; Gutierrez, Crisanto; Casati, Paula; Spampinato, Claudia P

    2011-05-01

    Deleterious effects of UV-B radiation on DNA include the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs). These lesions must be repaired to maintain the integrity of DNA and provide genetic stability. Of the several repair systems involved in the recognition and removal of UV-B-induced lesions in DNA, the focus in the present study was on the mismatch repair system (MMR). The contribution of MutSα (MSH2-MSH6) to UV-induced DNA lesion repair and cell cycle regulation was investigated. MSH2 and MSH6 genes in Arabidopsis and maize are up-regulated by UV-B, indicating that MMR may have a role in UV-B-induced DNA damage responses. Analysis of promoter sequences identified MSH6 as a target of the E2F transcription factors. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, MSH6 was experimentally validated as an E2F target gene, suggesting an interaction between MMR genes and the cell cycle control. Mutations in MSH2 or MSH6 caused an increased accumulation of CPDs relative to wild-type plants. In addition, msh2 mutant plants showed a different expression pattern of cell cycle marker genes after the UV-B treatment when compared with wild-type plants. Taken together, these data provide evidence that plant MutSα is involved in a UV-B-induced DNA damage response pathway.

  20. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.

  1. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... statistics for melanoma skin cancer What is melanoma skin cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... causing the skin to tan or darken. Melanoma skin cancers Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the ...

  2. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals. PMID:27376685

  3. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals.

  4. Inflammation and skin cancer: old pals telling new stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensler, Sabine; Mueller, Margareta M

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation and the inflammatory infiltrate essentially contribute to tumor development and progression. For skin cancer, the observation that tumors arise in sites of chronic irritation and inflammation dates back to 1828 and has stimulated a whole field of research. Numerous animal models such as models of UV-induced or chemically induced skin carcinogenesis but also trangenic models support the role of a deregulated inflammation in the development of skin cancer. These models have greatly contributed to our understanding of the multistage process of carcinogenesis and have given important insights in the differences between physiological inflammation in a healing wound and the functional contribution of the deregulated tumor-associated inflammation to skin cancer growth and progression. Data from these models are supported by epidemiological studies that emphasize a connection of inflammatory conditions with the development of melanoma and epithelial skin cancer and give first indications for a beneficial effect of anti-inflammatory treatments in reducing the risk for skin cancer. Consequently, anti-inflammatory drugs might represent a highly interesting approach in the prevention and treatment of skin cancers.

  5. A systems-biological study on the identification of safe and effective molecular targets for the reduction of ultraviolet B-induced skin pigmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ho-Sung Lee; Myeong-Jin Goh; Junil Kim; Tae-Jun Choi; Hae Kwang Lee; Yong Joo Na; Kwang-Hyun Cho

    2015-01-01

    Melanogenesis is the process of melanin synthesis through keratinocytes-melanocytes interaction, which is triggered by the damaging effect of ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays. It is known that melanogenesis influences diverse cellular responses, including cell survival and apoptosis, via complex mechanisms of feedback and crosstalk. Therefore, an attempt to suppress melanin production by modulating the melanogenesis pathway may induce perturbations in the apoptotic balance of the cells in response to...

  6. The Modulatory Effect of Ellagic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid on Ultraviolet-B-Induced Cytokine/Chemokine Gene Expression in Skin Keratinocyte (HaCaT Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Lembo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation (UV induces an increase in multiple cutaneous inflammatory mediators. Ellagic acid (EA and rosmarinic acid (RA are natural anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory compounds found in many plants, fruits, and nuts. We assessed the ability of EA and RA to modulate IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MCP-1, and TNF-α gene expression in HaCaT cells after UVB irradiation. Cells were treated with UVB (100 mJ/cm2 and simultaneously with EA (5 μM in 0.1% DMSO or RA (2.7 μM in 0.5% DMSO. Moreover, these substances were added to the UVB-irradiated cells 1 h or 6 h before harvesting, depending on the established UVB-induced cytokine expression peak. Cytokine gene expression was examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. RA produced a significant reduction in UVB-induced expression of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and TNF-α when applied at the same time as irradiation. EA showed milder effects compared with RA, except for TNF-α. Both substances decreased IL-6 expression, also when applied 5 h after irradiation, and always produced a significant increase in UVB-induced IL-10 expression. Our findings suggest that EA and RA are able to prevent and/or limit the UVB-induced inflammatory cascade, through a reduction in proinflammatory mediators and the enhancement of IL-10, with its protective function.

  7. Urinary melatonin levels and skin malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Reza; Sehatbakhsh, Samineh; Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Sharifzadeh, Gholam Reza

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin inhibits tumor genesis in a variety of in vivo and in vitro experimental models of neoplasia. In industrialized societies, light at night, by suppressing melatonin production, poses a new risk for the development of a variety of cancers such as breast cancer. This effect on skin has been previously studied only in animals and not in humans. Our goal was to examine the relationship between 24-hour 6-sulphatoxymelatonin levels and skin cancer in a case-control study of 70 patients with skin cancer and 70 healthy individuals. The level of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin was measured in 24-hour urine by the ELISA method. In the case group, 55 (78%) patients had basal cell carcinoma and 15 (22%) had squamous cell carcinoma. The mean level of 24-hour urine 6-sulfatoxymelatonin was significantly higher in the control group (Pcancer. This association, however, requires further investigation. PMID:24453396

  8. Photocarcinogenesis and Skin Cancer Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebode, Christina; Lehmann, Janin; Emmert, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    In this review the basic principles of UV-induced carcinogenesis are summarized and the state of the art diagnosis and therapeutic strategies are discussed. The prevalent keratinocyte-derived neoplasms of the skin are basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Cutaneous melanoma is less frequent but associated with high mortality. Common risk factors for all three tumor entities include sun exposure and DNA-repair deficiencies. Photocarcinogenesis follows a multistep model of cancer development in which ultraviolet-induced DNA damage leads to mutations resulting in activation of oncogenes or silencing of tumor-suppressor genes. This ends in a cellular mutator phenotype even more prone to mutation acquisition. DNA repair, especially the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, counteracts mutation formation and skin cancer development. This is vividly demonstrated by the NER-defective disorder xeroderma pigmentosum. Primary skin cancer preventative strategies, therefore, include reduction of DNA photodamage by protection from the sun. Secondary preventative strategies include skin cancer screening. This implies standard examination techniques with the naked eye, an epiluminescence microscope, or digital epiluminescence microscopy. More advanced techniques include confocal laser scan microscopy. PMID:26977038

  9. Mouse Genetic Models Reveal Surprising Functions of IκB Kinase Alpha in Skin Development and Skin Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Xiaojun [The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Park, Eunmi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Fischer, Susan M. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX 78967 (United States); Hu, Yinling, E-mail: huy2@mail.nih.gov [Cancer and Inflammation Program, Center for Cancer Research, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD 21701 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Gene knockout studies unexpectedly reveal a pivotal role for IκB kinase alpha (IKKα) in mouse embryonic skin development. Skin carcinogenesis experiments show that Ikkα heterozygous mice are highly susceptible to chemical carcinogen or ultraviolet B light (UVB) induced benign and malignant skin tumors in comparison to wild-type mice. IKKα deletion mediated by keratin 5 (K5).Cre or K15.Cre in keratinocytes induces epidermal hyperplasia and spontaneous skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in Ikkα floxed mice. On the other hand, transgenic mice overexpressing IKKα in the epidermis, under the control of a truncated loricrin promoter or K5 promoter, develop normal skin and show no defects in the formation of the epidermis and other epithelial organs, and the transgenic IKKα represses chemical carcinogen or UVB induced skin carcinogenesis. Moreover, IKKα deletion mediated by a mutation, which generates a stop codon in the Ikkα gene, has been reported in a human autosomal recessive lethal syndrome. Downregulated IKKα and Ikkα mutations and deletions are found in human skin SCCs. The collective evidence not only highlights the importance of IKKα in skin development, maintaining skin homeostasis, and preventing skin carcinogenesis, but also demonstrates that mouse models are extremely valuable tools for revealing the mechanisms underlying these biological events, leading our studies from bench side to bedside.

  10. [Reasons of non-radical surgery for patients with primary skin melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, A A; Gafmon, G I; Anisimov, V V; Semiletova, Iu V

    2014-01-01

    It was found that up to now a significant number of patients with primary skin melanoma continued to have non-radical surgery. Based on the analysis of clinical and morphological data on 288 of these patients it was revealed that most non-radical treatment was performed for patients who had had primary skin melanoma of linear dimensions of 1 cm and a pink color. It was proved that patients with tumors of the skin should first be examined by the oncologist. A lack of knowledge of semiotics of primary skin melanoma was revealed among doctors. Widely used diagnostic biopsy of the primary tumor with subsequent cytology is recommended. PMID:24919268

  11. [Reasons of non-radical surgery for patients with primary skin melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, A A; Gafmon, G I; Anisimov, V V; Semiletova, Iu V

    2014-01-01

    It was found that up to now a significant number of patients with primary skin melanoma continued to have non-radical surgery. Based on the analysis of clinical and morphological data on 288 of these patients it was revealed that most non-radical treatment was performed for patients who had had primary skin melanoma of linear dimensions of 1 cm and a pink color. It was proved that patients with tumors of the skin should first be examined by the oncologist. A lack of knowledge of semiotics of primary skin melanoma was revealed among doctors. Widely used diagnostic biopsy of the primary tumor with subsequent cytology is recommended.

  12. HHV-6B induces IFN-lambda1 responses in cord plasmacytoid dendritic cells through TLR9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Nordström

    Full Text Available Human herpesvirus type 6B (HHV-6B is a strong inducer of IFN-alpha and has the capacity to promote Th1 responses and block Th2 responses in vitro. In this study we addressed whether inactivated HHV-6B can also induce IFN lambda responses and to what extent interferons alpha and lambda affect Th1/Th2 polarization. We show that inactivated HHV-6B induced IFN-lambda1 (IL-29 but not IFN-lambda2 (IL-28A responses in plasmacytoid DC and that this induction was mediated through TLR9. We have previously shown that HHV-6B promotes Th1 responses and blocks Th2 responses in both humans and mice. We now show that neutralization of IFN-alpha but not IFN-lambda1 blocked the HHV-6B-induced enhancement of Th1 responses in MLR, but did not affect the HHV-6-induced dampening of Th2 responses. Similarly, blockage of TLR9 counteracted HHV-6Bs effects on the Th1/Th2 balance. In addition, IFN-alpha but not IFN-lambda1 promoted IFN-gamma production and blocked IL-5 and IL-13 production in purified CD4+ T-cells. The lack of effect of IFN-lambda1 correlated with the absence of the IFN-lambda receptor IL-28Ralfa chain on the cell surface of both resting and activated CD4+ T-cells. We conclude that inactivated HHV-6B is a strong inducer of IFN-lambda1 in plasmacytoid DC and that this induction is TLR9-dependent. However, human CD4+ T-cells do not express the IFN-lambda receptor and are refractory to IFN-lambda1 treatment. The HHV-6B-induced alterations in the Th1/Th2 balance are instead mediated mainly through TLR9 and IFN-alpha.

  13. Archaea on human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander J Probst; Auerbach, Anna K.; Christine Moissl-Eichinger

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin mi...

  14. Skin tribology: Science friction?

    OpenAIRE

    Heide, van der, M.; X. Zeng; Masen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of tribological knowledge is not just restricted to optimizing mechanical and chemical engineering problems. In fact, effective solutions to friction and wear related questions can be found in our everyday life. An important part is related to skin tribology, as the human skin is frequently one of the interacting surfaces in relative motion. People seem to solve these problems related to skin friction based upon a trial-and-error strategy and based upon on our sense for touch....

  15. Skin Images Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali E. Zaart

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Image segmentation is a fundamental step in many applications of image processing. Skin cancer has been the most common of all new cancers detected each year. At early stage detection of skin cancer, simple and economic treatment can cure it mostly. An accurate segmentation of skin images can help the diagnosis to define well the region of the cancer. The principal approach of segmentation is based on thresholding (classification that is lied to the problem of the thresholds estimation. Approach: The objective of this study is to develop a method to segment the skin images based on a mixture of Beta distributions. We assume that the data in skin images can be modeled by a mixture of Beta distributions. We used an unsupervised learning technique with Beta distribution to estimate the statistical parameters of the data in skin image and then estimate the thresholds for segmentation. Results: The proposed method of skin images segmentation was implemented and tested on different skin images. We obtained very good results in comparing with the same techniques with Gamma distribution. Conclusion: The experiment showed that the proposed method obtained very good results but it requires more testing on different types of skin images.

  16. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Rejuvenation Soft-tissue Fillers Combination: Soft-tissue Fillers and Neuromodulators Neuromodulators – wrinkle-relaxing injections of botulinum toxin commercially known as Botox, Dysport ...

  17. An elastic second skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  18. Genetic illnesses of the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordania Velázquez Avila

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available At present, many genetic diseases, from 85 to 90 %, are considered rare diseases, since they affect a small number of individuals. The poor knowledge about them makes it difficult to diagnose them; they are chronic, incapacitating, with few therapeutic options diseases and often makes the patients’ adequate social integration impossible. The genodermatosis are part of the group of rare, uncommon and difficult to diagnose skin diseases; they are a frequent cause of stigmatization of those people who suffer from them. They may include: ichthyosis, epidermolysis bullosa, mastocytosis, neurofibromatosis, ectodermal dysplasia, palmoplantar keratoderma, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, incontinentia pigmenti, pityriasis rubra pylaris, xeroderma pigmentosum, epiloia, Darier's disease, and vascular tumors, among others. It is necessary to increase knowledge about them in the field of medical sciences, allowing a better treatment for patients and improve their quality of life, as well as contribute to their prevention.

  19. New aspects of CO2 laser ablation in skin photosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelcu, Ioan; Nedelcu, Dana M.; Dumitras, Dan C.; Dutu, Constantin A.

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents the latest developments in CO2, ancillary equipment, and advanced surgical techniques used in treating a variety of different dermatologic disorders. To improve our knowledge on the laser treatment of several cutaneous lesions, we have performed a study on 871 cases, of which 690 are benign skin tumors and 181 are malignant skin tumors. Based on this large number of cases, information on post-operative course, recovery time, the quality of scars and aesthetic results, recurrences and hemostasis of blood vessels is given. This study presents indications for performing laser surgery and describes how to avoid complications and limit the potential risks associated with lasers.

  20. Effects of magnolol on UVB-induced skin cancer development in mice and its possible mechanism of action

    OpenAIRE

    Chilampalli Chandeshwari; Guillermo Ruth; Zhang Xiaoying; Kaushik Radhey S; Young Alan; Zeman David; Hildreth Michael B; Fahmy Hesham; Dwivedi Chandradhar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Magnolol, a plant lignan isolated from the bark and seed cones of Magnolia officinalis, has been shown to have chemopreventive effects on chemically-induced skin cancer development. The objectives of this investigation are to study the anticarcinogenic effects of magnolol on UVB-induced skin tumor development in SKH-1 mice, a model relevant to humans, and determine the possible role of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest involved in the skin tumor development. Methods UVB-indu...

  1. Shark skin: function in locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, S A; Vosburgh, F; Hebrank, J H

    1978-11-17

    Hydrostatic pressure under the skin of sharks varies with swimming speed. Stress in the skin varies with the internal pressure, and the skin stress controls skin stiffness. Locomotory muscles attach to the skin which is thus a whole-body exotendon whose mechanical advantage in transmitting muscular contraction is greater than that of the endoskeleton. PMID:17807247

  2. Involvement of inositol biosynthesis and nitric oxide in the mediation of UV-B induced oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro I Lytvyn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of NO-signaling in ultraviolet B (UV-B induced oxidative stress in plants is an open question. Inositol biosynthesis contributes to numerous cellular functions, including the regulation of plants tolerance to stress. This work reveals the involvement of inositol-3-phosphate synthase 1 (IPS1, a key enzyme for biosynthesis of myo-inositol and its derivatives, in the response to NO-dependent oxidative stress in Arabidopsis. Homozygous mutants deficient for IPS1 (atips1 and wild-type plants were transformed with a reduction-oxidation-sensitive green fluorescent protein 2 (grx1-rogfp2 and used for the dynamic measurement of UV-B-induced and SNP (sodium nitroprusside-mediated oxidative stresses by confocal microscopy. atips1 mutants displayed greater tissue-specific resistance to the action of UV-B than the wild type. SNP can act both as an oxidant or repairer depending on the applied concentration, but mutant plants were more tolerant than the wild type to nitrosative effects of high concentration of SNP. Additionally, pretreatment with low concentrations of SNP (10, 100 μM before UV-B irradiation resulted in a tissue-specific protective effect that was enhanced in atips1. We conclude that the interplay between nitric oxide and inositol signaling can be involved in the mediation of UV-B-initiated oxidative stress in the plant cell.

  3. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is ...

  4. Deformable skinning on bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Petersen, Kim Steen; Jakobsen, Bjarke

    2001-01-01

    Applying skin to a model is a relatively simple task to implement. Nonetheless it seems that no good resource exists that describes both the concepts and math necessary to understand and implement skinning. The intention of this article is an attempt to give a thoroughly description of the theore...

  5. Reduction in squamous cell carcinomas in mouse skin by dietary zinc supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jin; Shen, Rulong; Schrock, Morgan S; Liu, James; Pan, Xueliang; Quimby, Donald; Zanesi, Nicola; Druck, Teresa; Fong, Louise Y; Huebner, Kay

    2016-08-01

    Inadequate dietary Zn consumption increases susceptibility to esophageal and other cancers in humans and model organisms. Since Zn supplementation can prevent cancers in rodent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) models, we were interested in determining if it could have a preventive effect in a rodent skin cancer model, as a preclinical basis for considering a role for Zn in prevention of human nonmelanoma skin cancers, the most frequent cancers in humans. We used the 7,12-dimethyl benzanthracene carcinogen/phorbol myristate acetate tumor promoter treatment method to induce skin tumors in Zn-sufficient wild-type and Fhit (human or mouse protein) knockout mice. Fhit protein expression is lost in >50% of human cancers, including skin SCCs, and Fhit-deficient mice show increased sensitivity to carcinogen induction of tumors. We hypothesized that: (1) the skin cancer burdens would be reduced by Zn supplementation; (2) Fhit(-/-) (Fhit, murine fragile histidine triad gene) mice would show increased susceptibility to skin tumor induction versus wild-type mice. 30 weeks after initiating treatment, the tumor burden was increased ~2-fold in Fhit(-/-) versus wild-type mice (16.2 versus 7.6 tumors, P < 0.001); Zn supplementation significantly reduced tumor burdens in Fhit(-/-) mice (males and females combined, 16.2 unsupplemented versus 10.3 supplemented, P = 0.001). Most importantly, the SCC burden was reduced after Zn supplementation in both strains and genders of mice, most significantly in the wild-type males (P = 0.035). Although the mechanism(s) of action of Zn supplementation in skin tumor prevention is not known in detail, the Zn-supplemented tumors showed evidence of reduced DNA damage and some cohorts showed reduced inflammation scores. The results suggest that mild Zn supplementation should be tested for prevention of skin cancer in high-risk human cohorts. PMID:27185213

  6. Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, L.; Dahlstrom, K.; Breiting, V.;

    2008-01-01

    Background Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin (PMCS) is a rare malignant tumor deriving from the sweat glands. It is typically located on the head and is often mistaken for a metastasis from a more common primary tumor of the breast or gastrointestinal tract. We present the first population......, the precise number may be higher, since PMCS is an indolent tumor, which may be mistaken for a benign tumor and thus not always examined histologically Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  7. Bionanomaterials for skin regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Leonida, Mihaela D

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a concise overview of bionanomaterials with applications for skin regeneration. The advantages and challenges of nanoscale materials are covered in detail, giving a basic view of the skin structure and conditions that require transdermal or topical applications. Medical applications, such as wound healing, care for burns, skin disease, and cosmetic care, such as aging of the skin and photodamage, and how they benefit from bionanomaterials, are described in detail. A final chapter is devoted to the ethical and social issues related to the use of bionanomaterials for skin regeneration. This is an ideal book for researchers in materials science, medical scientists specialized in dermatology, and cosmetic chemists working in formulations. It can also serve as a reference for nanotechnologists, dermatologists, microbiologists, engineers, and polymer chemists, as well as students studying in these fields.

  8. Fluorescence diagnosis and photodynamic therapy of skin cancer with alasens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Evstifeev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of treatment in patients with skin cancer using the method of photodynamic therapy (PDT with alasens are represented in the article. The study enrolled 25 patients with stage 1 tumor including 23 patients with previously untreated tumors and 2 – with recurrent disease. Superficial tumor was diagnosed in 17 patients and 8 patients had nodal tumor. Alasens was used locally as application of 20% ointment on involved skin area with 6h exposure. The PDT session was performed on a single occasion immediately after the end of exposure (power density of laser irradiation of 50–100 mW/cm2, light dose – 150–200 J/cm2. All patients had fluorescence diagnosis (FD prior to application of the ointment and before PDT. The results of FD showed that intensity of porphyrin fluorescence in tumor prior to administration of alasens had near no difference from intensity of porphyrin fluorescence in normal skin (12.5±0.7 and 10.0±0.7 r.u., respectively. Six hours after application of the ointment with alasens the fluorescence intensity of protoporphyrin IX increased almost 5-fold (59.7±5.3 r.u., the fluorescence intensity in normal skin remained near baseline level during the follow-up period (maximally 11.6±1.0 r.u.. Two months after PDT the complete tumor regression was confirmed in 21 patients, partial – in 3 and stabilization of tumor growth in 1 patient. In addition, patients with superficial disease had complete regression in 94.1% of cases and partial regression in 5.9% while for patients with nodal tumor – 62.5% and 25%, respectively, stabilization – in 12.5%. 

  9. Use of the MCNP code for analysis of the attenuation of the radiation produced by radioactive sources used in radiotherapy in skin tumors; Uso do codigo MCNP para analise da atenuacao da radiacao produzida por fontes radioativas utilizadas em radioterapia em tumores de pele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, A., E-mail: ariane.tada@gmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CEN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear; Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salles, T.; Yoriyaz, H., E-mail: hyoriyaz@ipen.b, E-mail: tasallesc@gmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CEN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear; Fernandes, M.A.R, E-mail: marfernandes@fmb.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Dermatologia e Radioterapia

    2010-07-01

    The present work had as objective to analyze the distribution profile of a therapeutic dose of radiation produced by radioactive sources used in radiotherapy procedures in superficial lesions on the skin. The experimental measurements for analysis of dosimetric radiation sources were compared with calculations obtained from the computer system based on the Monte Carlo Method. The results obtained by the computations calculations using the code MCNP-4C showed a good agreement with the experimental measurements. A comparison of different treatment modalities allows an indication of more appropriate procedures for each clinical case. (author)

  10. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Photo: AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  11. Midkine is a NF-κB-inducible gene that supports prostate cancer cell survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Zongbing

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Midkine is a heparin-binding growth factor that is over-expressed in various human cancers and plays important roles in cell transformation, growth, survival, migration, and angiogenesis. However, little is known about the upstream factors and signaling mechanisms that regulate midkine gene expression. Methods Two prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC3 were studied for their expression of midkine. Induction of midkine expression in LNCaP cells by serum, growth factors and cytokines was determined by Western blot analysis and/or real-time quantitative reverse-transcription – polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The cell viability was determined by the trypan blue exclusion assay when the LNCaP cells were treated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and/or recombinant midkine. When the LNCaP cells were treated with recombinant midkine, activation of intracellular signalling pathways was determined by Western blot analysis. Prostate tissue microarray slides containing 129 cases (18 normal prostate tissues, 40 early stage cancers, and 71 late stage cancers were assessed for midkine expression by immunohistochemical staining. Results We identified that fetal bovine serum, some growth factors (epidermal growth factor, androgen, insulin-like growth factor-I, and hepatocyte growth factor and cytokines (TNFα and interleukin-1beta induced midkine expression in a human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP cells. TNFα also induced midkine expression in PC3 cells. TNFα was the strongest inducer of midkine expression via nuclear factor-kappa B pathway. Midkine partially inhibited TNFα-induced apoptosis in LNCaP cells. Knockdown of endogenous midkine expression by small interfering RNA enhanced TNFα-induced apoptosis in LNCaP cells. Midkine activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in LNCaP cells. Furthermore, midkine expression was significantly increased in late stage

  12. Skin and Psyche : Diversionary Symbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, YK; Sudarsanan, S.; Bhatnagar, A

    2005-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients with skin diseases have associated psychosocial factors. Not only does psychopathology manifest on the skin in absence of any real skin disease, primary skin disorders can also be exacerbated by emotional stress adversely influencing the homeostasis of immunological and inflammatory processes in deeper layers of the skin. Furthermore, many patients develop emotional problems as a result of having disfiguring skin diseases. In addition, some patients having...

  13. Chemomodulatory Potential of Flaxseed Oil Against DMBA/Croton Oil-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jyoti; Singh, Ritu; Goyal, P K

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of flaxseed oil to prevent chemically induced skin cancer in mice. Cancer was induced on 2-stage skin carcinogenesis model by single topical application of 7,12 dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA), as, initiator, and two weeks later it was promoted by croton oil treatment thrice a week on the dorsal surface of mice for 16 weeks. Flaxseed oil (FSO; 100µL/animal/d) was orally administered 1 week before and 1 week after DMBA application (Peri-initiation stage). The animals of the FSO-administered group showed a significant reduction in tumor incidence (76.67%), cumulative number of tumors (37), tumor yield (3.7), and tumor burden (4.81) when compared with the carcinogen-treated control animals. Biochemical parameters in skin and liver tissue such as LPO and phase I enzymes were significantly (P croton oil-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice. PMID:26437861

  14. Chemomodulatory Potential of Flaxseed Oil Against DMBA/Croton Oil-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jyoti; Singh, Ritu; Goyal, P K

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of flaxseed oil to prevent chemically induced skin cancer in mice. Cancer was induced on 2-stage skin carcinogenesis model by single topical application of 7,12 dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA), as, initiator, and two weeks later it was promoted by croton oil treatment thrice a week on the dorsal surface of mice for 16 weeks. Flaxseed oil (FSO; 100µL/animal/d) was orally administered 1 week before and 1 week after DMBA application (Peri-initiation stage). The animals of the FSO-administered group showed a significant reduction in tumor incidence (76.67%), cumulative number of tumors (37), tumor yield (3.7), and tumor burden (4.81) when compared with the carcinogen-treated control animals. Biochemical parameters in skin and liver tissue such as LPO and phase I enzymes were significantly (P croton oil-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice.

  15. Topical Treatment with Diclofenac, Calcipotriol (Vitamin-D3 Analog) and Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) Does Not Prevent Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, H C; Burcharth, J; Rosenberg, J;

    2013-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer is a common cancer type with increasing incidence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate topical application of diclofenac, calcipotriol, and difluoromethylornithine as chemoprevention in a mouse model of ultraviolet light-induced skin tumors, since these agents have...... been reported to have tumor inhibiting properties. One hundred twenty eight mice were treated with UVB radiation followed by chemoprevention or placebo. There were no significant effects of the treatments with respect to presence of skin tumors, number of tumors, tumor size, or survival...

  16. Skin Picking Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cetinay Aydin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Skin picking disorder is not a dermatological disorder and it is a table characterized with picking skin excessively and repetitively, leading to damage in skin tissue. Unlike normal picking behaviour, psychogenic skin picking is repetitive and it can lead to severe damage in the skin and even complications which constitute vital danger. While some patients define frequent but short lasting picking attacks, others define rarer attacks which last a few hours. Skin picking disorder, which is not included in the classification systems up to DSM-5 as a separate diagnosis category, is included as an independent diagnosis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Associated Disorders category in DSM-5. In case reports, open label studies and double blind studies selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are shown to be effective in the treatment of skin picking disorder. Mostly, cognitive-behaviourial techniques are used and have been proven to be useful in psychotherapy. Habit reversal is one of the behaviourial techniques which are frequently applied, give positive results in which well-being state can be maintained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 401-428

  17. Skin and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  18. Archaea on human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Probst

    Full Text Available The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin.

  19. Occupational skin cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawkrodger, D.J. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Dermatology

    2004-10-01

    Skin cancer due to occupation is more common than is generally recognized, although it is difficult to obtain an accurate estimate of its prevalence. Over the past two centuries, occupational skin cancers have particularly been due to industrial exposure of men (it seems more so than women) to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons (e.g. from coal tar products) or to arsenic. Industrial processes have improved in most Western countries to limit this type of exposure, but those with outdoor occupations are still exposed to solar ultraviolet irradiation without this being widely recognized as an industrial hazard. Ionizing radiation such as X-rays can also cause skin cancer. Occupational skin cancers often resemble skin tumours found in non-occupational subjects, e.g. basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, but some pre-malignant lesions can be more specific and point to an occupational origin, e.g. tar keratoses or arsenical keratoses. An uncommon but well-recognized cause of occupational skin cancer is that which results from scar formation following an industrial burn. In the future it will be necessary to focus on preventative measures, e.g. for outdoor workers, the need to cover up in the sun and use sun protective creams and a campaign for earlier recognition of skin cancers, which are usually curable if treated in their early stages.

  20. Radiation Therapy in Elderly Skin Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To evaluate the long term results (local control, survival, failure, and complications) after radiation therapy for skin cancer in elderly patients. The study spanned from January 1990 to October 2002. Fifteen elderly patients with skin cancer were treated by radiotherapy at the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. The age distribution of the patients surveyed was 72 to 95 years, with a median age of 78.8 years. The pathologic classification of the 15 patients included squamous cell carcinoma (10 patients), basal cell carcinoma (3 patients), verrucous carcinoma (1 patient) and skin adnexal origin carcinoma (1 patient). The most common tumor location was the head (13 patients). The mean tumor diameter was 4.9 cm (range 2 to 9 cm). The radiation dose was delivered via an electron beam of 6 to 15 MeV. The dose range was adjusted to the tumor diameter and depth of tumor invasion. The total radiation dose ranged from 50{approx}80 Gy (mean: 66 Gy) with a 2 Gy fractional dose prescribed to the 80% isodose line once a day and 5 times a week. One patient with lymph node metastasis was treated with six MV photon beams boosted with electron beams. The length of the follow-up periods ranged from 10 to 120 months with a median follow-up period of 48 months. The local control rates were 100% (15/15). In addition, the five year disease free survival rate (5YDFS) was 80% and twelve patients (80%) had no recurrence and skin cancer recurrence occurred in 3 patients (20%). Three patients have lived an average of 90 months (68{approx}120 months) without recurrence or metastasis. A total of 9 patients who died as a result of other causes had a mean survival time of 55.8 months after radiation therapy. No severe acute or chronic complications were observed after radiation therapy. Only minor complications including radiation dermatitis was treated with supportive care. The results suggest that radiation therapy is an effective and safe treatment method for the treatment of skin

  1. Ultrasound skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkis, Kira; Alam, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound skin tightening is a noninvasive, nonablative method that allows for energy deposition into the deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue while avoiding epidermal heating. Ultrasound coagulation is confined to arrays of 1-mm(3) zones that include the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and connective tissue. This technology gained approval from the Food and Drug Administration as the first energy-based skin "lifting" device, specifically for lifting lax tissue on the neck, submentum, and eyebrows. Ultrasound has the unique advantage of direct visualization of treated structures during treatment. Ultrasound is a safe and efficacious treatment for mild skin tightening and lifting.

  2. Imaging of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.)

  3. Aspafilioside B induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by up-regulating H-Ras and N-Ras via ERK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ning, Rui; Chen, Rui-Ni; Huang, Xue-Feng; Dai, Qin-Sheng; Hu, Jin-Hua; Wang, Yu-Wen; Wu, Li-Li; Xiong, Jing; Hu, Gang; Guo, Qing-Long; Yang, Jian; Wang, Hao

    2016-05-01

    We recently establish that aspafilioside B, a steroidal saponin extracted from Asparagus filicinus, is an active cytotoxic component. However, its antitumor activity is till unknown. In this study, the anticancer effect of aspafilioside B against HCC cells and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Our results showed that aspafilioside B inhibited the growth and proliferation of HCC cell lines. Further study revealed that aspafilioside B could significantly induce G2 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, accompanying the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but blocking ROS generation with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) could not prevent G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Additionally, treatment with aspafilioside B induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 MAP kinase. Moreover, both ERK inhibitor PD98059 and p38 inhibitor SB203580 almost abolished the G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis induced by aspafilioside B, and reversed the expression of cell cycle- and apoptosis-related proteins. We also found that aspafilioside B treatment increased both Ras and Raf activation, and transfection of cells with H-Ras and N-Ras shRNA almost attenuated aspafilioside B-induced G2 phase arrest and apoptosis as well as the ERK and p38 activation. Finally, in vivo, aspafilioside B suppressed tumor growth in mouse xenograft models, and the mechanism was the same as in vitro study. Collectively, these findings indicated that aspafilioside B may up-regulate H-Ras and N-Ras, causing c-Raf phosphorylation, and lead to ERK and p38 activation, which consequently induced the G2 phase arrest and apoptosis. This study provides the evidence that aspafilioside B is a promising therapeutic agent against HCC. PMID:25683703

  4. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenefelt PD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious

  5. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  6. DOSE-RESPONSE STUDIES OF SODIUM ARSENITE IN THE SKIN OF K6/ODC TRANSGENIC MOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has previously been observed that chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic and/or its metabolites increase(s) tumor frequency in the skin of K6/ODC transgenic mice. To identify potential biomarkers and modes of action for this skin tumorigenicity, gene expression profiles w...

  7. Prednisone Combined with Interferon for the Treatment of One Case of Generalized Granulomatous Slack Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Granulomatous slackskin (GSS) is a very rare variant of mycosis fungoides (MF). The lesional skin often manifests with red patches firstly, and develops into nodules and tumors gradually. The skin at the crapy sites is slack and pendulous. In this paper we report one case of gene ralized GSS and review the literature.

  8. Skin Allergy Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... Your local allergist can do a skin prick test or blood test to find out if you ...

  9. Laser Skin Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Skin Renewal, Laser A A A BEFORE: This patient wanted the appearance of his acne scars minimized by laser treatment. Procedure Overview Photorejuvenation, simply put, is the ...

  10. Aging changes in skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... areas. Changes in the connective tissue reduce the skin's strength and elasticity. This is known as elastosis. It is more ... chemicals Indoor heating Sunlight can cause: Loss of elasticity ... growths (keratoacanthomas) Pigment changes such as liver spots ...

  11. Skin or nail culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  12. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as from the sun) Exposure to heavy metals Changes in hormone levels Exposure to sun or ultraviolet (UV) light, especially after taking a medicine called psoralens, may increase skin color (pigmentation). Increased ...

  13. Layers of the Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Review Abstracting, Coding, & Staging ICD-O Site Codes Morphology & Grade Extent of Disease Evaluation Physical Exam Lab ... the majority of the structure of the skin, hair, and nails. The squamous cell layer is the ...

  14. Necrotizing Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Treatment Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Vitiligo (Video) Hives Additional Content Medical News Necrotizing Skin ... Professional Version Also of Interest Test your knowledge Vitiligo is a loss of melanocytes (cells that produce ...

  15. Fungal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Infections Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Vitiligo (Video) Hives Additional Content Medical News Overview of ... Professional Version Also of Interest Test your knowledge Vitiligo is a loss of melanocytes (cells that produce ...

  16. Curcumin Stimulates the Antioxidant Mechanisms in Mouse Skin Exposed to Fractionated γ-Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh Chandra Jagetia; Golgod Krishnamurthy Rajanikant

    2015-01-01

    Fractionated irradiation is one of the important radiotherapy regimens to treat different types of neoplasia. Despite of the immense therapeutic gains accrued by delivering fractionated irradiation to tumors, the radiation burden on skin increases significantly. Low doses of irradiation to skin adversely affect its molecular and metabolic status. The use of antioxidant/s may help to alleviate the radiation-induced changes in the skin and allow delivering a higher dose of radiation to attain b...

  17. Human Skin Fungal Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Findley, Keisha; OH, JULIA; Yang, Joy; Conlan, Sean; Deming, Clayton; Meyer, Jennifer A.; Schoenfeld, Deborah; Nomicos, Effie; Park, Morgan; ,; Kong, Heidi H.; Segre, Julia A

    2013-01-01

    Traditional culture-based methods have incompletely defined the etiology of common recalcitrant human fungal skin diseases including athlete’s foot and toenail infections. Skin protects humans from invasion by pathogenic microorganisms, while providing a home for diverse commensal microbiota 1 . Bacterial genomic sequence data have generated novel hypotheses about species and community structures underlying human disorders 2,3,4 . However, microbial diversity is not limited to bacteria; micro...

  18. Nicotinamide and the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers.

  19. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-11-22

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.  Created: 11/22/2006 by National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 12/12/2006.

  20. Nicotinamide and the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers. PMID:24635573

  1. Mobile phone use and the risk of skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Friis, Søren; Johansen, Christoffer;

    2013-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified radiofrequency radiation as possibly carcinogenic. Previous studies have focused on intracranial tumors, although the skin receives much radiation. In a nationwide cohort study, 355,701 private mobile phone subscribers in Denmark from...

  2. Effect of Rosmarinus officinalis in modulating 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin tumorigenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancheti, Garima; Goyal, P K

    2006-11-01

    The chemopreventive potential of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on 7,12-dimethlybenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) initiated and croton oil promoted mouse skin tumorigenesis was assessed. The modulatory effects of R. officinalis was monitored on the basis of the average latency period, tumor incidence, tumor burden, tumor yield, tumor weight and diameter as well as lipid peroxidation and glutathione level. The results indicate that R. officinalis leaves extract could prolong the latency period of tumor occurrence, decrease the tumor incidence, tumor burden and tumor yield. The average weight and diameter of tumors recorded were comparatively lower in the rosemary extract treated mouse groups. The level of lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in blood serum and liver. Furthermore, depleted levels of glutathione were restored in RE-administered animal groups. Thus, at a dose rate of 500 mg/kg body wt/mouse, the oral administration of rosemary extract was found to be significantly protective against two-stage skin tumorigenesis. PMID:16927448

  3. Testicular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Rosti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Germ cell tumors of the testes represent a unique paradigm of diseases which can be cured even in extremely advanced phase. Unfortunately, this makes them unique among adult solid tumors. Seminoma and non seminoma are relatively rare with approximatively 25,000 patients in Europe per year, but numbers are increasing world wide. Different strategies are needed depending on stage and prognostic scores. Seminoma is extremely sensitive to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, while all germ cell tumors show a very good response to chemotherapy. Clinical stage I seminoma is currently treated with radiation, single course carboplatin or surveillance policy. Clinical stage I non seminoma can also be approached with different strategies such as retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, observation or one-two courses of standard chemotherapy. Stage II seminoma may be treated with either radiation or chemotherapy, while for all advanced stages chemotherapy is mandatory. Since the mid-eighties PEB (Cisplatin, Etoposide and Bleomycin is the regimen of choice and no other schedule has proved superior in terms of efficacy. Surgery on the residual disease is crucial to the whole strategy and should be performed or attempted in all cases. Consequently, the correct treatment strategy for these tumors does not depend only on the ability of a single physician, but on a skilled team specialized in this particular tumor. Second line therapies (VeIP, PEI, TIP can cure 25%–40% of patients, but improved strategies for resistant tumors are desperately needed. High-dose chemotherapy has shown very good results in some studies while being less impressive in others. In any case, it should remain an option for relapsing patients and could be used in some cases of upfront chemotherapy in patients with slow marker decline, but this should only be considered in referring centers.

  4. Ultraflexible organic photonic skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zalar, Peter; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Jinno, Hiroaki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kitanosako, Hiroki; Tachibana, Yutaro; Yukita, Wakako; Koizumi, Mari; Someya, Takao

    2016-04-01

    Thin-film electronics intimately laminated onto the skin imperceptibly equip the human body with electronic components for health-monitoring and information technologies. When electronic devices are worn, the mechanical flexibility and/or stretchability of thin-film devices helps to minimize the stress and discomfort associated with wear because of their conformability and softness. For industrial applications, it is important to fabricate wearable devices using processing methods that maximize throughput and minimize cost. We demonstrate ultraflexible and conformable three-color, highly efficient polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and organic photodetectors (OPDs) to realize optoelectronic skins (oe-skins) that introduce multiple electronic functionalities such as sensing and displays on the surface of human skin. The total thickness of the devices, including the substrate and encapsulation layer, is only 3 μm, which is one order of magnitude thinner than the epidermal layer of human skin. By integrating green and red PLEDs with OPDs, we fabricate an ultraflexible reflective pulse oximeter. The device unobtrusively measures the oxygen concentration of blood when laminated on a finger. On-skin seven-segment digital displays and color indicators can visualize data directly on the body.

  5. DOSHIC PHYSIOLOGY OF SKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivprasad Chiplunkar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The balance of dosha  represents the healthy state and imbalance will cause various diseases. In normalcy doshas will be performing their own functions and individual doshas will be having their own specific sites. By telling the various sthana of each dosha, different function that is taken up by individual dosha in different sites has been highlighted.By mentioning ‘sparshanendriyam’ as one of the sthana of vata dosha the sensory functions of skin to vata dosha has been emphasised. By mentioning ‘sparshanam’ as one of the sthana of pittadosha, the function of colouring/pigmentation of skin, which is majorly carried out  by melanocytes by secreting melanin pigment has been highlighted. Meda is one among the sthanas of kapha dosha; this can be considered as the adipose tissue of skin/below skin. Since sweda is mala of meda it can be also considered as the secretions from the eccrine glands.With respect to skin, sensory functions, both tactile and thermal is carried out by vata dosha more specifically vyana vata, pigmentation to the skin carried out by meloncytes by secreting melanin, it is nothing but function of pitta dosha more specifically brajaka pitta with the help of udana vata and finally production of sweat in sweat glands is the function of kapha. So there is the need for further study and research regarding the sthanas of all three doshas in different structures/organs in the body and its physiology.

  6. A-bomb and skin injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injury and influence in the skin given by A-bomb are reviewed from the dermatological aspect. As an acute injury, primary and secondary thermal burns, flash and flame, respectively, are generally caused by high-energy heat. More than 90% people present within 1 km diameter area of the hypocenter died in a week and about 30% of whom did due to burns. Alopecia appeared in those who had been exposed to A-bomb radiation within 2.5 km diameter region of the hypocenter in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and purpura, an important measure of radiation injury, occurred maximally 20-30 days after explosion in most of those people above. Late injury involves keloid and malignant skin tumor. The former, hypertrophic scar, was seen mainly in the curing process of the burns in 60-80% and was of somewhat different morphology after flash and flame injuries. In 1987, the correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and exposed dose was recognized in 20,348 survivors in Nagasaki. In the period from 1958 to 1987, the incidence of basal cell carcinoma was found increased in the comparative studies of about 90,000 people consisting of survivors and non-exposed control. Skin examination is pointed out from the aspect to be important in those people exposed to the higher radiation dose than general population, like workers in the nuclear power plant and medical field as well as in those enrolled in a nuclear accident. (R.T.)

  7. Hand Foot Skin Reaction Associated with Sunitinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Çevirgen Cemil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunitinib is a multi-targeted kinase inhibitor showing benefits in patients with renal cell carcinoma, and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Sunitinib may cause various cutaneous toxicities. The most characteristic and common cutaneous toxicity is hand-foot skin reaction. Lesions are characterized by yellow painful callus like hyperkeratosis surrounded by a rim of erythema, they are well-demarcated and localized especially over pressure areas. A 54-year-old male patient with a history of renal cell carcinoma developed painful eruption twenty days after oral sunitinib had been started on 50 mg daily. Dermatological examination showed multiple, yellow, hyperkeratotic plaques with erythematous halos on palms, and soles. The patient was diagnosed as hand-foot skin reaction due to sunitinib due to descriptive clinical findings. Hand-foot skin reaction can greatly affect patients’ quality of life and treatment dosages. Early diagnosis and timely treatment of hand-foot skin reaction will be vital to ensure maximum potential of these drugs.

  8. Urinary Melatonin Levels and Skin Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghaderi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin inhibits tumor genesis in a variety of in vivo and in vitro experimental models of neoplasia. In industrialized societies, light at night, by suppressing melatonin production, poses a new risk for the development of a variety of cancers such as breast cancer. This effect on skin has been previously studied only in animals and not in humans. Our goal was to examine the relationship between 24-hour 6-sulphatoxymelatonin levels and skin cancer in a case-control study of 70 patients with skin cancer and 70 healthy individuals. The level of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin was measured in 24-hour urine by the ELISA method. In the case group, 55 (78% patients had basal cell carcinoma and 15 (22% had squamous cell carcinoma. The mean level of 24-hour urine 6-sulfatoxymelatonin was significantly higher in the control group (P<0.001. Also, sleep duration had a significant difference between the two groups (P=0.001. It seems that a low level of 24-hour urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin renders human beings prone to skin cancer. This association, however, requires further investigation.

  9. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is described in three areas corresponding to carcinogenesis and DNA strand breaks in rat skin following exposure by the neon ions or electrons; oncogene activation in radiation-induced rat skin cancers; and DNA strand breaks in the epidermis as a function of radiation penetration. Approximately 200 rats were exposed to the neon ion beam at the Bevalac in Berkeley, CA. The carcinogenicity of energetic electrons (2.0 Mev) was determined for comparison with the neon ion results. For double skin thickness irradiations electrons there was an unusually large excess of connective tissue tumors, fibromas and sarcomas. Presumably the latter tumors are occurring, because more connective tissue is exposed by deeply penetrating, i.e., energetic, beams. 13 refs

  10. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-06-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach.

  11. Eccrine Spiradenoma Arising from the Breast Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Benedict

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine spiradenomas are uncommon, benign lesions, which are thought to originate from the eccrine sweat glands. They are common in young adults and are without a sex predilection. Here we report a case of eccrine spiradenoma of the breast skin in a 39-year-old woman who presented with a breast nodule for 10 years. It is crucial to take eccrine spiradenoma into consideration in superficial, well-circumscribed, breast skin/subcutaneous lesions. It is useful to recognize the two-cell populations constituting this tumor: small, dark, basaloid cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, which are immunoreactive for P63 and calponin, and larger cells with a pale nucleus, often near the center of the cluster (inner cells, which are immunoreactive for CK7 and CD117 (C-kit.

  12. Skin aging and oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Sayeeda Ahsanuddin; Minh Lam; Baron, Elma D.

    2016-01-01

    Skin aging occurs through two main pathways, intrinsic and extrinsic. These pathways have significant interaction in contributing to the aging phenotype, which includes skin laxity, wrinkling, pigmentation irregularities, and the appearance of neoplastic skin lesions. Here, we review the critical role that oxidative stress plays in skin aging, including its effects on signaling pathways involved in skin matrix formation and degradation, proteasome activity, as well as DNA structure. Furthermo...

  13. Immunotherapy of Malignancy by in vivo Gene Transfer into Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plautz, Gregory E.; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Bei-Yue; Gao, Xiang; Huang, Leaf; Nabel, Gary J.

    1993-05-01

    The immune system confers protection against a variety of pathogens and contributes to the surveillance and destruction of neoplastic cells. Several cell types participate in the recognition and lysis of tumors, and appropriate immune stimulation provides therapeutic effects in malignancy. Foreign major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins also serve as a potent stimulus to the immune system. In this report, a foreign MHC gene was introduced directly into malignant tumors in vivo in an effort to stimulate tumor rejection. In contrast to previous attempts to induce tumor immunity by cell-mediated gene transfer, the recombinant gene was introduced directly into tumors in vivo. Expression of the murine class I H-2K^s gene within the CT26 mouse colon adenocarcinoma (H-2K^d) or the MCA 106 fibrosarcoma (H-2K^b) induced a cytotoxic T-cell response to H-2K^s and, more importantly, to other antigens present on unmodified tumor cells. This immune response attenuated tumor growth and caused complete tumor regression in many cases. Direct gene transfer in vivo can therefore induce cell-mediated immunity against specific gene products, which provides an immunotherapeutic effect for malignancy, and potentially can be applied to the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases in man.

  14. Biopsy in Musculoskeletal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharehdaghi

    2014-09-01

    proximity to the skin incision, because this tract is also contaminated and must be excised with the surgical specimen. Imaging-guided core needle biopsy is a well-established technique for the diagnosis of bone and soft tissue tumors and tumor-like lesions in specialized orthopedic oncology centers. Although large lesions of the limbs can easily be biopsied without image guidance, lesions in the spine, para spinal area, and pelvis are difficult to target, therefore taking the advantage of C.T. guidance will improve the accuracy of targeting the lesion for biopsy purposes. We can benefit from image intensifiers for targeting limb lesions rather than C.T. guidance. Also sonographic guide can be applied for soft tissue lesions (Figure D, E, F. In soft tissue tumors, the results of percutaneous CNB are relatively inferior compared to open biopsy whereas almost equal results are expected for bony tumors except for low-grade chondrosarcoma. CNB is a safe, minimally invasive, and cost effective technique for the diagnosis of bone lesions if done by an experienced orthopedic oncologic surgeon and be evaluated by an experienced anatomical bone pathologist (1, 3. For soft tissue tumors, CNB results depend on the size of the lesion, its location and amount of tumor necrosis. Guided needle biopsy have become the standard technique in most orthopedic oncologic centers. The accuracy of this method in our center is more than 90% for bone tumors. Cores should be taken in different directions including areas of central necrotic tissues but from a single well planned entrance. The procedure is quick, especially for bone CNB or soft tissue FNA and CNB, and the diagnosis can be achieved within 24 – 48 hours. The material should be sufficient for immunohistochemistry evaluations as well (1-3. Because I have seen 3 cases of tumor implantation at the towel clips puncture site including 2 chondrosarcomas and a case of malignant schowanoma, so I highly suggest that never crush the skin by towel

  15. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  16. Proliferating Trichilemmal Tumor of the Knee Mimicking Prepatellar Bursitis on Ultrasonogram: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Il Jin; Kim, Tae Eun; Lee, Il Gi; Shin, Hyeon Woong [Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Proliferating trichilemmal tumor is a rare benign tumor of skin appendage. It is usually solitary, more common in women after the fourth decade of life, and almost exclusively confined to the scalp and back of the neck. We report herein an unusual case of proliferating trchilemmal tumor which occurred on the knee

  17. Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Line; Christensen, Lise Hanne; Dahlstrøm, Karin;

    2008-01-01

    Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin (PMCS) is a rare malignant tumor deriving from the sweat glands. It is typically located on the head and is often mistaken for a metastasis from a more common primary tumor of the breast or gastrointestinal tract. We present the first population-based study...

  18. The effect of microneedles on the skin permeability and antitumor activity of topical 5-fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef W. Naguib

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU is approved for the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis. However, 5-FU suffers from poor skin permeation. Microneedles have been successfully applied to improve the skin permeability of small and large molecules, and even nanoparticles, by creating micron-sized pores in the stratum corneum layer of the skin. In this report, the feasibility of using microneedles to increase the skin permeability of 5-FU was tested. Using full thickness mouse skin mounted on Franz diffusion apparatus, it was shown that the flux of 5-FU through the skin was increased by up to 4.5-fold when the skin was pretreated with microneedles (500 μm in length, 50 μm in base diameter. In a mouse model with B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells implanted in the subcutaneous space, the antitumor activity of a commercially available 5-FU topical cream (5% was significantly enhanced when the cream was applied on a skin area that was pretreated with microneedles, as compared to when the cream was simply applied on a skin area, underneath which the tumor cells were implanted, and without pretreatment of the skin with microneedles. Fluorouracil is not approved for melanoma therapy, but the clinical efficacy of topical 5-FU against tumors such as basal cell carcinoma may be improved by integrating microneedle technology into the therapy.

  19. Overview of tumor promotion in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaga, T J

    1983-04-01

    Our present understanding of two-stage carcinogenesis encompasses almost four decades of research. Evidence for chemical promotion or cocarcinogenesis was first provided by Berenblum, who reported that a regimen of croton oil (weak or noncarcinogenic) applied alternately with small doses of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) to mouse skin induced a larger number of tumors than BP alone. Subsequently, Moltram found that a single subcarcinogenic dose of BP followed by multiple applications of croton oil could induce a large number of skin tumors. These investigations as well as a number of others, such as Boutwell, Van Duuren and Hecker, were responsible in defining many important aspects of the initiation and promotion of two-stage carcinogenesis. The initiation stage in mouse skin requires only a single application of either a direct-acting carcinogen or a procarcinogen and is essentially an irreversible step which as data suggests probably involves a somatic cell mutation. The promotion stage in mouse skin can be accomplished by a wide variety of weak or noncarcinogenic agents and is initially reversible later becoming irreversible. Current information suggests that skin tumor promoters are not mutagenic but bring about a number of important epigenetic changes, such as epidermal hyperplasia, and an increase in polyamines, prostaglandins and dark basal keratinocytes as well as other embryonic conditions. Recently, tumor promotion in mouse skin was shown to consist of at least two stages, in which each stage can be accomplished by either a known promoter or a weak or nonpromoting agent. Some of the important characteristics of the first stage of promotion are: (1) only one application of a first-stage promoter, such as phorbol ester tumor promoters, calcium ionophore A23187, hydrogen peroxide and wounding is needed; (2) the action is partially irreversible; (3) an increase in dark basal keratinocytes and prostaglandins is important; and (4) such an increase can be inhibited by

  20. Extreme skin depth waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Jahani, Saman

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we introduced a paradigm shift in light confinement strategy and introduced a class of extreme skin depth (e-skid) photonic structures (S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, "Transparent sub-diffraction optics: nanoscale light confinement without metal," Optica 1, 96-100 (2014)). Here, we analytically establish that figures of merit related to light confinement in dielectric waveguides are fundamentally tied to the skin depth of waves in the cladding. We contrast the propagation characteristics of the fundamental mode of e-skid waveguides and conventional waveguides to show that the decay constant in the cladding is dramatically larger in e-skid waveguides, which is the origin of sub-diffraction confinement. Finally, we propose an approach to verify the reduced skin depth in experiment using the decrease in the Goos-H\\"anchen phase shift.

  1. Epidermal skin grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Hughes, Olivia B; Macquhae, Flor; Rakosi, Adele; Kirsner, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Autologous skin grafts, such as full- and split-thickness, have long been part of the reconstructive ladder as an option to close skin defects. Although they are effective in providing coverage, they require the need for a trained surgeon, use of anaesthesia and operating room and creation of a wound at the donor site. These drawbacks can be overcome with the use of epidermal skin grafts (ESGs), which can be harvested without the use of anaesthesia in an office setting and with minimal to no scarring at the donor site. ESGs consist only of the epidermal layer and have emerged as an appealing alternative to other autologous grafts for the treatment of acute and chronic wounds. In this article, we provide an overview of epidermal grafting and its role in wound management. PMID:27547964

  2. Thyroid and skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra Alka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of thyroid disorders with skin manifestations is complex. Both hypothryoidism and hyperthyroidism are known to cause these changes. In order to study this association of skin changes in relation to hypothyroidism, a study was carried out in the outpatients department of Dermatology of Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, over a period of 3 months from Jan-March 2005. Thirty two patients were enrolled in the study and parameters were noted regarding history, general symptoms, cutaneous signs and associated diseases. We found gain in weight (71.85% and lethargy (65.62% to be the most common complaints. On cutaneous examination, dry, coarse texture of the skin (56%, pigmentary disorders (37.5% and telogen effluvium (40.62% were the most common findings. Other associated disorders were vitiligo, melasma, pemphigus, alopecia areata, xanthelasma palpebrarum, etc.

  3. Sprayed skin turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  4. Paeoniflorin attenuates ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes by inhibiting the ROS-p38-p53 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingwen; Wang, Shangshang; Wu, Xiao; Zuo, Fuguo; Qin, Haihong; Wu, Jinfeng

    2016-04-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light is one of the most harmful environmental factors that contribute to skin damage. Exposure to UV induces extensive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and results in photoaging and skin cancer development. One approach to protecting human skin against UV radiation is the use of antioxidants. In recent years, naturally occurring herbal compounds have gained considerable attention as protective agents for UV exposure. Paeoniflorin (PF) is a novel natural antioxidant, which is isolated from peony root (Radix Paeoniae Alba). The present study evaluated the protective effects of PF on UV‑induced skin damage in vitro, and demonstrated that the effects were mediated via the ROS‑p38‑p53 pathway. The results of the present study demonstrated that treatment with PF (25, 50, and 100 µM) significantly increased the percentage of viable keratinocytes after UV‑B exposure. In addition, cell death analysis indicated that PF treatment markedly reduced UV‑B‑radiation‑induced apoptosis in keratinocytes, which was accompanied by increased procaspase 3 expression and decreased cleaved caspase 3 expression. Treatment with PF markedly reduced the production of ROS, and inhibited the activation of p38 and p53 in human keratinocytes, thus suggesting that the ROS‑p38‑p53 pathway has a role in UV‑B‑induced skin damage. In conclusion, the present study reported that PF was able to attenuate UV‑B‑induced cell damage in human keratinocytes. Notably, these effects were shown to be mediated, at least in part, via inhibition of the ROS-p38-p53 pathway. PMID:26936104

  5. Gender affects skin wound healing in plasminogen deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Rønø

    Full Text Available The fibrinolytic activity of plasmin plays a fundamental role in resolution of blood clots and clearance of extravascular deposited fibrin in damaged tissues. These vital functions of plasmin are exploited by malignant cells to accelerate tumor growth and facilitate metastases. Mice lacking functional plasmin thus display decreased tumor growth in a variety of cancer models. Interestingly, this role of plasmin has, in regard to skin cancer, been shown to be restricted to male mice. It remains to be clarified whether gender also affects other phenotypic characteristics of plasmin deficiency or if this gender effect is restricted to skin cancer. To investigate this, we tested the effect of gender on plasmin dependent immune cell migration, accumulation of hepatic fibrin depositions, skin composition, and skin wound healing. Gender did not affect immune cell migration or hepatic fibrin accumulation in neither wildtype nor plasmin deficient mice, and the existing differences in skin composition between males and females were unaffected by plasmin deficiency. In contrast, gender had a marked effect on the ability of plasmin deficient mice to heal skin wounds, which was seen as an accelerated wound closure in female versus male plasmin deficient mice. Further studies showed that this gender effect could not be reversed by ovariectomy, suggesting that female sex-hormones did not mediate the accelerated skin wound healing in plasmin deficient female mice. Histological examination of healed wounds revealed larger amounts of fibrotic scars in the provisional matrix of plasmin deficient male mice compared to female mice. These fibrotic scars correlated to an obstruction of cell infiltration of the granulation tissue, which is a prerequisite for wound healing. In conclusion, the presented data show that the gender dependent effect of plasmin deficiency is tissue specific and may be secondary to already established differences between genders, such as skin

  6. Limitations of skin protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliemann, Sibylle

    2007-01-01

    Skin protection products and gloves are essential constituents of personal protective equipment at workplaces, which can be used in a complementary way, each offering particular benefits and disadvantages. In many workplace situations, both measures are being used either in an alternating or in a combined manner, typically in professions with exposures to mild irritants and a high wet-work load, such as hairdressers, healthcare workers or employees in the food-processing industry. Skin protection creams can be used to reduce unnecessarily long glove usage in order to reduce occlusion-related effects on the skin barrier. Whenever rotating machines are used, these products are the only option due to safety regulations. However, some particular requirements can be postulated for skin-protective products claimed especially to be used in combination with gloves. Reduction of glove-induced perspiration, of stratum corneum swelling, and postocclusive barrier impairment are intended attributes of such products, which have been already successfully implemented in some commercially available products. On the other hand it has to be proven that the ingredients do not interfere with the glove material, neither in the way of degrading the material, thus making it permeable for harmful substances, nor by enhancing the potential release of rubber allergens. Examples out of the literature are reviewed showing that skin products can exhibit unpredictable effects on the allergen release of rubber materials, if not thoroughly tested for this purpose beforehand. Some raw materials should be avoided in protection products, though they are of established value when used in afterwork emollients to accelerate barrier recovery. Usage of moisturizers, in contrast to special barrier products, at the workplace together or even under gloves is therefore judged critically, although selected products showed beneficial effects in particular experimental settings. Another future option is the

  7. Skin tears: prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Jeannette Y; Zanni, Guido R

    2008-07-01

    While skin tears are common among the elderly in general, and residents of long-term care facilities in particular, there has been limited research into their treatment. Many facilities voluntarily track skin tears, and some states require facilities to report these events. Risk factors include age, xerosis (abnormal eye, skin, or mouth dryness), need for help in activities of daily living, presence of senile purpura, visual impairment, and poor nutrition. Plans to prevent skin tears that employ skin sleeves, padded side rails, gentle skin cleansers, moisturizing lotions, as well as staff education, can decrease by half the number of skin tears incurred in a long-term care facility. Although the treatment process seems simple, it is time consuming and can be painful for the patient. Residents with dementia or agitation often try to remove bulky dressings used to cover skin tears. Dressing changes may injure the fragile wound via skin stripping.

  8. Intelligent skin: Real virtual

    OpenAIRE

    Bühlmann, Vera

    2006-01-01

    What will it feel like to live in a city, where houses court each other in springtime? The 'intelligent-skin' project investigates the potential of media-façades in terms of corporate communication: what does it mean to build houses out of bricks of mediality? What does it imply to say that communication literally takes place? The virtualization of housing through large sized media skins will introduce medial milieus into our urban spheres to come – they might seize to function as add-ons...

  9. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation. PMID:21923733

  10. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation.

  11. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  12. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  13. Nuclear factor kappa B-inducing kinase and Ikappa B kinase-alpha signal skeletal muscle cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canicio, J; Ruiz-Lozano, P; Carrasco, M; Palacin, M; Chien, K; Zorzano, A; Kaliman, P

    2001-06-01

    Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB)-inducing kinase (NIK), IkappaB kinase (IKK)-alpha and -beta, and IkappaBalpha are common elements that signal NF-kappaB activation in response to diverse stimuli. In this study, we analyzed the role of this pathway during insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II)-induced myoblast differentiation. L6E9 myoblasts differentiated with IGF-II showed an induction of NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity that correlated in time with the activation of IKKalpha, IKKbeta, and NIK. Moreover, the activation of IKKalpha, IKKbeta, and NIK by IGF-II was dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, a key regulator of myogenesis. Adenoviral transduction with the IkappaBalpha(S32A/S36A) mutant severely impaired both IGF-II-dependent NF-kappaB activation and myoblast differentiation, indicating that phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha at Ser-32 and Ser-36 is an essential myogenic step. Adenoviral transfer of wild-type or kinase-deficient forms of IKKalpha or IKKbeta revealed that IKKalpha is required for IGF-II-dependent myoblast differentiation, whereas IKKbeta is not essential for this process. Finally, overexpression of kinase-proficient wild-type NIK showed that the activation of NIK is sufficient to generate signals that trigger myogenin expression and multinucleated myotube formation in the absence of IGF-II. PMID:11279241

  14. The DNA-mismatch repair enzyme hMSH2 modulates UV-B-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Markus; Scherer, Stefan J; Edelmann, Wilfried; Böhm, Markus; Meineke, Viktor; Löbrich, Markus; Tilgen, Wolfgang; Reichrath, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the post-replicative DNA mismatch repair (MMR) enzyme MSH2 is involved in the complex response mechanisms to UV damage are yet to be clarified. Here, we show increased levels of MSH2 mRNA in malignant melanoma, metastases of melanoma, and melanoma cell (MeWo) lines as compared with melanocytic nevi or primary cultured benign melanocytes. UV-B treatment modulated MSH2 expression and silencing of MSH2 gene expression using small interfering RNA technology regulated UV-B-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human MeWo. We show that MSH2-deficient non-malignant mouse fibroblasts (MEF-/-) are partially resistant against UV-B-induced apoptosis and show reduced S-Phase accumulation. In addition, we show that an Msh2 point mutation (MEFGA) that affects MMR does not affect UV-B-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that MSH2 modulates in human melanocytes both UV-B-induced cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, most likely via independent, uncoupled mechanisms.

  15. Pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poussaint, Tina Y. [Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children' s Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Among all causes of death in children from solid tumors, pediatric brain tumors are the most common. This article includes an overview of a subset of infratentorial and supratentorial tumors with a focus on tumor imaging features and molecular advances and treatments of these tumors. Key to understanding the imaging features of brain tumors is a firm grasp of other disease processes that can mimic tumor on imaging. We also review imaging features of a common subset of tumor mimics. (orig.)

  16. Evolution of metastasis revealed by mutational landscapes of chemically induced skin cancers | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human tumors show a high level of genetic heterogeneity, but the processes that influence the timing and route of metastatic dissemination of the subclones are unknown. Here we have used whole-exome sequencing of 103 matched benign, malignant and metastatic skin tumors from genetically heterogeneous mice to demonstrate that most metastases disseminate synchronously from the primary tumor, supporting parallel rather than linear evolution as the predominant model of metastasis.

  17. About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Preemie > About Skin- ...

  18. Immunity and skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E.B.; Brysk, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Observations in humans and animal studies support the theory that immunologic surveillance plays an important role in limiting the development of skin malignancies. These immune responses undergo progressive diminution with age. In addition, other factors, such as bereavement, poor nutrition, and acute and chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, can further diminish immune mechanisms.

  19. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  20. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... line that runs from the navel to the pubic hair • Stretch marks •Acne • Spider veins • Varicose veins • Changes ... Nigra: A line running from the navel to pubic hair that darkens during pregnancy. Melasma: A common skin ...

  1. Light and skin disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the depletion of ozone in the stratosphere due to chlorofluorocarbons, the screening effect of this ozone layer on ultraviolet radiation (especially the so-called UV-B component) is reduced. This paper describes the impact of increased UV radiation on the human skin. Because of the 'ozone-hole', a distinct increase in the rate of skin cancer is to be expected which will affect all living beings but most of all man - an indirect consequence of the climate development. What makes the increased intensity of UV-B radiation so harmful is the fact that light-induced skin damage accumulates for the period of the life-time of the individual and cannot be reversed. A further thinning of stratospheric ozone would let through, in addition, the more short-waved ('harder') UV-C radiation. The latter, though clinically not significant currently, would then account for a further increase in the rate of malignant skin disease world-wide. (orig.)

  2. Slicing, skinning, and grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, David; Kent IV, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    We prove that a Bers slice is never algebraic, meaning that its Zariski closure in the character variety has strictly larger dimension. A corollary is that skinning maps are never constant. The proof uses grafting and the theory of complex projective structures.

  3. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... wounds. Most likely, alteration of inflammatory cell function and extracellular matrix turnover caused by smoking-induced oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiologic mechanisms....

  4. Cytokines and the Skin Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Malte Baron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The skin is the largest organ of the human body and builds a barrier to protect us from the harmful environment and also from unregulated loss of water. Keratinocytes form the skin barrier by undergoing a highly complex differentiation process that involves changing their morphology and structural integrity, a process referred to as cornification. Alterations in the epidermal cornification process affect the formation of the skin barrier. Typically, this results in a disturbed barrier, which allows the entry of substances into the skin that are immunologically reactive. This contributes to and promotes inflammatory processes in the skin but also affects other organs. In many common skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, a defect in the formation of the skin barrier is observed. In these diseases the cytokine composition within the skin is different compared to normal human skin. This is the result of resident skin cells that produce cytokines, but also because additional immune cells are recruited. Many of the cytokines found in defective skin are able to influence various processes of differentiation and cornification. Here we summarize the current knowledge on cytokines and their functions in healthy skin and their contributions to inflammatory skin diseases.

  5. Skin color independent assessment of aging using skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Koetsier; E. Nur; H. Chunmao; H.L. Lutgers; T.P. Links; A.J. Smit; G. Rakhorst; R. de Graaff

    2010-01-01

    Skin autofluorescence (AF) for the non-invasive assessment of the amount of accumulated tissue Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) increases with aging. In subjects with darker skin colors, measurements typically result in lower AF values than in subjects with fair skin colors, e. g. due to select

  6. Skin carcinogenesis in man and in experimental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents an updated overview of the current state of the art in scientific, experimental and clinical investigations on the generation and the prevention of cancer of the skin. From the achievements presented, marked refinements in the assessment of the risk of cancer, by environmental and endogenous factors, including tumor virus, will be stimulated. They include the problem of the stratospheric 'ozone holes' above both poles of the earth causing much public concern as expressed by current headlines in the media and by the United Nations Environmental Program. Moreover, new ideas will merge for developing specific approaches to explore the mechanistic, i.e. ultimately the molecular-biological, causes of skin cancer and others. In addition, the experimental utilization of oncogens and of other techniques of molecular biology at all levels of the biology of tissues and cells, may open up entirely new facets in the research on skin cancer. Detailed knowledge of the mechanistic aspects of skin carcinogenesis may give important hints with respect to 'tailor-make' and utilize new anti-tumor agents in the therapy of skin cancer for the benefit of the cancer patient. (orig.). 67 figs., 44 tabs

  7. Skin artifact removal technique for breast cancer radar detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caorsi, S.; Lenzi, C.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we propose a new model-based skin artifact cleaning technique with the aim to remove skin reflections with good effectiveness, without introducing significant signal distortions, and without assuming a priori information on the real structure of the breast. The reference cleaning model, constituted by a two-layer geometry skin-adipose tissue, is oriented to all the ultrawideband radar methods able to detect the tumor starting by the knowledge of each trace recorded around the breast. All the radar signal measurements were simulated by using realistic breast models derived from the University of Wisconsin computational electromagnetic laboratory database and the finite difference time domain (FDTD)-based open source software GprMax. First, we have searched for the best configuration for the reference cleaning model with the aim to minimize the distortions introduced on the radar signal. Second, the performance of the proposed cleaning technique has been assessed by using a breast cancer radar detection technique based on the use of artificial neural network (ANN). In order to minimize the signal distortions, we found that it was necessary to use the real skin thickness and the static Debye parameters of both skin and adipose tissue. In such a case the ANN-based radar approach was able to detect the tumor with an accuracy of 87%. By extending the performance assessment also to the case when only average standard values are used to characterize the reference cleaning model, the detection accuracy was of 84%.

  8. Dose-dependent effects of UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in hairless p53 knockout mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to (solar) UVB radiation gives rise to mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene that appear to contribute to the earliest steps in the molecular cascade towards human and murine skin cancer. To examine in more detail the role of p53, we studied UVB-induced carcinogenesis in hairless p53 knock-out mice. The early onset of lymphomas as well as early wasting of mice interfered with the development of skin tumors in p53 null-mice. The induction of skin tumors in the hairless p53+/- mice was accomplished by daily exposure to two different UV-doses of approximately 450 J/m2 and 900 J/m2 from F40 lamps corresponding to a fraction of about 0.4 and 0.8 of the minimal edemal dose. Marked differences in skin carcinogenesis were observed between the p53+/- mice and their wild type littermates. Firstly, at 900 J/m2, tumors developed significantly faster in the heterozygotes than in wild types, whereas at 450 J/m2 there was hardly any difference, suggesting that only at higher damage levels loss of one functional p53 allele is important. Secondly, a large portion (25%) of skin tumors in the heterozygotes were of a more malignant, poorly differentiated variety of squamous cell carcinomas, i.e. spindle cell carcinomas, a tumor type that was rarely observed in daily UV exposed wild type hairless mice. Thirdly, the p53 mutation spectrum in skin tumors in heterozygotes is quite different from that in wild types. Together these results support the notion that a point mutation in the p53 gene impacts skin carcinogenesis quite differently than allelic loss: the former is generally selected for in early stages of skin tumors in wild type mice, whereas the latter enhances tumor development only at high exposure levels (where apoptosis becomes more prevalent) and appears to increase progression (to a higher grade of malignancy) of skin tumors

  9. Teratoid Wilms′ tumor - A rare renal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratoid Wilms′ tumor is an extremely rare renal tumor. We report a case of unilateral teratoid Wilms′ tumor in a 4-year-old girl. The patient was admitted with a right-sided abdominal mass. The mass was arising from the right kidney. Radical nephrectomy was done and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Histopathology report showed teratoid Wilms′ tumor.

  10. Staining of skin with dihydroxyacetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WITTGENSTEIN, E; BERRY, H K

    1960-09-30

    The reaction of skin with dihydroxyacetone to produce a brown "artificial tan" appears to proceed through combination with free amino groups in skin proteins, and particularly by combination of dihydroxyacetone with the free guanido group in arginine.

  11. Tips for Relieving Dry Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  12. Skin lesion removal-aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aftercare; Nevi - removal aftercare; Scissor excision aftercare; Skin tag removal aftercare; Mole removal aftercare; Skin cancer removal ... to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein ...

  13. The management of skin tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuleneire, Frans

    During the ageing process the layers of the skin start to atrophy; the epidermis becomes thin and fragile, and dermal thickness decreases by 20 per cent (White et al, 1994). This makes skin tears a common problem among older people.

  14. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin cells called melanocytes that produce skin color ( melanin ). Radiation therapy is used mostly for melanomas that ... in addition to surgery, chemotherapy or biologic therapy. Hair Epidermis Dermis Subcutaneous Hair Follicle Vein Artery © ASTRO ...

  15. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003242.htm Skin - abnormally dark or light To use the sharing features on this page, ... the hands. The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the ...

  16. SKIN DETECTION OF ANIMATION CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lighting. They also vary greatly among themselves. Moreover, many other things (for example leather, shirt, hair etc., which are not skin, can have color similar to skin. In this paper, we have proposed three methods that can identify an anime character’s skin more successfully as compared with Kovac, Swift, Saleh and Osman methods, which are primarily designed for human skin detection. Our methods are based on RGB values and their comparative relations.

  17. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer, including drugs for basal cell carcinoma and melanoma. ...

  18. Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Zhang; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.

    2012-01-01

    Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery) and/or the body (transdermal delivery). In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commerc...

  19. A REVIEW ON SKIN CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ramya Silpa; Chidvila V

    2013-01-01

    Skin cancer can be of 2 types mainly. They are malignant melanoma and non-malignant melanoma. Skin cancer mainly occurs due to exposure of sunlight. Ozone depletion and chemical exposures are other factors involved in precipitating skin cancer. Mutations of p53 gene are involved in UV- induced carcinogenesis. P53 gene acts vital in development of SCC. So, prevention of skin cancer is the main criteria. Regular application of sunscreens could be one of the primary prevention. The purpose of pr...

  20. Targeted Therapy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Spallone

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC is the most prevalent cancer in light-skinned populations, and includes mainly Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCC, representing around 75% of NMSC and Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC. The incidence of these tumors is continuously growing. It was found that the overall number of procedures for NMSC in US rose by 76%, from 1,158,298 in 1992 to 2,048,517 in 2006. Although mortality from NMSC tends to be very low, clearly the morbidity related to these skin cancers is very high. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and nonsurgical interventions. Surgery was considered the gold standard therapy, however, advancements in the knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms of NMSCs led to the identification of key targets for drug intervention and to the consequent development of several targeted therapies. These represent the future in treatment of these common forms of cancer ensuring a high cure rate, preservation of the maximal amount of normal surrounding tissue and optimal cosmetic outcome. Here, we will review recent advancements in NMSC targeted therapies focusing on BCC and SCC.

  1. Targeted Therapy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spallone, Giulia; Botti, Elisabetta; Costanzo, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.costanzo@uniroma2.it [Department of Dermatology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via Montpellier 1, 00199, Rome (Italy)

    2011-05-03

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most prevalent cancer in light-skinned populations, and includes mainly Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCC), representing around 75% of NMSC and Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC). The incidence of these tumors is continuously growing. It was found that the overall number of procedures for NMSC in US rose by 76%, from 1,158,298 in 1992 to 2,048,517 in 2006. Although mortality from NMSC tends to be very low, clearly the morbidity related to these skin cancers is very high. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and nonsurgical interventions. Surgery was considered the gold standard therapy, however, advancements in the knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms of NMSCs led to the identification of key targets for drug intervention and to the consequent development of several targeted therapies. These represent the future in treatment of these common forms of cancer ensuring a high cure rate, preservation of the maximal amount of normal surrounding tissue and optimal cosmetic outcome. Here, we will review recent advancements in NMSC targeted therapies focusing on BCC and SCC.

  2. Protective Mechanisms of Green Tea Polyphenols in Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia OyetakinWhite

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin is frequently exposed to a variety of environmental, chemical, and genotoxic agents that contribute to disease and carcinogenesis. Ultraviolet light (UVR is the main external stress that leads to immunosuppresion, oxidative stress, premature aging, and tumor formation. Scientists and health professionals emphasize the importance of prevention strategies to circumvent such unfavorable outcomes. Plant polyphenols are a promising approach to disease prevention and treatment. Green tea is an abundant source of plant polyphenols that exhibit significant antioxidant, chemopreventive, and immunomodulatory effects in protecting the skin.

  3. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  4. Rubratoxin-B-induced secretion of chemokine ligands of cysteine-cysteine motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and its dependence on heat shock protein 90 in HL60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    To elucidate the mechanism underlying rubratoxin B toxicity, the effects of rubratoxin B on the secretion of CCR5 chemokines, CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5, in a human promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL60, were investigated. In addition, to examine whether the molecular chaperone 90-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) contributes to rubratoxin B toxicity, the effects of Hsp90-specific inhibitors, radicicol and geldanamycin, were investigated. Exposure to rubratoxin B for 24h induced secretion of each CCR5 chemokine, although the effect on CCL5 secretion was modest, and it enhanced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, CXCL8, and CCL2. Concomitant treatment with radicicol abolished the rubratoxin-induced secretion of all cytokines investigated. Geldanamycin antagonized the rubratoxin B-induced effects on CCL3 and CCL5, but not CCL4; the effects of geldanamycin were less than that of radicicol. Taken together, the results suggest that rubratoxin B, with the contribution of Hsp90, induces secretion of CCR5 chemokines.

  5. Histopathological Study of Skin Adnexal Tumours—Institutional Study in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was correlation of skin adnexal tumors with age, sex, and location and determining its incidence in the Department of Pathology at Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College and Hospital, Kolhapur, Maharashtra. Material and Methods. 56 cases were included in this study from Jan 2004 to June 2010 with respect to incidence of adnexal tumors, age, and sex distribution. All slides were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and then findings were corroborated with special stains like PAS and reticulin wherever required. Results. 80.36% (45/56 were benign and 19.64% (11/56 were malignant adnexal tumors. The sweat gland tumors constituted the largest group (42.86% 24/56 cases followed by the hair follicle tumors (35.71%, 20/56 of cases and sebaceous gland tumors (21.43%, 12/56 cases. Overall male : female ratio was 1.07 : 1. The commonest age group was 51–60 years and the commonest affected body part was head and neck region (64.28%, 36/56 followed by trunk (14.28%, 8/56. Clear cell hidradenoma and pilomatricoma were commonest benign tumors and sebaceous carcinoma was the only malignant tumor seen. Conclusion. The incidence of benign skin adnexal tumors was more as compared to the malignant tumors. Malignant tumors were seen in older age group, usually over 50 years of age.

  6. UV-B-induced signaling events leading to enhanced-production of catharanthine in Catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Shilpa; Chelliah, Jayabaskaran

    2007-01-01

    Background Elicitations are considered to be an important strategy towards improved in vitro production of secondary metabolites. In cell cultures, biotic and abiotic elicitors have effectively stimulated the production of plant secondary metabolites. However, molecular basis of elicitor-signaling cascades leading to increased production of secondary metabolites of plant cell is largely unknown. Exposure of Catharanthus roseus cell suspension culture to low dose of UV-B irradiation was found to increase the amount of catharanthine and transcription of genes encoding tryptophan decarboxylase (Tdc) and strictosidine synthase (Str). In the present study, the signaling pathway mediating UV-B-induced catharanthine accumulation in C. roseus suspension cultures were investigated. Results Here, we investigate whether cell surface receptors, medium alkalinization, Ca2+ influx, H2O2, CDPK and MAPK play required roles in UV-B signaling leading to enhanced production of catharanthine in C. roseus cell suspension cultures. C. roseus cells were pretreated with various agonists and inhibitors of known signaling components and their effects on the accumulation of Tdc and Str transcripts as well as amount of catharanthine production were investigated by various molecular biology techniques. It has been found that the catharanthine accumulation and transcription of Tdc and Str were inhibited by 3–4 fold upon pretreatment of various inhibitors like suramin, N-acetyl cysteine, inhibitors of calcium fluxes, staurosporine etc. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that cell surface receptor(s), Ca2+ influx, medium alkalinization, CDPK, H2O2 and MAPK play significant roles in UV-B signaling leading to stimulation of Tdc and Str genes and the accumulation of catharanthine in C. roseus cell suspension cultures. Based on these findings, a model for signal transduction cascade has been proposed. PMID:17988378

  7. UV-B-induced signaling events leading to enhanced-production of catharanthine in Catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelliah Jayabaskaran

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elicitations are considered to be an important strategy towards improved in vitro production of secondary metabolites. In cell cultures, biotic and abiotic elicitors have effectively stimulated the production of plant secondary metabolites. However, molecular basis of elicitor-signaling cascades leading to increased production of secondary metabolites of plant cell is largely unknown. Exposure of Catharanthus roseus cell suspension culture to low dose of UV-B irradiation was found to increase the amount of catharanthine and transcription of genes encoding tryptophan decarboxylase (Tdc and strictosidine synthase (Str. In the present study, the signaling pathway mediating UV-B-induced catharanthine accumulation in C. roseus suspension cultures were investigated. Results Here, we investigate whether cell surface receptors, medium alkalinization, Ca2+ influx, H2O2, CDPK and MAPK play required roles in UV-B signaling leading to enhanced production of catharanthine in C. roseus cell suspension cultures. C. roseus cells were pretreated with various agonists and inhibitors of known signaling components and their effects on the accumulation of Tdc and Str transcripts as well as amount of catharanthine production were investigated by various molecular biology techniques. It has been found that the catharanthine accumulation and transcription of Tdc and Str were inhibited by 3–4 fold upon pretreatment of various inhibitors like suramin, N-acetyl cysteine, inhibitors of calcium fluxes, staurosporine etc. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that cell surface receptor(s, Ca2+ influx, medium alkalinization, CDPK, H2O2 and MAPK play significant roles in UV-B signaling leading to stimulation of Tdc and Str genes and the accumulation of catharanthine in C. roseus cell suspension cultures. Based on these findings, a model for signal transduction cascade has been proposed.

  8. Investigation on the effect of developed product and new food for radiation-induced skin damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo evaluation of the developed pilot product on the skin protection against UV irradiation and screening of new candidate materials. Project Results are Establishment of experimental methods for 3 morphological indices of UV-induced skin damages -Establishment of experimental methods for whitening effect evaluation -Evaluation of HemoHIM administration on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoHIM skin application on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoTonic administration on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoTonic skin application on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 1 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 2 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 3 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the TNBS-induced colitis -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the anti-wrinkle effects in the skin -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the protective effects on the skin tissue (epidermal thickening, dermal cellularity, dermal cyst) -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the protective effects on the skin tumor development

  9. Investigation on the effect of developed product and new food for radiation-induced skin damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Kim, Jong Chun; Bae, Chun Sik; Kim, Se Ra; Lee, Hae Jun; Bang, Dae Won; Lee, Jin Hee; Kim, Joong Sun; Ki, Sun Ah; Song, Myung Seop [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    In vivo evaluation of the developed pilot product on the skin protection against UV irradiation and screening of new candidate materials. Project Results are Establishment of experimental methods for 3 morphological indices of UV-induced skin damages -Establishment of experimental methods for whitening effect evaluation -Evaluation of HemoHIM administration on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoHIM skin application on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoTonic administration on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoTonic skin application on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 1 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 2 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 3 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the TNBS-induced colitis -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the anti-wrinkle effects in the skin -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the protective effects on the skin tissue (epidermal thickening, dermal cellularity, dermal cyst) -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the protective effects on the skin tumor development

  10. Skin contamination dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, David M.; Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Cazalas, Edward

    2011-06-21

    A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

  11. Skin barrier in rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780

  12. Serotonin in human skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo Huang; Qiying Gong; Guiming Li

    2005-01-01

    In this review the authors summarize data of a potential role for serotonin in human skin physiology and pathology. The uncovering of endogenous serotonin synthesis and its transformation to melatonin underlines a putative important role of this pathway in melanocyte physiology and pathology. Pathways of the biosynthesis and biodegradation of serotonin have been characterized in human beings and its major cellular populations. Moreover, receptors of serotonin are expressed on keratinocytes, melanocytes, and fibroblasts and these mediate phenotypic actions on cellular proliferation and differentiation. And the widespread expression of a cutaneous seorotoninergic system indicates considerable selectivity of action to facilitate intra-, auto-, or paracrine mechanisms that define and influence skin function in a highly compartmentalized manner. Melatonin, in turn, can also act as a hormone, neurotransmitter, cytokine, biological modifier and immunomodulator. Thus, Serotonin local synthesis and cellular localization could thus become of great importance in the diagnosis and management of cutaneous pathology.

  13. Downregulation of uPAR and cathepsin B induces apoptosis via regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax and inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway in gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramarao Malla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glioma is the most commonly diagnosed primary brain tumor and is characterized by invasive and infiltrative behavior. uPAR and cathepsin B are known to be overexpressed in high-grade gliomas and are strongly correlated with invasive cancer phenotypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we observed that simultaneous downregulation of uPAR and cathepsin B induces upregulation of some pro-apoptotic genes and suppression of anti-apoptotic genes in human glioma cells. uPAR and cathepsin B (pCU-downregulated cells exhibited decreases in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and initiated the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. We also observed that the broad caspase inhibitor, Z-Asp-2, 6-dichlorobenzoylmethylketone rescued pCU-induced apoptosis in U251 cells but not in 5310 cells. Immunoblot analysis of caspase-9 immunoprecipitates for Apaf-1 showed that uPAR and cathepsin B knockdown activated apoptosome complex formation in U251 cells. Downregulation of uPAR and cathepsin B also retarded nuclear translocation and interfered with DNA binding activity of CREB in both U251 and 5310 cells. Further western blotting analysis demonstrated that downregulation of uPAR and cathepsin B significantly decreased expression of the signaling molecules p-PDGFR-β, p-PI3K and p-Akt. An increase in the number of TUNEL-positive cells, increased Bax expression, and decreased Bcl-2 expression in nude mice brain tumor sections and brain tissue lysates confirm our in vitro results. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, RNAi-mediated downregulation of uPAR and cathepsin B initiates caspase-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis in U251 cells and caspase-independent mitochondrial apoptosis in 5310 cells. Thus, targeting uPAR and cathepsin B-mediated signaling using siRNA may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of gliomas.

  14. In situ delivery of tumor antigen- and adjuvant-loaded liposomes boosts antigen-apecific T-Cell responses by human dermal dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, M.A.; Bruijns, Sven C.M.; Ambrosini, Martino; Kalay, Hakan; Bloois, van Louis; Storm, G.; Gruijl, de T.D.; Kooyk, van Y.

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have an important role in tumor control via the induction of tumor-specific T-cell responses and are therefore an ideal target for immunotherapy. The human skin is an attractive site for tumor vaccination as it contains various DC subsets. The simultaneous delivery of tumor ant

  15. In situ Delivery of Tumor Antigen- and Adjuvant-Loaded Liposomes Boosts Antigen-Specific T-Cell Responses by Human Dermal Dendritic Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, Martine A.; Bruijns, Sven C M; Ambrosini, Martino; Kalay, Hakan; Van Bloois, Louis; Storm, G; De Gruijl, Tanja; Van Kooyk, Yvette

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have an important role in tumor control via the induction of tumor-specific T-cell responses and are therefore an ideal target for immunotherapy. The human skin is an attractive site for tumor vaccination as it contains various DC subsets. The simultaneous delivery of tumor ant

  16. Skin metastases of lung cancer:

    OpenAIRE

    Kecelj, Peter; Košnik, Mitja; Požek, Igor; Triller Vadnal, Katja; Triller, Nadja

    2008-01-01

    Skin metastases of lung cancer are rare. In over a 3-year period we found only14 cases of skin metastases among 1,614 patients with lung cancer admittedto the University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases in Golnik. The metastases are usually manifested on the skin of the chest. Skin metastases are symptoms of progressive disease, and usually a sign of a poor prognosis. The median survival time of lung cancer patients with skin metastases was 85 days from the time of detection of the...

  17. Development of human skin equivalents to unravel the impaired skin barrier in atopic dermatitis skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eweje, M.O.

    2016-01-01

    The studies in this thesis describes the barrier defects in Atopic Dermatitis (AD) skin and various techniques to develop AD Human Skin Equivalents (HSEs) which can be used to better understand the role of several factors in the pathogenesis of AD skin. The results described show that Inflammation p

  18. SKIN RADIATION IN PANORAMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Irawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental panoramic radiograph in Indonesia has been widely used. Modern diagnostic imaging equipment with minimum radiation is still very limited. One of the conditions in nuclear safety law, UU 10/1997, is an optimization of all radiation sources with DRL through skin dose measurements. In Indonesia, the national DRL has not been established yet, and there were no reports on the study of panoramic skin dose in Indonesia. The aim of this preliminary study was to obtain a panoramic skin dose radiation as reference to establish DRL in Indonesia. Panoramic radiographs of sixteen female and fifteen male patients, aged 4 – 48 years, were taken using the standard conventional method, with TLD chips attached in location groups. The chips were then read with the detector and integrator of BATAN, in high and low temperature condition at the same time. It was revealed that behind the right and left ear were the regions with the highest radiation dose received, followed by the back of the neck, left jaw, right jaw, and chin. The result of this study has shown the importance of DRL in Indonesia since the use of modern diagnostic imaging equipement that limits radiation dose to the minimum level is still very limited.

  19. Skin-sparing mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Rache M; Adamovich, Tara L

    2003-08-01

    The cosmetic appearance of the reconstructed breast is largely dependent upon the quantity of breast skin which remains after mastectomy. Leaving behind as much skin as is possible significantly improves the natural appearance of the reconstruction and reduces procedures required on the contralateral breast to achieve symmetry. SSM with immediate reconstruction offers superior aesthetic results to NSSM, with similar LR rates. As most recurrences will occur in chest wall skin, the ability to detect local recurrence is not impaired. The incidence of local wound complications with SSM is comparable to NSSM. It has been demonstrated that sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection can be performed adequately in SSM. There is no contraindication to postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy. There are some groups of patients for whom SSM is not indicated, such as patients with inflammatory carcinoma. SSM should be considered for selected patients with breast cancer in conjunction with all types of immediate reconstruction. In conclusion, numerous studies support the use of SSM on selected patients as an oncologically acceptable procedure with superior cosmetic results when compared with traditional NSSM. PMID:12875600

  20. Regulation of Transport Pathways in Tumor Vessels: Role of Tumor Type and Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Susan K.; Monsky, Wayne L.; Yuan, Fan; Roberts, W. Gregory; Griffith, Linda; Torchilin, Vladimir P.; Jain, Rakesh K.

    1998-04-01

    Novel anti-neoplastic agents such as gene targeting vectors and encapsulated carriers are quite large (approximately 100-300 nm in diameter). An understanding of the functional size and physiological regulation of transvascular pathways is necessary to optimize delivery of these agents. Here we analyze the functional limits of transvascular transport and its modulation by the microenvironment. One human and five murine tumors including mammary and colorectal carcinomas, hepatoma, glioma, and sarcoma were implanted in the dorsal skin-fold chamber or cranial window, and the pore cutoff size, a functional measure of transvascular gap size, was determined. The microenvironment was modulated: (i) spatially, by growing tumors in subcutaneous or cranial locations and (ii) temporally, by inducing vascular regression in hormone-dependent tumors. Tumors grown subcutaneously exhibited a characteristic pore cutoff size ranging from 200 nm to 1.2 μ m. This pore cutoff size was reduced in tumors grown in the cranium or in regressing tumors after hormone withdrawal. Vessels induced in basic fibroblast growth factor-containing gels had a pore cutoff size of 200 nm. Albumin permeability was independent of pore cutoff size. These results have three major implications for the delivery of therapeutic agents: (i) delivery may be less efficient in cranial tumors than in subcutaneous tumors, (ii) delivery may be reduced during tumor regression induced by hormonal ablation, and (iii) permeability to a molecule is independent of pore cutoff size as long as the diameter of the molecule is much less than the pore diameter.

  1. Polyradiomodification. Evaluation of the efficacy of the utilization of hyperglycemia in experimental hypoxiradiotherapy of tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental evaluation of the appropriateness of the use of short-term hyperglycemia combined with hypoxiradiotherapy of solid tumors is given. In comparing the response of tumors and overlying skin a conclusion has been made that gaseous hypoxia and the use of hyperglycemia separately yield in a considerable therapeutic benefit, and the use of the combination of these agents in some cases produces a greater therapeutic interval between tumor destruction and normal tissues. The mechanisms of the modification of radiation injuries of tumors and skin under the influence of the above two factors are discussed

  2. Photothermal Radiometry for Skin Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Xiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Photothermal radiometry is an infrared remote sensing technique that has been used for skin and skin appendages research, in the areas of skin hydration, hydration gradient, skin hydration depth profiling, skin thickness measurements, skin pigmentation measurements, effect of topically applied substances, transdermal drug delivery, moisture content of bio-materials, membrane permeation, and nail and hair measurements. Compared with other technologies, photothermal radiometry has the advantages of non-contact, non-destructive, quick to make a measurement (a few seconds, and being spectroscopic in nature. It is also colour blind, and can work on any arbitrary sample surfaces. It has a unique depth profiling capability on a sample surface (typically the top 20 µm, which makes it particularly suitable for skin measurements. In this paper, we present a review of the photothermal radiometry work carried out in our research group. We will first introduce the theoretical background, then illustrate its applications with experimental results.

  3. DOES RESPONSE EVALUATION OF GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN THE SKIN OF K6/ODC MICE EXPOSED TO SODIUM ARSENITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract - Chronic drinking water exposure to inorganic arsenic and its metabolites increases tumor frequency in the skin of K6/ODC transgenic mice. To identify potential biomarkers and modes of action for this skin tumorigenicity, gene expression profiles were characterized fro...

  4. Topical Curcumin-Based Cream Is Equivalent to Dietary Curcumin in a Skin Cancer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Sonavane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, the most common cancer in the USA, is a growing problem with the use of tanning booths causing sun-damaged skin. Antiproliferative effects of curcumin were demonstrated in an aggressive skin cancer cell line SRB12-p9 (P<0.05 compared to control. Topical formulation was as effective as oral curcumin at suppressing tumor growth in a mouse skin cancer model. Curcumin at 15 mg administered by oral, topical, or combined formulation significantly reduced tumor growth compared to control (P=0.004. Inhibition of pAKT, pS6, p-4EBP1, pSTAT3, and pERK1/2 was noted in SRB12-p9 cells post-curcumin treatment compared to control (P<0.05. Inhibition of pSTAT3 and pERK1/2 was also noted in curcumin-treated groups in vivo. IHC analysis revealed human tumor specimens that expressed significantly more activated pERK (P=0.006 and pS6 (P<0.0001 than normal skin samples. This is the first study to compare topical curcumin to oral curcumin. Our data supports the use of curcumin as a chemopreventive for skin SCC where condemned skin is a significant problem. Prevention strategies offer the best hope of future health care costs in a disease that is increasing in incidence due to increased sun exposure.

  5. Overview of tumor promotion in animals

    OpenAIRE

    Slaga, T J

    1983-01-01

    Our present understanding of two-stage carcinogenesis encompasses almost four decades of research. Evidence for chemical promotion or cocarcinogenesis was first provided by Berenblum, who reported that a regimen of croton oil (weak or noncarcinogenic) applied alternately with small doses of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) to mouse skin induced a larger number of tumors than BP alone. Subsequently, Moltram found that a single subcarcinogenic dose of BP followed by multiple applications of croton oil could...

  6. Proliferative Trichilemmal Tumor in the Axillary Site: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Fidan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Proliferative trichilemmal tumor is a skin neoplasm derived from a hair follicle. It is more frequent in women and its prevalance increases after the 6th decade. Although the most frequent site is mentioned as hairy skin, it can also be detected on the neck, face, ear, hand and vulva. In this case, we discussed a 49 year old female patient presenting with a mass at right axillary region. The result of biopsy demonstrated that it was a proliferative trichilemmal tumor. The patient was re-operated due to the presence of surgical border positivity. The patient, who had no adjuvant treatment, is under follow-up and in remission.

  7. Protection against ultraviolet B-induced oxidative DNA damage in rabbit corneal-derived cells (SIRC) by 4-coumaric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposure of cells to ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) can induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which damage cellular components. Free radical scavengers and antioxidants can interfere with the production of ROS. We measured 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels, a marker of oxidative DNA damage in rabbit corneal-derived cells (SIRC) exposed to UV-B in the presence of 4-coumaric acid, a natural polyphenol. The levels of 8-OHdG were increased significantly (P-6 to 29±6.2x10-6 dG, means±SE). When 10 μM 4-coumaric acid was added to the medium, 8-OHdG levels were similar to those of unexposed cells (16.8±0.8x10-6 dG). UV-B irradiation decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in SIRC cells from 0.29±0.6 to 0.15±0.04 mU/mg (means±SE). The presence of 10 μM 4-coumaric acid prevented the decrease in SOD activity (0.20±0.05 mU/mg, P<0.05). On the contrary, SIRC cells exposed to UV-B had higher levels of xanthine oxidase (XO) activity compared with control ones (0.40±0.07 and 0.24±0.08 mU/mg, means±SE, respectively). In the presence of 10 μM 4-coumaric acid, the increase in XO activity was prevented (0.16±0.03 mU/mg; mean±SE). In conclusion, UV-B-induced oxidative DNA damage in SIRC cells is inhibited by 4-coumaric acid, which, probably through its free radical scavenging activity, stabilizes SOD activity and blocks the increase of XO activity following UV-B irradiation. Thus, the topical use of 4-coumaric acid may prevent free radical damage in the cornea

  8. Skin carcinomas: radiobiological principles, radiotherapeutic techniques and clinical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: The course will be divided into three major topics: (1) Review of radiobiological principles as they apply to the radiotherapeutic management of skin carcinomas; (2) review of radiotherapeutic techniques including beam qualities, beam collimation, tissue dose profiles, and the relative indications of external beam irradiation vs. brachytherapy; (3) comprehensive review of the tumor biology of skin malignancies, including malignant melanoma, and of the relative indications for radiotherapeutic and/or surgical management. (1) Review of critical data which have lead to currently applied principles of time-dose-volume concepts in the radiotherapeutic management of skin carcinomas. Emphasis will be placed on the relative importance of fraction size and overall treatment time on tumor control probability and acute and late normal tissue toxicity. (2) Considering that radiotherapy in the management of skin carcinomas is often used to minimize patient disfiguration and to preserve critical body functions (e.g. eye lids) the technical aspects of radiotherapy delivery are most critical. Careful evaluation of the extent of the lesions including evaluation of their depth of invasion will determine the quality of the radiation beams, orthovoltage and low energy electrons being the most useful. Beam harding for orthovoltage beams and secondary and tertiary (skin) collimation of appropriate electron beams are critical. For more extensive and deeply invasive lesions contour-shaping through customized bolus material is essential. Equally important is the familiarity with custom shielding of critical structures, such as eyes, ears, oral cavity and central nervous system structures. Brachytherapy applications in the treatment of skin carcinomas is limited but should be considered when implants with high dose uniformity can be constructed. (3) The discussion of clinical management will start with a discussion of tumor biological properties of the diverse malignant

  9. Attenuating properties of Agastache rugosa leaf extract against ultraviolet-B-induced photoaging via up-regulating glutathione and superoxide dismutase in a human keratinocyte cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yuri; Lim, Hye-Won; Huang, Yu-Hua; Kwon, Hee-Souk; Jin, Chang Duck; Kim, Kyunghoon; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2016-10-01

    Agastache rugosa Kuntze, known as a Korean mint, is an herbal medicine that has been used for the treatment of diverse kinds of symptoms in traditional medicine. This work was undertaken to assess the protective properties of A. rugosa leaves against UV-B-induced photoaging in HaCaT keratinocytes. They were evaluated via analyzing reactive oxygen species (ROS), promatrix metalloproteinase-2 (proMMP-2) and -9 (proMMP-9), total glutathione (GSH), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), cellular viability, flavonoid content and in vitro radical scavenging activity. Total flavonoid content of ARE, a hot water extract of A. rugosa leaves, was 22.8±7.6mg of naringin equivalent/g ARE. ARE exhibited ABTS(+) radical scavenging activity with an SC50 of 836.9μg/mL. ARE attenuated the UV-B-induced ROS generation. It diminished the UV-B-induced elevation of proMMP-2 and -9 at both activity and protein levels. On the contrary, ARE was able to enhance the UV-B-reduced total GSH and total SOD activity levels. ARE, at the used concentrations, was unable to interfere with the cellular viabilities of HaCaT keratinocytes under UV-B irradiation. Taken together, ARE possesses a protective potential against UV-B-induced photoaging in HaCaT keratinocytes, possibly based upon up-regulating antioxidant components, including total GSH and SOD. These findings reasonably suggest the use of A. rugosa leaves as a photoprotective resource in manufacturing functional cosmetics.

  10. Parametric study of different contributors to tumor thermal profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Michal; Gannot, Israel

    2014-03-01

    Treating cancer is one of the major challenges of modern medicine. There is great interest in assessing tumor development in in vivo animal and human models, as well as in in vitro experiments. Existing methods are either limited by cost and availability or by their low accuracy and reproducibility. Thermography holds the potential of being a noninvasive, low-cost, irradiative and easy-to-use method for tumor monitoring. Tumors can be detected in thermal images due to their relatively higher or lower temperature compared to the temperature of the healthy skin surrounding them. Extensive research is performed to show the validity of thermography as an efficient method for tumor detection and the possibility of extracting tumor properties from thermal images, showing promising results. However, deducing from one type of experiment to others is difficult due to the differences in tumor properties, especially between different types of tumors or different species. There is a need in a research linking different types of tumor experiments. In this research, parametric analysis of possible contributors to tumor thermal profiles was performed. The effect of tumor geometric, physical and thermal properties was studied, both independently and together, in phantom model experiments and computer simulations. Theoretical and experimental results were cross-correlated to validate the models used and increase the accuracy of simulated complex tumor models. The contribution of different parameters in various tumor scenarios was estimated and the implication of these differences on the observed thermal profiles was studied. The correlation between animal and human models is discussed.

  11. HIGH INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND FOR TREATMENT UNRESECTABLE MALIGNANT TUMORS IN 75 PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑国强

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study preliminary experience of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for unresectable malignant tumors in 75 patients. Methods: The clinical data of 75 patients with unresectable tumor was analyzed retrospectively. Results: Among 75 patients, ten out of 57 cases achieved good local control in short-term, 5 patients liver tumor, 4 patients with tumor in the chest wall and one patient with bone matestics. Seven patients had skin burn and 2 patients developed intestinal perforations. Conclusion: HIFU is a novel tool for local tumor treatment. HIFU treatment for patients with unresectable tumor in the chest wall is effective.

  12. Human herpesvirus 6B induces phosphorylation of p53 in its regulatory domain by a CK2- and p38-independent pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øster, Bodil; Bundgaard, Bettina; Hupp, TR;

    2008-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) infection upregulates the tumour suppressor p53 and induces phosphorylation of p53 at Ser392. Interestingly, phosphorylation at the equivalent site has previously been shown to correlate with p53 tumour suppression in murine models. Although...... or Cdk9, eluted in column fractions that phosphorylated p53 at Ser392. However, treatment of cells with neither the CK2 and Cdk9 inhibitor 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) nor p38 kinase inhibitors reduced HHV-6B-induced Ser392 phosphorylation significantly. Knockdown of the CK2......beta subunit or p38alpha by small interfering RNA had no effect on HHV-6B-induced phosphorylation of p53 at Ser392. Thus, HHV-6B induces p53 Ser392 phosphorylation by an atypical pathway independent of CK2 and p38 kinases, whereas mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signalling pathways are involved...

  13. Factors affecting UV-B-induced changes in Arabidopsis thaliana L. gene expression: The role of development, protective pigments and the chloroplast signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gene expression is known to change in response to UV-B radiation. In this paper, we have investigated three factors in Arabidopsis leaves that are likely to influence these changes: development, protective pigments and the 'chloroplast signal'. During late leaf development the major change in pigment composition, after exposure to UV-B radiation, is an increase in UV-absorbing pigments. Chl and Chl a/b ratio do not change substantially. Similarly Chl fluorescence is not altered. In contrast, RNA transcripts of photosynthetic proteins are reduced more in older leaves than in young leaves. To determine the role of flavonoids in UV-B protection, plants of Arabidopsis mutant tt-5, which have reduced flavonoids and sinapic esters, were exposed to UV-B and RNA transcript levels determined. The tt-mutants were more sensitive to UV-B radiation than wild-type. To examine the role of the chloroplast signal in regulating UV-B induced changes in gene expression, Arabidopsis gun mutants (genome uncoupled) have been used. The results show that UV-B-induced down-regulation still takes place in gun mutants and strongly suggests that the chloroplast signal is not required. Overall, this study clearly demonstrates that UV-B-induced changes in gene expression are influenced by both developmental and cellular factors but not chloroplastic factors

  14. Selective use of radiation therapy for neoplasms of the skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, R.G.

    1980-07-01

    Radiation therapy is preferable treatment for a minority of basal cell and epidermoid carcinomas of the skin. Proper use exploits the inherent advantage of preservation of function and cosmesis. Therefore, many cancers involving the eyelid, canthus, nose, nasolabial fold, pinna, ear canal, vermilion surface of the lower lip and skin of the chin can be advantageously treated by radiation therapy as compared to surgery, if pretreatment destruction of normal tissue is minimal. Although irradiation is equally effective, surgery is more expeditious for small lesions and cancers at other sites, which can be excised and followed by primary closure, and for large lesions if reconstruction will be required after destruction of the tumor. Radiation therapy can be effective, and usually is preferable treatment, for several other primary neoplasms of skin such as mycosis fungoides and Kaposi's sarcoma.

  15. Stem cells in skin regeneration: biomaterials and computational models

    OpenAIRE

    TARTARINI, D.; Mele, E.

    2016-01-01

    The increased incidence of diabetes and tumors, associated with global demographic issues (aging and life styles), has pointed out the importance to develop new strategies for the effective management of skin wounds. Individuals affected by these diseases are in fact highly exposed to the risk of delayed healing of the injured tissue that typically leads to a pathological inflammatory state and consequently to chronic wounds. Therapies based on stem cells have been proposed for the treatment ...

  16. Methodology for statistical analysis of SENCAR mouse skin assay data.

    OpenAIRE

    Stober, J A

    1986-01-01

    Various response measures and statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of data collected in the SENCAR mouse skin assay are examined. The characteristics of the tumor response data do not readily lend themselves to the classical methods for hypothesis testing. The advantages and limitations of conventional methods of analysis and methods recommended in the literature are discussed. Several alternative response measures that were developed specifically to answer the problems inherent i...

  17. Skin carcinomas: Radiobiological principles, radiotherapeutic techniques and clinical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: The course will be divided into three major topics: (1) Review of radiobiological principles as they apply to the radiotherapeutic management of skin carcinomas; (2) review of radiotherapeutic techniques including beam qualities, beam collimation, tissue dose profiles, and the relative indications of external beam irradiation vs. brachytherapy; (3) comprehensive review of the tumor biology of skin malignancies, including malignant melanoma, and of the relative indications for radiotherapeutic and/or surgical management. (1) Review of critical data which have led to currently applied principles of time-dose-volume concepts in the radiotherapeutic management of skin carcinomas. Emphasis will be placed on the relative importance of fraction size and overall treatment time on tumor control probability and acute and late normal tissue toxicity. (2) Considering that radiotherapy in the management of skin carcinomas is often used to minimize patient disfiguration and to preserve critical body functions (e.g. eye lids) the technical aspects of radiotherapy delivery are most critical. Careful evaluation of the extent of the lesions including evaluation of their depth of invasion will determine the quality of the radiation beams, orthovoltage and low energy electrons being the most useful. Beam harding for orthovoltage beams and secondary and tertiary (skin) collimation of appropriate electron beams are critical. For more extensive and deeply invasive lesions contour-shaping through customized bolus material is essential. Equally important is the familiarity with custom shielding of critical structures, such as eyes, ears, oral cavity and central nervous system structures. Brachytherapy applications in the treatment of skin carcinomas is limited but should be considered when implants with high dose uniformity can be constructed. (3) The discussion of clinical management will start with a discussion of properties and routes of spread of the diverse

  18. Age-Associated Skin Conditions and Diseases: Current Perspectives and Future Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan; Sterry, Wolfram; Hodin, Michael W; Griffiths, Tamara W; Watson, Rachel E B; Hay, Roderick J; Griffiths, Christopher E M

    2016-04-01

    The International League of Dermatological Societies (ILDS), a global, not-for-profit organization representing 157 dermatological societies worldwide, has identified the consequences of skin aging as one of the most important grand challenges in global skin health. Reduced functional capacity and increased susceptibility of the skin with development of dermatoses such as dry skin, itching, ulcers, dyspigmentation, wrinkles, fungal infections, as well as benign and malignant tumors are the most common skin conditions in aged populations worldwide. Environmental (e.g., pollution) and lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking, sunbed use) negatively affect skin health. In turn altered appearance, dry skin, chronic wounds, and other conditions decrease general health and reduce the likelihood for healthy and active aging. Preventive skin care includes primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions. Continuous sun protection from early childhood onward is most important, to avoid extrinsic skin damage and skin cancer. Exposure to irritants, allergens, or other molecules damaging the skin must be avoided or reduced to a minimum. Public health approaches are needed to implement preventive and basic skin care worldwide to reach high numbers of dermatological patients and care receivers. Education of primary caregivers and implementation of community dermatology are successful strategies in resource-poor countries. Besides specialist physicians, nurses and other health care professionals play important roles in preventing and managing age-related skin conditions in developing as well as in developed countries. Healthy skin across the life course leads to better mental and emotional health, positive impact on social engagement, and healthier, more active, and productive lives. PMID:26994263

  19. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  20. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  1. Tumors and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  2. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor - Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor - Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on how many people survive this type of ...

  3. Development of radiolabelled compound using reactor produced RI - Development of Ho-166 skin patch for treatment of skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Bae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea); Ryu, Jei Man [Dong Wha Pharm. Ind. Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    A radioactive patch which can be treat the skin cancer by direct irradiation was prepared by blending Ho(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, 5H{sub 2}O and polyurethane(PU) and then irradiating with neutron in the nuclear reactor. The blend formation of the film was fonfirmed by FT-IR. Degree of the distribution of holmium and solvent in remaining in the film was determined. Physical properties of the film by thermal analysis, mechanical measurement and surface analysis were characterized, respectively. To evaluate efficacy of the patch, it was applied to the tumor surface of the hairlessmous. Until 6 weeks of the patch treatment 7 mice with skin tumor were cured totally (7/13). And the other nuclear except for holmium was in patch was not detected. Furthermore, the patch was stable at room temperature, 40 deg C and 60 deg C. (author). 17 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Survey on skin aging status and related influential factors in Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-na WANG; Hong FANG; Wei-fang ZHU

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cutaneous aging patterns of residents in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, and their contributing 2004. Results: Facial wrinkling first occurred at 21 years of age and skin elasticity began to lose at 22 years of age. In middle-aged and old people, facial wrinkling and looseness escalated with the increase of ultraviolet (UV)-exposure time, indicating the ac-celerating effect of a higher accumulative dose of UV radiation on skin aging. Only Fitzpatrick types Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ were found in the skin phototypes of residents in Hangzhou area, and Fitzpatrick type Ⅱ seemed to be much more subject to severe wrinkling, elasticity destruction and skin tumors than types Ⅲ and Ⅳ. The oily skin was more protected against wrinkling and facial looseness than dry skin. However, as to concomitant cutaneous diseases, no difference was found among different skin types. Conclusion: Age, solar-exposure time, Fitzpatrick type and skin type are the associated forces in promoting skin aging, and emotional factor seems to be another independent risk factor. The age of 49 years and 2 h/d of solar-exposure time seem to be the turning points responsible for dramatic changes of cutaneous appearance in the process of skin aging in Southeast China.

  5. [Merkel cell skin carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejcí, K; Zadrazil, J; Tichý, T; Horák, P; Ciferská, H; Hodulová, M; Zezulová, M; Zlevorová, M

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare tumour of the skin. It affects predominantly elderly Caucasian males on sun-exposed areas of the skin. Distinctively more frequent and at significantly lower age, its incidence is higher in immunocompromised patients. In these patients we often observe the highly aggressive course of Merkel cell carcinoma and a fatal outcome. The incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma has been rising in recent years and is more dramatic than the increased incidence of cutaneous melanoma. More than one-third of Merkel cell carcinoma patients will die from this cancer, making it twice as lethal as melanoma. The malignant transformation of Merkel cells is currently thought to be related to an infection with Merkel cell polyomavirus. In the early stage the discreet clinical picture may be contrary to extensive microscopic invasion and this seemingly benign appearance can delay diagnosis or increase the risk of insufficient tumour excision. The diagnosis is definitely confirmed by histological evaluation and immunohistochemical tests. A typical feature is the tendency of Merkel cell carcinoma to frequent local recurrence and early metastasizing into regional lymph nodes with subsequent tumour generalization. The mainstay of therapy is radical excision of the tumour and adjuvant radiotherapy targeted at the site of primary incidence and local draining lymph nodes. The efficacy of different chemotherapy protocols in Merkel cell carcinoma is limited and the median survival rate is measured in months. In the future, prophylaxis with vaccination against Merkel cell polyomavirus will hopefully be possible in high-risk patients, as well as therapeutic usage of antisense oligonucleotides or microRNAs, eventually complete Merkel cell carcinoma elimination by affecting the tumour suppressor gene Atonal homolog 1 expression. The staging of the tumour at time of diagnosis is the most important prognostic factor. In this respect, the importance of preventative skin

  6. Shedding skin and tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammlerschlag, Carl A

    2007-06-01

    I am a purported expert in change and personal growth; that's the work I do with patients, and what I lecture and write about. I say that growth has nothing to do with adding on; it's always about letting go. Alas, it's always easier to tell others how to welcome shedding their skins than it is for me to do it myself. Letting go of the old and familiar is a necessary prerequisite for growth, but it's hard to do because no matter how much we may know, we have to move on. It always makes us feel vulnerable, which can inspire fear.

  7. Green tea and skin cancer: photoimmunology, angiogenesis and DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Suchitra; Elmets, Craig A; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2007-05-01

    Human skin is constantly exposed to numerous noxious physical, chemical and environmental agents. Some of these agents directly or indirectly adversely affect the skin. Cutaneous overexposure to environmental solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation (290-400 nm) has a variety of adverse effects on human health, including the development of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Therefore, there is a need to develop measures or strategies, and nutritional components are increasingly being explored for this purpose. The polyphenols present in green tea (Camellia sinensis) have been shown to have numerous health benefits, including protection from UV carcinogenesis. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major and most photoprotective polyphenolic component of green tea. In this review article, we have discussed the most recent investigations and mechanistic studies that define and support the photoprotective efficacy of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) against UV carcinogenesis. The oral administration of GTPs in drinking water or the topical application of EGCG prevents UVB-induced skin tumor development in mice, and this prevention is mediated through: (a) the induction of immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin (IL) 12; (b) IL-12-dependent DNA repair following nucleotide excision repair mechanism; (c) the inhibition of UV-induced immunosuppression through IL-12-dependent DNA repair; (d) the inhibition of angiogenic factors; and (e) the stimulation of cytotoxic T cells in a tumor microenvironment. New mechanistic information strongly supports and explains the chemopreventive activity of GTPs against photocarcinogenesis.

  8. Spontaneous skin neoplasms in aged Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, G M; Eyster, R C; Sells, D M; Gass, J H

    1992-01-01

    A total of 93 tumors of the epidermis, its appendages, and dermis were observed in 1,433 (717 males, 716 females) rats employed in oncogenicity studies over a 2-yr period. Mammary gland neoplasms will be reported separately. Fifty-seven (61.3%) were epithelial with 49 in males and 8 in females. Keratoacanthoma was the most frequent epithelial neoplasm in males (22) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (11) and papilloma (5). Sebaceous gland neoplasms seen in males (5) included both adenomas (3) and carcinomas (2). In males, there were also 3 trichoepitheliomas, 1 pilomatricoma, 1 basal cell tumor, and 1 malignant melanoma. Of the 8 epithelial neoplasms in females, there were 3 squamous cell carcinomas, 2 keratoacanthomas, and 1 each basal cell tumor, malignant melanoma, and trichoepithelioma. There were 21 mesenchymal neoplasms in males and 15 in females. The most frequent neoplasm was fibroma (7 males, 8 females) followed by lipoma (7 males, 4 females) and fibrosarcoma (4 males, 3 females). One male had a liposarcoma and 2 males each had hemangioma. The total neoplasm incidence of 70/717 (9.8%) in males and 23/716 (3.2%) in females showed that skin neoplasms were 3 time more common in males than in females. Epithelial neoplasms of the skin were 6 times more common in males than in females. Males were more than twice as likely to have epithelial rather than mesenchymal skin neoplasms whereas the reverse was seen in females.

  9. Induction of active melanocytes in mouse skin by carcinogens: a new method for detection of skin carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, K; Inui, N; Takeuchi, T

    1981-01-01

    Application of potent skin carcinogens, such as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, 3-methylcholanthrene, benzo[a]pyrene and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, induced numerous dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa)-positive cells in the interfollicular epidermis of C57BL/6 mice in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Chrysene, a weak skin carcinogen, and croton oil, a tumor promoter, also induced 3--4 times more dopa-positive cells than acetone. Liver carcinogens, such as 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene and N-2-acetylaminofluorene, and non-carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene and pyrene, did not induce increase in these cells. These results indicate that increase in the number of dopa-positive cells after application of chemicals is well correlated with the abilities of these compounds to induce skin carcinogenesis and suppress sebaceous glands. PMID:7273337

  10. Gene Expression Architecture of Mouse Dorsal and Tail Skin Reveals Functional Differences in Inflammation and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Quigley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Inherited germline polymorphisms can cause gene expression levels in normal tissues to differ substantially between individuals. We present an analysis of the genetic architecture of normal adult skin from 470 genetically unique mice, demonstrating the effect of germline variants, skin tissue location, and perturbation by exogenous inflammation or tumorigenesis on gene signaling pathways. Gene networks related to specific cell types and signaling pathways, including sonic hedgehog (Shh, Wnt, Lgr family stem cell markers, and keratins, differed at these tissue sites, suggesting mechanisms for the differential susceptibility of dorsal and tail skin to development of skin diseases and tumorigenesis. The Pten tumor suppressor gene network is rewired in premalignant tumors compared to normal tissue, but this response to perturbation is lost during malignant progression. We present a software package for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL network analysis and demonstrate how network analysis of whole tissues provides insights into interactions between cell compartments and signaling molecules.

  11. Gene Expression Architecture of Mouse Dorsal and Tail Skin Reveals Functional Differences in Inflammation and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, David A; Kandyba, Eve; Huang, Phillips; Halliwill, Kyle D; Sjölund, Jonas; Pelorosso, Facundo; Wong, Christine E; Hirst, Gillian L; Wu, Di; Delrosario, Reyno; Kumar, Atul; Balmain, Allan

    2016-07-26

    Inherited germline polymorphisms can cause gene expression levels in normal tissues to differ substantially between individuals. We present an analysis of the genetic architecture of normal adult skin from 470 genetically unique mice, demonstrating the effect of germline variants, skin tissue location, and perturbation by exogenous inflammation or tumorigenesis on gene signaling pathways. Gene networks related to specific cell types and signaling pathways, including sonic hedgehog (Shh), Wnt, Lgr family stem cell markers, and keratins, differed at these tissue sites, suggesting mechanisms for the differential susceptibility of dorsal and tail skin to development of skin diseases and tumorigenesis. The Pten tumor suppressor gene network is rewired in premalignant tumors compared to normal tissue, but this response to perturbation is lost during malignant progression. We present a software package for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) network analysis and demonstrate how network analysis of whole tissues provides insights into interactions between cell compartments and signaling molecules. PMID:27425619

  12. Eckol inhibits ultraviolet B-induced cell damage in human keratinocytes via a decrease in oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In previous reports, the antioxidant effects of eckol were shown to protect cells against hydrogen peroxide- and gamma ray-induced oxidative stress. In this study, the role of eckol in protecting human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) against UVB-induced oxidative cell damage was investigated. Also, triphlorethol-A, one of the chemical components in Ecklonia cava, and quercetin a well known antioxidant, were compared with eckol in terms of antioxidant activity based on chemical structure. Eckol decreased UVB-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased injury to cellular components resulting from UVB-induced oxidative stress, and restored cell viability. In addition, eckol reduced UVB-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the disruption of mitochondrial membranes. These results suggest that eckol protects human keratinocytes against UVB-induced oxidative stress by scavenging ROS, thereby lessening injury to cellular components. (author)

  13. Pathophysiological Study of Sensitive Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhé, Virginie; Vié, Katell; Guéré, Christelle; Natalizio, Audrey; Lhéritier, Céline; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Huet, Flavien; Talagas, Matthieu; Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Marcorelles, Pascale; Carré, Jean-Luc; Misery, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical syndrome characterized by the occurrence of unpleasant sensations, such as pruritus, burning or pain, in response to various factors, including skincare products, water, cold, heat, or other physical and/or chemical factors. Although these symptoms suggest inflammation and the activation of peripheral innervation, the pathophysiogeny of sensitive skin remains unknown. We systematically analysed cutaneous biopsies from 50 healthy women with non-sensitive or sensitive skin and demonstrated that the intraepidermal nerve fibre density, especially that of peptidergic C-fibres, was lower in the sensitive skin group. These fibres are involved in pain, itching and temperature perception, and their degeneration may promote allodynia and similar symptoms. These results suggest that the pathophysiology of skin sensitivity resembles that of neuropathic pruritus within the context of small fibre neuropathy, and that environmental factors may alter skin innervation.

  14. Pathophysiological Study of Sensitive Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhé, Virginie; Vié, Katell; Guéré, Christelle; Natalizio, Audrey; Lhéritier, Céline; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Huet, Flavien; Talagas, Matthieu; Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Marcorelles, Pascale; Carré, Jean-Luc; Misery, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical syndrome characterized by the occurrence of unpleasant sensations, such as pruritus, burning or pain, in response to various factors, including skincare products, water, cold, heat, or other physical and/or chemical factors. Although these symptoms suggest inflammation and the activation of peripheral innervation, the pathophysiogeny of sensitive skin remains unknown. We systematically analysed cutaneous biopsies from 50 healthy women with non-sensitive or sensitive skin and demonstrated that the intraepidermal nerve fibre density, especially that of peptidergic C-fibres, was lower in the sensitive skin group. These fibres are involved in pain, itching and temperature perception, and their degeneration may promote allodynia and similar symptoms. These results suggest that the pathophysiology of skin sensitivity resembles that of neuropathic pruritus within the context of small fibre neuropathy, and that environmental factors may alter skin innervation. PMID:26337000

  15. Neutron Skins and Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Piekarewicz, J

    2013-01-01

    The neutron-skin thickness of heavy nuclei provides a fundamental link to the equation of state of neutron-rich matter, and hence to the properties of neutron stars. The Lead Radius Experiment ("PREX") at Jefferson Laboratory has recently provided the first model-independence evidence on the existence of a neutron-rich skin in 208Pb. In this contribution we examine how the increased accuracy in the determination of neutron skins expected from the commissioning of intense polarized electron be...

  16. Skin Infections Due to Corynebacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Meltem Türkmen; Derya Aytimur

    2010-01-01

    Corynebacteria are Gram-positive, non-sporulated, non-capsulated, aerobic diphtheroid bacteria accounting for nearly 50%of the natural skin biocene. This bacterial family is responsible for various skin diseases such as cutaneous diphteria, cromhydrosis, bromhydrosis but the most common of them are pitted keratolysis, trichobacteriosis and erythrasma. A warm and moist environment and poor hygiene are the predisposition factors for these three diseases. Although this skin diseases are seen mor...

  17. Protecting the skin during thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Bezerra Lira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this note we describe the standard technical maneuver used in our department to protect the skin during thyroidectomy in order to get the best aesthetic result. We use surgical gloves to protect the skin during these operations to reduce the negative impact of thermal trauma and mechanical retractors and energy delivery devices at the edges of the skin incised. This practice is effective, inexpensive, rapid, reproducible and showed no complication in our experience of over 2,500 thyroidectomies.

  18. [Radiotherapy of skin cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennequin, C; Rio, E; Mahé, M-A

    2016-09-01

    The indications of radiotherapy for skin cancers are not clearly defined because of the lack of randomised trials or prospective studies. For basal cell carcinomas, radiotherapy frequently offers a good local control, but a randomized trial showed that surgery is more efficient and less toxic. Indications of radiotherapy are contra-indications of surgery for patients older than 60, non-sclerodermiform histology and occurring in non-sensitive areas. Adjuvant radiotherapy could be proposed to squamous cell carcinomas, in case of poor prognostic factors. Dose of 60 to 70Gy are usually required, and must be modulated to the size of the lesions. Adjuvant radiotherapy seems beneficial for desmoplastic melanomas but not for the other histological types. Prophylactic nodal irradiation (45 to 50Gy), for locally advanced tumours (massive nodal involvement), decreases the locoregional failure rate but do not increase survival. Adjuvant radiotherapy (50 to 56Gy) for Merckel cell carcinomas increases also the local control rate, as demonstrated by meta-analysis and a large epidemiological study. Nodal areas must be included, if there is no surgical exploration (sentinel lymph node dissection). Kaposi sarcomas are radiosensitive and could be treated with relatively low doses (24 to 30Gy). Also, cutaneous lymphomas are good indications for radiotherapy: B lymphomas are electively treated with limited fields. The role of total skin electron therapy for T-lymphomas is still discussed; but palliative radiotherapy is very efficient in case of cutaneous nodules. PMID:27522189

  19. Oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin. Comprehensive progress report, February 1, 1980-January 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carciongenic response of rat skin to ionizing radiation has been studied. A model of radiation carcinogenesis is being developed where it is assumed that the tumor yield can be related to moleuclar changes in the DNA occurring in phase 1 and that phase 2 exerts approximately the same effect on tumor development, regardless of the radiation dose

  20. SKIN KINETICS AND DERMAL CLEARANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Shashi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Availability of several therapeutic and cosmetic formulations for topical application has made the research on skin kinetics as a topic of current interest. Topical formulations are typically meant for local effect although there is always a chance that the low molecular weight chemicals are easily transported across the skin layer and make it available in the systemic circulation. Thus there is a major concern about the transport of chemical moieties following the topical application of cosmetics and therapeutic formulations and the real time measurement of the molecules in the skin layer has become obligatory. It is well known that the properties of both drug and the excipients have identical role in determining the skin permeability of chemical moieties. In the last decade several investigations have been carried out in this filed using several in vitro and in vivo models. This review provides a brief account on the basics of skin kinetics, parameters assessed, various techniques and methods adapted in skin kinetic studies. Moreover, we have also discussed about the micro-environment inside the skin layer and the possible mechanism of drug depot formation, skin metabolism and clearance of molecules from the skin layers.

  1. Skin Infections Due to Corynebacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Türkmen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacteria are Gram-positive, non-sporulated, non-capsulated, aerobic diphtheroid bacteria accounting for nearly 50%of the natural skin biocene. This bacterial family is responsible for various skin diseases such as cutaneous diphteria, cromhydrosis, bromhydrosis but the most common of them are pitted keratolysis, trichobacteriosis and erythrasma. A warm and moist environment and poor hygiene are the predisposition factors for these three diseases. Although this skin diseases are seen more frequently, they usually mistaken for a mycotic infection by general practitioners, with subsequent antimycotic treatment. Here skin diseases compromised with Corynebacterium are presented with their demographic features and discussed on the basis of a literature review.

  2. The future of skin metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Alban; Vogel, Timothy M; Simonet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics, the direct exploitation of environmental microbial DNA, is complementary to traditional culture-based approaches for deciphering taxonomic and functional microbial diversity in a plethora of ecosystems, including those related to the human body such as the mouth, saliva, teeth, gut or skin. DNA extracted from human skin analyzed by sequencing the PCR-amplified rrs gene has already revealed the taxonomic diversity of microbial communities colonizing the human skin ("skin microbiome"). Each individual possesses his/her own skin microbial community structure, with marked taxonomic differences between different parts of the body and temporal evolution depending on physical and chemical conditions (sweat, washing etc.). However, technical limitations due to the low bacterial density at the surface of the human skin or contamination by human DNA still has inhibited extended use of the metagenomic approach for investigating the skin microbiome at a functional level. These difficulties have been overcome in part by the new generation of sequencing platforms that now provide sequences describing the genes and functions carried out by skin bacteria. These methodological advances should help us understand the mechanisms by which these microorganisms adapt to the specific chemical composition of each skin and thereby lead to a better understanding of bacteria/human host interdependence. This knowledge will pave the way for more systemic and individualized pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications.

  3. HOX genes in the skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Mei; LI Qing-feng; ZHANG Feng

    2010-01-01

    @@ Deep skin wounds heal by scar formation with a loss of its original appearance, structure and function.However, when the same damage occurs to the skin of an early gestational fetus, complete regeneration can be observed. Despite significant research in the field of skin regeneration, many mysteries remain, such as the loss of wound healing ability with maturity, the differences in healing at different parts of the body, and the presence of hypertrophic scars and keloids in some races but not in others. The finding of HOX genes in the skin provides new explanations to these conundrums.

  4. Infrared sensing based sensitive skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zheng-cai; FU Yi-li; WANG Shu-guo; JIN Bao

    2006-01-01

    Developed robotics sensitive skin is a modularized, flexible, mini-type array of infrared sensors with data processing capabilities, which can be used to cover the body of a robot. Depending on the infrared sensors and periphery processing circuit, robotics sensitive skin can in real-time provide existence and distance information about obstacles for robots within sensory areas. The methodology of designing sensitive skin and the algorithm of a mass of IR data fusion are presented. The experimental results show that the multi-joint robot with this sensitive skin can work autonomously in an unknown environment.

  5. Toxicological study of the molluscicidal latex of Euphorbia splendens: irritant action on skin and eye

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. B. R. Freitas; O. A. F. Presgrave; F. F. Fingola; M. A. C. Menezes; M.C. Vasconcellos; V. T. Schall; Paumgartten, F. J. R.

    1991-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of the molluscicidal latex of Euphorbia splendens are irritant to the rabbit eye in concentrations higher than 0.35% and to the rabbit skin in concentrations higher than 0.5%. Although this irritant potential does not proclude its use as a molluscicide, special precautions are recommended for hanbdling and application of the product and the hazard of skin tumor-promoting potencial should be carefully investigated before its use for schistosomiasis vector control.

  6. Oncogenic action of beta, proton, alpha and electron radiation on the rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rat skin is being utilized as an empirical model for testing dose and time related aspects of the oncogenic action of ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Molecular lesions in the skin DNA, including, strand breaks and thymine dimers, are being measured and compared to tumor induction. The induction and repair kinetics of molcular lesions are being compared to split dose repair. Modifiers and radiosensitizers are being utilized to test specific aspects of a chromosome breakage theory of radiation oncogenesis

  7. Oncogenic action of beta, proton, alpha and electron radiation on the rat skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Rat skin is being utilized as an empirical model for testing dose and time related aspects of the oncogenic action of ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Molecular lesions in the skin DNA, including, strand breaks and thymine dimers, are being measured and compared to tumor induction. The induction and repair kinetics of molcular lesions are being compared to split dose repair. Modifiers and radiosensitizers are being utilized to test specific aspects of a chromosome breakage theory of radiation oncogenesis.

  8. Toxicological study of the molluscicidal latex of Euphorbia splendens: irritant action on skin and eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. B. R. Freitas

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous solutions of the molluscicidal latex of Euphorbia splendens are irritant to the rabbit eye in concentrations higher than 0.35% and to the rabbit skin in concentrations higher than 0.5%. Although this irritant potential does not proclude its use as a molluscicide, special precautions are recommended for hanbdling and application of the product and the hazard of skin tumor-promoting potencial should be carefully investigated before its use for schistosomiasis vector control.

  9. Role of mitogen activated protein kinases in skin tumorigenicity of Patulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Neha; Ansari, Kausar M.; Kumar, Rahul; Chaudhari, Bhushan P.; Dwivedi, Premendra D.; Das, Mukul, E-mail: mditrc@rediffmail.com

    2011-12-15

    WHO has highlighted the need to evaluate dermal toxicity of mycotoxins including Patulin (PAT), detected in several fruits. In this study the skin carcinogenic potential of topically applied PAT was investigated. Single topical application of PAT (400 nmol) showed enhanced cell proliferation ({approx} 2 fold), along with increased generation of ROS and activation of ERK, p38 and JNK MAPKs, in mouse skin. PAT exposure also showed activation of downstream target proteins, c-fos, c-Jun and NF-{kappa}B transcription factors. Further, single topical application of PAT (400 nmol) followed by twice weekly application of TPA resulted in tumor formation after 14 weeks, indicating the tumor initiating activity of PAT. However no tumors were observed when PAT was used either as a complete carcinogen (80 nmol) or as a tumor promoter (20 nmol and 40 nmol) for 25 weeks. Histopathological findings of tumors found in PAT/TPA treated mice showed that these tumors were of squamous cell carcinoma type and similar to those found in the positive control group (DMBA/TPA) along with significant increase of lipid peroxidation and decrease in free sulfydryls, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase activities. The results suggest the possible role of free radicals in PAT mediated dermal tumorigenicity involving MAPKs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single topical application of Patulin showed enhanced cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Patulin activate MAPKs, c-fos, c-Jun and NF-{kappa}B transcription factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Patulin showed skin tumor initiating potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We could not detect skin tumor promoting potential of Patulin at the tested dose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer However prolonged exposure of Patulin at a higher dose may promote tumor.

  10. Skin temperature during sunbathing--relevance for skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2014-01-01

    volunteers over 6 days' sun holiday in Egypt. Temperatures were measured with an infrared thermometer gun at 8 skin sites on the volunteers while they were indoors in the morning and when sunbathing during the day. Skin temperatures were higher during sunbathing (33.5 °C ± 2.1 °C) (mean ± SD) than when...

  11. Segmental neurofibromatosis presenting with congenital excessive skin folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, Alexander M; Nouriel, Ariella; Zisquit, Jonah; Barzilai, Aviv; Greenberger, Shoshana

    2015-04-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis (SNF) is a rare type of neurofibromatosis (NF-1) resulting from post-zygotic somatic mutations in the neurofibromin gene that leads to mosaicism. Reported manifestations of SNF include neurofibromas, freckling, or café-au-lait spots limited to a single body region or limb. We present a 5-month-old male referred to our clinic for evaluation of congenital excessive skin folds on the back. A mildly erythematous, poorly demarcated soft plaque was noted, consisting of excessive skin folds. A cluster of light brown hyperpigmented macules was seen overlying the plaque. A punch biopsy of the plaque confirmed a diagnosis of neurofibroma. Further investigation ruled out other manifestations of NF-1. The early onset of our patient's neurofibroma and its gross appearance with redundant skin folds are all unusual features. To our knowledge, congenital excessive skin folds found in a single tumor have not been previously described in the literature as a manifestation of SNF. Clinicians should be educated about the possibility of congenital localized skin folds in association with SNF in order to identify the disease in infancy and monitor any changes in neurofibroma pathology. PMID:26114065

  12. Sweat gland tumor (Eccrine Porocarcinoma of scalp: A rare tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Roshani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine Porocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm arising from sweat glands. It was first described by Pinkus and Mehregan as ′Epidermotropic eccrine carcinoma′. It may occur de novo or as a malignant transformation of an eccrine poroma. It is commonly found in older age group and in the lower extremities. Clinically, it may present as a verrucous plaque, polypoid growth or an ulcerative lesion of long duration. Local recurrence and metastasis to skin, lymphnodes, viscera, and bone may occur. Treatment is wide local excision. Metastatic lesions can be treated with chemotherapy. We report a case of eccrine porocarcinoma of the scalp in a 50 years old female who presented to us with a bosselated, firm, painless, non-tender, freely mobile swelling over left fronto-parietal region of 12 years duration. It was excised and histopathological diagnosis was Eccrine Porocarcinoma. In literature, scalp porocarcinoma is a very rare tumor.

  13. Updates in Orbital Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nila; F.Moeloek

    1993-01-01

    Orbital anatomy, the clinical features of orbital tumors, the recent development of the diagnosis and management of orbital tumors were described. The incidence of orbital tumors in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital in the past years were introduced. The principle of management of orbital tumors and their prognosis were discussed.

  14. Evaluation of the Photoprotective Effect of Dongchongxiacao (Paecilomyces japonica) Extract against Ultraviolet Radiation-induced Skin Wrinkling and Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae June [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Jong Choon; Kim Sung Ho [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung Kee [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Sik [Department of Animal Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To evaluate the ability of Dongchongxiacao (Paecilomyces japonica ) extract (PJE) to protect the skin from photo damage, the gross and microscopic changes in the skin of hairless mice and PJE-treated mice exposed chronically to ultraviolet (UV) were examined. The skin of the UV-irradiated mice showed characteristic signs of photo aging, such as deep wrinkles across the back. PJE-treated mice showed a significantly decreased wrinkling score. By the 22nd week, 88.9% (i.p. with saline) or 44.4% (topical administration with cream base) of the UV-irradiated mice developed at least one tumor. PJE delayed tumor onset significantly. PJE (i.p.) was also effective in reducing the occurrence of UV radiation-induced skin tumors and reduced the number of tumors per mouse. After 22 weeks of treatment, 80.0% (i.p.) and 75.0% (topical) of the mice treated with PJE were tumor-free. Tumor multiplicity was reduced by 96.2% (i.p.) in the PJE treated groups. It is noted that skin that is chronically exposed to UV is subject to photo aging and photo carcinogenesis and regular use of PJE would prevent these photo damaging effects of UV.

  15. Pygmies, Giants, and Skins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarewicz, J.

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the equation of state (EOS) of neutron-rich matter is a central goal of nuclear physics that cuts across a variety of disciplines. Indeed, the limits of nuclear existence, the collision of energetic heavy ions, the structure of neutron stars, and the dynamics of core-collapse supernova all depend critically on the nuclear-matter EOS. In this contribution I focus on the EOS of cold baryonic matter with special emphasis on its impact on the structure, dynamics, and composition of neutron stars. In particular, I discuss how laboratory experiments on neutron skins as well as on Pygmy and Giant resonances can help us elucidate the structure of these fascinating objects.

  16. Pygmies, Giants, and Skins

    CERN Document Server

    Piekarewicz, J

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the equation of state (EOS) of neutron-rich matter is a central goal of nuclear physics that cuts across a variety of disciplines. Indeed, the limits of nuclear existence, the collision of energetic heavy ions, the structure of neutron stars, and the dynamics of core-collapse supernova all depend critically on the nuclear-matter EOS. In this contribution I focus on the EOS of cold baryonic matter with special emphasis on its impact on the structure, dynamics, and composition of neutron stars. In particular, I discuss how laboratory experiments on neutron skins as well as on Pygmy and Giant resonances can help us elucidate the structure of these fascinating objects.

  17. Double-Skin Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena

    difficulties experienced by scientists when attempting to model DSF thermal and energy performance were examined. In addition, the lack of experimental studies and empirical validation of models was realized, many numerical models have not been empirically validated and most of them require an expert knowledge...... to perform the simulations. To fill in the gap of lacking experimental data a range of measurements was carried out in an outdoor, double-skin façade full-scale test facility ‘The Cube'. As a result, three complete sets of experimental data were composed. These are available for external air curtain......, transparent insulation and preheating operation modes of DSF cavity. The data sets include measurements of naturally induced air flow, temperature gradients, velocity profiles, climate data, etc. Two data sets were used for further empirical validation of building simulation software for DSF modelling within...

  18. Supratentorial tumors; Supratentorielle Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.; Dillmann, K.; Roth, C.; Backens, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Saarland, Homburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a routine diagnostic measure for a suspected intracerebral mass. Computed tomography is usually also indicated. Further diagnostic procedures as well as the interpretation of the findings vary depending on the tumor location. This contribution discusses the symptoms and diagnostics for supratentorial tumors separated in relation to their intra- or extracranial location. Supratentorial tumors include astrocytoma, differentiated by their circumscribed and diffuse growth, ganglioglioma, ependyoma, neurocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), oligodendroglioma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET), meningoangiomatosis, pineal tumors, hamartoma, lymphoma, craniopharyngeoma and metastases. The supratentorial extracranial tumors include the choroid plexus, colloid cysts, meningeoma, infantile myofibromatosis and lipoma. The most common subforms, especially of astrocytoma, will also be presented. (orig.)

  19. Eriocalyxin B induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells through caspase- and p53-dependent pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lin [School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Yue, Grace G.L. [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Lau, Clara B.S. [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Sun, Handong [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, CAS, Yunnan (China); Fung, Kwok Pui [School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Leung, Ping Chung [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Han, Quanbin, E-mail: simonhan@hkbu.edu.hk [Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); School of Chinese Medicine, The Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China); Leung, Po Sing, E-mail: psleung@cuhk.edu.hk [School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to detect early and responds poorly to chemotherapy. A breakthrough in the development of new therapeutic agents is urgently needed. Eriocalyxin B (EriB), isolated from the Isodon eriocalyx plant, is an ent-kaurane diterpenoid with promise as a broad-spectrum anti-cancer agent. The anti-leukemic activity of EriB, including the underlying mechanisms involved, has been particularly well documented. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time EriB's potent cytotoxicity against four pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines, namely PANC-1, SW1990, CAPAN-1, and CAPAN-2. The effects were comparable to that of the chemotherapeutic camptothecin (CAM), but with much lower toxicity against normal human liver WRL68 cells. EriB's cytoxicity against CAPAN-2 cells was found to involve caspase-dependent apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. Moreover, the p53 pathway was found to be activated by EriB in these cells. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that EriB inhibited the growth of human pancreatic tumor xenografts in BALB/c nude mice without significant secondary adverse effects. These results suggest that EriB should be considered a candidate for pancreatic cancer treatment. -- Highlights: ► We study Eriocalyxin B (EriB)'s cytotoxic effects on pancreatic cancer cell lines. ► EriB inhibits cell proliferation via mediation of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. ► The effects are involved in caspase-dependent apoptosis and p53 pathway. ► In vivo study also shows EriB inhibits the growth of human pancreatic tumor. ► EriB can be a good candidate for chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer.

  20. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your skin and kidneys. About your stoma Your stoma is made from the part of your small intestine called the ileum. Your ureter is attached to a small piece of your ileum and pulled through the skin of your abdomen. A stoma is very delicate. A healthy stoma is pinkish- ...

  1. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashi, Neelam A; de Castro Maymone, Mayra Buainain; Kundu, Roopal V

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  2. Dry skin - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scrubbing your skin. Shave right after bathing, when hair is soft. Wear soft, comfortable clothing next to your skin. Avoid rough fabrics like wool. Wash clothes with detergents that are free of dyes or fragrances. Drink plenty of water. Ease itchy ...

  3. Air Pollution and the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni eDrakaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase of air pollution over the years has major effects on the human skin. The skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR and environmental air pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, oxides, particulate matter (PM, ozone (O3 and cigarette smoke. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemical and physical air pollutants, the prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants may have profound negative effects on the skin. Exposure of the skin to air pollutants has been associated with skin aging and inflammatory or allergic skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis or acne, while skin cancer is among the most serious effects. On the other hand, some air pollutants (ie, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide and scattering particulates (clouds and soot in the troposphere reduce the effects of shorter wavelength UVR and significant reductions in UV irradiance have been observed in polluted urban areas.

  4. Pain-induced skin autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Odoardi, Francesca; Neuhuber, Winfried; Flügel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A recent paper published in Nature reports sensory nerve fibers in the skin that give local immune cells important instructions for the organization of an immune response; in this particular case the cooperation between the nervous and immune systems had disastrous consequences, namely an auto-destruction of the skin.

  5. Imaging the Tumor Microenvironment

    OpenAIRE

    LeBleu, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a complex, heterogeneous, and dominant component of solid tumors. Cancer imaging strategies of a subset of characteristics of the tumor microenvironment are under active development and currently used modalities and novel approaches are summarized here. Understanding the dynamic and evolving functions of the tumor microenvironment is critical to accurately inform imaging and clinical care of cancer. Novel insights into distinct roles of the tumor microenvironment...

  6. Flavonoids Derived from Abelmoschus esculentus Attenuates UV-B Induced Cell Damage in Human Dermal Fibroblasts Through Nrf2-ARE Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Juilee; Bhatt, Purvi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is a smaller fraction of the total radiation reaching the Earth but leads to extensive damage to the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and other biomolecules through formation of free radicals altering redox homeostasis of the cell. Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) has been known in Ayurveda as antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, demulscent, antispasmodic, diuretic, purgative, etc. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the protective effect of flavonoids from A. esculentus against UV-B-induced cell damage in human dermal fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: UV-B protective activity of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of okra was studied against UV-B-induced cytotoxicity, antioxidant regulation, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, apoptotic morphological changes, and regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2-antioxidant response element (Nrf2-ARE) pathway. Results: Flavonoid-rich EA fraction depicted a significant antioxidant potential also showing presence of rutin. Pretreatment of cells with EA fraction (10–30 μg/ml) prevented UV-B-induced cytotoxicity, depletion of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular ROS production, apoptotic changes, and overexpression of Nrf2 and HO-1. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated for the 1st time that EA fraction of okra may reduce oxidative stress through Nrf2-ARE pathway as well as through endogenous enzymatic antioxidant system. These results suggested that flavonoids from okra may be considered as potential UV-B protective agents and may also be formulated into herbal sunscreen for topical application. SUMMARY Flavonoid-enriched ethyl acetate (EA) fraction from A. esculentus protected against ultraviolet-B (UV-B)-induced oxidative DNA damageEA fraction prevented UV-B-induced cytotoxicity, depletion of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants, and intracellular reactive oxygen species

  7. STROMAL INTESTINAL TUMORS ASSOCIATED WITH NEUROFIBROMATOSIS – CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    C.N. Neacsu; D. Vintila; Paula Popa

    2006-01-01

    We describe a 42 year old man admitted in our clinic for peritonitis. After laparotomy we found three tumors in the jejunum, one of them with necrosis and perforation.We performed jejunal resection with end-to-end anastomosis. Histologically the diagnosis was stromal intestinal tumors, two of them with malign aspects. Staining for CD-117 (c-kit) was positive and negative for neurofilaments and cromogranine. Also the patient had multiple small size, café-au-lait skin tumors on the chest and ar...

  8. Breast disease with skin thickening: differential diagnosis with mammography and ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Rok; Kim, Hak Hee; Cha, Eun Suk; Park, Hye Seong; Kim, Ki Tae; Shinn, Kyung Sub [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    Diffuse skin thickening of the breast is produced by lymphedema usually secondary to obstruction of the axillary lymphatics. On physical examination, the affected breast is, due to increased fluid content, larger, heavier, and of higher overall density. Mammography reveals an increased coarse reticular pattern. Thickening of the skin can have many causes. It may be a result of tumor invasion or a tumor in the dermal lymphatics ; or because of lymphatic congestion through obstruction of lymphatic drainage within the breast, in the axilla, or centrally in the mediastinum. Further causes may be congestive heart failure, benign inflammation, primary skin processes such as psoriasis, or systemic diseases which involve the skin. Mammographic appearance is known to be nonspecific. Ultrasound can demonstrate skin thickening directly, but despite some reports suggesting that the cause of skin thickening can be inferred from the results of ultrasound, this is not usually of practical importance. The purpose of this study is to review the causes of skin thickening of the breast and to use mammography and US to differentiate the causes.

  9. Tumor Lysis Syndrome in Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Das

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS consists of a triad of hyperuricemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hyperkalemia along with secondary hypocalcemia. It results from the massive release of intracellular ions from chemosensitive tumor cell death. Hematological malignancies such as acute leukemia and non- Hodgkin lymphoma are considered high risk for developing TLS. Solid tumors are considered less likely to develop TLS. We herein report a case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor developing TLS within 24 h of starting chemotherapy. The child developed severe clinical TLS and could not be saved. We think solid tumors with large tumor load needs to be classified as high risk for development of TLS. Prophylactic use of hyperhydration and other medical measures to prevent TLS is warranted in such cases.

  10. Skin decontamination of glyphosate from human skin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, H; Chan, H P; Hui, X; Maibach, H I

    2008-06-01

    This study compared three model decontaminant solutions (tap water, isotonic saline, and hypertonic saline) for their ability to remove a model herbicide (glyphosate) from an in vitro human skin model. Human cadaver skin was dosed (approximately 375microg) of [14C]-glyphosate on 3cm2 per skin. After each exposure time (1, 3, and 30min post-dosing, respectively), the surface skin was washed three times (4ml per time) with each solution. After washing, the skin was stripped twice with tape discs. Lastly, the wash solutions, strippings, receptor fluid, and remainder of skin were liquid scintillation analyzer counted to determine the amount of glyphosate. There were no statistical differences among these groups at any time points. The total mass balance recovery at three time exposure points was between 94.8% and 102.4%. The wash off rates (glyphosate in wash solutions) at three different exposure times is 79-101.2%. Thus the three tested decontaminants possess similar effectiveness in removing glyphosate from skin. This in vitro model is not only economic and rapid, but also provides quantitative data that may aid screening for optimal decontaminants. PMID:18407393

  11. Periostin in Skin Tissue Skin-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Yamaguchi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, periostin—a matricellular protein—has been highlighted for its pivotal functions in the skin. Analysis of periostin null mice has revealed that periostin contributes to collagen fibrillogenesis, collagen cross-linking, and the formation of ECM meshwork via interactions with other ECM components. Periostin expression is enhanced by mechanical stress or skin injury; this is indicative of the physiologically protective functions of periostin, which promotes wound repair by acting on keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Along with its physiological functions, periostin plays pathogenic roles in skin fibrosis and chronic allergic inflammation. In systemic sclerosis (SSc patients, periostin levels reflect the severity of skin fibrosis. Periostin null mice have shown reduced skin fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced SSc mouse model, indicating a key role of periostin in fibrosis. Moreover, in atopic dermatitis (AD, attenuated AD phenotype has been observed in periostin null mice in a house dust mite extract-induced AD mouse model. Th2 cytokine-induced periostin acts on keratinocytes to produce inflammatory cytokines that further enhance the Th2 response, thereby sustaining and amplifying chronic allergic inflammation. Thus, periostin is deeply involved in the pathogenesis of AD and other inflammation-related disorders affecting the skin. Understanding the dynamic actions of periostin would be key to dissecting pathogenesis of skin-related diseases and to developing novel therapeutic strategies.

  12. Dosimetry for Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy in Skin Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Sung Sil; Loh, John J. K.; Kim, Gwi Eon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-06-15

    Increasing frequency of skin cancer, mycosis fungoides, Kaposi sarcoma etc, it need to treatment dose planning for total skin electron beam (TSEB) therapy. Appropriate treatment planning for TSEB therapy is needed to give homogeneous dose distribution throughout the entire skin surface. The energy of 6 MeV electron from the 18 MeV medical linear accelerator was adapted for superficial total skin electron beam therapy. The energy of the electron beam was reduced to 4.2 MeV by a 0.5cmx90cmx180cm acryl screen placed in a feet front of the patient. Six dual field beam was adapted for total skin irradiation to encompass the entire body surface from head to toe simultaneously. The patients were treated behind the acryl screen plate acted as a beam scatterer and contained a parallel-plate shallow ion chamber for dosimetry and beam monitoring. During treatment, the patient was placed in six different positions due to be homogeneous dose distribution for whole skin around the body. One treatment session delivered 400 cGy to the entire skin surface and patients were treated twice a week for eight consecutive weeks, which is equivalent to TDF value 57. Instrumentation and techniques developed in determining the depth dose, dose distribution and bremsstrahlung dose are discussed.

  13. RNAi-Mediated Simultaneous Downregulation of uPAR and Cathepsin B Induces Caspase 8-Mediated Apoptosis in SNB19 Human Glioma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher S Gondi; Kandhukuri, Neelima; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Gujrati, Meena; Olivero, William C.; Dinh, Dzung H.; Rao, Jasti S.

    2006-01-01

    The invasive character of gliomas depends on proteolytic cleavage of the surrounding extracellular matrix. Cathepsin B and uPAR together are known to be overexpressed in gliomas, and as such, are attractive targets for gene therapy. In the present study, we used plasmid constructs to induce the RNAi-mediated downregulation of uPAR and Cathepsin B in SNB19 human glioma cells. We observed that the simultaneous downregulation of uPAR and Cathepsin B induces the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic gen...

  14. Unimpeded skin carcinogenesis in K14-HPV16 transgenic mice deficient for plasminogen activator inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Masset, Anne; Maillard, Catherine; Sounni, Nor Eddine; Jacobs, Nathalie; Bruyére, Françoise; Delvenne, Philippe; Tacke, Marlene; Reinheckel, Thomas; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Coussens, Lisa M.; Noël, Agnès

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling and cell migration are associated with cancer progression and involve at least, the plasminogen activating system and its main physiological inhibitor, the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Considering the recognized importance of PAI-1 in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis and invasion in murine models of skin tumor transplantation, we explored the functional significance of PAI-1 during early stages of neoplastic progression in the tr...

  15. Ionizing radiation in tumor promotion and progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic exposure to beta radiation has been tested as a tumor promoting or progressing agent. The dorsal skins of groups of 25 female SENCAR mice were chemically initiated with a single exposure to DMBA, and chronic exposure to strontium-90/yttrium-90 beta radiation was tested as a stage 1, stage 2 or complete skin tumor promoter. Exposure of initiated mice to 0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks produced no papillomas, indicating no action as a complete promoter. Another similar group of animals was chemically promoted through stage 1 (with TPA) followed by 0.5 gray of beta radiation twice a week for 13 weeks. Again no papillomas developed indicating no action of chronic radiation as a stage 2 tumor promoter. The same radiation exposure protocol in another DMBA initiated group receiving both stage 1 and 2 chemical promotion resulted in a decrease in papilloma frequency, compared to the control group receiving no beta irradiation, indicating a tumor preventing effect of radiation at stage 2 promotion, probably by killing initiated cells. Chronic beta radiation was tested three different ways as a stage 1 tumor promoter. When compared to the appropriate control, beta radiation given after initiation as a stage 1 promoter (0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks), after initiation and along with a known stage 1 chemical promoter (1.0 gray twice a week for 2 weeks), or prior to initiation as a stage 1 promoter (0.5 gray twice a week for 4 weeks), each time showed a weak (∼ 15% stimulation) but statistically significant (p<0.01) ability to act as a stage 1 promoter. When tested as a tumor progressing agent delivered to pre-existing papillomas, beta radiation (0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks) increased carcinoma frequency from 0.52 to 0.68 carcinoma/animal, but this increase was not statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. We conclude that in the addition to the known initiating, progressing and complete carcinogenic action of acute exposures to ionizing

  16. Usefulness of rat skin as a substitute for human skin in the in vitro skin permeation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Mano, Yoko; Terasaka, Shuichi; Sakurai, Takanobu; Furuya, Atsushi; Urano, Hidetoshi; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats are broadly used in preclinical studies for drug development, so a lot of information for the rats can be obtained especially from pharmacokinetic, pharmacological and toxicological studies. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether SD rat skin can be used to predict human skin permeability. In vitro permeation studies of the three model drugs, nicorandil, isosorbide dinitrate, and flurbiprofen, through human skin and SD rat skin were performed using Franz-type diffusion cells. The permeation rates of the three model drugs through human skin and SD rat skin were determined, and their variations were evaluated. The inter-individual variations in SD rat skin permeability of the three model drugs were much lower than that in human skin permeability, although the permeation rates of the three model drugs through the SD rat skin were about twice those through human skin. In addition, no difference in the skin permeability coefficients of the three model drugs was obtained between fresh SD rat skin and frozen SD rat skin. The markedly smaller variation in the permeability through SD rat skin compared with that through human skin indicated that in vitro permeation studies using SD rat skin would be especially useful for evaluating differences in the skin permeability of the three model drugs as well as for predicting human skin permeability.

  17. Sun’s effect on skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The skin uses sunlight to help manufacture vitamin D, which is important for normal bone formation. But sometimes its ultraviolet light can be ... the pigment melanin. Melanin protects skin from the sun's ultraviolet rays, which can burn the skin, and ...

  18. Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living with Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living With Psoriasis The thick, red, scaly skin of psoriasis can ... Diet Itchy, Scaly Skin? Wise Choices Links Treating Psoriasis Doctors often use a trial-and-error approach ...

  19. Color Constancy For Improving Skin Detection

    OpenAIRE

    A. Nadian-Ghomsheh

    2014-01-01

    Skin detection is a preliminary step in many human related recognition systems. Most skin detection systems suffer from high false detection rate, resulting from low variance between the skin and non-skin color distributions. This paper proposes the use of simple color correction algorithms with low computation complexity to obtain a corrected version of the skin color distribution, which could lead to more accurate skin detection. White patch retinex, Grey world assumption and several improv...

  20. Ultraviolet Light and Skin Cancer in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Shannon C.; Bergfeld, Wilma F.

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide. Ultraviolet light exposure is the most important risk factor for cutaneous melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Constitutive skin color and genetic factors, as well as immunological factors, play a role in the development of skin cancer. Ultraviolet light also causes sunburn and photoaging damage to the skin.

  1. Chemopreventive potential of an Indian medicinal plant (Tinospora cordifolia) on skin carcinogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ranu; Jahan, Swafiya; Goyal, P K

    2008-01-01

    Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi), an Indian medicinal plant, was used to explore antitumor promoting activity in a two-stage skin carcinogenesis model. For this purpose, mice were treated by single application of DMBA (100 microg/100 microl of acetone) and two weeks later promoted by croton oil (1% in acetone three times a week) until the end of the experiment (i.e., 16 weeks). Oral administration of the above extract at the preinitiational stage (i.e., seven days before and seven days after DMBA application; group IV), promotional stage (i.e., from the time of croton oil application; group V), and both pre- and postintiational stage (i.e., from the time of DMBA application and continued until the end of the experiment; group VI; on the shaven backs of the mice at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight/day for 16 weeks) recorded significant reduction in tumor weight, tumor incidence in comparison to control (i.e., mice treated with DMBA and croton oil; group III). Furthermore, cumulative number of papillomas, tumor yield, tumor burden, and tumor weight showed significant reduction along with significant elevation of phase II detoxifying enzymes, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in liver and skin in the animals administered with such plant extract concomitant to carcinogen exposure. Thus, the present data strongly suggests that the Tinospora cordifolia extract has anti-tumor potential in a two-stage skin carcinogenesis mouse model. PMID:18652570

  2. Reconstruction of full thickness abdominal wall defect following tumor resection: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reconstruction of a full thickness abdominal wall defect is a demanding procedure for general and also for plastic surgeons, requiring vigorous planning and reconstruction of three layers. Case Outline. We present a case of a 70-year-old patient with a huge abdominal wall tumor with 40 years evolution. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia. Full thickness abdominal defect appeared after the tumor resection. Reconstruction followed in the same act. The defect was reconstructed using a combination of techniques, including omental flap, fascia lata graft, local skin flaps and skin grafts. After surgery no major complications were noted, only a partial skin flap loss, which was repaired using partial thickness skin grafts. The final result was described by the patient as very good, without hernia formation. Conclusion. Omenthoplasty, abdominal wall reconstruction in combination with free fascia lata graft and skin grafts can be one of good options for the reconstruction of full thickness abdominal wall defects.

  3. Age-related skin changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božanić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related skin changes can be induced by chronological ageing, manifested in subcutaneous fat reduction, and photo-ageing eliciting increased elastotic substance in the upper dermis, destruction of its fibrilar structure, augmented intercellular substance and moderate inflammatory infiltrate. Forty-five biopsy skin samples of the sun-exposed and sun-protected skin were analyzed. The patients were both males and females, aged from 17 to 81 years. The thickness of the epidermal layers and the number of cellular living layers is greater in younger skin. The amount of keratohyaline granules is enlarged in older skin. Dermoepidermal junction is flattened and the presence of elastotic material in the dermis is pronounced with age. The amount of inflammatory infiltrate is increased, the fibrous trabeculae are thickened in older skin and the atrophy of the hypodermis is observed. Chronological ageing alters the fibroblasts metabolism by reducing their life span, capacity to divide and produce collagen. During ageing, the enlargement of collagen fibrils diminishes the skin elasticity.

  4. Biothermomechanical behavior of skin tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Xu; T.J.Lu; K.A.Seffen

    2008-01-01

    Advances in laser,microwave and similar tech nologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments involving skin tissue.The effectiveness of these treatments is governed by the coupled thermal,mechanical,biological and neural responses of the affected tissue:a favorable interaction results in a procedure with relatively little pain and no lasting side effects.Currently,even though each behavioral facet is to a certain extent established and understood,none exists to date in the interdisciplinarv area.A highly interdisciplinary approach is required for studying the biothermomechanical behavior of skin,involving bioheat transfer.biomechanics and physiology.A comprehensive literature review penrtinent to the subject is presented in this paper,covering four subject areas:(a)skin structure,(b)skin bioheat transfer and thermal damage,(c)skin biomechanics,and(d)skin biothermomechanics.The major problems,issues,and topics for further studies are also outlined.This review finds that significant advances in each of these aspects have been achieved in recent years.Although focus is placed upon the biothermomechanical behavior of skin tissue,the fundamental concepts and methodologies reviewed in this paper may also be applicable for studying other soft tissues.

  5. Lyme borreliosis and skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Biju; Chatterjee, Manas

    2013-05-01

    Lyme disease is a multisystem illness which is caused by the strains of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by the tick, Ixodes. Though very commonly reported from the temperate regions of the world, the incidence has increased worldwide due to increasing travel and changing habitats of the vector. Few cases have been reported from the Indian subcontinent too. Skin manifestations are the earliest to occur, and diagnosing these lesions followed by appropriate treatment, can prevent complications of the disease, which are mainly neurological. The three main dermatological manifestations are erythema chronicum migrans, borrelial lymphocytoma and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Many other dermatological conditions including morphea, lichen sclerosus and lately B cell lymphoma, have been attributed to the disease. Immunofluorescence and polymerase reaction tests have been developed to overcome the problems for diagnosis. Culture methods are also used for diagnosis. Treatment with Doxycycline is the mainstay of management, though prevention is of utmost importance. Vaccines against the condition are still not very successful. Hence, the importance of recognising the cutaneous manifestations early, to prevent systemic complications which can occur if left untreated, can be understood. This review highlights the cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis and its management. PMID:23723463

  6. Lyme borreliosis and skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Vasudevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is a multisystem illness which is caused by the strains of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by the tick, Ixodes. Though very commonly reported from the temperate regions of the world, the incidence has increased worldwide due to increasing travel and changing habitats of the vector. Few cases have been reported from the Indian subcontinent too. Skin manifestations are the earliest to occur, and diagnosing these lesions followed by appropriate treatment, can prevent complications of the disease, which are mainly neurological. The three main dermatological manifestations are erythema chronicum migrans, borrelial lymphocytoma and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Many other dermatological conditions including morphea, lichen sclerosus and lately B cell lymphoma, have been attributed to the disease. Immunofluorescence and polymerase reaction tests have been developed to overcome the problems for diagnosis. Culture methods are also used for diagnosis. Treatment with Doxycycline is the mainstay of management, though prevention is of utmost importance. Vaccines against the condition are still not very successful. Hence, the importance of recognising the cutaneous manifestations early, to prevent systemic complications which can occur if left untreated, can be understood. This review highlights the cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis and its management.

  7. Glomus tumor of the gastric body:helical CT findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiao-yun; HU Chun-hong; FANG Xiang-ming; ZHANG Tong-hua

    2007-01-01

    @@ Glomus tumors, also known as glomangiomas, are rare and originate in the neuromyoarterial glomus, a normal arteriovenous shunt which is abundantly supplied with nerve fibers and fulfills a temperature-regulating function. The classic location of glomus tumor is the subungual region, but the tumor can occur elsewhere in the skin, soft tissues, nerves, stomach, nasal cavity, and trachea.1 In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract the tumor occurs more often in the stomach than other parts, and typically occurs as a solitary submucosal nodule in the antrum.2 We reported a case of glomus tumor originating from the greater curvature of stomach which was studied with contrast-enhanced helical computed tomography (CT) and described the characteristic helical CT findings of the rare lesion.

  8. Skin-inspired electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Chortos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic devices that mimic the properties of skin have potential important applications in advanced robotics, prosthetics, and health monitoring technologies. Methods for measuring tactile and temperature signals have progressed rapidly due to innovations in materials and processing methods. Imparting skin-like stretchability to electronic devices can be accomplished by patterning traditional electronic materials or developing new materials that are intrinsically stretchable. The incorporation of sensing methods with transistors facilitates large-area sensor arrays. While sensor arrays have surpassed the properties of human skin in terms of sensitivity, time response, and device density, many opportunities remain for future development.

  9. UV-B Induced Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species Promotes Formation of BFA-Induced Compartments in Cells of Arabidopsis Root Apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokawa, Ken; Kagenishi, Tomoko; Baluška, František

    2015-01-01

    UV-B radiation is an important part of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted by the sun. For much of the period of biological evolution organisms have been exposed to UV radiation, and have developed diverse mechanisms to cope with this potential stress factor. Roots are usually shielded from exposure to UV by the surrounding soil, but may nevertheless be exposed to high energy radiation on the soil surface. Due to their high sensitivity to UV-B radiation, plant roots need to respond rapidly in order to minimize exposure on the surface. In addition to root gravitropism, effective light perception by roots has recently been discovered to be essential for triggering negative root phototropism in Arabidopsis. However, it is not fully understood how UV-B affects root growth and phototropism. Here, we report that UV-B induces rapid generation of reactive oxygen species which in turn promotes the formation of BFA-induced compartments in the Arabidopsis root apex. During unilateral UV-B irradiation of roots changes in auxin concentration on the illuminated side have been recorded. In conclusion, UV-B-induced and ROS-mediated stimulation of vesicle recycling promotes root growth and induces negative phototropism.

  10. UV-B induced generation of reactive oxygen species promotes formation of BFA-induced compartments in cells of Arabidopsis root apices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eYokawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-B radiation is an important part of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted by the sun. For much of the period of biological evolution organisms have been exposed to UV radiation, and have developed diverse mechanisms to cope with this potential stress factor. Roots are usually shielded from exposure to UV by the surrounding soil, but may nevertheless be exposed to high energy radiationon the soil surface. Due to their high sensitivity to UV-B radiation, plant roots need to respond rapidly in order to minimize exposure on the surface. In addition to root gravitropism, effective light perception by roots has recently been discovered to be essential for triggering negative root phototropism in Arabidopsis. However, it is not fully understood how UV-B affects root growth and phototropism. Here, we report that UV-B induces rapid generation of reactive oxygen species which in turn promotes the formation of BFA-induced compartments in the Arabidopsis root apex. During unilateral UV-B irradiation of roots changes in auxin concentration on the illuminated side have been recorded. In conclusion, UV-B-induced and ROS-mediated stimulation of vesicle recycling promotes root growth and induces negative phototropism.

  11. Cooperation of endothelin-1 signaling with melanosomes plays a role in developing and/or maintaining human skin hyperpigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Murase

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Skin hyperpigmentation is characterized by increased melanin synthesis and deposition that can cause significant psychosocial and psychological distress. Although several cytokine-receptor signaling cascades contribute to the formation of ultraviolet B-induced cutaneous hyperpigmentation, their possible involvement in other types of skin hyperpigmentation has never been clearly addressed. Since our continuous studies using skin specimens from more than 30 subjects with ethnic skin diversity emphasized a consistent augmentation in the expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1 and its receptor (Endothelin B receptor, ET-B in hyperpigmented lesions, including senile lentigos (SLs, the precise function of ET-1 signaling was investigated in the present study. In line with previous studies, ET-1 significantly induced melanogenesis followed by increases in melanosome transport in melanocytes and in its transfer to keratinocytes while inhibition of ET-B function substantially depressed melanogenic ability in tissue-cultured SLs. Additionally, in agreement with a previous report that the formation of autophagosomes rather than melanosomes is stimulated according to starvation or defective melanosome production, ET-1 was found to remarkably augment the expression of components necessary for early melanosome formation, indicating its counteraction against autophagy-targeting melanosome degradation in melanocytes. Despite the lack of substantial impact of ET-1 on keratinocyte melanogenic functions, the expression of ET-1 was enhanced following melanosome uptake by keratinocytes. Taken together, our data suggest that ET-1 plays a substantial role in the development and/or maintenance of skin hyperpigmentation in reciprocal cooperation with increased melanosome incorporation.

  12. Skin microbiome and skin disease: the example of rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardo, Mauro; Ottaviani, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The imbalance and/or the perturbation of the microbial populations that colonize the skin and that contribute to its defense may represent one of the causes of the development of noninfectious skin diseases. Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, and rosacea can be listed among these kinds of pathologies. In particular, considering that microbes have been long addressed as having a role in rosacea, this common dermatosis can be an interesting model to evaluate the correlation between microbiome alterations and the occurrence of clinical manifestations. Different microorganisms have been suggested to have a role in rosacea, but no direct correlation with the incidence of the pathology has been clearly defined. Skin microbiome composition is crucial for the correct skin immune functions and recent findings indicate an abnormal activation of innate immune system associated with the rosacea. The enhanced expression of toll-like receptor 2 in the epidermis of rosacea patients can represent a possible explanation for the amplified inflammatory response to external stimuli observed during the disease. In addition, significantly higher small intestinal bacterial overgrowth prevalence in rosacea subjects has been found and its eradication has been associated with a regression of the skin lesions. In conclusion, both skin and gut microbiome seem to have a role, even if synergistic with other factors, in the pathogenesis of rosacea. A deeper knowledge of human microbiome composition and microbe-host interactions will contribute to clarify the mechanism of development of rosacea and possibly will provide innovative therapeutic approaches.

  13. Skin temperature during sunbathing--relevance for skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2014-08-01

    It has been found that exposure to heat and infrared radiation (IR) can be carcinogenic, and that a combination of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and IR possibly amplifies carcinogenesis. To investigate how the skin temperature is affected by sunbathing, we measured the skin temperature on 20 healthy volunteers over 6 days' sun holiday in Egypt. Temperatures were measured with an infrared thermometer gun at 8 skin sites on the volunteers while they were indoors in the morning and when sunbathing during the day. Skin temperatures were higher during sunbathing (33.5 °C ± 2.1 °C) (mean ± SD) than when indoors in the morning (32.6 °C ± 1.4 °C) (mean ± SD) (P < 0.0001). The average skin temperature for men was higher than for women by 0.40 °C in the morning (P = 0.02) and by 0.44 °C during sunbathing (P < 0.0001). Our results show that sunbathing has an impact on skin temperature, which possibly by activation of the heat shock response, is likely to contribute to the immediate and delayed effects of UV in a way that has to be found out in future studies.

  14. Photodynamic therapy of advanced malignant tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lian-xing; Dai, Lu-pin; Lu, Wen-qin

    1993-03-01

    Forty patients with advanced tumors were treated by photodynamic therapy (PDT) from May 1991 to August 1991 in our hospital with age ranges from 30 to 81 years old. The pathological diagnosis shows that 13 had tumors in the colon, 3 in the stomach, 2 in the oesophageal, 2 in the palatum, 1 in the cervix, and 19 others with malignant cancers of the skin. The histology was as follows: squamous cell in 20, adenocarcinoma in 19, melanocarcinoma in 1. By TNM classification there were no cases of T1, 5 cases of T2, and 35 cases of T2 - T3. All patients were stage IV. The overall effective rate was 85%, our experience is that the PDT is suitable for the patients with advanced tumor, especially those whose tumor recurrences are hard to treat after conventional treatment (surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy). The PDT appears to be a new and promising possibility to treat advanced tumors and to improve the patients' survival rates.

  15. Cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with porokeratosis are hypersensitive to the lethal effects of X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porokeratosis is an autosomal dominant inherited skin disorder. The lesions are characterized by localized abnormal keratinization and may develop into malignant tumors. To determine the cellular basis of the cancer susceptibility associated with this skin condition, we examined the colony-forming ability of X-ray or ultraviolet (UV) light irradiated, cultured fibroblasts derived from porokeratosis patients' normal-appearing skin. Four fibroblast strains derived from four porokeratosis patients' skin were significantly hypersensitive to the lethal effects of X-radiation. However, they all showed a similar sensitivity to strains from normal donors to 254 nm UV light. The hypersensitivity to X-ray radiation in cultured skin fibroblasts from porokeratosis patients suggests an inherent instability of cellular DNA and may prbably be associated with the cancer-prone nature of this skin condition. (author)

  16. Distribution, ultrastructural localization, and ontogeny of the core protein of a heparan sulfate proteoglycan in human skin and other basement membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Couchman, J R; Ljubimov, A V;

    1989-01-01

    from murine EHS tumor. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed linear distribution of HSPG within all skin BM, and within BM of all other human organs investigated. In a study of the ontogeny of HSPG in human skin BM, HSPG was detectable as early as 54 gestational days, comparable with other ubiquitous BM...

  17. Skin Rashes and Other Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... painful red bumps? Yes This could be a BOIL. A cluster of boils is called a CARBUNCLE. These occur due to infection under the skin. Gently compress the boil with a warm cloth. Use antibiotic ointments if ...

  18. Pygmy Resonances and Neutron Skins

    CERN Document Server

    Piekarewicz, J

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment, the distribution of electric dipole strength in the neutron-rich 68Ni isotope was computed using a relativistic random phase approximation with a set of effective interactions that - although well calibrated - predict significantly different values for the neutron-skin thickness in 208Pb. The emergence of low-energy "Pygmy" strength that exhausts about 5-8% of the energy weighted sum rule (EWSR) is clearly identified. In addition to the EWSR, special emphasis is placed on the dipole polarizability. In particular, our results suggest a strong correlation between the dipole polarizability of 68Ni and the neutron-skin thickness of 208Pb. Yet we find a correlation just as strong and an even larger sensitivity between the neutron-skin thickness of 208Pb and the fraction of the dipole polarizability exhausted by the Pygmy resonance. These findings suggest that the dipole polarizability may be used as a proxy for the neutron skin.

  19. Discovery – Preventing Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  20. The skin-blanching assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, P; Neumann, H A M; Thio, H B

    2012-10-01

    The skin-blanching assay is used for the determination and bioequivalence of dermatologic glucocorticoids (GCs). The exact mechanism of the production of blanching is not fully understood, but it is considered that local vasoconstriction of the skin microvasculature and the consequent blood-flow reduction cause this phenomenon. Several factors influence skin blanching, including drug concentration, duration of application, nature of vehicle, occlusion, posture and location. The intensity of vasoconstriction can be measured in several ways: visual or quantitative methods, such as reflectance spectroscopy, thermography, laser Doppler velocimetry and chromametry. In literature, contradicting results in the correlation of the skin-blanching assay with different tests to determine GC sensitivity have been reported, limiting its clinical usefulness.