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Sample records for b-band o-antigen chain

  1. Molecular, genetic, and topological characterization of O-antigen chain length regulation in Shigella flexneri.

    OpenAIRE

    Morona, R; L. Van Den Bosch; Manning, P A

    1995-01-01

    The rfb region of Shigella flexneri encodes the proteins required to synthesize the O-antigen component of its cell surface lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We have previously reported that a region adjacent to rfb was involved in regulating the length distribution of the O-antigen polysaccharide chains (D. F. Macpherson et al., Mol. Microbiol. 5:1491-1499, 1991). The gene responsible has been identified in Escherichia coli O75 (called rol [R. A. Batchelor et al., J. Bacteriol. 173:5699-5704, 1991]...

  2. Influence of different rol gene products on the chain length of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 lipopolysaccharide O antigen expressed by Shigella flexneri carrier strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Klee, S R; Tzschaschel, B D; Timmis, K N; Guzman, C A

    1997-01-01

    Introduction of the rol genes of Shigella dysenteriae 1 and Escherichia coli K-12 into Shigella flexneri carrier strains expressing the heterologous S. dysenteriae type 1 lipopolysaccharide resulted in the formation of longer chains of S. dysenteriae 1 O antigen. In bacteria producing both homologous and heterologous O antigen, this resulted in a reduction of the masking of heterologous O antigen by homologous lipopolysaccharide and an increased immune response induced by intraperitoneal immu...

  3. Effect of wzx (rfbX) Mutations on A-Band and B-Band Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa O5

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, Lori L.; Lam, Joseph S.

    1999-01-01

    The wbp cluster of Pseudomonas aeruginosa O5 encodes a number of proteins involved in biosynthesis of the heteropolymeric and Wzy-dependent B-band O antigen, including Wzy, the O-antigen polymerase, and Wzz, the regulator of O-antigen chain length. A gene (formerly wbpF), contiguous with wzy in the wbp cluster, is predicted to encode a highly hydrophobic protein with multiple membrane-spanning domains. This secondary structure is consistent with that of Wzx (RfbX), the putative O-antigen unit...

  4. Identification of an O-antigen chain length regulator, WzzP, in Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Mikio; Yukitake, Hideharu; Sato, Keiko; Shibata, Yasuko; Naito, Mariko; Aduse-Opoku, Joseph; Abiko, Yoshimitsu; Curtis, Michael A; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has two different lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) designated O-LPS and A-LPS, which are a conventional O-antigen polysaccharide and an anionic polysaccharide that are both linked to lipid A-cores, respectively. However, the precise mechanisms of LPS biosynthesis remain to be determined. In this study, we isolated a pigment-less mutant by transposon mutagenesis and identified that the transposon was inserted into the coding sequence PGN_2005, which encodes a hypothetical protein of P. gingivalis ATCC 33277. We found that (i) LPSs purified from the PGN_2005 mutant were shorter than those of the wild type; (ii) the PGN_2005 protein was located in the inner membrane fraction; and (iii) the PGN_2005 gene conferred Wzz activity upon an Escherichia coli wzz mutant. These results indicate that the PGN_2005 protein, which was designated WzzP, is a functional homolog of the Wzz protein in P. gingivalis. Comparison of amino acid sequences among WzzP and conventional Wzz proteins indicated that WzzP had an additional fragment at the C-terminal region. In addition, we determined that the PGN_1896 and PGN_1233 proteins and the PGN_1033 protein appear to be WbaP homolog proteins and a Wzx homolog protein involved in LPS biosynthesis, respectively. PMID:23509024

  5. Structural and Biochemical Analysis of a Single Amino-Acid Mutant of WzzBSF That Alters Lipopolysaccharide O-Antigen Chain Length in Shigella flexneri.

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    Chiung-Wen Chang

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a surface polymer of Gram-negative bacteria, helps bacteria survive in different environments and acts as a virulence determinant of host infection. The O-antigen (Oag component of LPS exhibits a modal chain-length distribution that is controlled by polysaccharide co-polymerases (PCPs. The molecular basis of the regulation of Oag chain-lengths remains unclear, despite extensive mutagenesis and structural studies of PCPs from Escherichia coli and Shigella. Here, we identified a single mutation (A107P of the Shigella flexneri WzzBSF, by a random mutagenesis approach, that causes a shortened Oag chain-length distribution in bacteria. We determined the crystal structures of the periplasmic domains of wild-type WzzBSF and the A107P mutant. Both structures form a highly similar open trimeric assembly in the crystals, and show a similar tendency to self-associate in solution. Binding studies by bio-layer interferometry reveal cooperative binding of very short (VS-core-plus-O-antigen polysaccharide (COPS to the periplasmic domains of both proteins, but with decreased affinity for the A107P mutant. Our studies reveal that subtle and localized structural differences in PCPs can have dramatic effects on LPS chain-length distribution in bacteria, for example by altering the affinity for the substrate, which supports the role of the structure of the growing Oag polymer in this process.

  6. Conserved-residue mutations in Wzy affect O-antigen polymerization and Wzz-mediated chain-length regulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

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    Islam, Salim T.; Huszczynski, Steven M.; Nugent, Timothy; Gold, Alexander C.; Lam, Joseph S.

    2013-12-01

    O antigen (O-Ag) in many bacteria is synthesized via the Wzx/Wzy-dependent pathway in which Wzy polymerizes lipid-linked O-Ag subunits to modal lengths regulated by Wzz. Characterization of 83 site-directed mutants of Wzy from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (WzyPa) in topologically-mapped periplasmic (PL) and cytoplasmic loops (CL) verified the functional importance of PL3 and PL5, with the former shown to require overall cationic properties. Essential Arg residues in the RX10G motifs of PL3 and PL5 were found to be conserved in putative homologues of WzyPa, as was the overall sequence homology between these two periplasmic loops in each protein. Amino acid substitutions in CL6 were found to alter Wzz-mediated O-antigen modality, with evidence suggesting that these changes may perturb the C-terminal WzyPa tertiary structure. Together, these data suggest that the catch-and-release mechanism of O-Ag polymerization is widespread among bacteria and that regulation of polymer length is affected by interaction of Wzz with Wzy.

  7. Detection of O antigens in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipopolysaccharide on the surface of Escherichia coli constitute the O antigens, which are important virulence factors that are targets of both the innate and adaptive immune system and play a major role in host-pathogen interactions. O antigens that are responsible for antigenic specificity of the ...

  8. Variations in O-antigen biosynthesis and O-acetylation associated with altered phage sensitivity in Escherichia coli 4s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knirel, Yuriy A; Prokhorov, Nikolai S; Shashkov, Alexander S; Ovchinnikova, Olga G; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Liu, Bin; Kostryukova, Elena S; Larin, Andrey K; Golomidova, Alla K; Letarov, Andrey V

    2015-03-01

    The O polysaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide (O antigen) of Gram-negative bacteria often serves as a receptor for bacteriophages that can make the phage dependent on a given O-antigen type, thus supporting the concept of the adaptive significance of the O-antigen variability in bacteria. The O-antigen layer also modulates interactions of many bacteriophages with their hosts, limiting the access of the viruses to other cell surface receptors. Here we report variations of O-antigen synthesis and structure in an environmental Escherichia coli isolate, 4s, obtained from horse feces, and its mutants selected for resistance to bacteriophage G7C, isolated from the same fecal sample. The 4s O antigen was found to be serologically, structurally, and genetically related to the O antigen of E. coli O22, differing only in side-chain α-D-glucosylation in the former, mediated by a gtr locus on the chromosome. Spontaneous mutations of E. coli 4s occurring with an unusually high frequency affected either O-antigen synthesis or O-acetylation due to the inactivation of the gene encoding the putative glycosyltransferase WclH or the putative acetyltransferase WclK, respectively, by the insertion of IS1-like elements. These mutations induced resistance to bacteriophage G7C and also modified interactions of E. coli 4s with several other bacteriophages conferring either resistance or sensitivity to the host. These findings suggest that O-antigen synthesis and O-acetylation can both ensure the specific recognition of the O-antigen receptor following infection by some phages and provide protection of the host cells against attack by other phages. PMID:25512310

  9. An O antigen capsule modulates bacterial pathogenesis in Shigella sonnei.

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    Mariaelena Caboni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shigella is the leading cause for dysentery worldwide. Together with several virulence factors employed for invasion, the presence and length of the O antigen (OAg of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS plays a key role in pathogenesis. S. flexneri 2a has a bimodal OAg chain length distribution regulated in a growth-dependent manner, whereas S. sonnei LPS comprises a monomodal OAg. Here we reveal that S. sonnei, but not S. flexneri 2a, possesses a high molecular weight, immunogenic group 4 capsule, characterized by structural similarity to LPS OAg. We found that a galU mutant of S. sonnei, that is unable to produce a complete LPS with OAg attached, can still assemble OAg material on the cell surface, but a galU mutant of S. flexneri 2a cannot. High molecular weight material not linked to the LPS was purified from S. sonnei and confirmed by NMR to contain the specific sugars of the S. sonnei OAg. Deletion of genes homologous to the group 4 capsule synthesis cluster, previously described in Escherichia coli, abolished the generation of the high molecular weight OAg material. This OAg capsule strongly affects the virulence of S. sonnei. Uncapsulated knockout bacteria were highly invasive in vitro and strongly inflammatory in the rabbit intestine. But, the lack of capsule reduced the ability of S. sonnei to resist complement-mediated killing and to spread from the gut to peripheral organs. In contrast, overexpression of the capsule decreased invasiveness in vitro and inflammation in vivo compared to the wild type. In conclusion, the data indicate that in S. sonnei expression of the capsule modulates bacterial pathogenesis resulting in balanced capabilities to invade and persist in the host environment.

  10. On the photodissociation of uranium hexafluoride in the B band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghini, M.; Morales, P.; Dore, P.; Schisano, M. I.

    1986-06-01

    The rate of photodissociation of uranium hexafluoride is measured for the first time as a function of wavelength in the B band. The experimental technique used tests the collision-free behavior and, with the addition of a buffer gas, the collisional effects on molecular relaxation. In both cases, the dissociation yield is strongly nonuniform. A qualitative interpretation of these results is attempted. Their relevance to the subject of laser isotopic separation and more generally of selective photochemistry is outlined.

  11. [Sequence of Escherichia coli O11 O-antigen gene cluster and identification of molecular markers specific to O11].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Peng, Xia; Wang, Quan; Cheng, Jian-Song; Wang, Lei

    2006-06-01

    Escherichia coli O11 belongs to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), which can cause food-borne disease, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) in humans. Because of its character of specificity, the O-antigen gene cluster provides the best material for the selection of molecular markers which can be used for rapid genotyping of bacterial strain. In this study, the E.coli O11 O-antigen gene cluster was amplified by Long-range PCR and was sequenced using Shotgun-sequencing approach. Twelve open reading frames were assigned functions on the basis of homology in the E. coli O11 O-antigen gene cluster, including UDP-N-acetyl glucosamine-4-epimerase gene (gne), genes responsible for the biosynthesis of GDP-L-fucose (gmd, fcl, gmm, manC, manB), glycosyl transferase genes, O-unit flippase gene (wzx) and O-antigen polymerase gene (wzy). By polymerase chain reaction against representative stains for all the 166 E. coli and 43 Shigella O serotypes, two genes and four pairs of primers were identified to be specific to E. coli O11. Further PCR was done to detect E. coli O11 from the environmental specimens, and the sensitivities for detecting E.coli O11 from the pork and dejecta specimens were 0.25 cfu/g and 2.5 x 10(3) cfu/g, respectively. Moreover, eight probes were designed and proved to be unique to E. coli O11, which provides the basis for a sensitive test of the rapid detection of E. coli O11 by DNA microarray method. PMID:16933598

  12. Structural Analysis of WbpE from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1: A Nucleotide Sugar Aminotransferase Involved in O-Antigen Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkin, A.; Olivier, N; Imperiali, B

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has emerged as a major source of hospital-acquired infections. Effective treatment has proven increasingly difficult due to the spread of multidrug resistant strains and thus requires a deeper understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of pathogenicity. The central carbohydrate of the P. aeruginosa PAO1 (O5) B-band O-antigen, ManNAc(3NAc)A, has been shown to be critical for virulence and is produced in a stepwise manner by five enzymes in the Wbp pathway (WbpA, WbpB, WbpE, WbpD, and WbpI). Herein, we present the crystal structure of the aminotransferase WbpE from P. aeruginosa PAO1 in complex with the cofactor pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate (PLP) and product UDP-GlcNAc(3NH{sub 2})A as the external aldimine at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. We also report the structures of WbpE in complex with PMP alone as well as the PLP internal aldimine and show that the dimeric structure of WbpE observed in the crystal structure is confirmed by analytical ultracentrifugation. Analysis of these structures reveals that the active site of the enzyme is composed of residues from both subunits. In particular, we show that a key residue (Arg229), which has previously been implicated in direct interactions with the {alpha}-carboxylate moiety of {alpha}-ketoglutarate, is also uniquely positioned to bestow specificity for the 6{double_prime}-carboxyl group of GlcNAc(3NH2)A through a salt bridge. This finding is intriguing because while an analogous basic residue is present in WbpE homologues that do not process 6{double_prime}-carboxyl-modified saccharides, recent structural studies reveal that this side chain is retracted to accommodate a neutral C6{double_prime} atom. This work represents the first structural analysis of a nucleotide sugar aminotransferase with a bound product modified at the C2{double_prime}, C3{double_prime}, and C6{double_prime} positions and provides insight into a novel target for treatment of P

  13. Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei O-antigen serotypes in near-neighbor species

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    Stone Joshua K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiological agent of melioidosis and a CDC category B select agent with no available effective vaccine. Previous immunizations in mice have utilized the lipopolysaccharide (LPS as a potential vaccine target because it is known as one of the most important antigenic epitopes in B. pseudomallei. Complicating this strategy are the four different B. pseudomallei LPS O-antigen types: A, B, B2, and rough. Sero-crossreactivity is common among O-antigens of Burkholderia species. Here, we identified the presence of multiple B. pseudomallei O-antigen types and sero-crossreactivity in its near-neighbor species. Results PCR screening of O-antigen biosynthesis genes, phenotypic characterization using SDS-PAGE, and immunoblot analysis showed that majority of B. mallei and B. thailandensis strains contained the typical O-antigen type A. In contrast, most of B. ubonensis and B. thailandensis-like strains expressed the atypical O-antigen types B and B2, respectively. Most B. oklahomensis strains expressed a distinct and non-seroreactive O-antigen type, except strain E0147 which expressed O-antigen type A. O-antigen type B2 was also detected in B. thailandensis 82172, B. ubonensis MSMB108, and Burkholderia sp. MSMB175. Interestingly, B. thailandensis-like MSMB43 contained a novel serotype B positive O-antigen. Conclusions This study expands the number of species which express B. pseudomallei O-antigen types. Further work is required to elucidate the full structures and how closely these are to the B. pseudomallei O-antigens, which will ultimately determine the efficacy of the near-neighbor B serotypes for vaccine development.

  14. Serological and structural characterization of the O-antigens of the unclassified Proteus mirabilis strains TG 83, TG 319, and CCUG 10700 (OA)

    OpenAIRE

    Zabłotni, Agnieszka; Zych, Krystyna; Kondakova, Anna N.; Siwińska, Małgorzata; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Sidorczyk, Zygmunt

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin, LPS) is an important potential virulence factor of Proteus rods. The serological specificity of the bacteria is defined by the structure of the O-polysaccharide chain (O-antigen) of the LPS. Until now, 76 O-serogroups have been differentiated among Proteus strains. Materials and Methods: LPSs were isolated from Proteus mirabilis TG 83, TG 319, and CCUG 10700 (OA) strains by phenol/water extraction. Antisera were raised by immunization of rabbits wi...

  15. The symbiotic role of O-antigen of Burkholderia symbiont in association with host Riptortus pedestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Park, Ha Young; Lee, Bok Luel

    2016-07-01

    Riptortus pedestris harboring Burkholderia symbiont is a useful symbiosis model to study the molecular interactions between insects and bacteria. We recently reported that the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen is absent in the Burkholderia symbionts isolated from Riptortus guts. Here, we investigated the symbiotic role of O-antigen comprehensively in the Riptortus-Burkholderia model. Firstly, Burkholderia mutant strains deficient of O-antigen biosynthesis genes were generated and confirmed for their different patterns of the lipopolysaccharide by electrophoretic analysis. The O-antigen-deficient mutant strains initially exhibited a reduction of infectivity, having significantly lower level of symbiont population at the second-instar stage. However, both the wild-type and O-antigen mutant symbionts exhibited a similar level of symbiont population from the third-instar stage, indicating that the O-antigen deficiency did not affect the bacterial persistence in the host midgut. Taken together, we showed that the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen of gut symbiont plays an exclusive role in the initial symbiotic association. PMID:26875632

  16. Immunization with a Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1244 Pilin Provides O-Antigen-Specific Protection▿

    OpenAIRE

    Horzempa, Joseph; Held, Thomas K.; Cross, Alan S.; Furst, Dana; Qutyan, Mohammed; Neely, Alice N.; Castric, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The O antigen is both a major structural outer membrane component and the dominant epitope of most gram-negative bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1244 produces a type IV pilus and covalently links an O-antigen repeating unit to each pilin monomer. Here we show that immunization of mice with pure pilin from strain 1244 by use of either the mouse respiratory model or the thermal injury model resulted in protection from challenge with a pilus-null O-antigen-producing 1244 mutant. These results p...

  17. O antigens of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris strains isolated from patients with bacteremia.

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, P

    1980-01-01

    During the period of 1971 to 1979, 172 Proteus mirabilis and 17 Proteus vulgaris strains were collected from blood cultures. Of these strains, 144 could be grouped into 25 O antigens. The most common antigens were O3, O23, O10, O30, and O24, which represented 46.1% of all strains. The O antigen distribution of strains isolated from blood cultures did not differ significantly from that of fecal and urinary strains. No particular O antigen could thus be defined as a virulence factor in bacteremia.

  18. O-antigen protects gram-negative bacteria from histone killing.

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    Catherine Chaput

    Full Text Available Beyond their traditional role of wrapping DNA, histones display antibacterial activity to Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. To identify bacterial components that allow survival to a histone challenge, we selected resistant bacteria from homologous Escherichia coli libraries that harbor plasmids carrying pieces of the chromosome in different sizes. We identified genes required for exopolysaccharide production and for the synthesis of the polysaccharide domain of the lipopolysaccharide, called O-antigen. Indeed, O-antigen and exopolysaccharide conferred further resistance to histones. Notably, O-antigen also conferred resistance to histones in the pathogens Shigella flexneri and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  19. Structure and gene cluster of the O-antigen of Escherichia coli O133.

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    Shashkov, Alexander S; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Sun, Qiangzheng; Guo, Xi; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Perepelov, Andrei V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-07-22

    The O-specific polysaccharide (O-antigen) of Escherichia coli O133 was obtained by mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide of E. coli O133. The structure of the hexasaccharide repeating unit of the polysaccharide was elucidated by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, including a two-dimensional (1)H-(1)H ROESY experiment: Functions of genes in the O-antigen gene cluster were putatively identified by comparison with sequences in the available databases and, particularly, an encoded predicted multifunctional glycosyltransferase was assigned to three α-l-rhamnosidic linkages. PMID:27203746

  20. Determination of Glycosyltransferase Specificities for the Escherichia coli O111 O Antigen by a Generic Approach▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Gordon; Dieckelmann, Manuela; Reeves, Peter R.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a bacterial strain developed to facilitate the determination of glycosyltransferase (GT) specificities for O antigens of known structure and gene cluster sequence. For proof of principle for the approach, the strain was used to determine the specificity of the Escherichia coli O111 O-antigen GT genes.

  1. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer of two antigenically distinct O antigens in Bordetella bronchiseptica

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    Antigenic variation is one mechanism pathogens use to avoid immune-mediated competition between closely related strains. Here, we show that two Bordetella bronchiseptica strains, RB50 and 1289, express two antigenically distinct O-antigen serotypes (O1 and O2 respectively). When 18 additional B. b...

  2. Identification, characterization and immunogenicity of an O-antigen capsular polysaccharide of Francisella tularensis.

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    Michael A Apicella

    Full Text Available Capsular polysaccharides are important factors in bacterial pathogenesis and have been the target of a number of successful vaccines. Francisella tularensis has been considered to express a capsular antigen but none has been isolated or characterized. We have developed a monoclonal antibody, 11B7, which recognizes the capsular polysaccharide of F. tularensis migrating on Western blot as a diffuse band between 100 kDa and 250 kDa. The capsule stains poorly on SDS-PAGE with silver stain but can be visualized using ProQ Emerald glycoprotein stain. The capsule appears to be highly conserved among strains of F. tularensis as antibody 11B7 bound to the capsule of 14 of 14 F. tularensis type A and B strains on Western blot. The capsular material can be isolated essentially free of LPS, is phenol and proteinase K resistant, ethanol precipitable and does not dissociate in sodium dodecyl sulfate. Immunoelectron microscopy with colloidal gold demonstrates 11B7 circumferentially staining the surface of F. tularensis which is typical of a polysaccharide capsule. Mass spectrometry, compositional analysis and NMR indicate that the capsule is composed of a polymer of the tetrasaccharide repeat, 4-alpha-D-GalNAcAN-(1->4-alpha-D-GalNAcAN-(1->3-beta-D-QuiNAc-(1->2-beta-D-Qui4NFm-(1-, which is identical to the previously described F. tularensis O-antigen subunit. This indicates that the F. tularensis capsule can be classified as an O-antigen capsular polysaccharide. Our studies indicate that F. tularensis O-antigen glycosyltransferase mutants do not make a capsule. An F. tularensis acyltransferase and an O-antigen polymerase mutant had no evidence of an O-antigen but expressed a capsular antigen. Passive immunization of BALB/c mice with 75 microg of 11B7 protected against a 150 fold lethal challenge of F. tularensis LVS. Active immunization of BALB/c mice with 10 microg of capsule showed a similar level of protection. These studies demonstrate that F. tularensis

  3. Timescale Stretch Parameterization of Type Ia Supernova B-band Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Goldhaber, Gerson; Kim, A; Aldering, G; Astier, Pierre; Conley, A; Deustua, S E; Ellis, R; Fabbro, S; Fruchter, A S; Goobar, A; Hook, I; Irwin, M; Kim, M; Knop, R A; Lidman, C E; McMahon, R; Nugent, P; Pain, R; Panagia, N; Pennypacker, C R; Perlmutter, S; Ruiz-Lapuente, P; Schaefer, B; Walton, N A; York, T; Project, The Supernova Cosmology

    2001-01-01

    R-band intensity measurements along the light curve of Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Supernova Cosmology Project (SCP) are fitted in brightness to templates allowing a free parameter the time-axis width factor w = s(1+z). The data points are then individually aligned in the time-axis, normalized and K-corrected back to the rest frame, after which the nearly 1300 normalized intensity measurements are found to lie on a well-determined common rest-frame B-band curve which we call the ``composite curve''. The same procedure is applied to 18 low-redshift Calan/Tololo SNe with z < 0.11; these nearly 300 B-band photometry points are found to lie on the composite curve equally well. The SCP search technique produces several measurements before maximum light for each supernova. We demonstrate that the linear stretch factor, s, which parameterizes the light-curve timescale appears independent of z,and applies equally well to the declining and rising parts of the light curve. In fact, the B-band template that ...

  4. O antigen modulates insect vector acquisition of the bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

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    Rapicavoli, Jeannette N; Kinsinger, Nichola; Perring, Thomas M; Backus, Elaine A; Shugart, Holly J; Walker, Sharon; Roper, M Caroline

    2015-12-01

    Hemipteran insect vectors transmit the majority of plant pathogens. Acquisition of pathogenic bacteria by these piercing/sucking insects requires intimate associations between the bacterial cells and insect surfaces. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the predominant macromolecule displayed on the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria and thus mediates bacterial interactions with the environment and potential hosts. We hypothesized that bacterial cell surface properties mediated by LPS would be important in modulating vector-pathogen interactions required for acquisition of the bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, the causative agent of Pierce's disease of grapevines. Utilizing a mutant that produces truncated O antigen (the terminal portion of the LPS molecule), we present results that link this LPS structural alteration to a significant decrease in the attachment of X. fastidiosa to blue-green sharpshooter foreguts. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that this defect in initial attachment compromised subsequent biofilm formation within vector foreguts, thus impairing pathogen acquisition. We also establish a relationship between O antigen truncation and significant changes in the physiochemical properties of the cell, which in turn affect the dynamics of X. fastidiosa adhesion to the vector foregut. Lastly, we couple measurements of the physiochemical properties of the cell with hydrodynamic fluid shear rates to produce a Comsol model that predicts primary areas of bacterial colonization within blue-green sharpshooter foreguts, and we present experimental data that support the model. These results demonstrate that, in addition to reported protein adhesin-ligand interactions, O antigen is crucial for vector-pathogen interactions, specifically in the acquisition of this destructive agricultural pathogen. PMID:26386068

  5. Lipopolysaccharide O-antigen prevents phagocytosis of Vibrio anguillarum by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss skin epithelial cells.

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    Kristoffer Lindell

    Full Text Available Colonization of host tissues is a first step taken by many pathogens during the initial stages of infection. Despite the impact of bacterial disease on wild and farmed fish, only a few direct studies have characterized bacterial factors required for colonization of fish tissues. In this study, using live-cell and confocal microscopy, rainbow trout skin epithelial cells, the main structural component of the skin epidermis, were demonstrated to phagocytize bacteria. Mutant analyses showed that the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum required the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen to evade phagocytosis and that O-antigen transport required the putative wzm-wzt-wbhA operon, which encodes two ABC polysaccharide transporter proteins and a methyltransferase. Pretreatment of the epithelial cells with mannose prevented phagocytosis of V. anguillarum suggesting that a mannose receptor is involved in the uptake process. In addition, the O-antigen transport mutants could not colonize the skin but they did colonize the intestines of rainbow trout. The O-antigen polysaccharides were also shown to aid resistance to the antimicrobial factors, lysozyme and polymyxin B. In summary, rainbow trout skin epithelial cells play a role in the fish innate immunity by clearing bacteria from the skin epidermis. In defense, V. anguillarum utilizes O-antigen polysaccharides to evade phagocytosis by the epithelial cells allowing it to colonize rapidly fish skin tissues.

  6. Genetic Basis for Rhizobium etli CE3 O-Antigen O-Methylated Residues That Vary According to Growth Conditions▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ojeda, Kristylea J.; Box, Jodie M.; Noel, K. Dale

    2009-01-01

    The Rhizobium etli CE3 O antigen is a fixed-length heteropolymer with O methylation being the predominant type of sugar modification. There are two O-methylated residues that occur, on average, once per complete O antigen: a multiply O-methylated terminal fucose and 2-O methylation of a fucose residue within a repeating unit. The amount of the methylated terminal fucose decreases and the amount of 2-O-methylfucose increases when bacteria are grown in the presence of the host plant, Phaseolus ...

  7. Structure and gene cluster of the O-antigen of Enterobacter cloacae G3421.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepelov, Andrei V; Filatov, Andrei V; Wang, Min; Shashkov, Alexander S; Wang, Lei; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-06-01

    The O-polysaccharide was isolated by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of Enterobacter cloacae G3421 and studied by sugar analysis along with 1D and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. In addition, partial solvolysis with anhydrous trifluoroacetic acid was applied, which cleaved selectively the α-l-rhamnopyranosidic linkages. The following structure of the branched hexasaccharide repeating unit was established. The O-polysaccharide studied shares the β-l-Rhap-(1→4)-α-l-Rhap-(1→2)-α-l-Rhap trisaccharide fragment with the O-polysaccharide of Shigella boydii type 18. The O-antigen gene cluster of E. cloacae G3421 was sequenced. Functions of genes in the cluster, including those for glycosyltransferases, were tentatively assigned by a comparison with sequences in the available databases and found to be consistent with the O-polysaccharide structure. PMID:27131290

  8. Comparison of O-Antigen gene clusters of all O-Serogroups of Escherichia coli and proposal for adopting a new nomenclature for O-Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli strains are classified based on O-antigens that are components of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the cell envelope. O-antigens are important virulence factors, targets of both the innate and adaptive immune system, and play a role in host-pathogen interaction. Because they are hi...

  9. Efficient synthesis of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-antigen of Escherichia coli O174 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Ishani; Ghosh, Tamashree; Misra, Anup Kumar

    2014-11-18

    The tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-antigen of Escherichia coli O174 strain was synthesized applying sequential glycosylations of suitably functionalized monosaccharide intermediates. Activation of glycosyl trichloroacetimidate derivatives using nitrosyl tetrafluoroborate (NOBF4) has been used during the synthesis. The glycosylation steps were high yielding with satisfactory stereo outcome. PMID:25318901

  10. Synthesis of the pentasaccharide repeating unit of the O-antigen of E. coli O117:K98:H4

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, Pintu Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The pentasaccharide repeating unit of the O-antigen of E. coli O117:K98:H4 strain has been synthesized using a combination of sequential glycosylations and [3 + 2] block synthetic strategy from the suitably protected monosaccharide intermediates. Thioglycosides and glycosyl trichloroacetimidate derivatives have been used as glycosyl donors in the glycosylations.

  11. Synthesis of the pentasaccharide repeating unit of the O-antigen of E. coli O117:K98:H4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintu Kumar Mandal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The pentasaccharide repeating unit of the O-antigen of E. coli O117:K98:H4 strain has been synthesized using a combination of sequential glycosylations and [3 + 2] block synthetic strategy from the suitably protected monosaccharide intermediates. Thioglycosides and glycosyl trichloroacetimidate derivatives have been used as glycosyl donors in the glycosylations.

  12. Kinematics of galaxies in Compact Groups. Studying the B-band Tully-Fisher relation

    CERN Document Server

    Torres-Flores, S; Amram, P; Plana, H; Epinat, B; Carignan, C; Balkowski, C

    2010-01-01

    We obtained new Fabry-Perot data cubes and derived velocity fields, monochromatic and velocity dispersion maps for 28 galaxies in the Hickson compact groups 37, 40, 47, 49, 54, 56, 68, 79 and 93. We find that one third of the non-barred compact group galaxies have position angle misalignments between the stellar and gaseous components. This and the asymmetric rotation curves are clear signatures of kinematic perturbations, probably due to interactions among compact group galaxies. A comparison between the B-band Tully-Fisher relation for compact group galaxies and that for the GHASP field-galaxy sample shows that, despite the high fraction of compact group galaxies with asymmetric rotation curves, these lie on the Tully-Fisher relation defined by galaxies in less dense environments, although with more scatter. This is in agreement with previous results, but now confirmed for a larger sample of 41 galaxies. We confirm the tendency for compact group galaxies at the low-mass end of the Tully-Fisher relation (HCG...

  13. Cloud Information Content Analysis for EPIC's Oxygen A- and B-band Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A. B.; Sanghavi, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) instrument on the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) will have two molecular oxygen channels: one for the well-known ``A'' band at~764 nm and one for the weaker ``B'' band at 688~nm. In both cases, a channel-integrated relative measurement of absorption is possible using an ``in-band'' channel and a nearby ``reference'' channel. Together, these four observations enable a rudimentary differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) of O2 in the characteristic retro-reflection geometry of the L1 vantage point. A priori, we thus have at best two new pieces of cloud information to access. EPIC's pixels have 10x10 km2 footprints at nadir (center of the illuminated disk), more as the viewing angle increases away from local zenith. What new information can be learned about clouds from these data on a pixel-by-pixel basis? O2 A-band observations from space have been pioneered with CNES's POLDER, ESA's SCIAMACHY, and JAXA's GOSat. NASA's OCO-2, to be launched in early 2013, will also have A-band capability. POLDER has low spectral and spatial resolutions, but offers multiple viewing directions for every pixel; SCIAMACHY has higher spectral but worse spatial resolution and just one viewing angle. GOSat has very high spectral but rather low spatial resolutions, again with the possibility of dense angular sampling, but no imaging (just one pixel at a time). OCO-2, a narrow swath imager, will have similarly high spectral resolution and reasonably high ( ˜2~km) spatial resolution. Of these four LEO missions, two are focused on CO2 DOAS, with O2 being assayed operationally only to deliver it in ppm's. POLDER and SCIAMACHY however have official cloud products based on A-band measurements. They contain, at the least, an estimate of cloud top height and, at the most, that plus an estimate of cloud pressure thickness. Cloud optical depth and effective particle size are derived from other spectral data, including continuum values

  14. Unraveling the interaction between the LPS O-antigen of Burkholderia anthina and the 5D8 monoclonal antibody by using a multidisciplinary chemical approach, with synthesis, NMR, and molecular modeling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Roberta; Canales, Angeles; Lanzetta, Rosa; Nilsson, Inga; Vogel, Christian; Reed, Dana E; Aucoin, David P; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Molinaro, Antonio; Silipo, Alba

    2013-08-19

    The interaction between the O-chain from the lipopolysaccharide from Burkholderia anthina and a lipopolysaccharide-specific monoclonal antibody (5D8) has been studied at high resolution by NMR spectroscopy. In particular, the 5D8-bound epitope of the saccharide entity has been unraveled by a combination of saturation transfer difference (STD) and transferred NOESY (tr-NOESY) experiments performed on the 5D8/polysaccharide complex. To dissect the fine details of the molecular recognition events, further experiments with simpler carbohydrate ligands were carried out. Thus, experiments were also performed with ad hoc synthesized trisaccharide and hexasaccharide O-antigen repeating units. By using this multidisciplinary approach (chemical synthesis, NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation), determination of the binding epitope and the contribution to the binding of the sugar units composing the O-chain have been determined. PMID:23873779

  15. EVALUATION OF AN O-ANTIGEN ELISA FOR SCREENING CATTLE HERDS FOR SALMONELLA-TYPHIMURIUM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Bitsch, V.

    1995-01-01

    several years, and 12 herds from a salmonella enzootic area which had had clinical outbreaks of S typhimurium were used to define a herd ELISA cut-off value. When herds with at least 5 per cent of the serum samples having an optical density of >0.5 were considered ELISA-positive, all 10 herds from the...... antibody to the 0:9 antigen of the serogroup D salmonellas, indicating the possibility of rapid serogroup-specific screening of herds by means of these two tests. Ten other randomly selected herds with clinical outbreaks of S dublin were all, to a large extent, positive in the 0:1,4,5,12-ELISA, whereas a S......A total of 2585 serum samples from 62 dairy herds located in four different regions of Denmark were tested in an O-antigen (0:1,4,5,12)-based ELISA for the detection of antibodies against Salmonella typhimurium. Ten closed herds from an island with no reported occurrence of salmonellosis for...

  16. Salmonella typhimurium infection in calves: specific immune reactivity against O-antigenic polysaccharide detectable in in vitro assays.

    OpenAIRE

    Robertsson, J A; Fossum, C; Svenson, S B; Lindberg, A A

    1982-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes collected from calves infected experimentally with Salmonella typhimurium (O antigens 4,5,12) or Salmonella sp. serotype dublin (O 9,12) were stimulated with various bacterial cell envelope components, and their [3H]thymidine incorporation was measured. It was found that peripheral blood lymphocytes from infected calves incorporated significantly more [3H]thymidine than peripheral blood lymphocytes from uninfected controls (P values ranged from less than 0.05 to l...

  17. Polarimetric remote sensing in oxygen A and B bands: sensitivity study and information content analysis for vertical profile of aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shouguo; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang

    2016-05-01

    Theoretical analysis is conducted to reveal the information content of aerosol vertical profile in space-borne measurements of the backscattered radiance and degree of linear polarization (DOLP) in oxygen (O2) A and B bands. Assuming a quasi-Gaussian shape for aerosol vertical profile characterized by peak height H and half width γ (at half maximum), the Unified Linearized Vector Radiative Transfer Model (UNL-VRTM) is used to simulate the Stokes four-vector elements of upwelling radiation at the top of atmosphere (TOA) and their Jacobians with respect to H and γ. Calculations for different aerosol types and different combinations of H and γ values show that the wide range of gas absorption optical depth in O2 A and B band enables the sensitivity of backscattered DOLP and radiance at TOA to the aerosol layer at different altitudes. Quantitatively, DOLP in O2 A and B bands is found to be more sensitive to H and γ than radiance, especially over the bright surfaces (with large visible reflectance). In many O2 absorption wavelengths, the degree of freedom of signal (DFS) for retrieving H (or γ) generally increases with H (and γ) and can be close to unity in many cases, assuming that the composite uncertainty from surface and aerosol scattering properties as well as measurements is less than 5 %. Further analysis demonstrates that DFS needed for simultaneous retrieval of H and γ can be obtained from a combined use of DOLP measurements at ˜ 10-100 O2 A and B absorption wavelengths (or channels), depending on the specific values of H. The higher the aerosol layer, the fewer number of channels for DOLP measurements in O2 A and B bands are needed for characterizing H and γ. Future hyperspectral measurements of DOLP in O2 A and B bands are needed to continue studying their potential and their combination with radiance and DOLP in atmospheric window channels for retrieving the vertical profiles of aerosols, especially highly scattering aerosols, over land.

  18. Molecular and chemical characterization of the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen and its role in the virulence of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Radziejewska-Lebrecht, J; Krajewska-Pietrasik, D; Toivanen, P; Skurnik, M

    1997-01-01

    The Y. enterocolitica O:8(YeO8) O-antigen repeat units consist of five sugar residues: N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc), D-galactose (Gal), D-mannose (Man), L-fucose (Fuc), and 6-deoxy-D-gulose (6d-Gul). The nucleotide sequence of the O-antigen gene cluster of the YeO8 strain 8081-c was determined. Altogether, 18 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified and shown to be essential for O-antigen biosynthesis. We previously characterized the 3'-end of the O-antigen gene cluster and identified four genes: two for GDP-Man biosynthesis, one for UDP-Gal biosynthesis, and one for O-antigen polymerase. Based on sequence similarity, Tn5-insertion phenotypes and chemical analysis, the 14 new genes were assigned the following functions: four genes are involved in the biosynthesis of CDP-6d-Gul and two in GDP-Fuc biosynthesis. Five gene products were assigned sugar transferase functions and one gene product was similar to Wzx, the O-antigen flippase. Two genes remained unassigned. By genetic complementation we also showed that YeO8 O-antigen biosynthesis was dependent on N-acetyl-glucosaminyl:undecaprenylphosphate transferase (GlcNAc transferase), the WecA (formerly known as Rfe) protein. Data obtained from chemical-composition analysis suggest that in addition to being GlcNAc transferase, WecA may also function as a GalNAc transferase. Using a restriction-deficient derivative of Y. enterocolitica O:8 strain 8081, a rough mutant, designated 8081-R2, was isolated. 8081-R2 was complemented in trans with a cloned O-antigen gene cluster restoring surface O-antigen expression. The virulence of the wild-type strain and that of the complemented strain were significantly higher (approx. 100-fold) than that of the rough mutant in an orally infected mouse model, showing that YeO8 O-antigen is a virulence factor. PMID:9004221

  19. Structural identification of the O-antigen fraction from the lipopolysaccharide of the Burkholderia ambifaria strain 19182.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Castro, Cristina; Dinischiotu, Natalia; Feys, Bart; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Molinaro, Antonio

    2013-09-20

    The Burkholderia cepacia complex comprises a group of bacterial strains with both beneficial and detrimental effects to plant and animals. Gram negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide is one of the most important molecular factors involved in the dialogue between the microbe and the host and in this context we have isolated and identified the O-antigen fraction of the Burkholderia ambifaria strain 19182. It consists of two different O-polysaccharides built up on 6-deoxy sugars, among which the 6-deoxy-altrose in the d absolute configuration, is present. This monosaccharide is found for the first time and it is a unique feature associated to this strain. PMID:23886988

  20. Structure and gene cluster of the O-antigen of Escherichia coli O156 containing a pyruvic acid acetal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhifeng; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Guo, Xi; Perepelov, Andrei V; Shashkov, Alexander S; Liu, Bin; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-07-22

    The lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli O156 was degraded under mild acidic and alkaline conditions and the resulting polysaccharides were studied by sugar analysis and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The following structure of the pentasaccharide repeating unit of the O-polysaccharide was established: where Rpyr indicates R-configurated pyruvic acid acetal. Minor O-acetyl groups also were present and tentatively localized on the Gal residues. The gene cluster for biosynthesis of the O-antigen of E. coli O156 was analyzed and shown to be consistent with the O-polysaccharide structure. PMID:27177202

  1. Dectin-2 Recognizes Mannosylated O-antigens of Human Opportunistic Pathogens and Augments Lipopolysaccharide Activation of Myeloid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Alexandra; Lamprinaki, Dimitra; Bowles, Kristian M; Katzenellenbogen, Ewa; Knirel, Yuriy A; Whitfield, Chris; Nishimura, Takashi; Matsumoto, Naoki; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Saijo, Shinobu; Kawasaki, Norihito

    2016-08-19

    LPS consists of a relatively conserved region of lipid A and core oligosaccharide and a highly variable region of O-antigen polysaccharide. Whereas lipid A is known to bind to the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD2) complex, the role of the O-antigen remains unclear. Here we report a novel molecular interaction between dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin-2 (Dectin-2) and mannosylated O-antigen found in a human opportunistic pathogen, Hafnia alvei PCM 1223, which has a repeating unit of [-Man-α1,3-Man-α1,2-Man-α1,2-Man-α1,2-Man-α1,3-]. H. alvei LPS induced higher levels of TNFα and IL-10 from mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs), when compared with Salmonella enterica O66 LPS, which has a repeat of [-Gal-α1,6-Gal-α1,4-[Glc-β1,3]GalNAc-α1,3-GalNAc-β1,3-]. In a cell-based reporter assay, Dectin-2 was shown to recognize H. alvei LPS. This binding was inhibited by mannosidase treatment of H. alvei LPS and by mutations in the carbohydrate-binding domain of Dectin-2, demonstrating that H. alvei LPS is a novel glycan ligand of Dectin-2. The enhanced cytokine production by H. alvei LPS was Dectin-2-dependent, because Dectin-2 knock-out BM-DCs failed to do so. This receptor cross-talk between Dectin-2 and TLR4 involved events including spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) activation and receptor juxtaposition. Furthermore, another mannosylated LPS from Escherichia coli O9a also bound to Dectin-2 and augmented TLR4 activation of BM-DCs. Taken together, these data indicate that mannosylated O-antigens from several Gram-negative bacteria augment TLR4 responses through interaction with Dectin-2. PMID:27358401

  2. A rhamnose-rich O-antigen mediates adhesion, virulence, and host colonization for the xylem-limited phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Jennifer C; Rapicavoli, Jeannette N; Roper, M Caroline

    2013-06-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterium that causes a lethal disease of grapevine called Pierce's disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) composes approximately 75% of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria and, because it is largely displayed on the cell surface, it mediates interactions between the bacterial cell and its surrounding environment. LPS is composed of a conserved lipid A-core oligosaccharide component and a variable O-antigen portion. By targeting a key O-antigen biosynthetic gene, we demonstrate the contribution of the rhamnose-rich O-antigen to surface attachment, cell-cell aggregation, and biofilm maturation: critical steps for successful infection of the host xylem tissue. Moreover, we have demonstrated that a fully formed O-antigen moiety is an important virulence factor for Pierce's disease development in grape and that depletion of the O-antigen compromises its ability to colonize the host. It has long been speculated that cell-surface polysaccharides play a role in X. fastidiosa virulence and this study confirms that LPS is a major virulence factor for this important agricultural pathogen. PMID:23441576

  3. Spectral line-shapes of oxygen B-band transitions measured with cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of line-shape measurements of self- and N2-broadened P9 P9 transition of the oxygen B band are presented. Spectra were acquired using the optical frequency comb- assisted Pound-Drever-Hall-locked frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer (PDH- locked FS-CRDS). In the line-shape analysis the line narrowing described by Dicke narrowing or/and the speed dependence of collisional broadening were taken into account. The multispectrum fitting technique was used to minimize numerical correlations between line-shape parameters. Collisional broadening and shifting coefficients are reported with sub-percent uncertainties. Influence of the spectral line-shape model used in data analysis on determined line intensities and collisional broadening is discussed

  4. Visualization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa O antigens by using a protein A-dextran-colloidal gold conjugate with both immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, J S; Lam, M. Y.; MacDonald, L A; Hancock, R E

    1987-01-01

    Two lipopolysaccharide O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies, MA1-8 (an immunoglobulin G1 [IgG1]) and MF15-4 (an IgM), were used to localize the O antigen of the lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. A protein A-dextran-gold conjugate with an average particle diameter of 12.5 nm was used to label bacterial cells treated with MA1-8, while a second antibody (goat anti-mouse IgM) was required before the same probe could interact with cells treated with the IgM antibody MF15-4. Bo...

  5. Bacteriophage Tailspikes and Bacterial O-Antigens as a Model System to Study Weak-Affinity Protein-Polysaccharide Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu; Gohlke, Ulrich; Engström, Olof; Hamark, Christoffer; Scheidt, Tom; Kunstmann, Sonja; Heinemann, Udo; Widmalm, Göran; Santer, Mark; Barbirz, Stefanie

    2016-07-27

    Understanding interactions of bacterial surface polysaccharides with receptor protein scaffolds is important for the development of antibiotic therapies. The corresponding protein recognition domains frequently form low-affinity complexes with polysaccharides that are difficult to address with experimental techniques due to the conformational flexibility of the polysaccharide. In this work, we studied the tailspike protein (TSP) of the bacteriophage Sf6. Sf6TSP binds and hydrolyzes the high-rhamnose, serotype Y O-antigen polysaccharide of the Gram-negative bacterium Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri) as a first step of bacteriophage infection. Spectroscopic analyses and enzymatic cleavage assays confirmed that Sf6TSP binds long stretches of this polysaccharide. Crystal structure analysis and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy using an enhanced method to interpret the data permitted the detailed description of affinity contributions and flexibility in an Sf6TSP-octasaccharide complex. Dodecasaccharide fragments corresponding to three repeating units of the O-antigen in complex with Sf6TSP were studied computationally by molecular dynamics simulations. They showed that distortion away from the low-energy solution conformation found in the octasaccharide complex is necessary for ligand binding. This is in agreement with a weak-affinity functional polysaccharide-protein contact that facilitates correct placement and thus hydrolysis of the polysaccharide close to the catalytic residues. Our simulations stress that the flexibility of glycan epitopes together with a small number of specific protein contacts provide the driving force for Sf6TSP-polysaccharide complex formation in an overall weak-affinity interaction system. PMID:27045683

  6. DNA sequence and analysis of the O-antigen gene clusters of Escherichia coli serogroups O62, O68, O131, O140, O142, and O163 and serogroup-specific PCR assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DNA sequence of the O-antigen gene clusters of Escherichia coli serogroups O62, O68, O131, O140, O142, and O163 was determined. There were 9 to 12 open reading frames (ORFs) identified, encoding genes required for O-antigen sugar biosynthesis, transfer, and processing. Primers based on the wzx...

  7. Evaluation of an O antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening of milk samples for Salmonella dublin infection in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Lind, Peter; Bitsch, V.

    1995-01-01

    Levels of antibodies to the O antigens (0:1,9,12) of Salmonella dublin were tested in 1355 serum, 1143 cow milk and 160 bulk milk samples from dairy herds using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In order to define the background reaction, milk samples from all lactating cows and serum...

  8. Detailed Investigation of the Immunodominant Role of O-Antigen Stoichiometric O-Acetylation as Revealed by Chemical Synthesis, Immunochemistry, Solution Conformation and STD-NMR Spectroscopy for Shigella flexneri 3a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Julien; Blasco, Pilar; Guerreiro, Catherine; Thouron, Françoise; Dartevelle, Sylvie; Nato, Farida; Cañada, F Javier; Ardá, Ana; Phalipon, Armelle; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Mulard, Laurence A

    2016-07-25

    Shigella flexneri 3a causes bacillary dysentery. Its O-antigen has the {2)-[α-d-Glcp-(1→3)]-α-l-Rhap-(1→2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→3)-[Ac→2]-α-l-Rhap-(1→3)-[Ac→6]≈40 % -β-d-GlcpNAc-(1→} ([(E)ABAc CAc D]) repeating unit, and the non-O-acetylated equivalent defines S. flexneri X. Propyl hepta-, octa-, and decasaccharides sharing the (E')A'BAc CD(E)A sequence, and their non-O-acetylated analogues were synthesized from a fully protected BAc CD(E)A allyl glycoside. The stepwise introduction of orthogonally protected mono- and disaccharide imidate donors was followed by a two-step deprotection process. Monoclonal antibody binding to twenty-six S. flexneri types 3a and X di- to decasaccharides was studied by an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and STD-NMR spectroscopy. Epitope mapping revealed that the 2C -acetate dominated the recognition by monoclonal IgG and IgM antibodies and that the BAc CD segment was essential for binding. The glucosyl side chain contributed to a lesser extent, albeit increasingly with the chain length. Moreover, tr-NOESY analysis also showed interaction but did not reveal any meaningful conformational change upon antibody binding. PMID:27376496

  9. Effects of experimental immunosuppression in cattle with persistently high antibody levels to Salmonella Dublin lipopolysaccharide O-antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Liza R

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella Dublin (S. Dublin is a zoonotic bacterium which is host adapted to cattle. The bacterium can cause subclinical persistent infection in cattle (carriers, which may be reactivated. During reactivation, animals may shed bacteria, thus constituting a source of infection for other animals. Identification of such carriers is assumed to be critical in attempts to control and eradicate the infection. Some authors suggest that persistently high antibody levels in serum or milk is indicative of a carrier state in cattle. However, this has been questioned by other studies in which S. Dublin were not found in all animals suspected of being carriers based on antibody measurements when such animals were examined at slaughter. Some hypothesize that the lack of isolated bacteria from long-term high antibody level cattle is due to a latent infection stage that can later be reactivated, for instance during stress around calving or due to transportation. This study examined nine adult cattle with persistently high antibody responses to S. Dublin O-antigen based lipopolysaccharide for cultivable bacteria in faeces, milk and internal organs before and after transportation, isolation and experimental immunosuppression with dexamethasone sodium phosphate over a period of 7–14 days. Results Clear signs of immunosuppression were seen as expression of leucocytosis and neutrophilia in all animals on day 3–5 after the first injections with dexamethasone sodium phosphate. No clinical signs or necropsy findings indicating salmonellosis were observed in any of the animals. No shedding of S. Dublin was found in faeces (collected four times daily or milk (collected twice daily at any point in time during the 7–14 day period. S. Dublin was recovered by a conventional culture method from tissue samples from mammary lymph nodes, spleen and liver collected from three animals at necropsy. Conclusion In this study, immunosuppression by

  10. Synthesis of a trisaccharide repeating unit of the O-antigen from Burkholderia anthina and its dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xueyun; Wang, Lizhen; Gu, Guofeng; Guo, Zhongwu

    2016-06-01

    A trisaccharide repeating unit of the O-antigen from Burkholderia anthina, α-L-Rha-(1→2)-α-L-Rha-(1→2)-β-D-Gal-O(CH2)3NH2 (1), and its dimer, α-L-Rha-(1→2)-α-L-Rha-(1→2)-α-D-Gal-(1→3)-α-L-Rha-(1→2)-α-L-Rha-(1→2)-β-D-Gal-O(CH2)3NH2 (2), were synthesized via a highly convergent and efficient assembly strategy. Sequential glycosylation of galactosyl acceptor 6 with rhamnosyl thioglycoside 7, followed by condensation of the resulting disaccharide acceptor 9 with rhamnosyl imidate donor 10, gave the title molecule 1 after global deprotection. The title hexasaccharide 2 was assembled in a convergent [2+2+2] manner, in which α-1,2-linked disaccharide 12 was initially obtained by the coupling reaction of disarmed thiorhamnoside acceptor 15 with armed thiogalactoside donor 14. Sequential glycosylation of disaccharide acceptor 9 with thioglycoside donors 12 and 13 afforded the target compound 2 after global deprotection. PMID:27085165

  11. The influence of a modified lipopolysaccharide O-antigen on the biosynthesis of xanthan in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris B100

    OpenAIRE

    Steffens, Tim; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg; Giampà, Marco; Hublik, Gerd; Pühler, Alfred; Niehaus, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Background The exopolysaccharide xanthan is a natural product which is extensively used in industry. It is a thickening agent in many fields, from oil recovery to the food sector. Xanthan is produced by the Gram negative bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). We analyzed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of three mutant strains of the Xcc wild type B100 to distinguish if the xanthan production can be increased when LPS biosynthesis is affected. Results The Xcc B100 O-antigen (OA) i...

  12. Vegetation Red-edge Spectral Modeling for Solar-induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence Retrieval at O2-B Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Zhang, L.; Qiao, N.; Zhang, X.; Li, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Remotely sensed solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) has been considered an ideal probe in monitoring global vegetation photosynthesis. However, challenges in accurate estimate of faint SIF (less than 5% of the total reflected radiation in near infrared bands) from the observed apparent reflected radiation greatly limit its wide applications. Currently, the telluric O2-B (~688nm) and O2-A (~761nm) have been proved to be capable of SIF retrieval based on Fraunhofer line depth (FLD) principle. They may still work well even using conventional ground-based commercial spectrometers with typical spectral resolutions of 2~5 nm and high enough signal-to-noise ratio (e.g., the ASD spectrometer). Nevertheless, almost all current FLD based algorithms were mainly developed for O2-A, a few concentrating on the other SIF emission peak in O2-B. One of the critical reasons is that it is very difficult to model the sudden varying reflectance around O2-B band located in the red-edge spectral region (about 680-800 nm). This study investigates a new method by combining the established inverted Gaussian reflectance model (IGM) and FLD principle using diurnal canopy spectra with relative low spectral resolutions of 1 nm (FluorMOD simulations) and 3 nm (measured by ASD spectrometer) respectively. The IGM has been reported to be an objective and good method to characterize the entire vegetation red-edge reflectance. Consequently, the proposed SIF retrieval method (hereinafter called IGMFLD) could exploit all the spectral information along the whole red-edge (680-800 nm) to obtain more reasonable reflectance and fluorescence correction coefficients than traditional FLD methods such as the iFLD. Initial results show that the IGMFLD can better capture the spectrally non-linear characterization of the reflectance in 680-800 nm and thereby yields much more accurate SIFs in O2-B than typical FLD methods, including sFLD, 3FLD and iFLD (see figure 1). Finally, uncertainties and prospect

  13. Characterization of Francisella tularensis Schu S4 mutants identified from a transposon library screened for O-antigen and capsule deficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jed eRasmussen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The lipopolysaccharide (LPS and O-antigen polysaccharide capsule structures of Francisella tularensis play significant roles in helping these highly virulent bacteria avoid detection within a host. We previously created pools of F. tularensis mutants that we screened to identify strains that were not reactive to a monoclonal antibody to the O-antigen capsule. To follow up previously published work, we characterize further seven of the F. tularensis Schu S4 mutant strains identified by our screen. These F. tularensis strains carry the following transposon mutations: FTT0846::Tn5, hemH::Tn5, wbtA::Tn5, wzy::Tn5, FTT0673p/prsA::Tn5, manB::Tn5, or dnaJ::Tn5. Each of these strains displayed sensitivity to human serum, to varying degrees, when compared to wild-type F. tularensis Schu S4. By Western blot, only FTT0846::Tn5, wbtA::Tn5, wzy::Tn5, and manB::Tn5 strains did not react to the capsule and LPS O-antigen antibody 11B7, although the wzy::Tn5 strain did have a single O-antigen reactive band that was detected by the FB11 monoclonal antibody. Of these strains, manB::Tn5 and FTT0846 appear to have LPS core truncations, whereas wbtA::Tn5 and wzy::Tn5 had LPS core structures that are similar to the parent F. tularensis Schu S4. These strains were also shown to have poor growth within human monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs and bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs. We examined the virulence of these strains in mice, following intranasal challenge, and found that each was attenuated compared to wild type Schu S4. Our results provide additional strong evidence that LPS and/or capsule are F. tularensis virulence factors that most likely function by providing a stealth shield that prevents the host immune system from detecting this potent pathogen.

  14. Evaluation of an O antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening of milk samples for Salmonella dublin infection in dairy herds.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoorfar, J; Lind, P.; Bitsch, V

    1995-01-01

    Levels of antibodies to the O antigens (O:1,9,12) of Salmonella dublin were tested in 1355 serum, 1143 cow milk and 160 bulk milk samples from dairy herds using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In order to define the background reaction, milk samples from all lactating cows and serum samples from 9 animals were collected in each of 20 salmonellosis-free herds located on the island of Bornholm, where cattle salmonellosis has not been reported. Similar samples were collected from a...

  15. Linear synthesis of the hexasaccharide related to the repeating unit of the O-antigen from Shigella flexneri serotype 1d (I: 7,8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Ankita; Mukhopadhyay, Balaram

    2016-05-13

    Total synthesis of the hexasaccharide repeating unit of the O-antigen from Shigella flexneri serotype 1d (I: 7,8), α-D-Glcp-(1→3)-α-L-Rhap-(1→2)-α-L-Rhap-(1→3)-α-L-Rhap-(1→3)-[α-D-Glcp-(1→4)]-β-D-GlcpNAc, is reported by following a linear strategy. The target hexasaccharide was synthesized by sequential glycosylations of suitably protected monosaccharide derivatives prepared from commercially available monosaccharides through rational protecting group manipulations. Stereoselective glycosylations were accomplished by the activation of thioglycoside using N-iodosuccinimide and H2SO4-silica. The use of H2SO4-silica in place of traditional promoters like TfOH or TMSOTf was proved to be a better option for the NIS-mediated thioglycoside activation. PMID:27043468

  16. Development and application of pathovar-specific monoclonal antibodies that recognize the lipopolysaccharide O antigen and the type IV fimbriae of Xanthomonas hyacinthi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorn, J. van; Ojanen-Reuhs, T.; Hollinger, T.C.; Reuhs, B.L.; Schots, A.; Boonekamp, P.M.; Oudega, B.

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a specific immunological diagnostic assay for yellow disease in hyacinths, using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Mice were immunized with a crude cell wall preparation (shear fraction) from Xanthomonas hyacinthi and with purified type IV fimbriae. Hybridomas were screened for a positive reaction with X. hyacinthi cells or fimbriae and for a negative reaction with X. translucens pv. graminis or Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Nine MAbs recognized fimbrial epitopes, as shown by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunoelectron microscopy; however, three of these MAbs had weak cross-reactions with two X. translucens pathovars in immunoblotting experiments. Seven MAbs reacted with lipopolysaccharides and yielded a low-mobility ladder pattern on immunoblots. Subsequent analysis of MAb 2E5 showed that it specifically recognized an epitope on the O antigen, which was found to consist of rhamnose and fucose in a 2:1 molar ratio. The cross-reaction of MAb 2E5 with all X. hyacinthi strains tested showed that this O antigen is highly conserved within this species. MAb 1B10 also reacted with lipopolysaccharides. MAbs 2E5 and 1B10 were further tested in ELISA and immunoblotting experiments with cells and extracts from other pathogens. No cross-reaction was found with 27 other Xanthomonas pathovars tested or with 14 other bacterial species from other genera, such as Erwinia and Pseudomonas, indicating the high specificity of these antibodies. MAbs 2E5 and 1B10 were shown to be useful in ELISA for the detection of X. hyacinthi in infected hyacinths.

  17. Theoretical conformational analysis of the tetrasaccharide repeating units of the O-antigenic polysaccharide of Shigella flexneri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical conformational analysis has been made of the four tetrasaccharide repeating units of the polysaccharide of Shigella flexneri, serotype Y. The interdependence of the conformation states of the neighboring disaccharide units and the oligosaccharides has been investigated. The distribution of the tetrasaccharides over the conformations in solution obtained by calculating the free energies of the optimum structures is given. It has been shown that a substantial correction of the results relating to oligosaccharide chains is achieved when the entropy factors is taken into account

  18. The evolution of the galaxy B-band rest-frame morphology to z~2: new clues from the K20/GOODS sample

    CERN Document Server

    Cassata, P; Franceschini, A; Daddi, E; Pignatelli, E; Fasano, G; Rodighiero, G; Pozzetti, L; Mignoli, M; Renzini, A

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the evolution of the rest-frame B-band morphology of K-selected galaxies with 0 < z < 2.5. This work is based on the K20 spectroscopic sample (Ks<20) located within the Chandra Deep Field South area, coupled with the public deep GOODS HST+ACSmulti-band optical imaging available in that field. Thanks to the spectroscopic completeness of this catalog reaching 94%, we can compare the morphological and spectroscopic properties of galaxies with unprecedented detail. Our morphological analysis includes visual inspection and automatic procedures using both parametric (e.g. the Sersic indices treated by the GALFIT and GASPHOT packages) and non-parametric (the Concentration, Asymmetry and clumpineSs, CAS) methods. Our analysis classifies the K20 galaxies as: 60/300 (20%, class 1) normal ellipticals/S0; 14/300 (4%, class 2) perturbed or peculiar ellipticals; 80/300 (27%, class 3) normal spirals; 48/300 (16%, class 4) perturbed or actively star-forming spirals; 98/300 (33%, cla...

  19. Phase variable O antigen biosynthetic genes control expression of the major protective antigen and bacteriophage receptor in Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley D Seed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide O1 antigen is a major target of bacteriophages and the human immune system and is of critical importance for vaccine design. We used an O1-specific lytic bacteriophage as a tool to probe the capacity of V. cholerae to alter its O1 antigen and identified a novel mechanism by which this organism can modulate O antigen expression and exhibit intra-strain heterogeneity. We identified two phase variable genes required for O1 antigen biosynthesis, manA and wbeL. manA resides outside of the previously recognized O1 antigen biosynthetic locus, and encodes for a phosphomannose isomerase critical for the initial step in O1 antigen biosynthesis. We determined that manA and wbeL phase variants are attenuated for virulence, providing functional evidence to further support the critical role of the O1 antigen for infectivity. We provide the first report of phase variation modulating O1 antigen expression in V. cholerae, and show that the maintenance of these phase variable loci is an important means by which this facultative pathogen can generate the diverse subpopulations of cells needed for infecting the host intestinal tract and for escaping predation by an O1-specific phage.

  20. The Klebsiella pneumoniae O12 ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Recognizes the Terminal Residue of Its O-antigen Polysaccharide Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Evan; Mallette, Evan; Clarke, Bradley R; Kimber, Matthew S; Whitfield, Chris

    2016-04-29

    Export of the Escherichia coli serotype O9a O-antigenic polysaccharides (O-PS) involves an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. The process requires a non-reducing terminal residue, which is recognized by a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) appended to the C terminus of the nucleotide-binding domain of the transporter. Here, we investigate the process in Klebsiella pneumoniae serotype O12 (and Raoultella terrigena ATCC 33257). The O12 polysaccharide is terminated at the non-reducing end by a β-linked 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) residue. The O12 ABC transporter also binds its cognate O-PS via a CBM, and export is dependent on the presence of the terminal β-Kdo residue. The overall structural architecture of the O12 CBM resembles the O9a prototype, but they share only weak sequence similarity, and the putative binding pocket for the O12 glycan is different. Removal of the CBM abrogated O-PS transport, but export was restored when the CBM was expressed in trans with the mutant CBM-deficient ABC transporter. These results demonstrate that the CBM-mediated substrate-recognition mechanism is evolutionarily conserved and can operate with glycans of widely differing structures. PMID:26934919

  1. Determination of the structure of the O-antigen and the lipid A from the entomopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas entomophila lipopolysaccharide along with its immunological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciale, Immacolata; Paciello, Ida; Fazio, Luigi Lembo; Sturiale, Luisa; Palmigiano, Angelo; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Garozzo, Domenico; Lemaitre, Bruno; Bernardini, Maria Lina; Molinaro, Antonio; De Castro, Cristina

    2015-08-14

    The structure and the immunology of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Pseudomonas entomophila, an entomopathogenic bacterium isolated from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, was characterized. The O-antigen portion was established and resulted to be built up of a repetitive unit constituted by four monosaccharide residues, all L configured, all deoxy at C-6 and with an acetamido function at C-2: →3)-α-l-FucNAc-(1→4)-α-l-FucNAc-(1→3)-α-l-FucNAc-(1→3)-β-l-QuiNAc-(1→ The structural analysis of lipid A, showed a mixture of different species. The diphosphorylated glucosamine backbone carries six fatty acids consistent with the composition C10:0 3(OH), C12:0 2(OH) and C12:0 3(OH), whereas other species differs by the number of phosphates and/or of fatty acids. The immunology experiments demonstrated that the LPS structure of P. entomophila displayed a low ability to engage the TLR4-mediated signaling correlated to a significant antagonistic activity toward hexa-acylated LPS structures. PMID:25996527

  2. Core-linked LPS expression of Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 O-antigen in live Salmonella Typhi vaccine vector Ty21a: preclinical evidence of immunogenicity and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, De Qi; Cisar, John O; Osorio, Manuel; Wai, Tint T; Kopecko, Dennis J

    2007-08-14

    Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (S. dysenteriae 1) causes severe shigellosis that is typically associated with high mortality. Antibodies against Shigella serotype-specific O-polysaccharide (O-Ps) have been shown to be host protective. In this study, the rfb locus and the rfp gene with their cognate promoter regions were PCR-amplified from S. dysenteriae 1, cloned, and sequenced. Deletion analysis showed that eight rfb ORFs plus rfp are necessary for biosynthesis of this O-Ps. A tandemly-linked rfb-rfp gene cassette was cloned into low copy plasmid pGB2 to create pSd1. Avirulent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) Ty21a harboring pSd1 synthesized S. Typhi 9, 12 LPS as well as typical core-linked S. dysenteriae 1 LPS. Animal immunization studies showed that Ty21a (pSd1) induces protective immunity against high stringency challenge with virulent S. dysenteriae 1 strain 1617. These data further demonstrate the utility of S. Typhi Ty21a as a live, bacterial vaccine delivery system for heterologous O-antigens, supporting the promise of a bifunctional oral vaccine for prevention of shigellosis and typhoid fever. PMID:17629369

  3. Chain Teleportation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chien-er

    2004-01-01

    By means of the idea of measurements on the crossed space-time nonlocal observables, we extend the mechanism for the two-way quantum teleportation to the chain teleportation among N spatially separated spin-1/2 systems. Since in the process only the local interactions are used, the microcausality is automatically satisfied.

  4. Catch Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Talbert, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Catch Chain is a book of poems that traces the journey of a Corrections Officer who attempts to combat issues of isolation, inhumane treatment of inmates and societal rejection in jails by embarking upon a cross-country road trip. However, the same issues the officer initially wrestled with begin cropping up in different cities, on various highways and in a multitude of states. The excitement and adventure of the open road runs parallel to the recurring imprisonment of the guard's mind.

  5. Chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chain Reaction is a work of recent American political history. It seeks to explain how and why America came to depend so heavily on its experts after World War II, how those experts translated that authority into political clout, and why that authority and political discretion declined in the 1970s. The author's research into the internal memoranda of the Atomic Energy Commission substantiates his argument in historical detail. It was not the ravages of American anti-intellectualism, as so many scholars have argued, that brought the experts back down to earth. Rather, their decline can be traced to the very roots of their success after World War II. The need to over-state anticipated results in order to garner public support, incessant professional and bureaucratic specialization, and the sheer proliferation of expertise pushed arcane and insulated debates between experts into public forums at the same time that a broad cross section of political participants found it easier to gain access to their own expertise. These tendencies ultimately undermined the political influence of all experts. (author)

  6. Crater Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The large crater at the top of this THEMIS visible image has several other craters inside of it. Most noticeable are the craters that form a 'chain' on the southern wall of the large crater. These craters are a wonderful example of secondary impacts. They were formed when large blocks of ejecta from an impact crashed back down onto the surface of Mars. Secondaries often form radial patterns around the impact crater that generated them, allowing researchers to trace them back to their origin.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 19.3, Longitude 347.5 East (12.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  7. Retrieval of the optical depth and vertical distribution of particulate scatterers in the atmosphere using O2 A- and B-band SCIAMACHY observations over Kanpur: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Platt

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the well-defined vertical profile of O2 in the atmosphere, the strong A-band (757–774 nm has long been used to estimate vertical distributions of aerosol/cloud from space. We extend this approach to include part of the O2 B-band (684–688 nm as well. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT is the first instrument to provide spectral data at moderate resolution (0.2–1.5 nm in the UV/VIS/NIR including both the O2 A- and B-bands. Using SCIAMACHY specifications, we make combined use of these bands in an optimal estimation algorithm. Theoretical studies show that our algorithm is applicable both over bright and dark surfaces for the retrieval of a lognormal approximation of the vertical profile of particulate matter, in addition to its optical thickness. Synthetic studies and information content analyses prove that such a combined use provides additional information on the vertical distribution of atmospheric scatterers, attributable to differences in the absorption strengths of the two bands and their underlying surface albedos. Due to the high computational cost of the retrieval, we restrict application to real data to a case study over Kanpur through the year 2003. Comparison with AERONET data shows a commonly observed seasonal pattern of haziness, manifesting a correlation coefficient of r = 0.92 for non-monsoon monthly mean AOTs. The retrieved particulate optical thickness is found to be anti-correlated with the relative contrast of the Lambertian equivalent reflectivity (LER at 682 nm and 755 nm by a coefficient of 0.788, confirming the hypothesis made in Sanghavi et al. (2010. Our case study demonstrates a stable physics-based retrieval of particulate matter using only SCIAMACHY data. The feasibility of our approach is enhanced by the information provided by measurements around the O2 B-band in addition to the A-band. Nonetheless, operational application to SCIAMACHY data remains challenged by radiometric uncertainties, yielding simultaneous

  8. Graphs: Associated Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, Garimella Rama

    2012-01-01

    In this research paper, weighted / unweighted, directed / undirected graphs are associated with interesting Discrete Time Markov Chains (DTMCs) as well as Continuous Time Markov Chains (CTMCs). The equilibrium / transient behaviour of such Markov chains is studied. Also entropy dynamics (Shannon entropy) of certain structured Markov chains is investigated. Finally certain structured graphs and the associated Markov chains are studied.

  9. Health supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors. PMID:20407173

  10. Silicone chain extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a silicone chain extender, more particularly a chain extender for silicone polymers and copolymers, to a chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer and to a functionalized chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer, to a method for the preparation thereof and...

  11. COFFEE COMMODITY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Tine Olsen; Brett Inder

    2008-01-01

    To explain the value added along the coffee commodity chain we propose and estimate a theoretical model of the coffee commodity chain. The theoretical model consists of four markets and five agents in the coffee commodity chain and predicts that prices in the coffee commodity chain move together but are also influenced by income, technology and production. A vector error correction model is used to test the theoretical predictions. In addition to the theoretical conclusions the empirical mode...

  12. The Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool......The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool...

  13. Chain-Chain Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia A Ali

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN is an emerging technology for monitoring physical world. WSNs consist of large numbers of sensor nodes operated by battery mostly in harsh environment. Thus energy conservation is a primary issue for organization of these sensor nodes. Another crucial issue is the data delivery time by sensor nodes to the sink node, especially in Military, medical fields, and security monitoring systems where minimum delay is desirable. Number of protocols has been proposed in the literature for routing. One of such protocols is the cluster based routing protocol LEACH (low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy. LEACH protocol organizes WSN into a set of clusters and a periodic voting for cluster head is performed in order to be evenly distributed among all the sensors of the WSN. This periodical cluster head voting in LEACH, however, consumes an amount of non-negligible energy and other resources. For energy conservation, PEGASIS (power efficient gathering in sensor information systems a near optimal chain-based protocol has been proposed, however, it is faced with the challenge of long delay for the transmitted data. Another routing protocol called CCM (Chain-Cluster based Mixed routing, which is mainly a hybrid of LEACH and PEGASIS is proposed, the consumed energy increases as network size increases. In this paper, we propose an efficient routing protocol called CCBRP (Chain-Chain based routing protocol, it achieves both minimum energy consumption and minimum delay. The CCBRP protocol mainly divides a WSN into a number of chains (Greedy algorithm is used to form each chain as in PEGSIS protocol and runs in two phases. In the first phase, sensor nodes in each chain transmit data to their chain leader nodes in parallel. In the second phase, all chain leader nodes form a chain (also, using Greedy algorithm and choose randomly a leader node then all chain leader nodes send their data to this chosen leader node. This chosen leader node

  14. Discrete Quantum Markov Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Faigle, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    A framework for finite-dimensional quantum Markov chains on Hilbert spaces is introduced. Quantum Markov chains generalize both classical Markov chains with possibly hidden states and existing models of quantum walks on finite graphs. Quantum Markov chains are based on Markov operations that may be applied to quantum systems and include quantum measurements, for example. It is proved that quantum Markov chains are asymptotically stationary and hence possess ergodic and entropic properties. With a quantum Markov chain one may associate a quantum Markov process, which is a stochastic process in the classical sense. Generalized Markov chains allow a representation with respect to a generalized Markov source model with definite (but possibly hidden) states relative to which observables give rise to classical stochastic processes. It is demonstrated that this model allows for observables to violate Bell's inequality.

  15. Gushing metal chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Alexander; Sukhanov, Alexander; Tsvetkov, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    This article addresses the problem in which a chain falls from a glass from some height. This phenomenon demonstrates a paradoxical rise of the chain over the glass. To explain this effect, an initial hypothesis and an appropriate theory are proposed for calculating the steady fall parameters of the chain. For this purpose, the modified Cayley's problem of falling chain given its rise due to the centrifugal force of upward inertia is solved. Results show that the lift caused by an increase in linear density at the part of chain where it is being bent (the upper part) is due to the convergence of the chain balls to one another. The experiments confirm the obtained estimates of the lifting chain.

  16. Crater chains on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V.; Skobeleva, T.

    After discovery of disruption comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 into fragment train before it's collision with Jupiter there was proposed that linear crater chains on the large satellites of Jupiter and on the Moon are impact scars of past tidally disrupted comets.It's known that radar images have revealed the possible presence of water ice deposits in polar regions of Mercury. Impacts by a few large comets seem to provide the best explanation for both the amount and cleanliness of the ice deposits on Mercury because they have a larger volatile content that others external sources, for example, asteroid. A number of crater chains on the surface of Mercury are most likely the impact tracks of "fragment trains" of comets tidally disrupted by Sun or by Mercury and are not secondary craters. Mariner 10 image set (the three Mariner 10 flybys in 1974-1975) was used to recognize the crater chains these did not associate with secondary crater ejecta from observed impact structures. As example, it can be shown such crater chain located near crater Imhotep and crater Ibsen (The Kuiper Quadrangle of Mercury). Resolution of the Mariner 10 image is about 0.54 km/pixel. The crater chain is about 50 km long. It was found a similar crater chain inside large crater Sophocles (The Tolstoj Quadrangle of Mercury). The image resolution is about 1.46 km/pixel. The chain about 50 km long is located in northen part of the crater. Image resolution limits possibility to examine the form of craters strongly. It seems the craters in chains have roughly flat floor and smooth form. Most chain craters are approximately circular. It was examined many images from the Mariner 10 set and there were identified a total 15 crater chains and were unable to link any of these directly to any specific large crater associated with ejecta deposits. Chain craters are remarkably aligned. All distinguished crater chains are superposed on preexisting formations. A total of 127 craters were identified in the 15 recognized

  17. Supply Chain Management og Supply Chain costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Mortensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at belyse de muligheder som ligger i at integrere virksomhedens økonomiske styring med begrebet Supply Chain Management (SCM). Dette søges belyst ved først at beskrive den teoretiske ramme, hvori SCM indgår. Herefter analyseres begrebet Supply Chain Costing (SCC) som...... Århus. Et resultat er, at via begrebet Supply Chain Costing skabes der mulighed for at måle logistikkædens aktiviteter i kr./øre. Anvendelsen af denne information har også strategisk betydning for at kunne vælge kunde og leverandør. Ved hjælp af integrationen skabes der også helt nye mulighed for at...

  18. Food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qian

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation analyses food waste in global supply chain. From the related managerial literature, the process of supply chain operation, from agriculture, manufacturing, warehouses, retailers to customers are explained clearly. Then the reasons and characteristics of food wastes in any point of food supply chain are analyzed. From some case studies and questionnaire investigation, some corresponding methods to reduce food waste are put forward in the following. Lastly, in terms of method s...

  19. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  20. Supply Chain Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Meca, Ana; Timmer, Judith

    2008-01-01

    In this chaper, we have reviewed and surveyed the literature on supply chain collaboration. As mentioned above, the game theory models that include cooperative behaviour among retailers seem to be a natural framework to model cooperation (collaboration) in supply chains that consist of a supplier and a finite number of retailers. Various researchers in this area have already adopted several cooperative models dealing with supply chain coordination, and it is expected to see many more in the n...

  1. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  2. Sustainable Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Geentjens, Marlies

    2013-01-01

    This project investigates the phenomena Sustainable Supply Chain Management. The point of departure is Supply Chain Management, which we analyse in order to lock into an understanding of the development that occur when implementing sustainability. In the quest for higher understanding of the interlocking mechanisms of supply chain management, we combine a theoretical approach to the developmnent of sustainability with some relevant case-examples (mainly depicting IKEA). This focal point g...

  3. Economy, market and chain

    OpenAIRE

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    In their pursuit of growth and professionalisation, the Dutch organic sector focuses primarily on market development. But how do you stimulate the market for organic foods? This is the subject of many research projects concerning market, consumer preferences and the supply chain. These projects focus specifically at consumer purchasing behaviour, product development, supply chain formation and minimising cost price. As a rule, this research takes place in close cooperation with chain actors

  4. Value Chain Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2015-01-01

    This workbook is recommended for the attention of students of and managers in Danish small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Danish SMEs are currently facing a number of key challenges related to their position in global value chains. This book provides an insight into value chain management...... that may help these SMEs to occupy and sustain a competitive position in the value chain. It addresses this objective by introducing and discussing: • The concept of global value chains and its founding principles • The buyer-supplier relationships • Various SMEs operations configurations • Ideas for...

  5. Independent sets in chain cacti

    CERN Document Server

    Sedlar, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    In this paper chain cacti are considered. First, for two specific classes of chain cacti (orto-chains and meta-chains of cycles with h vertices) the recurrence relation for independence polynomial is derived. That recurrence relation is then used in deriving explicit expressions for independence number and number of maximum independent sets for such chains. Also, the recurrence relation for total number of independent sets for such graphs is derived. Finaly, the proof is provided that orto-chains and meta-chains are the only extremal chain cacti with respect to total number of independent sets (orto-chains minimal and meta-chains maximal).

  6. Fields From Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn

    2005-01-01

    A simple construction of two-dimensional (2-D) fields is presented. Rows and columns are outcomes of the same Markov chain. The entropy can be calculated explicitly.......A simple construction of two-dimensional (2-D) fields is presented. Rows and columns are outcomes of the same Markov chain. The entropy can be calculated explicitly....

  7. Sustainable Supply Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy

    design for TBL sustainability. These are located in catastrophe-ridden Haiti and supported by the Germany-based investor company Yunus Social Business. Three supply chain archetypes combining physical and support chains are presented that focus on TBL sustainable outputs and outcomes. For SSCM research...

  8. Chain Reaction Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, James E.

    1981-01-01

    The salient features and importance of chain-reaction polymerization are discussed, including such topics as the thermodynamics of polymerization, free-radical polymerization kinetics, radical polymerization processes, copolymers, and free-radical chain, anionic, cationic, coordination, and ring-opening polymerizations. (JN)

  9. Integrated supply chain risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Riaan Bredell; Jackie Walters

    2007-01-01

    Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM) has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly ...

  10. Supply Chain Connectivity: Enhancing Participation in the Global Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Patalinghug, Epictetus E.

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain connectivity is vital for the efficient flow of trade among APEC economies. This paper reviews the literature and supply chain management, describes the barriers to enhancing participation in global supply chain, analyzes the various measures of supply chain performance, and suggests steps for the Philippines to fully reap the benefits of the global value chain.

  11. Understanding the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  12. SUMO chains: polymeric signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertegaal, Alfred C O

    2010-02-01

    Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins are conjugated to a wide variety of target proteins that play roles in all biological processes. Target proteins are conjugated to ubiquitin monomers or to ubiquitin polymers that form via all seven internal lysine residues of ubiquitin. The fate of these target proteins is controlled in a chain architecture-dependent manner. SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) shares the ability of ubiquitin to form chains via internal SUMOylation sites. Interestingly, a SUMO-binding site in Ubc9 is important for SUMO chain synthesis. Similar to ubiquitin-polymer cleavage by USPs (ubiquitin-specific proteases), SUMO chain formation is reversible. SUMO polymers are cleaved by the SUMO proteases SENP6 [SUMO/sentrin/SMT3 (suppressor of mif two 3)-specific peptidase 6], SENP7 and Ulp2 (ubiquitin-like protease 2). SUMO chain-binding proteins including ZIP1, SLX5/8 (synthetic lethal of unknown function 5/8), RNF4 (RING finger protein 4) and CENP-E (centromere-associated protein E) have been identified that interact non-covalently with SUMO chains, thereby regulating target proteins that are conjugated to SUMO multimers. SUMO chains play roles in replication, in the turnover of SUMO targets by the proteasome and during mitosis and meiosis. Thus signalling via polymers is an exciting feature of the SUMO family. PMID:20074033

  13. Project Decision Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolstadås, Asbjørn; Pinto, Jeffrey K.; Falster, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    To add value to project performance and help obtain project success, a new framework for decision making in projects is defined. It introduces the project decision chain inspired by the supply chain thinking in the manufacturing sector and uses three types of decisions: authorization, selection......, and plan decision. A primitive decision element is defined where all the three decision types can be accommodated. Each task in the primitive element can in itself contain subtasks that in turn will comprise new primitive elements. The primitive elements are nested together in a project decision chain....

  14. Supply chain risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hollstein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supply chain risk management increasingly gains prominence in many international industries. In order to strengthen supply chain structures, processes, and networks, adequate potentials for risk management need to be built (focus on effective logistics and to be utilized (focus on efficient logistics. Natural-based disasters, such as the case of Fukushima, illustrate how crucial risk management is. Method: By aligning a theoretical-conceptual framework with empirical-inductive findings, it may be hypothesized that logistical systems do have a positive effect on supply chain risk management activities.  Result/conclusion:  Flexibility and capacity, as well as redundancy and standardization, are often viewed as being conflictionary. It shows, however, that in the light of supply chain risk management, those factors may yield a common benefit if proper logistics systems are applied.  

  15. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidonis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH. During the 2-Days Conference more than 50 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Business Logistics, (ii Transportation, Telematics and Distribution Networks, (iii Green Logistics, (iv Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, and (v Services and Quality. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Humanitarian Logistics, Green Supply Chains of the Agrifood Sector and the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  16. Environmental Retail Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert; Munch, Hilde; de Faultrier, Birgitte;

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale that evaluates the environmental elements in retail supply chains and to examine the environmental supply chain management initiatives of the world's largest 100 retailing companies. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical evaluation has...... which were grouped into eight categories; they refer to “fundamental environmental attitude”, “use of energy”, “use of input material”, “product”, “packaging”, “transport”, “consumption” and “waste”. The level of environmental supply chain management can be characterised as very operational and very...... short-term oriented (green operations). Long-term oriented green design initiatives were hardly observed. Furthermore, the specific environmental activities of three retailers from Denmark, France and the UK were compared. Research limitations/implications – The empirical study investigates supply chain...

  17. Supply Chain Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Guy Rodrigue Ghomsi 1982

    2015-01-01

    Companies are now progressively looking beyond themselves to come up with ways to improve revenue and profit margins. This has resulted in a heightened focus on the efficiency of the supply chains. Inefficient supply chains are being perceived as cavities that can deprive the firm from its cash flows when inventory is not required and sales revenue when product is not available at the point of sales. This has stimulated development of business models that intend to leverage and enhance the su...

  18. Variance bounding Markov chains

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Gareth O.; Jeffrey S. Rosenthal

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new property of Markov chains, called variance bounding. We prove that, for reversible chains at least, variance bounding is weaker than, but closely related to, geometric ergodicity. Furthermore, variance bounding is equivalent to the existence of usual central limit theorems for all L2 functionals. Also, variance bounding (unlike geometric ergodicity) is preserved under the Peskun order. We close with some applications to Metropolis–Hastings algorithms.

  19. Supply chain risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Hollstein; Frank Himpel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Supply chain risk management increasingly gains prominence in many international industries. In order to strengthen supply chain structures, processes, and networks, adequate potentials for risk management need to be built (focus on effective logistics) and to be utilized (focus on efficient logistics). Natural-based disasters, such as the case of Fukushima, illustrate how crucial risk management is. Method: By aligning a theoretical-conceptual framework with empirical-induct...

  20. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Aidonis, D.; Folinas, D.; Triantafillou, D.

    2012-01-01

    This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI) of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH). During the 2-Days Conference m...

  1. Issues on Supply Chain Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Although supply chain is regarded as an integrated pr ocess, actually, researchers and practitioners have primarily investigated the v arious processes of the supply chain individually. The competitive field in most markets requires well-designed integrated supply chain instead of individual o perations. In this paper, some traditional thinking of supply chain is given fir st, then SCM (Supply Chain Management) is introduced, which views the entire sup ply chain as a whole rather than individual process a...

  2. 嗜肺军团菌15种血清型基因芯片检测方法的建立%Development of a DNA Microarray for Detection and Identification of 15 Distinct O Antigen Forms of Legionella Pneumophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冬雪; 王乃福; 黄晨; 高旗利; 关淳

    2014-01-01

    To establish a rapid, accurate detection method for 15 distinct O antigen forms of Legionella pneumophila using DNA microarray combined with multiplex PCR. The special genes of these 15 distinct O antigen forms of L. Pneumophila were as target genes for multiplex PCR respectively, then primers and captured oligonucleotide probes were hybridizes with DNA microarray, which contained specific probes of Legionella pneumophila. Scanner was used to determinant the types of bacterium. The DNA microarray assay can detect 15 distinct O antigen forms of L. Pneumophila specially. The sensitivity of the DNA microarray was 10 ng. The detection method of 15 distinct O antigen forms of Legionella pneumophila by DNA microarray was established. The detection method has better specificity, sensitivity and repeatability.%建立一种多重PCR技术结合基因芯片检测方法,实现嗜肺军团菌15种血清型的快速、准确检测。根据嗜肺军团菌15种血清型的O抗原特异性基因设计并筛选合适的引物和探针,进行多重PCR扩增,制备寡核苷酸芯片。将多重PCR扩增产物与带有特异探针的芯片杂交。用扫描仪扫描,判定嗜肺军团菌的血清型。该基因芯片可特异性的检测嗜肺军团菌的15种血清型,具有良好的特异性,芯片纯菌DNA检测灵敏度为10 ng。所建立的嗜肺军团菌15种血清型基因芯片检测方法特异性好,灵敏度高,具有较好的实用性。

  3. Phasic Triplet Markov Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yazid Boudaren, Mohamed; Monfrini, Emmanuel; Pieczynski, Wojciech; Aïssani, Amar

    2014-11-01

    Hidden Markov chains have been shown to be inadequate for data modeling under some complex conditions. In this work, we address the problem of statistical modeling of phenomena involving two heterogeneous system states. Such phenomena may arise in biology or communications, among other fields. Namely, we consider that a sequence of meaningful words is to be searched within a whole observation that also contains arbitrary one-by-one symbols. Moreover, a word may be interrupted at some site to be carried on later. Applying plain hidden Markov chains to such data, while ignoring their specificity, yields unsatisfactory results. The Phasic triplet Markov chain, proposed in this paper, overcomes this difficulty by means of an auxiliary underlying process in accordance with the triplet Markov chains theory. Related Bayesian restoration techniques and parameters estimation procedures according to the new model are then described. Finally, to assess the performance of the proposed model against the conventional hidden Markov chain model, experiments are conducted on synthetic and real data. PMID:26353069

  4. Supply chain quality management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Amoozad Mahdiraji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there are several methods introduced for the improvement of operational performances. Total quality management and supply chain management are two methods recommended for this purpose. These two approaches have been studied in most researches separately, while they have objectives in common, and this makes them a strategic means, which can be used, simultaneously. Total quality management and supply chain management play significant roles to increase the organizational competitiveness power. Moreover, they have only one purpose that is customer satisfaction, and they are different only on their approaches to reach their objectives. In this research, we aim to study both approaches of quality management and supply chain, their positive increasing effects that may be generated after their integration. For this purpose, the concept and definitions of each approach is studied, independently, their similarities and differences are recognized, and finally, the advantages of their integration are introduced.

  5. Essentials of supply chain management

    CERN Document Server

    Hugos, Michael H

    2011-01-01

    The latest thinking, strategies, developments, and technologies to stay current in supply chain management Presenting the core concepts and techniques of supply chain management in a clear, concise and easily readable style, the Third Edition of Essentials of Supply Chain Management outlines the most crucial tenets and concepts of supply chain management.

  6. Building the resilient supply chain.

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, Martin; Peck, Helen

    2004-01-01

    In today’s uncertain and turbulent markets, supply chain vulnerability has become an issue of significance for many companies. As supply chains become more complex as a result of global sourcing and the continued trend to ‘leaning-down’, supply chain risk increases. The challenge to business today is to manage and mitigate that risk through creating more resilient supply chains.

  7. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  8. Fuzzy Markov chains: uncertain probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    James J. Buckley; Eslami, Esfandiar

    2002-01-01

    We consider finite Markov chains where there are uncertainties in some of the transition probabilities. These uncertainties are modeled by fuzzy numbers. Using a restricted fuzzy matrix multiplication we investigate the properties of regular, and absorbing, fuzzy Markov chains and show that the basic properties of these classical Markov chains generalize to fuzzy Markov chains.

  9. Integrated supply chain risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan Bredell

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly applied, this process may optimise management decision-making and assist in the protection and enhancement of shareholder value.

  10. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin;

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example...

  11. Innovation in Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Maximilian; Korbel, Jakob; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    . Moreover, along with the fourth industrial revolution – industry 4.0 – new technologies such as cyber physical systems are fast gaining popularity. Hence, based on the analysis of relevant literature, we further develop the supply chain committee model, developed by Kaluza et al. (2003) to demonstrate how...

  12. Heavy chain only antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud;

    2013-01-01

    Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen...

  13. METRODOS: Meteorological preprocessor chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, P.; Mikkelsen, T.; Deme, S.

    2001-01-01

    - heat flux related measurement, e.g. a temperature gradient, are used to give local values of friction velocity and Monin-Obukhov length plus an estimate of the mixing height. The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain is an integral part of the RODOS - Real Time On Line Decision Support - program...

  14. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  15. Shared Value Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy L.

    In Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) research still the classic economic perspective is the dominating perspective, although the triple bottom line (including economic, social and ecological) is well accepted. The theoretical foundation for the paper is Stakeholder Theory. Case studies o...

  16. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  17. CHAINE DES ROTISSEUR @ HILTON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The annual gala dinner of Chaine des Rotisseurs was hosted by Hilton Beijing. The “Ballet Dinner” - a great creation for both art and fine dining lovers was taken place in varies places within the hotel, including hotel lobby, 3rd floor and lobby lounge.

  18. Innovation Across the Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Druehl, Cheryl; Carrillo, Janice; Hsuan, Juliana

    Innovation is an integral part of every firm’s ongoing operations. Beyond product innovation, supply chain innovations offer a unique source of competitive advantage. We synthesize recent research on innovation in the supply chain, specifically, innovative supply chain processes such as collabora...... collaborations with customers and suppliers to create new product and process innovations, open innovation, and globally distributed innovation. We conclude with potential areas for future research.......Innovation is an integral part of every firm’s ongoing operations. Beyond product innovation, supply chain innovations offer a unique source of competitive advantage. We synthesize recent research on innovation in the supply chain, specifically, innovative supply chain processes such as...

  19. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration Supply Chain Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lettice, Fiona; Durowoju, Olatunde

    2012-01-01

    Effective supply chain integration, and the tight co-ordination it creates, is an essential pre-requisite for successful supply chain management.  Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration is a practical reference on recent research in the area of supply chain integration focusing on distributed decision-making problems. Recent applications of various decision-making tools for integrating supply chains are covered including chapters focusing on: •Supplier selection, pricing strategy and inventory decisions in multi-level supply chains, •RFID-enabled distributed decision-making, •Operational risk issues and time-critical decision-making for sensitive logistics nodes, Modelling end to end processes to improve supply chain integration, and •Integrated systems to improve service delivery and optimize resource use. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration provides an insight into the tools and methodologies of this field with support from real-life case studies demonstrating successful application ...

  20. Volumes of chain links

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, James; Rollins, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Agol has conjectured that minimally twisted n-chain links are the smallest volume hyperbolic manifolds with n cusps, for n at most 10. In his thesis, Venzke mentions that these cannot be smallest volume for n at least 11, but does not provide a proof. In this paper, we give a proof of Venzke's statement. The proof for n at least 60 is completely rigorous. The proof for n between 11 and 59 uses a computer calculation, and can be made rigorous for manifolds of small enough complexity, using methods of Moser and Milley. Finally, we prove that the n-chain link with 2m or 2m+1 half-twists cannot be the minimal volume hyperbolic manifold with n cusps, provided n is at least 60 or |m| is at least 8, and we give computational data indicating this remains true for smaller n and |m|.

  1. Towards Intelligent Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur; Møller, Charles

    2012-01-01

    applied to the context of organizational processes can increase the success rate of business operations. The framework is created using a set of theoretical based constructs grounded in a discussion across several streams of research including psychology, pedagogy, artificial intelligence, learning...... of deploying inapt operations leading to deterioration of profits. To address this problem, we propose a unified business process design framework based on the paradigm of intelligence. Intelligence allows humans and human-designed systems cope with environmental volatility, and we argue that its principles......, business process management and supply chain management. It outlines a number of system tasks combined in four integrated management perspectives: build, execute, grow and innovate, put forward as business process design propositions for Intelligent Supply Chains....

  2. Extended linear chain compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Linear chain substances span a large cross section of contemporary chemistry ranging from covalent polymers, to organic charge transfer com­ plexes to nonstoichiometric transition metal coordination complexes. Their commonality, which coalesced intense interest in the theoretical and exper­ imental solid state physics/chemistry communities, was based on the obser­ vation that these inorganic and organic polymeric substrates exhibit striking metal-like electrical and optical properties. Exploitation and extension of these systems has led to the systematic study of both the chemistry and physics of highly and poorly conducting linear chain substances. To gain a salient understanding of these complex materials rich in anomalous aniso­ tropic electrical, optical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, the conver­ gence of diverse skills and talents was required. The constructive blending of traditionally segregated disciplines such as synthetic and physical organic, inorganic, and polymer chemistry, crystallog...

  3. Demand chain management-integrating marketing and supply chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Jüttner, Uta; Christopher, Martin; Baker, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This paper endorses demand chain management as a new business model aimed at creating value in today's marketplace, and combining the strengths of marketing and supply chain competencies. Demand chain design is based on a thorough market understanding and has to be managed in such a way as to effectively meet differing customer needs. Based on a literature review as well as the findings from a co-development workshop and focus group discussions with marketing and supply chain professionals, a...

  4. Putting Markov Chains Back into Markov Chain Monte Carlo

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Richard J.; Schofield, Matthew R.

    2007-01-01

    Markov chain theory plays an important role in statistical inference both in the formulation of models for data and in the construction of efficient algorithms for inference. The use of Markov chains in modeling data has a long history, however the use of Markov chain theory in developing algorithms for statistical inference has only become popular recently. Using mark-recapture models as an illustration, we show how Markov chains can be used for developing demographic models and also ...

  5. Supply Chain Initiatives Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-01

    The Supply Chain Initiatives Database (SCID) presents innovative approaches to engaging industrial suppliers in efforts to save energy, increase productivity and improve environmental performance. This comprehensive and freely-accessible database was developed by the Institute for Industrial Productivity (IIP). IIP acknowledges Ecofys for their valuable contributions. The database contains case studies searchable according to the types of activities buyers are undertaking to motivate suppliers, target sector, organization leading the initiative, and program or partnership linkages.

  6. Input chains and industrialization

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccone, Antonio

    2000-01-01

    A key aspect of industrialization is the adoption of increasing-returns-to-scale, industrial, technologies. Two other, well-documented aspects are that industrial technologies are adopted throughout intermediate-input chains and that they use intermediate inputs intensively relative to the technologies they replace. These features of industrial technologies combined imply that countries with access to similar technologies may have very different levels of industrial...

  7. Polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Solanki

    2015-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique in molecular biology to amplify a single or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence. PCR is now a common and often indispensable technique used in medical and biological research labs for a variety of applications. There are three major steps involved in the PCR technique: denaturation, annealing and extension. PCR is useful in the investigation...

  8. Tax efficient supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Borralho, Joana Patrícia Costeira

    2014-01-01

    Master of Science in Business Administration. This case started with the following question: How supply chains and tax policy interact? This question was the starting point for this study and was developed under the areas of Logistics and International Tax Policy. In order to support this study, the adopted methodology was the selection of a Multinational company – LPR Portugal – which has the transportation and distribution in the European Union as a scope of service and...

  9. Inclusive Global Value Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Cusolito, Ana Paula; Safadi, Raed; Taglioni, Daria

    2016-01-01

    This report's focus is making global value chains (GVCs) more inclusive. To achieve inclusiveness is by overcoming participation constraints for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and facilitation access for Low Income Developing Countries (LIDCs). The underlying assumption is that most firms in LIDCs are SMEs. Even larger firms in LIDCs are likely to face similar challenges to SMEs, including a less supportive domestic operating environment and weaker institutions that lead to higher fixed ...

  10. Supply chain dynamics in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Banomyong, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Supply chain management in Asia is a relatively novel topic but a key challenge for all Asian based manufacturers and traders when trying to integrate into the "global market". The purpose of the paper is to describe key supply chain issues faced in Asia. These issues are related to supply chain security that forces Asian firms to comply with numerous requirements as well as the importance of a properly managed supply chain in enhancing firms' competitiveness. The critical role played by Asia...

  11. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trienekens, Jacques; Wognum, Nel

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer. The paper shows the importance of Quality Management Systems for integrating supply chains and enhancing consumer confidence. The paper also presents innovations in information system integration for aligning information exchange in the supply chain and logistics concepts based on innovative measurement technologies at the slaughterhouse stage. In the final section research challenges towards sustainable pork supply chains satisfying current consumer demands are presented. PMID:23611335

  12. Academic Education Chain Operation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ruskov, Petko; Ruskov, Andrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for modelling the educational processes as a value added chain. It is an attempt to use a business approach to interpret and compile existing business and educational processes towards reference models and suggest an Academic Education Chain Operation Model. The model can be used to develop an Academic Chain Operation Reference Model.

  13. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus

  14. Risk Management in Logystics Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Butrin, Andrey; Vikulov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Article is devoted to risk management of supply chain. The authors considered indicators of supply chain risks, including risks caused by supplier. Authors formed a method of optimizing the level of supply chain risk in the integration with suppliers and customers.

  15. On chains of centered valuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Chibloun

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We study chains of centered valuations of a domain A and chains of centered valuations of A [X1,…,Xn] corresponding to valuations of A. Finally, we make some applications to chains of valuations centered on the same ideal of A [X1,…,Xn] and extending the same valuation of A.

  16. Concurrent Product & Supply Chain Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gubi, Ebbe

    that product and supply chains should be created concurrently and integrated. The concept of Concurrent Product & Supply Chain Creation is introduced, and the two main components Focused Supply Chains and Design For Logistics are explained and exemplified by use of Bang & Olufsen....

  17. Radiology's value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-04-01

    A diagnostic radiology value chain is constructed to define its main components, all of which are vulnerable to change, because digitization has caused disaggregation of the chain. Some components afford opportunities to improve productivity, some add value, while some face outsourcing to lower labor cost and to information technology substitutes, raising commoditization risks. Digital image information, because it can be competitive at smaller economies of scale, allows faster, differential rates of technological innovation of components, initiating a centralization-to-decentralization technology trend. Digitization, having triggered disaggregation of radiology's professional service model, may soon usher in an information business model. This means moving from a mind-set of "reading images" to an orientation of creating and organizing information for greater accuracy, faster speed, and lower cost in medical decision making. Information businesses view value chain investments differently than do small professional services. In the former model, producing a better business product will extend image interpretation beyond a radiologist's personal fund of knowledge to encompass expanding external imaging databases. A follow-on expansion with integration of image and molecular information into a report will offer new value in medical decision making. Improved interpretation plus new integration will enrich and diversify radiology's key service products, the report and consultation. A more robust, information-rich report derived from a "systems" and "computational" radiology approach will be facilitated by a transition from a professional service to an information business. Under health care reform, radiology will transition its emphasis from volume to greater value. Radiology's future brightens with the adoption of a philosophy of offering information rather than "reads" for decision making. Staunchly defending the status quo via turf wars is unlikely to constitute a

  18. India China Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Danendran, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    This research report addresses the topic of India China supply chain. This study would be looking at the existing policies among the China India trade and a real life scenario of this trade will be analysed. By conducting this study, the current situation of trades can be put forward and it will give an idea to what extent trade policies are useful when it comes to trading and to what extent the policies aid the bottlenecks faced by a trader. The objectives of the research are to understa...

  19. Secondary Heavy Chain Rearrangement

    OpenAIRE

    Sekiguchi, Debora R.; Eisenberg, Robert A.; Weigert, Martin

    2003-01-01

    The chronic graft-versus-host (cGVH) reaction results in a syndrome that closely resembles systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is induced in nonautoimmune mice by the transfer of alloreactive T cells. The availability of anti-DNA transgenes allows us to study the genetic origins of autoantibodies in this model. We induced cGVH in two anti-DNA H chain site-directed transgenic mouse strains. This resulted in clonal expansion and selection of specific mutations in the anti–double-stranded (ds...

  20. A chain of FPU cells

    OpenAIRE

    Verhulst, F.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the classical Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) chain, the inhomogeneous FPU chain shows nearly all the principal resonances. Using this fact, we can construct a periodic FPU chain of low dimension, for instance a FPU cell of four degrees-of-freedom, that can be used as a building block for a chain of FPU cells. Differences between chains in nearest-neighbour interaction and those in overall interaction are caused by symmetry. We will also show some results on the dynamics of a particular...

  1. Immunochemical characterization of the O antigens of two Proteus strains, O8-related antigen of Proteus mirabilis 12 B-r and O2-related antigen of Proteus genomospecies 5/6 12 B-k, infecting a hospitalized patient in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewiecka, Dominika; Shashkov, Alexander S; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-05-01

    A hospitalized 73-year-old woman was infected with a Proteus mirabilis strain, 12 B-r, isolated from the place of injection of a blood catheter. Another strain, 12 B-k, recognized as Proteus genomospecies 5 or 6, was isolated from the patient's faeces, which was an example of a nosocomial infection rather than an auto-infection. Serological investigation using ELISA and Western blotting showed that strain 12 B-k from faeces belonged to the Proteus O2 serogroup. Strain 12 B-r from the wound displayed cross-reactions with several Proteus O serogroups due to common epitopes on the core or O-specific parts of the lipopolysaccharide. Studies of the isolated 12 B-r O-specific polysaccharide by NMR spectroscopy revealed its close structural similarity to that of Proteus O8. The only difference in 12 B-r was the presence of an additional GlcNAc-linked phosphoethanolamine residue, which creates a putative epitope responsible for the cross-reactivity with Pt. mirabilis O16. The new O-antigen form could appear as a result of adaptation of the bacterium to a changing environment. On the basis of the data obtained, we suggest division of the O8 serogroup into two subgroups: O8a for strains of various Proteus species that have been previously classified into the O8 serogroup, and O8a,b for Pt. mirabilis 12 B-r, where 'a' is a common epitope and 'b' is a phosphoethanolamine-associated epitope. These findings further confirm serological and structural heterogeneity of O antigens of Proteus strains isolated lately from patients in Poland. PMID:26959528

  2. Markov chain Monte Carlo test of toric homogeneous Markov chains

    OpenAIRE

    Takemura, Akimichi; Hara, Hisayuki

    2010-01-01

    Markov chain models are used in various fields, such behavioral sciences or econometrics. Although the goodness of fit of the model is usually assessed by large sample approximation, it is desirable to use conditional tests if the sample size is not large. We study Markov bases for performing conditional tests of the toric homogeneous Markov chain model, which is the envelope exponential family for the usual homogeneous Markov chain model. We give a complete description of a Markov basis for ...

  3. Doping of Semiconducting Atomic Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshishige, Yamada; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Due to the rapid progress in atom manipulation technology, atomic chain electronics would not be a dream, where foreign atoms are placed on a substrate to form a chain, and its electronic properties are designed by controlling the lattice constant d. It has been shown theoretically that a Si atomic chain is metallic regardless of d and that a Mg atomic chain is semiconducting or insulating with a band gap modified with d. For electronic applications, it is essential to establish a method to dope a semiconducting chain, which is to control the Fermi energy position without altering the original band structure. If we replace some of the chain atoms with dopant atoms randomly, the electrons will see random potential along the chain and will be localized strongly in space (Anderson localization). However, if we replace periodically, although the electrons can spread over the chain, there will generally appear new bands and band gaps reflecting the new periodicity of dopant atoms. This will change the original band structure significantly. In order to overcome this dilemma, we may place a dopant atom beside the chain at every N lattice periods (N > 1). Because of the periodic arrangement of dopant atoms, we can avoid the unwanted Anderson localization. Moreover, since the dopant atoms do not constitute the chain, the overlap interaction between them is minimized, and the band structure modification can be made smallest. Some tight-binding results will be discussed to demonstrate the present idea.

  4. Spin chains and combinatorics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we continue the investigation of finite XXZ spin chains with periodic boundary conditions and odd number of sites, initiated in our previous article (Stroganov Yu. G. 2001 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 34 L179-85). As it turned out, for a special value of the asymmetry parameter Δ=-1/2 the Hamiltonian of the system has an eigenvalue, which is exactly proportional to the number of sites E=-3N/2. Using Mathematica we have found explicitly the corresponding eigenvectors for N≤17. The obtained results support the conjecture our paper that this special eigenvalue corresponds to the ground state vector. We make a lot of conjectures concerning the correlations of the model. Many remarkable relations between the wavefunction components are noted. It turns out, for example, that the ratio of the largest component to the least one is equal to the number of the alternating sign matrices. (author)

  5. Supply chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Logic' (Leading Oil and Gas Industry Competitiveness) is a government-industry supply chain management initiative which aims to improve the competitiveness of the UK's North Sea business by 1 billion UK pounds by 2002 and its export performance by 50% inside 5 years. Much of the article is devoted to the background and views of Logic's chief executive Chris. Freeman. Freeman makes clear that 'unlike Crine, we are not a cost-reduction initiative: that may be one of the outcomes, but we are really focusing on the co-operation side of things'. Logic aims to change the culture of the UK offshore industry through example. Freeman believes that the creation of collaborative success will flag up industry and give credence to Logics objectives

  6. Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The polymerase chain reaction (PCR is a technique in molecular biology to amplify a single or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence. PCR is now a common and often indispensable technique used in medical and biological research labs for a variety of applications. There are three major steps involved in the PCR technique: denaturation, annealing and extension. PCR is useful in the investigation and diagnosis of a growing number of diseases. PCR is also used in forensics laboratories. PCR can identify genes that have been implicated in the development of cancer. The present paper is an attempt to review basics of PCR in relation to its methods, application and use.

  7. Chain formation of metal atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahn, Sune Rastad; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of formation of single-atomic chains by manipulation of nanocontacts is studied for a selection of metals (Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au). Molecular dynamics simulations show that the tendency for chain formation is strongest for Au and Pt. Density functional theory calculations indicate...... that the metals which form chains exhibit pronounced many-atom interactions with strong bonding in low coordinated systems....

  8. Supply chain collaboration under uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Saad; Eckert, Claudia; Earl, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In fluctuating economic conditions such as global recession, supply chains operate under changing conditions of uncertainty. The impact of this uncertainty and associated risk might be mitigated by collaboration. This paper proposes a model of supply chain collaboration based on information exchange and decision coordination at both the strategic and tactical levels. However, a collaborative supply chain can be exposed to associated risks such as the failure of individual actors. Governance r...

  9. Agent Simulation of Chain Bankruptcy

    OpenAIRE

    Yuichi Ikeda; Yoshi Fujiwara; Wataru Souma; Hideaki Aoyama; Hiroshi Iyetomi

    2007-01-01

    We have conducted an agent-based simulation of chain bankruptcy. The propagation of credit risk on a network, i.e., chain bankruptcy, is the key to nderstanding largesized bankruptcies. In our model, decrease of revenue by the loss of accounts payable is modeled by an interaction term, and bankruptcy is defined as a capital deficit. Model parameters were estimated using financial data for 1,077 listed Japanese firms. Simulations of chain bankruptcy on the real transaction network consisting o...

  10. The Service-Profit Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Lars; Martensen, Anne

    This paper examines the links between employee attitudes, customer loyalty and company profitability. From a conceptual point of view, this employee-customer-profit chain, also known as the service-profit chain, is well founded and generally accepted. But for many companies, it seems difficult to...... evidence of the employee-customer-profit chain. As it is possible to estimate the links, we have demonstrated their effect on company profitability. The research findings provide a better understanding of the service-profit chain and may help practitioners in improving company financial performance....

  11. Risikobasiertes Supply-Chain-Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Schinz, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Das Management erlebt seit einigen Jahren dahingehend einen Paradigmenwechsel, dass nicht mehr Unternehmen als einzelne autonome Einheiten im Wettbewerb zueinander stehen, sondern die Supply Chains, in denen diese Unternehmen eingebunden sind. Ursachen hierfür sind beispielsweise die Auslagerung...... von Nicht-Kernprozessen auf vorgelagerte Stufen der Supply Chain oder auf Supply-Chain-Dienstleister sowie die Internationalisierung der Beschaffung. Dieser Paradigmenwechsel hat traditionelles Denken in den Schranken des Systems „Unternehmen“ abgelöst und zum Supply- Chain-Denken geführt, das vor......- und nachgelagerte Stufen des Systems „End-to-End-Supply-Chain“ einbezieht, etwa auch die Lieferanten von Lieferanten....

  12. Social Media and Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Markova; Tatjana Petkovska-Mirčevska

    2013-01-01

    Web 2.0, also referred to as social media, is the use of the World Wide Web to increase creativity, information sharing, and collaboration among users. Social media is driving the rethinking of many of the principles of economics. The use of social media within supply chains is lagging behind their usage for other operational functions, however supply chain management is evolving into supply chain management 2.0.The purpose of this article is to provide researches of the supply chain manageme...

  13. Social Media and Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Markova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Web 2.0, also referred to as social media, is the use of the World Wide Web to increase creativity, information sharing, and collaboration among users. Social media is driving the rethinking of many of the principles of economics. The use of social media within supply chains is lagging behind their usage for other operational functions, however supply chain management is evolving into supply chain management 2.0.The purpose of this article is to provide researches of the supply chain management a reference with the main concepts of social media: social profiles, social applications, brand outposts and communities, and the social ecosystem.

  14. Supply Chain Coordination in Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Nazaré; de Sousa, Jorge Pinho

    This paper presents an innovative approach to support the definition of strategies for the design of alternative configurations of hospital supply chains. This approach was developed around a hybrid Tabu Search / Variable Neighbourhood Search metaheuristic, that uses several neighbourhood structures. The flexibility of the procedure allows its application to supply chains with different topologies and atypical cost characteristics. A preliminary computational experience shows the approach potential in solving large scale supply chain configuration problems. The future incorporation of this approach in a broader Decision Support System (DSS) will provide a tool that can significantly contribute to an increase of healthcare supply chains efficiency and encourage the establishment of collaborative partnerships between their members.

  15. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Wognum, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer. T

  16. Orbiting chains and rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakwell, J. V.

    1983-01-01

    Two very different, highly flexible, space structures proposed during the last decade which involve analytical solution of certain partial differential equations are discussed. The first structure is an array, or hanging chain of aluminum beads which would serve as a convenient communicator if, under the influence of the Earth's gravity gradient, it assumes a local vertical orientation as it circles the Earth. Two passive schemes have been proposed for damping the rigid modes: twist the wire at the ends to provide non-zero moment of inertia about the vertical, thereby inducing relative motion of the two tips during rigid pitch or roll, and thus exercising a damper; and introduce weak lossy springs between the end sections and the main section; thereby providing linear coupling between the springs and all the in-plane (pitch) modes. The second structure is a complete ring of satellites cabled together at synchronous altitude. By a slight increase in altitude, the cable is in tension. This configuration is, however, unstable, and an active feedback control scheme is required to stabilize it. A possible scheme involves local cable length adjustment based on measurement of local altitude and shape variations and their rates.

  17. Negotiations in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    negotiation literature. Subsequently, an empirical case study is presented, which explicitly aims at exploring the role of negotiations between members of a supply chain. Based on the findings, the paper concludes on specific, normative guidelines for negotiations for improved supply chain competitiveness...

  18. Environmental Management in Product Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Forman, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The chapter aims at giving background to companies, consultants, governmental regulators, NGOs etc. for the analysis and planning of environmental management in specific product chains through: A framework for understanding environmental management in product chains as shaped by the interaction...... between existing resources, norms and values and external pressures for environmental management (second section). A model for the types of corporate network relations that need to be mapped and understood in order to analyze and/or develop environmental management in a product chain (third section). An...... developed or needed to be developed as part of environmental management in a product chain (fifth and sixth sections). A framework for understanding, in particular, environmental management in product chains involving companies from different countries with different regulatory frameworks and some...

  19. Managing the Global Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Kinra, Aseem;

    The world today faces global competition. The supply chain is vital part of the globalization process. Presenting a global view of the scope and complexity of supply chain management, this book reflects the rapid change that has taken place within the supply chain and its environment. This new...... well as current examples of best practice of managing supply chains in a global context....... edition has been fully updated with recent changes in concepts, technology and practice. Integration and collaboration are keywords in future competition. Firms must be agile and lean at the same time. The book gives an insightful overview of the conceptual foundations of the global supply chain, as...

  20. Environmental Management in Product Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Forman, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The chapter aims at giving background to companies, consultants, governmental regulators, NGOs etc. for the analysis and planning of environmental management in specific product chains through: A framework for understanding environmental management in product chains as shaped by the interaction...... between existing resources, norms and values and external pressures for environmental management (second section). A model for the types of corporate network relations that need to be mapped and understood in order to analyze and/or develop environmental management in a product chain (third section......). An overview of examples from our own research and from literature of the type and the role of environmental issues and initiatives in product chains (fourth section). A typology for characterizing corporate strategies as part of environmental management in product chains and characterizing those competencies...

  1. Managing the Global Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Schary, Philip B.; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan;

    The world today faces global competition. The supply chain is vital part of the globalization process. Presenting a global view of the scope and complexity of supply chain management, this book reflects the rapid change that has taken place within the supply chain and its environment. This new...... edition has been fully updated with recent changes in concepts, technology and practice. Integration and collaboration are keywords in future competition. Firms must be agile and lean at the same time. The book gives an insightful overview of the conceptual foundations of the global supply chain, as...... well as current examples of best practice of managing supply chains in a global context....

  2. Chains-into-Bins Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Batu, Tugkan; Cooper, Colin

    2010-01-01

    The study of {\\em balls-into-bins processes} or {\\em occupancy problems} has a long history. These processes can be used to translate realistic problems into mathematical ones in a natural way. In general, the goal of a balls-into-bins process is to allocate a set of independent objects (tasks, jobs, balls) to a set of resources (servers, bins, urns) and, thereby, to minimize the maximum load. In this paper, we analyze the maximum load for the {\\em chains-into-bins} problem, which is defined as follows. There are $n$ bins, and $m$ objects to be allocated. Each object consists of balls connected into a chain of length $\\ell$, so that there are $m \\ell$ balls in total. We assume the chains cannot be broken, and that the balls in one chain have to be allocated to $\\ell$ consecutive bins. We allow each chain $d$ independent and uniformly random bin choices for its starting position. The chain is allocated using the rule that the maximum load of any bin receiving a ball of that chain is minimized. We show that, fo...

  3. Elastic Behavior of Polymer Chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teng Lu; Tao Chen; Hao-jun Liang

    2008-01-01

    The elastic behavior of the polymer chain was investigated in a three-dimensional off-lattice model. We sample more than 109 conformations of each kind of polymer chain by using a Monte Carlo algorithm, then analyze them with the non-Gaussian theory of rubberlike elasticity, and end with a statistical study. Through observing the effect of the chain flexibility and the stretching ratio on the mean-square end-to-end distance,the average energy, the average Helmholtz free energy, the elastic force, the contribution of energy to the elastic force, and the entropy contribution to elastic force of the polymer chain, we find that a rigid polymer chain is much easier to stretch than a flexible polymer chain. Also, a rigid polymer chain will become difficult to stretch only at a quite high stretching ratio because of the effect of the entropy contribution.These results of our simulation calculation may explain some of the macroscopic phenomena of polymer and biomacromolecular elasticity.

  4. Optical regulation of cell chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoshuai; Huang, Jianbin; Zhang, Yao; Li, Baojun

    2015-06-01

    Formation of cell chains is a straightforward and efficient method to study the cell interaction. By regulating the contact sequence and interaction distance, the influence of different extracellular cues on the cell interaction can be investigated. However, it faces great challenges in stable retaining and precise regulation of cell chain, especially in cell culture with relatively low cell concentration. Here we demonstrated an optical method to realize the precise regulation of cell chain, including removing or adding a single cell, adjusting interaction distance, and changing cell contact sequence. After injecting a 980-nm wavelength laser beam into a tapered optical fiber probe (FP), a cell chain of Escherichia colis (E. colis) is formed under the optical gradient force. By manipulating another FP close to the cell chain, a targeted E. coli cell can be trapped by the FP and removed from the chain. Further, the targeted cell can be added back to the chain at different positions to change the cell contact sequence. The experiments were interpreted by numerical simulations and the impact of cell sizes and shapes on this method was analyzed.

  5. Improving supply chain collaborations and performance of inefficient supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sanei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern manufacturing enterprises are required to collaborate by their business partners through their business process operations such as design, manufacture, distribution, and aftersales services. And furthermore performance evaluation is of great importance for effective supply chain man agement. Therefore, DEA can help companies to remove some of the in efficiencies in operational processes in order to become more effective. The current paper develops one approach for determining the DEA projections for inefficient supply chains. Meanwhile this approach aims at providing an easy, efficient and more practical approach based on the performance evaluation for the multi-member supply chain. And ultimately, this model is illustrated by an numerical example of Chinese commercial bank, and case study application to provide of machine-making supply chain.

  6. Markov chains theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sericola, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Markov chains are a fundamental class of stochastic processes. They are widely used to solve problems in a large number of domains such as operational research, computer science, communication networks and manufacturing systems. The success of Markov chains is mainly due to their simplicity of use, the large number of available theoretical results and the quality of algorithms developed for the numerical evaluation of many metrics of interest.The author presents the theory of both discrete-time and continuous-time homogeneous Markov chains. He carefully examines the explosion phenomenon, the

  7. New sensors and processing chain

    CERN Document Server

    Yaakoubi, Nourdin

    2014-01-01

    A vital tool for researchers, engineers, and students, New Sensors and Processing Chain focuses on the processing chain to set up in order to extract relevant information on various systems. Highlighting the design of new microsensors and various applications, the authors present recent progress in instrumentation and microsystem design, providing insight to the modification of the sensor itself as well as its environment. Various applications illustrate the presentations, which show how a processing chain is organized from the data acquired by a specific sensor.

  8. Quadratic Variation by Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Horel, Guillaume

    We introduce a novel estimator of the quadratic variation that is based on the the- ory of Markov chains. The estimator is motivated by some general results concerning filtering contaminated semimartingales. Specifically, we show that filtering can in prin- ciple remove the effects of market...... microstructure noise in a general framework where little is assumed about the noise. For the practical implementation, we adopt the dis- crete Markov chain model that is well suited for the analysis of financial high-frequency prices. The Markov chain framework facilitates simple expressions and elegant analyti...

  9. Food Chain Security and Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Sébastien; Delvenne, Pierre; Claisse, Frédéric

    In our contemporary societies, the food chain could be defined as a macro-technical system, which depends on a wide variety of actors and risks analysis methods. In this contribution, risks related to the food chain are defined in terms of "modern risks" (Beck 1992). The whole national economic sector of food production/distribution is vulnerable to a local accident, which can affect the functioning of food chain, the export programs and even the political system. Such a complex socio-technical environment is undoubtedly vulnerable to intentional act such as terrorism.

  10. Chains of Mean Field Models

    OpenAIRE

    Hassani, S. Hamed; Macris, Nicolas; Urbanke, Ruediger

    2011-01-01

    We consider a collection of Curie-Weiss (CW) spin systems, possibly with a random field, each of which is placed along the positions of a one-dimensional chain. The CW systems are coupled together by a Kac-type interaction in the longitudinal direction of the chain and by an infinite range interaction in the direction transverse to the chain. Our motivations for studying this model come from recent findings in the theory of error correcting codes based on spatially coupled graphs. We find tha...

  11. Bibliometric Application of Markov Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Miranda Lee; McCreery, Laurie

    1986-01-01

    A rudimentary description of Markov Chains is presented in order to introduce its use to describe and to predict authors' movements among subareas of the discipline of ethnomusicology. Other possible applications are suggested. (Author)

  12. Designing the Reverse Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobbi, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    supply chain. Research limitations/implications – The focus is restricted to the industry of electrical and electronic products. Practical implications – Based on the outcome of the study, managers are able to determine the basic prerequisites for the design of their reverse supply chains. Originality......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of the product residual value (PRV) and the loss of value over time of returned products in the reverse supply chain configuration. It also examines whether or not the distinction of Fisher's functional and innovative products holds for...... the reverse supply chain. Design/methodology/approach – In order to identify the relevance of the Fisher model, the model needs to be recast in terms of PRV, which, in this context, is considered the independent variable in the reverse logistics arena. Products defined as innovative in Fisher...

  13. Supply Chain Shipment Pricing Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This data set provides supply chain health commodity shipment and pricing data. Specifically, the data set identifies Antiretroviral (ARV) and HIV lab shipments to...

  14. Supply Chain Management and Hypercompetition

    OpenAIRE

    Kotzab, H,; Grant, DB; Teller, C.; Halldorsson, A

    2008-01-01

    Firms nowadays face significant challenges in their operating environments, which have been characterised in two different ways. From a strategic management perspective these environments are in a state of hypercompetition while from a logistics or supply chain perspective these environments require market responsiveness predicated upon agile supply chains. However, firms must also rely on many interorganizational relationships to ensure efficient and effective movements within their supply c...

  15. Risk Management in Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Satyendra Kumar

    2009-01-01

    With increasing competition and globalization, the importance of risk management is increasing in extended enterprises. There are evidences that companies who excel in managing risks outperform their rivals. The ability to be “adaptive” in Supply Chain Management (SCM) has been the subject of much discussion as a means to deal with the increasing level of uncertainty in global supply chains. Traditional approaches to SCM focused on the “goodness” of a plan and sought to eliminate variability....

  16. Product Classification in Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Lihong; Xu, Yaoxuan

    2010-01-01

    Oriflame is a famous international direct sale cosmetics company with complicated supply chain operation but it lacks of a product classification system. It is vital to design a product classification method in order to support Oriflame global supply planning and improve the supply chain performance. This article is aim to investigate and design the multi-criteria of product classification, propose the classification model, suggest application areas of product classification results and intro...

  17. Demand chain management - The evolution

    OpenAIRE

    D Ericsson

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Demand Chain Management (DCM) are among the new and debated topics concerning logistics in the literature. The question considered in this paper is: “Are these concepts needed or will they just add to the confusion?” Lasting business concepts have always evolved in close interaction between business and academia. Different approaches start out in business and they are then, more or less si- multaneously, aligned, integrated, systemised and str...

  18. The chain re-action

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 18 March, beam commissioning started in the first ‘link’ of the accelerator chain – LINAC 2. This marks the start of what will be the longest period of beam operations in CERN’s history, with the accelerator complex remaining operational throughout the winter to supply the LHC. The Bulletin finds out what is being done to make sure the whole chain is ready for this historic run.

  19. Sports Nutrition Food Industry Chain Development Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Yin

    2015-01-01

    Through the study of Henan sports nutrition food industry chain optimization, the study analyses development advantage and competitive advantage of Henan in sports nutrition food industry chain and existing problems and challenges in Henan sports nutrition food industry chain and at the same time introduces the theory of supply chain management to the development of sports nutrition food industry chain, clearly optimizes countermeasures of sports nutrition food industry chain. Pointing out sp...

  20. Risk Management in Biopharmaceutical Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yao

    2011-01-01

    Biopharmaceutical supply chains present considerable complexity issue for the formulation of optimal plans due to significant uncertainty in the supply chain. The primary goal of biopharmaceutical supply chain planning is to provide reliable supply to patients while coping with various supply chain risks. In chapter 1 first I discuss the key elements and basic characteristics of the biopharmaceutical supply chain . Then I present the major challenges in biopharmaceutical supply chain planning...

  1. Finance Management Based on Value Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjing Shang; Jianping Yang

    2009-01-01

    The theory of value chain has brought about a new idea for enterprise management. In recent years, scholars inside and outside have kept on researching how to meet the needs for management by means of studying the value chain of enterprises. In a sense, the value chain management has penetrated into human mind, concerning with every aspect of enterprise management, such as accounting of value chain, human resource management of value chain, and cost management of value chain. Based on an anal...

  2. What is a Responsible Supply Chain?

    OpenAIRE

    Terje Ingebrigt Vaaland; Owusu, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the concept of responsible supply chain based on two dimensions, the core processes of a supply chain and the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR). It is suggested that a responsible supply chain is achieved through manifested core values of the supply chain actors, strategies, and tactics. The paper further discusses the individual supply chain actors’ responsibility in securing a responsible supply chain beyond the actors’ direct control. A conceptual model ...

  3. Demand chain management - The evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ericsson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of Supply Chain Management (SCM and Demand Chain Management (DCM are among the new and debated topics concerning logistics in the literature. The question considered in this paper is: “Are these concepts needed or will they just add to the confusion?” Lasting business concepts have always evolved in close interaction between business and academia. Different approaches start out in business and they are then, more or less si- multaneously, aligned, integrated, systemised and structured in academia. In this way a terminology (or language is provided that helps in further diffusion of the concepts. There is a lack of consensus on the definition of the concept of SCM. This may be one of the major reasons for the difficulty in advancing the science and measuring the results of implementation in business. Relationships in SCM span from rather loose coalitions to highly structured virtual network integrations. DCM is a highly organised chain in which the key is mutual interdependence and partnership. The purpose is to create a distinctive competence for the chain as a whole that helps to identify and satisfy customer needs and wishes. The classical research concerning vertical marketing systems is very helpful in systemising the rather unstructured discussions in current SCM research. The trend lies in increasing competition between channels rather than between companies, which in turn leads to the creation of channels with a high degree of partnership and mutual interdependence between members. These types of channels are known as organised vertical marketing systems in the classic marketing channel research. The behaviour in these types of channels, as well as the formal and informal structures, roles in the network, power and dependence relations, etc. are well covered topics in the literature. The concept of vertical marketing systems lies behind the definition of demand chains and demand chain management proposed in this paper. A

  4. Linear chains and chain-like fractals from electrostatic heteroaggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Anthony Y; Hauch, Kip D; Berg, John C; Martin, James E; Anderson, Robert A

    2003-04-01

    The internal structure of materials prepared by aggregation of oppositely charged polystyrene spheres (electrostatic heteroaggregation) is investigated by static light scattering, optical microscopy, and Brownian dynamics simulation. Light scattering indicates ultralow mass fractal dimensions, as low as 1.2. Such low fractal dimensions, approaching the theoretical limit of a linear object, imply a chaining mechanism. Optical micrographs reveal linear chains with the particle charge alternating down the chains. Brownian dynamics simulation gives additional support for a chaining mechanism. For the polystyrene system (120-nm primary particle diameters), the fractal dimension is found to increase from 1.2 to 1.7 as the background electrolyte is increased. In terms of electrostatic screening, the results match those reported recently for larger polystyrene spheres. The low fractal dimensions appear to represent a crossover from linear chains to a structure of diffusion-limited aggregates; however, experiments under density-neutral conditions imply that sedimentation plays an important role in the formation of ultralow fractal dimensions. The practical implication is that microcomposites with a locally uniform distribution of starting materials and almost any degree of branching can be prepared from oppositely charged particles. PMID:12742045

  5. Supply Chain Management Practices in Toy Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; Arlbjørn, Jan Stentoft; Johansen, John

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - Innovative products usually experience highly unpredictable and variable demand. This is especially valid for the volatile and seasonal toy industry, which produces high obsolete inventory, lost sales and markdown. In such a volatile industry, what supply chain management (SCM) practices...... manufacturers (traditional mass-production or push-models). These low-responsive practices in the toy supply chain are not caused only by slow knowledge diffusion. SCM know-how is not yet capable of managing such levels of volatility and seasonality. Therefore, explanations of these theoretical gaps and what...... are applicable and effective? This study seeks to explore SCM practices, and identify practical and theoretical gaps in toy supply chains. Design/methodology/approach - This article includes a longitudinal and in-depth case study during the past year in an international toy manufacturer, which...

  6. Competitive behaviour in supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Konecka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article deals with the results of literature and empirical research into competitiveness and behaviour of entities in supply chains. Methods: A research hypothesis has been formulated that both partnership as well as dominance relations occur between enterprises functioning as suppliers-consignees. In order to verify the hypothesis a survey was completed in 2012. It encompassed 116 enterprises (manufacturers - 33, service providers - 32 and sellers - 24 as well as enterprises selling goods and providing services - 27 of which 54 were large, 26 medium and 36 were small enterprises. Competitive behaviour in supply chains has been identified and analysed. Furthermore, the authors intended to identify, reveal and examine possible interdependences between competitive behaviour and behaviour typical of supply chain strategies. Results and conclusions: The analysis of survey results revealed a tendency to preserve equilibrium between a chain leader and dependent enterprises. It may be easily justified in practice as on the one hand there is a need to keep the supply chain competitive and on the other hand to avoid the interruptions, which could occur as a result of elimination of dependent enterprises.

  7. Chains of Mean Field Models

    CERN Document Server

    Hassani, S Hamed; Urbanke, Ruediger

    2011-01-01

    We consider a collection of mean field spin systems, each of which is placed on the positions of a one-dimensional chain, coupled together by a Kac-type interaction along the chain. We analyze the simplest possible cases where the individual system is a Curie-Weiss model, possibly with a random field. We are interested in the regime where the size of each mean field model tends to infinity and, the length of the chain and range of the Kac interaction are large but finite. Below the critical temperature, there appears a series of equilibrium states representing kink-like interfaces between the two equilibrium states of the individual system. The van der Waals curve oscillates periodically around the Maxwell plateau. These oscillations have a period inversely proportional to the chain length and an amplitude exponentially small in the range of the interaction; in other words the spinodal points of the chain model lie exponentially close to the phase transition threshold. The amplitude of the oscillations is clo...

  8. Chain reconfiguration in active noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Nairhita; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi

    2016-05-01

    In a typical single molecule experiment, the dynamics of an unfolded protein is studied by determining the reconfiguration time using long-range Förster resonance energy transfer, where the reconfiguration time is the characteristic decay time of the position correlation between two residues of the protein. In this paper we theoretically calculate the reconfiguration time for a single flexible polymer in the presence of active noise. The study suggests that though the mean square displacement grows faster, the chain reconfiguration is always slower in the presence of long-lived active noise with exponential temporal correlation. Similar behavior is observed for a worm-like semi-flexible chain and a Zimm chain. However it is primarily the characteristic correlation time of the active noise and not the strength that controls the increase in the reconfiguration time. In brief, such active noise makes the polymer move faster but the correlation loss between the monomers becomes slow.

  9. Ligand chain length conveys thermochromism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Mainak; Panigrahi, Sudipa; Chandrakumar, K R S; Sasmal, Anup Kumar; Pal, Anjali; Pal, Tarasankar

    2014-08-14

    Thermochromic properties of a series of non-ionic copper compounds have been reported. Herein, we demonstrate that Cu(II) ion with straight-chain primary amine (A) and alpha-linolenic (fatty acid, AL) co-jointly exhibit thermochromic properties. In the current case, we determined that thermochromism becomes ligand chain length-dependent and at least one of the ligands (A or AL) must be long chain. Thermochromism is attributed to a balanced competition between the fatty acids and amines for the copper(II) centre. The structure-property relationship of the non-ionic copper compounds Cu(AL)2(A)2 has been substantiated by various physical measurements along with detailed theoretical studies based on time-dependent density functional theory. It is presumed from our results that the compound would be a useful material for temperature-sensor applications. PMID:24943491

  10. Precise Nanoelectronics with Adatom Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshishige

    1999-01-01

    Adatom chains on an atomically regulated substrate will be building components in future precise nanoelectronics. Adatoms need to be secured with chemical bonding, but then electronic isolation between the adatom and substrate systems is not guaranteed. A one-dimensional model shows that good isolation with existence of surface states is expected on an s-p crossing substrate such as Si, Ge, or GaAs, reflecting the bulk nature of the substrate. Isolation is better if adatoms are electronically similar to the substrate atoms, and can be manipulated by hydrogenation. Chain structures with group IV adatoms with two chemical bonds, or group III adatoms with one chemical bond, are semiconducting, reflecting the surface nature of the substrate. These structures are unintentionally doped due to the charge transfer across the chemical bonds. Physical properties of adatom chains have to be determined for the unified adatom-substrate system.

  11. Thermophoresis of linear polymer chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringuier, Eric

    2011-05-01

    The thermophoresis of a linear polymer chain in a solvent is examined theoretically and is shown to be due to the action of two forces. The first one is Waldmann's thermophoretic force (stemming from the departure of the molecular-velocity distribution from Maxwell's equilibrium distribution), which here is extrapolated to a dense medium by using scaling considerations. The second force is due to the fact that the viscous friction varies with position owing to the temperature gradient, which brings a zeroth-order correction to the Stokes law of friction. The present scaling theory is compared with recent experiments and is found to account for: (i) the existence of both signs of the thermodiffusion coefficient; (ii) the absolute magnitude of the coefficient; (iii) the fact that it is independent of the chain length in the high-polymer limit; and (iv) the dependence on solvent viscosity. The variation of the coefficient for short chains is also examined.

  12. Environmental management in product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Forman, Marianne; Hansen, Anne Grethe

    of environmental initiatives, a number of recommendations for governmental regulation, which can support the further diffusion of environmental management in product chains, are developed. Furthermore, the report describes a number of theoretical perspectives from sociology of technology, organisation theory......This report presents the analyses of the shaping, implementation and embedding of eight types of environmental initiatives in product chains. The analyses focus on • the role of the type of product and branch, of the size of the companies and of governmental regulation • the focus...... of the environmental concerns and the reductions in environmental impact • organisational changes which have been part of the embedding of the initiatives The analyses are based on 25 cases from national and international product chains involving one or more Danish companies. Based on the analyses of the eight types...

  13. Towards biotracing in food chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Wagner, Martin; Jordan, Kieran;

    2011-01-01

    integration of these disciplines will lead to better capability in full-chain tracing and tracking biological contaminations (biotracing). The advantages of improved biotraceability are faster intervention, limited recalls and more targeted remedial action. The project is not dealing with risk assessments but......Biotracing is tracing (backward)/tracking (forward) biological contamination in the food/feed chain. Advances in detection technologies, improvements in molecular marker identification, clearer understanding of pathogenicity markers, improved modelling methodologies and, more importantly, the......, and 21 cross-disciplinary work packages that cover tracing and tracking of contamination in feed, meat and dairy chains, in addition to accidental and deliberate contamination of bottled water. The BIOTRACER Consortium consists of 46 partners, including Europe's largest food/feed industries, several...

  14. Chain reconfiguration in active noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a typical single molecule experiment, the dynamics of an unfolded protein is studied by determining the reconfiguration time using long-range Förster resonance energy transfer, where the reconfiguration time is the characteristic decay time of the position correlation between two residues of the protein. In this paper we theoretically calculate the reconfiguration time for a single flexible polymer in the presence of active noise. The study suggests that though the mean square displacement grows faster, the chain reconfiguration is always slower in the presence of long-lived active noise with exponential temporal correlation. Similar behavior is observed for a worm-like semi-flexible chain and a Zimm chain. However it is primarily the characteristic correlation time of the active noise and not the strength that controls the increase in the reconfiguration time. In brief, such active noise makes the polymer move faster but the correlation loss between the monomers becomes slow. (paper)

  15. Differential evolution Markov chain with snooker updater and fewer chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ter Braak, Cajo J F [NON LANL

    2008-01-01

    Differential Evolution Markov Chain (DE-MC) is an adaptive MCMC algorithm, in which multiple chains are run in parallel. Standard DE-MC requires at least N=2d chains to be run in parallel, where d is the dimensionality of the posterior. This paper extends DE-MC with a snooker updater and shows by simulation and real examples that DE-MC can work for d up to 50--100 with fewer parallel chains (e.g. N=3) by exploiting information from their past by generating jumps from differences of pairs of past states. This approach extends the practical applicability of DE-MC and is shown to be about 5--26 times more efficient than the optimal Normal random walk Metropolis sampler for the 97.5% point of a variable from a 25--50 dimensional Student T{sub 3} distribution. In a nonlinear mixed effects model example the approach outperformed a block-updater geared to the specific features of the model.

  16. Quantum crystals and spin chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert [KdV Institute for Mathematics, University of Amsterdam, Plantage Muidergracht 24, 1018 TV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Orlando, Domenico [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel, Rue Breguet 1, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Reffert, Susanne [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: sreffert@gmail.com

    2009-04-21

    In this article, we discuss the quantum version of the melting crystal corner in one, two, and three dimensions, generalizing the treatment for the quantum dimer model. Using a mapping to spin chains we find that the two-dimensional case (growth of random partitions) is integrable and leads directly to the Hamiltonian of the Heisenberg XXZ ferromagnet. The three-dimensional case of the melting crystal corner is described in terms of a system of coupled XXZ spin chains. We give a conjecture for its mass gap and analyze the system numerically.

  17. Health Care Provider Value Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Kawczynski, Lukasz; Taisch, Marco

    2010-01-01

    In every society there is a need for an efficient health care system. This paper aims to propose a value definition and a value chain model within the health care. In order to define value patients and experts were surveyed. The proposed definition offers a complex way of looking at the value within the health care sector. The proposal of the value chain model is anticipated with a value stream mapping activities and experts interviews. Proposed model offers consistent way of looking at the v...

  18. MANAGING RISK IN SUPPLY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Karppinen, Sami

    2015-01-01

    In this master thesis the focus was to study risk management in supply chain management. During the work different types of risks were studied and how they affect purchasing in industry. The purpose of the work was also to enhance the writer’s ability to do his own daily work and to bring new views to his employer for managing a supply chain. In this work different techniques which have been introduced in the industry were reviewed. During the work, an interview survey was made among the ...

  19. Thermodynamics of Dipolar Chain Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    R. Armstrong, J.; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; V. Fedorov, D.;

    2012-01-01

    The thermodynamics of a quantum system of layers containing perpendicularly oriented dipolar molecules is studied within an oscillator approximation for both bosonic and fermionic species. The system is assumed to be built from chains with one molecule in each layer. We consider the effects of the...... numerically. Our findings indicate that thermodynamic observables, such as the heat capacity, can be used to probe the signatures of the intralayer interaction between chains. This should be relevant for near future experiments on polar molecules with strong dipole moments....

  20. Reseach of Supply Chain Modeling Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The supply chain modeling technology is research. Firstly, the concept of supply chain and supply chain management is introduced. Secondly, enterprise-modeling methods, such as CIM-OSA, GIM-GRAI, PERA and ARIS, are analyzed and compared. The supply chain modeling technology is studied. Then the ARIS-based supply chain modeling method is proposed and the supply chain operation reference model is set up. Finally, the applications of ARIS-based supply chain modeling method in Shanghai Turbine Generator Co. Ltd. (STGC) is described in detail.

  1. Supply Chains and Social Network Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Rolf A.E.; Buergelt, Doreen; Seidel-Lass, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Judged by its currency, the supply chain is one of the more successful metaphors in economics. The metaphor borrows from mechanics the idea of the chain, that is something that consists of elements that are linked to each of their two immediate neighbors and which jointly provide a strong but flexible connection. The metaphor transplants the chain-idea into the sphere of economics where, before the introduction of supply chains, chains were, for most economists, things best left in the care o...

  2. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-01-01

    This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of bot...

  3. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, man...

  4. OVERVIEW OF CHINESE CHAIN CATERING MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yiting

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a market overview for chain catering business situation in China. Chinese chain catering market is developing rapidly in recent years, it is a business where everybody can become a customer, but the business is highly competitive. The subject of this thesis is to give an overview of the market situation and strategies for market expansion of Chinese chain catering industry. It contains knowledge of chain management and introduction of Chinese chain catering ma...

  5. Supply chain management and optimization in manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Pirim, Harun; Yilbas, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces general supply chain terminology particularly for novice readers, state of the art supply chain management and optimization issues and problems in manufacturing. The book provides insights for making supply chain decisions, planning and scheduling through supply chain network. It introduces optimization problems, i.e. transportation of raw materials, products and location, inventory of plants, warehouses and retailers, faced throughout the supply chain network.

  6. Ontological Supply Chain Management: Concepts, Applications, Extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Ilter, H. Kemal

    2013-01-01

    SCOM: Multi-Layer Ontological Model for Supply Chain Systems© aims to create a model for tracking and tracing products, agents, flows and operations of a supply chain with an upper ontology.  It will hopefully let us to track or trace most properties in not-usual supply chains such as interstellar supply chains (eg. raw materials from the planet Mars), health-related supply chains (eg. blood products), food management (eg. genetic structures of agricultural products), envir...

  7. Research on Integrated Green Supply Chain Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Lei; WANG Xu

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the analyzing product life cycle and value chain management in green supply chain, integrated green supply chain is put forward and constructed which involve lean production, agile manufacturing and green supply chain. This integrated structure provides an effective method for resolving some questions such as cost, market, environment, etc. in enterprise. A case study is presented at the end of paper to demonstrate how integrated supply chain implemented successfully in enterprise.

  8. Sustainability Analysis for Gayo Coffee Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Rachman Jaya; Machfud Machfud; Sapta Raharja; Marimin Marimin

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable supply chain is a development of the conventional supply chains that discuses trade-off among economic, social and environmental dimensions in order to achieve better responsiveness in terms of quality, quantity and time-delivery in the supply chain structure. The objective of this research was to determine the Gayo coffee supply chain sustainability. The research was conducted at Bener Meriah and Aceh Tengah Districts, Aceh Province, Indonesia. Key actors in the supply chain cons...

  9. Novette chain design and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, J.T.; Speck, D.R.

    1980-12-11

    The design and performance of the Novette laser system, which is a two-beam, two-wavelength (1.05 ..mu.. and 0.53 ..mu..) target irradiation facility using phosphate glass laser chains, are discussed with information on the glass properties, controlling factors in the design selection, and projected performance with varying operating conditions. (LCL)

  10. Novette chain design and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and performance of the Novette laser system, which is a two-beam, two-wavelength (1.05 μ and 0.53 μ) target irradiation facility using phosphate glass laser chains, are discussed with information on the glass properties, controlling factors in the design selection, and projected performance with varying operating conditions

  11. The design of supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge Sørensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    the existing literature. Describes the conceptexternal specificity and how it's used to design supply chains. Using the concept upstream,archetypes of risk minimal and maximal design are identified. Downstream the conceptdescribes two viable scenarios, one minimizing the impact, the other minimizing...

  12. What Shapes Food Value Chains?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Karen Sau; Kelling, Ingrid; Ponte, Stefano;

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explain what shapes food value chains through the analysis of selected aquaculture industries in four key Asian producing countries. Worldwide production of aquatic resources has grown rapidly in the past few decades, and aquaculture production in Asia has played a decisive ro...

  13. Smallest Nanoelectronics with Adatom Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshishige; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is focused on the general aspect of atomic chain electronics that I have been studying. Results have been published before, but are being rederived here using a new physical/mathematical picture/model, which deepens the physical understanding. Precise adatom structures can be used as a template on a regulated surface with no uncertainty.

  14. Preisdifferenzierung im Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Koppers, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In the field of marketing, pricing is a valuable and long-established steering tool. But in the logistics context of co-operative strategies like supply chain management, this field is mainly neglected. Therefore, the author describes the basic principles and effects of price differentiation and suggests some further research regarding pricing in SCM considerations as well as co-operative pricing concepts.

  15. Supply Chain Management: een overzicht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    De laatste jaren wordt voor het managen van het netwerk van bedrijven die betrokken zijn bij het tot stand komen van producten of diensten het woord Supply Chain Management, ook wel SCM, gebruikt. SCM wordt als term vooral in grote industrieën gebruikt. Bijna ieder bedrijf heeft echter een toelevern

  16. Discrete breathers in polyethylene chain

    OpenAIRE

    Savin, A. V.; Manevitch, L. I.

    2002-01-01

    The existence of discrete breathers (DBs), or intrinsic localized modes (localized periodic oscillations of transzigzag) is shown. In the localization region periodic contraction-extension of valence C-C bonds occurs which is accompanied by decrease-increase of valence angles. It is shown that the breathers present in thermalized chain and their contribution dependent on temperature has been revealed.

  17. Improving supply chain collaborations and performance of inefficient supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sanei; S. Mamizadeh-Chatghayeh

    2010-01-01

    Modern manufacturing enterprises are required to collaborate by their business partners through their business process operations such as design, manufacture, distribution, and aftersales services. And furthermore performance evaluation is of great importance for effective supply chain man agement. Therefore, DEA can help companies to remove some of the in efficiencies in operational processes in order to become more effective. The current paper develops one approach for determining the DEA p...

  18. Supply Chain Management Performance in Tourism. Continental Hotels Chain Case

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Ţigu; Bogdan Călăreţu

    2013-01-01

    With its origins in logistics, Supply Chain Management (SCM) concept is covering all managerial aspects of the flow of materials and information from source to customer, across the entire range of materials handling and movement functions, and throughout an organization and its supply channels. In tourism, these issues relate to the whole process of providing tourism services from sourcing of raw materials, products or different services) to supply and distribution, and SCM performance can ul...

  19. What is a Responsible Supply Chain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje Ingebrigt Vaaland

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces the concept of responsible supply chain based on two dimensions, the core processes of a supply chain and the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR. It is suggested that a responsible supply chain is achieved through manifested core values of the supply chain actors, strategies, and tactics. The paper further discusses the individual supply chain actors’ responsibility in securing a responsible supply chain beyond the actors’ direct control. A conceptual model and a definition of a responsible supply chain are offered. Our model not only provides structure to the extant research but also develops new constructs and relationships that improve the conceptualization of the responsible supply chain. The paper is based on a review of 81 research articles published between 2000 and 2010 in which elements of CSR and supply chain processes are included.

  20. chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Pérez-Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las barreras y aranceles al comercio exterior han disminuido significativamente gracias a los acuerdos multilaterales y los mecanismos de integración entre las naciones. Los costos logísticos representan una proporción significativa del precio final de los artículos, especialmente de los commodities. Por esta razón, minimizar los costos logísticos es un desafío importante para las naciones para fomentar la competitividad del comercio exterior y en particular para aprovechar la renta de los recursos naturales. En este artículo, proponemos un marco de referencia integral para la medición de costos logísticos, enfocado en determinar los extra-costos que resultan por procedimientos ineficientes y la falta de políticas públicas y regulaciones de las entidades públicas. Estos elementos no han sido considerados en la literatura, y este artículo aborda esta brecha. Como caso de estudio, presentamos la aplicación del marco de referencia para estimar los extra-costos en algunas cadenas logísticas de recursos naturales en Bolivia. Se presenta una discusión de los resultados encontrados, así como recomendaciones para trabajo futuro.

  1. Den teoretiske udvikling af Supply Chain Strategimodeller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvad Johansen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    segmentering via postponement-princippet, har givet mærkbare forbedringer. Det beskrives endvidere, hvordan produkternes livscyklus påvirker valget af supply chain design. Begrebet Demand Chain Management( DCM), hvormed strategimodeller bruger klassiske marketingelementer sammen med Supply Chain Management......Denne artikel beskriver med udgangspunkt i artikler og virksomhedseksempler udviklingen inde for supply chain strategimodeller. Ved hjælp af tidligere udviklede koncepter besvares spørgsmålet: “Hvad er den rette supply chain for mine produkter?”. Virksomhedseksempler beskriver, hvordan supply chain...... (SCM), bliver behandlet og der udvikles en DCM-strategimodel....

  2. The chain relation in sofic subshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Kazda, Alexandr

    2009-01-01

    The paper gives a characterisation of the chain relation of a sofic subshift. Every sofic subshift $\\Sigma$ can be described by a labelled graph $G$. Factorising $G$ in a suitable way we obtain the graph $G/_\\approx$ that offers insight into some properties of the original subshift. Using $G/_\\approx$ we describe first the chain relation in $\\Sigma$, then characterise chain-transitive sofic subshifts, chain-mixing sofic subshifts and finally the attractors of the subshift dynamic system. At the end we present (straightforward) algorithms deciding chain-transitivity and chain-mixing properties of a sofic subshift and listing all the attractors of the subshift system.

  3. Supply Chain Reorganization and Coordination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng-bin

    2001-01-01

    Three generic forms of governance--hierarchy, hybrid and market are proposed in the newinstitutional economics, giving an abstract description of alternative coordination and control mechanisms forgeneral use. While this theory is known as far away from being operational and specified, a few researchersin the management and organization area are trying to extend Galbraith and/or Mintzberg's organizationaldesign theories into the application of logistical coordination for obtaining a smooth flow of products along thesupply chain within and without the focal organization. In this paper, we present an explorative case study onthe design of various organizational architectures of logistics activities and their relevant coordinationmechanisms, especially internal and external contracts as one new kind of hybrid mechanisms forcoordinating effective supply chains.

  4. Labour in Global Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Nadvi, Khalid; Chan, Anita;

    2012-01-01

    A critical challenge facing developing country producers is to meet international labour standards and codes of conduct in order to engage in global value chains. Evidence of gains for workers from compliance with such standards and codes remains limited and patchy. This article focuses on the...... draws on detailed qualitative primary field research with football-stitching workers and producers in these three countries. The article explains how and why work conditions of football stitchers differ across these locations through an analytical framework that interweaves both global and local...... global football industry, a sector dominated by leading global brands that manage dispersed global value chains. It assesses the working conditions for football stitchers engaged in different forms of work organization, factories, stitching centres and home-based settings in Pakistan, India and China. It...

  5. Supply Chain Simulation: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of simulation in supply chain management.It reviews four types of simulation, namely spreadsheet simulation, system dynamics, discreteevent simulation, and business games.Which simulation type should be applied, depends on the type of managerial question to be answered by the model.Moreover, this paper summarizes novel sensitivity and robustness analyses.This sensitivity analysis yields a shortlist of the truly important factors in large simulation models with (sa...

  6. Tunnel magnetoresistance of polymeric chains

    OpenAIRE

    Walczak, Kamil

    2004-01-01

    Coherent spin-dependent electronic transport is investigated in a molecular junction made of polymeric chain attached to ferromagnetic electrodes (Ni and Co, respectively). Molecular system is described by a simple Huckel model, while the coupling to the electrodes is treated through the use of a broad-band theory. The current flowing through the device is calculated within non-equilibrium Green's function approach. It is shown that tunnel magnetoresistance of molecular junction can be quite ...

  7. China's Role in Purchasing Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva; Alice

    2007-01-01

    @@ In current world market,"Made-in-China"often means good price and competitive quality.In terms of China's trade pattern,more than half of Chinese exporting products belong to processing trade industry according to the demands and requirements of international orders.On the purchasing chain,China is learning from its international partners.Safety and quality always tops all issues.

  8. Organizing the Global Value Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Pol Antràs; Davin Chor

    2012-01-01

    We develop a property-rights model of the firm in which production entails a continuum of uniquely sequenced stages. In each stage, a final-good producer contracts with a distinct supplier for the procurement of a customized stage-specific component. Our model yields a sharp characterization for the optimal allocation of ownership rights along the value chain. We show that the incentive to integrate suppliers varies systematically with the relative position (upstream versus downstream) at whi...

  9. Spin Chain for Quantum Strings

    OpenAIRE

    Beisert, N.

    2005-01-01

    We review and compare the integrable structures in N=4 gauge theory and string theory on AdS5xS5. Recently, Bethe ansaetze for gauge theory/weak coupling and string theory/strong coupling were proposed to describe scaling dimensions in the su(2) subsector. Here we investigate the Bethe equations for quantum string theory, naively extrapolated to weak coupling. Excitingly, we find a spin chain Hamiltonian similar, but not equal, to the gauge theory dilatation operator.

  10. Demand and Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Jack A.A. van der Veenl:; Robben, Henry S.J.

    1999-01-01

    In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op de recente ontwikkelingen met be-trekking tot de managementactiviteiten gericht op de keten die begint bij het winnen van grondstoffen en via toeleveranciers, fabrikanten en de (detail)handel loopt naar de eindgebruikers. De moderne denkbeelden op dit terrein worden samengevat met de term Demand & Supply Chain Management (DSCM); het management van de keten die onafhankelijke klanten en leveranciers verbindt als ware het een enkele en-titeit met het doel om waa...

  11. The Milk Supply Chain Project.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Howard; Thanassoulis, John

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of an Oxford University research project into the UK liquid milk supply chain. Financial sponsorship was kindly provided by the Milk Development Council (MDC) and by DEFRA. The research reported here is independent academic research which is not designed to further any group‟s particular agenda. We have striven to be as objective as possible. The project's aim is to investigate the competitive forces which influence the buyerseller relationsh...

  12. On Markov Chains and Filtrations

    OpenAIRE

    Spreij, Peter

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we rederive some well known results for continuous time Markov processes that live on a finite state space.Martingale techniques are used throughout the paper. Special attention is paid to the construction of a continuous timeMarkov process, when we start from a discrete time Markov chain. The Markov property here holds with respect tofiltrations that need not be minimal.

  13. Supply Chain Performance Evaluation: Trends and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezutah U. Olugu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In today’s manufacturing world, globalization policies and rejuvenation have created a more intensive competition amongst manufacturers. On the other hand, manufacturers have turned to the option of adopting innovative technologies, process re-engineering and strategies such as efficient supply chain management to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. Effective supply chain performance measurement has been identified as a key issue towards efficient supply chain management. To explore the extent of research in supply chain performance measurement and establish the gap in knowledge in supply chain performance measurement using fuzzy logic operation. Approach: Literatures in the area of supply chain performance measurement had been extensively reviewed. Both traditional and fuzzy logic approaches to supply chain performance measurement were scrutinized. Further scrutiny was carried out to establish potential research areas in the application of fuzzy logic operations in supply chain performance measurement. Results: The supply chain performance measurement using fuzzy logic operation was identified as a new direction in measuring the uncertainty and ambiguity surrounding supply chain performance measurement. Direction for further studies in the application of fuzzy logic operation in supply chain management and its performance measurement were also identified. Conclusion: Result of this study implied that there is still a gap in knowledge in the area of supply chain performance measurement. This new direction of studies involved extending the existing supply chains to incorporate product recovery after the useful life.

  14. ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPTS FOR VALUE CHAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Janse van Rensburg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:The Porter Value Chain has been widely adopted by the business community as a mechanism to understand and comprehend complexity in business environments, with the ultimate goal of structuring the business to maximize its competitive advantage. Implementing the Value Chain is not easy: a number of organizations can testify to their failure to derive any benefits at all from this concept. To overcome this problem, an approach is presented to assist the organization in creating a Value Chain reference model within the broader context of the organization’s enterprise architecture.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die “Porter Waardeketting” is ’n algemene aanvaarde praktyk wat deur maatskappye gebruik word om die kompleksiteit van besigheidsomgewings mee te verstaan. Die uiteindelike doel hiervan is om die besigheid se mededings voordele te optimiseer. Om die Waardekettingkonsep te implementeer, is nie ’n maklike taak nie – verskeie organisasies kan getuig van mislukte implementeringspogings. Hierdie artikel beskryf ’n benadering beskryf wat gebruik kan word om die organisasie te help om ’n Waardekettingmodel te skep in die bree konteks van die organisasie se besigheidsargitektuur.

  15. on Guinea Pig Tracheal Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Keyhanmanesh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: In regard to the high incidence of asthma and the side-effects of the drugs used, finding novel treatments for this disease is necessary. Our previous studies demonstrated the preventive effect of Nigella sativa extract on ovalbumin-induced asthma. In addition, water-soluble substances of N. sativa extract and methanol fraction of this plant were responsible for the relaxant effect of this plant on tracheal chains of guinea pigs. Therefore, for the first time, in the present study, in order to identify main constituents of the methanolic extract, the relaxant effects of five different methanolic fractions (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of N. sativa   on tracheal chains of guinea pigs were examined.     Materials and Methods:     The relaxant effects of four cumulative concentrations of each fraction (0.8, 1.2, 1.6, and 2.0 g% in comparison with saline as negative control and four cumulative concentrations of theophylline (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 mM were examined by their relaxant effects on precontracted tracheal chains of guinea pig by 60 mM KCl (group 1 and 10 μM methacholine (group 2.     Results: In group 1, all concentrations of only theophylline showed significant relaxant effects but all concentrations of these methanolic fractions showed significant contractile effects compared with that of saline (P

  16. Natural radioactivity in food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of longliving and still being produced radioactive isotopes produces well measurable and not to be neglected radiation, by which, via the food chains, plant, animal and man receives a socalled natural radiation dose. Six of the most important isotopes are discussed here. The radioisotopes 14C and 40K form part of the most live-necessary elements; they pass without strong enrichment and discrimination through the food chains and form a practically constant part of the living organism. Yet by excessive fertilizing a rather higher content of potassium than necessary is present in plants. Also a higher radiation dose arises from exessive uptake of food. The isotopes of uranium 238U and radium, 226Ra, discussed here, occur everywhere in the soil, but locally in very high amounts. They migrate for a very small part into plant and animal, sometimes occur in vegetable food as part of soil particles. Other important isotopes of the uranium families are radioactive lead, 210Pb, and polonium, 210Po, which can be dispersed to a much greater amount than the other isotopes: in the form of the gaseous intermediate product radon, here the isotope 222Rn. 210Pb and 210Po are finally deposited upon plants and other food products. In the hydrosphere 210Po can be enriched in the food chain from plankton to fish. (author). 35 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  17. Transition Probability Estimates for Reversible Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Telcs, Andras

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides transition probability estimates of transient reversible Markov chains. The key condition of the result is the spatial symmetry and polynomial decay of the Green's function of the chain.

  18. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead. PMID:26664401

  19. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of both Supply Chain’ s components, procedures, workflow, processes and the importance of Supply Chain Management into maximizing company's value. SCORE model able to provide solid information about measuring performance and identifying priorities within Supply Chain Management will help us to understand the key factors by analyzing its elements: Plan, Source, Make, Deliver,Return, Enable. These elements covers all the challenging areas from first to third tier of Supply Chain Management.

  20. Polymerization as a Model Chain Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Maurice

    1973-01-01

    Describes the features of the free radical, anionic, and cationic mechanisms of chain addition polymerization. Indicates that the nature of chain reactions can be best taught through the study of macromolecules. (CC)

  1. Supply chain strategies, issues and models

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Ramakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, supply chain operations and relationships among supply chain partners have become highly challenging, necessitating new approaches, e.g., the development of new models. Supply Chain Strategies, Issues and Models discusses supply chain issues and models with examples from actual industrial cases. Expert authors with a wide spectrum of knowledge working in various areas of supply chain management from various geographical locations offer refreshing, novel and insightful ideas and address possible solutions using established theories and models. Supply Chain Strategies, Issues and Models features studies that have used mathematical modeling, statistical analyses and also descriptive qualitative studies. The chapters cover many relevant themes related to supply chains and logistics including supply chain complexity, information sharing, quality (six sigma), electronic Kanbans, inventory models, scheduling, purchasing and contracts. To facilitate easy reading, the chapters that deal with suppl...

  2. Benchmarking carbon emissions performance in supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Acquaye, Adolf; Genovese, Andrea; Barrett, John W.; Koh, Lenny

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims to develop a benchmarking framework to address issues such as supply chain complexity and visibility, geographical differences and non-standardized data, ensuring that the entire supply chain environmental impact (in terms of carbon) and resource use for all tiers, including domestic and import flows, are evaluated. Benchmarking has become an important issue in supply chain management practice. However, challenges such as supply chain complexity and visibility, geogra...

  3. Supply Chain Integration: Challenges and Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Rapid changes in technological development are forcing businesses to continuously innovate to improve their competitiveness, which is particularly evident in logistics and supply chain management (SCM), where innovation impacts both the strategic and operational levels. Supply Chain Innovation for Competing in Highly Dynamic Markets: Challenges and Solutions investigates the role of innovation in the management of supply chains of today. This book focuses on supply chain integration from both...

  4. Supply chain management in product development.

    OpenAIRE

    Tzortzopoulos, Patricia; Kagioglou, Mike; Cooper, Rachel; Dyson, E

    2009-01-01

    Mounting emphasis on construction supply chain management (CSCM) is due to both global sourcing of materials and a shortage of labor. These factors force increasing amounts of value-added work to be conducted off-site deep in the supply chain. Construction Supply Chain Management Handbookcompiles in one comprehensive source an overview of the diverse research and examples of construction supply chain practice around the world.Reflecting the emergence of CSCM as an important area of multi-nati...

  5. Model protocells from single-chain lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansy, Sheref S

    2009-03-01

    Significant progress has been made in the construction of laboratory models of protocells. Most frequently the developed vesicle systems utilize single-chain lipids rather than the double-chain lipids typically found in biological membranes. Although single-chain lipids yield less robust vesicles, their dynamic characteristics are highly exploitable for protocellular functions. Herein the advantages of using single-chain lipids in the construction of protocells are discussed. PMID:19399223

  6. BUSINESS TENDENCIES IN SERVICES WITHIN SUPPLY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Skowron-Grabowska

    2008-01-01

    Supply chain management has been a major component of competitive strategy to enhance organizational productivity and profitability. Client satisfaction and improvement in profitability are two basic goals while organizing supply chain. In the paper author tried to prove that there is a correlation between organization of supply chain and subjective evaluation of economic situation by enterprises. Logistics integration helps enterprises to find their place in the supply chain.

  7. Analysis of a quantum Markov chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantum chain is analogous to a classical stationary Markov chain except that the probability measure is replaced by a complex amplitude measure and the transition probability matrix is replaced by a transition amplitude matrix. After considering the general situation, we study a particular example of a quantum chain whose transition amplitude matrix has the form of a Dirichlet matrix. Such matrices generate a discrete analog of the usual continuum Feynman amplitude. We then compute the probability distribution for these quantum chains

  8. Australian Lamb Supply Chain: A Conceptual Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Jie, Ferry

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, supply chain management has played an important role to lead agribusiness today to succeed in their business goals, to gain competitive advantages, and to improve business performance. As the result of that, there has been extensive studying in a popular topic of strategic supply chain management in order to improve business performance as well as along supply chain performance under the real situation. This is because in current business world, supply chain practices are ...

  9. Kooperationsanforderungen im Supply Chain Management (SCM)

    OpenAIRE

    Klumpp, Matthias; Koppers, Laura

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the general concept of Supply Chain Management (SCM) is described and the scientific cooperation models in the supply chain are discussed. Though there are several models to explain cooperations there is no clear perspective on the needed competencies in companies to shape a successful cooperation e.g. within a supply chain. Instead companies rely solely on experience and intuition in order to create and steer supply chain relationships with high business values. In order to mit...

  10. Supply Chain Differentiation : Background, Concept and Examples

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Erik; Knébel, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide new evidence in the field of supply chain differentiation. It aims to combine insights of supply chain management with the service dominant logic to connect fundamental customer requirements with supply chain decision-making. The paper claims to provide a framework that brings together the most relevant factors in the context of supply chain differentiation. The contents of the framework were applied as source to develop a generic decision support flowc...

  11. Green Supply Chains: An Indian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dani, Samir

    2011-01-01

    In today’s business environment global supply chains have to deal with the complexities of sourcing, logistics and costs. In order to keep costs down, supply chains are long and thus have to deal with complex inventory management challenges. Another challenge faced by supply chains is that of being environmentally friendly or green. As the discussion regarding climate change gathers momentum, the supply chains will be held under scrutiny for carbon emissions and use of fuel. Green supply chai...

  12. Supply Chain Management in the Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Fredrik

    2000-01-01

    In this licentiate thesis the implications of a deliberate use of logistics knowledge have been investigated by describing and analyzing the use of a supply chain management approach in the construction industry.
    A five-step approach is used in the thesis. First, theoretical models are developed from the supply chain management literature. Two models are elaborated; One model identifying supply chain criteria and the other comparing traditional to supply chain-based.

  13. Model Protocells from Single-Chain Lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Mansy, Sheref S.

    2009-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the construction of laboratory models of protocells. Most frequently the developed vesicle systems utilize single-chain lipids rather than the double-chain lipids typically found in biological membranes. Although single-chain lipids yield less robust vesicles, their dynamic characteristics are highly exploitable for protocellular functions. Herein the advantages of using single-chain lipids in the construction of protocells are discussed.

  14. Model Protocells from Single-Chain Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheref S. Mansy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been made in the construction of laboratory models of protocells. Most frequently the developed vesicle systems utilize single-chain lipids rather than the double-chain lipids typically found in biological membranes. Although single-chain lipids yield less robust vesicles, their dynamic characteristics are highly exploitable for protocellular functions. Herein the advantages of using single-chain lipids in the construction of protocells are discussed.

  15. Trade in Value Chain of Food Products

    OpenAIRE

    Zdenko Segetlija

    2008-01-01

    The paper sets out from the definition of the value chain upon which follows the analysis of the value chain structure ih the food sector. Special attention is paid to market forms in the food sector (competition, agreements, oligopolistic constellation and the like). After that, modern form of cooperation in the value chain are started (supply chain management - SCM, efficient consumer response – ECR, and other). In this context the role of wholesale and that of retail trade in the food prod...

  16. A concept for collaborative supply chain planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfnes, E.; Dreyer, H.C.; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    The main challenge for many manufacturers is the increased complexity of the supply chain, and as supply chains get more complicated enterprises require better tools for supply chain planning and execution. Many vendors offer systems to plan and control in-house operations, whereas mainly large v...... discusses current supply chain planning solutions and presents a more simple and adaptive concept to be used in both SMEs and larger enterprises....

  17. Magnetic Properties of Quantum Ferrimagnetic Spin Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Shoji

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibilities of spin-$(S,s)$ ferrimagnetic Heisenberg chains are numerically investigated. It is argued how the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic features of quantum ferrimagnets are exhibited as functions of $(S,s)$. Spin-$(S,s)$ ferrimagnetic chains behave like combinations of spin-$(S-s)$ ferromagnetic and spin-$(2s)$ antiferromagnetic chains provided $S=2s$.

  18. Systematic Methodology of Integrated Supply Chain Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Supply chain management (SCM) is a strategy for global competition. Th e characteristics of SCM are integration, systematic and coordination. Using sys tematic, coordination thoughts and integration theory, a new model of enterprise integration based on supply chain management is put forward and an implementing paradigm for systematic methodology of supply chain management is developed.

  19. On a Result for Finite Markov Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulathinal, Sangita; Ghosh, Lagnojita

    2006-01-01

    In an undergraduate course on stochastic processes, Markov chains are discussed in great detail. Textbooks on stochastic processes provide interesting properties of finite Markov chains. This note discusses one such property regarding the number of steps in which a state is reachable or accessible from another state in a finite Markov chain with M…

  20. The Evolutionary Dynamics of Biofuel Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I propose to push the frontier of global value chain (GVC) governance analysis through the concept of ‘polarity’. Much of the existing GVC literature has focused on ‘unipolar’ value chains, where one group of ‘lead firms’ inhabiting a specific function in a chain plays a dominant ro...

  1. Visualisation for System Learning in Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindskog, Magnus; Abrahamsson, Mats; Aronsson, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary supply chains are vastly complex, and decisions made by actors have system-wide consequences that these might not be able to foresee. There are gaps between "best practice"-founded theory and actual practice in supply chains. To remedy this, we argue, the supply chain actors need to enhance systems knowledge. There is a need to…

  2. Learning to Integrate: Supply Chains Reconceptualised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sense, Andrew J.; Clements, Michael D. J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces and explains a conception of supply chains from a situated learning perspective. This non-conventional supply chain perspective invites the reader to consider supply chain scenarios as "situated learning opportunities involving multiple communities of practice" interacting and participating together. It is argued that by…

  3. Principles in Halal Supply Chain Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieman, H.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Maznah Che Ghazali,

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new framework to optimise the design of halal food supply chains, called the “Halal Supply Chain Model”. In this research the main logistics business processes are defined, which are the determinants for the halal supply chain performance. Design

  4. Extending the "Knowledge Advantage": Creating Learning Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Tayyab; Walker, Derek; Finegan, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a synergy between the approaches of knowledge management in a learning organisation and supply chain management so that learning chains can be created in order to unleash innovation and creativity by managing knowledge in supply chains. Design/methodology/approach: Through extensive literature…

  5. Compressing redundant information in Markov chains

    OpenAIRE

    Aletti, Giacomo

    2006-01-01

    Given a strongly stationary Markov chain and a finite set of stopping rules, we prove the existence of a polynomial algorithm which projects the Markov chain onto a minimal Markov chain without redundant information. Markov complexity is hence defined and tested on some classical problems.

  6. Supply Chain Management Performance in Tourism. Continental Hotels Chain Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ţigu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With its origins in logistics, Supply Chain Management (SCM concept is covering all managerial aspects of the flow of materials and information from source to customer, across the entire range of materials handling and movement functions, and throughout an organization and its supply channels. In tourism, these issues relate to the whole process of providing tourism services from sourcing of raw materials, products or different services to supply and distribution, and SCM performance can ultimately be measured by customer satisfaction. Thus, an important component of tourism SCM is the demand management. Therefore, this study aims to highlight the features of the concept of SCM and demand management in tourism, with an emphasis on a hotel chain in Romania, based on research and analysis of tourist traffic indicators as well as assessment of customers satisfaction. The sources of information are the internal company statistics, as well as various hotels booking websites that offer customers’ feedback. The results of the study provide a snapshot of how the hotel demand management can influence SCM performance in tourism.

  7. MODELING SUPPLY CHAIN WITH SIMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    János Benkõ

    2010-01-01

    Supply Chain Management faces a lot of challenging issues involving difficult decisions which can be company-oriented and customer-oriented issues. In this study we deal with customeroriented issues. For example, a customer’s demand may not be fully satisfied from stock on hand and the shortage may be backordered or the sale may be lost. Either way, it is desirable to balance the holding cost which depends on the magnitude of inventory against the cost of not fully satisfying customer demand....

  8. Supply chain management - safety aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing economy, growing customer requirements and competition make the service level higher. Delivery safety - as the highest priority - has to be maintained at the same time. Customers more and more often require transport to be very flexible, fast, and complex in terms of carrying every quantity of goods of different sizes, from and to different countries, through customs clearance, storing and distribution of shipments. Meeting these requirements depends on complex information on transport processes and their safety. The article presents safety foundations and institution Authorized Economic Operator - AEO in supply chains.

  9. Compressibility of Nickel Nanoparticle Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-Dong; TANG Ling-Yun; LI Yan-Chun; LIU Jing

    2007-01-01

    We perform the high-pressure energy dispersive x-ray diffraction experiments of nickel nanoparticle chain using a synchrotron source under quasi-hydrostatic compression up to 44.7GPa. There is no phase transition over the pressure range. The bulk modulus Kg, the first pressure derivative of bulk modulus K'0 and the volume Vo are calculated from the pressure-volume data using the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. A decrease of compressibility is observed, in agreement with the Hall-Petch effect.

  10. What Can Healthcare Supply Chains Learn from Consumer-Product Supply Chains?

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy B. Schwarz

    2008-01-01

    A Framework for Thinking About Supply-Chain Management: “The IDIB Portfolio” (Information, Decision-making, Implementation, Buffer system) Describe Supply-Chains for Consumer Products Before “Wal-Mart” Describe Supply-Chains for Consumer Products After “Wal-Mart” Describe Stylized Supply Chain for Healthcare Products

  11. Integration of Forestry Industrial Chain in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhanzhan; LAN; Liqun; WANG

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Smile Curve and Michael E. Porter’ value chain model,this paper points out that China’s forestry industry stays at the low end of the value chain for a long time. Raw materials are imported from foreign countries and also sold in foreign countries. Then,the authors analyze characteristics and existing problems of China’s forestry industrial chain. They put forward the development direction of China’s forestry industrial chain with reference to International Paper Company. Finally,they present their recommendations for integration of China’s forestry industrial chain.

  12. Maintaining Power Relations in Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Ibishukcu, Ozlem; Datar, Aniket

    2016-01-01

    Managing supply chain relations has evolved over a decade and many companies have given importance to regulate their relations in supply chain relations to stay competitive in the market. In this context of adjusting relations among supply chain members, central point of discussion is the role of power. Power can be a component that persuades one member of supply chain to do certain things that he/she wouldn’t agree on doing it voluntarily. The implication of that power among supply chain mem...

  13. Cellular chain formation in Escherichia coli biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Klemm, Per

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report on a novel structural phenotype in Escherichia coli biofilms: cellular chain formation. Biofilm chaining in E. coli K-12 was found to occur primarily by clonal expansion, but was not due to filamentous growth. Rather, chain formation was the result of intercellular......; type I fimbriae expression significantly reduced cellular chain formation, presumably by steric hindrance. Cellular chain formation did not appear to be specific to E coli K-12. Although many urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates were found to form rather homogeneous, flat biofilms, three isolates...

  14. The role of enterprise systems in supply chain networks: a taxonomy of supply chain strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2006-01-01

    supply chain and to choose the right supply chain strategy. The work is based on a comprehensive study of the Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) literature and the study suggests that there is an emerging new research potential for Enterprise Systems (ES) in the supply......This paper proposes a taxonomy for supply chain integration strategies. The taxonomy is based on the contingencies of supply chain network coupling and the Extended Enterprise Systems (EES) architecture in the supply chain. The purpose of this model is to map the portfolio of relations in the...... chain....

  15. Kinematics and Dynamics of Roller Chain Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglede, Niels

    There are two main subjects of this work: Kinematic and dynamic modeling and analysis of roller chain drives. In the kinematic analysis we contribute first with a complete treatment of the roller chain drive modeled as a four-bar mechanism. This includes a general, exact and approximate analysis...... parameters which is useful for predicting the characteristic loading of the roller chain drive. As a completely novel contribution, a kinematic model and analysis is presented which includes both spans and sprockets in a simple chain drive system. A general procedure for determination of the total wrapping...... conditions for real chain drives. Examples are presented of both decoupled and coupled motion. Together, the kinematic and dynamic model and analytical results provides a framework for numerical and experimental investigations of roller chain drive motion and deepens the understanding of roller chain drive...

  16. Determining an optimal supply chain strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intaher M. Ambe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In today’s business environment, many companies want to become efficient and flexible, but have struggled, in part, because they have not been able to formulate optimal supply chain strategies. Often this is as a result of insufficient knowledge about the costs involved in maintaining supply chains and the impact of the supply chain on their operations. Hence, these companies find it difficult to manufacture at a competitive cost and respond quickly and reliably to market demand. Mismatched strategies are the root cause of the problems that plague supply chains, and supply-chain strategies based on a one-size-fits-all strategy often fail. The purpose of this article is to suggest instruments to determine an optimal supply chain strategy. This article, which is conceptual in nature, provides a review of current supply chain strategies and suggests a framework for determining an optimal strategy.

  17. The fish industry - toward supply chain modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Nielsen, Jette; Larsen, Erling;

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical models for simulating and optimizing aspects of supply chains such as distribution, planning, and optimal handling of raw materials are widely used. However, modeling based on a holistic chain view including several or all supply chain agents is less studied, and food-related aspects...... step toward innovative supply chain modeling aimed to identify benefits for all agents along chains in the fish industry....... such as quality and shelf-life issues enforce additional requirements onto the chains. In this article, we consider the supply chain structure of the fish industry. We discuss and illustrate the potential of using mathematical models to identify quality and value-adding activities. The article provides a first...

  18. Two Cases of Heavy Chain MGUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Keer, Jan; Meijers, Björn; Delforge, Michel; Verhoef, Gregor; Poesen, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Heavy chain diseases are rare variants of B-cell lymphomas that produce one of three classes of immunoglobulin heavy chains, without corresponding light chains. We describe two patients with asymptomatic heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy. The first patient is a 51-year-old woman with alpha paraprotein on serum immunofixation. The second case is a 46-year-old woman with gamma paraprotein on urine immunofixation. Neither patient had corresponding monoclonal light chains. Workup for multiple myeloma and lymphoma was negative in both patients. These two cases illustrate that heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy can exist in the absence of clinically apparent malignancy. Only a few reports of "heavy chain MGUS" have been described before. In the absence of specialized guidelines, we suggest a similar follow-up as for MGUS, while taking into account the higher probability of progression to lymphoma than to myeloma. PMID:27213064

  19. Two Cases of Heavy Chain MGUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Van Keer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy chain diseases are rare variants of B-cell lymphomas that produce one of three classes of immunoglobulin heavy chains, without corresponding light chains. We describe two patients with asymptomatic heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy. The first patient is a 51-year-old woman with alpha paraprotein on serum immunofixation. The second case is a 46-year-old woman with gamma paraprotein on urine immunofixation. Neither patient had corresponding monoclonal light chains. Workup for multiple myeloma and lymphoma was negative in both patients. These two cases illustrate that heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy can exist in the absence of clinically apparent malignancy. Only a few reports of “heavy chain MGUS” have been described before. In the absence of specialized guidelines, we suggest a similar follow-up as for MGUS, while taking into account the higher probability of progression to lymphoma than to myeloma.

  20. Sustainability Analysis for Gayo Coffee Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachman Jaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable supply chain is a development of the conventional supply chains that discuses trade-off among economic, social and environmental dimensions in order to achieve better responsiveness in terms of quality, quantity and time-delivery in the supply chain structure. The objective of this research was to determine the Gayo coffee supply chain sustainability. The research was conducted at Bener Meriah and Aceh Tengah Districts, Aceh Province, Indonesia. Key actors in the supply chain considered were farmers, collectors, agro-industry and exporter. Sustainability dimensions considered in this research were the economic, social, environmental and material resources. The performance of each aspect was analyzed by using Multi-dimensional scaling and leverage analysis. The result of the research showed that the composite of Gayo coffee supply chain sustainability index was 33.53 which mean less sustainable level. Therefore it is recommended to reengineering the Gayo coffee supply chain by considering all of the four sustainability dimensions above.

  1. PV supply chain growing pains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discussed issues involving the supply chain for photovoltaic (PV) equipment that is emerging in Ontario as a result of the Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program that was launched in late 2009. The rapidly developing PV supply chain may not be taking a sustainable path. The domestic-content requirement is making manufacturers outlay capital to set up manufacturing in Ontario without reliable market data. Only a small number of dealer/installers have any meaningful experience designing and installing grid-tie PV. Until recently, wholesale distributors designed and supplied most grid-tie PV systems in Canada, and solar dealers/installers or electricians or electrical contractors did the installation. Instead of selling directly to dealer/installers, solar manufacturers should develop strong relationships with wholesalers, who have system design experience and product training. This would allow manufacturers to focus on their core strength, reach more customers, and keep lower inventory levels. Wholesale distributors in turn provide dealer/installers with expertise in product and system design, training from a range of manufacturers, marketing and logistics support, and immediate access to inventory. Manufacturers generally lack appropriate accounting, engineering, marketing, and logistics services to deal with a multitude of active accounts, and they are not structured to work with architects and engineers to do complete system design. Partnering with wholesale distributors allows manufacturers to take on the residential and small-scale commercial sectors by building brand awareness and increasing market share and sales across Canada. 2 figs.

  2. Artificial radioisotopes in food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of uranium for nuclear fission involves the risk of environmental contamination by radiation during the processes of mining, concentration, peaceful and military application and storage, reprocessing and waste disposal. Three of the most dangerous radioisotopes have been followed here as they move through four different food chains. The main bottlenecks for fast and massive transfer are for 131I its rather short half life, for 137Cs the defective plant uptake from soil (and much less so also the pathway through the animal body), and for 90Sr its discrimination relative to calcium in several transport processes in the animal body, and its preference for the bone mass. Hence it is often of advantage for man to use animals as an additional food chain. Known exceptions are discussed: the reindeer and karibou living entirely on lichens during the winter and thereby acquiring for 137Cs nearly identical specific activity as plant food, and cow's milk for iodine during a short period after contamination. 15 refs.; 1 figure; 4 tabs

  3. RS-markov Chain Model of Logistics Service Supply Chain based on Exploration Diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Shi Li; Shi Yu-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve the forecast evaluation of logistics service supply chain, a tool of system-thinking in complex scientific management-Exploration diagram, is used to establish the index system for the forecast evaluation of logistics service supply chain. And according to the significant Markov chain property in the operation of logistics service supply chain, the predictability of the Markov chain is used to put forward a dynamic evaluation model, example ...

  4. Dangling chain elastomers as repeatable fibrillar adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitti, Metin; Cusick, Brian; Aksak, Burak; Nese, Alper; Lee, Hyung-il; Dong, Hongchen; Kowalewski, Tomasz; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2009-10-01

    This work reports on repeatable adhesive materials prepared by controlled grafting of dangling hetero chains from polymer elastomers. The dangling chain elastomer system was prepared by grafting poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PBA) chains from prefunctionalized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer networks using atom transfer radical polymerization. To study the effects of chain growth and network strain as they relate to network adhesion mechanics, various lengths of PBA chains with degree of polymerizations (DP) of 65, 281, 508, and 1200 were incorporated into the PDMS matrix. PBA chains with a DP value of 281 grafted from a flat PDMS substrate showed the highest (approximately 3.5-fold) enhancement of nano- and macroscale adhesion relative to a flat raw (ungrafted and not prefunctionalized) PDMS substrate. Moreover, to study the effect of PBA dangling chains on adhesion in fibrillar elastomer structures inspired by gecko foot hairs, a dip-transfer fabrication method was used to graft PBA chains with a DP value of 296 from the tip endings of mushroom-shaped PDMS micropillars. A PBA chain covered micropillar array showed macroscale adhesion enhancement up to approximately 7 times relative to the flat ungrafted prefunctionalized PDMS control substrate, showing additional nonoptimized approximately 2-fold adhesion enhancement due to fibrillar structuring and mushroom-shaped tip ending. These dangling hetero chains on elastomer micro-/nanofibrillar structures may provide a novel fabrication platform for multilength scale, repeatable, and high-strength fibrillar adhesives inspired by gecko foot hairs. PMID:20355863

  5. Structure of polymer chains under confinement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jyotsana Lal

    2008-11-01

    We observe by SANS the structure of neutral polystyrene and charged polystyrene sulphonate chains in semi-dilute solutions confined in a model nanoporous glass, Vycor. The size of the free chains in solution is always larger than the pore diameter, 70. The use of a suitable mixture of hydrogenated and deuterated solvents and polymers enables us to measure directly the form factor of one single chain among the others. Single chain form factor was observed both for bulk and confined chains using the condition of zero average contrast. Our measurements on neutral polymer chains are in agreement with the theoretical predictions established by Daoud and de Gennes for chains confined in a cylindrical pore when the chains are entangled and laterally squeezed but remain ideal at large scale along the cylinder axis because of the screening of the excluded volume interactions (so-called regime of ``semi-dilute cigars"). For confined charged polymers, a peak is observed whose intensity increases with molecular weight and the asymptotic 1/ scattering region is extended compared to the bulk. We infer that the chains are sufficiently extended, under the influence of confinement, to highlight the large scale disordered structure of Vycor even under contrast matched conditions. The asymptotic behaviour of the observed interchain structure factor is ≈ 1/2 and ≈ 1/ for free and confined chains respectively.

  6. Phase behaviour of polyethylene knotted ring chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Xiao-Hui; Zhang Lin-Xi; Xia A-Gen; Chen Hong-Ping

    2011-01-01

    The phase behaviour of polyethylene knotted ring chains is investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations.In this paper, we focus on the collapse of the polyethylene knotted ring chain, and also present the results of linear and ring chains for comparison. At high temperatures, a fully extensive knot structure is observed. The mean-square radius of gyration per bond〈S2〉/(Nb2)and the shape factor(δ*)depend on not only the chain length but also the knot type.With temperature decreasing, chain collapse is observed, and the collapse temperature decreases with the chain length increasing. The actual collapse transition can be determined by the specific heat capacity Cv, and the knotted ring chain undergoes gas-liquid-solid-like transition directly. The phase transition of a knotted ring chain is only one-stage collapse, which is different from the polyethylene linear and ring chains. This investigation can provide some insights into the statistical properties of knotted polymer chains.

  7. A possible chain of motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Ianole

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available On a world-wide basis there is a growing concern about organization' s capability to retain their top talents. In the specific case of a student's organization . Team Work - we confront with the same problems: how to inspire our members to act in the spirit of the values we share: professionalism, team work and voluntariate, and how to determine them to remain part of the system. This is where motivation appears like one of those terms that can mean very different things depending on exactly where you sit. The aim of the present paper is to draw a schematic picture of how it can work a chain of motivation in Team Work and other similar organizations.

  8. Revisiting Causality in Markov Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Shojaee, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Identifying causal relationships is a key premise of scientific research. The growth of observational data in different disciplines along with the availability of machine learning methods offers the possibility of using an empirical approach to identifying potential causal relationships, to deepen our understandings of causal behavior and to build theories accordingly. Conventional methods of causality inference from observational data require a considerable length of time series data to capture cause-effect relationship. We find that potential causal relationships can be inferred from the composition of one step transition rates to and from an event. Also known as Markov chain, one step transition rates are a commonly available resource in different scientific disciplines. Here we introduce a simple, effective and computationally efficient method that we termed 'Causality Inference using Composition of Transitions CICT' to reveal causal structure with high accuracy. We characterize the differences in causes,...

  9. The stylohyoid chain: CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal Ramadan, Selma, E-mail: uysalselma@yahoo.co [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara 06590 (Turkey); Goekharman, Dilek, E-mail: gokharman@ttnet.net.t [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara 06590 (Turkey); Kosar, Pinar, E-mail: pkosar@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara 06590 (Turkey); Kacar, Mahmut, E-mail: mkacar1961@gamil.co [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara 06590 (Turkey); Kosar, Ugur, E-mail: ugurkosar@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara 06590 (Turkey)

    2010-09-15

    We aimed in this report to discuss the embryology, anatomy, theories of ossification and symptoms, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of the stylohyoid chain (SHC) variations, together with the role of radiographs, computed tomography (CT) and three-dimensional (3D)-CT in showing these variations. Because CT/3D-CT additionally facilitates visualization of the entire SHC with different axes, it is the most valuable method for establishing the relationship between the SHC and the surrounding tissue. SHC variation can be discovered during CT performed for indications other than ossified SHC. It is important to diagnose whether or not the SHC is ossified, since one of the treatment procedures in ossified SHC is total excision. If the clinician and radiologist are aware of these variations observed in the SHC, patients with vague symptoms may be spared unnecessary investigations and may be properly diagnosed earlier.

  10. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND MOMENTS OF CIRCULAR FREELY JOINTED CHAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Minghong

    1991-01-01

    The spatial distribution function and second moments of circular freely jointed chain are derived based on an analytical method. The circular Gauss chain, which is simple for long chains, is compared with the circular freely jointed chain, which is exact for short chains. It is shown that the Gauss chain model predicts a more compact configurational distribution than the exact freely jointed chain. The two chain models, however, become closer to each other when the chain length increases.It is found that the difference of the mean square radius of gyration calculated with these two chain models is a constant, independent of the chain length.

  11. Position Paper on Intelligent Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    frame the concept of Intelligent Supply Chain and to establish an overall perspective based on information management. The claim made here is that the notion of the intelligent enterprise contributes with a new perspective on supply chain management that addresses the current challenges in an industrial...... development of intelligent supply chains. It is concluded that information management is critical to intelligent supply chains and a research agenda is outlined.......This paper is intended to present and to analyze the concept of the Intelligent Supply Chain (ISC). The purpose of the paper is to: 1) Clarify the concept of the intelligent supply chain; 2) Identify emerging research opportunities; and 3) Specify a research engagement model for further exploration...

  12. The Governance of Global Wealth Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    This working paper creates a theoretical framework to explain how Global Wealth Chains are created, maintained, and governed. We draw upon different strands of literature, including scholarship in international political economy and economic geography on Global Value Chains, literature on finance......, and global-scale corporate tax avoidance.......) innovation capacities among suppliers of products used in wealth chains. We then differentiate five types of global value chain governance - market, modular, relational, captive, and hierarchy - which range from simple ‘off shelf’ products shielded from regulators by advantageous international tax laws to...... highly complex and flexible innovative financial products produced by large financial institutions and corporations. This paper highlights how Global Wealth Chains intersect with value chains and real economies, and provides three brief case studies on offshore shell companies, family property trusts...

  13. Toc Approach for Supply Chain Performance Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Ainapur

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Field of Supply Chain Management witnessed rapid growth in recent past and proved to be a successful tool for organizations growth. Success of supply chain improvement initiative lies in selection of appropriate Key Performance Indicators (KPIs using best suitable supply chain framework. These KPI’s are to be measured, monitored and controlled with proper review mechanism. This study presents a methodology for identification of the constraint KPI from the supply chain metrics. Selection of the KPI’s is done using Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR framework. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP is used for decomposing the goal into micro level for analyzing and prioritizing KPIs. Subsequently, benchmarking study is carried by comparing foundry industry KPIs with global best practice industry average. Goal Programming function is formulated using AHP ratings and solved using WINQSB software. Finally Theory of Constraint (TOC management philosophy is applied for finding the constraints for supply chain performance enhancement.

  14. Sustainable Supply Chain Design: A Configurational Approach

    OpenAIRE

    S. Maryam Masoumik; Salwa Hanim Abdul-Rashid; Ezutah Udoncy Olugu; Raja Ariffin Raja Ghazilla

    2014-01-01

    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approac...

  15. Ground states for nonuniform periodic Ising chains

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Garcilazo, J. P.; Ramírez, C.

    2014-01-01

    We give a generalization of Morita's works on ground states of Ising chains, for chains with a periodic structure with different spins, and distant neighbor interactions. The main assumption is translational invariance. The length of the irreducible blocks is a multiple of the period of the chain. In the case of parity invariance, it restricts the length in general only in the diatomic case. There are degenerated states and under certain circumstances there could be nonregular ground states. ...

  16. Supply Chain Performance Evaluation: Trends and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ezutah U. Olugu; Kuan Y. Wong

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: In todays manufacturing world, globalization policies and rejuvenation have created a more intensive competition amongst manufacturers. On the other hand, manufacturers have turned to the option of adopting innovative technologies, process re-engineering and strategies such as efficient supply chain management to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. Effective supply chain performance measurement has been identified as a key issue towards efficient supply chain manag...

  17. Challenges of Responsible Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Krisztina Szegedi; Károly Norbert Kerekes

    2012-01-01

    Many firms are increasing their focus on their Supply Chain as a strategic factor. This focus has primarily emphasized cost reducing and risk minimizing, although some proactive companies began to manage their supply chain in a responsible way several years ago. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the part of the Corporate Social Responsibility literature that introduces responsibility to the field of supply chain management; furthermore, it processes public documents and Internet s...

  18. Sustainability management in apparel & footwear supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Hau-chung; 鄭孝仲

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulatory Code of Conduct has widely been adopted by international brands to manage CSR issues in apparel and footwear supply chain for the last 2 decades. Increasingly, more apparel and footwear brands started to expand CSR scope to include environmental management in their supply chain. However, only very few international brands have disclosed their efforts on environmental management in their supply chain. This study aims to find out how apparel and footwear brands implement environ...

  19. Sustainability in Logistics and Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The HICL-Conference celebrates its 10th anniversary, indicating major interest in the research fields of supply chain management and logistics. They are dedicated to make recommendations for new approaches and solutions that enable companies to cope with current and future challenges in supply chains and logistics. The second volume of the 2015 conference provides valuable insights into the highly relevant topic of sustainability in logistics and supply chains. Contributions concern ...

  20. Antecedents and Dimensions of Supply Chain Robustness

    OpenAIRE

    Durach, Christian F.; Wieland, Andreas; Machuca, Jose A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide groundwork for an emerging theory of supply chain robustness – which has been conceptualized as a dimension of supply chain resilience – through reviewing and synthesizing related yet disconnected studies. The paper develops a formal definition of supply chain robustness to build a framework that captures the dimensions, antecedents and moderators of the construct as discussed in the literature. Design/methodology/approach – The...

  1. Spectral methods for quantum Markov chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this project is to contribute to our understanding of quantum time evolutions, whereby we focus on quantum Markov chains. The latter constitute a natural generalization of the ubiquitous concept of a classical Markov chain to describe evolutions of quantum mechanical systems. We contribute to the theory of such processes by introducing novel methods that allow us to relate the eigenvalue spectrum of the transition map to convergence as well as stability properties of the Markov chain.

  2. Wear of conveyor chains with polymer rolls

    OpenAIRE

    Kerremans, Vincent; Rolly, Tom; DE BAETS, PATRICK; De Pauw, Jan; Sukumaran, Jacob; Perez Delgado, Yeczain

    2011-01-01

    Roller conveyor chains are common used to transport goods in production lines or assembly lines, such as pallets, cars or steel coils. They are sometimes used in severe environments, soiled with water, foreign particles, chemicals or other contaminants. Normal use will result in wear of the components of the chain which can lead to unexpected failure and costly production downtime. Today, few literature on the wear of conveyor chain is available and there are almost no reliable test-rigs to g...

  3. BEHAVIOURAL INSIGHTS INTO SUPPLY CHAIN RISK MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra-Codruta Popescu (Bîzoi); Cristian-Gabriel Bîzoi

    2015-01-01

    Literature has focused largely on the field of supply chain risk management. Numerous risks occur within supply chain management. Until lately, behavioural risks (implying large amount of losses) have been neglected and considered not relevant. In this paper we provide an analysis of the importance of including behavioural research in logistics and supply chain risk management, what has been written so far and potential future research directions. Until now, literature on logistics and supply...

  4. Understanding Construction Supply Chains: An Alternative Interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Vrijhoef, Ruben; Koskela, Lauri; Howell, Greg

    2001-01-01

    Much research work has assessed that construction is ineffective and many problems can be observed. Analysis of these problems has shown that a major part of them are supply chain problems, originating at the interfaces of different parties or functions. There have been several kinds of initiatives aiming at improvement and renewal of construction supply chains, but only few have a track record of consequent and significant successes. Here construction supply chains are approached from an alt...

  5. The Mitigation of Supply Chain Risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilding, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Supply Chain Risk Management is receiving increased attention in recent years. With events such as 9/11, the foot and mouth outbreak in Europe and hurricane Katrina all impacting on organisations and the global supply chains they are part of. Trends including the rapid growth in global sourcing and offshore manufacturing; the continued move to reduce the supplier base; industry consolidation and the centralisation of distribution all change the risk profile of supply chains ...

  6. 1D ferrimagnetism in homometallic chains

    OpenAIRE

    Coronado Miralles, Eugenio; Gómez García, Carlos José; Borrás Almenar, Juan José

    1990-01-01

    The magnetic properties of the cobalt zigzag chain Co(bpy)(NCS)2 (bpy=2,2′‐bipyridine) are discussed on the basis of an Ising‐chain model that takes into account alternating Landé factors. It is emphasized, for the first time, that a homometallic chain containing only one type of site can give rise to a 1D ferrimagneticlike behavior. ,

  7. Achieving Supply Chain Integration within Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Peter McDermotti; Malik Khalfan

    2012-01-01

    The main driver behind the adoption of supply chain management (SCM) philosophy into the construction industry was the successes within other industry sectors. SCM can be defined as network of different organisations, linked upstream and downstream in a chain, aiming to produce quality and value in the services and products for the end consumers through integrated processes and activities. In order to achieve the optimised level of integration of the whole supply chain, the industry has respo...

  8. Supply chain management tools and methods

    OpenAIRE

    IVANOVA, Ivelina

    2004-01-01

    In today's business environment, manufacturers need to manage their enterprises as an inseparable part of a supply chain. Key to achieving this is the creation of an extended and integrated information system. In an attempt to find out what needs to be done to improve current supply chain methods and tools, the current research project 1) reviewed the literature to establish current approaches to Supply Chain Management (SCM); 2) identified what tools and methods are availab...

  9. Supply chain management: An opportunity for metaheuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalhinho-Louren??o, Helena

    2001-01-01

    In today?s highly competitive and global marketplace the pressure on organizations to find new ways to create and deliver value to customers grows ever stronger. In the last two decades, logistics and supply chain has moved to the center stage. There has been a growing recognition that it is through an effective management of the logistics function and the supply chain that the goal of cost reduction and service enhancement can be achieved. The key to success in Supply Chain...

  10. Knowledge sharing in organic food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Kottila, Marja-Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Although local, short supply chains are regarded as most suitable for organic products, most organic food is sold through general retailers. The extended supply chains create challenges: (1) how to sustain the connection between farmers and consumers and deliver the multifaceted value of organic food and (2) how to cooperate to meet both the needs of consumers and of each independent company involved in the supply chain. This publication gives among other things practical implications concern...

  11. Logistics and Supply Chain Practices in India

    OpenAIRE

    Samir K. Srivastava

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to comprehensively examine and present the state of logistics and supply chain practices in India. We consider the two separately as they have still not integrated seamlessly in the Indian context. Our study is based on both field observations and secondary data. We focus on supply chain collaboration and partnerships, supply chain structure, facilities network design, transportation and logistics and the role of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT). On-site obse...

  12. Single chain elasticity and thermoelasticity of polyethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Titantah, John T.; Pierleoni, Carlo; Ryckaert, Jean-Paul

    2002-01-01

    Single-chain elasticity of polyethylene at $\\theta$ point up to 90% of stretching with respect to its contour length is computed by Monte-Carlo simulation of an atomistic model in continuous space. The elasticity law together with the free-energy and the internal energy variations with stretching are found to be very well represented by the wormlike chain model up to 65% of the chain elongation, provided the persistence length is treated as a temperature dependent parameter. Beyond this value...

  13. Sustaining Supply Chain Operations through Lean Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Suphattra Ketsarapong; Kong Suwantaranrangsri; Kongkiti Phusavat; Binshan Lin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The study aims to report a case study in a Thai Electronics Manufacturing deploying a lean manufacturing approach, and to discuss the value gained in their supply chain operations. These experiences can be adapted by others for design, redesign, and problem shooting when analyzing the performance of supply chain operations. Approach – The paper is based on actual activities in a case study. This paper begins by reviewing the relevant literature on supply chain operations and supply ...

  14. Waste Reduction in Fresh Food Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaipia, Riikka; Loikkanen, Lauri; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies a well-known phenomenon, information sharing in supply chains, in a new context, fresh foods, with a specific goal, supporting sustainable performance in the supply chain. Fresh foods are important for retail stores, representing around half of retail sales, but form a challenging...... and heterogeneous group of products to manage. The value of the paper lies in its pointing out detailed solutions to how in real-life supply chains data can be used efficiently to improve the performance of the supply chain....

  15. Responsive supply chain: modeling and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Sinha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unexpected occurrence like natural calamity, abruptly change in customer demands, upgradation of technologies, necessity of compatible suppliers etc. is the most challenging issues even for efficient global supply chain management. Therefore, modeling of responsive supply chain is an emerging technology for sustaining any firm/industry in future competitive environment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to not only analyze the performance of efficient supply chain management but also how to improve the performance of existing supply chain with the objective of developing a modeling of responsive supply chain management. The complexity of the model is also highlighted with the help of numerical example. This paper also explores the possibility to mathematical modeling of the responsive supply chain which will be an emerging topic for researchers and practitioners. The modeling of responsive supply chain can be employed as a competitive strategy for e-commerce, green supply chain, and compatible supplier selection problem. The another salient feature of this paper is that a distinct comparative literature review of the lean, agile, efficient, and responsive supply chain management has been presented.

  16. Stochastically Perturbed Chains of Variable Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Nancy L.; Moreira, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study inference for chains of variable order under two distinct contamination regimes. Consider we have a chain of variable memory on a finite alphabet containing zero. At each instant of time an independent coin is flipped and if it turns head a contamination occurs. In the first regime a zero is read independent of the value of the chain. In the second regime, the value of another chain of variable memory is observed instead of the original one. Our results state that the ...

  17. Toc Approach for Supply Chain Performance Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Ainapur

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many foundries are operating at lower levels than the installed capacities. Study of 56 foundries acrossIndia has shown that only 68% of installed capacities are being utilized. This is mainly because of lack ofco-ordination among the supply chain partners. This study is an effort in identifying these gaps using TOCapproach which will help in supply chain performance enhancement.Field of Supply Chain Management witnessed rapid growth in recent past and proved to be a successfultool for organizations growth. Success of supply chain improvement initiative lies in selection ofappropriate Key Performance Indicators (KPIs using best suitable supply chain framework. Theseperformance indicators are to be measured, monitored and controlled with proper review mechanism.This study presents a methodology for identification of the KPI’s from the supply chain metrics suitablefor foundries. Selection of the KPI’s is done using Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCORframework. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP is used for decomposing the goal into micro level foranalyzing and prioritizing KPIs. In order to study the gap between as-is-state and as-to-be state,benchmarking is carried by comparing foundry industry KPIs with global best practice industry average.To optimize the supply chain performance, Goal Programming function is formulated using AHP ratingsand solved using WINQSB software. Theory of Constraint (TOC management philosophy is applied forfinding the constraints, on improving these constraints supply chain performance enhancement isachieved.

  18. Edge states in Open Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Shaojin; Ng, Tai-Kai; Su, Zhao-Bin

    1995-01-01

    In this letter we report our results in investigating edge effects of open antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin chains with spin magnitudes $S=1/2, 1,3/2,2$ using the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method initiated by White. For integer spin chains, we find that edge states with spin magnitude $S_{edge}=S/2$ exist, in agreement with Valence-Bond-Solid model picture. For half-integer spin chains, we find that no edge states exist for $S=1/2$ spin chain, but edge state exists in $S=3/...

  19. Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ghiringhelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study is focused on evaluation and use of the most effective and correct nutrients. In particular, our attention is directed to the role of certain amino acids in cachectic patients.During parenteral nutrition in humans, physician already associates in the PN-bags different formulations including amino acids, lipids and glucose solutions or essential amino acids solution alone or exclusively branched-chain amino acids (BCAA. Studies investigated the effects of dietary BCAA ingestion on different diseases and conditions such as obesity and metabolic disorders, liver disease, muscle atrophy, cancer, impaired immunity or injuries (surgery, trauma, burns, and sepsis. BCAAs have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro, and are essential for lymphocyte proliferation and dendritic cell maturation. Oral or parenteral administration of these three amino acids will allow us to evaluate the real efficacy of these compounds during a therapy to treat malnutrition in subjects unable to feed themselves.

  20. Geometry behind chordal Loewner chains

    CERN Document Server

    Contreras, Manuel D; Gumenyuk, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Loewner Theory is a deep technique in Complex Analysis affording a basis for many further important developments such as the proof of famous Bieberbach's conjecture and well-celebrated Schramm's Stochastic Loewner Evolution (SLE). It provides analytic description of expanding domains dynamics in the plane. Two cases have been developed in the classical theory, namely the {\\it radial} and the {\\it chordal} Loewner evolutions, referring to the associated families of holomorphic self-mappings being normalized at an internal or boundary point of the reference domain, respectively. Recently there has been introduced a new approach [arXiv:0807.1594v1, arXiv:0807.1715v1, arXiv:0902.3116v1] bringing together, and containing as quite special cases, radial and chordal variants of Loewner Theory. In the framework of this approach we address the question what kind of systems of simply connected domains can be described by means of Loewner chains of chordal type. As an answer to this question we establish a necessary and ...

  1. Optimizing Supply Chain Performance in China with Country-Specific Supply Chain Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Herczeg, András; Vastag, Gyula

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of country-specific supply chain coordination techniques ensures an optimal global supply chain performance. This paper looks at success factors going with a supply chain coordination strategy within the global supply chain of a successful, medium-sized, privately-owned company, one having locations in North America (USA), Europe (Hungary) and Asia (China). Through the shown GSL’s Chinese plant, we will endeavor to argue that increased collaboration in the supply network wi...

  2. A new framework for supply chain risk management through supply chain management capability

    OpenAIRE

    Göçer, Aysu; Yumurtacı, Işık Özge; Yurt, Öznur; Baltacıoğlu, Tunçdan

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain risk management is considered as one of the most powerful competitive tools for the companies. Therefore, the concept has caught the attention of researchers especially in the recent years. However, supply chain risk management has not been examined in the literature by considering the maturity and capability levels of supply chain members. This study aims to address this gap and develops a new framework on supply chain risk management which focuses on different...

  3. The fishing industry - toward supply chain modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Nielsen, Jette; Larsen, Erling P.;

    Mathematical models for simulating and optimizing supply chain aspects such as distribution planning and optimal use of raw materials are widely used. However, modelling based on a holistic chain view is less studied, and food-related aspects such as quality and shelf life issues enforce additional...

  4. Towards effective food chains : models and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Top, J.L.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Food chain management research can help in the analysis and redesign of value creation and the product flow throughout the chain from primary producer down to the consumer. The aim is to meet consumer and societal requirements effectively at minimal cost. In the Wageningen UR strategic research prog

  5. Bethe vectors for XXX-spin chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with algebraic Bethe ansatz for XXX-spin chain. Generators of Yang-Baxter algebra are expressed in basis of free fermions and used to calculate explicit form of Bethe vectors. Their relation to N-component models is used to prove conjecture about their form in general. Some remarks on inhomogeneous XXX-spin chain are included

  6. Quantum channels in random spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the entanglement between pairs of qubits in a random antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain at zero temperature. We show that some very distant pairs of qubits are highly entangled, being almost pure Bell states. Furthermore, the probability to obtain such spin pairs is proportional to the chain disorder strength and inversely proportional to the square of their separation

  7. Stakeholder salience in humanitarian supply chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffling, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Mitchell et al.(1997) developed a framework for assessing the salience of stakeholder groups based on their power, urgency and the legitimacy of their claim. This has been applied to illustrate the complexities of stakeholder interactions in humanitarian supply chains and to provide insights for their management and further research. Keywords: Supply chain management, Humanitarian logistics, Stakeholder salience

  8. Value Chain Responsibility in Emerging Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Colette; van Lente, Harro

    2014-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and value chain responsibility (VCR) have gained increasing importance for firms. The literature on these topics reports on CSR practices for established firms with existing technologies and stable value chains. This raises questions about the viability of CSR a

  9. Using Games to Teach Markov Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2003-01-01

    Games are promoted as examples for classroom discussion of stationary Markov chains. In a game context Markov chain terminology and results are made concrete, interesting, and entertaining. Game length for several-player games such as "Hi Ho! Cherry-O" and "Chutes and Ladders" is investigated and new, simple formulas are given. Slight…

  10. Qualitative methodology for efficient food chain design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apaiah, R.K.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Meerdink, G.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to efficiently design food supply chains. The goals of quality, cost and environmental load are looked at independently of each other. Food chains are made up of links and are designed to deliver a particular product with consumer-specified attributes. These attribu

  11. Information Technologies and Supply Chain Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemoine, W; Mortensen, Ole

    The goal of the Supply Chain Management process is to create value for customers, stakeholders and all supply chain members, through the integration of different processes like manufacturing flow management, customer service and order fulfillment. However, many firms fail in the path of achieving...

  12. Theory of chain association versus liquid condensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roij, R. van

    1996-01-01

    We combine the original van der Waals description for liquid condensation with the association theory of ideal particles into a simple association theory of nonideal chains. The theory shows that vapor-liquid coexistence becomes metastable if the tendency to form weakly interacting chains is suffici

  13. The chain-length dependence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Matthew T; Heemstra, Jennifer M; Moore, Jeffrey S

    2006-01-01

    Trends obtained from systematic studies based on chain-length variation have provided valuable insight and understanding into the behavior of m-phenylene ethynylene foldamers. The generalization of this experimental approach, the chain-length dependence test, is useful for studying solution conformation, packing in the solid state, specific intrachain interactions, and the contributions of end groups to a particular property. PMID:16411735

  14. Localized Lymph Node Light Chain Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Dhakal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin-derived light chain amyloidosis can occasionally be associated with localized disease. We present a patient with localized lymph node light chain amyloidosis without an underlying monoclonal protein or lymphoproliferative disorder and review the literature of lymph node amyloidosis discussing work-up and risk factors for systemic progression.

  15. Bethe vectors for XXX-spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdík, Čestmír; Fuksa, Jan; Isaev, Alexei

    2014-11-01

    The paper deals with algebraic Bethe ansatz for XXX-spin chain. Generators of Yang-Baxter algebra are expressed in basis of free fermions and used to calculate explicit form of Bethe vectors. Their relation to N-component models is used to prove conjecture about their form in general. Some remarks on inhomogeneous XXX-spin chain are included.

  16. Operational excellence in logistics and supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains research contributions by an international group of authors focusing on innovative models to optimize logistics and supply chains at an operational level. They address process efficiency and data-related aspects. Supply chain security insights are also given.

  17. Supply chain coordination in industrial symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herczeg, Gabor; Akkerman, Renzo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2013-01-01

    Industrial symbiosis (IS) is a form of supply chain cooperation in industrial networks in order to achieve collective benefits by leveraging each other’s by-products and sharing services and utilities. This paper investigates the concept of IS from the perspective of supply chain coordination (SCC...

  18. Synchronize Your Supply Chain with RFID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    1 Executive Summary Driving efficiencies throughout your supply chain and increasing the velocity of items through the supply chain from creation to consumer is more than a business mandate today; it’s a matter of business survival. If your company doesn’t do it, your competition will. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a true next-generation

  19. Teaching Lean Six Sigma within a Supply Chain Context: The Airplane Supply Chain Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Scott C.; Goldsby, Thomas J.; Bailey, Ana M.; Oh, Jae-Young

    2014-01-01

    Lean six sigma is a management methodology that firms can employ to achieve substantial improvement in supply chain performance. However, few pedagogical exercises facilitate students' use of a comprehensive set of lean six sigma principles within a supply chain context. We describe the Airplane Supply Chain Simulation that helps students…

  20. Effective food supply chains; generating, modelling and evaluating supply chain scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Logistical co-ordination in FMCG supply chains

    The overall objectives of the research described in this thesis were to obtain insight into the applicability of the concept Supply Chain Management (SCM) in food supply chains (SCs) from a logistical point of view, and to find an efficient and

  1. A conceptual framework for supply chain governance: An application to agri-food chains in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.Y.; Aramyan, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - Chinese agri-food chains consist of the millions of small scale farmers, who are not well structured and organized in the supply chain. Owing to market liberalization and globalization, one of the most challenging issues along agri-food chains in China is becoming the issue of how to link

  2. Chain graph models and their causal interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt; Richardson, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    equilibrium distributions of dynamic models with feed-back. These dynamic interpretations lead to a simple theory of intervention, extending the theory developed for directed acyclic graphs. Finally, we contrast chain graph models under this interpretation with simultaneous equation models which have......Chain graphs are a natural generalization of directed acyclic graphs and undirected graphs. However, the apparent simplicity of chain graphs belies the subtlety of the conditional independence hypotheses that they represent. There are many simple and apparently plausible, but ultimately fallacious......, interpretations of chain graphs that are often invoked, implicitly or explicitly. These interpretations also lead to flawed methods for applying background knowledge to model selection. We present a valid interpretation by showing how the distribution corresponding to a chain graph may be generated from the...

  3. REPRESENTING MARKOV CHAINS WITH TRANSITION DIAGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Kachapova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic processes have many useful applications and are taught in several university programmes. Students often encounter difficulties in learning stochastic processes and Markov chains, in particular. In this article we describe a teaching strategy that uses transition diagrams to represent a Markov chain and to re-define properties of its states in simple terms of directed graphs. This strategy utilises the students’ intuition and makes the learning of complex concepts about Markov chains faster and easier. The method is illustrated by worked examples. The described strategy helps students to master properties of finite Markov chains, so they have a solid basis for the study of infinite Markov chains and other stochastic processes.

  4. Integrating product design into the supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Omera; Stolte, Terje; Creazza, Alessandro;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the research is to illustrate how companies can create competitive capabilities through integration of product design into the supply chain. In doing so the paper reveals the challenges and the opportunities that companies face when integrating product design and supply chain...... opportunities and challenges when integrating product design and the supply chain and subsequently a step-by-step guide is developed to address these. Practical Implications: The research provides key recommendations to companies on how to create competitive capabilities by integrating product design into the...... supply chain. Originality/Value: This paper provides novel insights to both practitioners and researchers. For practitioners detailed recommendations are given on how they can maximise benefits through integrating product design into the supply chain. The RBV has been harnessed to highlight how...

  5. Designing value-creating supply chain networks

    CERN Document Server

    Martel, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on the design of robust value-creating supply chain networks (SCN) and key strategic issues related to the number; location, capacity and mission of supply chain facilities (plants, distribution centers) – as well as the network structure required to provide flexibility and resilience in an uncertain world – this book presents an innovative methodology for SCN reengineering that can be used to significantly improve the bottom line of supply chain dependent businesses. Providing readers with the tools needed to analyze and model value creation activities, Designing Value-Creating Supply Chain Networks examines the risks faced by modern supply chains, and shows how to develop plausible future scenarios to evaluate potential SCN designs. The design methods proposed are based on a visual representation formalism that facilitates the analysis and modeling of SCN design problems, book chapters incorporate several example problems and exercises which can be solved with Excel tools (Analysis tools and So...

  6. Research Methodologies in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert

    While supply chain management has risen to great prominence in recent year, there are hardly related developments in research methodologies. Yet, as supply chains cover more than one company, one central issue is how to collect and analyse data along the whole or relevant part of the supply chain....... Within the 36 chapters 70 authors bring together a rich selection of theoretical and practical examples of how research methodologies are applied in supply chain management. The book contains papers on theoretical implications as well as papers on a range of key methods, such as modelling, surveys, case...... studies or action research. It will be of great interest to researchers in the area of supply chain management and logistics, but also to neighbouring fields, such as network management or global operations....

  7. Supply Chain Management in Industrial Symbiosis Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herczeg, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable supply chain management deals with the design and operation of profitable supply chains that also respect limitations on natural resources, do no harm to the environment, and consider the social systems they operate in. In academic research on sustainable supply chain management, as...... sustainable develop- ment efforts, and emphasize synergistic relations, community, and collabora- tion. This thesis takes an operations and supply chain management perspec- tive on industrial symbiosis networks. More specifically, the thesis elaborates on the collaborative and competitive characteristics of......-product allocation strategies, which turn out to have different requirements and consequences for the organization and facilitation of the collaborative efforts. Overall, this thesis aims to ground industrial symbiosis in operations and supply chain management theory. The thesis thereby provides a basis for the...

  8. Sales Rebate Contracts in Fashion Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hung Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore in this paper the performance of sales rebate contracts in fashion supply chains. We conduct both analytical and numerical analyses via a mean-variance framework with reference to real empirical data. To be specific, we evaluate the expected profits and variance of profits (risk of the fashion supply chains, fashion retailers, and manufacturers under (1 the currently implemented sales rebate practices, (2 the case without sales rebate, and (3 the theoretical coordination situation (if target sales rebate is adopted. In addition, we analyze how sales effort affects the performances of the supply chain and its agents. Our analysis indicates that the rebate contracts may hurt the retailer and the manufacturer of a fashion supply chain when it is inappropriately set. Moreover, a properly designed sales rebate contract not only can coordinate the supply chain (with retail sales effort but can also improve expected profits and lower the levels of risk for both the manufacturer and the retailer.

  9. Direct current hopping conductance along DNA chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Song-Shan; Xu Hui; Liu Xiao-Liang; Li Ming-Jun

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a model of direct current(DC) electron hopping transport in DNA,in which DNA is considered as a binary one-dimensional disordered system.To quantitatively study the DC conductivity in DNA,it numerically calculates the DC conductivity of DNA chains with difierent parameter values.The result shows that the DC conductivity of DNA chain increases with the increase of temperature.And the conductivity of DNA chain is depended on the probability P.which represents the degree of compositional disorder in a DNA sequence to some extent.For P<0.5,the conductivity of DNA chain decreases with the increase of P,while for P≥0.5,the conductivity increases with the increase of p.The DC conductivity in DNA chain also varies with the change of the electric field,it presents non-Ohm's law conductivity characteristics.

  10. Structural repertoire of immunoglobulin λ light chains

    KAUST Repository

    Chailyan, Anna

    2011-03-01

    The immunoglobulin λ isotype is present in nearly all vertebrates and plays an important role in the human immune system. Despite its importance, few systematic studies have been performed to analyze the structural conformation of its variable regions, contrary to what is the case for κ and heavy chains. We show here that an analysis of the structures of λ chains allows the definition of a discrete set of recurring conformations (canonical structures) of their hypervariable loops and, most importantly, the identification of sequence constraints that can be used to predict their structure. We also show that the structural repertoire of λ chains is different and more varied than that of the κ chains, consistently with the current view of the involvement of the two major light-chain families in complementary strategies of the immune system to ensure a fine tuning between diversity and stability in antigen recognition. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Environmental management the supply chain perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Christina W Y; Lun, Y H Venus; Cheng, T C E

    2015-01-01

    In view of the increasing quest for environmental management in businesses, this book provides a good reference to firms to understand how they may manage their supply chains to improve business and environmental performance. The book consists of six chapters covering such topics as environmental management, environmental management practices with supply chain efforts, collaborative environmental management, organizational capabilities in environmental management, environmental disclosure, and closed-loop supply chains. The book presents theory-driven discussions on the link between environmental management and business performance in the context of supply chain management. The book will be useful for firms to learn from the research findings and real-life cases to develop plans to implement environmental management practices jointly with supply chain partners.

  12. Ratchet behaviour of polarons in molecular chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brizhik, L S; Eremko, A A [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Piette, B M A G; Zakrzewski, W J [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: brizhik@bitp.kiev.ua, E-mail: eremko@bitp.kiev.ua, E-mail: B.M.A.G.Piette@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: W.J.Zakrzewski@durham.ac.uk

    2008-06-25

    We study the ratchet behaviour of polarons in diatomic molecular chains under the influence of an external electromagnetic field which is periodic in time. We show that in asymmetric chains a harmonic unbiased field causes a drift of polarons. This phenomenon has a threshold with respect to the intensity and the frequency of the field. In spatially symmetric chains a harmonic periodic electric field generates oscillations of polarons but does not result in their movement. The polaron drift current can be induced in symmetric chains by a time periodic asymmetric external field. This complex dynamics of polarons is generated by the interplay between the Peierls-Nabarro barrier and dissipative effects in the chains.

  13. Ratchet behaviour of polarons in molecular chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the ratchet behaviour of polarons in diatomic molecular chains under the influence of an external electromagnetic field which is periodic in time. We show that in asymmetric chains a harmonic unbiased field causes a drift of polarons. This phenomenon has a threshold with respect to the intensity and the frequency of the field. In spatially symmetric chains a harmonic periodic electric field generates oscillations of polarons but does not result in their movement. The polaron drift current can be induced in symmetric chains by a time periodic asymmetric external field. This complex dynamics of polarons is generated by the interplay between the Peierls-Nabarro barrier and dissipative effects in the chains

  14. Auto component supply chain: a path to global India

    OpenAIRE

    Kale, Shailendra; Palacios Fernández, Miguel; Tafur Segura, José Javier; Jarad, Rajendra; Chitale, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Supply chain management works to bring the supplier, the distributor, and the customer into one cohesive process. The Supply Chain Council defined supply chain as ‘Supply Chain: The flow and transformation of raw materials into products from suppliers through production and distribution facilities to the ultimate consumer., and then Sunil Chopra and Meindl, (2001) have define Supply chain management as ‘Supply Chain Management involves the flows between and among stages in a supply chain to m...

  15. Chain packing in polycarbonate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stueber, Dirk; Yu, Tsyr-Yan; Hess, Berk; Kremer, Kurt; O'Connor, Robert D.; Schaefer, Jacob

    2010-03-01

    Chain packing in homogeneous blends of carbonate C13-labeled bisphenol A polycarbonate with either (i) CF3-labeled bisphenol A polycarbonate or (ii) ring-F-labeled bisphenol A polycarbonate has been characterized using C13{F19} rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) nuclear magnetic resonance. In both blends, the C13 observed spin was at high concentration, and the F19 dephasing or probe spin was at low concentration. In this situation, an analysis in terms of a distribution of isolated heteronuclear pairs of spins is valid. Nearest-neighbor separation of C13 and F19 labels was determined by accurately mapping the initial dipolar evolution using a shifted-pulse version of REDOR. Based on the results of this experiment, the average distance from a ring-fluorine to the nearest C13O is more than 1.2 Å greater than the corresponding CF3C13O distance. Next-nearest and more-distant-neighbor separations of labels were measured in a 416-rotor-cycle constant-time version of REDOR for both blends. Statistically significant local order was established for the nearest-neighbor labels in the methyl-labeled blend. These interchain packing results are in qualitative agreement with predictions based on coarse-grained simulations of a specially adapted model for bisphenol A polycarbonate. The model itself has been previously used to determine static and dynamic properties of polycarbonate with results in good agreement with those from rheological and neutron scattering experiments.

  16. Fresh fish distribution chains: An analysis of three Danish and three Australian chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marco Thorup; Bremner, Allan

    2001-01-01

    . Traceability is a most important issue in the high value product chains in Australia. No information technology methods, were in evidence. In the Danish chains, nearly all traceability was lost after the collector/auction stage and the only evaluation of quality parameters was by inspection.......Information on traceability was gathered for three domestic Danish fish chains typical of the current trading practices in fresh seafood and for three chains exporting products from Australia to Japan. The same standard questionnaires, coupled with personal interviews, were used in all six chains...

  17. Issue on supply chain of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • One of the most relevant debates, is related to energy and environmental issue. • The development of renewable energy usage is due to several factors. • Indeed challenges from a supply chain point of view are required. • Thorough survey on topics of supply chain and renewable energy has been conducted. • Findings are discussed against the backdrop of SCs as sustainable RE option. - Abstract: Actually, one of the most relevant debates, among both citizens that government, is related to energy and environmental issue. The development of renewable energy usage is due to several factors such as the political strategic decisions and geographical situation. Indeed the high development of renewable energies requires challenges from a supply chain point of view. In this paper, a thorough survey of the extant literature on the topic of supply chain (SC) and renewable energy (RE) has been conducted. English papers published on international peer-reviewed journals from 2003 to 2013 have been considered. Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) resolves the duality between environmental, economic and social aspects. Sustainable manufacturing practices play an essential role in promoting renewable energy development and commercialization; this will require significant changes to the industry’s traditional Supply Chain Management and business model. The aim of the paper is investigate literature insights useful to increase the performance and overcome barriers to the RE supply chain development. Like many typical supply chains, also supply chain related to RE includes elements such as: physical, information, and financial flows. The present research is useful to individualize characteristics of a RE supply chain. Moreover, the research is useful improve the performance of RE supply chain in some aspects like: • better control supply chain costs to make renewable energy more affordable; • manage supply chain to address weakened demand in the near

  18. The composite supply chain efficiency model: A case study of the Sishen-Saldanha supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila L. Goedhals-Gerber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As South Africa strives to be a major force in global markets, it is essential that South African supply chains achieve and maintain a competitive advantage. One approach to achieving this is to ensure that South African supply chains maximise their levels of efficiency. Consequently, the efficiency levels of South Africa’s supply chains must be evaluated. The objective of this article is to propose a model that can assist South African industries in becoming internationally competitive by providing them with a tool for evaluating their levels of efficiency both as individual firms and as a component in an overall supply chain. The Composite Supply Chain Efficiency Model (CSCEM was developed to measure supply chain efficiency across supply chains using variables identified as problem areas experienced by South African supply chains. The CSCEM is tested in this article using the Sishen-Saldanda iron ore supply chain as a case study. The results indicate that all three links or nodes along the Sishen-Saldanha iron ore supply chain performed well. The average efficiency of the rail leg was 97.34%, while the average efficiency of the mine and the port were 97% and 95.44%, respectively. The results also show that the CSCEM can be used by South African firms to measure their levels of supply chain efficiency. This article concludes with the benefits of the CSCEM.

  19. Study on Green Supply Chain Management Based on Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jiang; Li-jun, Zhou

    The article starts with circular economy and the connotation of green supply chain, then analyzes the difference between green supply chain and traditional supply chain and elaborates the content of green supply chain management. On that basis, the approach to implement green supply chain management in china shall be put forward.

  20. Spin chain sigma models with fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Rafael [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel, Breguet 1, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland)]. E-mail: rafael.hernandez@cern.ch; Lopez, [Departamento de Fisica Teorica C-XI and Instituto de Fisica Teorica C-XVI, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-11-01

    The complete one-loop planar dilatation operator of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills is isomorphic to the hamiltonian of an integrable PSU(2,2 vertical bar 4) quantum spin chain. We construct the non-linear sigma models describing the continuum limit of the SU(1|3) and SU(2|3) sectors of the complete N=4 chain. We explicitly identify the spin chain sigma model with the one for a superstring moving in AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} with large angular momentum along the five-sphere. (author)

  1. CONFORMATIONAL PROPERTIES OF STRETCHED POLYETHYLENE CHAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-xi Zhang; De-lu Zhao

    2000-01-01

    When polyethylene chains are stretched, the chains are regarded as being confined in an infinite cylinder with decreasing diameter. The conformational properties of polyethylene chains confined in an infinite cylinder are investigated by using rotational isomeric state model. Using the average conformational energy and entropy and the average length, we can determine the elastic force f, or the fraction of the energy term to the total force fe/f, where fe=(б)/(б)/(б). Comparisons with experimental data are also made. The results of these microscopic calculations are discussed in terms of the macroscopic phenomena of rubber elasticity.

  2. Markov chains models, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ching, Wai-Ki; Ng, Michael K; Siu, Tak-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    This new edition of Markov Chains: Models, Algorithms and Applications has been completely reformatted as a text, complete with end-of-chapter exercises, a new focus on management science, new applications of the models, and new examples with applications in financial risk management and modeling of financial data.This book consists of eight chapters.  Chapter 1 gives a brief introduction to the classical theory on both discrete and continuous time Markov chains. The relationship between Markov chains of finite states and matrix theory will also be highlighted. Some classical iterative methods

  3. Supply Chain Management : importing football from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hafiz Muhammad, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    The concept of the thesis is to know how one can start a business of import and export in Finland and the steps taking place during this process. Pakistan is not in the top lists of doing import and export business but due to low labor cost,corporations prefer to do business with Pakistan. My thesis mainly consists on a business plan and supply chain management. As I have done my specialization in Supply chain management, it helped me to understand how the supply chain management and logis...

  4. Improving construction performance through supply chain management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王要武; 薛小龙

    2004-01-01

    A typical model of construction supply chain (CSC) is presented firstly. Then the characteristics and problems of CSC are identified. The authors also describe the progress towards adoption of supply chain management (SCM) in the construction industry. Traditional construction management approaches (CMAs) are compared with new SCM-based CMAs. The authors suggest that integrated SCM based on cooperating competition is crucial to improve construction performance. Based on relevant results from related research, a framework for integrated construction supply chain management (CSCM) is developed to guide the effective implementation of SCM in construction.

  5. Markov chains analytic and Monte Carlo computations

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Markov Chains: Analytic and Monte Carlo Computations introduces the main notions related to Markov chains and provides explanations on how to characterize, simulate, and recognize them. Starting with basic notions, this book leads progressively to advanced and recent topics in the field, allowing the reader to master the main aspects of the classical theory. This book also features: Numerous exercises with solutions as well as extended case studies.A detailed and rigorous presentation of Markov chains with discrete time and state space.An appendix presenting probabilistic notions that are nec

  6. Decay Chain Deduction of Uranium Fission Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huiping; Tian, Chenyang; Wang, Xiaotian; Lv, Ning; Ma, Meng; Wei, Yingguang

    2016-07-01

    Delayed gamma spectrum is the fingerprint of uranium materials in arms control verification technology. The decay chain is simplified into basic state linear chain and excitation state linear chain to calculate and analyze the delayed gamma spectra of fission products. Formulas of the changing rule for nuclide number before and after zero-time are deduced. The C program for calculating the delayed gamma ray spectra data is constructed, and related experiments are conducted to verify this theory. Through analysis of the delayed gamma counts of several nuclides, the calculated results are found to be consistent with experimental values. PMID:27218290

  7. Ideal-Chain Collapse in Biopolymers

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, R M

    2000-01-01

    A conceptual difficulty in the Hooke's-law description of ideal Gaussian polymer-chain elasticity is sometimes apparent in analyses of experimental data or in physical models designed to simulate the behavior of biopolymers. The problem, the tendency of a chain to collapse in the absence of external forces, is examined in the following examples: DNA-stretching experiments, gel electrophoresis, and protein folding. We demonstrate that the application of a statistical-mechanically derived repulsive force, acting between the chain ends, whose magnitude is proportional to the absolute temperature and inversely proportional to the scalar end separation removes this difficulty.

  8. Rate of Escape of the Mixer Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Yadin, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    The mixer chain on a graph $G$ is the following Markov chain. Place tiles on the vertices of $G$, each tile labeled by its corresponding vertex. A "mixer" moves randomly on the graph, at each step either moving to a randomly chosen neighbor, or swapping the tile at its current position with some randomly chosen adjacent tile. We study the mixer chain on $\\mathbb{Z}$, and show that at time $t$ the expected distance to the origin is $t^{3/4}$, up to constants. This is a new examp...

  9. Switching of antiferromagnetic chains with magnetic pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Kun; Polyakov, Oleg P.; Stepanyuk, Valeri S.

    2016-04-01

    Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the possibility of information storage in short antiferromagnetic chains on an insulator substrate [S. Loth et al., Science 335, 196 (2012), 10.1126/science.1214131]. Here, using the density functional theory and atomistic spin dynamics simulations, we show that a local magnetic control of such chains with a magnetic tip and magnetic pulses can be used for fast switching of their magnetization. Furthermore, by changing the position of the tip one can engineer the magnetization dynamics of the chains.

  10. A Scoring Criterion For Learning Chain Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Guo ZHENG; Jing XU; Xing Wei TONG

    2006-01-01

    A chain graph allows both directed and undirected edges, and contains the underlying mathematical properties of the two. An important method of learning graphical models is to use scoring criteria to measure how well the graph structures fit the data. In this paper, we present a scoring criterion for learning chain graphs based on the Kullback-Leibler distance. It is score equivalent, that is, equivalent chain graphs obtain the same score, so it can be used to perform model selection and model averaging.

  11. Quantum Ising chains with boundary fields

    OpenAIRE

    Campostrini, Massimo; Pelissetto, Andrea; Vicari, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the finite one-dimensional quantum Ising chain in a transverse field in the presence of boundary magnetic fields coupled with the order-parameter spin operator. We consider two magnetic fields located at the boundaries of the chain that have the same strength and that are aligned in the same or in the opposite direction. We derive analytic expressions for the gap in all phases for large values of the chain length L, as a function of the boundary field strength. ...

  12. Spectroscopy of element 115 decay chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, Dirk [Lund University, Sweden; Forsberg, U. [Lund University, Sweden; Golubev, P. [Lund University, Sweden; Sarmiento, L. G. [Lund University, Sweden; Yakushev, A. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Andersson, L.-L. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Di Nitto, A. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Duehllmann, Ch. E. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Gates, J. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Gregorich, K. E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Gross, Carl J [ORNL; Hessberger, F. P. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Herzberg, R.-D [University of Liverpool; Khuyagbaatar, J. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Kratz, J. V. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Schaedel, M. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Aberg, S. [Lund University, Sweden; Ackermann, D. [GSI-Hemholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany; Block, M. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Brand, H. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Carlsson, B. G. [Lund University, Sweden; Cox, D. [University of Liverpool; Derkx, X. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Eberhardt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Even, J. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Fahlander, C. [Lund University, Sweden; Gerl, J. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Jaeger, E. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Kindler, B. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Krier, J. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Kojouharov, I. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Kurz, N. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Lommel, B. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Mistry, A. [University of Liverpool; Mokry, C. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Nitsche, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Omtvedt, J. P. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland; Papadakis, P. [University of Liverpool; Ragnarsson, I. [Lund University, Sweden; Runke, J. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Schaffner, H. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Schausten, B. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Thoerle-Pospiech, P. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Torres, T. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Traut, T. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Trautmann, N. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Tuerler, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland; Ward, A. [University of Liverpool; Ward, D. E. [Lund University, Sweden; Wiehl, N. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany

    2013-01-01

    A high-resolution a, X-ray and -ray coincidence spectroscopy experiment was conducted at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fu r Schwerionenforschung. Thirty correlated a-decay chains were detected following the fusion-evaporation reaction 48Ca + 243Am. The observations are consistent with previous assignments of similar decay chains to originate from element Z = 115. The data includes first candidates of fingerprinting the decay step Mt --> Bh with characteristic X rays. For the first time, precise spectroscopy allows the derivation of excitation schemes of isotopes along the decay chains starting with elements Z > 112. Comprehensive Monte-Carlo simulations accompany the data analysis. Nuclear structure models provide a first level interpretation.

  13. Social network analysis and supply chain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with social network analysis and how it could be integrated within supply chain management from a decision-making point of view. Even though the benefits of using social analysis have are widely accepted at both academic and industry/services context, there is still a lack of solid frameworks that allow decision-makers to connect the usage and obtained results of social network analysis – mainly both information and knowledge flows and derived results- with supply chain management objectives and goals. This paper gives an overview of social network analysis, the main social network analysis metrics, supply chain performance and, finally, it identifies how future frameworks could close the gap and link the results of social network analysis with the supply chain management decision-making processes.

  14. The Governance of Global Wealth Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    This introduction to the Special Issue creates a theoretical framework to explain how Global Wealth Chains are created, maintained, and governed. We draw upon different strands of literature, including scholarship in international political economy and economic geography on Global Value Chains......, literature on finance and law in institutional economics, and work from economic sociology on network dynamics within markets. This scholarship assists us in highlighting three variables in how Global Wealth Chains are articulated and change according to: (1) the complexity of transactions, (2) regulatory...... international tax laws to highly complex and flexible innovative financial products produced by large financial institutions and corporations. This article highlights how Global Wealth Cha ins intersect with value chains and real economies, and provides three brief case studies on offshore shell companies...

  15. Qualtiy Issues in Project configured Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Larsen, Casper Schultz

    configuration by project. In such a setting creating value for the customers and the enterprises becomes dependent of the ability to organise and coordinate in the supply chains. That the configuration is not always successful can be demonstrated by studying the emergence of failures occurring in the supply...... observation period. These were compiled and analysed. The economic consequences are calculated to be 8% of the production costs. The analysis of relations in the supply chain both show relations to materials and knowledge chains and their interaction. Most of the failures were generated in the knowledge...... stream and then occasionally transform into the material stream. The paper proposes initiatives to strengthen partnerships in supply chains and especially at engineer to order production. The contradiction between the permanent enterprise organisation potentially capable of handling purchasing and the...

  16. IMPLEMENTING SUSTAINABILITY INTO SUPPLY CHAIN OPERATIONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørsfeldt, Lilyana Makarowa

    2016-01-01

    becomes even more crucial. Professional literature acknowledges that complex and dispersed supply chain structures present organizational challenges when companies strive to translate their strategic sustainability intentions into ongoing supply chain operations. Despite the recognized challenges, few...... empirical studies have investigated in detail how sustainability agendas are implemented or how they affect supply chain operations. These studies have mostly investigated the impact of implementation, explored the relationship between strategy formulation and performance, or provided descriptions...... by bottom-up, day-to-day experiences of supply chain operations is scarce. The contingency approach, which includes the contextual conditions under which the implementation occurs, is also scarce. Moreover, there is a lack of theoretical frameworks based on empirical studies that can support the application...

  17. Multiple impacts in dissipative granular chains

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Ngoc Son

    2014-01-01

    The extension of collision models for single impacts between two bodies, to the case of multiple impacts (which take place when several collisions occur at the same time in a multibody system) is a challenge in Solid Mechanics, due to the complexity of such phenomena, even in the frictionless case. This monograph aims at presenting the main multiple collision rules proposed in the literature. Such collisions typically occur in granular materials, the simplest of which are made of chains of aligned balls. These chains are used throughout the book to analyze various multiple impact rules which extend the classical Newton (kinematic restitution), Poisson (kinetic restitution) and Darboux-Keller (energetic or kinetic restitution) approaches for impact modelling. The shock dynamics in various types of chains of aligned balls (monodisperse, tapered, decorated, stepped chains) is carefully studied and shown to depend on several parameters: restitution coefficients, contact stiffness ratios, elasticity coefficients (...

  18. ERP extension - Supply Chain Management (SCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile LUPSE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an extension of a ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning, more precisely the Supply Chain Management (SCM, together with some personal considerations and contributions of the authors, regarding the presented concepts.

  19. Supply chain configuration concepts, solutions, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Charu

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the models and tools available for solving configuration problems, emphasizes the value of model integration to obtain comprehensive and robust configuration decisions, proposes solutions for supply chain configuration in the presence of stochastic and dynamic factors, and illustrates application of the techniques discussed in applied studies. It is divided into four parts, which are devoted to defining the supply chain configuration problem and identifying key issues, describing solutions to various problems identified, proposing technologies for enabling supply chain confirmations, and discussing applied supply chain configuration problems. Its distinguishing features are: an explicit focus on the configuration problem an in-depth coverage of configuration models an emphasis on model integration and application of information modeling techniques in decision-making New to this edition is Part II: Technologies, which introduces readers to various technologies being utilized for supply chai...

  20. Doping Scheme of Semiconducting Atomic Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshishige, Yamada; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Atomic chains, precise structures of atomic scale created on an atomically regulated substrate surface, are candidates for future electronics. A doping scheme for intrinsic semiconducting Mg chains is considered. In order to suppress the unwanted Anderson localization and minimize the deformation of the original band shape, atomic modulation doping is considered, which is to place dopant atoms beside the chain periodically. Group I atoms are donors, and group VI or VII atoms are acceptors. As long as the lattice constant is long so that the s-p band crossing has not occurred, whether dopant atoms behave as donors or acceptors is closely related to the energy level alignment of isolated atomic levels. Band structures are calculated for Br-doped (p-type) and Cs-doped (n-type) Mg chains using the tight-binding theory with universal parameters, and it is shown that the band deformation is minimized and only the Fermi energy position is modified.

  1. Corporate Social Responsibility and Supply Chain Management:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liempd, Dennis van; Warming-Rasmussen, Bent; Abild-Nielsen, Jens;

      The last 25 years or so, two disciplines have become increasingly more prominent in business: Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Traditionally, SCM has been characterized by concerns of efficiency and effectiveness, illustrated by the 7 R's: the right product...... ethics. Since a supply chain exists of legally independent entities, the need for right ethics creates the need for a ninth R: right monitoring. This paper investigates how the discipline of auditing can contribute to solve the problem of right monitoring of right ethics across a supply chain. In order....... The paper concludes that the independent auditor's methods can contribute in many ways to develop a new form of auditing: Supply Chain Audits (SC-A). The paper ends with implications for future research....

  2. Generalized crested products of Markov chains

    CERN Document Server

    D'Angeli, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    We define a finite Markov chain, called generalized crested product, which naturally appears as a generalization of the first crested product of Markov chains. A complete spectral analysis is developed and the $k$-step transition probability is given. It is important to remark that this Markov chain describes a more general version of the classical Ehrenfest diffusion model. As a particular case, one gets a generalization of the classical Insect Markov chain defined on the ultrametric space. Finally, an interpretation in terms of representation group theory is given, by showing the correspondence between the spectral decomposition of the generalized crested product and the Gelfand pairs associated with the generalized wreath product of permutation groups.

  3. Entanglement Enhancement in an XY Spin Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xiao-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    We study evolution of entanglement in an XY-type spin channel and find that the entanglement can be enhanced by the spin channel. The parameter regions of the initial states for different numbers of sites are obtained.Furthermore, we consider a common spin environment coupling to the spin chains and find that the entanglement enhancement can also be implemented only for the chains with the odd numbers of sites.%@@ We study evolution of entanglement in an XY-type spin channel and find that the entanglement can be enhanced by the spin channel.The parameter regions of the initial states for different numbers of sites are obtained.Furthermore,we consider a common spin environment coupling to the spin chains and find that the entanglement enhancement can also be implemented only for the chains with the odd numbers of sites.

  4. product chain collaboration and environmental innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Mosgaard, Mette

    2004-01-01

    The paper  builds upon a case study from a number of electronic companies in Denmark and describes from an organisational perspective how organisations make environmental innovations in the product chain....

  5. Covariant Stora-Zumino chain terms

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, C

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper, Ekstrand proposed a simple expression from which covariant anomaly, covariant Schwinger term and higher covariant chain terms may be computed. We comment on the relation of his result to the earlier work of Tsutsui.

  6. Supply chain risk management; Lieferung mit Risiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersten, Wolfgang; Hohrath, Philipp [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Logistik und Unternehmensfuehrung; Scholl, Jan [Pleyma GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    In spite of the high risk involved, about 40 percent of all wind power systems do not have a supply chain risk management. This is due to the supply structures of this relatively young industry. (orig.)

  7. Analytical calculation of chain length in ferrofluids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Devi; P P Dutta; D Mohanta

    2015-02-01

    The response of a typical ferrofluid (FF) lies in its explicit property of chain formation of magnetic nanoparticles. The most significant magneto-optic (MO) and magneto-viscous (MV) effects of FF are attributed to chaining effect. In the present research, an effort was made to analytically justify the dependence of the structure evolution of FFs on different measurable parameters involved in MO and MV effects. The problem is treated with the help of dimensional analysis and an empirical relation is formulated relating the equilibrium chain length with Verdet coefficient (constant), particle diameter, viscosity of the carrier fluid, particle density, magnetization and shear rate. The formulated relation of chain length is supported by error analysis to yield the uncertainty in the result. The maximum uncertainty in four sets of data is found as ∼0.75.

  8. Enterprise Architecture in the Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben; Koch, Christian

    2010-01-01

    supply chain has to meet quite a complicated set of demands. Coherency Management (CM) for the aligning of business processes and underlying technology is used by proposing three parameters for EA: Alignment, agility and assurance. Alignment addresses the depth of business vs. technology correspondence......Information systems in supply chain management (SCM) is common, bringing architecture on the agenda . The paper uses three perspectives on enterprise architecture (EA) in the supply chain: The correlation view, the remote view and the institutional view. It is shown that the EA in the domain of....... Agility is fighting lack of understanding on technological and social impact. Assurance is the compliance of any type: Internal, external, quality, voluntary, governmental, international, moral, social and legal. A case of an apparel company using a bespoke ERP system for its global supply chain support...

  9. ERP extension - Supply Chain Management (SCM)

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile LUPSE; Ovidiu COSMA

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an extension of a ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning), more precisely the Supply Chain Management (SCM), together with some personal considerations and contributions of the authors, regarding the presented concepts.

  10. Modelling proton transfer in water molecule chains

    CERN Document Server

    Korzhimanov, Artem; Shutova, Tatiana; Samuelsson, Goran

    2011-01-01

    The process of protons transport in molecular water chains is of fundamental interest for many biological systems. Although many features of such systems can be analyzed using large-scale computational modeling, other features are better understood in terms of simplified model problems. Here we have tested, analytically and numerically, a model describing the classical proton hopping process in molecular water chains. In order to capture the main features of the proton hopping process in such molecular chains, we use a simplified model for our analysis. In particular, our discrete model describes a 1D chain of water molecules situated in an external protein channel structure, and each water molecule is allowed to oscillate around its equilibrium point in this system, while the protons are allowed to move along the line of neighboring oxygen atoms. The occurrence and properties of nonlinear solitary transport structures, allowing for much faster proton transport, are discussed, and the possible implications of...

  11. Plastic deformation in a metallic granular chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musson, Ryan W.; Carlson, William

    2016-03-01

    Solitary wave response was investigated in a metallic granular chain-piston system using LS-DYNA. A power law hardening material model was used to show that localized plastic deformation is present in a metallic granular chain for an impact velocity of 0.5 m/s. This loss due to plastic deformation was quantified via impulse, and it was shown that the loss scales nearly linearly with impact velocity. Therefore, metallic grains may not be suitable for devices that require high-amplitude solitary waves. There would be too much energy lost to plastic deformation. One can assume that ceramics will behave elastically; therefore, the response of an aluminum oxide granular chain was compared to that of a steel chain.

  12. Supply Chain Challenges among BRICS Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravendra TyagiA ,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available in an economic mode for satisfying the all end-users by prompt connectivity and communication between the links of supply chain. In this article efforts have been made to explore the series of challenges in BRICS countries in supply chain connectivity to achieve the revolution of coined word, which is “Broad vision and shared prosperity, also security and prosperity” this paper exposes the impacting key constraints on economic and smooth supply chain execution country wise, specifically Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa, also discusses the approaches to overcome the loose poles in supply chain system by enhancing internationalization and globalization ,which relates to quantitative and qualitative strengthening in the field of finance and technology.

  13. The robust PT-symmetric chain

    CERN Document Server

    Joglekar, Yogesh N

    2010-01-01

    We study the properties of a parity- and time-reversal- (PT) symmetric tight-binding chain of size N with position-dependent hopping amplitude. In contrast to the fragile PT-symmetric phase of a chain with constant hopping and imaginary impurity potentials, we show that, under very general conditions, our model is {\\it always} in the PT-symmetric phase. We numerically obtain the energy spectrum and the density of states of such a chain, and show that they are widely tunable. By studying the size-dependence of inverse participation ratios, we show that although the chain is not translationally invariant, most of its eigenstates are extended. Our results indicate that tight-binding models with non-Hermitian PT-symmetric hopping have a robust PT-symmetric phase and rich dynamics.

  14. Doping Scheme in Atomic Chain Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshishige, Yamada

    1997-01-01

    Due to the dramatic reduction in MOS size, there appear many unwanted effects. In these small devices, the number of dopant atoms in the channel is not macroscopic and electrons may suffer significantly different scattering from device to device since the spatial distribution of dopant atoms is no longer regarded as continuous. This prohibits integration, while it is impossible to control such dopant positions within atomic scale. A fundamental solution is to create electronics with simple but atomically precise structures, which could be fabricated with recent atom manipulation technology. All the constituent atoms are placed as planned, and then the device characteristics are deviation-free, which is mandatory for integration. Atomic chain electronics belongs to this category. Foreign atom chains or arrays form devices, and they are placed on the atomically flat substrate surface. We can design the band structure and the resultant Fermi energy of these structures by manipulating the lattice constant. Using the tight-binding theory with universal parameters, it has been predicted that isolated Si chains and arrays are metallic, Mg chains are insulating, and Mg arrays have metallic and insulating phases [1]. The transport properties along a metallic chain have been studied, emphasizing the role of the contact to electrodes [2]. For electronic applications, it is essential to establish a method to dope a semiconducting chain, which is to control the Fermi energy position without altering the original band structure. If we replace some of the chain atoms with dopant atoms randomly, the electrons will see random potential along die chain and will be localized strongly in space (Anderson localization). However, if we replace periodically, although the electrons can spread over the chain, there will generally appear new bands and band gaps reflecting the new periodicity of dopant atoms. This will change the original band structure significantly. In order to overcome

  15. Magnetosome chain superstructure in uncultured magnetotactic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetotactic bacteria produce magnetosomes, which are magnetic particles enveloped by biological membranes, in a highly controlled mineralization process. Magnetosomes are used to navigate in magnetic fields by a phenomenon called magnetotaxis. Two levels of organization and control are recognized in magnetosomes. First, magnetotactic bacteria create a spatially distinct environment within vesicles defined by their membranes. In the vesicles, the bacteria control the size, composition and purity of the mineral content of the magnetic particles. Unique crystal morphologies are produced in magnetosomes as a consequence of this bacterial control. Second, magnetotactic bacteria organize the magnetosomes in chains within the cell body. It has been shown in a particular case that the chains are positioned within the cell body in specific locations defined by filamentous cytoskeleton elements. Here, we describe an additional level of organization of the magnetosome chains in uncultured magnetotactic cocci found in marine and freshwater sediments. Electron microscopy analysis of the magnetosome chains using a goniometer showed that the magnetic crystals in both types of bacteria are not oriented at random along the crystal chain. Instead, the magnetosomes have specific orientations relative to the other magnetosomes in the chain. Each crystal is rotated either 60°, 180° or 300° relative to their neighbors along the chain axis, causing the overlapping of the (1 1 1) and (1-bar 1-bar 1-bar) capping faces of neighboring crystals. We suggest that genetic determinants that are not present or active in bacteria with magnetosomes randomly rotated within a chain must be present in bacteria that organize magnetosomes so precisely. This particular organization may also be used as an indicative biosignature of magnetosomes in the study of magnetofossils in the cases where this symmetry is observed

  16. Design of supply chain in fuzzy environment

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Kandukuri Narayana; Subbaiah, Kambagowni Venkata; Singh, Ganja Veera Pratap

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, customer expectations are increasing and organizations are prone to operate in an uncertain environment. Under this uncertain environment, the ultimate success of the firm depends on its ability to integrate business processes among supply chain partners. Supply chain management emphasizes cross-functional links to improve the competitive strategy of organizations. Now, companies are moving from decoupled decision processes towards more integrated design and control of their compone...

  17. Innovative successes through the value chain

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, David

    2011-01-01

    The global food crisis has focused attention on agriculture and spurred increased investment in the sector. The attention of public policy and research investment has been focused on smallholder farmers’ productivity. However, it is critical to enable opportunities throughout the value chain to improve smallholder farmers’ access to market with the associated income improvements. With post-farm losses in the global supply of food estimated to be 10–40%, research throughout the food chain is a...

  18. WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Marijan Karic; Maja Karic

    2012-01-01

    Working (operating) capital available for use is an important factor in the success of the business firm and the whole supply chain. Effective working capital management helps in balancing usage of capital, not only for the firm, but for the suppliers and the consumers too, that is in the best interests of all parties in the supply chain. The effects of such working capital management are particularly important for trading businesses. In this paper we discuss issues of the cash conversion cyc...

  19. Chain stiffness of elastin-like polypeptides

    OpenAIRE

    Fluegel, Sabine; Fischer, Karl; McDaniel, Jonathan R.; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Schmidt, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    The hydrodynamic radii of a series of genetically engineered monodisperse elastin like polypeptides (ELP) was determined by dynamic light scattering in aqueous solution as function of molar mass. Utilizing the known theoretical expression for the hydrodynamic radius of wormlike chains, the Kuhn statistical segment length was determined to be lk = 2.1 nm, assuming that the length of the peptide repeat unit was b = 0.365 nm, a value derived for a coiled conformation of ELP. The resulting chain ...

  20. Making Global Value Chains Work for Development

    OpenAIRE

    Taglioni, Daria; Winkler, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Economic, technological, and political shifts as well as changing business strategies have driven firms to unbundle production processes and disperse them across countries. Thanks to these changes, developing countries can now increase their participation in global value chains (GVCs) and thus become more competitive in agriculture, manufacturing and services. This is a paradigm shift from the 20th century when countries had to build the entire supply chain domestically to become competitive ...

  1. XBRL financial reporting supply chain architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Piechocki, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    Recently the Internet with XML technologies and especially XBRL technology has impacted what is recognised as the financial reporting supply chain. Some claims in the market report that XBRL has the potential to reduce inefficiencies, automate and optimise the financial reporting supply chain. Nevertheless the real nature of the impact still remains unclear. The growing number of XBRL projects around the world together with strong interest from bodies such as the SEC in the United States, CEB...

  2. Humanitarian Research Group Response Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Humanitarian Research Group

    2013-01-01

    Many of the challenges in management of a commercial supply chain are also reflected in military and humanitarian logistics. Disaster response consists of various logistics operations such as inventory management and distribution which are an important part of the response supply chain. Although demand patterns and demand locations change only occasionally in commercial enterprises, they change frequently within the context of conflict and disaster. The complexity of humanitarian logistics ca...

  3. Supply Chain Simulation: Experimentation without Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Arisha, Amr; Tobail, Ayman; Crowe,John

    2010-01-01

    Bridging the gap between theory and practice has always been a key issue for students and graduates. The magnitude and scope of subject areas that students at third level institutions have to learn in theory means that visualising them without any practical experience can be very difficult. Understanding the complexity of supply chain networks and how to manage them create a considerable level of difficulty for students and professionals. Theories and applications included in supply chain man...

  4. Risk assessment and management logistics chains

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Vikulov; Andrey Butrin

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the context of economic globalization and increasing complexity of economic relations enterprises need methods and techniques to improve and sustain their position on the global market. Integration processes offer business new opportunities, but at the same time present new challenges for the management, including the key objectives of the risk management. Method: On the basis of analysis tools known from the pertinent literature (Supply Chain Management and Supply Chain R...

  5. RETAIL SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT THROUGH CENTRALIZED DISTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Davor Dujak

    2012-01-01

    The paper reviews the trends in the design of distribution systems in retail supply chain management. Through goals, design decisions and costs of distribution system or distribution network, the paper points to the complexity and importance of this area of supply chain management. The goal of paper is to present modern trends in the distribution system, as well as specify the advantages and disadvantages of the leading distribution systems, with a special emphasis on the central distribution...

  6. Supply chain coordination in industrial symbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Herczeg, Gabor; Akkerman, Renzo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2013-01-01

    Industrial symbiosis (IS) is a form of supply chain cooperation in industrial networks in order to achieve collective benefits by leveraging each other’s by-products and sharing services and utilities. This paper investigates the concept of IS from the perspective of supply chain coordination (SCC). For this purpose a theoretical framework is built based on SCC aspects, which is subsequently used to analyze a case study. We conclude that research is scant on operational issues and trade-offs ...

  7. An abstract approach to Loewner's chains

    CERN Document Server

    Arosio, Leandro; Hamada, Hidetaka; Kohr, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    We present a new abstract construction of Loewner chains in one and several variables which holds also on hyperbolic complex manifolds and prove that there is essentially a one-to-one correspondence between evolution families of order $d$ and Loewner chains of the same order. As a consequence we obtain a Loewner-Kufarev generalized PDE on complex manifolds. We apply such results to the study of biholomorphic mappings from the unit ball of $\\C^n$.

  8. Setting parameters in the cold chain

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Rodríguez; Itaxaso Amorrortu; María Jesús Álvarez

    2011-01-01

    Breaks in the cold chain are important economic losses in food and pharmaceutical companies. Many of the failures in the cold chain are due to improper adjustment of equipment parameters such as setting the parameters for theoretical conditions, without a corresponding check in normal operation. The companies that transport refrigeratedproducts must be able to adjust the parameters of the equipment in an easy and quick to adapt their functioning to changing environmental conditions. This arti...

  9. Environmental decision making: supply-chain considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Water use, energy use, and global warming potential (GWP) are investigated to assess the environmental impact of the manufacturing supply-chain in the interest of developing sustainable manufacturing systems. Because a major component of the supply chain is transportation, four methods of transportation are investigated: shipping, rail, trucking, and air freight. Additionally, location-specific manufacturing considerations such as water scarcity, resource availability, and energy mix are disc...

  10. U.S. CHAIN RESTAURANT EFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, David L.; Byrne, Patrick J.

    1997-01-01

    The growth of corporate food service firms and the resulting competition places increasing pressures on available resources and their efficient usage. This analysis measures efficiencies for U. S. chain restaurants and determines associations between managerial and operational characteristics. Using a ray-homothetic production function, frontiers were estimated for large and small restaurant chains. Technical and scale efficiencies were then derived for the firms. Finally, a Tobit analysis me...

  11. Interacting Particle Markov Chain Monte Carlo

    OpenAIRE

    Rainforth, Tom; Naesseth, Christian A.; Lindsten, Fredrik; Paige, Brooks; van de Meent, Jan-Willem; Doucet, Arnaud; Wood, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We introduce interacting particle Markov chain Monte Carlo (iPMCMC), a PMCMC method that introduces a coupling between multiple standard and conditional sequential Monte Carlo samplers. Like related methods, iPMCMC is a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler on an extended space. We present empirical results that show significant improvements in mixing rates relative to both non-interacting PMCMC samplers and a single PMCMC sampler with an equivalent total computational budget. An additional advant...

  12. Anaerobic digestion in sustainable biomass chains

    OpenAIRE

    Pabon Pereira, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the potential contribution of anaerobic digestion (AD) to the sustainability of biomass chains. Results provide insights in the technological potential to recover energy and valuable by-products from energy crops and residues, and evaluate biomass cascades involving AD technology for their feasibility and desirability. Embedding AD in biomass chains addresses current constraints towards increased use of biomass for energy production considering land competition and envir...

  13. A superfluid spin phase in ferromagnetic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I show that for a spin-1/2 ferromagnetic Heisenberg chain, a new spontaneously broken symmetry state with no spontaneous magnetization, degenerate to the ferromagnetically ordered ground state exists in a generalized mean field theory. It has off-diagonal long-range order. Consequently a 3-dimensional system of weakly coupled ferromagnetic chains can have this new order at low temperatures. Some interesting experimentally observable predictions are made. (author)

  14. PACKAGING QUALITY ASSURANCE IN SUPPLY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Cholewa-Wójcik; Agnieszka Kawecka

    2014-01-01

    Packaging is a very important element in products quality maintenance that is why quality of packaging has great influence and its quality assurance is necessary. Physical flow in supply chain may deteriorate some of packaging features, so their monitoring and proper conditions of storage, transport and suitable protection are important.The main goal of the paper was to present model of packaging supply chain with elements that are most influencing packaging quality. In the model are consider...

  15. Exploring hybridity in food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Slee, William; Kirwan, James

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, a number of dynamic aspects of food supply chains have attracted great interest among social scientists investigating rural restructuring and change. These include: the expansion of organic agriculture; the development of new value added enterprises at farm level and the revitalisation of traditional and new-old artisanal production practices; the expansion from a low base of the market share of alternative short supply chains, such as farmers markets; and the so-called quali...

  16. Humanitarian Supply Chain Management - An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Ergun, Ozlem; Karakus, Gonca; Keskinocak, Pinar; Swann, Julie; Villarreal, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Disasters recently received the attention of the Operations Research community due to the great potential of improving disaster related operations through the use of analytical tools, and the impact on people that this implies. In this introductory article, we describe the main characteristics of disaster supply chains, and we highlight the particular issues that are faced when managing these supply chains. We illustrate how Operations Research tools can be used to make better decisions, taki...

  17. Forecasting Daily Demand in Cash Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Wagner

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Previous studies focused on explaining the long run determinants of currency demand offering limited insight into the short-run determinants and co-variability of daily demand in cash supply chains. Approach: This study contrasted competing techniques of forecasting daily demand in cash supply chains in order to determine the overall performance and the potential of joint forecasting for integrated planning. A joint forecasting approach was compared with...

  18. EVALUATING LOGISTICAL CHAIN IN SLOVENIAN COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Zavrsnik

    2013-01-01

    The current market situation, followed by fast growing globalization‘s effects has been constantly searching for new approaches in modeling and managing transport -logistics chains. These are approaches where all determinants for efficient and effect ive management of ever complex supply chains have been properly set and exploited. This paper focuses on logistics performance of industrial firms in the Slovenian market. Our research explored the current attitudes of managers in the logistic in...

  19. Supply Chain Management in Retail Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Plazibat; Sladana Brajevic

    2009-01-01

    Companies attempt to change their ways of doing business to find out new approaches to customers. Internationalization and consolidation of retailing turned traditional retail industry upside down. Fast and efficient operational models and new technologies constantly challenge retailers. The term supply chain management (SCM) is relatively new in the literature, appearing first in 1982. Supply chain is a set of institutions that moves goods from the point of production to the point of consump...

  20. Promotion Of Supply Chain Managementthrough Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Stevan Rapaic

    2010-01-01

    Supply chain management (SCM) as a new business philosophy is a source of numerous advantages for the companies that are included in such a unique business chain network. Logistic management, as a part of SCM, on the other hand, represents a field with best opportunities for cost savings. The article defines the concept of SCM and distinguishes it from the logistic management. The author also explains the concept of clusters and cluster policy by analyzing their influence on SCM. Clusters are...

  1. Supply chain management resources, capabilities and execution

    OpenAIRE

    Kotzab, Herbert; Teller, Christoph; Grant, David; Friis, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies inter- and intra-organisational management resources that determine the level of execution of inter-firm alliance supply chain management (SCM). By drawing on network and resource-based view theories, a conceptual model proposes the effects of SCM resources and capabilities as influencing factors on SCM execution. The model was tested using survey data from studies conducted in two European supply chain environments. Variance-based structural equation modelling confirmed...

  2. Vliv Cloud Computingu na Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Karkošková, Soňa

    2013-01-01

    Master thesis "Impact of Cloud Computing on Supply Chain Management" analyses the provisioning of IT resources in the form of cloud computing services and their impact on supply chain management environment. Attention is focused particularly on providing SaaS model of public applications delivery. The Cloud SCM implementation offers many advantages especially for small and medium sized companies. In this thesis I analysed the specifics of the deployment of Cloud SCM in highly unstable market ...

  3. Stochastic chains with memory of variable length

    OpenAIRE

    Galves, Antonio; Loecherbach, Eva

    2008-01-01

    International audience Stochastic chains with memory of variable length constitute an interesting family of stochastic chains of infinite order on a finite alphabet. The idea is that for each past, only a finite suffix of the past, called context, is enough to predict the next symbol. These models were first introduced in the information theory literature by Rissanen (1983) as a universal tool to perform data compression. Recently, they have been used to model up scientific data in areas a...

  4. Open Spin Chain and Open Spinning String

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN Bin; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Yong-Shi

    2004-01-01

    In this letter, we study the open spinning strings and their SYM duals. A new class of folded open spinning strings is found. At planar one-loop level in SYM, by solving the thermodynamic limit of the Bethe ansatz equations for an integrable open spin chain, we find good agreement with string theory predictions for energies of both circular and folded two-spin solutions. A universal relation between the open and closed spinning strings is verified in the spin chain approach.

  5. Accounting Support Function for Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Munteanu Petricã

    2013-01-01

    Recording past facts and events, accounting may be erroneously considered useless for Supply chain management. Since we are aware of the complexity of the subject, we tried to bring SCM in the area of accounting and of the relationships that can be established between these two research fields. For this reason, the objective of our research is to point out the usefulness of accounting and its products in insuring the performance of Supply chain management. Our study reveals the support functi...

  6. Supply Chain Sustainability: a Retailer Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    James ROWELL

    2011-01-01

    Since the publication of 'The Greening of Wal-Mart's Supply Chain' (Plambeck, 2007) the subject of sustainability has gained a clear focus in organisations' supply chain activities. (The Sustainable Business, EFMD, 2010) In fact the 2007 paper reported on Walmart's ambitions as outlined by CEO Lee Scott, in 2005. That plan was titled Sustainability 360. Based on information published by Walmart since 2007, this article discusses the organisational context of these initiatives and focuses on t...

  7. Lean performance measures in a supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Domingos Ogando dos

    2013-01-01

    In the existing global economic context it is crucial that companies understand the importance of the supply chain, so that they can maintain their respective competitive advantage. Several of the supply chain’s approaches consider the customer and the definition of value as key features. One easily associates the Lean philosophy to supply chains, with its basis of continuous improvement and elimination of waste. Companies which employ this philosophy begin with lean thinking, which highli...

  8. Risk assessment and management logistics chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vikulov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the context of economic globalization and increasing complexity of economic relations enterprises need methods and techniques to improve and sustain their position on the global market. Integration processes offer business new opportunities, but at the same time present new challenges for the management, including the key objectives of the risk management. Method: On the basis of analysis tools known from the pertinent literature (Supply Chain Management and Supply Chain Risk Management methods, methods of probability theory, methods of risk management, methods of statistics the authors of this paper proposed their own risk assessment method and the method of management of logistics chains. The proposed tool is a specific hybrid of solutions known from the literature. Results: The presented method has been successfully used within the frames of economic-mathematical model of industrial enterprises. Indicators of supply chain risks, including risks caused by supplier are considered in this paper. Authors formed a method of optimizing the level of supply chain risk in the integration with suppliers and customers. Conclusion: Every organization, which starting the process of integration with supplier and customers, needs to use tools, methodologies and techniques for identification of "weak links" in the supply chain. The proposed method allows to fix risk origin places in various links of the supply chain and to identify "weak links" of a logistic chain that may occur in the future. The method is a useful tool for managing not only risks and risk situations, but also to improve the efficiency of current assets management by providing the ability to optimize the level of risk in the current assets management of the industrial enterprise.

  9. An RFID middleware for supply chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Pinto Carneiro; Flavius Portella Ribas Martins

    2011-01-01

    RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) systems for identification and tracking of products and equipments have been progressively adopted as an essential tool for supply chain management, a production environment where the members usually share with each other their own logistic and management systems. Therefore, the development of supply chain RFID systems can be strongly simplified through the inclusion of an intermediate software layer – the middleware – responsible for the creation...

  10. SUPPLY CHAIN OF VEGETABLE FORCING IN HUNGARY

    OpenAIRE

    Tégla, Zsolt; Szűcs, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    The competitiveness of the economic actors is basically determined by the efficiency of their supply chain. The optimization works best if it begins at the end user of the supply chain and the planning starts with determining the needs and requirements. All the elements of each sub-process can be simulated from sales (in the case of biomass it means incineration in a heating plant) through production (establishing energy forests) to the packed fresh vegetables grown in the cultivation equipme...

  11. Social network analysis and supply chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with social network analysis and how it could be integrated within supply chain management from a decision-making point of view. Even though the benefits of using social analysis have are widely accepted at both academic and industry/services context, there is still a lack of solid frameworks that allow decision-makers to connect the usage and obtained results of social network analysis – mainly both information and knowledge flows and derived results- with supply chain manag...

  12. Entropy Rate for Hidden Markov Chains with rare transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Yuval; Quas, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We consider Hidden Markov Chains obtained by passing a Markov Chain with rare transitions through a noisy memoryless channel. We obtain asymptotic estimates for the entropy of the resulting Hidden Markov Chain as the transition rate is reduced to zero.

  13. Impact of supply chain management practices on sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Azevedo, Susana G.; Carvalho, Helena;

    2014-01-01

    elimination," "supply chain risk management" and "cleaner production." The following lean, resilient and green supply chain management practices do not have a significant impact on supply chain sustainability: "flexible transportation," "flexible sourcing," "ISO 14001 certification," and "reverse logistics...

  14. Antiretroviral procurement and supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripin, David J; Jamieson, David; Meyers, Amy; Warty, Umesh; Dain, Mary; Khamsi, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    Procurement, the country-level process of ordering antiretrovirals (ARVs), and supply chain management, the mechanism by which they are delivered to health-care facilities, are critical processes required to move ARVs from manufacturers to patients. To provide a glimpse into the ARV procurement and supply chain, the following pages provide an overview of the primary stakeholders, principal operating models, and policies and regulations involved in ARV procurement. Also presented are key challenges that need to be addressed to ensure that the supply chain is not a barrier to the goal of universal coverage. This article will cover the steps necessary to order and distribute ARVs, including different models of delivery, key stakeholders involved, strategic considerations that vary depending on context and policies affecting them. The single drug examples given illustrate the complications inherent in fragmented supply and demand-driven models of procurement and supply chain management, and suggest tools for navigating these hurdles that will ultimately result in more secure and reliable ARV provision. Understanding the dynamics of ARV supply chain is important for the global health community, both to ensure full and efficient treatment of persons living with HIV as well as to inform the supply chain decisions for other public health products. PMID:25310145

  15. Quantum Markov Chain Mixing and Dissipative Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastoryano, Michael James

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is the fruit of investigations on the extension of ideas of Markov chain mixing to the quantum setting, and its application to problems of dissipative engineering. A Markov chain describes a statistical process where the probability of future events depends only on the state of the sy....... Finally, we consider three independent tasks of dissipative engineering: dissipatively preparing a maximally entangled state of two atoms trapped in an optical cavity, dissipative preparation of graph states, and dissipative quantum computing construction.......This thesis is the fruit of investigations on the extension of ideas of Markov chain mixing to the quantum setting, and its application to problems of dissipative engineering. A Markov chain describes a statistical process where the probability of future events depends only on the state...... (stationary states). The aim of Markov chain mixing is to obtain (upper and/or lower) bounds on the number of steps it takes for the Markov chain to reach a stationary state. The natural quantum extensions of these notions are density matrices and quantum channels. We set out to develop a general mathematical...

  16. Interstellar Carbon Chains: Is Thermodynamics the Key?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etim, Emmanuel; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Das, Ankan; Gorai, Prasanta; Arunan, Elangannan

    2016-07-01

    In an effort to further our interest in understanding basic chemistry of interstellar molecules, we carry out here an extensive investigation of the stabilities of interstellar carbon chains; C_n, H_2C_n, HC_nN and C_nX (X=N, O, Si, S, H, P, H^-, N^-). These sets of molecules account for about 20% of all the known interstellar and circumstellar molecules. Their high abundances therefore demand a serious attention. High level ab initio quantum chemical simulations are employed to accurately estimate enthalpy of formation, chemical reactivity indices; global hardness and softness; and other chemical parameters of these molecules. Chemical modeling of the abundances of these molecular species has also been performed. Of the 89 molecules considered from these groups, 47 have been astronomically observed, these observed molecules are found to be more stable with respect to other members of the group. Of the 47 observed molecules, 60% are odd number carbon chains. The reason for the high abundance of odd numbered carbon chains can easily be seen from the fact that they are more stable than the corresponding even number carbon chains. This further confirms the dominance of thermodynamics in interstellar formation processes as described in the Energy, Stability and Abundance (ESA) relationship. The next possible carbon chain molecule for astronomical observation in each group is proposed. The effect of kinetics in the formation processes of these carbon chains is shown to be largely dominated by thermodynamics.

  17. Conformational elasticity theory of chain molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Xiaozhen

    2001-01-01

    This paper develops a conformational elasticity theory of chain molecules, which is based on three key points: (ⅰ) the molecular model is the rotational isomeric state (RIS) model; (ⅱ) the conformational distribution function of a chain molecule is described by a function of two variables, the end-to-end distance of a chain conformation and the energy of the conformation; (ⅲ) the rule of changes in the chain conformational states during deformation is that a number of chain conformations would vanish. The ideal deformation behavior calculated by the theory shows that the change in chain conformations is physically able to make the upward curvature of the stress-strain curve at the large-scale deformation of natural rubber. With the theory, different deformation behaviors between polymers with different chemical structures can be described, the energy term of the stress in the deformations can be predicted, and for natural rubber the fraction of the energy term is around 13%, coinciding with the experimental results.

  18. The effect of chain flexibility and chain mobility on radiation crosslinking reactions of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flexibility of polymer chains is an important factor to effects of radiation crosslinking of the polymer. Polymers with flexible chains are easier to be crosslinked, with lower dose of gelation, than polymers with more rigid chains. And it is known that most polymers with abnormal rigidity can be radiation-crosslinked only at high temperatures when the molecular chains get enough mobility. The flexibility of polymer chains also influences the relationship between degree of degradation and radiation dose. A chain flexibility factor β has been introduced to modify the Charlesby-Pinner equation of sol-fraction and radiation dose. The new relationship equation applies to a wider range of polymers in radiation crosslinking. Studies also show that for flexible polymers with lower Tg and molecular internal rotating factor, mechanism of radiation crosslinking is mainly in H type, whereas for rigid polymers with higher Tg and molecular internal rotating factor, mechanism of radiation crosslinking is mainly in T type

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Supply Chain Management Strategies: A Simulation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, FTS

    2002-01-01

    Supply chain management has become one of the most important sources of competitive advantage in different industries. For years, researchers have investigated the various processes within supply chain. There has been an increasing attention placed on performance, design and analysis of supply chain. However, the supply chain is a complex model so it is difficult to analyze the performance of a supply chain philosophically. To evaluate the control mechanism for a supply chain, simulation is o...

  20. Estimating hidden semi-Markov chains from discrete sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Guédon, Yann

    2003-01-01

    International audience This article addresses the estimation of hidden semi-Markov chains from nonstationary discrete sequences. Hidden semi-Markov chains are particularly useful to model the succession of homogeneous zones or segments along sequences. A discrete hidden semi-Markov chain is composed of a nonobservable state process, which is a semi-Markov chain, and a discrete output process. Hidden semi-Markov chains generalize hidden Markov chains and enable the modeling of various durat...

  1. Supply Chain Management in Albania: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alma Spaho, Thoma Mitre

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain management in Albania has received little attention in the recent literature. Many companies now realize that actions taken by one member of the chain can influence the profitability of all others in the chain. Companies are increasingly thinking in terms of competing as part of a supply chain against other supply chains, rather than as a single firm against other individual firms. The aim of the paper is to investigate the current situation of supply chain management in Albania ...

  2. A conceptual framework to analyse supply chain designs

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Badenhorst-Weiss; J. Nel

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Supply chain design (SCD) is a concept that forms an integral part of supply chain management (SCM). Effective SCD enhances supply chain integration (SCI) which in turn contributes towards improved supply chain performance. Therefore, organisations' supply chain designs need to be analysed. This article proposes a conceptual framework to analyse organisations' supply chain designs. The objective of this article is to determine whether the proposed conceptual framework is a w...

  3. Developing Model for Supply Chain Management - the Case of Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    E. Jurun; I. Veza

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a model of supply chain management (SCM). It explains overall supply chain issues, strategic importance of SCM, supply chain strategies and an example of mathematical formulation. A supply chain is a global network of organizations that cooperate to improve the flows of material and information between suppliers and customers at the lowest cost and the highest speed. The objective of a supply chain is customer satisfaction. At the strategic level, a supply chain can be co...

  4. Dynamics in Blends of Long Polymers with Unentangled Short Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Colby, Ralph

    1997-01-01

    Scaling ideas for dynamics of polymer solutions are extended to the case of a solution of long chains (of N monomers) in unentangled short chains (of P monomers). The P chains can be sufficiently short to make the long chains partially swell (P < N1/2). While the configurational statistics of the partially swollen long chains are perfectly analogous to the case of a long chain in marginal solvent, the dynamics are qualitatively different because of differences in the screening of hydrodynamic...

  5. A Review of the Wood Pellet Value Chain, Modern Value/Supply Chain Management Approaches, and Value/Supply Chain Models

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Natalie M.; Chander Shahi; Reino Pulkki

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed 153 peer-reviewed sources to provide identification of modern supply chain management techniques and exploration of supply chain modeling, to offer decision support to managers. Ultimately, the review is intended to assist member-companies of supply chains, mainly producers, improve their current management approaches, by directing them to studies that may be suitable for direct application to their supply chains and value chains for improved efficiency and profitability. We found...

  6. THE ROLE OF SUPPLY CHAIN COLLABORATION ON SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ince, Huseyin; Ince, Andac Sahinbey

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable supply chain management and collaboration have taken big attention from academicians and practitioners. The extensive literature review is conducted to analyse the relationship between Sustainable Supply Chain Management and collaboration and its effects on performance of SSCM dimensions. Then, a framework is proposed to explain the relationship between sustainable supply chain management and collaboration. For further studies the proposed framework should be tested empirically.

  7. Halalan Toyyiban Supply Chain The New Insights in Sustainable Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Emi Normalina; Jaafar, Harlina Suzana; Osman, Muhamad Rahimi; Nasruddin, Faisol

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In today’s highly competitive world scenario, in order for logistics and supply chain firms to be successful, resilient and sustainable, halalan-toyyiban supply chain could be the new insight in assisting the firm. Hence, the purpose of this study is to provide a practical definition for developing an effective supply chain through halalan toyyiban processes and comparing the similarities and differences of the halal term. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is develo...

  8. Adoption of wireless sensors in supply chains: a process view analysis of a pharmaceutical cold chain

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, Georg Hendrik; Hillegersberg, van, R.; Jong, de, M.C.M.; Sikkel, Klaas

    2013-01-01

    Real-time and continuous monitoring of high value goods can considerably improve the reliability and effectiveness of supply chains. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) offer technical capabilities for continuous sense and respond capabilities. WSN offer complementary advantages over the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in supply chains. Still, WSN have not been massively adopted. While some success stories on the use of RFID in supply chains have appeared, little research is available...

  9. Empirical Research on Associations among Information Technology, Supply Chain Robustness and Supply Chain Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Xinrui Zhang; Hengshan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Supply chain reliability and ability to do with risks are important research fields in SCM. Although it is intuitivethat supply chain’s ability to resist risks is likely to have a positive impact on supply chain performance, there islittle systematic analysis and documentation of the magnitude of these impacts in the literature. This paperempirically documents the associations among information technology, supply chain robustness, and supplychain performance. Based on a sample of 186 qu...

  10. Formation and properties of metal-oxygen atomic chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thijssen, W.H.A.; Strange, Mikkel; de Brugh, J.M.J.A.;

    2008-01-01

    longer atomic chains. The mechanical and electrical properties of these diatomic chains have been investigated by determining local vibration modes of the chain and by measuring the dependence of the average chain-conductance on the length of the chain. Additionally, we have performed calculations that......Suspended chains consisting of single noble metal and oxygen atoms have been formed. We provide evidence that oxygen can react with and be incorporated into metallic one-dimensional atomic chains. Oxygen incorporation reinforces the linear bonds in the chain, which facilitates the creation of...

  11. Don't break the chain: importance of supply chain management in the operating room setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilyk, Candis

    2008-09-01

    Management of supplies within the operating room (OR) has considerable implications for decreasing healthcare costs while maintaining high-quality patient care. This area of healthcare therefore requires more monitoring by end-users including OR management, physicians, and nursing staff. This article is based on understanding supply chain management in the OR setting. Information provided throughout the article can be applied to small or large health care centers. It defines supply chain management and contains a brief overview of supply chain processes. It reviews the benefits of following these processes. The article also includes recommendations for improving the supply chain in the OR. PMID:18980068

  12. Securitization of energy supply chains in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Three sources of energy security risks, namely sovereignty, robustness and resilience, affect China’s energy chains. • Energy security issues in China both have shaped and at the same time were shaped by ideas and institutions. • China remains rigid with equating ‘security’ with ‘national security’ and the notion of “national” is socially constructed. • Powerful actors, such as Chinese NOCs, inclined to interpret the problem so that it fits their preferred solution. • Securitization of any energy supply chains results from their historical roots, system properties and institutional agents. - Abstract: Energy policies in China, the world’s largest energy consumer, are an important factor in shaping the global energy system. While scholars agree that energy security is a major driver of China’s energy policies, there is insufficient understanding of what exactly constitutes China’s energy security from the policy perspective. We apply recent insights from the Global Energy Assessment, particularly the idea of vital energy systems, and the securitization theory to propose a framework for explaining China’s energy security policies in their historic evolution. We pay specific attention to explaining how particular energy supply chains are constructed and securitized. We draw data from over 300 Chinese and over 100 English publications and 30 interviews with energy officials and experts in China. We demonstrate that China’s focus on vulnerabilities of its oil supply chain at the expense of improving the reliability of domestic electricity supply is not accidental. It has its roots in historic events, properties of energy systems, as well as the presence of powerful institutional agents interested in securitizing the oil supply chain but not other vital energy systems. We suggest that this focus on the oil supply chain is likely to be maintained in the future, possibly accompanied by increasing concerns over natural gas

  13. Chain modeling for life cycle systems engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, J.J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shapiro, V. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Spatial Automation Lab.

    1997-12-01

    Throughout Sandia`s history, products have been represented by drawings. Solid modeling systems have recently replaced drawings as the preferred means for representing product geometry. These systems are used for product visualization, engineering analysis and manufacturing planning. Unfortunately, solid modeling technology is inadequate for life cycle systems engineering, which requires maintenance of technical history, efficient management of geometric and non-geometric data, and explicit representation of engineering and manufacturing characteristics. Such information is not part of the mathematical foundation of solid modeling. The current state-of-the-art in life cycle engineering is comprised of painstakingly created special purpose tools, which often are incompatible. New research on {open_quotes}chain modeling{close_quotes} provides a method of chaining the functionality of a part to the geometric representation. Chain modeling extends classical solid modeling to include physical, manufacturing, and procedural information required for life cycle engineering. In addition, chain modeling promises to provide the missing theoretical basis for Sandia`s parent/child product realization paradigm. In chain modeling, artifacts and systems are characterized in terms of their combinatorial properties: cell complexes, chains, and their operators. This approach is firmly rooted in algebraic topology and is a natural extension of current technology. The potential benefits of this approach include explicit hierarchical and combinatorial representation of physics, geometry, functionality, test, and legacy data in a common computational framework that supports a rational decision process and partial design automation. Chain modeling will have a significant impact on design preservation, system identification, parameterization, system reliability, and design simplification.

  14. Thiol groups of gizzard myosin heavy chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailin, G.

    1986-05-01

    Proteolysis of phosphorylated and /sup 3/H-labeled dinitrophenylated chicken gizzard myosin with trypsin released major fragments of M/sub r/ 25,000, 50,000 and 66,000 in a 1:1 ratio. They contained 57% of the dinitrophenyl (N/sub 2/ph) group bound to thiols of the heavy chains; 28% of the label was bound to the light chains. The fragments of M/sub r/ 25,000 and M/sub r/ 66,000 were dinitrophenylated predominantly when the K/sup +/-ATPase activity was inhibited. Thiolysis of phosphorylated and dinitrophenylated myosin with 2-mercaptoethanol removed 60% and 25% of the N/sub 2/ph group from the N-terminal and M/sub r/ 66,000 fragments of the heavy chain, respectively, when 48% of the K/sup +/-ATPase activity was restored. Papain proteolysis of the tryptic digest of modified myosin released a C-terminal segment from the fragment of M/sub r/ 66,000 and it contained most of the remaining label. Proteolysis of /sup 3/H-labeled dinitrophenylated myosin alone resulted in the same digestion pattern but less of the label was bound to the heavy chain fragments. In this case, restoration of enzymic activity occurred in thiolyzed dinitrophenylated myosin when the N/sub 2/ph group was removed from the light chains, predominantly. Conformational changes in gizzard myosin, mediated by phosphorylation, altered the reactivity of the thiols in specific fragments of the heavy chain. Thiol groups of the N- and C-terminal heavy chain regions are involved in maintaining the ATPase activity of myosin.

  15. Chains of mean-field models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a collection of Curie–Weiss (CW) spin systems, possibly with a random field, each of which is placed along the positions of a one-dimensional chain. The CW systems are coupled together by a Kac-type interaction in the longitudinal direction of the chain and by an infinite-range interaction in the direction transverse to the chain. Our motivations for studying this model come from recent findings in the theory of error-correcting codes based on spatially coupled graphs. We find that, although much simpler than the codes, the model studied here already displays similar behavior. We are interested in the van der Waals curve in a regime where the size of each Curie–Weiss model tends to infinity, and the length of the chain and range of the Kac interaction are large but finite. Below the critical temperature, and with appropriate boundary conditions, there appears a series of equilibrium states representing kink-like interfaces between the two equilibrium states of the individual system. The van der Waals curve oscillates periodically around the Maxwell plateau. These oscillations have a period inversely proportional to the chain length and an amplitude exponentially small in the range of the interaction; in other words, the spinodal points of the chain model lie exponentially close to the phase transition threshold. The amplitude of the oscillations is closely related to a Peierls–Nabarro free energy barrier for the motion of the kink along the chain. Analogies to similar phenomena and their possible algorithmic significance for graphical models of interest in coding theory and theoretical computer science are pointed out

  16. A Review of the Wood Pellet Value Chain, Modern Value/Supply Chain Management Approaches, and Value/Supply Chain Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie M. Hughes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed 153 peer-reviewed sources to provide identification of modern supply chain management techniques and exploration of supply chain modeling, to offer decision support to managers. Ultimately, the review is intended to assist member-companies of supply chains, mainly producers, improve their current management approaches, by directing them to studies that may be suitable for direct application to their supply chains and value chains for improved efficiency and profitability. We found that information on supply chain management and modeling techniques in general is available. However, few Canadian-based published studies exist regarding a demand-driven modeling approach to value/supply chain management for wood pellet production. Only three papers were found specifically on wood pellet value chain analysis. We propose that more studies should be carried out on the value chain of wood pellet manufacturing, as well as demand-driven management and modeling approaches with improved demand forecasting methods.

  17. Precast Pearl-Chain concrete arch bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    the technology was used. We also study other important components and details in the Pearl-Chain Bridge concept and review the effects of different types of loads. A theoretical case study of a circular 30 m span Pearl-Chain Bridge is presented showing the influence of a number of parameters: The......A Pearl-Chain Bridge is a closed-spandrel arch bridge consisting of a number of straight pre-fabricated so called Super-Light Deck elements put together in an arch shape by post-tensioning cables. Several Pearl-Chain arches can be positioned adjacent to each other by a crane to achieve a bridge of...... number of post-tensioning cables, the rise to span ratio, the height of the filling, and the height of the Super-Light Decks. We find that Pearl-Chain Bridges can be adjusted to resist specific moment loads by changing the normal force in the arch cross section by altering the above parameters. It is...

  18. The Supply Chain, a Strategic Marketing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Claudiu Căescu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to integrate strategic marketing instruments within the supply chain in relationship with the suppliers. In order to integrate the commercial and economic activities at the supply chain level there is a need of developing tight relationships between the customer and the supplier. Thus, it is justified to approach the supply chain from a strategic perspective and the strategic marketing tools are perfectly applicable on the business-to-business market. Our research, has led us to the conclusion that, especially on business to business markets, organizations focus their marketing activities not only on the relationship with their customers, but on the relationship with their suppliers as well. In the supply chain, companies appear as buyers and as clients for the suppliers of goods, financial resources and of work force. Starting from this, we have developed a quantitative marketing research, interviewing 60 organizations from the business-to-business Romanian market, with the purpose of identifying the way in which companies from the B2b market integrate strategic marketing in their supply-chain.

  19. Hafnium carbide nanocrystal chains for field emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hafnium carbide (HfC) nanostructure, i.e., HfC nanocrystal chain, was synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. X-ray diffractometer, field-emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer were employed to characterize the product. The synthesized one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures with many faceted octahedral nanocrystals possess diameters of tens of nanometers to 500 nm and lengths of a few microns. The chain-like structures possess a single crystalline structure and preferential growth direction along the [1 0 0] crystal orientation. The growth of the chains occurred through the vapor–liquid–solid process along with a negative-feedback mechanism. The field emission (FE) properties of the HfC nanocrystal chains as the cold cathode emitters were examined. The HfC nanocrystal chains display good FE properties with a low turn-on field of about 3.9 V μm−1 and a high field enhancement factor of 2157, implying potential applications in vacuum microelectronics.

  20. Energy localization in weakly dissipative resonant chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Agnessa

    2016-08-01

    Localization of energy in oscillator arrays has been of interest for a number of years, with special attention paid to the role of nonlinearity and discreteness in the formation of localized structures. This work examines a different type of energy localization arising due to the presence of dissipation in nonlinear resonance arrays. As a basic model, we consider a Klein-Gordon chain of finite length subjected to a harmonic excitation applied at an edge of the chain. It is shown that weak dissipation may be a key factor preventing the emergence of resonance in the entire chain, even if its nondissipative analog is entirely captured into resonance. The resulting process in the dissipative oscillator array represents large-amplitude resonant oscillations in a part of the chain adjacent to the actuator and small-amplitude oscillations in the distant part of the chain. The conditions of the emergence of resonance as well as the conditions of energy localization are derived. An agreement between the obtained analytical results and numerical simulations is demonstrated.

  1. Opportunities and realities of supply chain integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Akkerman, Renzo; van der Vaart, Taco

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to investigate the limitations and barriers for supply chain integration that food manufacturers experience and to highlight their planning and scheduling problems. Possible ways to cope with these are offered. Methodology: The paper is theoretical/conceptual ......Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to investigate the limitations and barriers for supply chain integration that food manufacturers experience and to highlight their planning and scheduling problems. Possible ways to cope with these are offered. Methodology: The paper is theoretical....../conceptual in nature: the findings are illustrated in an explorative case study. Findings: It is often suggested that food supply chains are typical for what can be achieved in supply chain management. This paper challenges this belief by investigating the possibilities and limitations for supply chain integration...... for food manufacturers. We argue that a combination of typical food characteristics and the use of shared resources limit the possibility for integration, while uncertainties and complex business conditions increase the need for integration. In a case study, the paper explores alternatives to cope...

  2. Monotone measures of ergodicity for Markov chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Keilson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper, first written in 1974, was never published other than as part of an internal research series. Its lack of publication is unrelated to the merits of the paper and the paper is of current importance by virtue of its relation to the relaxation time. A systematic discussion is provided of the approach of a finite Markov chain to ergodicity by proving the monotonicity of an important set of norms, each measures of egodicity, whether or not time reversibility is present. The paper is of particular interest because the discussion of the relaxation time of a finite Markov chain [2] has only been clean for time reversible chains, a small subset of the chains of interest. This restriction is not present here. Indeed, a new relaxation time quoted quantifies the relaxation time for all finite ergodic chains (cf. the discussion of Q1(t below Equation (1.7]. This relaxation time was developed by Keilson with A. Roy in his thesis [6], yet to be published.

  3. The economic performance of supply chain(s) served by the mega freight transport vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic performances of supply chain(s) served by different including the mega freight transport vehicles. These performances are considered as a dimension of the supply chain’s sustainability together with the infrastructural, technical/technological, operational, environ

  4. Alignment of Information Systems with Supply Chains: Impacts on Supply Chain Performance and Organizational Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qrunfleh, Sufian M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, an important focus of researchers has been on supply chain management (SCM), as many organizations believe that effective SCM is the key to building and sustaining competitive advantage for their products/services. To manage the supply chain, companies need to adopt an SCM strategy (SCMS) and implement appropriate SCM…

  5. Restructuring international food chains: Building sustainable and all-inclusive food chains at the primary stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kambewa, E.; Lans, van der I.A.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Tilburg, van A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Although it is often acknowledged that effective inclusion of small-scale primary producers in international chains is crucial for alleviating poverty in developing countries, few insights exist about how to build sustainable and all-inclusive food chains especially those based on scarce natural res

  6. Growth and dissolution of macromolecular Markov chains

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspard, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics and thermodynamics of free living copolymerization are studied for processes with rates depending on k monomeric units of the macromolecular chain behind the unit that is attached or detached. In this case, the sequence of monomeric units in the growing copolymer is a kth-order Markov chain. In the regime of steady growth, the statistical properties of the sequence are determined analytically in terms of the attachment and detachment rates. In this way, the mean growth velocity as well as the thermodynamic entropy production and the sequence disorder can be calculated systematically. These different properties are also investigated in the regime of depolymerization where the macromolecular chain is dissolved by the surrounding solution. In this regime, the entropy production is shown to satisfy Landauer's principle.

  7. Setting parameters in the cold chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Rodríguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breaks in the cold chain are important economic losses in food and pharmaceutical companies. Many of the failures in the cold chain are due to improper adjustment of equipment parameters such as setting the parameters for theoretical conditions, without a corresponding check in normal operation. The companies that transport refrigeratedproducts must be able to adjust the parameters of the equipment in an easy and quick to adapt their functioning to changing environmental conditions. This article presents the results of a study carried out with a food distribution company. The main objective of the study is to verify the effectiveness of Six Sigma as a methodological toolto adjust the equipment in the cold chain. The second objective is more speciÞ c and is to study the impact of: reducing the volume of storage in the truck, the initial temperature of the storage areain the truck and the frequency of defrost in the transport of refrigerated products.

  8. Rigor in Qualitative Supply Chain Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goffin, Keith; Raja, Jawwad; Claes, Björn;

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to share the authors' experiences of using the repertory grid technique in two supply chain management studies. The paper aims to demonstrate how the two studies provided insights into how qualitative techniques such as the repertory grid can be made more...... rigorous than in the past, and how results can be generated that are inaccessible using quantitative methods. Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents two studies undertaken using the repertory grid technique to illustrate its application in supply chain management research. Findings – The paper......, reliability, and theoretical saturation. Originality/value – It is the authors' contention that the addition of the repertory grid technique to the toolset of methods used by logistics and supply chain management researchers can only enhance insights and the building of robust theories. Qualitative studies...

  9. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory electronics chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a second generation real time solar neutrino water Cherenkov detector using 1,000 tonnes of D2O viewed by almost 10,000 photomultiplier tubes 20 cm in diameter. The electronics chain is required to provide deadtimeless sub-nanosecond time and charge measurement for photomultiplier pulses in the range of 1--1,000 photo electrons. While the solar neutrino event rate is very low, the electronics chain must handle background rates in excess of 1 kHz and burst rates in excess of 1 MHz. The electronics chain is implemented using three full custom integrated circuits and commercial ADCs, memory, and logic. The DAQ interface is VME compatible. The authors briefly describe the SNO detector and then concentrate on the design of the electronic system including novel features of the DAQ and trigger paths

  10. Markov chains for testing redundant software

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Allan L.; Sjogren, Jon A.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary design for a validation experiment has been developed that addresses several problems unique to assuring the extremely high quality of multiple-version programs in process-control software. The procedure uses Markov chains to model the error states of the multiple version programs. The programs are observed during simulated process-control testing, and estimates are obtained for the transition probabilities between the states of the Markov chain. The experimental Markov chain model is then expanded into a reliability model that takes into account the inertia of the system being controlled. The reliability of the multiple version software is computed from this reliability model at a given confidence level using confidence intervals obtained for the transition probabilities during the experiment. An example demonstrating the method is provided.

  11. Predicting the chemical stability of monatomic chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zheng-Zhe; Chen, Xi

    2013-02-01

    A simple model for evaluating the thermal atomic transfer rates in nanosystems (Lin Z.-Z. et al., EPL, 94 (2011) 40002) was developed to predict the chemical reaction rates of nanosystems with small gas molecules. The accuracy of the model was verified by MD simulations for molecular adsorption and desorption on a monatomic chain. By the prediction, a monatomic carbon chain should survive for 1.2 × 102 years in the ambient of 1 atm O2 at room temperature, and it is very invulnerable to N2, H2O, NO2, CO and CO2, while a monatomic gold chain quickly ruptures in vacuum. It is worth noting that since the model can be easily applied via common ab initio calculations, it could be widely used in the prediction of chemical stability of nanosystems.

  12. IMPLEMENTING SUSTAINABILITY INTO SUPPLY CHAIN OPERATIONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørsfeldt, Lilyana Makarowa

    2016-01-01

    empirical studies have investigated in detail how sustainability agendas are implemented or how they affect supply chain operations. These studies have mostly investigated the impact of implementation, explored the relationship between strategy formulation and performance, or provided descriptions of...... drivers of sustainable behavior. However, a process perspective on what happens when sustainability is implemented in ongoing supply chain operations remains underrepresented in the research. In particular, research on how top-down sustainability strategy is translated into, aligned with, and affected by...... different levels of the business system and present a simplified model to explore the complexity of the phenomenon. (2) Means for the deployment (i.e., successful implementation) of a sustainability agenda in supply chain practices are identified. The discussion of means provides some explanations for...

  13. Iron modulates the alpha chain of fibrinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Vance G; Jacobsen, Wayne K

    2016-04-01

    Iron-bound fibrinogen has been noted to accelerate plasmatic coagulation in patients with divergent conditions involving upregulation of heme oxygenase activity, including hemodialysis, Alzheimer's disease, sickle cell anemia, and chronic migraine. Our goal was to determine if a site of iron-fibrinogen interaction was on the alpha chain. Using thrombelastography, we compared the coagulation kinetic profiles of plasma exposed to 0-10 µM ferric chloride after activation of coagulation with thrombin generated by contact activation of plasma with the plastic sample cup or by exposure to 1 µg/ml of Calloselasma rhodostoma venom (rich in ancrod activity), which causes coagulation via polymerization of alpha chain monomers. Venom mediated coagulation always occurred before thrombin activated thrombus formation, and ferric chloride always diminished the time of onset of coagulation and increased the velocity of clot growth. Iron enhances plasmatic coagulation kinetics by modulating the alpha chain of fibrinogen. PMID:26782808

  14. Magnetic chains on a triplet superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacramento, P D

    2015-11-11

    The topological state of a two-dimensional triplet superconductor may be changed by an appropriate addition of magnetic impurities. A ferromagnetic magnetic chain at the surface of a superconductor with spin-orbit coupling may eliminate the edge states of a finite system giving rise to localized zero modes at the edges of the chain. The coexistence/competition between the two types of zero modes is considered. The reduction of the system to an effective 1d system gives partial information on the topological properties but the study of the two sets of zero modes requires a two-dimensional treatment. Increasing the impurity density from a magnetic chain to magnetic islands leads to a finite Chern number. At half-filling small concentrations are enough to induce chiral modes. PMID:26459719

  15. Collaborative Supply Chain Planning and Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew

    strategies between the toy manufacturer and three European retailers. These three case studies provide evidences that the toy manufacturer and the retailers followed some particular patterns of planning coordination processes; they also practised some patterns of coordination behaviour during the...... coordination processes, particularly the behaviour of risk-taking/avoidance, conflict resolutions, and self-interest. All these lead to conclusion of five propositions or principles of supply chain coordination, and the theory of coordination process and behaviour. Combining the propositions of responsiveness......This thesis contains main results from an industrial PhD research in the areas of supply chain strategy, planning, and coordination. It applies the concepts of responsiveness and coordination to reduce mismatch of supply and demand, especially for a volatile and seasonal supply chain. It involves a...

  16. Markov processes and controlled Markov chains

    CERN Document Server

    Filar, Jerzy; Chen, Anyue

    2002-01-01

    The general theory of stochastic processes and the more specialized theory of Markov processes evolved enormously in the second half of the last century. In parallel, the theory of controlled Markov chains (or Markov decision processes) was being pioneered by control engineers and operations researchers. Researchers in Markov processes and controlled Markov chains have been, for a long time, aware of the synergies between these two subject areas. However, this may be the first volume dedicated to highlighting these synergies and, almost certainly, it is the first volume that emphasizes the contributions of the vibrant and growing Chinese school of probability. The chapters that appear in this book reflect both the maturity and the vitality of modern day Markov processes and controlled Markov chains. They also will provide an opportunity to trace the connections that have emerged between the work done by members of the Chinese school of probability and the work done by the European, US, Central and South Ameri...

  17. The entanglement negativity in random spin chains

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, Paola; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the logarithmic negativity in strongly-disordered spin chains in the random-singlet phase. We focus on the spin-1/2 random Heisenberg chain and the random XX chain. We find that for two arbitrary intervals the disorder-averaged negativity and the mutual information are proportional to the number of singlets shared between the two intervals. Using the strong-disorder renormalization group (SDRG), we prove that the negativity of two adjacent intervals grows logarithmically with the intervals length. In particular, the scaling behavior is the same as in conformal field theory, but with a different prefactor. For two disjoint intervals the negativity is given by a universal simple function of the cross ratio, reflecting scale invariance. As a function of the distance of the two intervals, the negativity decays algebraically in contrast with the exponential behavior in clean models. We confirm our predictions using a numerical implementation of the SDRG method. Finally, we also implement DMRG simula...

  18. The electronic properties of a Fibonacci chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ketabi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available  Using a tight-binding model and transfer-matrix technique, as well as Lanczos algorithm, we numerically investigate the nature of the electronic states and electron transmission in site, bond and mixing Fibonacci model chains. We rely on the Landauer formalism as the basis for studying the conduction properties of these systems. Calculating the Lyapunov exponent, we also study the localization properties of electronic eigenstates in the Fibonacci chains. The focus is on the significance of the relationship between the transmission spectra and the nature of the electronic states. Our results show that, in contrast to Anderson’s localization theorem, in the Fibonacci chains the electronic states are non-localized and the transparent states occurr near the Fermi level.

  19. Environmental Management Initiatives in Product Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forman, Marianne; Hansen, Anne Grethe; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    The Environmental Council for Cleaner Products in 2000-2001 initiated a collection of experience from the environmental co-operation in 25 product chains. This collection of experience was to elucidate the concrete co-operation between suppliers, enterprises and purchasers, to go through tools...... and to report on opportunities and barriers for environmental efforts in the entire product chain. This paper aims at giving a comprehensive analysis of the experiences, on the basis of the reporting of the 25 companies and their supply chains (reported by Ettrup and Bauer in 2002. The 25 case studies have been...... carried out by 4 different consultancy firms for the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, but using different methods and different weighting. The material thus represents a large pool of knowledge, but great caution with its heterogeneity should be taken....

  20. Advanced planning methodologies in food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farahani, Poorya

    chain perspective, this thesis mainly focuses on the part of the chain which starts from the food processing industry: the food processing industry, the distribution industry, and final consumers. In the second chapter of this thesis, a thorough review is presented classifying the related contributions......The food industry is an important sector both because of its direct impacts on the daily lives of people and its large share of GDP compared with other economic sectors. This thesis discusses and develops advanced planning methodologies to optimize operations in food supply chains. From a supply...... in strategic, tactical, and operational studies, aiming to explain how several key food distribution planning challenges have been dealt with in the Operations Management literature. The next two chapters discuss specific production and distribution planning problems from the foodservice sector. Generic...

  1. Productive Information System Oriented Trust Chain Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Chang-xiang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Productive information system has high-level security requirements, but Trusted Computing Group’s solution of trust chain isn’t competent. After analysis and comparison of two different trust transfer ways, a new trust chain scheme was designed and its architecture was shown. With independent TPCM as a trust root, this scheme combined the advantages of linear and radial transfer. So that stronger cryptographic algorithm could be adopted by TPCM and applications’ trust attenuation decreased a lot. This scheme was described formally by 6 linear temporal logic rules. It was proved that based on these rules, this scheme could transfer trust from trust root to applications. Meanwhile, it could actively report and handle exceptions in trust chain building and system running. Conclusion and future work were given at the end of this manuscript.

  2. Specifics in the chosen production chain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pánková

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to consider the production chain as a highly complicated system, within the framework of whichdifferent links and mutual relations function. Therefore it is necessary to analyze the complexity of theproduction chain functioning for the purpose of enhanced knowledge on the existence and the regularitiesfunctioning among different production elements. The contribution deals with an analysis of the pricetransmission in the production chain of cereals, within which only certain partial parts have been earmarked. Cointegrationanalysis, VECM and impulse-response analysis have been used for the price transmission analysis.Information mentioned in the paper resulted from the solution of a research intention VZ MSM 6046070906„The Economics of resources of Czech agriculture and their efficient use in framework of multifunctional agrifoodsystems“.

  3. Demand chain management – The implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ericsson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most current supply chain models were developed during a period of relative stability. Today, the environment is discontinuous, volatile and unpredictable. This requires a major rethinking and revitalisation of existing supply chain models. Supply chains are much more than warehouses, transportation and technology, they are people powered and have to be treated as social and political as well as economic and technical systems.The most difficult yet challenging and rewarding factor is the change of mindset from approaches based on the old industrial paradigm to the new knowledge oriented paradigm. From "one size fits all" to customisation and buyer behaviour oriented segmentation based on structural flexibility. The new approach requires a change of processes and management systems, but most of all, a change of mindset, organisation structure and behaviour.This may create internal resistance that has to be overcome to reach the desired future state. This future state is highly dependent on cooperation and consensus with external companies, and the next step is therefore to extend the alignment approach to the chosen partners in the demand chain. The development towards channel rather than company competition requires an interorganisational approach to channel design. Internal alignment and cooperation is necessary but not sufficient, which means that an agile and dynamically aligned demand chain has to be created.All this is well known and documented in both research and theory. However, the challenge is to implement these theories, models and behaviour in practice. This paper presents one practical approach to implementation of the theories put forth by Ericsson [Ericsson D, 2011, Demand chain management - The evolution, ORiON, 27(1, pp. 45-81.].

  4. 40 CFR 264.276 - Food-chain crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Food-chain crops. 264.276 Section 264... Treatment § 264.276 Food-chain crops. The Regional Administrator may allow the growth of food-chain crops in... Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit the specific food-chain crops which may be...

  5. Stationary Probability Vectors of Higher-order Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chi-Kwong; Zhang, Shixiao

    2013-01-01

    We consider the higher-order Markov Chain, and characterize the second order Markov chains admitting every probability distribution vector as a stationary vector. The result is used to construct Markov chains of higher-order with the same property. We also study conditions under which the set of stationary vectors of the Markov chain has a certain affine dimension.

  6. Markov Chain Approximations to Singular Stable-like Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Fangjun

    2012-01-01

    We consider the Markov chain approximations for singular stable-like processes. First we obtain properties of some Markov chains. Then we construct the approximating Markov chains and give a necessary condition for weak convergence of these chains to singular stable-like processes.

  7. Organic produce Value Chain Analysis (OF0344)

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, David

    2005-01-01

    Growth in the Organic food market has been rapid in recent years. According to the soil association, retail sales of organic food are now worth £1.2 billion – an 11% increase on the previous year. Organic Supply Chains have developed to serve different routes to the consumer. Some chains are simple and involve direct supply to the consumer through, for example, box schemes and farmer’s markets. However in the main greater complexity is involved. Some 75% of organic food is sold through t...

  8. Retail Supply Chain: Challenges and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    John, Mathew

    2012-01-01

    A supply chain is incomplete if there is no proper distribution channel that delivers goods to the end users. It is equally underperforming of the supply chain if the retail link is missing to satisfy demand. The effect of this will be felt by the final consumers because of the ease of buying off the shelf rather than directly from the distributors. The popular saying, ‘the world is a global village’ shows that internationalization is increasingly becoming a past debate of governments and is...

  9. Supply chain optimization for pediatric perioperative departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Janice L; Doyle, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Economic challenges compel pediatric perioperative departments to reduce nonlabor supply costs while maintaining the quality of patient care. Optimization of the supply chain introduces a framework for decision making that drives fiscally responsible decisions. The cost-effective supply chain is driven by implementing a value analysis process for product selection, being mindful of product sourcing decisions to reduce supply expense, creating logistical efficiency that will eliminate redundant processes, and managing inventory to ensure product availability. The value analysis approach is an analytical methodology for product selection that involves product evaluation and recommendation based on consideration of clinical benefit, overall financial impact, and revenue implications. PMID:21884843

  10. Entropy Computation in Partially Observed Markov Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbouvries, François

    2006-11-01

    Let X = {Xn}n∈N be a hidden process and Y = {Yn}n∈N be an observed process. We assume that (X,Y) is a (pairwise) Markov Chain (PMC). PMC are more general than Hidden Markov Chains (HMC) and yet enable the development of efficient parameter estimation and Bayesian restoration algorithms. In this paper we propose a fast (i.e., O(N)) algorithm for computing the entropy of {Xn}n=0N given an observation sequence {yn}n=0N.

  11. Complementary Theories to Supply Chain Management Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldorsson, Arni; Hsuan, Juliana; Kotzab, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to identify ways by which the theorizing of supply chain management (SCM) takes place, with particular attention to complementary theories. SCM suffers as well as benefits from a “conceptual slack”. Design/methodology/approach – The nature of SCM is discussed, and...... or using complementary theories to advancing understanding of SCM can benefit from the five building blocks of theorizing SCM proposed in the paper. Practical implications – Theoretical principles in SCM are not only used to describe practical problems but also to “produce the world”; supply chains...

  12. Quantitative models for sustainable supply chain management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandenburg, M.; Govindan, Kannan; Sarkis, J.;

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability, the consideration of environmental factors and social aspects, in supply chain management (SCM) has become a highly relevant topic for researchers and practitioners. The application of operations research methods and related models, i.e. formal modeling, for closed-loop SCM and...... reverse logistics has been effectively reviewed in previously published research. This situation is in contrast to the understanding and review of mathematical models that focus on environmental or social factors in forward supply chains (SC), which has seen less investigation. To evaluate developments...

  13. Side chain polysiloxanes with phthalocyanine moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ganicz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Side chain polysiloxane with 5-(pentyloxy-3-methyloxy-9,10,16,17,23,24-hexakis(octenyloxyphthalocyanine moieties is synthesized by hydrosilylation reaction. The phase behavior and thermooptical properties of the polysiloxane and starting 2-(pent-4-enyloxy-3-methyloxy-9,10,16,17,23,24-hexakis(octenyloxyphthalocyanine is examined by POM (Polarizing optical microscopy, TOA (thermooptical analysis, DSC (differential scanning calorimetry, AFM (atomic force microscopy and SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering studies. The effect of the attachment of phthalocyanine to polysiloxane chains over phase transitions and phase morphology is discussed in details.

  14. The Future of Resilient Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donadoni, Mattia; Roden, Sinéad; Scholten, Kirstin;

    This research aims to advance theoretical understanding around the management of supply chain disruptions through a multi-stage Delphi study on supply chain resilience. Stage one focused on polling academic experts followed by a second stage with practitioners from automotive, electronics and food...... industries. We examine the types of disruptions that respondents are most concerned about; the associated strategies suggested to cope with disruption; and, how resilience can be measured. The research remains ongoing but preliminary results suggest there are some areas where academics and practitioners...... agree (e.g. measuring resilience) and others where they do not (e.g. key disruptions and strategies)....

  15. Scaling in rupture of polymer chains

    OpenAIRE

    Fugmann, S.; I. M. Sokolov

    2008-01-01

    We consider the rupture dynamics of a homopolymer chain pulled at one end at a constant loading rate r. Compared to single bond breaking, the existence of the chain introduces two new aspects into rupture dynamics: the non-Markovian aspect in the barrier crossing and the slow-down of the force propagation to the breakable bond. The relative impact of both these processes is investigated, and the second one was found to be the most important at moderate loading rates. The most probable rupture...

  16. Entanglement Dynamics of Disordered Quantum XY Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Rahman, Houssam; Nachtergaele, Bruno; Sims, Robert; Stolz, Günter

    2016-05-01

    We consider the dynamics of the quantum XY chain with disorder under the general assumption that the expectation of the eigenfunction correlator of the associated one-particle Hamiltonian satisfies a decay estimate typical of Anderson localization. We show that, starting from a broad class of product initial states, entanglement remains bounded for all times. For the XX chain, we also derive bounds on the particle transport which, in particular, show that the density profile of initial states that consist of fully occupied and empty intervals only have significant dynamics near the edges of those intervals, uniformly for all times.

  17. Analysis of entropy of XY Spin Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Franchini, F.; Its, A. R.; Jin, B. -Q.; Korepin, V. E.

    2006-01-01

    Entanglement in the ground state of the XY model on the infinite chain can be measured by the von Neumann entropy of a block of neighboring spins. We study a double scaling limit: the size of the block is much larger then 1 but much smaller then the length of the whole chain. In this limit, the entropy of the block approaches a constant. The limiting entropy is a function of the anisotropy and of the magnetic field. The entropy reaches minima at product states and increases boundlessly at pha...

  18. Quality in Construction- A Supply Chain Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Larsen, Casper Schultz

    2006-01-01

    transformed into the material stream. The paper proposes initiatives to strengthen partnerships in supply chains, especially at mixed stable and project configured types. The contradiction between permanent enterprise organisations potentially capable of handling purchasing and the role of the project manager......Often the construction supply chain is perceived as consisting of two intertwined streams; a stream of materials and a stream of immaterial informational character. Moreover the supply delivery would be characterized by configuration by project. That this configuration is not always successful can...

  19. Magnetic ordering in trigonal chain compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Eyert, V.; Schwingenschloegl, U.; Hackenberger, C.; Kopp, T.; Fresard, R.; Eckern, U.

    2005-01-01

    We present electronic structure calculations for the one-dimensional magnetic chain compounds Ca_3CoRhO_6 and Ca_3FeRhO_6. The calculations are based on density functional theory and the local density approximation. We use the augmented spherical wave (ASW) method. The observed alternation of low- and high-spin states along the Co-Rh and Fe-Rh chains is related to differences in the oxygen coordination of the transition metal sites. Due to strong hybridization the O 2p states are polarized, g...

  20. Serpentine Locomotion Articulated Chain: ANA II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Cardona

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available When humanity faces challenges in solving problems beyond their technical resources, and has no foundation to solve a problem, engineering must search for an answer developing new concepts and innovative frameworks to excel these limitations and travel beyond our capabilities. This project “Serpentine locomotion articulated chain: ANA II” is a self-contained robot built to evaluate the behavior of the platform being capable of serpentine movements, in a modular chain mechanical design, based on a master/slave architecture.