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Sample records for b-1-3 glucano particulado

  1. Caracterização genética da Glucano Sintetase de Pneumocystis jirovecii

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Rafaela Dorileo de

    2014-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii é um micro-organismo fúngico que pode causar pneumonia em doentes imunocomprometidos. O ciclo de vida de Pneumocystis inclui uma forma biológica trófica e outra quística na qual estão presentes, em sua composição, hidratos de carbono chamados β-Glucanos. Estes componentes são liberados na corrente sanguínea após lise do micro-organismo pela resposta imunitária ou fármacos, sendo assim, considerado um marcador sorológico que atua como auxiliar no diagnóstico da PPc. Poré...

  2. Desempenho produtivo e respostas fisiopatológicas de tambaquis alimentados com ração suplementada com β-glucano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edsandra Campos Chagas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do imunoestimulante β-glucano na dieta do tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum sobre o desempenho produtivo, as respostas fisiológicas e imunológicas, e a resistência ao desafio com Aeromonas hydrophila. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 5x2, com cinco níveis de β-glucano na dieta (0, 0,1, 0,2, 0,4 e 0,8% e dois tempos de amostragem (antes e após o desafio com A. hydrophila, com três repetições. Os peixes (28,65±0,49 g; 12,14±0,07 cm foram alimentados, por 60 dias, com dieta (28% de proteína bruta suplementada com preparação comercial de β-glucano. Após o período de alimentação, avaliou-se o desempenho produtivo, e os peixes foram desafiados com A. hydrophila. Os parâmetros hematológicos e imunológicos (concentração e atividade de lisozima foram avaliados antes e após o desafio bacteriano. Após o desafio bacteriano, observouse a ocorrência de anemia normocítica-normocrômica. A suplementação com β-glucano não alterou a concentração nem a atividade da lisozima; porém, a menor concentração de β-glucano (0,1% favoreceu maior sobrevivência para a espécie quando desafiada com Aeromonas hydrophila. A suplementação de β-glucano não exerce influência sobre o desempenho produtivo e nem sobre os parâmetros hematológicos do tambaqui.

  3. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sujeet; Gopalakrishnan, Vidya; Hegde, Mahesh; Rana, Vivek; Dhepe, Sharad S; Ramareddy, Sureshbabu A; Leoni, Alberto; Locatelli, Alessandra; Morigi, Rita; Rambaldi, Mirella; Srivastava, Mrinal; Raghavan, Sathees C; Karki, Subhas S

    2014-10-01

    A series of 2,5,6-substituted imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole derivatives have been prepared and were tested for antiproliferative activity on cancer cells at the National Cancer Institute. Results showed that molecules with a benzyl group at position 2, exhibited an increase in activity for the introduction of a formyl group at the 5 position. The compound 2-benzyl-5-formyl-6-(4-bromophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole 22 has been chosen for understanding the mechanism of action by various molecular and cellular biology studies. Results obtained from cell cycle evaluation analysis, analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential and Annexin V-FITC by flow cytometric analysis, ROS production and expression of apoptotic and DNA-repair proteins suggested that compound 22 induced cytotoxicity by activating extrinsic pathway of apoptosis, however, without affecting cell cycle progression. PMID:25205189

  4. Stark-modulation spectroscopy of the B(1)[3Π] state of PbO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report detailed spectroscopic measurements of the X(0)[1Σ+](v=0)→B(1)[3Π](v=5) transition in PbO. Using a Stark-modulated laser absorption technique, we have measured the hyperfine constant of 207PbO in the B(1) state, as well as the B(1)(v=5) rotational constant, X-B isotope shifts, etc. The hyperfine constant of the B(1) state is of interest as a benchmark for calculations of PbO electronic structure related to experiments to search for the electric dipole moment of the electron

  5. 2-Isobutyl-6-(4-methoxyphenylimidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H17N3OS, the dihedral angle between the statistically planar imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole fused-ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.002 Å and the methyoxbenzene ring is 4.52 (6°. In the crystal, molecules are arranged into columns and stacked down the a axis. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak C—H...π and π–π interactions [centroid–centroid separations = 3.6053 (8 and 3.7088 (7 Å].

  6. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activities of Novel Imidazo[2,1-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal F. M. Atta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 2-Amino-5-(2-aryl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl-1,3,4-thiadiazoles 2-4 have been synthesized by the reaction of 2-aryl-2H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylic acids 1 with thiosemicarbazide. Their reaction with phenacyl (p-substituted phenacyl bromides led to formation of the respective 6-aryl-2-(2-aryl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-ylimidazo[2,1-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazoles 5. Reactivity of the latter fused ring towards reaction with different electrophilic reagents afforded the corresponding 5-substituted derivatives 6-8. The structure of the above compounds was confirmed from their spectral characteristics. Some of these compounds were found to possess slight to moderate activity against the microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli.

  7. Associacao entre exposicao ao material particulado e internacoes por doencas respiratorias em criancas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Gobbo Cesar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a associação entre exposição a material particulado com menos de 2,5 micra de diâmetro aerodinâmico e internações por doenças respiratórias em crianças. Foi realizado estudo ecológico de séries temporais com indicadores diários de internação por doenças respiratórias, em crianças de zero a dez anos de idade, residentes em Piracicaba, SP, entre 1º de agosto de 2011 e 31 de julho de 2012. Utilizou-se modelo aditivo generalizado da regressão de Poisson. Os riscos relativos foram RR = 1,008; IC95% 1,001;1,016 para o lag 1 e RR = 1,009; IC95% 1,001;1,017 para o lag 3. O incremento de 10 μg/m 3 de material particulado com menos de 2,5 micra de diâmetro implicou aumento no risco relativo entre 7,9 e 8,6 pontos percentuais. Concluiu-se que a exposição ao material particulado com menos de 2,5 micra de diâmetro aerodinâmico esteve associada às internações por doenças respiratórias em crianças.

  8. Emisiones de material particulado en almacenamiento de minerales a la intemperie

    OpenAIRE

    Torno Lougedo, Susana

    2008-01-01

    El trabajo se enmarca dentro de una amplia línea de investigación sobre emisiones de material particulado en diversas prácticas operativas industriales financiada en convocatoria pública (Convocatoria del Plan General I+D del Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia 2006-2007-2008) mediante el proyecto CTM2005-00187/TECNO, "Modelos de predicción y sistemas de prevención en la contaminación atmosférica industrial por partículas". Dicho proyecto pretende el estudio del comportamiento de las emisiones ...

  9. Synthesis of Novel Biologically Active s-Triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazole Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN,Yi-Feng

    2004-01-01

    @@ Heterocycles bearing a symmetrical triazole or 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring system are reported to show a broad spectrum of biological activities.[1,2] The 1,2,4-triazole nucleus has been recently incorporated into a wide variety of therapeutically interesting drugs including H1/H2 histamine receptor blockers, cholinesterase active agents, CNS stimulants, antianxiety and sedatives[3] Coumarins are nowadays an important group of organic compounds that used as bactericides, fungicides,anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, anti-HIV and antitumour agents.[4,5] Keeping in view the biological importance of the above mentioned heterocyclic compounds and in continuation of our search for biologically active nitrogen and sulphur heterocycles, a series of s-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives was synthesized.

  10. Revisión de las emisiones de material particulado por la cumbustión de diesel y biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Y. Rojas

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una revisión de estudios comparativos entre las emisiones de material particulado por la combustión de diesel de petróleo, biodiesel y mezclas de los dos combustibles, basados no sólo en la concentración másica de las partículas emitidas, sino también en la distribución de su tamaño, concentración y composición química. Finalmente, se presenta la necesidad del país de realizar una caracterización completa de las emisiones de material particulado por la combustión de diesel, biodiesel de aceite de palma y mezclas de los dos, dadas las características particulares de estos combustibles en Colombia. La revisión fue presentada en el I Seminario Internacional de Biocombustibles, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, agosto 4 al 6 de 2004. / This paper shows a review of studies comparing particulate emissions from diesel engines running on diesel, biodiesel and their blends, based not only on particle mass concentrations, but also on particle number concentrations and particulate chemical composition. Finally, it summarizes the need for thoroughly characterizing particulate matter emissions in studies comparing Colombian diesel and biodiesel from palm oil (or other oil-producing Colombian species.

  11. 2-(4-Chlorobenzyl)-6-arylimidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles: synthesis, cytotoxic activity and mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sujeet; Hegde, Mahesh; Gopalakrishnan, Vidya; Renuka, Vinaya Kumar; Ramareddy, Sureshbabu A; De Clercq, Erik; Schols, Dominique; Gudibabande Narasimhamurthy, Anil Kumar; Raghavan, Sathees C; Karki, Subhas S

    2014-09-12

    The cytotoxic activity of a new series of 2-(4'-chlorobenzyl)-5,6-disubstituted imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles against different human and murine cancer cell lines is reported. Among the tested compounds, two derivatives namely 2-(4-chlorobenzyl)-6-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole-5-carbaldehyde 4i and 2-(4-chlorobenzyl)-6-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazol-5-yl thiocyanate 5i emerged as the most potent against all the cell lines. To investigate the mechanism of action, we selected compounds 4i for cell cycle study, analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential and Annexin V-FITC flow cytometric analysis and DNA fragmentation assay. Results showed that 4i induced cytotoxicity by inducing apoptosis without arresting the cell cycle. PMID:25064346

  12. Actividad mutagénica y genotóxica del material particulado PM2.5 en Cúcuta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Beleño H.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la actividad mutagénica y genotóxica del material particulado PM2.5, captado cerca de una vía de alto flujo vehicular en Cúcuta, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Entre Enero-Julio de 2011, el PM2.5 fue monitoreado con un equipo Partisol 2025 Plus usando filtros de cuarzo Palmflex. La actividad mutagénica y genotóxica de los extractos del PM2.5 fue determinada usando dos ensayos: el test de Ames y el ensayo cometa. En el ensayo mutagénico se utilizó la cepa TA 100 de Salmonella Typhimurium. Para determinar el daño genotóxico se utilizaron linfocitos de sangre periférica. Resultados. Por primera vez en la región fronteriza de Colombia y Venezuela, se reporta la actividad mutagénica y genotóxica asociada con el PM2.5 de Cúcuta. Los resultados muestran actividad mutagénica en la cepa de Salmonella Typhimurium TA-100 y genotoxicidad en linfocitos humanos de sangre periférica. Conclusiones. En las muestras del material particulado PM2.5 de la ciudad de Cúcuta se encuentran compuestos que inducen mutaciones, así como compuestos que pueden penetrar hasta la célula e inducir daño en su ADN, lo que puede representar un riesgo en la manifestación de enfermedades tales como el cáncer en la población expuesta.

  13. Caracterización de material particulado atmosférico generado en reactores fotoquímicos y procedente de muestras ambientales.

    OpenAIRE

    Borrás García, Esther Mª

    2013-01-01

    Esta tesis pretende obtener datos de calidad para mejorar en el conocimiento del material particulado orgánico atmosférico. Este objetivo se logrará con el desarrollo o adecuación de diferentes metodologías analíticas que permitan la determinación de la composición química y de las propiedades físicas del material particulado atmosférico. Además, se estudiarán su emisión directa y formación a través de los procesos químicos que envuelven la degradación atmosférica de diferentes contaminantes ...

  14. Synthesis of 2-R1R2 N H-6-p-bromphenyl imidazo-[2.1-b]-1.3.4-thiadiazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to synthesis of 2-R1R2 N H-6-p-bromphenyl imidazo-[2.1-b]-1.3.4-thiadiazole. The possibility of utilization of organosulfur compounds by treatment them with secondary amines was considered.

  15. Resumen de tesis. La B(1,3)glucán sintasa Bgs1 es esencial en el control de la polaridad celular y la citocinesis de Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Vecino, Mariona

    2014-01-01

    [ES]El complejo enzimático de la beta(1,3)glucán sintasa de la levadura de fisión Schizosaccharomyces pombe está compuesta por una subunidad catalítica codificada por los genes de la familia Bgs. Bgs1 es esencial y es responsable de la síntesis del beta(1,3)glucano lineal que da lugar a la estructura del septo primario de división. En ausencia de Bgs1 las células presentan defectos en separación celular y en la selección del sitio de crecimiento polarizado. En este trabajo de tesis se pon...

  16. Material particulado y bioaerosoles en el aire de granjas de aves y conejos: cuantificación, caracterización y medidas de reducción

    OpenAIRE

    Adell Sales, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Los alojamientos ganaderos son una fuente importante de material particulado (“particulate matter”, PM) y bioaerosoles. Estas sustancias tienen un efecto perjudicial tanto para la salud humana y animal como para el medio ambiente. Para reducir los niveles de PM y bioaerosoles en alojamientos ganaderos es necesario conocer el origen de los mismos y los factores que afectan a su generación y suspensión en el aire. Esta Tesis Doctoral aborda aspectos relacionados con la concentrac...

  17. Composición y fuentes del material particulado atmosférico en la zona cerámica de Castellón. Impacto de la introducción de las Mejores Técnicas Disponibles

    OpenAIRE

    Minguillón Bengochea, María Cruz

    2007-01-01

    La contaminación por material particulado atmosférico, como demuestran numerosos estudios, provoca un impacto sobre la salud, el clima, los ecosistemas, los materiales de construcción y recubrimientos y la visibilidad.La legislación que regula los niveles de material particulado atmosférico ha variado en los últimos años. La entrada en vigor de la Directiva 1999/30/CE ha supuesto un cambio en el control de la calidad del aire, pues regula el PM10, y es más estricta que la legislación anterior...

  18. Niveles, composición y origen del material particulado atmosférico en los sectores Norte y Este de la Península Ibérica y Canarias

    OpenAIRE

    Viana Rodríguez, María del Mar

    2003-01-01

    El creciente interés existente en la actualidad por la investigación en el campo del material particulado atmosférico se debe a la identificación de efectos adversos de este contaminante sobre la salud y los ecosistemas. El principal objetivo de este trabajo de investigación es evaluar los niveles, composición y origen del material particulado atmosférico en tres zonas seleccionadas de España: el País Vasco, el sector mediterráneo (Cataluña y Valencia) y Canarias. Para ello, se pretende obten...

  19. Synthesis of novel 6-(substituted benzyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole catalyzed by polystyrene-supported palladium(II) ethylenediamine complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polymer-supported palladium(II) ethylenediamine complex, [PS-en-Pd(II)], is a highly active catalyst that could be used for the Sonogashira coupling reaction between an aryl iodide and 2-amino-3-(2-propynyl)-1,3-thiazolium bromide, 3. This heterogeneous palladium catalyst is efficient, stable, and recyclable. Reaction of compound 3 with various aryl iodides, 4a-f in the presence of the [PS-en-Pd(II)] complex leads to the production of the 6-(substituted benzyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazoles 5a-f. (author)

  20. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some novel fused heterocyclic 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish K. Sahu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine including different pharmacophores are aimed at. In this study, a series of 6-aryl-3- (3,4 -dialkoxyphenyl-7H -[1,2,4]triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine (7a-7k was synthesized by condensing 4-amino-5-(3,4-dialkoxyphenyl-4H-[1,2,4]- triazole-3-thiol (6 with various aromatic carboxylic acids in the presence of phenacyl bromides through one-pot reaction. Eleven fused heterocyclic derivatives were successfully synthesized. The structures of these newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1 H NMR and mass spectroscopic studies. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial evaluation. Some of the compounds exhibited promising antimicrobial activity. From the present study it may be concluded that synthesized compounds are fruitful in terms of their structural novelty and marked biological activities. These compounds could be further modified to develop potential and safer antifungal agents.

  1. Synthesis and structural characterization of some Pb(B$^{'}_{1/3}$Nb2/3)O3 type materials by two-stage solid-state route

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mukul Pastor; P K Bajpai; R N P Choudhary

    2005-06-01

    Two-stage columbite solid state reaction route has been used for the preparation of Pb (B$^{'}_{1/3}$Nb2/3)O3 materials (B′ = Mg, Ni and Cd). The columbite precursor phase was structurally characterized using diffraction data. MgNb2O6, NiNb2O6 and CdNb2O6 show orthorhombic structures i.e. pure columbite phase. Final phase materials get stabilized in mixed phase. The diffraction pattern shows that it is a mixture of cubic pyrochlore and perovskite phase. Percentage of perovskite phase was calculated using the band intensities of (110) perovskite and (222) pyrochlore peaks. The calculated percentages show the dominant perovskite phase. Possible reasons for mixed phase are discussed.

  2. Chemical characterization of the material particulado (PM-10) gathered of the ambient air of San Jose City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study about the concentration levels of some of the main pollutants present in the particule suspended material, with a aerodynamic diameter similar or smaller than 10 μm, was carried out in the air of San Jose's City. For this purpose, a sampling campaign was performed in two points of the capital city: in the buildings of The National Museo de Costa Rica and Ministerio de Seguridad Publica; three times per week (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) during the months of August to December of the year 2002 (rainy season). The in particule material was gathered by two muestreadores of high volume air with a controller of volumetrico flow, on filters of glass fiber (20,3 x 25,4 cm), with an average flow of 1,13 m3/min during 24 hours and the composition of the in particule collected material was determined. The concentration of major anions (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, oxalato ) was obtained by a chromatography of ionic exchange with suppressive of ionization, and the main metals by a spectrophotometry of atomic absorption with electrothermic atomization. The study established that the main anions present in the in particule material are the nitrate and the sulfate, constituting approximately the 2,5% of the weight of the total particulado material. The concentration of such components in both monitoring places overcame the typical values reported by the Agency of Environmental Protection of the United States in some months, probably caused by the high vehicular flow that characterizes to the selected sampling points. t is important to mention that the increment in the precipitation levels during the months of October and November caused a descent in the levels of concentration of in particles material; therefore, in the anions present in the same one. During the quantification of the anions in the particles, the presence of a sign belonging to the oxalato ion was determined; although it was not cuantificable ; it ended to be an interesting discovery. The presence of anions

  3. Caracterización físico-química del material particulado atmosférico de origen industrial en Andalucía

    OpenAIRE

    González Castanedo, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    El Material Particulado Atmosférico (MPA) constituye un parámetro fundamental en la evaluación de la calidad del aire ya que puede ejercer una influencia muy variada en el medio ambiente y en la salud humana. El fin último de este trabajo es la identificación y cuantificación de las fuentes de MP A en las tres áreas industriales más importantes de Andalucía: Ría de Huelva, Campo de Gibraltar y Bailén. Los niveles más elevados de MP A se han registrado en la estación de Bailé...

  4. Modelación de la generación de material particulado en función de la composición del combustible / Modeling of particular metter generation in function to the fuel composition

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Andrés Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Los alarmantes episodios de enfermedades respiratorias en ciudades como Bogotá, evidencian que se esta presentando una problemática ambiental, en donde la baja calidad del aire se identifica como la causa de dichas enfermedades. Uno de los principales agentes de detrimento ambiental es el material particulado (MP), cuyas principales fuentes son los vehículos que operan con ciclo diesel y las fuentes fijas industriales. Debido a que emplean combustibles con alto peso molecular, cuya composició...

  5. Synthesis and antitumor evaluation of C3/C3 fluoroquinolone dimers (I): Tethered with a fused heterocyclic s-triazolo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo

    2010-01-01

    Five C3/C3 fluoroquinolone dimers tethered with a fused heterocyclic ring of s-triazolo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole derived from antibacterial quinolones were synthesized and characterized, and their in vitro antitumor activity against L1210, CHO cell lines was evaluated via the respective IC50 values.

  6. Evaluación geoquímica de las propiedades del material particulado (polvo, suelos y sedimentos) de la ciudad de Luanda (Angola) y su entorno : implicaciones ambientales

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira Baptista, Lopes

    2005-01-01

    En esta Tesis se ha realizado un estudio minucioso del entorno que es la ciudad de Luanda y sus alrededores, partiendo por establecer una metodología capaz de permitir el conocimiento de las características del medio en su globalidad, teniendo en cuenta los procesos que ahí que se producen y las actividades realizadas en su entorno. El trabajo consistió fundamentalmente en determinar las propiedades físico-químicas de tres medios a través de sus materiales particulados: polvo, suelos y sedime...

  7. Ácido salicílico inibe a formação de micorrizas arbusculares e modifica a expressão de quitinases e b-1,3-glucanases em raízes de feijoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Heron Salazar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Os mecanismos que controlam o processo de colonização intrarradicular por fungos micorrízicos arbusculares ainda não são conhecidos, mas podem envolver o sistema de defesa vegetal. Normalmente, em condições favoráveis à formação de micorrizas arbusculares (MAs, e.g. baixo fosfato (P, ocorre supressão da expressão de genes de defesa, como quitinases e b-1,3-glucanases, em certos estágios do desenvolvimento das simbioses. Assim, a inibição do crescimento fúngico intrarradicular em condições de alto P pode ser decorrência da atenuação da supressão e/ou indução de genes de defesa específicos. Se o sistema de defesa está envolvido no controle do crescimento fúngico intrarradicular em condições de alto P, a aplicação às raízes de um indutor de respostas de defesa, como o ácido salicílico (AS, poderia simular o efeito inibitório do P. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito do AS na colonização intrarradicular e nas atividades de quitinases e b-1,3-glucanases em raízes de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca 80-SH inoculadas com Glomus clarum ou Glomus intraradices, em condições de baixo e alto P. Em condições de baixo P, a aplicação de AS inibiu a colonização intrarradicular a níveis similares aos observados em condições de alto P. Em condições de alto P, a inibição da micorrização pelo AS foi ainda maior. Associado a essa inibição, incrementos de aproximadamente 10 vezes nas atividades específicas de quitinases e redução nas atividades de b-1,3-glucanases nas raízes das plantas que receberam AS foram observados. Em função dos padrões de atividades de quitinases e b-1,3-glucanases nas raízes não-inoculadas e inoculadas, não foi possível estabelecer uma relação entre as atividades dessas hidrolases e o crescimento fúngico intrarradicular.

  8. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of 2,6-bis(6-aryl-[1,2,4]-triazolo[3,4-b] [1,3,4]-thiadiazole-3-yl)pyridines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Xia Tan; Ruo Fei Feng; Xiao Xia Peng

    2007-01-01

    By the condensation of 2,6-bis(4-amino-5-mercapto-[1,2,4]-triazoles-2)pyridine with aromatic acid in the presence of phosphorus oxychloride. Compounds of 2,6-bis(6-aryl-[1,2,4]-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]-thiadiazole-3-yl)pyridines were synthesized.Their structures were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR spectroscopies and elemental analysis. Their electrochemical behavior and cyclic voltammogram also were be studied. The results showed that they have high ionization potentials and good affinity.

  9. Ultraviolet Photodissociation Dynamics of the Allyl Radical via the B̃(2)A1(3s), C̃(2)B2(3py), and Ẽ(2)B1(3px) Electronic Excited States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Lucas, Michael; Alcaraz, Maria; Zhang, Jingsong; Brazier, Christopher

    2015-12-17

    Ultraviolet (UV) photodissociation dynamics of jet-cooled allyl radical via the B̃(2)A1(3s), C̃(2)B2(3py), and Ẽ(2)B1(3px) electronically excited states are studied at the photolysis wavelengths from 249 to 216 nm using high-n Rydberg atom time-of-flight (HRTOF) and resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) techniques. The photofragment yield (PFY) spectra of the H atom products are measured using both allyl chloride and 1,5-hexadiene as precursors of the allyl radical and show a broad peak centered near 228 nm, whereas the previous UV absorption spectra of the allyl radical peak around 222 nm. This difference suggests that, in addition to the H + C3H4 product channel, another dissociation channel (likely CH3 + C2H2) becomes significant with increasing excitation energy. The product translational energy release of the H + C3H4 products is modest, with the P(ET) distributions peaking near 8.5 kcal/mol and the fraction of the average translational energy in the total excess energy, ⟨fT⟩, in the range 0.22-0.18 from 249 to 216 nm. The P(ET)'s are consistent with production of H + allene and H + propyne, as suggested by previous experimental and theoretical studies. The angular distributions of the H atom products are isotropic, with the anisotropy parameter β ≈ 0. The H atom dissociation rate constant from the pump-probe study gives a lower limit of 1 × 10(8)/s. The dissociation mechanism is consistent with unimolecular decomposition of the hot allyl radical on the ground electronic state after internal conversion of the electronically excited state. PMID:26334360

  10. Order-disorder in In3+ perovskites: The example of A(In2/3B''1/3)O3 (A=Ba, Sr; B''=W, U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the preparation and structural characterization of four In-containing perovskites from neutron powder diffraction (NPD) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) data. Sr3In2B''O9 and Ba(In2/3B''1/3)O3 (B''=W, U) were synthesized by standard ceramic procedures. The crystal structure of the W-containing perovskites and Ba(In2/3U1/3)O3 have been revisited based on our high-resolution NPD and XRPD data, while for the new U-containing perovskite Sr3In2UO9 the structural refinement was carried out from high-resolution XRPD data. At room temperature, the crystal structure for the two Sr phases is monoclinic, space group P21/n, where the In atoms occupy two different sites Sr2[In]2d[In1/3B''2/3]2cO6, with a=5.7548(2) A, b=5.7706(2) A, c=8.1432(3) A, β=90.01(1)o for B''=W and a=5.861(1) A, b=5.908(1) A, c=8.315(2) A, β=89.98(1)o for B''=U. The two phases with A=Ba should be described in a simple cubic perovskite unit cell (S.G. Pm3-bar m) with In and B'' distributed at random at the octahedral sites, with a=4.16111(1) A and 4.24941(1) A for W and U compounds, respectively. - Graphical abstract: The structure of the new uranium-based double perovskite Sr3In2UO9 is described and the true symmetry of the other title compounds are revisited. The presence of long-range ordering in the Sr samples, by contrast with the Ba perovskites, is related with the smaller unit cell and B-B distances in the Sr oxides, promoting the electrostatic repulsions between highly charged W6+ and U6+ cations as driving force for the long-range B-site ordering

  11. Caracterización química del material particulado PM 10 de la zona urbana de Cuenca- Ecuador e investigación de su genotoxicidad e inducción de estrés oxidativo en células epiteliales alveolares A549

    OpenAIRE

    AL Astudillo Alemán; MI Ramírez Orellana; NB García Alvear; GJ González Arévalo; IA Gutiérrez Valle; NC Bailón Moscoso

    2015-01-01

    La exposición a partículas amb ientales es un factor de riesgo que ocasiona daños en la s alud humana, como trastornos respiratorios, cardiovasculares y cáncer. La toxicidad y el efe cto inflamatorio de estas partículas están relacionados con su tam año y características químicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue deter minar las características químicas de la fracción hidrosoluble de Mat erial Particulado PM 10 , recolectado en tres sitios de monitoreo de la ciudad de Cuenc...

  12. Emission of particulate matter from ternary blends consisting of biodiesel, ethanol and vegetable oil: a comparison with conventional dieselEmissão de material particulado por misturas ternárias compostas de biodiesel, etanol e óleo vegetal: uma comparação com o óleo diesel convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Daniel de Melo Innocentini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify the particulate matter emission from ternary blends comprehending biodiesel, ethanol and vegetable oil in a Diesel cycle engine, and an identical engine working with petrol diesel as control. To compare the fuels’ emissions, the particulate matter from the engine’s exhaust was collected, using a fiberglass circular filter paper, which was coupled by means of a steel flange at the end of the exhaust pipe. The results with ternary blends showed expressive reduction of particulate matter level exhausted by the engine, in its maximum load. We can conclude that the utilization of ternary blends, with the methods and conditions of this experiment, was efficient to reduce the emission of particulate matter contained in the exhaust gases of Diesel cycle engine.O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a emissão de material particulado de misturas ternárias compostas de biodiesel, etanol e óleo vegetal em um motor de ciclo Diesel, tendo como testemunha um motor idêntico funcionando com óleo diesel de petróleo. Para a comparação da emissão dos dois combustíveis, foi realizada a coleta de material particulado proveniente dos escapamentos dos motores com um filtro circular confeccionado de fibra de vidro, que foi acoplado com um flange de aço, no final da tubulação de escape. Os resultados obtidos com a utilização das misturas ternárias de biocombustíveis indicaram uma redução expressiva no nível de material particulado emitido pelo motor em sua carga máxima. Pode-se concluir que a utilização das misturas ternárias, nas condições e métodos de realização do experimento, foi eficiente na redução de emissão de material particulado presente nos gases de exaustão do motor de ciclo Diesel.

  13. Monitoreo de emisiones de material particulado de chimeneas de generadores de vapor de la industria azucarera en Tucumán, R. Argentina Monitoring of effluent particulate matter emitted by sugarcane factory stacks in Tucumán

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    Marcos A. Golato

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante las moliendas en los años 2008, 2009, 2010 y 2011, se realizaron mediciones de las concentraciones de material particulado total (MPT en las emisiones de chimeneas de calderas de la industria azucarera, en Tucumán, R. Argentina. El objetivo de este trabajo fue monitorear la evolución de la concentración y emisión de MPT y observar la influencia de los sistemas de filtrado instalados en las chimeneas de las mencionadas unidades. Se ilustran los datos de las emisiones de MPT obtenidas en los años indicados, con valores promedio por caldera de 58,5 kg/h, 33,6 kg/h, 47,6 kg/h y 33,9 kg/h, respectivamente. Asimismo, este estudio muestra un seguimiento minucioso de un grupo de calderas bagaceras, para determinar la evolución de las emisiones en función de las variables de operación características de esas calderas. Los resultados demostraron la influencia del mantenimiento y de la correcta operación de los equipos de filtrado en la calidad de los gases que fluyen por las chimeneas. Se estudió la influencia de los índices característicos de diseño de los lavadores de gases en la concentración de partículas. Se observó que se ha logrado un menor impacto ambiental a lo largo del tiempo analizado.Total particulate matter (TPM concentrations were measured in stack fumes from sugar factory steam generating boilers in Tucumán in 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011. The objective of this work was to monitor the evolution of TPM concentrations and emissions and observe the efficiency of filtration systems used in sugarcane factory stacks. Average values of 58.5 kg/h, 33.6 kg/h, 47.6 kg/h and 33.9 kg/h were obtained in 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. Bagasse boilers were also meticulously surveyed to obtain data of the evolution of emissions in relation to specific operation variables of the boilers. Data concerning the quality of effluent gasses from the stacks demonstrated the influence of maintaining and correctly using filtration

  14. Calidad del aire en la zona centro y oriente de la ciudad de Manizales : influencia del material particulado (pm10) y lluvia ácida = air quality in center and east zone of Manizales city : influence of particulate matter (pm10) and acid rain

    OpenAIRE

    González Duque, Carlos Mario

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta un estudio de calidad del aire realizado en cinco puntos de la ciudad de Manizales durante el período comprendido entre septiembre de 2009 y abril de 2011, en el cual se analizó la influencia del material particulado menor a diez micrómetros de diámetro (PM10) y el fenómeno de precipitación ácida. Se evaluaron además los niveles de dioxinas, furanos y dl-PCBs en el PM10 y la dinámica del proceso de remoción (scavenging) del contenido iónico del PM10(SO4-2, Ca+2 y N...

  15. Modelación de episodios críticos de contaminación por material particulado (PM10) en Santiago de Chile: Comparación de la eficiencia predictiva de los modelos paramétricos y no paramétricos Modeling critical episodes of air pollution by PM10 in Santiago, Chile: Comparison of the predictive efficiency of parametric and non-parametric statistical models

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio A. Alvarado; Claudio S. Silva; Dante D. Cáceres

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la eficiencia predictiva de modelos estadísticos paramétricos y no paramétricos para predecir episodios críticos de contaminación por material particulado PM10 del día siguiente, que superen en Santiago de Chile la norma de calidad diaria. Una predicción adecuada de tales episodios permite a la autoridad decretar medidas restrictivas que aminoren la gravedad del episodio, y consecuentemente proteger la salud de la comunidad. Método: Se trabajó con las concentraciones de mate...

  16. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Bis-[4-methoxy-3-(6-aryl-7H-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]-thiadiazin-3-yl)phenyl]methanes and Bis-[(triazolo[3,4-b]thiadiazipin-3-yl)phenyl]methanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Avula

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel Bis-[4-methoxy-3-(6-aryl-7H-[1,2,4]tria zolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]-thiadiazin-3-yl)phenyl]methanes and Bis-[(triazolo[3,4-b]thiadiazipin-3-yl)phenyl]methanes ( 5a-e & 6a-e ) has been synthesized and characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, MS and elemental analysis. All the newly synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klobsinella aerogenes and Chromobacteriumviolaceum and antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Compounds 5b, 5d,5e, 6b, 6c and 6e exhibited potent activity against the test bacteria and fungi, and emerged as potential molecules for further development. PMID:26970802

  17. 含双-三唑并噻二唑环的庚烷类衍生物的合成及抗菌活性%Synthesis and antibacterial activities of heptanes derivatives containing bis-triazolo[3,4-b]-[1,3,4]thiadiazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永双; 李德江

    2009-01-01

    The aroylhydrazides were prepared by esterification and hydrazinolysis of corresponding aromatic carboxylic acids.The reaction of aroylhydrazides with CS2/KOH in absolute ethanol gave potassium aroyldithiocarbazates and then hydrazinolysis of potassium aroyldithiocarbazates with hydrazine hydrate afforded 3-aryl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazoles (1a~1g).New seven compounds of bis[(3-aryl)-s-triazolo[3,4-b]-[1,3,4]thiadiazole derivatives (2a~2g) were synthesized in high yields by cyclization of nonanedioic acid with 3-aryl-4-amino-5- mercapto-1,2,4-triazoles (1a~1g).The structures of 2a~2g were confirmed by elementary analyses,IR,1H NMR,and MS spectra.The preliminary antibacterial tests showed that most of them had good antibacterial activities.

  18. Caracterización química del material particulado PM 10 de la zona urbana de Cuenca- Ecuador e investigación de su genotoxicidad e inducción de estrés oxidativo en células epiteliales alveolares A549

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL Astudillo Alemán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La exposición a partículas amb ientales es un factor de riesgo que ocasiona daños en la s alud humana, como trastornos respiratorios, cardiovasculares y cáncer. La toxicidad y el efe cto inflamatorio de estas partículas están relacionados con su tam año y características químicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue deter minar las características químicas de la fracción hidrosoluble de Mat erial Particulado PM 10 , recolectado en tres sitios de monitoreo de la ciudad de Cuenca-Ecuador, y eval uar su actividad genotóxica e inducción de especies r eactivas de oxígeno (ROS en la línea c elular epitelial alveolar humana A-549. Las muestras fueron recolectad as empleando un equipo de bajo volum en. Las concentraciones de material particulado determinadas por análisis gravimétrico superaron en los tres puntos de estudio los 50 μg/m 3 , límite estipulado en la Legislación Ecuatoriana. En la caracterización de la solución acuosa se determinó la presencia de aniones (Cl - , NO 3 - , SO 4 -2 y metales pesados (Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu, Mn, mediante técnicas de cromatografía iónica y espe ctroscopía de absorción atómica respectivamente; SO 4 -2 y Fe presentaron las mayores concentraciones. Las células A-549 fueron expuestas a diferen tes concentraciones (0,82; 1,25 y 1,63 m3/mL de la fracción hidrosoluble de PM 10 , con la finalidad de observar el posible efecto genotóxico mediante el ensayo del cometa y la inducción de especies reactivas de oxígeno mediante fluorimetría. Finalmente se determinó que los extractos acuosolubles de PM 10 inducen daño celular bajo (tipo I, e incrementan la producción de ROS en cé lulas A-549, lo que pudiera constituir un riesgo en la salud de la po blación expuesta.

  19. Synthesis, urease inhibition, antioxidant and antibacterial studies of some 4-amino-5-aryl-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones and their 3,6-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new series of 4-amino-5-aryl-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones, bearing various methoxybenzyl- and methoxyphenethyl groups, was synthesized by refluxing potassium hydrazinecarbodithioate salts in dilute aqueous solution of hydrazine hydrate. These salts were formed by the reaction of acid hydrazides and carbon disulfide in methanolic potassium hydroxide solution at 0-5 deg C. 4-Amino- 5-aryl-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones were condensed with different substituted aromatic acids to yield 3,6-disubstituted-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]1,3,4-thiadiazoles. The structures of the synthesized compounds were characterized by infrared (IR), 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), elemental analysis and mass spectrometric (MS) studies. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their urease inhibition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Some compounds showed excellent urease inhibition activity, more than the standard drug. Others exhibited potent antioxidant activity. All the compounds showed significant antibacterial activities as compared to the standard drug. (author)

  20. METODOLOGÍA PARA LA EXTRACCIÓN, FRACCIONAMIENTO Y CUANTIFICACIÓN DE HIDROCARBUROS AROMÁTICOS R.C.Suelo Nutr. Veg. 8 (2 2008 (I-I J. Soil Sc. Plant Nutr. 8 (2 2008 (I-I POLICÍCLICOS PRESENTES EN MATERIAL PARTICULADO URBANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA DEL ROSARIO SIENRA

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló una metodología confiable para la identificación y cuantificación de Hidrocarburos Aromáticos Policíclicos (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs en aerosoles atmosféricos, que incluye la extracción con diclorometano, la purificación y fraccionamiento de los componentes presentes en la muestra con columna de gel de sílice y la cuantificación mediante GC¾MSD. Se obtuvo porcentajes de recuperación en el rango de 61 a 113%, dependiendo del PAH específico analizado. El protocolo analítico, que implica una significativa economía en el tiempo de análisis y consumo de reactivos, se aplicó exitosamente a la cuantificación de PAHs en muestras de material particulado PM10 urbano, colectadas en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, entre octubre y noviembre de 1999.A reliable methodology for identification and quantification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in atmospheric aerosols has been developed, using extraction with dichloromethane, a clean-up step for purification and fractionation of the sample compounds on a silica column and quantification by GC¾MSD. The percentage of recovery for the analytical procedure was 61- 113 %, depending on each PAH. The analytical protocol, introducing a significant economy of time and reagents, was applied to the quantification of PAHs in urban atmospheric aerosols PM10 samples, collected in Santiago de Chile city, between october and november of 1999.

  1. Avaliação da concentração de mercúrio em sedimentos e material particulado no rio Acre, estado do Acre, Brasil Mercury concentration assessment in botton sediments and suspended solids from Acre river, in the State of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Fernando Silva Mascarenhas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação dos teores de mercúrio em sistemas aquáticos sem influência direta de fontes antropogênicas conhecidas não tem sido conduzida com freqüência na região Amazônica. Visando contribuir para esclarecer a ocorrência de valores elevados de Hg em peixes consumidos pela população de Rio Branco - AC, o Instituto Evandro Chagas - IEC, realizou um estudo para quantificar os teores de Hg em sedimentos de fundo e material particulado no rio Acre e alguns afluentes, além da caracterização físico-química das águas entre as cidades de Brasiléia e Assis Brasil. As amostras de sedimentos foram peneiradas na fração Mercury levels assessment in aquatic systems areas without influences of antropogenic sources have not been well studied in the Amazon region. For the identification of the origin of high values of Hg in fish consumed by population of Rio Branco City - AC, the Evandro Chagas Institute - IEC, studied the mercury levels in sediments, suspended solids and studied also the physical-chemical characterization of waters, in the Acre river and also some in afluents, between Brasiléia and Assis Brasil cities. Bottom sediments samples were sieved to <250 mesh fraction after drying. The suspended solid was obtained by precipitation with Al2SO4. About 250 mg of the material was submitted the acid digestion and the determinations of Hg were made by Could Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The physical-chemical parameters pH, electric conductivity, temperature and dissolved total solids, were studied in the field, by potenciometric methods. The Hg levels in bottom sediments range 0,018 and 0,184 mug g-1, mean of 0,054 ± 0,034 mug g-1, while the suspended solids varied between 0,067 and 0,220 mug g-1, average of 0,098 ± 0,037 mug g-1. The waters were slightly acid with pH varying among 5,80 - 6,95 and conductivity electric 151,60 - 1.151,00 muS cm-1. The mercury levels in the analyzed materials was below of standard levels for

  2. Estudio Preliminar del Material Particulado de Fuentes Estacionarias: Aplicación al Sistema de Compensación de Emisiones en la Región Metropolitana, Chile Preliminary Study of Particulate Matter from Stationary Sources: Application to an Emission Compensation System at the Metropolitan Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Préndez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Las estrategias contenidas en el Plan de Prevención y Descontaminación Atmosférica para la Región Metropolitana de Santiago, incluyen un sistema de compensación de emisiones que afecta a toda nueva fuente emisora que inicie operaciones en la región y a toda expansión de fuentes existentes. El sistema de compensación de emisiones se aplica tradicionalmente a las emisiones másicas. Bajo la hipótesis de que el daño a la salud ocasionado por el material particulado depende de su tamaño y de los elementos químicos que contenga, se realiza una caracterización física y química de emisiones proveniente de diferentes tipos de fuentes en Santiago, con el propósito de determinar si la aplicación de esta medida es apropiada. Los resultados muestran notables diferencias en la composición química de las emisiones desde distintos tipos de fuentes, lo que indica que la aplicación del sistema no es apropiada como herramienta para el mejoramiento de la calidad del aire de la ciudad.The strategies contained in the Atmospheric Prevention and Decontamination Plan for the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile, include a pollutant emission compensation system involving all new stationary sources initiating operations in the region as well as all existing sources and expansions. The emission compensation system is currently applied on the basis of total mass emissions. Under the hypothesis that damage to health from particulate matter exposure depends strongly on particulate size and chemical elements, a physical-chemical characterisation study of emissions from different types of stationary sources in Santiago was carried out for the purpose of determining the appropriateness of this environmental management tool. Results showed notable differences in elemental composition from different source types, leading to the conclusion that the application of the current emission compensation system is not appropriate for improving the quality of the air

  3. SÍNTOMAS RESPIRATORIOS Y FUNCIÓN PULMONAR EN NIÑOS DE 6 A 14 AÑOS DE EDAD Y SU RELACIÓN CON LA CONTAMINACIÓN POR MATERIAL PARTICULADO PM10 EN SANTA MARTA- COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídice Álvarez Miño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available undamentos: Los efectos del material particulado (PM10 sobre la salud respiratoria son de interés en salud pública por el alto riesgo de enfermar y morir de la población expuesta, más aun cuando se trata de niños. El objeti- vo del estudio fue identificar la asociación entre las concentraciones de PM10 con la presencia de síntomas respiratorios y la alteración de la función pulmonar en niños de 6 a 14 años en la ciudad de Santa Marta. Método: Estudio transversal. La muestra fue de 305 niños seleccionados aleatoriamente entre los escolares matriculados en los colegios de las zo- nas identificadas. Se aplicaron dos cuestionarios: (i la encuesta del Inter- national Study of Asthma Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC, para identifi- car síntomas de rinitis alérgica y asma y (ii la encuesta de identificación de co-variables en el ambiente domiciliario. Se realizaron espirometrías para evaluar la función pulmonar. Para caracterizar la exposición se defi- nieron cuatro zonas de la ciudad en las que se ubicaron muestreadores de bajo volumen fmrOMNI, para medir las concentraciones de PM10. Se uti- lizó EpiInfo 3.5.3 para los análisis bivariados (chi2 y multivariados (re- gresión logística y se calcularon odds ratio (OR. Resultados: La prevalencia de síntomas respiratorios en la población es- tudiada fue de 39,3%. Vivir en zonas expuestas (ORa=2,19 p=0,0015 y tener gatos (ORa=1,79 p=0,0389 aumentaron el riesgo de presentar sín- tomas del tracto respiratorio superior. Conclusiones: En escolares de 6 a 14 años la exposición a concentracio- nes de PM10 superiores a 70μg/m3 aumenta el riesgo de presentar sínto- mas de tracto respiratorio superior y de alterar la función pulmonar.

  4. Aquatic macrophytes drive sediment stoichiometry and the suspended particulate organic carbon composition of a tropical coastal lagoon Macrófitas aquáticas determinam a estequiometria do sedimento e a composição do carbono orgânico particulado em suspensão de uma lagoa costeira tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Cardoso Marinho

    2010-06-01

    role in the composition of suspended POC, thus representing an important coupling between compartments in this lagoon.OBJETIVO: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar: (1 a influência das macrófitas aquáticas Typha domingensis Pers., Eleocharis interstincta (Vahl Roem. & Schult. (emergentes e Potamogeton stenostachys K. Schum. (submersa, sobre a estequiometria do sedimento e (2 a contribuição desta comunidade para a composição do carbono orgânico de diferentes compartimentos de uma lagoa costeira tropical, Lagoa de Cabiúnas (Macaé, RJ; MÉTODOS: Perfis de sedimento de 10 cm, fracionados de 2 em 2 cm foram coletados nas regiões litorânea e limnética para análises de nutrientes (C, N e P. Na região litorânea, o sedimento foi coletado em três estações: bancos de T. domingensis, E. interstincta e P. stenostachys. Para avaliação da ciclagem do C na lagoa Cabiúnas foi determinada a assinatura δ13C de diversos compartimentos da lagoa (zoo e fitoplancton, macrófitas aquáticas e material dissolvido e suspenso na água e da restinga (vegetação terrestre; RESULTADOS: As concentrações de C e N na região colonizada por E. interstincta e T. domingensis foram significativamente maiores que na região limnética. Em relação à concentração de fósforo, o sedimento colonizado pela macrófita T. domingensis apresentou valor significativamente maior que a região limnética e a região colonizada por P. stenostachys. Quanto às razões molares, a região litorânea apresentou elevadas razões C:P, principalmente nos bancos colonizados por E. interstincta e P. stenostachys. As razões N:P também foram maiores na região litorânea. As análises isotópicas (δ13C mostraram que o carbono orgânico particulado na coluna d'água tem origem principalmente nos tecidos das macrófitas aquáticas; CONCLUSÕES: As macrófitas aquáticas emersas contribuem de maneira significativa para o enriquecimento de nutrientes do sedimento da lagoa Cabiúnas. O detrito das

  5. Modelación de episodios críticos de contaminación por material particulado (PM10 en Santiago de Chile: Comparación de la eficiencia predictiva de los modelos paramétricos y no paramétricos Modeling critical episodes of air pollution by PM10 in Santiago, Chile: Comparison of the predictive efficiency of parametric and non-parametric statistical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A. Alvarado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la eficiencia predictiva de modelos estadísticos paramétricos y no paramétricos para predecir episodios críticos de contaminación por material particulado PM10 del día siguiente, que superen en Santiago de Chile la norma de calidad diaria. Una predicción adecuada de tales episodios permite a la autoridad decretar medidas restrictivas que aminoren la gravedad del episodio, y consecuentemente proteger la salud de la comunidad. Método: Se trabajó con las concentraciones de material particulado PM10 registradas en una estación asociada a la red de monitorización de la calidad del aire MACAM-2, considerando 152 observaciones diarias de 14 variables, y con información meteorológica registrada durante los años 2001 a 2004. Se ajustaron modelos estadísticos paramétricos Gamma usando el paquete estadístico STATA v11, y no paramétricos usando una demo del software estadístico MARS v 2.0 distribuida por Salford-Systems. Resultados: Ambos métodos de modelación presentan una alta correlación entre los valores observados y los predichos. Los modelos Gamma presentan mejores aciertos que MARS para las concentraciones de PM10 con valores Objective: To evaluate the predictive efficiency of two statistical models (one parametric and the other non-parametric to predict critical episodes of air pollution exceeding daily air quality standards in Santiago, Chile by using the next day PM10 maximum 24h value. Accurate prediction of such episodes would allow restrictive measures to be applied by health authorities to reduce their seriousness and protect the community´s health. Methods: We used the PM10 concentrations registered by a station of the Air Quality Monitoring Network (152 daily observations of 14 variables and meteorological information gathered from 2001 to 2004. To construct predictive models, we fitted a parametric Gamma model using STATA v11 software and a non-parametric MARS model by using a demo version of Salford

  6. B1-3. Kamnový kachel s českým lvem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, F.; Prix, Dalibor

    Opava : Slezské zemské muzeum, 2014 - (Matejko-Peterka, I.), s. 58-59 ISBN 978-80-87789-19-3. - (Slezsko: Lidé a země. 5) Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : tile * stove makers * Opava Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  7. Characterization of B-1, 3-glucanase gene in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by cloning and genetic transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant ß-1,3-glucanase is commonly found to be involved in the disease resistance. A ß-1,3-glucanase gene was isolated from both the genomic DNA and cDNA of peanut variety Huayu20 by PCR and RT-PCR, respectively (GenBank Accession No. JQ801335). The genomic DNA sequence was 1,471 bp including two ext...

  8. Dynamics of callose deposition and B-1,3-glucanase expression during reproductive events in sexual and apomictic Hieracium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucker, M.R.; Paech, N.A.; Willemse, M.T.M.; Koltunow, A.M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Callose accumulates in the walls of cells undergoing megasporogenesis during embryo sac formation in angiosperm ovules. Deficiencies in callose deposition have been observed in apomictic plants and causal linkages between altered callose deposition and apomictic initiation proposed. In apomictic Hie

  9. 6-(4-Bromophenyl-2-(4-fluorobenzylimidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshan Banu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C17H11BrFN3S, the imidazothiadiazole and bromophenyl rings are individually almost planar, with maximum deviations of 0.0215 (4 and 0.0044 (4 Å, respectively, and are inclined at an angle of 27.34 (3° with respect to each other. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the fluorobenzyl and imidazothiadiazole rings is 79.54 (3°. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular C—H...N interactions resulting in chains of molecules along the b axis.

  10. Procedimiento de detección molecular de bacterias ácido lácticas productoras de β-glucanos.

    OpenAIRE

    López García, Paloma; Werning Hernández, María Laura; Irastorza Iribas, Ana; Dueñas Chasco, María Teresa; Ibarburu López, Idoia; Navas Méndez, Jesús

    2004-01-01

    Esta invención presenta un nuevo método de detección e identificación rápida de bacterias ácido lácticas productoras de exopolisacáridos por amplificación de su gen gtf codificante de una glicosil transferasa. La utilización de este método podría permitir la prevención del ahilamiento de bebidas alcohólicas y el aislamiento de nuevas estirpes que podrían ser utilizadas para la producción de alimentos fermentados.

  11. Synthesis by plasma of furan particulate polymers; Sintesis por plasma de polimeros particulados de furano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga L, R.

    2014-07-01

    This work presents the synthesis of particles derived from furan using low energy plasmas. It is based in the hypothesis that the intense crosslinking of heterocyclic monomers may produce curved surfaces depending on the applied energy in the synthesis. There have been few works related with the synthesis of poly furan as films, but none with morphology of particles within nano or meso dimensions. The syntheses were carried out in a cylindrical reactor at low pressure in gas phase with resistive glow discharges between two electrodes with energy varying from 20 to 120 W. The characterization of the particles was carried out with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), Infrared Spectroscopy (IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem), Transmission Electron Microscopy (Tem) and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XP S). The morphological studies of the particles were carried out with Sem and Tem showing that the poly furan particles are spherical with a smooth surface and with internal homogeneous composition. They were formed in agglomerates and/or individually with diameters between 214 and 745 nm. The average diameter and the variation of size were reduced by increasing of the applied energy to the synthesis. The structural analysis made by IR and XP S indicates that the poly furan particles have a low content of C-H groups, probably from the monomer, and new multiple bonds such as C=O and C≡C, which suggests dehydrogenation and fragmentation of some furan rings during the synthesis to form crosslinked polymers in combination with other fragments. The energy distribution of C1s orbitals in the particles were adjusted to 5 chemical states at low synthesis energy, 20-60 W, and at higher energy, 80-120 W, another chemical state appeared related to triple bonds, product of a higher oxidation. The hydrogenation in the particles was calculated between 35% and 50%. The energy distribution of O1s orbitals was adjusted to 3 curves, belonging to C-O-H, C-O-C and C=O chemical states. The first and third ones indicate fragmentation and the second represents the characteristic C-O-C bond of the monomer. (Author)

  12. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 3-(4-Ethoxyphenyl)-6-(phenoxymethyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Xin-Xiang; LIU Miao-Chang; XIAO Hong-Ping; ZHANG An-Jiang; ZHANG Li-Xue

    2007-01-01

    The title compound C18H16N4O2S has been synthesized by the reaction of 4-amino-3-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole with phenoxyacetic acid in phospho- rus oxychloride, and characterized by IR, NMR spectra and elemental analysis. Its structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 1.4903(3), b = 1.5230(2), c = 0.9615(16) nm, Z = 4, V = 1.7769(5) nm3, Dc = 1.317 g/cm3, ( = 0.201 mm-1, F(000) = 736, R = 0.0795 and wR = 0.2233. In the title compound, all rings are essentially planar.

  13. 3-{[5-(4-Bromophenylimidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl]methyl}-1,2-benzoxazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S. Lamani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C18H11BrN4OS, the imidazothiadiazole and benzisoxazole rings are individually planar with maximum deviations of 0.025 (3 0.015 (4 Å, respectively, and are inclined at an angle of 23.51 (7° with respect to each other. The planes of the imidazothiadiazole and bromophenyl rings are inclined at an angle of 27.34 (3°. In the crystal, intermolecular C—H...N interactions result in chains of molecules along the b and c axes. Moreover, C—H...O interactions result in centrosymmetric head-to-head dimers with R22(24 graph-set motifs. The molecular packing is further stabilized by π–π stacking interactions between the imidazole rings with a shortest centroid–centroid distance of 3.492 (3 Å. In addition, C—H...π interactions are observed in the crystal structure.

  14. ZmGns, a maize class I b-1,3-glucanase, is induced by biotic stresses and possesses strong antimicrobial activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Rong Xie; Yenjit Raruang; Zhi-Yuan Chen; Robert L Brown; Thomas E Cleveland

    2015-01-01

    Plant b‐1,3‐glucanases are members of the patho-genesis‐related protein 2 (PR‐2) family, which is one of the 17 PR protein families and plays important roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses. One of the differential y expressed proteins (spot 842) identified in a recent proteomic comparison between five pairs of closely related maize (Zea mays L.) lines differing in aflatoxin resistance was further investigated in the present study. Here, the corresponding cDNA was cloned from maize and designated as ZmGns. ZmGns encodes a protein of 338 amino acids containing a potential signal peptide. The expression of ZmGns was detectible in al tissues studied with the highest level in silks. ZmGns was significantly induced by biotic stresses including three bacteria and the fungus Aspergillus flavus. ZmGns was also induced by most abiotic stresses tested and growth hormones including salicylic acid. In vivo, ZmGns showed a significant inhibitory activity against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea when it overexpressed in Arabidopsis. Its high level of expression in the silk tissue and its induced expression by phytohormone treatment, as wel as by bacterial and fungal infections, suggest it plays a complex role in maize growth, development, and defense.

  15. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of 3-( 5-Methylisoxazol-3-yl) - 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4- b ]-1,3,4-thiadiazine Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠新平; 许鹏飞; 王勤; 张琪; 张自义

    2001-01-01

    The condensed products 2—10 of 4-amino-5-mercapto-3-(5methylisoxazol-3-yl)-1,2,4-triazole (1) with chloroacetaldehyde, 2-bromocyclohexanone, chloranil, ω-bromo-ω-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)acetophenone, 2-bromo-4'-substituted acetophenones and 2-bromo-6'-methoxy-2'-acetonaphthone were described. The antibacterial activities were also evaluated.

  16. Exposición laboral a material particulado, nanopartículas y su incidencia en la salud del trabajador

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Yepes, Milena Elizabeth; Cremades Oliver, Lázaro Vicente

    2013-01-01

    El material partículado (MP) tiene una incidencia negativa en la salud humana, que se manifiesta especialmente por problemas cardiovasculares y respiratorios. Entre las enfermedades que se conocen ligadas a la presencia de MP en el aire respirado, podemos citar: EPOC, asma ocupacional, alergias, bronquitis crónica hasta cáncer ocupacional, o enfermedades laborales como la silicosis, asbestosis o tabacosis, las cuales son causa de baja laboral. Los efectos negativos de las concentraciones de p...

  17. Factors Required for the Uridylylation of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus 3B1, 3B2, and 3B3 Peptides by the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (3Dpol) In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Arabinda; Goodfellow, Ian G.; Belsham, Graham J.

    2005-01-01

    The 5′ terminus of picornavirus genomic RNA is covalently linked to the virus-encoded peptide 3B (VPg). Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is unique in encoding and using 3 distinct forms of this peptide. These peptides each act as primers for RNA synthesis by the virus-encoded RNA polymerase 3Dpol. To act as the primer for positive-strand RNA synthesis, the 3B peptides have to be uridylylated to form VPgpU(pU). For certain picornaviruses, it has been shown that this reaction is achieved by ...

  18. State of the art for ab initio vs empirical potentials for predicting 6e$^{-}$ excited state molecular energies: Application to Li$_{2}\\left(b,1^{3}\\Pi_{u}\\right)$

    CERN Document Server

    Dattani, Nikesh S

    2015-01-01

    We build the first analytic empirical potential for the most deeply bound $\\mbox{Li}_{2}$ state: $b\\left(1^{3}\\Pi_{u}\\right)$. Our potential is based on experimental energy transitions covering $v=0-34$, and very high precision theoretical long-range constants. It provides high accuracy predictions up to $v=100$ which pave the way for high-precision long-range measurements, and hopefully an eventual resolution of the age old discrepancy between experiment and theory for the $\\mbox{Li}\\left(2^{2}S\\right)+\\mbox{Li}\\left(2^{2}P\\right)$ $C_{3}$ value. State of the art ab initio calculations predict vibrational energy spacings that are all in at most 0.8 cm$^{-1}$ disagreement with the empirical potential.

  19. Estudo da influência dos particulados no fenômeno de agregação dos asfaltenos por espectrometria de varredura óptica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Bernardo Henriques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The processing of national petroleums causes many operational problems due to the asphaltene aggregation phenomena. To evaluate the behavior of these phenomena, a study based on optical scan technique was carried out to understand the behavior of pure oils and their mixtures. The evaluation according to criteria established by ASTM D7061-06¹ gives a result of asphaltene flocculation of according to the separability number. In this study, the aspects related to the existence of colloidal forms of peptized asphaltenes in distinct solvents present in petroleums can cause changes in the kinetics of asphaltene flocculation.

  20. Avaliação de poluição do ar por chumbo particulado: uma abordagem geoquímica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanz Argeu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available High lead concentrations up to 5478 mg kg-1 were detected in dry atmospheric precipitations in Rio Grande city and adjacent area. Lead anomalies cover up to 30% of the study area. Lead concentration measurement in dry atmospheric precipitation and suspended particulate matter provides a possibility to detect concentrations above lead threshold in the air. The most impacted areas are fishermen's villages. The most possible source of lead in the air is uncontrolled sub industrial activity of local population

  1. Diseño de catalizadores para la eliminación de compuestos orgánicos y material particulado en emisiones de motores diesel

    OpenAIRE

    Leguizamón Aparicio, María Silvia del Valle

    2015-01-01

    Considerando que las emisiones provenientes de la combustión contienen distintos polutantes gaseosos es de esperar que un catalizador apto debe contener más de un componente para alcanzar alta eficiencia en la reducción de las emisiones. Por ello se considera como hipótesis de trabajo que la incorporación de mayor número de componentes activos en el catalizador que operen sinérgicamente pueden incrementar fuertemente la actividad catalítica mecanismo redox del tipo Mars-van Krevelen (MVK). Pa...

  2. Controle das emissões de chumbo particulado no entorno de uma reformadora de baterias da cidade do Rio de Janeiro usando ar como indicador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Lorena Quiterio

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available No período entre abril a julho de 1999, foram realizadas determinações dos níveis de chumbo no ar ambiente nas proximidades de uma reformadora de baterias (RB situada em Olaria (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A maioria das amostras coletadas a uma distância de até 25m da RB excederam o limite de 1,5µg.Pb.m-3 estabelecido pela Environmental Protect Agency (EPA, Estados Unidos. Esses resultados já foram publicados previamente (Quiterio et al., 2001. Neste trabalho, foram propostas a instalação de um sistema de exaustão Venture e algumas mudanças nos procedimentos operacionais. Após as modificações na RB, foi realizada uma nova campanha de monitoramento (agosto e setembro de 2000. As coletas foram realizadas nos três pontos considerados mais críticos, segundo as determinações anteriores. As concentrações medidas estiveram no intervalo 0,8-17,6µg.Pb.m-3, mostrando que as emissões de chumbo na atmosfera tiveram uma diminuição adequada. Contudo, a concentração na saída da chaminé é ainda maior que os limites estabelecidos pela EPA e, certamente, serão necessárias outras melhorias nas instalações e procedimentos.

  3. Impacto y mineralogía del material particulado atmosférico de origen norteafricano en Andalucía Occidental

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez de la Campa Verdona, Ana María; Rosa Díaz, Jesús de la; X. Querol; Alastuey Urós, José Andrés

    2004-01-01

    In this work we present a study of the impact of the air masses coming from North of Africa in Western Andalusia, and a mineralogical characterization of atmospheric particle obtained during the impact of one of these air masses in Huelva. The North African air masses suppose a 18% of the annual total frequency, compared with 66% of the Atlantic origin. They come generally accompanied with an important load of atmospheric particulate material reaching concentrations between 43-65 ...

  4. Elementos traço em material particulado atmosférico de uma região agroindustrial do sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Lopes de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trace element concentrations were measured in atmospheric particulate matter collected in 2009 and 2010, in a Brazilian region influenced by pre-harvest burning of sugar cane crops. For coarse particles, high concentrations of Al, Fe, K and Ca suggested that re-suspended soil dust was the main source of aerosol trace elements, subsequently confirmed by XRD analysis. High levels of K, Zn, As, Cd and Pb were found in fine particles, confirming the contribution of biomass burning and vehicle emissions, whereas Na, Al, K, Fe and Zn were the representative elements in ultrafine particles, influenced by a diversity of sources.

  5. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF DERIVATIVES OF 3-ARYL/ARYLOXYMETHYL-6-ARYL-1,2,4-TRIAZOLO[3,4-B]-1,3,4-THIADIAZOLES%3-芳基/芳氧甲基-6-芳基-1,2,4-三唑并[3,4-b]-1,3,4-噻二唑衍生物的合成及生物活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史海健; 王忠义; 史好新

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To synthesize a number of novel heterocyclic compounds and screen for their biological activities. Sixteen title compounds were prepared. METHODS: These novel compounds were prepared by the reaction of 3-aryl/aryloxymethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazoles with aryl carboxylic acids in the presence of phosphorus oxychloride. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1HNMR and MS. The reaction conditions for the synthesis had been investigated. All the compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity against bacteria S.aureus, E.coli and B.subilis. The concentration of the test compounds was 0.002%. The antibacterial activities of the test compounds were compared with those of penicillin and gentamicin. RESULTS: The results display that some of them possess strong biological activities.CONCLUSION: Syntheses of these novel heterocyclic compounds and study on their biological activities are very important and valuable in medicine.

  6. Determinação dos hidrocarbonetos saturados e policíclicos aromáticos presentes no material particulado da atmosfera amazônica Chemical composition of aerosol collected in the amazon forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérola de Castro Vasconcellos

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available It was identified and quantified several organic compounds in the atmosphere of a site into Amazon Basin with high impact of biomass burning emission. It was important to know the particulate matter composition with respect to n-alkanes and PAH associated with the particulate matter because they provided indication on the main sources contributing to airborne particles, the contribution of natural vs. man-made emission and the aging of the particles. The main classes of compounds observed were n-alkanes, PAH and nitro-PAH. It was observed the formation of nitro-PAH from photochemical reactions. The aerosol mass concentration is mainly associated with fluoranthene, pyrene and benzo(ghiperylene. Environmental and direct emissions samples (flaming and smoldering were collected and analysed.

  7. Variabilidad de niveles y composición del material particulado en suspensión en el sudeste de la Península Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    Negral Álvarez, Luis

    2010-01-01

    [ESP] La Ley 34/2007 de 15 noviembre, de calidad del aire y protección de la atmósfera, define la contaminación atmosférica como “la presencia en la atmósfera de materias,sustancias o formas de energía que impliquen molestia grave, riesgo o daño para la seguridad o la salud de las personas, el medio ambiente y demás bienes de cualquier naturaleza”. Las partículas presentes en el aerosol en suspensión pueden tener tanto un origen natural como antropogénico. La Directiva 2008/50/CE consciente d...

  8. Determinação de manganês em material particulado atmosférico de ambientes de trabalho utilizando eletrodo de diamante dopado com boro e voltametria de onda quadrada com redissolução catódica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Fabiana da Silva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A boron-doped diamond electrode is used for determination of Mn(II in atmospheric particulate matter by square wave cathodic stripping voltammetry. The analytical curve was linear for Mn(II concentrations between 5.0 and 37.5 µg L-1, with quantification limit of 3.6 µg L-1. The precision was evaluated by the relative standard deviation, with values between 5.1% and 9.3%. The electrode is free of adsorption, minimizing memory effects. Samples collected in the workplace atmosphere of a foundry had Mn(II concentrations between 0.4 and 4 µg m-3. No significant differences were observed between the proposed method and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy.

  9. Contaminantes Atmosféricos Particulados: Evaluación de las fuentes de origen y de su contribución a la contaminación atmosférica en el clúster cerámico de Castellón.

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano Rodrí­guez, María Desamparados

    2012-01-01

    El cumplimiento de los valores límite para las partículas atmosféricas en suspensión es un reto para la Unión Europea, por este motivo en 2008, la Unión Europea aprobó la Directiva 2008/50/CE sobre calidad del aire ambiente y una atmósfera más limpia en Europa donde, además de establecer el valor límite para las partículas PM10 se establece por primera vez, en la legislación europea, un valor límite para las partículas PM2,5. Las emisiones procedentes de los clústers cerámicos, en su mayoría ...

  10. METODOLOGÍA PARA LA EXTRACCIÓN, FRACCIONAMIENTO Y CUANTIFICACIÓN DE HIDROCARBUROS AROMÁTICOS R.C.Suelo Nutr. Veg. 8 (2) 2008 (I-I) J. Soil Sc. Plant Nutr. 8 (2) 2008 (I-I) POLICÍCLICOS PRESENTES EN MATERIAL PARTICULADO URBANO

    OpenAIRE

    MARÍA DEL ROSARIO SIENRA; M. MARGARITA PRÉNDEZ; RODRIGO ROMERO

    2002-01-01

    Se desarrolló una metodología confiable para la identificación y cuantificación de Hidrocarburos Aromáticos Policíclicos (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs) en aerosoles atmosféricos, que incluye la extracción con diclorometano, la purificación y fraccionamiento de los componentes presentes en la muestra con columna de gel de sílice y la cuantificación mediante GC¾MSD. Se obtuvo porcentajes de recuperación en el rango de 61 a 113%, dependiendo del PAH específico analizado. El protocolo a...

  11. Contaminación del Aire Atmosférico por Material Particulado en una Ciudad Intermedia: El Caso de Chillán (Chile Air pollution in a middle-size city: the case of Chillán (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E Celis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A través de un análisis de la contaminación urbana de la ciudad de Chillán en Chile, el artículo demuestra que el aumento de la contaminación atmosférica durante otoño e invierno en la ciudad de Chillán debe ser considerado como un problema de origen antropogénico. Esto se explica mayormente debido al uso masivo de la madera como combustible para la calefacción residencial dentro de las áreas urbanas de la ciudad y que se manifiesta a través de una densa nube de humo en los días con estabilidad atmosférica. Esto sugiere que es probablemente necesario un control de la combustión de leña para la calefacción residencial en los días más críticos. Por otra parte, la mayor contaminación en el centro de la ciudad sugiere que este abatimiento se puede alcanzar junto con regulaciones públicas del transporte y de la industria. Sólo así se facilitará el desarrollo sustentable de ciudades intermedias como Chillán, y no repetir los graves problemas de contaminación de las grandes urbes.Through an analysis of the urban contamination of the city of Chillán in Chile, it is demonstrated that the increase in atmospheric pollution during autumn and winter in the city of Chillán must be considered as a problem of anthropogenic origin. This is explained mainly due to the massive use of wood for residential heating in urban areas of the city and that produces a dense smoke-type cloud during days of stable atmospheric conditions. This suggests that it is probably necessary to control wood combustion for home heating during the most critical days. Also, the increase in pollution in the center of the city indicates that decreasing the pollution level can be also done with government regulations on transport and industry. In this way only, sustainable development of medium size cities as Chillán will be facilitated, not repeating the serious problems of large polluted cities.

  12. Chemical composition of atmospheric particulate matter soluble fraction and meteorological variables in São Paulo state, Brazil Composição química da fração solúvel do material particulado atmosférico e variáveis meteorológicas no estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Laure Marie Bourotte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize and compare the chemical composition of the PM10 soluble fraction in relation to meteorological variables such as wind direction and air masses backward trajectories. The PM10 was collected during winter of 1999 in two contrasting sites: the São Paulo city and the State Park of Serra do Mar (Cunha inside the Atlantic Forest Reserve. The aqueous extracts of PM10 were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2- and by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS for trace elements (Al, Mn, Fe, Pb, Zn, etc.. In São Paulo, the dominant chemical species were SO4(2-, NO3-, NH4+, Zn, Fe, Al, Ba, Cu, Pb, Mn and Ni while in Cunha, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO4(2-, Zn and Ni were dominant. The chemical composition related to the wind direction during sampling reflected short-range influence due to soil occupation and anthropic activities.Este trabalho teve como objetivo a caracterização e a comparação da composição química da fração solúvel do PM10, com variáveis meteorológicas, tais como, direção do vento e trajetórias de massas de ar. O PM10 foi coletado durante o inverno de 1999 em dois locais contrastantes: na cidade de São Paulo e no Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (Cunha, Reserva de Mata Atlântica. Os extratos aquosos do PM10 foram analisados por Cromatografia de Íons para quantificação dos íons maiores (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2- e por ICP-MS para quantificação dos elementos traço (Al, Mn, Fe, Pb, Zn, etc.. As espécies químicas que predominaram foram SO4(2-, NO3-, NH4+, Zn, Fe, Al, Ba, Cu, Pb, Mn e Ni em São Paulo, e Na+, K+, Cl-, SO4(2-, Zn e Ni em Cunha. A composição química relacionada com a direção do vento que prevaleceu durante a amostragem, refletiu um transporte de curta escala influenciado pela ocupação do solo e as atividades antrópicas.

  13. Controle das emissões de chumbo particulado no entorno de uma reformadora de baterias da cidade do Rio de Janeiro usando ar como indicador Control of lead emissions from a battery repair shop in the city of Rio de Janeiro by monitoring air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Lorena Quiterio

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available No período entre abril a julho de 1999, foram realizadas determinações dos níveis de chumbo no ar ambiente nas proximidades de uma reformadora de baterias (RB situada em Olaria (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A maioria das amostras coletadas a uma distância de até 25m da RB excederam o limite de 1,5µg.Pb.m-3 estabelecido pela Environmental Protect Agency (EPA, Estados Unidos. Esses resultados já foram publicados previamente (Quiterio et al., 2001. Neste trabalho, foram propostas a instalação de um sistema de exaustão Venture e algumas mudanças nos procedimentos operacionais. Após as modificações na RB, foi realizada uma nova campanha de monitoramento (agosto e setembro de 2000. As coletas foram realizadas nos três pontos considerados mais críticos, segundo as determinações anteriores. As concentrações medidas estiveram no intervalo 0,8-17,6µg.Pb.m-3, mostrando que as emissões de chumbo na atmosfera tiveram uma diminuição adequada. Contudo, a concentração na saída da chaminé é ainda maior que os limites estabelecidos pela EPA e, certamente, serão necessárias outras melhorias nas instalações e procedimentos.Lead levels in the air surrounding a battery repair shop (BRS located in the Olaria neighborhood (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were monitored from April to July 1999. Most of the samples collected within 25 meters of the BRS exceeded the limit of 1.5µg.Pb.m-3 established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA. These results were published in a previous article (Quiterio et al., 2001. In the current study, installation of a Venture ventilation system and some changes in the operational procedure were proposed. After the modifications in the BRS, a new monitoring campaign was performed (August and September, 2000. Three points were selected for air collection, corresponding to the most critical points found in the previous assessments. The new concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 17.6µg.Pb.m-3, showing that lead emissions into the environment had decreased adequately. However, concentration at the chimney exhaust was still higher than EPA limits, and further improvements in the installations and procedures are definitely needed.

  14. Preservation of rhizobia by lyophilization with trehalose Preservação de rizóbio por liofilização com trealose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Arraes Pereira

    2002-06-01

    agente usado do que a estirpe CIAT 899, provavelmente porque a estirpe CIAT 899 produz beta (1-2 glucano, que parece ter também um efeito protetor. beta (1-2 glucano combinado com sacarose protege mais os lipossomas liofilizados de perdas do que a trealose. Entretanto, o beta (1-2 glucano, isoladamente, não tem capacidade de proteção. Foi observado um alto nível de água descongelada associado com o glucano hidratado; além disso, o evento termal foi de, aproximadamente, 70ºC, o que correspondeu à transição gel-sol do glucano. Essas descobertas são importantes para o entendimento dos mecanismos com que o glucano contribui para a proteção de células e lipossomas liofilizados e para aumentar a sobrevivência do rizóbio nos inoculantes.

  15. Respuesta inmunomoduladora de la superóxido dismutasa en juveniles de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei expuestos a inmunoestimulantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la actividad inmunomoduladora de la manganeso superóxido dismutasa (MnSOD en juveniles de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei expuestos a diferentes inmunoestimulantes. Organismos cuyo peso varió entre 0.7 y 1.0 g fueron inmersos durante 6 h en soluciones de β-glucano, lipopolisacárido (LPS, fucoidán, y Vibrio penaeicida muerto por calor. Se determinó la actividad enzimática de la MnSOD en los organismos para evaluar si los diferentes inmunoestimulantes utilizados eran capaces de inducir actividad antioxidante. Los inmunoestimulantes probados activaron el sistema inmune de los camarones, mostrando un incremento generalizado en la respuesta antioxidante 48 h después del ensayo. El mayor incremento en la actividad de la enzima (3.2 veces superior al grupo control se registró cuando se utilizó la bacterina. Se expusieron los camarones a V. penaeicida 10 días después de la exposición a los inmunoestimulantes, obteniendo un incremento en la actividad antioxidante de los camarones expuestos previamente a β-glucano, LPS y fucoidán. La respuesta enzimática más alta se obtuvo con los organismos estimulados con β-glucano (2.5 veces superior al control. Este estudio demostró la capacidad de los juveniles de camarón para mejorar la respuesta antioxidante después de ser expuestos a inmunoestimulantes y a una bacteria patógena.

  16. Preparation and characterization of (La{sub 0,60}Sr{sub 0,40})(Co{sub 0,20}Fe{sub 0,80})O{sub 3-δ} powders for ITSOFC cathode and composite cathode; Preparacao e caracterizacao de particulados de (La{sub 0,60}Sr{sub 0,40})(Co{sub 0,20}Fe{sub 0,80})O{sub 3-δ} como catodo e catodo composito de ITSOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, R.A.; Bonturim, E.; Andreoli, M.; Chiba, R.; Seo, E.S.M., E-mail: ravargas@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CCTM/SOFC/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais. Laboratorio de Insumos e Componentes

    2011-07-01

    The mixing oxide (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x})(Co{sub 1-y}Fe{sub y})O{sub 3-δ} - LSCF, of pseudo-perovskite structure, is studied as cathode in Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. The objective of this work was to prepare, for polymeric precursors and oxide mixture methods; mixing conductors (electronic and ionic) of LSCF as cathode and mixtures of LSCF with (Ce{sub 0.90}Gd{sub 0.10})O{sub 1.95} as composite cathode, respectively. The particulates materials had been characterized mainly by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, laser scattering granulometry, and scanning electron microscopy. The results confirm that organic elimination presents in the precursors is essential for the formation of crystalline structure of interest and dependent of cobalt nitrate. The chemical composition of particulates is relatively next to nominal (x=0.40 and y=0.80) and the average sizes of particles are adjusted for ceramic suspensions preparation, contributing for the wet powder spraying step conformation. (author)

  17. Synthesis and characterization particles of Ba{sub 0,50}Sr{sub 0,50}Co{sub 0,80}Fe{sub 0,20}O{sub 3} obtained by the citrate-EDTA technique; Sintese e caracterizacao de particulados de Ba{sub 0,50}Sr{sub 0,50}Co{sub 0,80}Fe{sub 0,20}O{sub 3} obtidos pela tecnica dos citratos-EDTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonturim, E.; Vargas, R.A.; Andreoli, M.; Seo, E.S.M., E-mail: ebonturim@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCTM/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The Ba{sub (1-x)}Sr{sub (x)}Co{sub (1-y)}Fe{sub (y)}O{sub (3)} (BSCF) has been studied as a cathode material for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, due to its better ion and electron conduction. This work aims to study the synthesis of the compound obtained from the citrate-EDTA technique. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated the formation of the compound above 800 deg C. The materials calcined at temperatures of 700, 800 and 900 deg C for 5 h showed cubic pseudo-perovskite structure, according to the literature. By analysis of X-ray fluorescence were obtained powders with nominal chemical composition in the temperature range studied. The micrographs obtained by SEM and particle size distribution analysis showed the formation of particle with diameters below 1 micron. (author)

  18. Efeito antibacteriano e antiaderente in vitro do extrato da Punica granatum Linn. sobre microrganismos do biofilme dental In vitro antibacterial and antiadherence effect of the extract of the Punica granatum Linn. upon dental biofilm microrganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Jozinete V. Pereira; Maria S. Vieira Pereira; Fábio C. Sampaio; Maria C. Correia Sampaio; Pollianna M. Alves; Cristina R. Ferreira de Araújo; Jane S. Higino

    2006-01-01

    Nesta pesquisa foi avaliada a atividade antimicrobiana e a capacidade de inibição da síntese de glucano in vitro do extrato da casca do fruto da romã (Punica granatum Linn.) sobre linhagens bacterianas de Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus sobrinus e Lactobacillus casei. Os ensaios foram realizados pelas técnicas de ágar-difusão em placas para determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM) e técnica dos tubos inclinados para determinação da C...

  19. Cogumelos silvestres portugueses: valorização como alimentos funcionais e fonte de nutracêuticos

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Vaz, Josiana A.; Barros, Lillian; Almeida, Gabriela M.; Martins, Anabela; Vasconcelos, M. Helena

    2012-01-01

    Os cogumelos silvestres possuem grande diversidade de biomoléculas com valor nutricional e/ou propriedades medicinais. Têm sido reconhecidos como alimentos funcionais e como fonte de compostos para o desenvolvimento de fármacos e nutracêuticos, incluindo compostos com propriedades anti-tumorais. Exemplos disso são os β-glucanos “Lentinan” (do cogumelo Lentinus edodes) e “Schizophyllan” (do meio de cultura de Schizophyllum commune) ou os glucopéptidos PSP e “Krestin” (PSK) (do micélio de Corio...

  20. EVALUACIÓN DE LAS PROPIEDADES MODIFICADAS POR VÍA ENZIMÁTICA DEL ALMIDÓN DE ÑAME (D. trífida) UTILIZANDO α-AMILASA (TERMAMYL® 120 L, TIPO L)

    OpenAIRE

    Everaldo Montes M; Jairo Salcedo M; José E Zapata M; Jesús Carmona C; Sergio Paternina U

    2008-01-01

    El almidón de ñame constituye una excelente materia prima para modificar la textura y consistencia de los alimentos. Su funcionalidad depende del peso molecular promedio de la amilosa y la amilopectina, así como de la organización molecular de estos glucanos dentro del gránulo. Con frecuencia los almidones nativos o naturales no son los más adecuados para uso en algunos procesos industriales específicos. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo la modificación por vía enzimática del almidón de ñame (...

  1. Preparation and characterization of La{sub 0,60S}r{sub 0},{sub 40}Co{sub 0},{sub 20}Fe{sub 0},{sub 80}O{sub 3-{delta}} powders for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (ITSOFC) cathode; Preparacao e carcacterizacao de particulados de La{sub 0,60S}r{sub 0},{sub 40}Co{sub 0},{sub 20}Fe{sub 0},{sub 80}O{sub 3-{delta}} para catodos de IT-SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, R.A.; Chiba, R.; Bonturim, E.; Andreoli, M.; Seo, E.S.M., E-mail: ravargas@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCTM/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais. Lab. de Insumos e Componentes

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays a material that is studied as cathode in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (ITSOFC) is the mixing oxide La{sub 0,60S}r{sub 0},{sub 40}Co{sub 0},{sub 20}Fe{sub 0},{sub 80}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF), that possess pseudo-perovskite structure. The objective of this work is to present the physical, chemical and microstructural of LSCF powders characteristics, prepared by the citrate technique. The main analyses utilized were: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, laser scattering granulometry, and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the elimination of organic precursors is important for desired structure formation and that amount of this phase depends on cobalt content. Moreover, the chemical composition is next to stoichiometric calculated (x=0.40 and y=0.80) and the average sizes of particles are adjusted for ceramic suspensions preparation, contributing for the wet powder spraying step conformation. (author)

  2. ESTUDIO DE SERIES TEMPORALES DE CONTAMINACIÓN AMBIENTAL MEDIANTE TÉCNICAS DE REDES NEURONALES ARTIFICIALES TIME SERIES ANALYSIS OF ATMOSPHERE POLLUTION DATA USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Salini Calderón; Patricio Pérez Jara

    2006-01-01

    Se diseñó una red neuronal artificial (RNA) para hacer predicciones de valores de concentraciones horarias de material particulado fino en la atmósfera. El estudio está basado en los datos de tres años de series de tiempo de pm2.5 (material particulado suspendido de 2,5 micrones de diámetro), obtenidos en una estación céntrica de la Red MACAM de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, entre los años 1994 y 1996. Para obtener el espaciamiento óptimo de los datos, así como el número de datos hacia atrá...

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13141-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne) Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. vici... 44 0.008 CP001341_474( CP001341 |pid:none) Arthrobacter chlorophenol... 0.013 AP009389_1585( AP009389 |pid:none) Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum... 43 0.013 JS0631( JS0631 )alpha-am...e f... 42 0.039 ( P19584 ) RecName: Full=Thermophilic beta-amylase; EC=3.... 42 0.039 S36364( S36364 ;S1371...305539_1( EU305539 |pid:none) Paenibacillus graminis strain MC22... 41 0.050 ( P31747 ) RecName: Full=Cyclomaltodextrin glucano...ne) Frankia sp. CcI3, complete geno... 39 0.19 EF545003_1( EF545003 |pid:none) Thermomyces lanuginosus glucoam

  4. Papel de la clatrina y del complejo AP-2 en la morfogénesis de Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    OpenAIRE

    de León, Nagore

    2013-01-01

    [ES] La pared celular es un elemento morfogenético esencial que determina la forma final de las células y que las protege contra la lisis. En S. pombe ésta está constituida por ¿ y ß-glucano y manoproteínas y tanto la síntesis como remodelación de su estructura requiere de diferentes enzimas estrictamente reguladas. En S. pombe existe poca información de cómo se lleva a cabo la incorporación del material de membrana y sobre la regulación de las enzimas implicadas en la síntesis y remodelación...

  5. Stress oxidativo e oxidação proteíca : caracterização estrutural da a-amilase

    OpenAIRE

    Marçal, Susana Loureiro

    2009-01-01

    A α-amilase de Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (α-1,4-D-glucano glucanohidrolase, EC 3.2.1.1) catalisa a hidrólise das ligações α-1,4-glucosídicas em oligossacarídeos e polissacarídeos. A α-amilase humana é uma proteína secretora que é produzida tanto nas glândulas pancreáticas como salivares, constituindo uma porção significativa da saliva e desempenhando um papel importante na digestão inicial do amido, glicogénio e outros polissacarídeos. A oxidação catalisada por metais (MCO) das proteínas pos...

  6. Evaluación de la contaminación atmosférica en el aire ambiente de Manizales por COPs y PM10

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés Araújo, Johana De La Paz

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta un estudio de la calidad del aire realizado en cuatro puntos de la ciudad de Manizales, en el cual se analizó la dinámica de dispersión de las dioxinas (PCDD), furanos (PCDFs), dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) y el Material Particulado inferior a 10 micrómetros de diámetro (PM10) en el aire ambiente de la ciudad. Las PCDD/PCDFs fueron evaluadas en la fase gaseosa y en la fase particulada, utilizando equipos de monitoreo de aire pasivo (PAS) y equipos de alto volumen (HiVol), r...

  7. Contaminación ambiental, variabilidad climática y cambio climático: una revisión del impacto en la salud de la población peruana

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo F. Gonzales; Alisson Zevallos; Cynthia Gonzales-Castañeda; Denisse Nuñez; Carmen Gastañaga; César Cabezas; Luke Naeher; Karen Levy; Kyle Steenland

    2014-01-01

    El presente artículo es una revisión sobre la contaminación del agua, el aire y el efecto del cambio climático en la salud de la población peruana. Uno de los principales contaminantes del aire es el material particulado menor de 2,5 μ (PM 2,5), en la ciudad de Lima, anualmente 2300 muertes prematuras son atribuibles a este contaminante. Otro problema es la contaminación del aire domiciliario por el uso de cocinas con combustible de biomasa, donde la exposición excesiva a PM 2,5 dentro de las...

  8. CONTAMINACIÓN AMBIENTAL, VARIABILIDAD CLIMÁTICA Y CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO: UNA REVISIÓN DEL IMPACTO EN LA SALUD DE LA POBLACIÓN PERUANA

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo F. Gonzales; Zevallos, Alisson; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Nuñez, Denisse; Gastañaga, Carmen; Cabezas, César; Naeher, Luke; Levy, Karen; Steenland, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    El presente artículo es una revisión sobre la contaminación del agua, el aire y el efecto del cambio climático en la salud de la población peruana. Uno de los principales contaminantes del aire es el material particulado menor de 2,5 μ (PM 2,5), en la ciudad de Lima, anualmente 2300 muertes prematuras son atribuibles a este contaminante. Otro problema es la contaminación del aire domiciliario por el uso de cocinas con combustible de biomasa, donde la exposición excesiva a PM 2,5 dentro de las...

  9. Caracterización fisico-química de los aerosoles atmosféricos en el Mediterráneo Occidental

    OpenAIRE

    Pey Betrán, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    La contaminación atmosférica por material particulado (PM) tiene efectos adversos sobre la salud, el clima y los ecosistemas. La concentración en masa y número, el tamaño y la composición química son aspectos clave, pese a que la legislación actual solamente se centra en la medida de la masa.La cuenca mediterránea ha sido escenario de numerosos estudios que, sin embargo, no han cubierto algunos aspectos, que conforman los objetivos de esta memoria: Interpretar la variabilidad de niveles de PM...

  10. Assesing variations in urban air quality when introducing on-road traffic management strategies by means of high-resolution modelling: application to Barcelona and Madrid urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves Ageitos, María

    2009-01-01

    La contaminación del aire urbano tiene efectos negativos en la salud humana, los ecosistemas y se asocia con el transporte de contaminantes a larga distancia. La región del sur del Mediterráneo y en concreto la Península Ibérica se ven sometidos frecuentemente a episodios de contaminación fotoquímica. Los niveles de O3 troposférico y, en zonas urbanas, las concentraciones de NO2 y material particulado, superan frecuentemente los niveles establecidos por la legislación europea. El tráfico r...

  11. Fluidodinâmica de sementes de brócolos em leito fluizado e leito de jorro Fluid-dynamics of broccoli seeds in fluized and spouted beds

    OpenAIRE

    Celina de Almeida; Sandra Cristina dos Santos Rocha

    2002-01-01

    Os processos em leito fluidizado e de jorro são comumente empregados para secagem, recobrimento e granulação de sistemas particulados nas indústrias química e farmacêutica, enquanto na área agronômica estão limitados a tratamento de algumas espécies de sementes. Este trabalho objetivou apresentar a análise fluidodinâmica dos leitos fluidizado e de jorro, quando são utilizadas sementes de brócolos (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) e verificar a influência na germinação das sementes, submetid...

  12. Fracciones de carbono y nitrógeno orgánicos y nitrógeno anaeróbico bajo agricultura continua con dos sistemas de labranza Effect of two tillage systems under continuous cropping on organic carbon and nitrogen fractions and on the anaerobic nitrogen indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Verónica Diovisalvi; Guillermo Alberto Studdert; Germán Franco Domínguez; Maximiliano Joaquín Eiza

    2008-01-01

    El carbono orgánico (CO), componente clave del cual dependen muchas de las propiedades del suelo, está compuesto por fracciones lábiles, CO particulado (COP), y menos lábiles. El COP es un indicador temprano de los cambios en el CO provocados por las prácticas de manejo. Por otro lado, el N anaeróbico (Nan) es un indicador de la capacidad del suelo de mineralizar N. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la siembra directa (SD), de la labranza convencional (LC) y de la fertiliza...

  13. Preparação de cerâmicos de YSZ tricamada porosa/densa/porosa com porosidade ajustável

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Bruno Araújo de

    2009-01-01

    O trabalho realizado tem como principal objectivo obter cerâmicos tricamada porosa/densa/porosa de YSZ (sigla inglesa para Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia), com micro e macroporosidade de geometria ajustável, recorrendo a réplicas de materiais orgânicos fibrosos e particulados, bem como obter células electroquímicas de alta temperatura por inflitração de soluções de precursores adequados nas camadas porosas de YSZ. Recorreu-se a várias técnicas de caracterização tais como o cálculo de densidade...

  14. The BETA-1, 3-Glucanase of Basidiomycete QM 806: Studies on it's production and application in yeast cell wall hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Eleanor

    1986-01-01

    In this project the growth and production of JB-1,3-glucanase by Basidiomycete sp QM 806 was investigated, with a view to studying its application in B-1,3-glucan degradation and in yeast extract production. The effect of various parameters on 3-1 »3-glucanase production was examined. The optimal conditions for enzyme production in submerged shake-flask culture were chosen. Two B-1,3-glucans (laminarin and yeast cell walls) were degraded using the B-1,3-glucanase produced. The degra...

  15. Comportamiento de la enfermedad respiratoria de niños entre 5 y 14 años en la ciudad de Santa Marta en el primer trimestre de 2008 y 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enis Alejandra Cuao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Title: Respiratory disease in children ages 6 to 14 years in Santa Marta city in the first quarter of years 2008 and 2009.ResumenLas partículas totales suspendidas (PST o material particulado, específicamente PM10, se encuentran en la atmosfera. Estas partículas pueden penetrar en el sistema respiratorio bloqueando el paso del aire y ocasionando enfermedades. La contaminación por material particulado en la ciudad de Santa Marta requiere ser estudiada para comprender el daño que produce sobre la salud de la población, en concreto en la población infantil y adulta mayor. El transporte y almacenamiento de carbón, además del clima, son los causantes del esparcimiento de partículas PM10, que afectan principalmente las vías respiratorias altas. Para conocer lo que está pasando con la salud respiratoria se realizó un estudio descriptivo que incluyó como población a todos los niños entre 6 y 14 años de base hospitalaria. La información se depuró dejando únicamente los diagnósticos de vías respiratorias superiores. Estos diagnósticos, organizados por fecha, se compararon con la concentración de material particulado en el ambiente para los tres primeros meses de los años 2008 y 2009. El análisis muestra que los niños de 9 años o menos son los más afectados por enfermedades respiratorias en vías superiores. La Comuna con las concentraciones más altas de PM10 fue la 8. Sin embargo, las que más diagnóstico de enfermedad respiratoria presentaron fueron la 5 y la 4. (DUAZARY 2012 No. 1, 33 - 41

  16. Estrategias para la mejora de la calidad del aire en una ciudad: Movilidad y vehículo eléctrico

    OpenAIRE

    Soret Miravet, Albert

    2011-01-01

    A pesar de la reducción en la emisión de contaminantes atmosféricos de los últimos años, los niveles de calidad del aire en Europa y España siguen superando los valores límite legislados. Dichas superaciones, debidas principalmente a material particulado y dióxido de nitrógeno, se localizan especialmente en las ciudades, donde la mayor fuente de emisión es el tráfico rodado. Referente a las emisiones de tráfico, en Europa, el incremento de la intensidad de tráfico y la dieselización del...

  17. Projeção da mortalidade e internações hospitalares na rede pública de saúde atribuíveis à poluição atmosférica no Estado de São Paulo entre 2012 e 2030

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Guimarães Rodrigues; Evangelina da Motta Pacheco Araújo Vormittag; Julia Affonso Cavalcante; Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva

    2015-01-01

    No Brasil, os padrões nacionais de qualidade do ar são da década de 1990, desatualizados em relação aos internacionais, o que dificulta um controle eficaz dos níveis de poluição e contribui para a continuidade de mortes e internações. A fim de quantificar o montante de desfechos desfavoráveis de saúde em decorrência da concentração de material particulado no Estado de São Paulo, esse trabalho tem como objetivo realizar projeções de mortes, internações e gastos com internações públicas atribuí...

  18. Sources and processes affecting urban aerosols in a coastal Mediterranean environment

    OpenAIRE

    Reche Andúgar, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    La contaminación atmosférica es un problema de salud pública que causa más de 380000 muertes sólo en la Unión Europa. Un número importante de estudios epidemiológicos llevados a cabo en las últimas décadas ha asociado el material particulado atmosférico (PM) con la mortalidad y la morbilidad de origen respiratorio y cardiovascular. Así, la investigación sobre las fuentes y mecanismos implicados en esta asociación es hoy en día uno de los campos más relevantes en ciencias ambientales. Las f...

  19. Poluição atmosférica e doenças respiratórias em crianças na cidade de Curitiba, PR Air pollution and respiratory diseases among children in the city of Curitiba, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Maria Cipriano Bakonyi; Inês Moresco Danni-Oliveira; Lourdes Conceição Martins; Alfésio Luís Ferreira Braga

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos causados pela poluição atmosférica na morbidade por doenças respiratórias em crianças entre 1999 e 2000. MÉTODOS: Foram obtidos os dados diários de atendimentos por doenças respiratórias para crianças em unidades de saúde no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) no município de Curitiba, PR, Brasil. Níveis diários de material particulado, fumaça, dióxido de nitrogênio e ozônio foram obtidos com o Instituto Ambiental do Paraná e Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvim...

  20. Poluição atmosférica e doenças respiratórias em crianças na cidade de Curitiba, PR

    OpenAIRE

    Bakonyi Sonia Maria Cipriano; Danni-Oliveira Inês Moresco; Martins Lourdes Conceição; Braga Alfésio Luís Ferreira

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos causados pela poluição atmosférica na morbidade por doenças respiratórias em crianças entre 1999 e 2000. MÉTODOS: Foram obtidos os dados diários de atendimentos por doenças respiratórias para crianças em unidades de saúde no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) no município de Curitiba, PR, Brasil. Níveis diários de material particulado, fumaça, dióxido de nitrogênio e ozônio foram obtidos com o Instituto Ambiental do Paraná e Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvim...

  1. Recubrimientos protectores obtenidos por deposición electroforética (EPD) a partir de suspensiones sol-gel

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Martín, Mª Yolanda

    2003-01-01

    dentro del conformado cerámico El objetivo de esta tesis ha sido la obtención de capas gruesas para proteger metales, combinando las ventajas del método sol-gel con las del proceso de deposición electroforética. Para ello, se han utilizado suspensiones sol-gel que incorporan soluciones coloidales de SiO2 y ZrO2 a soles híbridos de SiO2 catalizados en medio ácido, y también soles particulados de sílice y sílice-circona preparados por catálisis básica.

  2. Projeção da mortalidade e internações hospitalares na rede pública de saúde atribuíveis à poluição atmosférica no Estado de São Paulo entre 2012 e 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Guimarães Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, os padrões nacionais de qualidade do ar são da década de 1990, desatualizados em relação aos internacionais, o que dificulta um controle eficaz dos níveis de poluição e contribui para a continuidade de mortes e internações. A fim de quantificar o montante de desfechos desfavoráveis de saúde em decorrência da concentração de material particulado no Estado de São Paulo, esse trabalho tem como objetivo realizar projeções de mortes, internações e gastos com internações públicas atribuíveis à poluição atmosférica, para o período de 2012 a 2030. Para isso foram considerados distintos cenários de poluição por material particulado fino (MP2,5, tomando-se como referência o ano-base 2011. Os resultados mostram que, mantendo o mesmo nível de poluição observado em 2011, haverá um total de mais de 246 mil óbitos por todas as causas entre 2012 e 2030, cerca de 953 mil internações hospitalares públicas e um gasto público estimado em internações de mais de R$ 1,6 bilhão. A magnitude dos resultados aponta para a necessidade de implementação de medidas mais rigorosas para o controle da poluição do ar, formas alternativas de energia limpa de transporte, entre outras ações, como forma de reduzir os danos à saúde da população e os gastos governamentais.

  3. Molecular analysis of a Clostridium butyricum NCIMB 7423 gene encoding 4-alpha-glucanotransferase and characterization of the recombinant enzyme produced in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, S K; Eissa, O; Akhtar, M; Minton, N P

    1997-10-01

    An Escherichia coli clone was detected in a Clostridium butyricum NCIMB 7423 plasmid library capable of degrading soluble amylose. Deletion subcloning of its recombinant plasmid indicated that the gene(s) responsible for amylose degradation was localized on a 1.8 kb NspHI-Scal fragment. This region was sequenced in its entirety and shown to encompass a large ORF capable of encoding a protein with a calculated molecular mass of 57,184 Da. Although the deduced amino acid sequence showed only weak similarity with known amylases, significant sequences identity was apparent with the 4-alpha-glucano-transferase enzymes of Streptococcus pneumoniae (46.9%), potato (42.9%) and E. coli (16.2%). The clostridial gene (designated maIQ) was followed by a second ORF which, through its homology to the equivalent enzymes of E. coli and S. pneumoniae, was deduced to encode maltodextrin phosphorylase (MaIP). The translation stop codon of MaIQ overlapped the translation start codon of the putative maIP gene, suggesting that the two genes may be both transcriptionally and translationally coupled. 4-alpha-Glucanotransferase catalyses a disproportionation reaction in which single or multiple glucose units from oligosaccharides are transferred to the 4-hydroxyl group of acceptor sugars. Characterization of the recombinant C. butyricum enzyme demonstrated that glucose, maltose and maltotriose could act as acceptor, whereas of the three only maltotriose could act as donor. The enzyme therefore shares properties with the E. coli MaIQ protein, but differs significantly from the glucanotransferase of Thermotoga maritima, which is unable to use maltotriose as donor or glucose as acceptor. Physiologically, the concerted action of 4-alpha-glucanotransferase and maltodextrin phosphorylase provides C. butyricum with a mechanism of utilizing amylose/maltodextrins with little drain on cellular ATP reserves. PMID:9353929

  4. Frações de fosfato em resrvatíorios de água em Lavras - MG Fractions of phosphate in water bodies in Lavras - MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regilene Angélica da Silva Souza

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar os teores e as frações de P presentes nos corpos d'água de reservatórios no Campus da Universidade Federal de Lavras, verificando a eventual presença de condições de eutrofização. Foram selecionados oito reservatórios dentro do Campus, representando as condições de uso e manejo do solo. As amostragens foram realizadas mensalmente, com início em janeiro e término em dezembro de 2004. Foram quantificados os níveis de P, nas seguintes formas: ortofosfato solúvel (OPS, ortofosfato total (OPT, P solúvel total (PST, P total (PT, P particulado total (PPT, P não reativo solúvel (PNRS, P não reativo particulado (PNRP e o ortofosfato particulado (OPP. Foram também avaliados os parâmetros: pH, condutividade eletrolítica, Ca, Mg, Na, K, NO-3, NO-2 e NH+4 . Os limites de detecção do método e os limites de quantificação foram determinados. Os valores encontrados de OPS para os corpos d água sempre estiveram abaixo do permitido pela Resolução CONAMA 357/05. No entanto, outras frações de P apresentaram teores elevados, refletindo as precipitações pluviométricas e as condições do solo. Esses teores mais elevados têm caráter momentâneo e, no geral, estes corpos d'água podem ser considerados de excelente qualidade quanto à presença de P. O manejo do solo dentro do Campus da UFLA e o tratamento aplicado a efluentes e águas residuárias de granjas e estábulos mostraram, no geral, serem adequados, não oferecendo grandes riscos de eutrofização aos cursos d'água que cortam o campus.The objective of this study was to evaluate the contents and fractions of P in water bodies at the Campus of the Federal University of Lavras to verify the occurrence of eutrophication. Eight artificial lakes were chosen, representing the conditions of soil use and management in the campus. The samples were collected monthly from January to December 2004. The levels of P in the following forms

  5. Circulation and suspended particulate matter transport in a tidally dominated estuary: caravelas estuary, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto França Schettini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The circulation and transport of suspended particulate matter in the Caravelas Estuary are assessed. Nearly-synoptic hourly hydrographic, current (ADCP velocity and volume transport and suspended particulate matter data were collected during a full semidiurnal spring tide, on the two transects Boca do Tomba and Barra Velha and on longitudinal sections at low and high tide. On the first transect the peak ebb currents (-1.5 ms-1 were almost twice as strong as those of the wider and shallow Barra Velha inlet (-0.80 ms-1 and the peak flood currents were 0.75 and 0.60 ms-1, respectively. Due to the strong tidal currents both inlets had weak vertical salinity stratification and were classified with the Stratification-circulation Diagram as Type 2a (partially mixed-weakly stratified and Type 1a (well mixed. Volume transports were very close, ranging from -3,500 to 3,100 m³s-1 at the ebb and flood, respectively, with a residual -630 m³s-1. The concentration of the suspended particulate matter was closely related to the tidal variation and decreased landwards from 50 mg.L-1 at the estuary mouth, to 10 mg.L-1 at distances of 9 and 16 km for the low and high tide experiments, respectively. The total residual SPM transport was out of the estuary at rates of -18 tons per tidal cycle.A circulação e o transporte de material particulado em suspensão no Estuário de Caravelas são pesquisados. Dados quase-sinóticos hidrográficos, de correntes (velocidade e transporte de volume com ADCP e de material particulado em suspensão, foram medidos em intervalos horários durante um ciclo semidiurno de maré de sizígia, em duas seções transversais na Boca do Tomba e na Barra Velha e também em seções longitudinais na baixa-mar e na preamar. Na primeira transversal as correntes máximas de vazante (-1,50 m s-1 foram quase duas vezes mais intensas do que na seção transversal mais larga e rasa Barra Velha, (-0,80 m s-1 e as maiores velocidades das correntes de

  6. Descripción de la calidad del aire en el área de influencia del Botadero de Navarro, Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Andrea Filigrana

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de las emisiones del sitio de disposición final de residuos sólidos en Cali, el Botadero de Navarro (BN, en la calidad del aire de una zona definida como expuesta (3 km y en sentido contrario al viento predominante.Materiales y métodos: La toma de muestras se realizó con equipos semiautomáticos y los procedimientos seguidos obedecieron a lineamientos internacionales aceptados por la legislación ambiental colombiana. El monitoreo se efectuó simultáneamente en la zona expuesta y en la zona control durante tres períodos climatológicos diferentes: uno en verano, otro en invierno y en un período intermedio entre los dos anteriores. Se tomaron muestras durante 10 días en cada período en ambas zonas. Se midió material particulado menor a 10 micras (PM10, dióxido de azufre, metano y los compuestos orgánicos volátiles: benceno, tolueno y xileno.Resultados: Los resultados indican que el metano y el benceno tienen como fuente principal de emisión el BN y son dispersados por acción del viento en la dirección predominante hacia la zona denominada expuesta. Hay evidencia de un gradiente en la concentración de benceno desde el BN (p<0.01. Las concentraciones encontradas en la zona expuesta (mediana=2.92 µg/m3 superaron 48% de las veces el nivel máximo permitido para prevenir afectación en la salud y fueron mayores que en la zona control (mediana=1.54 µg/m3 donde sólo 22% de las veces se superó la norma. El metano presentó también un gradiente con concentraciones más altas en la zona expuesta que en la zona control, y hay evidencia de una mayor concentración de material particulado menor a 5 micras en la zona expuestaConclusiones: Los hallazgos del presente artículo muestra evidencias de efectos ambientales en áreas <3 km del BN. Esta distancia se debe considerar cuando se estén definiendo el perímetro de áreas no habitadas alrededor de sitios municipales de

  7. Descomposición acuática de hojarasca en la Cuenca Media-Baja del Río Gaira (Magdalena, Colombia: un indicador de estados de conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zúñiga-Céspedes Bladimir

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la relación entre el estado de conservación de la cuenca del río Gaira, Colombia, y el procesamiento acuático de la hojarasca proveniente de la vegetación riparia, se efectuaron dos experimentos de descomposición con hojas de Anacardium excelsum, Pithecellobium longifolium (nativas y Eucalyptus globulus (exótica en las partes media y baja de la cuenca durante el período de altas precipitaciones (septiembre-diciembre, 2004. Se midieron las pérdidas de biomasa del material vegetal, colonización por invertebrados, cambios hidrológicos (variaciones de caudal y cambios en el lecho del río y acumulaciones de material particulado fino. A. excelsum (C. media: k = -0,074 ± 0,005/d., C. baja: k = -0,072 ± 0,005/d y E. globulus (C. media: k = -0,090 ± 0,016/d., C. baja: k = -0,105 ± 0,018/d presentaron una rápida descomposición en comparación con P. longifolium (C. media: k = -0,0057 ± 0,0007/d., C. baja: k = -0,0052 ± 0,0007/d. Las tasas de descomposición se aceleraron después de fuertes fluctuaciones del caudal. La colonización por invertebrados fue pobre (1.076-1.950 individuos, lo cual se relacionó con las fuertes fluctuaciones hidrológicas. La comunidad estuvo constituida básicamente por colectores de depósito (84,3-95,76% y con bajas densidades de trituradores (0,38-5,17%, reforzando la hipótesis de una relación indirecta entre los invertebrados y la descomposición de la hojarasca en los trópicos. Se produjeron acumulaciones de material particulado fino relacionadas con los cambios hidrológicos del sistema. Dado que el proceso de descomposición de hojarasca fue afectado por el régimen de caudales y el transporte de sedimentos, cuya magnitud ha sido modificada por la intervención antrópica, el procesamiento
    acuático de la hojarasca tiene un uso potencial como indicador del estado de conservación de la cuenca del río Gaira.

  8. 78 FR 4197 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... provisions in the guidelines, such as the adjustment in Sec. 3B1.3 (Abuse of Position of Trust or Use of... 112-95 (February 14, 2012); the Child Protection Act of 2012, Public Law 112-206 (December 7,...

  9. 76 FR 52997 - Public Company Accounting Oversight Board; Order Approving Proposed Board Funding Final Rules for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ...\\ 15 U.S.C. 7217(b). \\2\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\3\\ Release No. 34-64816 (Jul. 6, 2011) [76 FR 40950 (Jul...) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (``FASB'') accounting support fee... other financial statement certified by a registered public accounting firm. See Sections 110(3) and...

  10. CYP1B1 genotype and risk of cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, and cancer in 50,000 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, D.; Nordestgaard, B.G.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1 enzymes metabolize tobacco-smoke polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 17beta-estradiol. CYP1B1*3 (rs1056836 = Leu432Val = 4326C>G) and CYP1B1*4 (rs1800440 = Asn453Ser = 4390A>G) influence this metabolism. We, therefore, hypothesized that these two polymorphism...

  11. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Dd of... - Tank Control Levels for Tanks at Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(1) 3 Table 3 to Subpart DD of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants from Off-Site Waste and Recovery Operations Pt. 63, Subpt. DD, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart DD of Part 63—Tank Control Levels for Tanks at Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR...

  12. Rice8987 g_array: cDNA information: 4510 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g_4510 EC0708 >S82315_1(S82315|pid:g1839591) PRm 6b=1,3-beta-glucanase {clone CHEM 9} [Zea mays= ... maize, cv. INRA 258, mercuric chloride-treated, leaves , mRNA Partial, 1243 nt]; 1,3-beta-glucanase; This ...

  13. 77 FR 2778 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... difference in relative potency? The Drug Enforcement Administration has described BZP as a stimulant that is 10 to 20 times less potent than amphetamine. See 75 FR 47451 (August 6, 2010) (``BZP is about 20... inserting ``Notes''; by redesignating Note 1 as Note 3; in that Note, by striking ``Section 3B1.3 (Abuse...

  14. 12 CFR 5.36 - Other equity investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., directly or through its operating subsidiary, in an enterprise that engages in the activities of holding...) Definitions. For purposes of this § 5.36: (1) Enterprise means any corporation, limited liability company... CFR 6.4(b)(1). (3) Well managed has the meaning set forth in § 5.34(d)(3). (d) Procedure. (1)...

  15. Rice8987Corresponding Table(f_g_primer): g_4510 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g_4510 3UTR_4510 EC0708 C19633 >S82315_1(S82315|pid:g1839591) PRm 6b=1,3-beta-glucanase {clone C ... sequence comes from Fig. 3. Protein sequence is in conflict ... with the conceptual translation; mismatch(99[A- &T ...

  16. QUALIDADE DO AR – PARÂMETROS DE CONTROLE E EFEITOS NA SAÚDE HUMANA: UMA BREVE REVISÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Hermeson Castro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Estudos relacionados à poluição atmosférica e a qualidade do ar crescem a cada ano. Em geral as pesquisas desenvolvidas envolvem o conhecimento sobre os componentes nocivos a saúde presentes no meio ambiente. De acordo com a legislação brasileira os poluentes de maior importância monitorados são representados pelo monóxido de carbono (CO, os óxidos de nitrogênio (NOx, o dióxido de enxofre (SO2, o ozônio (O3, a fumaça e os materiais particulados: partículas inaláveis (PM10 e PM2,5 e partículas totais em suspensão (PTS. Outras substâncias como os compostos orgânicos BTEX (benzeno, tolueno, etilbenzeno e xilenos também foram investigados devido à elevada abundancia em atmosferas urbanas. Em particular, este artigo apresenta uma revisão sobre os principais poluentes atmosféricos, fontes de emissão, ocorrência, legislação e efeitos sobre a saúde humana.

  17. FIELD STUDY OF EXPERIMENTAL ANTIFOULING PAINT FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANKLIN JARAMILLO ISAZA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la evaluación en campo de varias pinturas anti-incrustantes desarrolladas experimentalmente, luego de ser expuestas por 471 días a condiciones naturales de agua de mar en el Caribe. El lugar de exposición fue seleccionado con el fin de obtener condiciones ambientales severas, para este propósito se sumergieron paneles estáticos en agua con alta actividad biológica. Se usaron tres diferentes plastificantes y diferentes relaciones plastificante/ligante, para finalmente obtener 22 diferentes formulaciones que fueron clasificadas en tres diferentes grupos de acuerdo a la velocidad de liberación del biocida. Para efectos de comparación, se emplearon tres productos comerciales. Algunas de las formulaciones desarrolladas mostraron igual o mejor desempeño que los productos comerciales. Los mejores resultados se encontraron cuando se usó caucho clorado como plastificante. Finalmente se encontró que las condiciones físico-químicas del agua tienen un efecto significativo en la eficiencia biocida de las pinturas, particularmente la presencia de material particulado y el contenido de oxígeno.

  18. UNA REVISIÓN ACERCA DE LA DINAMICA DE FLUIDOS COMPUTACIONALES (CFD EN INSTALACIONES AVÍCOLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIRO ALEXANDER OSORIO SARAZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La agroindustria avícola moderna está siendo sometida a rigurosos requisitos internacionales para garantizar el bienestar de los animales y de las personas, al mismo tiempo está buscando una constante mejoría en la producción y competitividad. Para ello, las instalaciones de producción de pollos de engorde deben ser diseñadas de tal manera que ofrezcan las mejores condiciones de confort térmico animal tanto en invierno como en verano. En este sentido, el modelaje computacional se ha constituido en una herramienta interesante en la definición y entendimiento de proyectos de sistemas de acondicionamiento de ambientes compatibles con la avicultura industrial de países como el Brasil. El objetivo de este estudio es dar a conocer el estado del arte de la aplicabilidad de CFD en el acondicionamiento térmico de las instalaciones para pollos de engorde y sus limitaciones actuales. Se parte del supuesto de que a partir de los modelos con CFD se pueden generar conocimientos de las distribuciones de velocidad, temperatura del aire, gases y material particulado, cuando las instalaciones presentan ventilación natural, ventilación mecánica y sistemas de enfriamiento adiabáticos evaporativos.

  19. Freshwater sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae in a benthic filter feeding community at the Guanacaste Dry Forest, Costa Rica Esponjas continentais (Porifera, Demospongiae em uma comunidade bêntica filtradora na Floresta Decidual de Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Volkmer-Ribeiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater sponges Trochospongilla variabilis Bonetto & Ezcurra de Drago (1973, Radiospongilla crateriformis (Potts, 1882, Spongilla cenota Penney & Racek (1968 and Corvoheteromeyenia heterosclera (Ezcurra de Drago, 1974 compose with the sphaerid bivalve Eupera cubensis (Prime, 1865 and several Phylactolaemata bryozoans a benthic filter feeding community living in seasonal lentic and lotic habitats with high Particulate Organic Carbon (POC, low conductivity and acid pH within the Costa Rica Dry Forest biome. The sponge specimens gathered led to the re-description of the four species.As esponjas de água doce Trochospongilla variabilis Bonetto & Ezcurra de Drago (1973, Radiospongilla crateriformis (Potts, 1882, Spongilla cenota Penney & Racek (1968 e Corvoheteromeyenia heterosclera (Ezcurra de Drago, 1974 compõem, com o bivalve esferídeo Eupera cubensis (Prime, 1865 e diversos briozoários Phylactolaemata, uma comunidade bêntica de filtradores em ambientes sazonais lênticos e lóticos com alto Carbono Orgânico Particulado (POC, baixa condutividade e pH ácido no bioma da Floresta Decidual da Costa Rica. Os espécimes de esponjas coligidos conduziram à redescrição das quatro espécies.

  20. La erupción del volcán Peteroa (35º15'S, 70º18'o del 4 de septiembre de 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J Haller

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El volcán Peteroa, ubicado en la Zona Volcánica Sur en la cordillera de los Andes, a la latitud de 35º15'S, tuvo una erupción de aproximadamente 48 días de duración, con inicio el 4 de septiembre de 2010. Después de un período de aumento de la actividad fumarólica, la erupción comenzó con una columna eruptiva fuerte, de cerca de 1.800 m de altura, para continuar posteriormente con una columna débil de 200 metros. El material particulado emitido contiene vidrio y cristaloclastos subordinados. La tefra caída se acumuló principalmente en las inmediaciones del volcán, mientras que en sectores más alejados formó solamente una tenue capa. Por el escaso volumen de la tefra eyectada y la limitada dispersión de la misma, sumado al hecho que el sector contiguo al volcán estaba deshabitado por el carácter temporal de los asentamientos en ese lugar, la erupción de 2010 no tuvo mayor incidencia sobre los habitantes.

  1. Atmospheric corrosivity in Bogota as a very high-altitude metropolis questions international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fredy Ríos-Rojas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan resultados del primer estudio sistemático sobre la corrosividad atmosférica de Bogotá, donde se tienen características especiales como una población superior a ocho millones de personas y 2600 m sobre el nivel del mar. Se midieron humedad relativa, temperatura, concentración de dióxido de azufre (SO2 y velocidad de corrosión de acero al carbono AISI/SAE 1006. La corrosividad encontrada se ubica entre los niveles bajo y medio, C2–C3, según la norma ISO 9223. No obstante, los valores estimados a partir de los parámetros meteorológicos dan resultados menores y, de acuerdo a la concentración del SO2, las corrosividades en los sitios con mayor humedad relativa son mayores que las medidas en platinas de acero. El principal problema de contaminación es material particulado, pero las mayores tasas de corrosión estuvieron asociadas con los niveles de SO2. Diferencias entre los valores medidos y estimados son evidentes, proponiendo algunas explicaciones acerca de ello.

  2. Evaluación de los niveles de partículas PM10 y dióxido de nitrógeno en la Ciudad de San José, Costa Rica: 2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera Murillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó los niveles de material particulado PM10 en dos sitios de la Ciudad de San José (Catedral Metropolitana y Junta de Educación durante un año (setiembre 2005-setiembre 2006, obteniendo como promedio anual 36 ± 8 μg/m3 y 25 ± 7 μg/ m3, respectivamente. En forma adicional, se midió los niveles de sulfatos, nitratos y cloruros para ambos sitios y las medias anuales resultaron no ser significativamente diferentes para ambos sitios, con un nivel de significancia del 5%. En tres de los catorce sitios de medición de la concentración de dióxido de nitrógeno en la ciudad, se presentaron valores superiores a la recomendación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, para un mes de monitoreo. El análisis de componentes principales aplicados a los datos de este gas, muestra que las variaciones en los niveles se deben a fenómenos de larga escala (meteorológicos.

  3. Analisis morfológico de anfíbioles en menas de talco de la provincia de Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Lescano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Si bien existen antecedentes de estudios realizados en los yacimientos de talco del distrito minero Salamanca en la provincia de Mendoza, en su mayoría están relacionados con la génesis, estructura y emplazamiento geológico. En varios de ellos se menciona la presencia de serpentina y anfíboles, en las rocas de caja y en las menas. Estos últimos fueron determinados por sus características mineralógicas y propiedades ópticas, pero no han sido evaluados desde el punto de vista de su influencia en los pasivos ambientales de las escombreras, considerando principalmente la dispersión en el ambiente exógeno. Durante años la minería de talco en la provincia de Mendoza fue muy importante, realizada principalmente en forma subterránea. El personal estuvo expuesto al polvo generado durante la explotación, constituido por material particulado, parte de él de morfología asbestiforme. El objeto del presente trabajo es estudiar la morfología de los anfíboles del distrito minero Salamanca y la influencia de su degradación por procesos exógenos naturales y/o por los tratamientos en planta. Se evalúa desde el punto de vista del riesgo que representan para la salud humana.

  4. Excited bottom and bottom-strange mesons in the quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Lü, Qi-Fang; Wang, Yan-Yan; Wang, En; Li, De-Min

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the possible $q\\bar{q}$ quark-model assignments of the $B_J(5840)$ and $B_J(5960)$ recently reported by the LHCb Collaboration, we evaluate mass spectra, strong decays, and radiative decays of bottom and bottom-strange mesons in a nonrelativistic quark model. Comparing these predictions with the relevant experimental results, we suggest that the $B_J(5840)$ and $B_J(5960)$ can be identified as $B(2^1S_0)$ and $B(1^3D_3)$, respectively, and the $B(5970)$ reported by the CDF Collaboration can be interpreted as $B(2^3S_1)$ or $B(1^3D_3)$. Further precise measurements of the width, spin and decay modes of the $B(5970)$ are needed to distinguish these two assignments. These predictions of bottom and bottom-strange mesons can provide useful information to further experimental investigations.

  5. Quelques considérations sur la place des poissons dans les cycles biogéochimiques, à la lumière de la connaissance de leur arsenal enzymatique digestif

    OpenAIRE

    Jeuniaux, Charles

    1983-01-01

    D'après la composition de leur arsenal enzymatique digestif et la présence quasi générale de chitinases dans les sécrétions digestives, les Poissons doivent jouer un rôle important dans le recyclage de l'azote et du carbone de la chitine. Certaines espèces sont équipées de B-1,3 glucanases (ou laminarinases) et interviennent donc dans la biodégradation des B-1,3 glucanes de leurs aliments. Au contraire, les Poissons semblent totalement incapables de dégrader la cellulose et de jouer un rôle q...

  6. SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL BICYCLIC AND TRICYCLIC THIAZOLE AND IMIDAZOLE CONTAINING 2-AMINOPROPIONIC ACIDS Synthese von neuartigen bicyclischen und tricyclischen THIAZOLE und Imidazol MIT 2-Aminopropionsäuren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Beresneva, Edgars Abele

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of four novel bicyclic and tricyclic amino acids (2-amino-3-benzo[4,5]imidazo[2,1- b]thiazol-3-ylpropionic acid, 2-amino-3-benzo[d]imidazo[2,1-b]thiazol-2-ylpropionic acid, 2- amino-3-thiazolo[3,2-b][1,2,4]triazol-6-ylpropionic acid, 2-amino-3-(2- methylsulfanylimidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazol-6-ylpropionic acid were carried out.

  7. Pengaruh Pemberian Bahan Organik Terhadap Penyakit Pada Beberapa Varietas Tanaman Jagung (Zea Mays L) Di Lapangan

    OpenAIRE

    Sinda Maroganda Saragih

    2009-01-01

    SINDA MAROGANDA SARAGI “ Pengaruh Pemberian Bahan Organik terhadap penyakit pada beberapa varietas tanaman jagung ( zea mays L. ) di lapangan” Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Lahan Pertanian Kampung Susuk dengan ketinggian tempat ± 25 m diatas permukaan laut. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) faktorial yang terdiri dari 2 faktor perlakuan dan 3 ulangan. Faktor 1 perlakuan dengan memberikan Bahan Organik yaitu B0 = tanpa bahan organik, B1 = 3 kg bahan organik ...

  8. 12 CFR 702.105 - Weighted-average life of investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., as defined in 17 CFR 270.2a-7, and collective investment funds operated in accordance with short-term investment fund rules set forth in 12 CFR 9.18(b)(4)(ii)(B)(1)-(3), the weighted-average life is defined as...-in capital and membership capital in corporate credit unions, as defined in 12 CFR 704.2,...

  9. Measurement of the $\\chi_b(3P)$ mass and of the relative rate of $\\chi_{b1}(1P)$ and $\\chi_{b2}(1P)$ production

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gavrilov, Gennadii; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Lespinasse, Mickael; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The production of $\\chi_b$ mesons in proton-proton collisions is studied using a data sample collected by the LHCb detector, at centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and $8$ TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb$^{-1}$. The $\\chi_b$ mesons are identified through their decays to $\\Upsilon(1S)\\gamma$ and $\\Upsilon(2S)\\gamma$ using photons that converted to $e^+e^-$ pairs in the detector. The $\\chi_b(3P)$ meson mass, and the relative prompt production rate of $\\chi_{b1}(1P)$ and $\\chi_{b2}(1P)$ mesons as a function of the $\\Upsilon(1S)$ transverse momentum in the $\\chi_b$ rapidity range 2.0< $y$<4.5, are measured. Assuming a mass splitting between the $\\chi_{b1}(3P)$ and the $\\chi_{b2}(3P)$ states of 10.5 MeV/$c^2$, the mass of the $\\chi_{b1}(3P)$ meson is \\begin{equation*} m(\\chi_{b1}(3P))= 10515.7^{+2.2}_{-3.9}(stat) ^{+1.5}_{-2.1}(syst) MeV/c^2. \\end{equation*}

  10. Estratégias utilizadas para o incremento da solubilidade do fármaco antiretroviral classe II: Efavirenz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcyla Andrade Gomes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O efavirenz (EFZ é considerado um dos fármacos anti- HIV mais utilizados, porém, como a grande maioria dos antirretrovirais, é classificado como fármaco de classe II, segundo o Sistema de Classificação Biofarmacêutica (SCB, por apresentar baixa solubilidade e alta permeabilidade. É bem conhecido que a solubilidade aquosa de um fármaco constitui requisito prévio à absorção e, assim, se faz uma das mais importantes barreiras à eficácia do medicamento. Desta forma, o aumento, através de tecnologias farmacêuticas, da dissolução aquosa e, conseqüentemente, da biodisponibilidade de fármacos pouco solúveis em água é considerado como um dos mais desafiantes aspectos no desenvolvimento moderno de fármacos. Este trabalho tem como objetivo realizar um levantamento da literatura cientifica e discussão sobre as principais técnicas aplicadas no melhoramento da dissolução do EFZ, dentre elas: dispersões sólidas, complexos de inclusão, sistemas multicomponentes e sistemas particulados nos últimos 10 anos (2004 – 2014. Após levantamento bibliográfico, verificou-se maior número de publicações empregando a técnica de dispersões sólidas, provavelmente, porque a mesma é considerada uma técnica simples e de baixo custo. Desta forma, ficou claro que há grande interesse, por parte dos pesquisadores, de desenvolver métodos eficientes e econômicos que visam o melhoramento da dissolução aquosa deste fármaco e que o desenvolvimento de dispersões sólidas é, sem dúvida, uma solução interessante.Palavras-chave: Efavirenz. Solubilidade. Dispersões Sólidas. Complexos de Inclusão. Sistemas Multicomponentes. Sistemas Particulados. ABSTRACT Efavirenz (EFZ is considered one of the most used anti-HIV drugs. However, like the others anti-retroviral drugs, it is classified as a class II drug, according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS, due to its low solubility and high permeability. It is well-known that

  11. Rolado de fachinales y calidad de suelos en el Chaco occidental, Argentina Roller-chopping of shrub-thickets and soil quality in the western Chaco, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Anriquez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En la región chaqueña occidental la sustentabilidad de establecimientos ganaderos es reducida, debido a la existencia de grandes áreas dominadas por arbustos de los géneros Acacia, Celtis y Prosopis (´fachinales´ que generan baja capacidad receptiva y escasa accesibilidad del ganado. Con el propósito de controlar estas especies improductivas y aumentar la oferta forrajera en dichas áreas, se utilizan comúnmente prácticas agronómicas como por ejemplo el rolado, que generalmente es acompañado por siembra de pasturas y/o fuego prescrito. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de estas prácticas sobre algunos indicadores de calidad de suelo, tales como densidad aparente, carbono orgánico total, carbono orgánico particulado, respiración edáfica, carbono de la biomasa microbiana, actividad deshidrogenasa, en tres sitios característicos de la región: Alto, Media Loma y Bajo. Los tratamientos aplicados fueron rolado, rolado con siembra de Panicum maximum cv. trichoglume cv green panic, y rolado seguido por fuego prescrito. La densidad aparente, el carbono orgánico total, el carbono orgánico particulado y el carbono de la biomasa microbiana no fueron alterados por los tratamientos. Una mayor actividad deshidrogenasa se observó en el sitio Bajo, independientemente de los tratamientos y probablemente debido a un mayor contenido de agua del suelo. La respiración edáfica aumentó en el sitio Alto en todos los tratamientos, probablemente debido a la modificación de la actividad microbiana del suelo, atribuible al estímulo producido por los exudados radiculares del green panic y de las herbáceas nativas que aparecieron después de los tratamientos. En general, los indicadores de calidad de suelo no fueron afectados significativamente por los tratamientos usados, hecho atribuible a la baja intensidad de aplicación del rolado y de las prácticas asociadas (siembra de pasturas y fuegos prescriptos. No obstante, hubo un efecto

  12. Processo de trabalho e riscos para a saúde dos trabalhadores em uma indústria de cimento The work process and occupational health risks in a cement factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Sueli Neto Ribeiro

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação do processo de trabalho sobre a saúde de trabalhadores de uma fábrica de cimento, localizada no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, é relatada. A metodologia interativa utilizada, constou de distintas formas de avaliação do ambiente de trabalho através da incorporação de várias instituições, com atribuição na área de Saúde do Trabalhador, de técnicos de diversas formações, do sindicato e da valorização da experiência do trabalhador, contribuindo ativamente no processo de vigilância do SUS. Os níveis de material particulado e de ruído foram medidos. O porcentual médio de sílica livre cristalina encontrado no material particulado, foi de 2%, o que resultou em um limite de tolerância, determinado como especificado na Legislação Brasileira (NR-15, de 2,0mg/m³. A concentração de partículas, tanto em amostras coletadas em nível da zona respiratória dos trabalhadores, quanto às amostras de área, variou de 3,59 a 52,44mg/m³, o nível de ruído situou-se entre 83dB e 110dB. A maioria dos valores encontrados superam o valor limite estabelecido pela Legislação Brasileira. Esses resultados, somados ao registro do olhar dos trabalhadores, revelaram um ambiente e processo de trabalho insalubre, colocando em risco a saúde dos operários.The authors evaluate the work process and its effect on workers' health in a cement factory in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The interactive methodology consisted of different approaches to assessing the workplace through the incorporation of various institutions working in the field of Workers' Health, professionals from different backgrounds, and the trade union, valorizing the workers' experience and actively contributing to the surveillance process under the Unified National Health System (SUS. Levels of particulate matter and noise were measured. The mean level of free crystalline silica in the particulate matter was 2%, resulting in a tolerance limit as specified under Brazilian

  13. Poluição da queima de cana e sintomas respiratórios em escolares de Monte Aprazível, SP Polución de la quema de caña y síntomas respiratorios en escolares de Monte Aprazível, Sureste de Brasil Sugar cane burning pollution and respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren in Monte Aprazível, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Riguera

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de sintomas respiratórios e analisar fatores associados, bem como medidas de pico de fluxo expiratório em escolares. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo transversal com escolares de dez a 14 anos de Monte Aprazível, SP. Foram aplicados questionários sobre sintomas de asma e de rinite do protocolo International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, questões sociodemográficas, fatores predisponentes e antecedentes pessoais e familiares. Foram realizadas medidas repetidas do pico de fluxo expiratório nas crianças e dos níveis de concentração de material particulado (MP2,5 e de black carbon. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sintomas de asma foi de 11% e de 33,2% de rinite; 10,6% apresentaram mais de quatro crises de sibilos nos últimos 12 meses. Antecedentes familiares para bronquite e rinite associaram-se à presença de asma (p = 0,002 e p OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de síntomas respiratorios y analizar factores asociados, así como medidas de pico de flujo expiratorio en escolares. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo transversal con escolares de diez a 14 años de Monte Aprazível, Sureste de Brasil. Se aplicaron cuestionarios sobre síntomas de asma y de rinitis del protocolo International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, preguntas sociodemográficas, factores predisponentes y antecedentes personales y familiares. Se realizaron medidas repetidas del pico de flujo expiratorio en los niños y de los niveles de concentración de material particulado (MP2,5 y de black carbon. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de síntomas de asma fue de 11% y de 33,2% de rinitis, 10,6% presentaron más de cuatro crisis de silbidos en los últimos 12 meses. Antecedentes familiares para bronquitis y rinitis se asociaron a la presencia de asma (p=0,002 y pOBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and to analyze associated factors as well as peak expiratory flow measurements in schoolchildren. METHODS: This

  14. Spatial changes in the water quality of Itajaí-Açú Fluvial-Estuarine System, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Jurandir Pereira-Filho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the spatial variation of the water quality in the Itajaí-Açú River estuary. Seven stations along the estuary were monitored on a weekly basis, from October 2003 to December 2004, plus two stations in tributaries (Itajaí-Mirim River, the main tributary, and one reference station. This monitoring included measurements of salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, nutrients(NH+4,NO3-2,NO-3,PO3-4,H4SiO4 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, total phosphorous and dissolved organic phosphorus (TP and DOP, particulate organic carbon (POC, suspended particulate matter (SPM and chlorophyll-a (Cla. Multivariate analyses demonstrated the compartmentalization of the system based on the deterioration in water quality and marine influence. Urban development was the main factor responsible for the spatial variation of the monitored variables, resulting in increases in the indicators for organic matter and a progressive decrease in O2. Despite the effect of dilution by marine influence, there was an increase in ammonium, attributed to the influence of the municipal districts of Itajaí and Navegantes, close to the river mouth.Esse estudo foi realizado com o intuito de avaliar a variação espacial da qualidade de água no Estuário do Rio Itajaí-Açú. Sete estações ao longo do estuário foram monitoradas semanalmente, de outubro de 2003 a dezembro de 2004, além de duas outras estações em tributários (o Rio Itajaí-Mirim, principal tributário e uma estação de referência. Esse monitoramento incluiu medidas de salinidade, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, temperatura, nutrientes (NH+4,NO3-2,NO-3,PO3-4,H4SiO4, demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO, fósforo total e fósforo orgânico dissolvido (PT e POD, carbono orgânico particulado (COP, material particulado em suspensão (MPS e clorofila-a. Análises multivariadas demonstraram a compartimentação do sistema em função da deterioração da influ

  15. ESTUDIO DE SERIES TEMPORALES DE CONTAMINACIÓN AMBIENTAL MEDIANTE TÉCNICAS DE REDES NEURONALES ARTIFICIALES TIME SERIES ANALYSIS OF ATMOSPHERE POLLUTION DATA USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS TECHNIQUES

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    Giovanni Salini Calderón

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se diseñó una red neuronal artificial (RNA para hacer predicciones de valores de concentraciones horarias de material particulado fino en la atmósfera. El estudio está basado en los datos de tres años de series de tiempo de pm2.5 (material particulado suspendido de 2,5 micrones de diámetro, obtenidos en una estación céntrica de la Red MACAM de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, entre los años 1994 y 1996. Para obtener el espaciamiento óptimo de los datos, así como el número de datos hacia atrás necesarios para pronosticar el valor futuro, se aplicaron dos test estándar usados en estudio de sistemas dinámicos, como Información Mutua promedio (AMI y Falsos Vecinos más Cercanos (FNN. De esta manera se encontró que lo más conveniente era considerar como entrada los datos de PM2.5 cada seis horas durante un día (cuatro datos, y en base a ellos predecir el dato siguiente. Una vez fijo el número de variables de entrada y elegida la variable a pronosticar, se diseñó un modelo predictivo basado en la técnica de RNA. El tipo de modelo de RNA usado fue uno de multicapas, alimentado hacia adelante y entrenado mediante la técnica de propagación hacia atrás. Se probaron redes sin capa oculta y con una y dos capas ocultas. El mejor modelo resultó ser con una capa oculta, a diferencia de lo obtenido en trabajo anterior que reportaba que la red sin capa oculta era más eficiente. Los resultados fueron más precisos que los obtenidos con un modelo de persistencia (el valor en seis horas más será el mismo que el actual.An artificial neural network for the forecasting of concentrations of fine particulate matter in the atmosphere was designed. The data set analyzed corresponds to three years of pm2.5 time series (particulate matter in suspension with aerodynamic diameter less than 2,5 microns, measured in a station that belongs to Santiago's monitoring network (Red MACAM and is located near downtown. We consider measurements of

  16. Starch molecular fractionation of bread wheat varieties Fraccionamiento molecular del almidón de variedades trigo pan

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    V. Corcuera

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The starch composition of bread making wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum subsp. vulgare of the Argentine commercial varieties Buck Charrua, Buck Ombú, Buck Guaraní, Buck Catriel and Buck Poncho was analyzed by two different methods. One of these depends on the differential solubility of amylose and amylopectin in a water:butanol mixture whilst the other process is based on the use of the lectin Concanavalin A. These methods were complemented by spectrophotometric determinations to enable the identification of the á-D- glucanes and also improved the comparative quantitation of the amylose and amylopectin fractions. As a result of this, no significant variations for starch content (ANOVA, F4- 8= 0.7; p ≥ 0.05 were found among these varieties, although strong differences were found for amylose (ANOVA, F4- 8= 44.4; p ≥ 0.01 and amylopectin content (ANOVA, F4- 8= 77.1; p ≥ 0.01. These results and the fact that no differences were found for amylose (ANOVA, F2- 8= 0.3 and amylopectin among years within the same variety (ANOVA, F2- 8:0.8 at p ≥0.01 led to the conclusion that the diverse properties and end-uses of the starch mainly depend on the genotype, and that starch quality is null or scarcely influenced by the environment. This knowledge must be taken into account for wheat breeding purposes.Se analizó la composición del almidón de granos de trigo pan (Triticum aestivum subsp. v u l g a r e de las variedades comerciales argentinas Buck Charrúa, Buck Ombú, Buck Guaraní, Buck Catriel y Buck Poncho mediante dos métodos diferentes. Uno de ellos depende de la solubilidad diferencial de la amilosa y amilopectina en una mezcla de agua:butanol, mientras que el otro proceso está basado en el uso de la lectina Concanavalina A. Estos métodos fueron complementados mediante determinaciones espectrofotométricas que facilitaron la identificación de los á-D-glucanos y también permitieron mejorar la cuantificación comparativa de las fracciones

  17. Caracterización de Partículas Suspendidas (PST y Partículas Respirables (PM 10 producidas en Áreas de Explotación Carbonífera a Cielo Abierto Characterization of Total Suspended Particles (TSP and Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM 10 generated in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas

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    Luis C Angulo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre la cuantificación y caracterización de partículas suspendidas (PST y partículas respirables (PM10 producidas en áreas de explotación carbonífera a cielo abierto. El material particulado es un contaminante complejo por sus características físicas (distribución de tamaño de partícula, morfología y densidad y por sus características químicas (compuestos orgánicos e inorgánicos, metales y contaminantes primarios y secundarios. Estas características son críticas para determinar el tipo y magnitud de los efectos sobre la salud humana. Se encontró que los trabajos realizados, han empleado experimentos de laboratorio y de campo, así como estudios de modelación. Esta revisión bibliográfica contribuye a una mejor comprensión y evaluación de las tecnologías que se deben usar para encontrar soluciones a este problema de contaminación.This article presents a literature review about the quantification and characterization of total suspended particles (TSP and inhalable particulate matter (PM 10 generated in open pit coal mining areas. Particle matter is a complex pollutant due to its physical characteristics (particle size distribution, morphology and density and its chemical characteristics (organic and inorganic components, metals, and primary and secondary pollutants. These characteristics are critical to determine the type and the magnitude of their effects on human health. It was found that the different works published in the literature have used lab and field experiments, and also modeling studies. This literature review contributes to improve the understanding and evaluation of technologies that must be used to find solutions to this atmospheric pollution problem.

  18. Análise de regressão múltipla das concentrações de PM10 em função de elementos meteorológicos para Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, em 2005 e 2006 - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i1.9627

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    Angela Radünz Lazzari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O ar é um meio eficiente de dispersão de poluentes atmosféricos e seu comportamento depende dos movimentos atmosféricos que ocorrem na troposfera. Em Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, há um grande tráfego diário e uma concentração de indústrias que podem ser responsáveis por emissões atmosféricas. Neste trabalho, estudou-se o comportamento das concentrações diárias de material particulado (PM10 desta cidade, considerando a influência dos elementos meteorológicos. A análise dos dados foi realizada a partir de estatísticas descritivas, correlação linear e regressão múltipla. Os dados foram fornecidos pela Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental Henrique Luiz Roessler - RS (FEPAM e pelo Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET. A partir das análises pôde-se verificar que: as concentrações do PM10, medidos diariamente às 16h, não ultrapassaram os padrões nacionais de qualidade do ar; os elementos meteorológicos que influenciam nas concentrações do PM10 foram: a velocidade média diária do vento e a radiação média diária com relações negativas; as temperaturas médias diárias do ar e as direções, norte e noroeste, do vento, com relações positivas. As direções do vento que contribuem significativamente para diminuir as concentrações nos locais medidos são Leste e Sudeste.

  19. Niveles de metales pesados en el ambiente y su exposición en la población luego de cinco años de exploración minera en Las Bambas, Perú 2010

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    Jonh Astete

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar las concentraciones de material particulado (PM10 y metales pesados en el ambiente, así como en población aledaña al proyecto Las Bambas luego de cinco años de exploración minera. Materiales y métodos. Estudio comparativo de corte transversal realizado en tres distritos del área de influencia del proyecto Las Bambas en la región Apurímac, Perú. Se obtuvo muestras de agua, aire y suelo para determinar las concentraciones de PM10 y metales pesados. Se tomó muestras de sangre y orina a 310 pobladores para evaluar niveles de plomo, cadmio, arsénico y mercurio. Los resultados se compararon con los obtenidos el año 2005. Resultados. Concentraciones ambientales de PM10 y metales pesados no sobrepasaron los valores referenciales establecidos. La calidad de agua de consumo y suelo no se encuentra alterada. Para el año 2010 comparado con los valores hallados el 2005, los niveles promedio de cadmio y mercurio en orina se incrementaron significativamente en la población del distrito de Chalhuahuacho (2,4 + 0,8 y 2,6 + 0,4, el Progreso (2,6 + 1,1 y 2,9 + 1,3 y Haquira (3,2 + 1,2 y 2,6 + 0,9. Los valores de cadmio superaron los límites permisibles. Conclusiones. Luego de cinco años de actividad de exploración minera, no se han visto afectadas las características ambientales de la zonas de influencia del proyecto minero Las Bambas, sin embargo, se observan cambios en los niveles de cadmio en orina y en el porcentaje de personas que lo presentan.

  20. Evaluación ecotoxicológica de sedimentos en una zona del Río Uruguay, con puntos finales indicadores de toxicidad aguda, sub-letal, crónica, reproductiva y teratogénica

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    Diana Míguez Carames

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar la toxicidad de los sedimentos de una zona del Río Uruguay, aplicando una batería de bioensayos. Las muestras provinieron de: una zona de influencia de descargas domésticas y efluentes de una planta de celulosa (Fray Bentos, una ciudad turística aguas abajo (Las Cañas y otra aguas arriba (Nuevo Berlín, sin influencia directa de dichos vertidos. Los bioensayos aplicados en elutriados fueron: de toxicidad con Photobacterium leiognathi, de reproducción con Ceriodaphnia dubia, de teratogenicidad y letalidad con Pimephales promelas y el ensayo sub-letal en sedimento completo con Hyalella curvispina. Para evaluar la biodisponibilidad y las rutas de toxicidad, se midió el fraccionamiento del 2,4,5-triclorofenol, con resultados: 63% disuelto, 27% adsorbido sobre partículas y el resto sedimentado.Se observó toxicidad por orgánicos y metales con P. leioghnati para todos los sitios. La frecuencia de malformaciones vertebralesde P. promelas fue de 3.3% en Fray Bentos, pero C. dubia sólo mostró efectos en Nuevo Berlín y Las Cañas. Los efectos con H. curvispina se evidenciaron en todas las muestras. Las rutas de toxicidad incluirían la ingestión de contaminantes disueltos y particulados asociados a arcillas y limo. El vínculo causa-efecto para la toxicidad se continuará investigando.

  1. Morbilidad respiratoria en trabajadores de la industria del talco

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    Beatriz Tapias

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de conocer su morbilidad respiratoria se estudiaron los 36 trabajadores de la Empresa de Talcos de Yarumal (Antioquia-Colombia; a cada trabajador se le realizaron historia clínica y ocupacional; examen físico; estudios radiológicos de tórax; espirometría; pruebas de tuberculina e histopiasmina; baciloscopias y cultivos para micobacterias. Se hicieron igualmente mediciones del grado de contaminación del ambiente laboral. Se encontró una alta frecuencia de sintomatología respiratoria previa; la mitad de los trabajadores presentaban anomalías al examen físico; dos terceras partes tenían anormalidades radiológicas y una tercera parte anormalidades espirométricas. A la luz de ios hallazgos epidemiológicos, ocupacionales, clínicos y paraclinícos 25 trabajadores (69,4% presentaban lesiones pulmonares de tipo e intensidad variables, con predominio del cuadro obstructivo; cuatro casos se consideraron como de talcosis inicial y otros dos fueron altamente compatibles con talcosis establecida; ello constituye una prevalencia del 16,7% que es superior a la encontrada en otros estudios ya los promedios informados a nivel nacional. El tabaquismo y la exposición a material particulado con alto porcentaje de talco (silicato de magnesio trihidratado constituyen los principales riesgos identificados en este grupo de trabajadores, que tienen mínimas medidas de protección especifica y bajos niveles económico, cultural y nutricional. Se reconocen las dificultades para una adecuada clasificación de los hallazgos patológicos y para la rigurosa tipificación de la talcosis; se destaca el hallazgo de una alta frecuencia de patología respiratoria; se señala la importancia de nuevos estudios y de seguimiento ulterior de este grupo de trabajadores.

  2. Concepção e avaliação de uma unidade de peneiramento forçado para a redução do tamanho de partículas presentes no esgoto bruto doméstico Design and evaluation of a forced sieving unit (FSU for the reduction of the particle size present in raw domestic sewage

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    Ana Raquel Teixeira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo a concepção e o teste de uma unidade de peneiramento forçado, utilizada para o pré-tratamento do esgoto bruto com vistas à redução do tamanho de partículas de matéria orgânica. A unidade de peneiramento forçado (UPF era constituída de uma peneira metálica (abertura de malha de 1 mm inserida na tubulação de recalque através da qual o esgoto efluente era bombeado. O peneiramento forçado resultou em maior concentração de partículas com diâmetro entre 1,8 e 30 µm, sem que houvesse retenção de material particulado. Todavia, a UPF não influenciou na redução/retenção de DQO TOTAL do esgoto bruto.The work focused on the conception and test of a forced sieving unit, used for the pre-treatment of raw sewage aiming at the reduction of organic matter particle size. The pre-treatment unit involved the use of a metallic sieve (1 mm cut-off assembled inside the pipeline through which the influent sewage was pumped. The results indicated that the forced sieving resulted in a higher concentration of particles with range diameter between 1.8 and 30 µm, without the retention of particulate material. However, the forced sieving unit did not influence the reduction/retention of COD TOTAL of the raw sewage.

  3. Histopathologic findings of pulmonary acariasis in a rhesus monkeys breeding unit Aspectos histopatológicos da acaríase pulmonar em uma criação de macacos rhesus

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    Márcia Cristina R. Andrade

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Histological lesions in the lungs of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta related with Pneumonyssus simicola were evidenced. The most prominent pathologic alterations included numerous thin-walled cysts 1-5 mm diameter scattered throughout the lungs, bronchiolitis, peribronchiolitis where the mites were found associated with pigmented and non-pigmented materials. Our study included data from 347 rhesus monkeys submitted to necropsies during 20 years. Four adult debilitated animals were found with pulmonary acariasis which showed a very low incidence of parasite (1.2% in the colony. Most of the published literature described as common and widespread pulmonary acariasis in Old World monkeys. The present study confirms the ubiquity of P. simicola in captive born and raised rhesus monkeys that would compromise experimental studies involving the respiratory system.Foram evidenciadas lesões histológicas nos pulmões de macacos rhesus (Macaca mulatta relacionadas ao Pneumonyssus simicola. As principais alterações incluíram numerosos cistos variando de 1-5 mm de diâmetro, com paredes finas e amplamente distribuídos nos pulmões; bronquiolite e peribronquiolite, onde os ácaros foram encontrados associados com materiais particulados pigmentados ou não. Nosso estudo incluiu dados de 347 macacos rhesus submetidos a necropsias no decorrer de 20 anos. A acaríase pulmonar foi diagnosticada em quatro animais adultos debilitados, o que representou uma incidência muito baixa do parasita (1,2% na colônia. A literatura descreve uma alta incidência de acaríase pulmonar em macacos do Velho Mundo. O presente estudo confirma a ubiqüidade do P. simicola em macacos rhesus nascidos e manejados em cativeiro, que compromete sua utilização em estudos experimentais envolvendo o sistema respiratório.

  4. Biodiesel. Una revisión del desempeño mecánico y ambiental

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    John R. Agudelo S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una revisión bibliográfica de investigaciones relevantes relacionadas con el desempeño mecánico y ambiental de motores diesel, utilizando diversos combustibles, entre ellos el diesel convencional y alquilésteres obtenidos de aceites vegetales (biodiesel. Aunque las tendencias observadas dependen fuertemente del tipo de aceite del que provienen los alquilésteres, se puede concluir que a medida que se incrementa el porcentaje de biodiesel en las mezclas biodiesel–diesel disminuye la potencia y aumenta el consumo de combustible. También disminuyen el CO, Hc, material particulado, hollín y la opacidad de humos. De otro lado, los Nox aumentan o disminuyen dependiendo de la afinación del motor. La potencia disminuye entre 2 y 10% para B30 y B100 respectivamente. El consumo de combustible aumenta entre 10 y 24%, para el biodiesel y sus mezclas, debido al menor poder calorífico del biocombustible comparado con el del diesel convencional. Las emisiones de CO diminuyen de 10 a 50%, hc 12 a 55%, con B30 y B100 respectivamente. La opacidad de humos disminuye entre 0 y 30% y los Sox entre 20 y 100%, debido al escaso contenido de azufre del biodiesel. La reducción «global» de CO2 es de 16 a 78,4% para B20 y B100 respectivamente. La ventaja medioambiental de tipo global del biodiesel es el cierre del ciclo de vida del CO2 (emisión nula, pues las plantas oleaginosas por medio del proceso de fotosíntesis toman este gas y lo transforman en oxígeno.

  5. Niveles de metales pesados en el ambiente y su exposición en la población luego de cinco años de exploración minera en Las Bambas, Perú 2010

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    Jonh Astete

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar las concentraciones de material particulado (PM10 y metales pesados en el ambiente, así como en población aledaña al proyecto Las Bambas luego de cinco años de exploración minera. Materiales y métodos. Estudio comparativo de corte transversal realizado en tres distritos del área de influencia del proyecto Las Bambas en la región Apurímac, Perú. Se obtuvo muestras de agua, aire y suelo para determinar las concentraciones de PM10 y metales pesados. Se tomó muestras de sangre y orina a 310 pobladores para evaluar niveles de plomo, cadmio, arsénico y mercurio. Los resultados se compararon con los obtenidos el año 2005. Resultados. Concentraciones ambientales de PM10 y metales pesados no sobrepasaron los valores referenciales establecidos. La calidad de agua de consumo y suelo no se encuentra alterada. Para el año 2010 comparado con los valores hallados el 2005, los niveles promedio de cadmio y mercurio en orina se incrementaron significativamente en la población del distrito de Chalhuahuacho (2,4 + 0,8 y 2,6 + 0,4, el Progreso (2,6 + 1,1 y 2,9 + 1,3 y Haquira (3,2 + 1,2 y 2,6 + 0,9. Los valores de cadmio superaron los límites permisibles. Conclusiones. Luego de cinco años de actividad de exploración minera, no se han visto afectadas las características ambientales de la zonas de influencia del proyecto minero Las Bambas, sin embargo, se observan cambios en los niveles de cadmio en orina y en el porcentaje de personas que lo presentan.

  6. Climas urbanos y contaminación atmosférica en Santiago de Chile

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    Hugo Romero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan las relaciones existentes entre temperaturas urbanas y concentraciones de material particulado a una escala que representa la totalidad de la ciudad, destacando su división en dos zonas bien delimitadas, que ubicadas al oriente y poniente de la misma, durante los días de ocurrencia de las peores condiciones de contaminación atmosférica. A escala más detallada, que representa a tipos característicos de morfología urbana, se correlacionan los usos y coberturas de suelos con los niveles de vegetación y las temperaturas de las llamadas "subzonas climáticas", en las comunas de Peñalolén, Santiago Centro y Cerrillos, que representan diversas localizaciones en los espacios naturales y socioeconómicos de la ciudad, concluyéndose que existen áreas de condiciones adversas para la población y configuraciones que resaltan su heterogeneidad y diversidad.Current relationships between urban temperatures and particulate matter concentrations at a scale that is representative of the whole city have been analyzed, highlighting a clear division in two zones, the eastern and western part of the city during the days that register the worst air pollution. On a more detailed scale, based on characteristic urban morphology types, land uses and extensions are correlated with vegetation cover and surface temperatures in so-called climatic sub-zones, in the municipalities of Peñalolén, Santiago Centro and Cerrillos, that represent different urban locations, natural cover and socioeconomic variables across the city. The article concludes that there are areas with adverse conditions for the population and configurations that highlight the heterogeneity and diversity of these municipalities.

  7. CALIDAD DEL AIRE EN EL VALLE DE ABURRÁ ANTIOQUIA -COLOMBIA

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    JULIAN BEDOYA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Medellín y otros 9 municipios vecinos conforman un área metrópolitana densamente poblada concentrada en un hábitat geográficamente estrecho y poco ventilado. Las múltiples actividades industriales y de transporte que se realizan en la ciudad arrojan a la atmósfera cantidades de contaminantes que podrían estar afectando desfavorablemente la calidad del aire que respiran sus habitantes. Analizar la calidad del aire en Medellín y su área metropolitana período 2001-07.. Se explora el comportamiento de los contaminantes atmosféricos en el área Metropolitana del valle de Aburrá, con base en los datos primarios recolectados por la Red de Monitoreo de la Calidad del Aire. Se confirma la información con mediciones actualizadas realizadas con rigor de precisión y reproducibilidad para garantizar la calidad y consistencia de los datos. Las concentraciones de partículas en suspensión total (PST y de partículas respirables (PM10 se encuentran elevadas a niveles que exceden en 200- 400% los límites de precaución definidos por la Organización Mundial de la Salud y la tendencia es al empeoramiento a medida que crece la densidad vehicular. También hay presencia de otros gases contaminantes en concentraciones menores. La contaminación del aire por material particulado en Medellín y su área metropolitana es alta, y ha de estar generando consecuencias indeseables en la salud de sus habitantes.

  8. AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE DO AR PELA MUDANÇA DA MATRIZ ENERGÉTICA EM USINA TERMOELÉTRICA: ÓLEO PARA MISTURA ÓLEO-GÁS NATURAL

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    Fernando Pêgas da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available O petróleo ainda é a mais importante fonte de energia até o presente momento; porém, por razões ambientais as usinas térmicas a óleo diesel no Estado do Amazonas estão sendo convertidas ao gás natural, com o fortalecimento do processo marcado pela presença e intensificação das empresas na Zona Franca de Manaus e crescimento demográfico da Região Metropolitana de Manaus. A partir deste cenário que impacta diretamente a qualidade do ar, buscou-se caracterizar as mudanças dos índices dos efluentes gasosos quando da alteração da matriz energética de óleo combustível para gás natural na usina Companhia Energética Manauara (UTE Manauara – Manaus/AM. A metodologia utilizada empregou os dados (de 2007 a 2013 resultantes do monitoramento de emissões gasosas (NO2, SO2, material particulado e qualidade do ar (partículas totais em suspensão, NO2, SO2, CO, O3,fumaça. A partir destes observou-se que os parâmetros analisados apresentaram no geral um comportamento positivo à mudança de combustível, diferenciado apenas para o NO2. Havendo necessidade de adequação da legislação ambiental para o estabelecimento de limites precisos para a mistura óleo-gás natural, segundo critérios de qualidade para a região Amazônica.

  9. Caracterização estrutural, textural e morfológica de aluminato de lítio (LiAlO2 sintetizado por coprecipitação Structural, textural and morphological characterization of lithium aluminate (LiAlO2 synthesized by coprecipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminato de lítio (LiAlO2 foi sintetizado por coprecipitação. O material foi calcinado em diferentes temperaturas e caracterizado por difração de raios X, espectroscopia na região do infravermelho com transformada de Fourier, adsorção gasosa, microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET, possibilitando sua caracterização estrutural, morfológica e textural. Diferentes fases cristalinas foram observadas à medida que a temperatura foi elevada de 550 para 1150 ºC. Texturalmente o material foi classificado como não-poroso e particulado a 550 e 750 ºC, apresentando microporos a 950 ºC. Análises comparativas de imagens de MET e MEV possibilitaram a identificação nanoflocos e microfolhas como as principais morfologias presentes no material.Lithium aluminate (LiAlO2 was synthesized by coprecipitation. The material was calcined at different temperatures and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, providing a structural, morphological and textural characterization. Different crystalline phases were observed as the temperature was raised from 550 to 1150 ºC. Texturally, the material was classified as non-porous and particulate at 550 and 750 ºC showing micropores at 950 ºC. Comparative analysis of TEM and SEM images allowed the identification of nanoflakes and microsheets as the main morphology present in the material.

  10. ANÁLISE DA OCORRÊNCIA DAS MORBIDADES RESPIRATÓRIAS E SUA RELAÇÃO COM A INCIDÊNCIA DE ÁREAS QUEIMADAS PARA O ESTADO DE GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Moreira de Araújo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As queimadas provocam diversas externalidades negativas ao meio ambiente, tais como a perda da biomassa vegetal natural, o aumento da emissão de material particulado fino para a atmosfera, a elevação da temperatura de superfície e o agravamento das morbidades respiratórias. Sendo assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa é analisar o efeito da incidência das áreas queimadas sobre as internações e os custos do tratamento das morbidades respiratórias registrados pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS para o estado de Goiás em 2010. As morbidades bronquite e enfisema e asma apresentaram quatro vezes mais internações que as do trato respiratório superior, sendo que, para estas, a média de internações e custos de tratamento foram maiores no período seco (estação das queimadas. As mesorregiões norte, sul e leste foram as mais afetadas pelos efeitos das queimadas, respectivamente. Entretanto, o centro-goiano apresentou os menores registros de queimadas em 2010 e os maiores registros de internações e custos de tratamento em relação às demais mesorregiões goianas. Dentre as morbidades respiratórias, a asma é a que apresentou a maior correlação com os registros de áreas queimadas para o período analisado.

  11. Análisis del estado de la calidad del aire en Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Gaitán

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Durante la presente investigación se realizó un análisis de los registros contenidos en la Red de Monitoreo de la Calidad del Aire de Bogotá. Se construyó una base de datos que fue organizada y estructurada para facilitar la validación y el análisis de la información, la cual fue utilizada para evaluar de forma cuantitativa el estado de la calidad del aire de la ciudad. Los resultados sugieren que para contaminantes como óxidos de azufre y de nitrógeno, así como para monóxido de carbono, Bogotá no presenta en la actualidad un problema significativo de contaminación del aire. Al mismo tiempo, sin embargo, las concentraciones atmosféricas de material particulado en la ciudad tienden a encontrarse muy por encima de los niveles sugeridos por las normas de calidad del aire./ During this research project we conducted an analysis of the information registered by Bogotá's air quality monitoring network. We built a database that was designed to facilitate the processes of validating and analyzing the air quality data, which were used to quantify the city's air pollution problem. Our results suggest that air pollutants such as carbon monoxide and sulfur and nitrogen oxides do not represent a major air pollution problem. At the same time, however, the particulate matter ambient air concentrations in Bogota tend to be much higher than the levels suggested by the local air quality standards.

  12. Avaliação das propriedades do Ba0,50Sr0,50Co0,80Fe0,20O3-d para células a combustível de óxido sólido de temperatura intermediária obtido pelo método citratos-EDTA Evaluation of the properties of Ba0,50Sr0.50Co0.80Fe0.20O3-d obtained by the citrate-EDTA method for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bonturim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ba0,50Sr0,50Co0,80Fe0,20O3-d (BSCF apresenta propriedades físicas, químicas e microestruturais adequadas para compor o cátodo de uma célula a combustível de óxido sólido de temperatura intermediária (ITSOFC. Este trabalho tem por objetivo a síntese e a caracterização do BSCF obtido pelo método dos citrados-EDTA. Os resultados obtidos por difração de raios X (DRX indicaram fases secundárias para o material calcinado a 700 e 800 ºC e fase única com estrutura cristalina do tipo perovskita para 900 ºC. As micrografias obtidas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura dos particulados evidenciou a formação de aglomerados de tamanho Ba0.50Sr0.50Co0.80Fe0.20O3-d (BSCF presents physical, chemical and microstructural properties suitable to form the cathode of Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (ITSOFC. This work aims the synthesis and characterization of BSCF, obtained by the citrate-EDTA method. The X-ray diffraction results indicate secondary phases for the material calcined at 700 and 800 °C and single phase with perovskite crystalline structure at 900 °C. The SEM-FEG particles micrographs show the formation of < 20 µm clusters. The dilatometric analysis of pellets indicates the sintering temperature at ~ 1050 °C. XRD results of the sintered samples show perovskite single phase. The SEM micrographs confirmed the formation of higher porosity in the samples sintered at 1000 °C/1 h using powders calcined at 900 °C.

  13. Exploring Fusion at Extreme Sub-Barrier Energies with Weakly Bound Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of measurement of residues formed in fusion of 6Li with 198Pt in the energy range of 0.68b<1.3 using a new sensitive off-beam technique are reported. The fusion excitation function and the derived average angular momenta do not indicate a change of slope at deep sub-barrier energies, contrary to recent observations. The present results for a system with weakly bound projectile confront the current understanding of the fusion hindrance at these low energies, underlying the role of internal reorganization on the dynamical path towards fusion.

  14. Hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated molecules using transition metal phosphide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecilia, J.A.; Infantes-Molina, A., E-mail: ainfantes@uma.es; Rodríguez-Castellón, E.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Ni{sub 2}P catalyst is much more active than CoP one for Cl-removal. • Benzene is the main reaction product for Ni{sub 2}P catalyst. • The activity followed the order ClB > 1,4-DClB ≈ 1,2,4-TClB > 1,3-DClB > 1,2-DClB for Ni{sub 2}P. • The activity followed the order ClB > 1,4-DClB > 1,3-DClB > 1,2-DClB > 2,4-TClB for CoP. • Active phase dispersion, P-concentration on the surface and H-species on the surface explain the results. - Abstract: Ni{sub 2}P and CoP catalysts (5 wt.% of metal) supported on a commercial SiO{sub 2} were tested in the gas phase catalytic hydrodechlorination (HDCl) of mono (chlorobenzene-ClB) and polychlorobenzenes (PCBs) (1,2- dichlorobenzene (1,2-DClB), 1,3-dichlorobenzene (1,3-DClB), 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DClB), and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TClB)) at atmospheric pressure. It was investigated how the number and position of chlorine atoms in the molecule influence the HDCl activity. The prepared catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), CO chemisorption, N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption at −196 °C, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Characterization results indicated better active phase dispersion and greater amount of P on the Ni{sub 2}P catalyst surface. Catalytic results showed that the Ni{sub 2}P was more active and stable in this type of reactions. The hydrodechlorination activity decreased by increasing the number of chlorine atoms in the molecule and chlorine substituents in close proximity. The observed trend in the HDCl activity was: ClB > 1,4-DClB > 1,3-DClB > 1,2-DClB > 1,2,4-TClB. The exception was the catalytic response after 24 h on stream observed for the Ni{sub 2}P in the HDCl reaction of 1,2,4-TClB, which was equal to that observed for the 1,4-DClB molecule, and also yielding benzene as the main reaction product.

  15. Chain Collapse and Counterion Condensation in Dilute Polyelectrolyte Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Brilliantov, N. V.; Kuznetsov, D. V.; Klein, R.

    1998-01-01

    A new quantitative theory for polyelectrolytes in salt free dilute solutions is developed. Depending on the electrostatic interaction strength, polyelectrolytes in solutions can undergo strong stretching (with polyelectrolyte dimension R_g\\sim l_B^{1/3}N, where l_B is the Bjerrum length and N is the number of the chain segments) or strong compression (with R_g\\sim l_B^{-1/2}N^{1/3}). A strong polymer collapse occurs as a first-order phase transition due to accompanying counterion condensation.

  16. Two-soliton and three-soliton interactions of electron acoustic waves in quantum plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Roy Kaushik; Ghosh Swapan Kumar; Chatterjee Prasanta

    2016-04-01

    The overtaking collision between electron acoustic multisolitons in an unmagnetized quantum plasma consisting of ions, and both hot and cold electrons has been investigated. The Hirota bilinear method is employed to study phase shifts and trajectories during the overtaking collision of multisolitons. It is observed that phase shifts are significantly affected by the quantum parameter $H$. The phase shifts are proportional to $B^{1/3}$ (dispersion coefficient) and are functions of their respective amplitudes. It is also seen that the soliton structure occurs only if $H$ less than 2.

  17. A Nano-MgO and Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed ‘Green’ Synthesis Protocol for the Development of Adamantyl-Imidazolo-Thiadiazoles as Anti-Tuberculosis Agents Targeting Sterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51)

    OpenAIRE

    Anusha, Sebastian; CP, Baburajeev; Mohan, Chakrabhavi Dhananjaya; Mathai, Jessin; Rangappa, Shobith; Mohan, Surender; Chandra; Paricharak, Shardul; Mervin, Lewis; Fuchs, Julian E.; M, Mahedra; Bender, Andreas; Basappa,; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we describe the ‘green’ synthesis of novel 6-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-substituted-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles (AITs) by ring formation reactions using 1-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-bromoethanone and 5-alkyl/aryl-2-amino1,3,4-thiadiazoles on a nano material base in ionic liquid media. Given the established activity of imidazothiadiazoles against M. tuberculosis, we next examined the anti-TB activity of AITs against the H37Rv strain using Alamar blue assay. Among the tested compounds 6-(ad...

  18. The density variance -- Mach number relation in supersonic, isothermal turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Daniel J.; Federrath, Christoph; Brunt, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the relation between the density variance and the mean-square Mach number in supersonic, isothermal turbulence, assumed in several recent analytic models of the star formation process. From a series of calculations of supersonic, hydrodynamic turbulence driven using purely solenoidal Fourier modes, we find that the `standard' relationship between the variance in the log of density and the Mach number squared, i.e., sigma^2_(ln rho/rhobar)=ln (1+b^2 M^2), with b = 1/3 is a good fit ...

  19. Bioactive saponin from tea seed pomace with inhibitory effects against Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ping-Chung; Lin, Tsung-Chun; Yang, Cheng-Wei; Lin, Chih-Lung; Chen, Guo-Feng; Huang, Jenn-Wen

    2010-08-11

    The present study was aimed to characterize the antifungal principles in methanol extract of tea ( Camellia oleifera ) seed pomace. Totally, two flavonoids, camelliasides A (1) and B (2), and one saponin mixture composed of camelliasaponin B(1) (3) were identified from the methanol extract. These constituents were tested for their ability to reduce the infection of cabbage seedlings by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn AG-4 and to inhibit growth of the pathogen on potato dextrose agar plates. The saponin mixture is a potential candidate as a new plant-derived pesticide to control Rhizoctonia damping-off of vegetable seedlings. PMID:20681650

  20. The NOP (ORL1) receptor antagonist Compound B stimulates mesolimbic dopamine release and is rewarding in mice by a non-NOP-receptor-mediated mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Koizumi, Miwako; Sakoori, Kazuto; Midorikawa, Naoko; Murphy, Niall P.

    2004-01-01

    Compound B (1-[(3R, 4R)-1-cyclooctylmethyl-3-hydroxymethyl-4-piperidyl]-3-ethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one, CompB) is a nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) antagonist showing high selectivity for the NOP (ORL1) receptor over classical opioid receptors. We studied the effect of subcutaneous CompB administration on the release of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) and the expression of hedonia in mice.CompB (0.3–30 mg kg−1) dose dependently stimulated mesolimbic DA release as measured by in vivo freely...

  1. APORTES SEDIMENTARIOS DE LOS RÍOS LLUTA Y SAN JOSÉ EN LA ZONA COSTERA DE LA RADA DE ARICA, CHILE LLUTA AND SAN JOSÉ RIVERS SEDIMENTARY FLUVIAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE COASTAL AREA IN ARICA HARBOUR, CHILE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Campos Ortega

    2007-08-01

    eventos torrenciales de cierta consideración tanto en volumen como en efectos, produce la erosión del cauce, terrenos adyacentes y suelos agrícolas aledaños, provocando la pérdida de suelos productivos y sus cultivos, además de daños en bocatomas y sistemas de riego. Estos aluvionales aperiódicos destruyen también caminos, vías férreas y redes de agua potable, impactando la ciudad y otros asentamientos humanos rurales; contribuyen al embancamiento del puerto comercial, deteriorando playas del litoral marino por el transporte de material particulado suspendido y sedimentable hacia ese sector costero. El objetivo de este trabajo es cuantificar el material particulado suspendido y sedimentable (STSS de origen continental transportado fluvialmente al sector costero de la rada de Arica durante eventos aluvionales estivales. La metodología de muestreo y análisis de STSS siguió los protocolos indicados en APHA, AWWA, WPCF. MÉTODOS NORMALIZADOS para el Análisis de Aguas Potables y Residuales. Ediciones Díaz de Santos, S. A. (1992. Los resultados coinciden con lo observado hace algunos años, cuando uno de los muelles del sector Chinchorro quedó embancado. El registro de ST en la desembocadura del Lluta en febrero de 2005 fue de 1.705,47 ton/día, mientras que el San José aportó 74,22 ton/día, durante uno de los días de mayor caudal. El material particulado fluvial afecta notablemente el turismo de la ciudad, alejando a residentes y turistas de playas del sector norte. Estos aportes contribuyen al embancamiento de la dársena del puerto comercial. El río Lluta hace mayor aporte estacional de material sedimentario que el río San José, pero este último produce mayor impacto en infraestructura pública y turismo.San José river bed in the north of Chile runs across Arica city providing water supplies in the middle and high lands of Azapa valley as a result of pluvial contributions. This river rises in the central mountain range or west border of the Andean

  2. Avaliação da permeabilidade de filtros de aerossóis para altas temperaturas, preparados a partir da técnica de adição de espuma aquosa em suspensão cerâmica Permeability characterization of hot aerosol filters prepared with foaming of ceramic suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. M. Innocentini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é parte de um projeto de desenvolvimento de filtros cerâmicos para a remoção de material particulado disperso em correntes gasosas em temperaturas elevadas. Os filtros cerâmicos utilizados para esta finalidade devem apresentar elevada porosidade aliada a uma distribuição homogênea de poros interconectados, resultando em estrutura permeável e com boa resistência mecânica e eficiência de coleta. Uma rota de processamento recentemente desenvolvida é utilizada para o processamento das peças, já que permite a obtenção de todas as características requeridas para uma filtração eficiente. Nesta técnica, os materiais porosos são processados a partir da incorporação de espumas aquosas em uma suspensão cerâmica de alumina e consolidados a partir da adição de cimento aluminoso. Comparado com outras rotas de processamento, este processo é mais atrativo, pois permite a fabricação de peças com geometrias complexas, economicamente viáveis e sem utilização de aditivos tóxicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi otimizar a composição cerâmica de modo a atender aos requisitos de permeabilidade do filtro, tendo como base sua operação econômica em temperaturas elevadas em processos como incineração de resíduos, produção de cimento ou queima de biomassa em caldeiras em plantas químicas.This work is part of a project to develop ceramic filters to treat flue gases from cement plants, biomass boilers and waste incinerators. Ceramic filters used for these purposes must present high porosity, homogeneous porous distribution (interconnected to result in bodies with high mechanical strength, permeability and collection efficiency for fine particles. A method recently developed has been used for the filters processing. In this new processing route, the porous samples were prepared through the incorporation of aqueous foams into alumina-based suspensions. Compared to other techniques, this process seems to be an

  3. Simulação das emissões atmosféricas sobre o município de Araucária com uso do modelo AERMOD Simulation of atmospheric emissions over Araucaria municipality using the AERMOD model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarildo Barbon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o uso de um modelo computacional de dispersão de poluentes em meio atmosférico, modelo AERMOD, na modelagem da dispersão das emissões atmosféricas produzidas pelas principais indústrias do município de Araucária. Os dados estimados de emissões de poluentes na atmosfera referem-se às fontes estacionárias da refinaria Presidente Getúlio Vargas (REPAR e das principais indústrias que compõem o distrito industrial de Araucária. Não foram utilizados dados das fontes móveis por representarem uma pequena parcela da carga total de poluentes. Inicialmente, o modelo AERMOD foi avaliado pela comparação entre concentrações simuladas e concentrações observadas de óxidos de nitrogênio (NOx, óxidos de enxofre (SOx monóxido de carbono (CO e materiais particulados (MP na estação de amostragem de qualidade do ar existente na REPAR. Realizou-se uma análise de sensibilidade do modelo AERMOD em diferentes cenários de emissões, procurando avaliar a influência da variação dos parâmetros de entrada do modelo sobre as concentrações simuladas para a estação REPAR e para a região central do município de Araucária.The present paper aims to evaluate the use of the air quality model AERMOD to simulate the dispersion of atmospheric emissions produced by the main industries located in the Araucária municipality area. Pollutant emissions were estimated for both stationary sources in the President Getúlio Vargas Refinery (REPAR and stationary sources in the main industries located at the industrial district of Araucária municipality. As the pollutant emissions from mobile sources are small in comparison to stationary sources, the simulations were performed using only emissions from the stationary sources. Initially, the AERMOD model was evaluated by comparing simulated concentrations and observed concentrations from the air quality station located inside the REPAR. The observed data concerns

  4. Aplicación del Método Fotométrico para la Detección de la Distribución de Tamaño de Micro Partículas Application of a Photometric Method to Detect Size Distribution of Micro Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Salinas-Salas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra la base teórica, el desarrollo, la implementación y los resultados alcanzados al emplearse una celda de sedimentación gravimétrica para la detección de la distribución de tamaño y diámetro medio de un conjunto de micro partículas. Se usó un sistema óptico basado en la medición de la extinción o decaimiento del flujo de fotones de un haz de luz que atraviesa una suspensión compuesta por material particulado y agua. La celda fue construida de manera modular y su calibración y ensayos se realizaron utilizando suspensiones de partículas de tamaño estandarizado de dióxido de silicio amorfo (Geltech S 1500 cuyo diámetro medio nominal es 1.5 μm en agua. Los resultados muestran que es posible determinar la distribución de tamaño de micro partículas con precisión y bajo costo, lo que permitiría aplicarlo ventajosamente en la industria.This study deals with the theoretical basis, development, implementation and results obtained when using a gravimetric sedimentation cell to detect the size distribution and the average diameter of a sample of microscopic particles using an optical system based on the measurement of the extinction or decline of a photon flux from a beam of light passing through an aqueous suspension of the particles in question. The cell was built in modular form and its calibration and tests were done using a suspension composed of known-size particles of amorphous silicon dioxide (Geltech S 1500 with a nominal average diameter of 1.5 μm in water. The results showed that it was possible to determine the size distribution of the micro-particles with precision and at low cost, which could permit its' useful application in industry.

  5. CONSTRUCCIÓN Y CALIBRACIÓN DE UNA CELDA DE SEDIMENTACIÓN GRAVIMÉTRICA PARA LA MEDICIÓN FOTOMÉTRICA DE LA DISTRIBUCIÓN DE TAMAÑO DE MICRO PARTÍCULAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Salinas-Salas

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra la base teórica, el desarrollo, la implementación y los resultados alcanzados al emplearse una celda de sedimentación gravimétrica para la detección de la distribución de tamaño o diámetro medio de un conjunto de micropartículas, a partir de su detección a través de un sistema de tipo óptico, basado en la medición de la extinción o decaimiento de la intensidad de flujo de fotones de un haz de luz que atraviesa una suspensión compuesta por un material particulado y agua. La celda fue construida de manera modular, mientras que su calibración y los ensayos se realizaron utilizando suspensiones compuestas por partículas de tamaño estandarizado de dióxido de silicio amorfo (Geltech S 1500 de un diámetro medio nominal de 1,5 µm en agua. Los resultados alcanzados mostraron que el uso de esta celda de sedimentación es en extremo conveniente, ya que fue posible detectar la distribución de tamaño de micropartículas con precisión y a un relativo bajo costo, lo que permitiría aplicarlo ventajosamente en la industria de procesos en general.This paper present the theoretical basis, development, implementation and results of from a gravimetric sedimentation cell for determination of size distribution and median diameter of a sample of micro particles. The measurement is based on the transmittance of light through a suspension particles in water. The cell was built in modular form and was calibrated with suspensions of amorphous silicion dioxid with a median diameter of 1.5 µm. The results indicate that the sedimentation cell is very simple to use and that the size distribution of micro particles can be determined at low cost. This procedure may be conveniently applied in the many industrials processes.

  6. Comparación de dos métodos de fraccionamiento físico de la materia orgánica del suelo Comparison of two physical fractionation methods for soil organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Irizar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon las concentraciones de carbono orgánico particulado (COP y carbono sobrenadante (Cs obtenidas por los métodos de fraccionamiento granulométrico (fracción > 53 µm y densimétrico (densidad de licor: 2 g cm-3, respectivamente, utilizando el análisis de regresión. Las muestras de suelo fueron tomadas de un ensayo de larga duración ubicado en la EEA-INTA Pergamino que compara cuatro secuencias de cultivo y dos sistemas de labranza. Los dos métodos estuvieron lineal y positivamente correlacionados para las profundidades 0-5 y 5-10 cm y las ordenadas al origen no difirieron de cero, indicando que ambos estimaron el carbono lábil de manera similar. Debido a que las pendientes no fueron distintas de uno, las diferencias entre los dos métodos fueron constantes en todo el rango de carbono lábil medido. Para la profundidad 10-20 cm, no hubo correlación y las concentraciones de Cs fueron superiores y menos variables que las de COP. La densidad del licor utilizada puede explicar la obtención de cantidades similares o superiores de Cs con respecto a COP, debido a una contribución importante del complejo órgano-mineral a la fracción sobrenadante.Regression analysis was used to compare particulate organic carbon (COP and light carbon (Cs concentrations obtained by size (fraction > 53 µm and density fractionation (liquor density = 2 g cm-3 methods, respectively. The soil samples were taken from a long-term experiment located at the EEA-INTA Pergamino comparing four cropping sequences and two tillage systems. Both methods were linearly and positively correlated to depths of 0-5 and 5-10 cm and the y-intercept did not differ from zero, indicating that both methods resulted in a similar estimate for labile C. As the slopes did not different from unity, the differences between the two methods remained constant throughout all the labile range measured. There was no correlation for a depth of 10-20 cm, and Cs concentrations were higher

  7. Tratamiento de fractura coronorradicular con implante inmediato postextracción Thommen SPI® Element y revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Delgado Muñoz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El implante inmediato postextracción es aquel que está indicado para sustituir al diente con patología sin posibilidad alguna de tratamiento o en casos tras exodoncia de inclusiones, retenciones y dientes temporales. Teniendo en cuenta que tras la extracción tiene lugar un período de recambio óseo en forma de reabsorción fisiológica reduciendo las dimensiones del reborde alveolar, optamos por la terapia regenerativa con el fin de disminuir las secuelas. En este artículo se revisa la técnica quirúrgica y el manejo de los tejidos blandos mediante el procedimiento protésico de los implantes inmediatos postextracción, ilustrado en un caso clínico con una nueva superficie de implante dental. Caso clínico. Mujer de 24 años de edad, no fumadora sin antecedentes médicos de interés, que acude a consulta con dolor agudo de 4 días de evolución en la zona del primer molar inferior derecho que se ha incrementado en el tiempo, con diagnóstico de fractura coronorradicular. El plan de tratamiento comprende: exodoncia de la pieza con el menor trauma posible respetando las paredes alveolares y legrado del alvéolo para la inserción de forma sumergida de un implante SPI® de titanio autorroscable con superficie rugosa pulida producida por chorreado de arena y grabada térmicamente al ácido de Thommen Medical y regeneración ósea guiada mediante injerto óseo particulado de origen bovino Bio-Oss®. Después de 6 meses cargamos funcionalmente el implante con corona unitaria atornillada observando su evolución a los 12 y 24 meses tras la intervención. Conclusión. Gracias a los avances en el campo de las superficies, el tratamiento con este nuevo tipo de implante dental ha constituido en este caso una terapéutica de éxito.

  8. Caracterización de riesgos laborales en los procesos del área de restaurante y cocina de la Hostería Selva Virgen Characterization of occupational hazards in the processes of the Hostería Selva Virgen’s restaurant and kitchen areas

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    Bolívar Haro Haro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available (Recibido: 2013/04/30 - Aceptado: 2013/06/26El objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar los riesgos laborales en los procesos de lasáreas de restaurante y cocina de la Hostería Selva Virgen, de propiedad de la UniversidadTecnológica Equinoccial (UTE-Ecuador. Para alcanzarlo se procedió en primer lugar a ladescripción de los procesos y procedimientos en las áreas de estudio. Luego se diseñó y aplicóuna encuesta al personal relacionado directa o indirectamente a las labores propias de lasáreas de trabajo, motivo de esta investigación, con la finalidad de conocer la percepción de lostrabajadores sobre las condiciones de trabajo y factores que puedan afectar su salud, con locual se elaboró la matriz de riesgos para estimar los potenciales riesgos de trabajo. Con laestimación de los riesgos surgió la necesidad de evaluar los que se consideraron relevantes,por lo que se procedió a medir ruido, iluminación, estrés térmico, material particulado y gasesCO2 y CO.(Received: 2013/04/30 - Accepted: 2013/06/26The aim of this research was to characterize the occupational hazards in the processes of therestaurant and kitchen areas of the Hostería Selva Virgen, property of the UniversidadTecnológica Equinoccial (UTE-Ecuador. To reach the objective, the processes and proceduresin the study areas were described. Then a survey was designed and implemented with the staffinvolved, directly or indirectly, with the tasks associated with the areas under investigation. Next,a risk matrix was developed to estimate the potential risks of working in these areas. With thisestimation, it became necessary to evaluate those risks considered relevant, measuring noise,light, heat stress, particulate matter and CO2 and CO gases.

  9. Biodiesel de mamona no diesel interior e metropolitano em trator agrícola Mamona biodiesel in interior and metropolitan diesel in agricultural tractor

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    Rubens A. Tabile

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A demanda de recursos energéticos pelos sistemas de produção, aliada à escassez dos combustíveis fósseis, tem motivado a produção do Biodiesel, que é um combustível obtido de fontes renováveis. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar dois ensaios: o primeiro dinâmico, para avaliar o desempenho operacional utilizando como parâmetro o consumo de combustível, e o segundo, estático, para mensurar a opacidade da fumaça (material particulado do motor de um trator agrícola, operando com diesel metropolitano e interior misturados ao Biodiesel de mamona, em sete proporções. O trabalho foi conduzido no Departamento de Engenharia Rural da UNESP/Jaboticabal - SP. Os resultados mostraram que o tipo de diesel influenciou no consumo de combustível e na opacidade da fumaça, sendo o diesel metropolitano de melhor qualidade; observou-se, também, que à medida que a proporção de Biodiesel aumentou, o mesmo ocorreu para o consumo de combustível; entretanto, a opacidade da fumaça reduziu com o acréscimo de Biodiesel até B75.The demand for energy resources by production systems allied to scarcity of fossil fuels has driven the production of Biodiesel, a fuel produced from renewable sources. The purpose of this study was realize two tests, the first dynamics to assess the operational performance as a parameter of consumption of fuel, the second static to measure the smoke opacity (particulate material from an engine of a farm tractor, operating with interior and metropolitan diesel mixed with castor beans Biodiesel in seven proportions. The tests were conducted in the Rural Engineering Department of UNESP/Jaboticabal - SP. The results showed that the kind of diesel influenced the consumption of fuel and smoke opacity, and the metropolitan diesel showed better quality, it was observed as well that as biodiesel proportion increased, consumption of fuel increased too, however, the opacity of smoke decreased with an increase of Biodiesel by B75.

  10. Evaluation of the water quality of tidal creeks of Pontal do Paraná, Paraná, Brazil

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    Adriana Siqueira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this wat was to evaluate the water quality in four tidal creeks of Paraná, Brazil, with different anthropic influences. Samples were collected every three months. Temperature, salinity, pH, alkalinity, total CO2, dissolved O2, nitrite, nitrate, N-ammoniacal, phosphate, silicate, particulate suspended matter, humic matter, total chlorophyll, total and fecal coliform bacteria of surface water were measured in each sample and compared. For all the stations water temperature was lower in winter, but ranged within typically subtropical values. Salinity (7 - 25 and pH (7.08 - 7.91 were higher in Perequê tidal creek indicating that only this tidal creek was strongly influenced by the nearby ocean waters. Lower dissolved O2, reaching anoxic levels along with higher phosphate and N-ammoniacal concentrations and higher total (Foi objetivo da presente pesquisa, avaliar a qualidade da água de quatro gamboas do Paraná, Brasil, que sofrem influências antrópicas distintas. Em cinco coletas trimestrais, foram obtidas, as seguintes variáveis em águas superficiais: temperatura, salinidade, pH, alcalinidade, dióxido de carbono, oxigênio dissolvido, nitrito, nitrato, N-amoniacal, fosfato, silicato, material particulado em suspensão, substâncias húmicas, clorofila total, coliformes totais e coliformes termotolerantes. Os resultados mostraram que a temperatura da água apresentou características tipicamente subtropicais com valores significativamente menores no inverno em todas as estações. A salinidade (7 - 25‰ e o pH (7,08 - 7,91 mais elevados, registrados na Gamboa Perequê, indicaram que somente este curso d´água é influenciado pelo mar adjacente. As quantidades baixas de oxigênio dissolvido, chegando a anoxia, altas de fosfato (8,11 - 208,11 µM, N-amoniacal (0,90 - 75,33 µM, coliformes totais (<200 - 160.000 NMP 100 mL-1 e coliformes termotolerantes (<200 - 50.000 NMP 100 mL-1 observadas na Gamboa Olho d´Água indicam que esta

  11. Otimização da permeabilidade de filtros de aerossóis para altas temperaturas preparados a partir da técnica de adição de espuma aquosa em suspensão cerâmica Permeability optimization of hot aerosol filters prepared from foaming of ceramic suspensions

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    M. D. M. Innocentini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é parte de um projeto de desenvolvimento de filtros cerâmicos para a remoção de material particulado disperso em correntes gasosas em temperaturas elevadas. Os filtros cerâmicos utilizados para esta finalidade devem apresentar elevada porosidade aliada a uma distribuição homogênea de poros interconectados, resultando em estrutura permeável e com boa resistência mecânica e eficiência de coleta. Uma rota de processamento recentemente desenvolvida é utilizada para o processamento das peças, já que permite a obtenção de todas as características requeridas para uma filtração eficiente. Nesta técnica, os materiais porosos são processados a partir da incorporação de espumas aquosas em uma suspensão cerâmica de alumina e consolidados a partir da adição de cimento aluminoso. Comparado com outras rotas de processamento, este processo é mais atrativo, pois permite a fabricação de peças com geometrias complexas, economicamente viáveis e sem utilização de aditivos tóxicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi otimizar a composição cerâmica de modo a atender aos requisitos de permeabilidade do filtro, tendo como base sua operação econômica em temperaturas elevadas em processos como incineração de resíduos, produção de cimento ou queima de biomassa em caldeiras em plantas químicas.This work is part of a Brazilian project to develop ceramic filters to treat flue gases from cement plants, biomass boilers and waste incinerators. Ceramic filters used for these purposes must present high porosity, homogeneous porous distribution (interconnected to result in bodies with high mechanical strength, permeability and collection efficiency for fine particles. A method recently developed has been used for the filters processing. In this new processing route, the porous samples were prepared through the incorporation of aqueous foams into alumina-based suspensions. Compared to other techniques, this process seems to be

  12. IDENTIFICACIÓN DE ZONAS CRÍTICAS POR CONTAMINACIÓN ATMOSFÉRICA EN EL ÁREA METROPOLITANA DEL VALLE DE ABURRÁ, para el apoyo en la toma de decisiones de ordenamiento ambiental y territorial

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    RAVE CLAUDIA C.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available En  este  articulo se presentan los resultados obtenidos para el diagnóstico del recurso Aire en el área  metropolitana  del Valle de Aburrá  hecho por el Grupo de Análisis y Modelamiento Energía Ambiente Economía dentro del  marco del proyecto POMCA  (Plan  de Manejo y Ordenamiento de la cuenca del Río Aburrá, 2006­2007 en ejecución. Para el desarrollo de este diagnóstico  se  partió  del  análisis  conjunto  de  los  conceptos  y  resultados  de  los  estudios  más relevantes en materia  de  gestión  de  la  calidad  del  aire  para  la  región,  realizados  por  diferentes grupos de trabajo,  incorporando  en  el  análisis  las  diferentes escalas temporales y espaciales de decisión. Uno de los principales resultados del análisis integrado fue la propuesta de definición de  siete  zonas  con niveles de criticidad por uno o varios de los contaminantes  evaluados,  ozono (O3, dióxido de carbono (CO, Partículas totales (TSP,  y material  particulado  menor  de  10 micrómetros (MP10, análisis que derivado de los estudios y soportado en sistemas de información geográfica  permitió  la construcción de indicadores  para  el  seguimiento  de  la  gestión  de  dichas zonas.

  13. Evaluación de la medición de emisiones con fines regulatorios en Colombia: dos estudios de caso

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    Néstor Y. Rojas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra una evaluación de los métodos de medición de emisiones de contaminantes del aire requeridos con fines regulatorios por el IDEAM y las autoridades ambientales en Colombia, en particular el muestreo de emisiones de material particulado en chimeneas y la medición de opacidad en tubos de escape de motores diésel. La metodología de evaluación incluyó la identificación y valoración de factores críticos, la revisión de los controles actualmente existentes y un ejercicio práctico de evaluación de desempeño. Se detectaron deficiencias serias de entrenamiento del personal involucrado en los muestreos de chimenea, lo cual implica la necesidad de implantar un esquema de entrenamiento y certificación. Por otro lado, existe una falta de conocimiento particular de los equipos de medición de opacidad y sobre cómo cumplir la norma técnica aplicable,; estoindica que se necesita establecer un mejor procedimiento técnico de acreditación para los equipos de medición de opacidad en tubos de escape de motores diésel./This paper shows an assessment exercise of the air pollutant emissions measurement methods required by the IDEAM and environmental authorities, particularly the stack particulate matter isokinetic sampling and the diésel exhaust opacity measurement. The assessment methodology included the identification and assessment of critical factors, a review of currently applied controls and a practical performance assessment exercise. Serious training of the personnel in charge of isokinetic sampling resulted in misinterpretation of sampling methods, which means that a training and certification scheme is needed. On the other hand, the individual characteristics of the opacity meters and the appropriate design of the software to comply with the technical standards are not well known by suppliers. Therefore, better accreditation procedures for the technologies being imported are needed.

  14. Phosphorus loss by surface runoff in no-till system under mineral and organic fertilization Perda de fósforo via escoamento superficial no sistema plantio direto sob adubação mineral e orgânica

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    Oromar João Bertol

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The no-till system has been intensively used in the state of Paraná, Brazil, and it has increased the nutrients level at the soil surface. This has contributed for nutrient losses via runoff and consequently, off-site water pollution. The objective of this study was to evaluate phosphorus loss in surface runoff by simulated rainfall on an Oxisol, under no-till system following application of mineral fertilizer and liquid swine manure. Nitrogen, soil and water losses from the same study are reported in a separated paper. The application of liquid swine manure, compared with mineral fertilization, increased runoff concentration of total P, particulate P and dissolved reactive P by 193%, 111% and 506%, respectively, averaged for all rainfall intensities. Independently on the fertilizer source, the highest rainfall intensity provided the greatest concentration and loads of P in runoff.O sistema plantio direto tem sito intensivamente utilizado no Estado do Paraná Brasil o qual tem aumentado os níveis de nutrientes na superfície do solo. Isto tem contribuído para a perda de nutrientes via escoamento superficial e consequentemente com a poluição não pontual das águas. Avaliou-se a perda de fósforo via escoamento superficial ocasionado por chuva simulada sobre um Latossolo originário de basalto, em sistema plantio direto submetido à aplicação de fertilizante mineral e dejeto líquido de suíno. As perdas de nitrogênio, solo e água deste mesmo estudo foram publicadas em outro artigo. A aplicação de dejeto líquido suíno, comparado com o fertilizante mineral, aumentou a concentração de P total, P particulado e P dissolvido reativo em 193%, 111% e 506%, respectivamente, na média das chuvas. Independentemente da fonte de fertilizante, a chuva de maior intensidade proporcionou maior concentração e quantidade perdida de P no escoamento superficial.

  15. Consumo de combustível e emissões de poluentes em um motor Diesel convertido a etanol para geração térmica de energia elétrica

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    Vinícius Rückert Roso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nos esforços globais para a minimização nas emissões de gases do efeito estufa e redução da pegada de carbono, combustíveis renováveis têm sido extensivamente utilizados em substituição aos combustíveis fósseis nos motores de combustão interna. Particularmente para geração de energia elétrica local, motores diesel são os mais utilizados devido à elevada eficiência térmica e a robustez, se comparado a motores de ignição por centelha. Entretanto, estes sistemas apresentam elevados níveis de emissões de óxido de nitrogênio (NOx e material particulado, trazendo sérias consequências para o meio ambiente. Assim, esta pesquisa combina simulação computacional e resultados experimentais da conversão de um motor diesel para a operação com etanol, sendo sua utilização na geração de energia elétrica. Como este combustível renovável é largamente produzido no Brasil utilizando a cana-de-açúcar, acaba por possuir seu custo reduzido em especial próximo à produtores e refinarias. Dados experimentais foram utilizados na validação do modelo computacional unidimensional desenvolvido para a conversão, onde resultados foram analisados para a comparação de ambos combustíveis. Análises econômicas para diferentes condições de carga forneceram informações de custos operacionais em locais próximos às fontes de produção de etanol. Os resultados apontam as vantagens no uso do combustível renovável para a geração de energia elétrica, como o custo reduzido e a menor emissão de NOx ao longo de toda a gama de operação.

  16. La Problemática de los fenómenos naturales: potenciales efectos de la erupción del Complejo Volcánico Puyehue-Cordón Caulle (CVPCC sobre la salud humana y el medio ambiente en distintos sectores de la localidad de Villa la Angostura, Neuquén

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    Maria Elena Canafoglia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo aborda la problemática ambiental de una zona de riesgo volcánico localizada al sur del paralelo 33°, focalizando la atención en el estudio de cenizas de caída reciente o removilizadas por el viento, cinco meses después del inicio de la erupción del Complejo Volcánico Puyehue-Cordón Caulle (CVPCC en junio de 2011. El muestreo se realizó en tres zonas de Villa La Angostura situada a 40 Km al E del foco emisor: (Laguna Piré, Tres Cerros y Escuela CPEM N°17. Considerando los efectos socio-económico-sanitarios de la caída de cenizas en dicha comunidad se ha encarado el estudio de la caracterización físico química de la fracción mas fina del material volcánico (100-5?m. El trabajo, realizado conjuntamente con docentes de la CPEM N°17, se ha efectuado mediante la aplicación de diversas técnicas como difracción por rayos X (DRX, microscopia electrónica (SEM y análisis químico por microsonda (EDS-EDAX. Los resultados de DRX indican que en general la fracción fina es prácticamente amorfa y procede de un proceso de fragmentación de material pumíceo. Sin embargo, eventualmente se observan  algunas líneas de difracción de fases silíceas, particularmente plagioclasa. La morfología del material fino, de composición riolítica (relación SiO2/Al2O3 del orden de 5, se caracteriza por la presencia de bordes agudos y fractura concoide. Presenta contenidos menores en hierro, alcalinos y alcalino-térreos. Se han realizado ensayos químicos adicionales a fin de analizar la alteración del material y su relación con los efectos de corrosión observados en la zona. El conocimiento del material en contacto con la población así como la continuidad en la emisión de particulado fino y la re-movilización del mismo por los vientos, es de vital importancia en lo que se refiere a las acciones de prevención y mitigación de problemas vinculados a la salud y al cuidado del medio ambiente.

  17. Hybrid aerogels and bioactive aerogels under uniaxial compression: an in situ SAXS study

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    Esquivias, L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The complex structure of hybrid organic/inorganic aerogels is composed by an inorganic phase covalently bonded to an organic chain forming a copolymer. Conventional hybrid aerogels were studied as well as bioactive hybrid aerogels, that is, aerogels with a calcium active phase added. In this work, the relationship between mechanical response and nanostructure was studied, using a specifically designed sample-holder for in situ uniaxial compression obtaining at the same time the small-angle X-ray pattern from synchrotron radiation (SAXS. Structural elements can be described as a particulated silica core surrounded by the organic chains. These chains are compressed on the direction parallel to the load, and a relationship between macroscopic uniaxial compression and particle and pore deformations can be established.

    La compleja estructura de los aerogeles híbridos orgánico/inorgánicos está compuesta por una fase inorgánica de sílice, unida mediante enlaces covalentes a una red de cadenas orgánicas. Se han estudiado composites híbridos convencionales y bioactivos, esto es, con una fase activa de calcio añadida. En este trabajo se ha investigado la relación entre la respuesta mecánica y la nanoestructura, con ayuda de un portamuestras específicamente diseñado para el estudio in situ de muestras bajo compresión uniaxial, a la vez que se obtiene el espectro de rayos-X a bajo-ángulo de radiación sincrotrón (SAXS. Los elementos estructurales se pueden describir como núcleos particulados de sílice rodeados de las cadenas orgánicas. Estas, se comprimen en la dirección paralela a la carga pudiéndose establecer una relación entre la compresión uniaxial macroscópica y la deformación de las partículas y poros que forman la estructura.

  18. Estudo exploratorio da qualidade do ar em escolas de educacao basica, Coimbra, Portugal

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    Ana Maria Conceicao Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO : Analisar a qualidade do ar em escolas de educação básica e suas condições estruturais e funcionais. MÉTODOS : Foi avaliada a qualidade do ar de 51 escolas (81 salas de aula de educação básica da cidade de Coimbra, Portugal, tanto na parte interior das salas como na exterior, durante as quatro estações do ano, de 2010 a 2011. Foram avaliadas a temperatura (Tº, umidade relativa (Hr, concentrações de monóxido de carbono (CO, dióxido de carbono (CO 2 , ozona (O 3 , dióxido de nitrogênio (NO 2 , dióxido de enxofre (SO 2 , compostos orgânicos voláteis (COV, formaldeído e material particulado (PM 10 , de novembro de 2010 a fevereiro de 2011 (outono/inverno e de março de 2011 a junho de 2011 (primavera/verão. Procedeu-se ao preenchimento de uma grelha de caracterização das condições estruturais e funcionais das escolas. Aplicaram-se os testes estatísticos t- Student para amostras emparelhadas e o teste t de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS : Em 47 escolas, as concentrações médias de CO 2 encontravam-se acima da concentração máxima de referência (984 ppm mencionada na legislação portuguesa. Os valores máximos de concentração encontrados no interior das salas foram críticos, principalmente no outono/inverno (5.320 ppm. As concentrações médias de COV e de PM 10 no interior ultrapassaram a concentração máxima de referência legislada em algumas escolas. Não foram detetados valores relevantes (risco de CO, formaldeído, NO 2 , SO 2 e O 3 . CONCLUSÕES : Houve maior concentração de poluentes no interior das salas, comparativamente com o exterior. A inadequada ventilação está associada à elevada concentração de CO 2 nas salas de aula.

  19. The role of sediment on the energy availability for fishes in the upper Paraná river floodplain=O papel do sedimento na disponibilidade de energia para peixes da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná

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    Alice Michiyo Takeda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify potential sources of organic matter in sediment, using stable isotopes of carbon (13C and nitrogen (15N. Sediment samples were gathered from the margin and in center of three subsystems: Ivinheima, Paraná and Baia, in August/2001. The samples were fractionated granulometrically and separated by size ( 70 µm, prepared and sent to CENA / USP, for identifying the isotopes proportions. Significant differences were detected in the isotopic ratios of the sediment only between sampling stations. The Baía channel presented the lowest 13C values, while the highest ones were recorded in Paraná river. At this last, 15N values were negative (-14.41‰. We did not verify significant difference in isotopic composition between the particle sizes of sediment, and between the sampling points. The main sources of carbon for the sediment were C3 macrophytes, periphyton and particulate organic carbon (POC.O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar as fontes potenciais de matéria orgânica do sedimento, utilizando isótopos estáveis de carbono (13C e nitrogênio (15N. Foram coletadas amostras de sedimento das margens e do centro de três subsistemas: Ivinheima, Paraná e Baía, em agosto/2001. As amostras foram fracionadas granulometricamente e 70 µm, e enviadas ao CENA/USP para identificação das proporções dos isótopos. Foram verificadas diferenças significativas nas razões isotópicas do sedimento apenas entre as estações de coleta. O canal Baía, exibiu s baixos valores de 13C, enquanto altos valores foram registrados no rio Paraná. Nesta última estação, os valores de 15N foram negativos (-14.41‰. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas na composição isotópica entre os tamanhos de partículas do sedimento e nem entre os pontos de coleta. As principais fontes de carbono para o sedimento foram as macrófitas C3, perifíton e carbono orgânico particulado (COP.

  20. Cambios en las propiedades de suelo de huerta y rendimiento de Beta Vulgaris var. Cicla (l por el uso de enmiendas orgánicas Changes in horticultural soil properties and yield responses of Beta Vulgaris var. Cicla (l to organic amendment applications

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    Romina V Comese

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Una alternativa sustentable para los residuos generados en la agricultura es su utilización como enmiendas en la producción hortícola. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de distintos tipos y cantidades de enmiendas orgánicas de compost-lombricompuesto (LC y harina de hueso (HH en la producción de acelga y su impacto en las propiedades físicas y químicas del suelo. El trabajo se realizó en la huerta orgánica urbana de la Facultad de Agronomía UBA (FAUBA, en un suelo Argiudol típico. Del suelo fueron analizadas: carbono orgánico (CO, carbono orgánico particulado (COP, densidad aparente (DA, fósforo extractable (Pe, pH, conductividad eléctrica (CE, capacidad de intercambio catiónico (CIC. En el cultivo se determinó: rendimiento de materia seca (MS y nutrientes en materia seca (N-P-K mg kg MS-1. Los resultados indicaron diferencias en algunas variables edáficas, rendimiento del cultivo y contenido de nutrientes absorbidos en materia seca vegetal. En el suelo, el COP, la CIC, el Pe y la CE aumentaron con los tratamientos de LC y LC HH. La combinación de lombricompuesto y harina de hueso, ambos en doble dosis, resultó ser la mejor enmienda para el mantenimiento de las propiedades del suelo y productividad del cultivo de acelga.A sustainable approach to dealing with waste generated in agriculture is its application in horticultural production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of applying different types and quantities of organic amendments, compostvermicompost (LC and bone meal (HH, in the production of beet and its impact on soil physical and chemical properties. The experiment was conducted in the urban organic vegetable garden at the Facultad de Agronomía-UBA (FAUBA in a Typical Argiudoll. Soil organic carbon (CO, particulate organic carbon (COP, bulk density (DA, extractable phosphorus (Pe, pH, electrical conductivity (EC and cation exchange capacity (CEC were evaluated. Dry

  1. CONTAMINACIÓN AMBIENTAL, VARIABILIDAD CLIMÁTICA Y CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO: UNA REVISIÓN DEL IMPACTO EN LA SALUD DE LA POBLACIÓN PERUANA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Zevallos, Alisson; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Nuñez, Denisse; Gastañaga, Carmen; Cabezas, César; Naeher, Luke; Levy, Karen; Steenland, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    RESUMEN El presente artículo es una revisión sobre la contaminación del agua, el aire y el efecto del cambio climático en la salud de la población peruana. Uno de los principales contaminantes del aire es el material particulado menor de 2,5 μ (PM 2,5), en la ciudad de Lima, anualmente 2300 muertes prematuras son atribuibles a este contaminante. Otro problema es la contaminación del aire domiciliario por el uso de cocinas con combustible de biomasa, donde la exposición excesiva a PM 2,5 dentro de las casas es responsable de aproximadamente 3000 muertes prematuras anuales entre adultos, con otro número desconocido de muertes entre niños debido a infecciones respiratorias. La contaminación del agua tiene como principales causas los desagües vertidos directamente a los ríos, minerales (arsénico) de varias fuentes, y fallas de las plantas de tratamiento. En el Perú, el cambio climático puede impactar en la frecuencia y severidad del fenómeno de El Niño oscilación del sur (ENSO) que se ha asociado con un incremento en los casos de enfermedades como cólera, malaria y dengue. El cambio climático incrementa la temperatura y puede extender las áreas afectadas por enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, además de tener efecto en la disponibilidad del agua y en la contaminación del aire. En conclusión, el Perú, pasa por una transición de factores de riesgo ambientales, donde coexisten riesgos tradicionales y modernos, y persisten los problemas infecciosos y crónicos, algunos de los cuales se asocian con problemas de contaminación de agua y de aire. PMID:25418656

  2. Eficiência de um hidrociclone de geometria "rietema" para pré-filtragem de água para irrigação Efficiency of a hydrocyclone of "rietema" geometry for pre-filtering of water for irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othon C. Da Cruz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O hidrociclone é um equipamento amplamente utilizado pela indústria em processos envolvendo separação sólido-líquido, porém ainda pouco utilizado na agricultura irrigada no Brasil. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o desempenho deste equipamento como pré-filtrante de partículas sólidas, oriundas dos processos erosivos e do assoreamento dos recursos hídricos. Os testes foram realizados com um hidrociclone de geometria "Rietema", possuindo diâmetro de 19,2 cm na parte cilíndrica, operando com vazões variando entre 10 m³ h-1 e 27 m³ h-1. Os materiais particulados usados em suspensão foram: solo franco-argiloso e areia de rio. Os resultados mostraram que a perda de carga máxima média foi de 52 kPa e 47 kPa para as suspensões aquosas de areia e solo, respectivamente. Seu melhor desempenho ocorreu operando com suspensão aquosa de areia, apresentando eficiência total de 92,3% para a vazão de 26,9 m³ h-1. Concluiu-se que o equipamento avaliado é mais eficiente para remoção de partículas de areia, podendo ser utilizado como pré-filtro em sistemas de irrigação.The hydrocyclone is an equipment widely used by industry in cases involving solid-liquid separation, but still little used in irrigated agriculture in Brazil. This study evaluated the performance of this equipment as a pre-filter of solid particles, from erosive processes and the silting of water resources. The tests were performed with a hydrocyclone of "Rietema" geometry, with a diameter of 19.2 cm at the cylindrical part operating with outflows ranging between 10 m³ h-1 and 27 m³ h-1. The materials used in particulate suspension were clay loam soil and sand from river. The results showed that the average maximum head loss was 52 kPa and 47 kPa for aqueous suspensions of sand and soil, respectively. Its best performance occurred operating with slurry of sand, presenting total efficiency of 92.3% for 26.9 m³ h-1 of flow rate. It was concluded that such equipment is most

  3. Aplicação da técnica de deposição eletroforética para a obtenção de tubos cerâmicos de zircônia-ítria Application of the electrophoretic deposition technique for obtaining yttria-stabilized zirconia tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Caproni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de deposição eletroforética (EPD é reconhecida como a mais versátil para o processamento de materiais particulados devido ao seu baixo custo, à deposição em minutos e à conformação de corpos cerâmicos com geometria complexa. Neste trabalho foi feita uma montagem experimental que permite a conformação simultânea de 16 tubos cerâmicos por EPD. Partículas micrométricas de zircônia:ítria foram depositadas, após ajustes nas características reológicas da suspensão em isopropanol, em eletrodo de grafita na forma de tubo. Os tubos cerâmicos, após sinterização a 1500 °C, foram caracterizados por difração de raios X, microscopia de varredura por sonda, espectroscopia de impedância e resposta elétrica em função do teor de oxigênio. A técnica de EPD mostrou-se adequada para obtenção de tubos cerâmicos densos totalmente estabilizados na fase cúbica e resposta elétrica a diferentes quantidades de oxigênio de acordo com a lei de Nernst.The electrophoretic deposition (EPD is recognized as the most versatile technique for processing particulate materials, due to low cost, deposition in minutes and forming of pieces with complex geometry shapes. In this work an experimental setup for the simultaneous conformation of 16 ceramic tubes by EPD was built. Bimodal submicron yttria-stabilized zirconia particles were deposited into graphite electrodes, after suitably adjusting the rheological characteristics of the suspension in isopropanol. After graphite burning and YSZ sintering at 1500 °C, the ceramic tubes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning probe microscope, impedance spectroscopy and electrical response as a function of oxygen content. Small dense one end-closed ceramic tubes, fully stabilized in the cubic phase, were successfully obtained by the EPD technique, showing the ability of that technique for processing large quantities of tubular solid electrolytes with electrical response to different

  4. La erupción del volcán Peteroa (35º15'S, 70º18'o del 4 de septiembre de 2010 The eruption of the Peteroa volcano (35º15'S, 70º18'O on 4th September, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J Haller

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El volcán Peteroa, ubicado en la Zona Volcánica Sur en la cordillera de los Andes, a la latitud de 35º15'S, tuvo una erupción de aproximadamente 48 días de duración, con inicio el 4 de septiembre de 2010. Después de un período de aumento de la actividad fumarólica, la erupción comenzó con una columna eruptiva fuerte, de cerca de 1.800 m de altura, para continuar posteriormente con una columna débil de 200 metros. El material particulado emitido contiene vidrio y cristaloclastos subordinados. La tefra caída se acumuló principalmente en las inmediaciones del volcán, mientras que en sectores más alejados formó solamente una tenue capa. Por el escaso volumen de la tefra eyectada y la limitada dispersión de la misma, sumado al hecho que el sector contiguo al volcán estaba deshabitado por el carácter temporal de los asentamientos en ese lugar, la erupción de 2010 no tuvo mayor incidencia sobre los habitantes.The Peteroa volcano, located in the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes at 35º15'S latitude, erupted for about 48 days, beginning on September 4th, 2010. After a period of increased fumarole activity, the eruption began with a strong eruption column of ca. 1,800 m in height, to continue later with a weak column of 200 meters. Particulate emitted material contains mainly glass shards and glass fragments with subordinate crystaloclasts. The tephra fallout was mainly accumulated in the vicinity of the volcano, while in more remote areas formed only a thin layer. Due to the low volume of ejected tephra and limited volcanic ash spread, and the fact that the vicinity o the volcano was uninhabited, the eruption of 2010 did not have much effect on people.

  5. Oxidative burst and the activity of defense-related enzymes in compatible and incompatible tomato-Alternaria solani interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Balbi-Peña

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, hypersensitive response (HR, and the activity of the enzymes guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, polyphenol oxidase, B-1,3-glucanase and chitinase, were studied in leaves of resistant [CNPH 1287 (Solanum habrochaites syn. Lycopersicon hirsutum] and susceptible [Santa Cruz Kada (S. lycopersicum syn. L. esculentum] tomato genotypes inoculated with Alternaria solani. Leaves were collected at the time of inoculation and at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours post inoculation. Conidia germination occurred equally onto the leaf surface in both genotypes and germination tubes grew without apparent orientation. Lesion frequency was lower in CNPH 1287, and it was the consequence of a lower number of appressoria formed in that genotype. ROS were observed in low frequency in both genotypes. HR was observed in penetrated epidermal host cells also in both genotypes. It seems that ROS and HR would not contribute to the resistance of S. habrochaites to A. solani in this study. The activity of guaiacol peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, B-1,3-glucanase and chitinase was significantly increased in the resistant genotype. These results suggest that defense-related enzymes but no oxidative burst play a role in the defense response of S. habrochaites to A. solani.

  6. MicroRNAs in Hyperglycemia Induced Endothelial Cell Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskomani Silambarasan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia is closely associated with prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Hyperglycemia increases the risk of vascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, peripheral vascular disease and cerebro/cardiovascular diseases. Under hyperglycemic conditions, the endothelial cells become dysfunctional. In this study, we investigated the miRNA expression changes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to different glucose concentrations (5, 10, 25 and 40 mM glucose and at various time intervals (6, 12, 24 and 48 h. miRNA microarray analyses showed that there is a correlation between hyperglycemia induced endothelial dysfunction and miRNA expression. In silico pathways analyses on the altered miRNA expression showed that the majority of the affected biological pathways appeared to be associated to endothelial cell dysfunction and apoptosis. We found the expression of ten miRNAs (miR-26a-5p, -26b-5p, 29b-3p, -29c-3p, -125b-1-3p, -130b-3p, -140-5p, -192-5p, -221-3p and -320a to increase gradually with increasing concentration of glucose. These miRNAs were also found to be involved in endothelial dysfunction. At least seven of them, miR-29b-3p, -29c-3p, -125b-1-3p, -130b-3p, -221-3p, -320a and -192-5p, can be correlated to endothelial cell apoptosis.

  7. A lectin histochemical study of the thoracic respiratory air sacs of the fowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Bezuidenhout

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The lectin-binding characteristics of the epithelial lining of the thoracic air sacs of the chicken were determined. Con A, LCA and PSA bound to the apical membrane as well as to the cytoplasm distal to the nucleus of the surface epithelium, indicated the presence of a-linked mannose as well as Nacetylchitobiose- linked a-fucose residues in the glycoproteins. GSL I bound to the apical membrane and cytoplasm distal to the nucleus, but not to the cilia of the epithelium, where-as MPL, DBA and RCA120 bound to the apical membrane, cilia and cytoplasm, indicated the presence of a-linked Nacetylgalactosamine residues. However, neither SJA or SBA showed any binding, indicating the absence of b anomers of galactosyl (b1.3N-acetylgalactosamine and b-linked N-acetylgalactosamine residues. UEA I bound to the apical membrane and cilia, as well as to the cytoplasm of a few cells, indicated the presence of a-linked fucose residues. PNA bound to the apical membrane of some, but not all, surface epithelium cells, indicated the presence of galactosyl (b1.3N-acetylgalactosamine residues. WGA bound to the apical membrane and cilia, as well as to the cytoplasm of a few cells, indicated the presence of neuraminic acid residues.

  8. A Nano-MgO and Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed 'Green' Synthesis Protocol for the Development of Adamantyl-Imidazolo-Thiadiazoles as Anti-Tuberculosis Agents Targeting Sterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Anusha

    Full Text Available In this work, we describe the 'green' synthesis of novel 6-(adamantan-1-yl-2-substituted-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles (AITs by ring formation reactions using 1-(adamantan-1-yl-2-bromoethanone and 5-alkyl/aryl-2-amino1,3,4-thiadiazoles on a nano material base in ionic liquid media. Given the established activity of imidazothiadiazoles against M. tuberculosis, we next examined the anti-TB activity of AITs against the H37Rv strain using Alamar blue assay. Among the tested compounds 6-(adamantan-1-yl-2-(4-methoxyphenylimidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole (3f showed potent inhibitory activity towards M. tuberculosis with an MIC value of 8.5 μM. The inhibitory effect of this molecule against M. tuberculosis was comparable to the standard drugs such as Pyrazinamide, Streptomycin, and Ciprofloxacin drugs. Mechanistically, an in silico analysis predicted sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51 as the likely target and experimental activity of 3f in this system corroborated the in silico target prediction. In summary, we herein report the synthesis and biological evaluation of novel AITs against M. tuberculosis that likely target CYP51 to induce their antimycobacterial activity.

  9. A Nano-MgO and Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed 'Green' Synthesis Protocol for the Development of Adamantyl-Imidazolo-Thiadiazoles as Anti-Tuberculosis Agents Targeting Sterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, Sebastian; Cp, Baburajeev; Mohan, Chakrabhavi Dhananjaya; Mathai, Jessin; Rangappa, Shobith; Mohan, Surender; Chandra; Paricharak, Shardul; Mervin, Lewis; Fuchs, Julian E; M, Mahedra; Bender, Andreas; Basappa; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we describe the 'green' synthesis of novel 6-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-substituted-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles (AITs) by ring formation reactions using 1-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-bromoethanone and 5-alkyl/aryl-2-amino1,3,4-thiadiazoles on a nano material base in ionic liquid media. Given the established activity of imidazothiadiazoles against M. tuberculosis, we next examined the anti-TB activity of AITs against the H37Rv strain using Alamar blue assay. Among the tested compounds 6-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole (3f) showed potent inhibitory activity towards M. tuberculosis with an MIC value of 8.5 μM. The inhibitory effect of this molecule against M. tuberculosis was comparable to the standard drugs such as Pyrazinamide, Streptomycin, and Ciprofloxacin drugs. Mechanistically, an in silico analysis predicted sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) as the likely target and experimental activity of 3f in this system corroborated the in silico target prediction. In summary, we herein report the synthesis and biological evaluation of novel AITs against M. tuberculosis that likely target CYP51 to induce their antimycobacterial activity. PMID:26470029

  10. A Nano-MgO and Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed ‘Green’ Synthesis Protocol for the Development of Adamantyl-Imidazolo-Thiadiazoles as Anti-Tuberculosis Agents Targeting Sterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, Sebastian; CP, Baburajeev; Mohan, Chakrabhavi Dhananjaya; Mathai, Jessin; Rangappa, Shobith; Mohan, Surender; Chandra; Paricharak, Shardul; Mervin, Lewis; Fuchs, Julian E.; M, Mahedra; Bender, Andreas; Basappa; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we describe the ‘green’ synthesis of novel 6-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-substituted-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles (AITs) by ring formation reactions using 1-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-bromoethanone and 5-alkyl/aryl-2-amino1,3,4-thiadiazoles on a nano material base in ionic liquid media. Given the established activity of imidazothiadiazoles against M. tuberculosis, we next examined the anti-TB activity of AITs against the H37Rv strain using Alamar blue assay. Among the tested compounds 6-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole (3f) showed potent inhibitory activity towards M. tuberculosis with an MIC value of 8.5 μM. The inhibitory effect of this molecule against M. tuberculosis was comparable to the standard drugs such as Pyrazinamide, Streptomycin, and Ciprofloxacin drugs. Mechanistically, an in silico analysis predicted sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) as the likely target and experimental activity of 3f in this system corroborated the in silico target prediction. In summary, we herein report the synthesis and biological evaluation of novel AITs against M. tuberculosis that likely target CYP51 to induce their antimycobacterial activity. PMID:26470029

  11. A new approach for the synthesis of bioactive heteroaryl thiazolidine-2,4-diones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Magdy Ahmed; Abdel-Hamed, Mohamed Abdel-Megid; El-Gohary, Naser Mohamed, E-mail: magdy_ahmed1977@yahoo.co [Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Education. Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    Condensation of 3-formylchromone (1) with thiazolidine-2,4-dione (2) afforded 5-[4-oxo-4Hchromen- 3-yl)methylene]-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (3). Reaction of 3 with hydrazine hydrate, phenyl hydrazine and hydroxylamine hydrochloride gave the corresponding pyrazole and isoxazole derivatives 4-7. Compound 3 was subjected to react with thiourea, guanidine and cyanoguanidine to give the corresponding pyrimidine derivatives 8-10. Pyrimido[1,2-a]pyrimidine 12, benzo[1,5] diazepine 15, pyrido[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazepine 16, 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazepine 19 and 1,2,4-triazino[3,2-b][1,3,4]thiadiazepine 20 linked thiazolidine-2,4-dione were prepared from the reaction of 3 with N,N- and N,S- bifunctional nucleophiles. The chemical reactivity of 3 towards carbon nucleophiles gave new heterocyclic moieties linked thiazolidine-2,4-dione 22.25. The synthesized compounds were screened in vitro for their antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. (author)

  12. Effects of a highly concentrated platelet-rich plasma on the bone repair using non-critical defects in the calvaria of rabbits Efeitos do plasma rico em plaquetas altamente concentrado no reparo ósseo, utilizando defeitos não-críticos na calvária de coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio de Oliveira Filho

    2010-02-01

    autógeno particulado (grupo 1, osso autógeno particulado associado com hPRP (grupo 2, hPRP de modo isolado (grupo 3 e coágulo sangüineo (controle, grupo 4. Os animais foram mortos na 2º, 4º e 6º semanas do pós-operatório. Análises histológicas e histomorfométricas foram realizadas. RESULTADOS: Em duas semanas, os grupos 1 e 2 estavam num estado de reparação mais adiantado que os grupos 3 e 4. Neste período, quando comparados os grupos 1 e 2, não foram observadas diferenças estatísticamente significativas, o mesmo acontecendo quando a comparação foi entre os grupos 3 e 4. Após quatro e seis semanas, contudo, o grupo1 mostrou um estágio mais avançado de reparo, isto quando comparado com todos os outros grupos estudados, enquanto o grupo 2 apresentou sinais mais avançados de reparo que os grupos 3 e 4. Comparando os grupos 3 e 4, após 4 e 6 semanas, um estágio menos avançado do reparo ósseo foi observado no grupo 3. CONCLUSÃO: O uso do plasma rico em plaquetas altamente concentrado foi considerado prejudicial ao reparo de defeitos não críticos na calvária de coelhos, tanto quando em associação com enxerto ósseo autógeno em partículas (quando comparado com enxerto ósseo em partículas de forma isolada quanto em sua forma isolada (quando comparado com o coágulo sangüíneo-controle.

  13. Variación espacial y temporal de las masas de agua, nutrientes y sedimentación de la materia orgánica e inorgánica en la bahía Mejillones del sur (23° S, Chile Spatial and temporal variability of water masses, nutrients and sedimentation of organic and inorganic matter, in Mejillones del sur bay (23° S, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO CERDA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el verano austral de 2003-2004, se estudiaron las propiedades del material particulado que sedimenta en la bahía Mejillones del Sur, y la estructura físico-química de la columna de agua. Se encontraron aguas más cálidas y oxigenadas en la superficie, una clara estratificación entre 10 y 20 m de profundidad y aguas más frías, densas y subóxicas bajo los 30 m y hasta el fondo durante el periodo de estudio. La bahía se caracterizó por la interacción de tres masas de aguas: Agua Superficial Subtropical (ASST, Agua Subantártica (ASSA, Agua Subsuperficial Ecuatorial (AESS. Se puso en evidencia que eventos moderados y cortos de surgencia con duración entre tres a ocho días alternan con períodos más prolongados de estratificación de 29 días. Durante los eventos débiles de surgencia y en el inicio del evento de estratificación prevalecieron condiciones subóxicas a microóxicas con concentraciones de nutrientes más elevados en el estrato de los 10 a 15 m de profundidad. La variabilidad de los niveles de saturación de oxígeno disuelto (OD y de nutrientes con las concentraciones de nitrógeno (N, fósforo (P y ácido silícico (Si, y las razones de N:P y Si:NID en la superficie, indicaron la presencia de una dinámica importante de los procesos de reciclaje de la materia orgánica en la columna de agua, y del aporte alóctono de nutrientes durante la surgencia. Las variaciones quincenales de los flujos totales del material particulado colectado con trampas instaladas en la bahía, sugieren que la sedimentación del material en la columna de agua se encuentra gobernada por la alternancia entre los períodos de surgencia y de estratificación. Además en las trampas de sedimentación se observó un patrón de empobrecimiento de nitrógeno en función de la profundidad, lo que sugiere condiciones de remineralización y desnitrificación en las aguas oxido-reductoras de fondo de esta bahía.This study addresses the spatial and

  14. Perda de água, solo e fósforo com aplicação de dejeto líquido bovino em latossolo sob plantio direto e com chuva simulada Water, soil and phosphorus loss after cattle slurry application to oxisol under no-tillage and simulated rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Fumiaki Mori

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A região dos Campos Gerais do Paraná é importante produtora de leite em sistema confinado e, com isso, também geradora de dejeto líquido bovino. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar perdas de água, solo, P total, P solúvel e P particulado em chuva simulada, realizada imediatamente após a aplicação das doses de 0, 30, 60 e 90 m³ ha-1 de dejeto líquido bovino, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo manejado em plantio direto, e inferir os eventuais impactos na qualidade da água. A aplicação de dejeto aumentou a taxa de perda de água por escoamento superficial em mais de 10 vezes, em todos os intervalos de 15 min da chuva durante duas horas. O maior incremento na perda total de água ocorreu com as doses 0 e 30 m³ ha-1. A partir da dose de 60 m³ ha-1, houve tendência de estabilização da perda de água. A taxa de perda de solo nos primeiros 15 min de chuva também aumentou com a aplicação de dejeto, repetindo-se, embora não de forma significativa, até o final da chuva. O maior incremento na perda de solo também ocorreu com a aplicação das doses de 0 e 30 m³ ha-1, seguido por estabilização com as doses maiores. Parte do material sólido perdido veio do próprio dejeto. A aplicação de dejeto, mesmo na dose de 30 m³ ha-1, elevou a concentração de P total, solúvel e particulado no escoamento para valores acima dos níveis críticos relacionados com a eutrofização, especialmente nos primeiros 15 min de chuva. Por aumentar a taxa de escoamento de água e a concentração de P no escoamento, o dejeto também aumentou a perda absoluta das três formas de P, com tendência de estabilização a partir de 60 m³ ha-1. A causa do aumento substancial tanto das taxas como da quantidade absoluta de perda de água, solo e P por escoamento foi possivelmente o selamento superficial do solo promovido pelo próprio dejeto e pelo fato de a chuva ter ocorrido imediatamente após a aplicação deste.Campos Gerais in the State of Paran

  15. Results from PLUTO at PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results obtained at the e+e- storage ring PETRA by the PLUTO collaboration at c.m. energies of 13, 17 and 27.4 GeV are presented. New limits on QED cut-off parameters are determined from Bhabha scattering; at 27.4 GeV the limits are Λsub(+) > 38 GeV and Λsub(-) > 60 GeV. The measured values of the total hadronic cross section, and the study of the jet character of the hadronic events are well consistent with the expected production of b mesons (with qsub(b) = 1/3), but do not require additional new quarks with charge 2/3. Hadronic events from two-photon exchange processes are observed with comparable rates as events from one-photon exchange. First results on the hadronic cross section in γγ collisions are given. (orig.)

  16. La pensée grecque et le portrait antique

    OpenAIRE

    Boura, Vasiliki

    2012-01-01

    Pourquoi fait-on les portraits du visage ?Est-ce parce que cette partie révèle le caractère des gens ?Ou parce que c’est elle qui est la mieux connue ?Aristote, Problèmes, section XXXVI, 965 b 1-3. Hans belting, prête à l’invention de la photographie d’avoir donné un nouveau contenu à la ressemblance. La représentation du visible et du visage comme motif en particulier – son dédoublement matériel en termes platoniciens – qui était tributaire d’un savoir artistique de l’Antiquité au xixe siècl...

  17. Standard practice for qualification and acceptance of boron based metallic neutron absorbers for nuclear criticality control for dry cask storage systems and transportation packaging

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides procedures for qualification and acceptance of neutron absorber materials used to provide criticality control by absorbing thermal neutrons in systems designed for nuclear fuel storage, transportation, or both. 1.2 This practice is limited to neutron absorber materials consisting of metal alloys, metal matrix composites (MMCs), and cermets, clad or unclad, containing the neutron absorber boron-10 (10B). 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  18. INDUCTION OF SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE BY BIOCONTROL AGENTS AGAINST BACTERIAL BLIGHT OF COTTON CAUSED BY XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS PV. MALVACEARUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjana S. Ramachandrappa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioagents such as Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from cotton rhizosphere soil and tested individually for their effectiveness in controlling bacterial blight of cotton caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum (Xcm. Talc based formulations were prepared and used for seed treatment at different concentrations for assessing their ability to stimulate plant growth and to control bacterial blight disease. Among bioagents, P. fluorescens and T. harzianum proved to be effective in controlling disease under field conditions.  Other than direct action, these bioagents triggered the defense related enzymes involved in synthesis of phenols. Higher activity of peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase and b-1,3-glucanase was observed in P. fluorescens and T. harzianum treated cotton plants after challenge inoculation with Xcm. Seed treatment with these bioagents enhanced the seed germination and growth parameters against blight disease and they also induced systemic resistance in plant for defense mechanisms. 

  19. Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Some New Fused 1,2,4-Triazines Bearing Thiophene Moieties With Expected Pharmacological Activity

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    Mosselhi A. Mosselhi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and efficient solvent-free synthesis of 4-amino-3-mercapto-6-[2-(2-thienylvinyl]-1,2,4-triazin-5(4H-one 1 under microwave irradiation is described. Some new fused heterobicyclic nitrogen systems such as 1,2,4-triazino[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazinones, 1,3,4-thiadiazolo[2,3-c][1,2,4]triazinone and pyrazolo[5,1-c]-[1,2,4]triazine-7-carbonitrile, have been synthesized by treatment of 1 with bifunctional oxygen and halogen compounds, CS2/KOH and malononitrile via heterocyclization reactions, in addition to some uncondensed triazines. Structures of the products have been deduced from their elemental analysis and spectral data (IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR. Select new synthesized compounds were screened as anticancer agents, with some showing activity as cytotoxic agents against different cancer cell lines.

  20. Electron microscope observation of single - crystalline beryllium thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin foils prepared from single crystalline beryllium simples deformed at room temperature, have been observed by transmission electron microscopy. The various deformation modes have been investigated separately, from their early stages and their characteristic dislocation configurations have been observed. Basal slip is characterized at is outset by the presence of numerous dipoles and elongated prismatic loops. More pronounced cold work leads to the formation of dislocation tangles and bundles which eventually give a cellular structure. Prismatic slip begins by the cross-slip of dislocations from the basal plane into the prismatic plane. A cellular structure is equally observed in heavily deformed samples. Sessile dislocations have been observed in twin boundaries; they are produced by reactions between slip dislocations and twin dislocations. Finally, the study of samples quenched from 1100 deg. C and annealed at 200 deg. C has shown that the observed loops lie in prismatic planes and have a Burgers vector b 1/3. (authors)

  1. Molecular clouds outside the solar circle in the first quadrant of our galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the detection of extensive low-level CO emission from molecular clouds well outside the solar circle, in the longitude range 550--950. Three strips, at b = 1.3, 1.5, and 1.7, were mapped at intervals of 0.1 in l, covering the LSR velocity range of -10 to -135 km s-1. Maps from the 1.5 strip are presented here. Armlike concentrations are evident, including an extension of the Perseus arm into the first quadrant and a well-defined arm 15 kpc from the galactic center. It is estimated that the amount of molecular material in the outer Galaxy could be comparable to that in the ''molecular ring'' though spread out over a larger area. Detailed maps of five regions show cloud complexes 60--80 pc long, containing one or more localized CO peaks

  2. Blow-up of Critical Besov Norms at a Potential Navier-Stokes Singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Isabelle; Koch, Gabriel S.; Planchon, Fabrice

    2016-04-01

    We prove that if an initial datum to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in any critical Besov space {dot B^{-1+ 3/p}_{p,q}({R}3)}, with {3 0}, then the norm of the solution in that Besov space becomes unbounded at time T. This result, which treats all critical Besov spaces where local existence is known, generalizes the result of Escauriaza et al. (Uspekhi Mat Nauk 58(2(350)):3-44, 2003) concerning suitable weak solutions blowing up in {L3({R}3)}. Our proof uses profile decompositions and is based on our previous work (Gallagher et al., Math. Ann. 355(4):1527-1559, 2013), which provided an alternative proof of the {L3({R}3)} result. For very large values of p, an iterative method, which may be of independent interest, enables us to use some techniques from the {L3({R}3)} setting.

  3. Fraunhofer-type diffraction patterns of matter-wave scattering of projectiles: Electron transfer in energetic ion-atom collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agueny, Hicham

    2015-07-01

    We present results for single and double electron captures in intermediate energies H+ and 2H+ projectiles colliding with a helium target. The processes under investigations are treated using a nonperturbative semiclassical approach in combination with Eikonal approximation to calculate the scattering differential cross sections. The latter reveals pronounced minima and maxima in the scattering angles, in excellent agreement with the recent experimental data. It turns out that the present structure depends strongly on the projectile energy and shows only slight variations with different capture channels. The observed structure demonstrates the analogy of atomic de Broglie's matter-wave scattering with λd B=1.3 -3.2 ×10-3 a.u. and Fraunhofer-type diffraction of light waves.

  4. Environmental water quality assessment in Guaratuba bay, state of Paraná, southern Brazil

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    Byanka Damian Mizerkowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An environmental assessment of the estuarine waters of Guaratuba bay, Paraná State, Brazil, is provided through the analysis of physical-chemical, biological and hydrographic dynamics. Twelve stations with a bi-monthly frequency (from October/2002 until August/2003 were sampled during spring and neap tides for the determination of pH, Secchi depth, CO2 saturation, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, suspended particulate matter and dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and silicate. Based on the evaluation of six parameters (chlorophyll, Secchi depth, CO2 saturation, dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and dissolved oxygen, Guaratuba Bay shows a low to medium trophic status, i.e. from meso- to oligotrophic, and a predominant heterotrophic metabolism, meaning that respiration overcomes primary production. Horizontal stratification was observed during the rainy season, while during the dry season the system showed more homogeneous conditions. Inorganic and/or organic matter in Guaratuba Bay seem to be controlled mainly by the seasonality of precipitation and/ also by ebb and flood tidal phase variations.A dinâmica das variáveis físico-químicas, biológicas e hidrográficas, em escalas temporal e espacial, sua variabilidade e tendências, permite avaliar a qualidade ambiental de estuários. Esse trabalho descreve as flutuações da qualidade de água da Baía de Guaratuba, sul do Estado do Paraná. Foram amostrados doze pontos em campanhas bimensais (outubro/2002 a agosto/2003, em situação de sizígia e de quadratura, para a análise das variáveis pH, transparência, saturação de CO2, oxigênio dissolvido, clorofila-a, material particulado em suspensão e nutrientes inorgânicos dissolvidos (nitrato, nitrito, amônio, fosfato e silicato. Considerando as seis variáveis descritoras da qualidade de água (clorofila-a, profundidade de Secchi, saturação de CO2, fósforo e nitrogênio inorg

  5. Aplicación de índices de calidad de agua - ICA orientados al uso de la fuente para consumo humano Applying water quality indexes (WQI to the use of water sources for human consumption

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    Pérez Andrea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación de origen natural y antrópico de las fuentes de agua limitan su aprovechamiento principalmente para el consumo humano; herramientas de diagnóstico rápidas y representativas como los índices de calidad del agua —ICA— garantizan una evaluación integral del recurso, fundamental en la toma de acciones para manejo y control del riesgo sanitario a través de los diferentes procesos de potabilización. El análisis comparativo de la aplicación de los índices ICA-NSF, ICA Dinius, ICAUCA y UWQI en cinco puntos del río Cauca localizados en el tramo Salvajina – Bocatoma Puerto Mallarino mostró que el río presenta un deterioro creciente a medida que es afectado por las actividades socioeconómicas desarrolladas en su cuenca, presentando calidad entre regular y mala, haciendo necesario su tratamiento para la destinación del recurso en consumo humano, e incluso la incorporación de tratamientos específicos como la adsorción con carbón activado y otros. Las variables de mayor incidencia en el valor final de los ICA fueron los patógenos y las asociadas a presencia de material particulado; sin embargo, para una evaluación más integral del río, y dados los usos del suelo que pueden generar en la fuente presencia de otras sustancias causantes de riesgo sanitario, se recomienda considerar el desarrollo o adaptación de un índice con estructura similar a la del DQWI que tenga en cuenta la variación en el tiempo y en el espacio de los parámetros que lo conforman y su comparación con la normatividad vigente.Naturally occurring and anthropic contamination of water sources limits the use of water for human consumption. Fast and representative tools, such as water quality indexes (WQI,allow performing an integral assessment of the resource, this being essential when making decisions about the management and control of sanitary risks through different purification processes. A comparative analysis of applying WQINSF

  6. Aspectos da distribuição de tecidos músculo-esqueléticos de um banco de tecidos Aspects of the distribution of musculoskeletal tissues by a tissue bank

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    Roney Campos Granjeiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as características da distribuição desses por um Banco de Tecidos no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Base de dados do Banco de Tecidos entre setembro de 2006 e junho de 2008. Características dos receptores foram tabuladas. Os tipos de tecidos processados foram: cabeças femorais, osso metafisio-epifisário, osso cortical, ossos curtos ou chatos e tendões. O destino dos enxertos foi analisado. Frequências das distribuições foram obtidas e analisadas. RESULTADOS: Foram distribuídas 734 unidades tecidos fresco-congelados, transplantadas em 683 receptores. Doadores de múltiplos órgãos originaram 97,9% dos tecidos e doadores vivos os demais. Foram transplantados 489 unidades de osso córtico-esponjoso, 137 de osso metafisio-epifisário, 44 de osso chato ou curto, 3 de tendão, 29 de osso particulado e 32 de cabeças femorais. A média de idade dos receptores foi 50,3 anos, sendo 59,5% do sexo feminino e 40,5% do masculino. Os tecidos foram destinados para uso ortopédico em 21,1% dos casos e buco-maxilo-facial, em 78,9%. CONCLUSÃO: O Banco de Tecidos aumentou o número de distribuições em resposta à demanda crescente de tecidos, principalmente para uso em cirurgia buco-maxilo-facial.OBJECTIVE: Is to evaluate the characteristics of the distribution of these grafts by a Tissue Bank in Brazil. METHODS: Tissue Bank database from September 2006 to June 2008. The characteristics of the recipients were drawn up in the table form. The types of tissue processed were: femoral heads, metaphyseal-epiphyseal bone, cortical bone, flat or short bones and tendons. The intended purpose of the grafts was analyzed, and distribution frequencies were also obtained and analyzed. RESULTS: Altogether, 734 units of fresh-frozen tissue were distributed and transplanted into 683 recipients. In terms of origin of the tissues, 97.9% came from multiple organ donors, and the remainder from living donors. A total of 489 units of cortical bone were transplanted

  7. Reduction of air pollutants - a tool for control of atmospheric corrosion

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    Kucera, V.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In most urban areas in Europe and Northern America serious corrosion impacts on buildings and cultural monuments have been caused by emissions of pollutants. The rapidly increasing pollution levels in many of the developing countries also exert a serious threat to materials. Beside the very important role of SO2 also the direct or synergistic effect of NOx and O3, the particulates and rain acidity may contribute in an important way to materials degradation. Results from extensive international field exposure programs i.e. within the UN/ECE have enabled development of dose-response relations which describe the effect of dry and wet deposition of pollutants on corrosion of different material groups. In most of the industrialized countries decreasing trends of sulphur and nitrogen pollutants and of acidity of precipitation have resulted in decreased corrosion rates. The concept of acceptable levels of pollutants is a useful tool in planning of abatement strategies and for defining of conditions for a suitable development in the field of corrosion of constructions in the atmosphere.

    La contaminación de la atmósfera ha sido la principal razón del grave deterioro de las edificaciones y de los monumentos en numerosas ciudades de Europa y Norteamérica. De otro lado, el acelerado incremento de los niveles de contaminación en los países menos desarrollados está poniendo en peligro la estabilidad de los materiales utilizados. Además del importante papel que en este sentido juega el SO2, la acción directa o el efecto sinérgico de los NOx y el O3, al igual que el material particulado y las lluvias acidas contribuyen a agravar el problema. Resultados de vastos programas internacionales de investigación como, por ejemplo, el UN/ECE, han permitido desarrollar relaciones dosis-respuesta que describen el efecto de la deposición de los contaminantes sobre la corrosión de

  8. A poluição do ar e o sistema respiratório Air pollution and the respiratory system

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    Marcos Abdo Arbex

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A poluição atmosférica encontra-se presente nos mais diferentes cenários ao longo dos últimos 250 anos, desde que a Revolução Industrial acelerou o processo de emissão de poluentes que, até então, estava limitado ao uso doméstico de combustíveis vegetais e minerais e às emissões vulcânicas intermitentes. Hoje, aproximadamente 50% da população do planeta vivem em cidades e aglomerados urbanos e estão expostas a níveis progressivamente maiores de poluentes do ar. Este estudo é uma revisão não sistemática sobre os diferentes tipos e fontes de poluentes do ar e os efeitos respiratórios atribuídos à exposição a esses contaminantes. Podem ser creditados aos poluentes particulados e gasosos, emitidos por diferentes fontes, aumentos nos sintomas de doenças, na procura por atendimentos em serviços de emergência e no número de internações e de óbitos. Mais do que descompensar doenças pré-existentes, exposições crônicas têm ajudado a aumentar o número de casos novos de asma, de DPOC e de câncer de pulmão, tanto em áreas urbanas quanto em áreas rurais, fazendo com que os poluentes atmosféricos rivalizem com a fumaça do tabaco pelo papel de principal fator de risco para estas doenças. Na rotina de clínicos e pneumologistas, esperamos contribuir para consolidar a importância da investigação sobre a exposição aos poluentes do ar e o reconhecimento de que esse fator de risco merece ser levado em conta na adoção da melhor terapêutica para o controle das descompensações agudas das doenças respiratórias e para a sua manutenção entre as crises.Over the past 250 years-since the Industrial Revolution accelerated the process of pollutant emission, which, until then, had been limited to the domestic use of fuels (mineral and vegetal and intermittent volcanic emissions-air pollution has been present in various scenarios. Today, approximately 50% of the people in the world live in cities and urban areas and

  9. Associação entre poluição atmosférica e doenças respiratórias e cardiovasculares na cidade de Itabira, Minas Gerais, Brasil Association between air pollution and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in Itabira, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Alfésio Luís Ferreira Braga

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A cidade de Itabira, Minas Gerais, Brasil, está localizada na Serra do Espinhaço, onde existem grandes jazidas de minério de ferro que são extraídas em lavra mecanizada a céu aberto. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar os efeitos agudos do material particulado inalável (PM10 sobre os atendimentos em pronto-socorro por doenças respiratórias e cardiovasculares no Município de Itabira. Modelos aditivos generalizados de regressão de Poisson foram utilizados, controlando-se para temperatura, umidade e sazonalidades de longa e curta duração. Aumentos de 10µg/m³ no PM10 foram associados com aumentos nos atendimentos de pronto-socorro por doenças respiratórias de 4% (IC95%: 2,2-5,8, no dia e no dia seguinte, para crianças menores de 13 anos, e de 12% (IC95%: 8,5-15,5, nos três dias subseqüentes para os adolescentes entre 13 e 19 anos. Dentre os atendimentos por doenças cardiovasculares, o efeito foi agudo (4%; IC95%: 0,8-8,5, principalmente para os indivíduos com idade entre 45 e 64 anos. Esses resultados mostram que o PM10 gerado principalmente através de mineração a céu aberto pode acarretar prejuízos à saúde da população exposta.The city of Itabira, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is located in the Espinhaço Mountain Range, an area that features large-scale mechanized iron ore pit mines. The current study evaluates the acute effects of inhalable particulate matter (PM10 in terms of emergency room visits due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in Itabira. Generalized additive Poisson regression models were adopted, controlling for temperature, humidity, and both short and long-term seasonality. Increases of 10mg/m³ in PM10 were associated with increases in respiratory emergency room visits of 4% (95%CI: 2.2-5.8, at lags 0 and 1 for children and adolescents younger than 13 years of age, and of 12% (95%CI: 8.5-15.5 on the three subsequent days for adolescents (13 to 19 years of age. For cardiovascular diseases, the

  10. Hospitalizações por causas respiratórias e cardiovasculares associadas à contaminação atmosférica no Município de São Paulo, Brasil Respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations associated with air pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Nelson Gouveia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A constatação de que os atuais níveis de poluição atmosférica são suficientes para causar danos à saúde torna imprescindível a definição de processos reguladores para a qualidade do ar. Este estudo analisa a associação entre exposição à poluição atmosférica e internações hospitalares no Município de São Paulo, Brasil, visando subsidiar a elaboração de medidas para redução dos riscos à saúde. Realizou-se um estudo ecológico de séries temporais, analisando hospitalizações por causas respiratórias e cardiovasculares em crianças e idosos em relação aos níveis diários observados de poluentes, por meio de modelos aditivos generalizados em regressão de Poison. Todos os poluentes, com exceção do ozônio, apresentaram associação significante com internações respiratórias e cardiovasculares. Um aumento de 10µg/m³ no nível de material particulado inalável associa-se ao incremento de 4,6% nas internações por asma em crianças, de 4,3% por doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica em idosos e de 1,5% por doença isquêmica do coração também em idosos. Essas associações entre aumento no nível de poluentes na atmosfera e o aumento de hospitalizações estão de acordo com a literatura nacional e internacional sobre o assunto e indicam que os níveis atuais de contaminação do ar no Município de São Paulo têm impacto na saúde de sua população.The recognition that current air pollution levels cause harmful health effects makes the definition of the air quality regulatory process imperative. This study examines the association between exposure to air pollution and hospital admissions in the city of São Paulo, aiming to support the development of measures to reduce such health risks. The authors conducted an ecological time series study of hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in children and the elderly in relation to daily air pollution levels, using generalized additive

  11. Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter from the urban area of Porto Alegre, Brazil

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    Vera Maria Ferrão Vargas

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter collected from three different sites within the urban area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, was investigated using a Salmonella/microsome assay. Samples were extracted by sonication, sequentially, with cyclohexane (CX, and dichloromethane (DCM, for a rough fractionation by polarity. The different fractions were tested for mutagenicity using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix fraction, and TA98NR and TA98/1,8-DNP6, without metabolic activation. Mutagenic response was observed for frameshift strain TA98 in assays with and without metabolization for two sites (sites 2 and 3, which had considerable risk of environmental contamination by nonpolar (CX and/or moderately polar (DCM compounds. However, the values of revertants/m3 (rev/m3 were highest on the site subject to automobile exhaust (site 3 in assays without (9.56 rev/m3 and with metabolization (5.08 rev/m3. Maximum mutagenic activity was detected in the moderately polar fraction, decreasing after metabolization. Nevertheless, the nonpolar fractions (CX gave higher mutagenic activity in the presence of metabolization than in the absence of the S9 mix fraction. The responses observed for TA98NR and TA98/1,8-DNP6 strains suggest the activity of nitrocompounds.Foi investigada a atividade mutagênica de material particulado de amostras de ar coletadas em três diferentes locais dentro da área urbana da cidade de Porto Alegre, Brasil, através do ensaio Salmonella/microssoma. As amostras foram extraídas, em ultra-som, por fracionamento seqüencial de acordo com a polaridade, utilizando os solventes ciclohexano (CX e diclorometano (DCM. As diferentes frações foram testadas para mutagenicidade com as linhagens de Salmonella typhimurium TA98, em presença e ausência de ativação metabólica, e TA98NR e TA98/1,8-DNP6 em ausência de metabolização. Observou-se resposta mutagênica positiva, do tipo erro

  12. Neurotoxic activity and ultrastructural changes in muscles caused by the brown widow spider Latrodectus geometricus venom Actividad neurotóxica y cambios ultraestructurales en musculos causados por el veneno de la araña viuda marrón Latrodectus geometricus

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    Matias Reyes-Lugo

    2009-04-01

    ultrastructural report in the literature of muscle injuries and neurological and proteolytic activities caused by BrWSV.El veneno de la araña viuda marrón (Latrodectus geometricus produce pocas lesiones locales pero intensas reacciones sistémicas, tales como calambres, dolores musculares severos, nauseas, vómitos e hipertensión arterial. Se observaron ~ 16 bandas de proteina bajo condiciones reducidas y ~14 bandas bajo condiciones no reducidas en electroforesis en geles de poliacrilamida al 12.5%. Las manifestaciones neurotóxicas clínicas fueron confirmadas in vivo, mientras que la actividad proteolítica fue demostrada en una placa de gelatina. Los músculos de ratón se estudiaron durante las 3, 6, 12 y 24 horas después de ser inyectados con 45 µg de proteina de veneno. Los músculos fueron seriamente dañados por este veneno. Se demostró una infiltracción de células eosinofílicas y rupturas de membranas celulares en tejido muscular, al mismo tiempo un fuerte incremento de la membrana nuclear y una interrupción de la periodicidad del colágeno. Se observaron daños en la mitocondria y sin cristaes, vacuolas autofágicas e indentación nuclear. Se notó un aumento de la luz de los espacios intermiofibrilares y subsarcolemicos. En los capilares fue visible un desdoblamiento de la membrana endotelial hacia el lúmen vascular. Del mismo modo, fue visto un hinchamiento del sistema sarcotubular con lisis de las membranas; intensa autofagia de mitocondrias y áreas sin vesículas pinocíticas. Fue además observado, glucogenosomas con glucogeno particulado. Se observaron vacuolas autofágicas (autofagolisosomas y áreas de necrosis. Estos daños podrían ser atribuídos a los efectos interactivos de una acción multifactorial de los componentes del veneno.

  13. Atributos biológicos e dinâmica da matéria orgânica em Latossolos Amarelos na região do Cerrado piauiense sob sistema plantio direto

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    Rossanna Barbosa Pragana

    2012-06-01

    esse tempo é insuficiente para melhoria desses atributos. O aumento do tempo de uso do solo com plantio direto diminui o teor de C particulado e mantém o de C associado aos minerais, em comparação ao solo do Cerrado nativo.

  14. Toxicidade de flúor em cultivares de milho em área próxima a uma indústria cerâmica, Araras (SP Fluorine toxicity in corn plants nearby a ceramic industry, Araras, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Caio Fortes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Indústrias que submetem material terroso a altas temperaturas como a de cerâmicas, emitem fluoretos para a atmosfera na forma de gás, particulado ou ácido fluorídrico. Em experimentos de milho (Zea mays L., do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Araras (SP, as plantas apresentaram sintomas que evoluíam de uma descoloração do limbo foliar até o secamento marginal das folhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os teores foliares de flúor (F na cultura do milho com sintomas de toxicidade causados por fluoretos atmosféricos emitidos por uma indústria cerâmica vizinha, e possíveis diferenças entre as cultivares de milho quanto à severidade desses sintomas. Em um experimento atribuíram-se notas relativas ao grau de injúria das folhas de 22 cultivares e, em outro, foi feita determinação de F em três cultivares de milho semeadas a 350 e 1.000 metros de distância daquela indústria. Os teores foliares de F nas folhas de milho estavam altos nas duas distâncias. Para o milho "safrinha" os teores chegaram até quatro vezes acima do teor crítico, variando entre 126 e 160 mg.kg-1. Constataram-se diferenças entre as cultivares de milho quanto à severidade de sintomas, mas não foi possível estabelecer correlação com danos na produtividade.The emission of fluoride gases, particles or fluoridric acid is commonly observed in industries that submit terrigenous materials to high temperatures, such as in the ceramic industry. Unusual abnormalities in leaves of adult plants that have been suspected to be fluorine toxicity have been observed in corn experiments carried out in the Center of Agricultural Sciences of the Federal University of São Carlos, Araras, SP, Brazil. The symptoms in the corn leaves started as discolouring of internerval cells of completed developed leaves followed by marginal burning of its tips. The objectives of this work was to evaluate the amount of fluorine (F in corn leaves

  15. Physical and chemical soil quality indicators in lead mining and metallurgy areaIndicadores físicos e químicos de qualidade de solos de área de mineração e metalurgia de chumbo

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    Yara Jurema Barros

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pb mining and metallurgy activities in Adrianópolis (PR caused impacts to the environment. Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn total contents (HF and extracted with 0.5 mol L-1 HNO3 and some physical and chemical characteristics (fertility, field capacity and texture were determined to assess the area soil quality, through the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The maximum Pb-HF and Pb-HNO3 contents were, respectively, 25,930 and 15,370 mg kg-1. It were identified two environmental with high contamination risks: surface water by erosive process - soil 5, with higher total Pb content, associated to the site height and the area pronounced declivity; underground water by leaching - soil 3, with higher HNO3 Pb contents, associated with the proximity of the site to Ribeira River’s. The soil 5 samples were grouped (PCA due to the low fertility and clay content. In the other side, the soil 3 samples were grouped in response of your higher nutrients contents. Higher physical and chemical soil conditions allowed better plant growth, reducing the erosion and improving phytoextraction practices in the area. As atividades mineração e metalurgia de Pb em Adrianópolis (PR causaram impactos ao meio ambiente. Foram determinados os teores de Pb, Cu, Ni e Zn totais (HF e extraídos com HNO3 0,5 mol L-1 e algumas características físicas e químicas (fertilidade, capacidade de campo e textura, com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade dos solos da área, usando a análise por componentes principais (ACP. Foram coletadas quatro amostras compostas de solo em cinco locais, nas profundidades de 0 a 5 e de 5 a 10 cm: solo 1 - referência (mata nativa; solo 2 - resíduos da metalurgia incorporados ao perfil; solos 3 e 6 - próximos a chaminés da fábrica, com potencial de aporte de material particulado; solo 5 - grande volume de resíduos da metalurgia sobre o solo. Os teores máximos de Pb - total e Pb - HNO3 foram de 25.930 e 15.370 mg kg-1, respectivamente. Foram identificados

  16. Relationship between water transparency and physical-chemical variables in lakes of the western Amazon, Brazil=Variações entre transparência de água e variáveis físico-químicas em lagos da Amazônia Ocidental, Brasil

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    Giselle Vanessa Trevisan

    2012-01-01

    delineamento seguiu a escolha das variáveis, análise das premissas impostas pelo modelo de regressão linear e validação do modelo. As variáveis que melhor se ajustaram ao modelo foram: nível da água, temperatura de fundo, condutividade e pH para ambos os períodos de análise (R2 = 0,64. O modelo resultante sugere que o processo de ressuspensão e sedimentação do material particulado influenciam as variáveis físicas e químicas juntamente à variação sazonal no nível da água nos sistemas de lagos da RDSM.

  17. Processo PTA-P - Uma revisão da literatura como base para inovações: parte 2 de 2: comportamento térmico e cinemático do pó, parâmetros e consumíveis do processo PTA-P Process - A literature review as basis for innovations: part 2 of 2: powder thermal and kinematic behavior, process parameters and consumables

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    Régis Henrique Gonçalves e Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A forma do material de adição confere ao processo PTA-P alguns de seus principais diferenciais de desempenho em relação ao processo com adição de arame. No campo metalúrgico, há maior flexibilidade de manipulação da composição química do depósito pela mistura de pós; o material particulado também favorece maior refino da microestrutura. Em termos de processo, o pó favorece maior controlabilidade da poça metálica e geometria do cordão. Por outro lado, o pó também é a origem de grandes desafios tecnológicos, principalmente em aplicações não convencionais, como na posição sobrecabeça. Assim, o estudo sobre o comportamento do pó em sua trajetória até a poça de fusão foi realizado, como base de conhecimento para inovações do sistema. São descritas as propriedades e processos de fabricação do material de adição e suas implicações sobre o processo. Também neste segundo artigo da série é apresentado um panorama dos parâmetros utilizados em trabalhos industriais e de P&D relatados na literatura, sob diferentes condições e aplicações, incluindo regulagens elétricas e os parâmetros geométricos da tocha e alimentação de material. Com influência fundamental no resultado da solda, também os gases do processo são abordados.The form of the filler material yields to the PTA-P Process some of its performance distinctions in relation to wire feed. In the metallurgical field, there is manipulation flexibility over the material, and therefore the deposit's chemical composition by means of powder mixture; in addition, greater grain refining is favored by the particulate material. In terms of process, one can mention better molten pool controllability and bead finishing from powder. On the other hand, particulate material consists also in the origin of technological challenges, mainly in non conventional applications, like overhead position welding. Hence, studies on the powder behavior in its way until the

  18. CONCRETE-RUBBER TYRES USED IN BIKE PATH = CONCRETO COM BORRACHA DE PNEUS APLICADO EM CICLOVIA

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    José Franklin Moreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Automotive tires have indefinite decomposition in nature and represent great concern about the environmental impacts. The tires disposed of improperly can cause many problems to accumulate water and enhance the proliferation of disease vectors. When directed to landfills can cause instability due to massive voids generated between them. In the case of incineration generate particulate matter and toxic gases becoming a health risk. The constituents of tires as, rubber, nylon and steel may constitute raw material for other uses. Thus, the final destination and environmentally correct, appropriate and safe reuse are challenges to be met in all segments. The construction impacts the environment, but you can use waste with the appropriate technical evidence. For the use of waste in construction are barriers, both technological and political, making this burgeoning practice. This work is an account of a joint experience between city government, construction company and educational institution, for the application of rubber originated automotive tires on a bike path. We used a concrete with addition of tire rubber, replacing the aggregate, for running a bike path and found to their possible application in replacement to conventional concrete. The bike path option offers mobility, fosters habits healthier life and leisure for the population served, and can contribute to sustainability. = Os pneus automotivos apresentam tempo indeterminado de decomposição na natureza representando grande preocupação quanto aos impactos ambientais. Os pneus descartados de forma inadequada podem causar muitos problemas ao acumular água e potencializar a proliferação de vetores de doenças. Quando direcionados aos aterros podem causar instabilidade no maciço devido aos vazios gerados entre eles. No caso da incineração geram material particulado e gases tóxicos tornando-se um risco à saúde. Como parte da constituição dos pneus, a borracha, o nylon e o a

  19. Fixação de carbono e a emissão dos gases de efeito estufa na exploração da cana-de-açúcar Fixing of carbon and emission of greenhouse gases in the exploitation of sugar cane

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    Mauro de Paula

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A produção de uma tonelada (t de fitomassa em matéria seca (MS de cana-de-açúcar fixa, no mínimo, 0,42 t em carbono (C, o que corresponde a mitigar 1,54 t de dióxido de carbono (CO2 da atmosfera. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se efetuar um levantamento da quantidade de fitomassa da cana-de-açúcar produzida em 1 ha anualmente. Além de analisar o total de C fixado e a emissão de diversos gases de efeito estufa (GEE, em CO2 equivalente (eqCO2, em consequência da adubação nitrogenada; da queima da fitomassa na colheita e da oxidação de combustíveis fósseis usados na produção, colheita e no transporte da cana até a indústria. Com base na análise dos dados, concluiu-se que ao adotar como procedimento a colheita da cana-de-açúcar crua, o produtor canavieiro estará deixando de emitir 0,286 t ha-1 ano-1 de material particulado, 13,53 t ha-1 ano-1 em eqCO2 de outros gases, além de fixar o C na fitomassa, gerando um ativo ambiental de 52,50 t ha-1 ano-1 de eqCO2. Ao somar-se o total da fixação, mais a redução que deixará de ser emitida, a mitigação total será de 66,03 t ha-1 ano-1 de eqCO2.The production of one tonne (t of phytomass in dry matter (DM of sugar cane assimilates at least 0.42 t in carbon (C which corresponds to 1.54 t of carbon dioxide (CO2 from the atmosphere. This work aimed to make a survey of the quantity of phytomass from sugar cane produced in 1 ha annually, and also to examine the total C fixed and the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs, in CO2 equivalent as a consequence of nitrogen fertilization, burning of phytomass at harvest and the oxidation of fossil fuels during production, harvest, and transport of the sugar cane to the industrial plant. Based on the analysis of data, it was concluded that by harvesting the sugar cane without burning, the farmer will not emit 0.286 t ha-1 year-1 of particulate matter, 13,53 t ha-1 year-1 in eqCO2 of other gases. This will also assimilate carbon in the phytomass

  20. Poluição atmosférica e doenças respiratórias em crianças na cidade de Curitiba, PR

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    Sonia Maria Cipriano Bakonyi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos causados pela poluição atmosférica na morbidade por doenças respiratórias em crianças entre 1999 e 2000. MÉTODOS: Foram obtidos os dados diários de atendimentos por doenças respiratórias para crianças em unidades de saúde no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS no município de Curitiba, PR, Brasil. Níveis diários de material particulado, fumaça, dióxido de nitrogênio e ozônio foram obtidos com o Instituto Ambiental do Paraná e Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento, organização não governamental. Dados diários de temperatura e umidade relativa do ar foram fornecidos pelo Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia. Para verificar a relação existente entre doenças respiratórias e poluição atmosférica, utilizou-se o modelo aditivo generalizado de regressão de Poisson, tendo como variável dependente o número diário de atendimentos por doenças respiratórias e, como variáveis independentes, as concentrações médias diárias dos poluentes atmosféricos. A análise foi ajustada para sazonalidade de longa duração (número de dias transcorridos, sazonalidade de curta duração (dias da semana, temperatura mínima e umidade média. O nível de significância alfa=5% foi adotado em todas as análises . RESULTADOS: Todos os poluentes investigados apresentaram efeitos sobre as doenças respiratórias de crianças. Um aumento de 40,4 µg/m³ na média móvel de três dias de fumaça esteve associado a um aumento de 4,5% (IC 95% 1,5; 7,6 nas consultas por doenças respiratórias de crianças. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados sugerem que a poluição atmosférica promove efeitos adversos para a saúde das crianças, mesmo quando os níveis dos poluentes estão aquém do que determina a legislação.

  1. Circulatory disease mortality rates in the elderly and exposure to PM2.5 generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Amazon in 2005 Mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares en los ancianos y la exposición a PM2,5 como resultado de la quema en la Amazonia brasileña en 2005 Mortalidade por doenças circulatórias na população idosa e exposição a PM2,5 em decorrência das queimadas na Amazônia brasileira em 2005

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    Eliane Ignotti

    2013-03-01

    material particulado fino com as taxas de mortalidade por doenças circulatórias em idosos na Amazônia brasileira. Trata-se de um estudo ecológico das taxas de mortalidade por doenças circulatórias, infarto agudo do miocárdio e doença cerebrovascular em microrregiões da Amazônia brasileira. O indicador de exposição ambiental foi estimado em porcentagem de horas de PM2,5 > 25µg/m³ dividido pelo número total de horas estimadas de PM2,5 em 2005. A associação do indicador de exposição com as taxas de mortalidade por doenças do aparelho circulatório foi maior para o grupo mais idoso. A taxa de mortalidade por doença cerebrovascular não mostrou associação com indicador de exposição. As doenças do aparelho circulatório em idosos residentes na Amazônia têm sido influenciadas pela poluição atmosférica resultante das emissões causadas por incêndios.

  2. ANÁLISIS DE CORROSIÓN EN DUCTOS DE CONDUCCIÓN DE GASES EN UNA PLANTA DE CLINKER CORROSION ANALYSIS IN GAS CONDUCTION DUCTS IN A CLINKER PLANT

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    Alex Humberto Restrepo Carvajal

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de un estudio detallado de las causas del deterioro observado en ductos metálicos de una planta productora de cemento. Para el análisis, se inició con una minuciosa inspección visual, tomando muestras de sustratos, productos de corrosión y gases de proceso. Al mismo tiempo se realizaron medidas de potencial de estructura, espesores de pared y temperaturas de superficies. Para la evaluación de la agresividad del ambiente se instalaron captadores de contaminantes (cloruros, sulfatos y óxidos de nitrógeno. Las muestras recolectadas se analizaron por medio de microscopia óptica y electrónica de barrido, espectroscopia EDS, difracción de rayos X, espectroscopia infrarroja y cromatografía iónica. Los gases se analizaron insitu siguiendo el procedimiento EPA-2. Los resultados para las superficies externas indican una atmósfera con agresividad C3 según la norma ISO 9223, observando influencia de la alta temperatura, largos periodos de humectación, material particulado y errores en la selección del sistema de protección. Las capas de productos al exterior son uniformes, compactas y son compuestas principalmente por hematita. Al interior de los ductos se presentan procesos de sulfurización y oxidación; el ataque por azufre es localizado y genera perforación de las paredes metálicas. Los productos encontrados son mayormente sulfatos de hierro y Fe2O3. Los procedimientos empleados y los resultados obtenidos son útiles para la toma de decisiones en mantenimiento y protección contra la corrosión de este tipo de instalaciones.The results of a detailed study of the causes of deterioration, observed in metallic ducts in a cement production plant are presented. The analysis started with a careful visual inspection, collecting samples of substrates, corrosion products and process gases. At the same time, measurements of potential, wall thickness and surface temperatures were carried out. For

  3. Aerossois de queimadas e doencas respiratorias em criancas, Manaus, Brasil

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    Valdir Soares de Andrade Filho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a relação entre a exposição ao material particulado fino emitido em queimadas e as internações hospitalares por doenças respiratórias em crianças. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo com delineamento ecológico de séries temporais realizado em Manaus de 2002 a 2009. Os dados de internações hospitalares foram obtidos a partir do banco de dados do Sistema Único de Saúde. Os níveis de PM2.5 foram estimados por sensoriamento remoto a partir da espessura ótica de aerossóis no comprimento de onda de 550 nm. Foram utilizadas a correlação de Pearson e a regressão linear múltipla entre as variáveis com intervalo de 95% de confiança. RESULTADOS: A região de Manaus apresentou baixas concentrações de PM2.5, quando comparada com a porção sul da região Amazônica. Os meses de agosto a novembro (período seco apresentaram os maiores níveis médios de PM2.5 (de 18 a 23 µg/m³ e os maiores números de focos de queimadas detectados. A média do PM2.5 para a estação chuvosa foi de 12 µg/m³, 66% menor que a média da estação seca, 20,6 µg/m³. As maiores taxas de internações ocorreram durante a estação chuvosa, e o mês de abril teve a maior taxa, com 2,51/1.000 crianças. Foi observada associação positiva significativa entre as internações e a umidade relativa (R = 0,126; p = 0,005, enquanto a associação entre internações com PM2.5 mostrou-se negativa e estatisticamente significativa (R = - 0,168; p = 0,003. O R² do modelo final (Internações = 2,19*Umidade - 1,60*PM2.5 - 0,23*Precipitação explicou em 84% as internações por doenças respiratórias em crianças, considerando as variáveis independentes estatisticamente significativas (umidade, PM2.5, e precipitação. CONCLUSÕES: As internações hospitalares de crianças por doenças respiratórias em Manaus podem estar mais associadas às condições meteorológicas, principalmente a umidade, do que à exposição dos aerossóis emitidos em focos

  4. Surface modification of a granite building stone in central Rio de Janeiro

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    José A. Baptista-Neto

    2006-06-01

    ção das áreas afetadas pela formação de crosta negra sobre toda a fachada do prédio, principalmente concentradas em áreas abrigadas da ação da chuva. As análises demonstraram a influência de aerosóis marinhos, composição das rochas e argamassas e dos poluentes atmosféricos na deterioração e formação de crostas no granito. Muito da deterioração é associado especificamente a presença de sais, tais como halita (NaCl e gipsita (CaS0(4.2H2O. O fato da crosta negra de gipsita ser capaz de se desenvolver sobre toda a fachada do prédio, em um ambiente sub-tropical úmido é testemunha da eficácia dos altos níveis de poluição local, especialmente da deposição de particulados, e da reduzida lavagem pela chuva em um micro-ambiente protegido,em ruas estreitas, que funcionam como corredores de poluição, impedindo a tendência da gipsita ser lavada das fachadas dos prédios históricos. Essa observação destaca que os processos de intemperismo operante, são principalmente controlados por condições microclimáticas.

  5. Fluidodinâmica de sementes de brócolos em leito fluizado e leito de jorro Fluid-dynamics of broccoli seeds in fluized and spouted beds

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    Celina de Almeida

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Os processos em leito fluidizado e de jorro são comumente empregados para secagem, recobrimento e granulação de sistemas particulados nas indústrias química e farmacêutica, enquanto na área agronômica estão limitados a tratamento de algumas espécies de sementes. Este trabalho objetivou apresentar a análise fluidodinâmica dos leitos fluidizado e de jorro, quando são utilizadas sementes de brócolos (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica e verificar a influência na germinação das sementes, submetidas aos dois tipos de processo por 60 min à temperatura do ar de 25°C. A fluidodinâmica nos dois tipos de contato, leitos fluidizado e de jorro, foi estabelecida pelas medidas da queda de pressão no leito e vazões de ar crescentes e decrescentes, para diferentes cargas de sementes. As condições experimentais foram baseadas nas análises das propriedades físicas das sementes e limitadas às dimensões do equipamento de laboratório. O leito cone-cilíndrico foi projetado e construído em acrílico, para permitir a visualização do processo. Os valores de queda de pressão máxima, vazão de jorro mínimo, vazão de jorro estável e queda de pressão no mínimo jorro foram obtidos a partir dos gráficos de queda de pressão-vazão para o leito de jorro. Estes valores foram comparados aos correspondentes valores obtidos por equações empíricas citadas na literatura. O mesmo procedimento foi realizado para o leito fluidizado obtendo-se os valores para velocidade de mínima fluidização e queda de pressão na mínima fluidização. Não houve danos à germinação das sementes que participaram dos processos.The spouted and fluidized bed technologies are usually employed in operations of drying, coating and granulation of particles by the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The use of these techniques in agronomy is limited to the treatment of some species of seeds. In this work, the objective was to analyse the fluid-dynamics of

  6. Copper electrowinning in a moving-bed cell based on reactive electrodialysis

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    Cifuentes, L.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A two-compartment lab-scale reactive electrodialysis (RED cell with a moving particulate cathode has been used for copper electrowinning. The cathodic reaction was copper electrodeposition on a bed of copper particles forced to circulate inside a fixed cylindrical enclosure by the action of rotating paddles; the anodic reaction was ferrous to ferric ion oxidation on an anode made of static graphite bars. The anolyte (aqueous FeSO4 + H2SO4 and catholyte (aqueous CuSO4 + H2SO4 are kept separate by an anion membrane which prevents cation transport between the electrolytes. Experiments were carried out in order to characterize cell performance under various conditions. When operating with 40 g/L Cu (II, I = 6 A, T = 50°C, 40 rpm paddle rotation and 990 mL/min electrolyte recirculation flowrate, the specific energy consumption (SEC for copper electrowinning was 2.25 kWh/kg. An optimization of cell dimensions gave an improved SEC of 1.55 kWh/kg whereas a temperature increase from 50 to 56°C (without changing cell dimensions produced a SEC of 1.50 kWh/kg, which is 25% lower than normal values for conventional copper electrowinning cells. A comparison was drawn between the performance of this cell and a squirrel-cage cell previously developed by the authors.

    Una celda a escala laboratorio de electrodiálisis reactiva (EDR, de dos compartimientos con cátodo particulado móvil, se ha utilizado para electroobtener cobre. La reacción catódica fue la electrodeposición de cobre sobre un lecho de partículas de cobre que circulan dentro de un cilindro fijo por la acción de paletas rotatorias; la reacción anódica fue la oxidación de ión ferroso a ión férrico sobre un ánodo hecho de barras de grafito estáticas. El anolito (FeSO4 + H2SO4 acuoso y el catolito (CuSO4 + H2SO4 acuoso se mantienen separados por una

  7. Contaminación aérea y sus efectos en la salud Air pollution an its effects on health

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    MANUEL OYARZÚN G

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El término “contaminación del aire” incluye una amplia variedad de componentes químicos y biológicos de la atmósfera intra y extradomiciliaria. Este artículo intenta realizar una revisión crítica de los efectos de la contaminación intra y extradomiciliaria sobre la salud humana, poniendo especial énfasis en la situación de los habitantes de ciudades chilenas con niveles críticamente altos de contaminación atmosférica. Los contaminantes atmosféricos riesgosos para la salud humana son el material particulado inhalable (PM10; PM2,5 y PM0,1 y compuestos químicos gaseosos tales como dióxido de nitrógeno, ozono, dióxido de azufre y monóxido de carbono. El aire intradomiciliario contiene una variedad de compuestos nocivos que derivan de múltiples fuentes. Las más importantes son el humo de cigarrillo, artefactos de calefacción y para cocción de alimentos y los agentes biológicos y sus sub-productos. La exposición a contaminantes del aire no solo puede aumentar la tasa de morbilidad sino la tasa de mortalidad como también puede aumentar el número de ingresos hospitalarios de pacientes con síntomas respiratorios y cardiovasculares. La contaminación del aire es importante en la determinación de la calidad de vida de niños menores, ancianos y en pacientes con enfermedades respiratorias y cardiovasculares. Los profesionales de la salud deberían abogar por una atmósfera intra y extradomiciliaria más limpia a través de la difusión del conocimiento que disponemos sobre los efectos respiratorios y no respiratorios de la contaminación del aire.The term “air pollution” comprises a wide variety of chemical and biological components of the outdoor and indoor atmosphere. Air pollution and its effect on human health is critically reviewed in this article with emphasis in the situation of inhabitants of Chilean cities with critical high levels of atmospheric pollution. Atmospheric contaminants that are hazardous for the

  8. Supramolecular ionics: electric charge partition within polymers and other non-conducting solids

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    FERNANDO GALEMBECK

    2001-12-01

    uma destas questões, contribuindo para a resolução das outras. Este trabalho resenha resultados obtidos combinando-se as microscopias de varredura de potencial elétrico (SEPM e de força elétrica (EFM com a microscopia eletrônica analítica baseada na espectroscopia de perda de energia de elétrons (ESI-TEM. Os materiais examinados são colóides poliméricos (látexes, polímeros termoplásticos, nanopartículas e híbridos. Nos materiais particulados foram observados domínios com excesso de cargas elétricas, estendendo-se por dezenas e centenas de nanômetros, formados por grandes acúmulos de cátions ou ânions atingindo dimensões supramoleculares. No caso dos termoplásticos, a formação dos domínios elétricos ainda não está bem compreendida, sendo tentativamente atribuída a efeitos triboquímicos no processamento do plástico, à formação de domínios oxidados, à ação de radiação de alta energia no ambiente ou aos efeitos Mawell-Wagner-Sillars e Costa Ribeiro.

  9. Inhibition of CYP1 by berberine, palmatine, and jatrorrhizine: Selectivity, kinetic characterization, and molecular modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Sheng-Nan [National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei 112, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Yu-Ping; Tsai, Keng-Chang [National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei 112, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Chia-Yu [National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei 112, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Medical Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 101, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Tian-Shung [Department of Chemistry, National Chung-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ueng, Yune-Fang, E-mail: ueng@nricm.edu.tw [National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei 112, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Medical Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 101, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-11-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) 1 family plays a primary role in the detoxification and bioactivation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 exhibit differential substrate specificity and tissue distribution. Berberine, palmatine, and jatrorrhizine are protoberberine alkaloids present in several medicinal herbs, such as Coptis chinensis (Huang-Lian) and goldenseal. These protoberberines inhibited CYP1A1.1- and CYP1B1.1-catalyzed 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD) activities, whereas CYP1A2.1 activity was barely affected. Kinetic analysis revealed that berberine noncompetitively inhibited EROD activities of CYP1A1.1 and CYP1B1.1, whereas palmatine and jatrorrhizine caused either competitive or mixed type of inhibition. Among protoberberines, berberine caused the most potent and selective inhibitory effect on CYP1B1.1 with the least K{sub i} value of 44 ± 16 nM. Berberine also potently inhibited CYP1B1.1 activities toward 7-ethoxycoumarin and 7-methoxyresorufin, whereas the inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylation activity was less pronounced. Berberine inhibited the polymorphic variants, CYP1B1.3 (V432L) and CYP1B1.4 (N453S), with IC{sub 50} values comparable to that for CYP1B1.1 inhibition. Berberine-mediated inhibition was abolished by a mutation of Asn228 to Thr in CYP1B1.1, whereas the inhibition was enhanced by a reversal mutation of Thr223 to Asn in CYP1A2.1. This result in conjugation with the molecular modeling revealed the crucial role of hydrogen-bonding interaction of Asn228 on CYP1B1.1 with the methoxy moiety of berberine. These findings demonstrate that berberine causes a selective CYP1B1-inhibition, in which Asn228 appears to be crucial. The inhibitory effects of berberine on CYP1B1 activities toward structurally diverse substrates can be different. - Highlights: • Berberine preferentially inhibited CYP1B1 activity. • Berberine caused similar inhibitory effects on CYP1B1.1, CYP1B1.3 and CYP1B1.4. • Asn228 in CYP

  10. Electron collisions with the SF2 radical using the R-matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the elastic and the excitation cross sections of the four lowest-lying electronically excited states of the radical SF2 using the R-matrix method. These excited states have symmetries 1 3A2, 1 1A2, 1 3B1 and 1 1B1. Their vertical excitation energies from the equilibrium geometry of the ground state X 1A1 lie in the range 3.40-6.47 eV. Configuration interaction (CI) wavefunctions are used to represent the target states. In our CI model, we keep the core 14 electrons frozen in doubly occupied molecular orbitals 1a1, 2a1, 3a1, 4a1, 1b1, 1b2 and 2b2. The complete active space consists of 20 valence electrons that are allowed to move freely among the 12 molecular orbitals: 5a1, 6a1, 7a1, 8a1, 9a1, 2b1, 3b1, 3b2, 4b2, 5b2, 6b2 and 1a2. Our calculations do not detect any bound SF-2 states at the equilibrium geometry of the SF2 molecule. We find two shape resonances of 2B2 and 2A1 symmetries with their resonance positions at 1.98 eV and 3.36 eV respectively. Their corresponding resonance widths are 1.52 eV and 2.4 eV. Born correction is applied for the elastic and the dipole allowed transitions to account for higher partial waves excluded in the R-matrix calculation. Total cross sections are presented for incident electron energies up to 15 eV. Calculations with asymmetric stretch of SF2 reveal that 2B2 (2A' in Cs) resonance becomes bound at a bond length beyond 3.9a0. We have also determined the equilibrium geometries, the single bond dissociation energies and the vertical detachment energies of the anionic states. The vertical and adiabatic electron affinity of SF2 are also determined and compared with other works

  11. Rapid Determination of Aflatoxin B1,B2,G1,G2 in wine with HPLC and Immunoaffinity Column%免疫亲和柱HPLC荧光检测酒中黄曲霉毒素B1、B2、G1、G2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佐卿; 谢东华; 孙大为; 康继韬; 俞雪钧

    2001-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity technology was used for specific method of extracting and purging aflatoxin from samples directly. After evaporating the extract to dryness, the residue were derived and detected by HPLC fluorescence detector. The average recoveries (n=10) are G1 73.8%、B1 97.3%、G2 61.7%、B2 90.5% respectively;the RSD of ten determination are G1 4.50%、B1 3.80%、G2 3.68%、B2 4.77% respectively; in the rang of 25—1250pg the analytical response is linear, the correlation coefficients are G1: r =0.9990 ,B1: r=0.9994,G2: r=0.9995,B2 :r=0.9992 respectively;the limit of determination was 6.25pg .%采用单克隆抗体免疫亲和技术作为直接从样品中分离提纯黄曲霉毒素的特效手段,提取液挥发干后,经衍生用HPLC荧光检测器测定。本法在样品中添加2.5μg /kg黄曲霉毒素时进行10次测定,平均回收率分别为G1 73.8%、B1 97.3%、G2 61.7%、B2 90.5%;2.5μg /kg 10次测定的精密度分别为:G1 4.50%、B1 3.80%、G2 3.68%、B2 4.77%,本方法在25—1250pg 范围内呈线性,相关系数分别为G1: r =0.9990 、 B1: r=0.9994、 G2: r=0.9995、 B2 : r=0.9992。测定的最低检出限为6.25pg。

  12. Low-energy elastic and inelastic scattering of electrons from SO2 using the R -matrix method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Monika; Baluja, K. L.

    2006-04-01

    R -matrix method is used to calculate elastic differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections for electron- SO2 collision. The electron-impact excitation cross sections for first seven low-lying electronic excited states of SO2 molecule from the ground state of SO2 molecule have been calculated for the first time. Sixteen low-lying electronic states of SO2 molecule are included in the close coupling expansion of the wave function of the entire scattering system, which have vertical excitation energies up to 10.51eV . Configuration-interaction (CI) wave functions are used to calculate these excitation energies. In our CI model, we keep the core 14 electrons frozen in doubly occupied molecular orbitals 1a1 , 2a1 , 3a1 , 4a1 , 1b1 , 1b2 , 2b2 and the remaining 18 electrons span the relevant active space: 5a1 , 6a1 , 7a1 , 8a1 , 9a1 , 2b1 , 3b1 , 3b2 , 4b2 , 5b2 , 6b2 , and 1a2 . Our calculated dipole moment of the ground state of SO2 at its equilibrium geometry is 0.79a.u. , which is in reasonable agreement with the corresponding experimental value 0.64a.u. Our calculations detect one bound SO2- state (B12) at the equilibrium geometry of SO2 molecule. Both shape as well as core-excited shape resonances have been identified in the present work and are correlated with the experimental results on dissociative electron attachment study. A detailed analysis of resonances is provided. Cross sections are reported for the electron impact energy range 0-15eV . All cross section calculations are performed in the fixed-nuclei approximation at the experimental equilibrium geometry of the ground state of SO2 molecule. We have also investigated dependence of resonances on the geometry of SO2 molecule to probe the possible pathways for dissociation of resulting negative ion upon electron attachment. We have excellent agreement of differential, elastic integral, and momentum transfer cross sections calculated in the 16-state R -matrix approximation with the available

  13. Labile carbon pools and biological activity in volcanic soils of the Canary Islands Fracciones de carbono orgánico lábil y actividad biológica en suelos de origen volcánico de las Islas Canarias Frações de carbono orgânico lábil e actividade biológica em solos de origem vulcânica das Ilhas Canárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia María Armas Herrera

    2013-03-01

    (0.77 g kg-1, which represents an SOC pool of low bioavailability, was protected by its adsorption to allophane in silandic Andosols.La medida de la susceptibilidad del carbono orgánico del suelo (SOC a la mineralización es esencial para predecir la respuesta a corto plazo de los reservorios biosféricos de carbono a los cambios en las condiciones ambientales. En este trabajo abordamos el estudio del SOC lábil (fácilmente mineralizable en suelos volcánicos, donde la biodisponibilidad del SOC se ve característicamente afectada por mecanismos de estabilización físico-química propios de estos suelos. Con este fin seleccionamos diez suelos representativos (sobre todo Andosoles de los principales hábitats naturales (matorral xerofítico, monteverde y pinar en las Islas Canarias, un archipiélago de origen volcánico. Durante dos años medimos diversas fracciones de SOC a las que se atribuye un distinto grado de biodisponibilidad: carbono soluble en agua en muestras frescas de suelo (WSC y en el extracto saturado (WSCse, carbono extraíble en agua caliente (HWC, carbono extraíble con sulfato potásico (PSC, carbono ligado a la biomasa microbiana (MBC, carbono orgánico particulado (POC, carbono de sustancias húmicas (HSC, y carbono orgánico total (TOC, y realizamos ensayos de incubación de las emisiones de CO2. Relacionamos estas medidas con los posibles aportes de carbono procedentes de la hojarasca y las raíces, y la actividad de enzimas hidrolíticas (CM-celulasa, ?-D-glucosidasa, y deshidrogenasa implicadas en el ciclado del carbono. La medida in vitro de la mineralización en ensayos cortos (10 días se ajustó a un modelo cinético simple de primer orden, un procedimiento sencillo que nos permitió obtener no sólo una estimación del SOC más inmediatamente mineralizable, sino también de la heterogeneidad de los sustratos consumidos durante la incubación. Los suelos volcánicos investigados mostraron una gran riqueza de SOC lábil, en los que

  14. Spectroscopic and photometric analysis of the early-type spectroscopic binary HD 161853 in the centre of an H II region

    CERN Document Server

    Gamen, R; Barbá, R H; Arias, J I; Apellániz, J Maíz; Walborn, N R; Sota, A; Alfaro, E J

    2015-01-01

    We study the O-type star HD 161853, which has been noted as a probable double-lined spectroscopic binary system. We secured high-resolution spectra of HD 161853 during the past nine years. We separated the two components in the system and measured their respective radial velocities for the first time. We confirm that HD 161853 is an $\\sim$1 Ma old binary system consisting of an O8 V star ($M_{\\rm A,RV} \\geq 22$ M$_\\odot$) and a B1--3 V star ($M_{\\rm B,RV} \\geq 7.2$ M$_\\odot$) at about 1.3 kpc. From the radial velocity curve, we measure an orbital period $P$ = 2.66765$\\pm$0.00001 d and an eccentricity $e$ = 0.121$\\pm$0.007. Its $V$-band light curve is constant within 0.014 mag and does not display eclipses, from which we impose a maximum orbital inclination $i=54$ deg. HD 161853 is probably associated with an H II region and a poorly investigated very young open cluster. In addition, we detect a compact emission region at 50 arcsec to HD 161853 in 22$\\mu$m-WISE and 24$\\mu$m-Spitzer images, which may be identif...

  15. Defects in semipolar (1 1\\bar {2}\\bar {2}) ZnO grown on (112) LaAlO3/(La,Sr)(Al,Ta)O3 substrate by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, -Sheng, Jr.; Wu, Yue-Han; Peng, Chun-Yen; Chiu, Kun-An; Shih, Yi-Sen; Do, Hien; Lin, Pei-Yin; Ho, Yen-Teng; Chu, Ying-Hao; Chang, Li

    2013-03-01

    The microstructure of semipolar (1 1\\bar {2}\\bar {2}) ZnO deposited on (112) LaAlO3/(La,Sr)(Al,Ta)O3 was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The ZnO shows an in-plane epitaxial relationship of [1 1\\bar {2}3]_{{ZnO}}\\parallel [1 1\\bar {1}]_{{LAO/ LSAT}} with oxygen-face sense polarity. The misfit strain along [1 1\\bar {2}3]_{{ZnO}} and [1\\bar {1}0 0]_{{ZnO}} is relieved through the formation of misfit dislocations with the Burgers vectors \\mathbf{b}=1/6[1 1\\bar {2}3]_{{ZnO}} and \\mathbf{b}=1/3\\langle 1\\bar {2}1 0\\rangle _{{ZnO}}, respectively. The line defects in the semipolar ZnO are predominantly perfect dislocations, and the dislocation density decreases with increasing ZnO thickness as a result of dislocation reactions. Planar defects were observed to lie in the M-plane and extend along , whereas basal stacking faults were rarely found.

  16. Spin physics and transport in narrow-gap III-V based heterostructures and epilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, A C H

    2000-01-01

    mixing of the first subband SdH series and a magneto-intersubband oscillation, the onset of which occurs when the Fermi energy is close to the bottom of the second subband. It is only at the lowest concentrations where the well asymmetry is minimal that beat patterns due to two narrowly split SdH series are observed. This splitting energy is found to be dependent on magnetic field, dropping from approx 4.8 meV at B = 0 T to approx 3.2 meV at B 1.3 T. In contrast, no beating is found in gated InAs/AISb wells at 4.2K over the largest concentration range yet reported in a single sample (4.8x10 sup 1 sup 1 cm sup - sup 2 < n < 2.4x10 sup 1 sup 2 cm sup - sup 2). The Heusler alloy NiMnSb is identified as a candidate for an electrical spin injector for InAs. A simple technique for the fabrication of bulk NiMnSb targets for laser ablation is detailed, and attempts at laser ablation of NiMnSb thin films are reported. Oxygen is identified as the major contaminant for the production of stoichiometric films. High ...

  17. The Column Density Variance-{\\cal M}_s Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A.

    2012-08-01

    Although there is a wealth of column density tracers for both the molecular and diffuse interstellar medium, there are few observational studies investigating the relationship between the density variance (σ2) and the sonic Mach number ({\\cal M}_s). This is in part due to the fact that the σ2-{\\cal M}_s relationship is derived, via MHD simulations, for the three-dimensional (3D) density variance only, which is not a direct observable. We investigate the utility of a 2D column density \\sigma _{\\Sigma /\\Sigma _0}^2-{\\cal M}_s relationship using solenoidally driven isothermal MHD simulations and find that the best fit follows closely the form of the 3D density \\sigma _{\\rho /\\rho _0}^2-{\\cal M}_s trend but includes a scaling parameter A such that \\sigma _{\\ln (\\Sigma /\\Sigma _0)}^2=A\\times \\ln (1+b^2{\\cal M}_s^2), where A = 0.11 and b = 1/3. This relation is consistent with the observational data reported for the Taurus and IC 5146 molecular clouds with b = 0.5 and A = 0.16, and b = 0.5 and A = 0.12, respectively. These results open up the possibility of using the 2D column density values of σ2 for investigations of the relation between the sonic Mach number and the probability distribution function (PDF) variance in addition to existing PDF sonic Mach number relations.

  18. The Effects of Radiative Transfer on the PDFs of Molecular MHD Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A; Stutzki, J

    2013-01-01

    We study the effects of radiative transfer on the Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the widely studied $^{13}$CO 2-1 transition. We find that the integrated intensity maps generally follow a log-normal distribution, with the cases that have $\\tau \\approx 1$ best matching the PDF of the column density. We fit a 2D variance-sonic Mach number relationship to our logarithmic PDFs of the form $\\sigma_{ln(\\Sigma/\\Sigma_0)}^2=A\\times ln(1+b^2{\\cal M}_s^2)$ and find that, for parameter $b=1/3$, parameter $A$ depends on the radiative transfer environment. We also explore the variance, skewness, and kurtosis of the linear PDFs finding that higher moments reflect both higher sonic Mach number and lower optical depth. Finally, we apply the Tsallis incremental PDF function and find that the fit parameters depend on both Mach numbers, but also are sensitive to the radiative transfer parameter space, with the $\\tau \\approx 1$ case best fitting the incremental PDF o...

  19. Type Ia Supernovae with Bi-Modal Explosions Are Common -- Possible Smoking Gun for Direct Collisions of White-Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Subo; Kushnir, Doron; Prieto, Jose L

    2014-01-01

    We discover clear doubly-peaked line profiles in 3 out of ~20 type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with high-quality nebular-phase spectra. The profiles are consistently present in three well-separated Co/Fe emission features. The two peaks are respectively blue-shifted and red-shifted relative to the host galaxies and are separated by ~5000 km/s. The doubly-peaked profiles directly reflect a bi-modal velocity distribution of the radioactive Ni56 in the ejecta that powers the emission of these SNe. Due to their random orientations, only a fraction of SNe with intrinsically bi-modal velocity distributions will appear as doubly-peaked spectra. Therefore SNe with intrinsic bi-modality are likely common, especially among the SNe in the low-luminosity (~40% of all SNe Ia) part on the Philips relation \\Delta m15(B) >~ 1.3. Bi-modality is naturally expected from direct collisions of white dwarfs (WDs) due to the detonation of both WDs and is demonstrated in a 3D 0.64 M_Sun-0.64 M_Sun WD collision simulation.

  20. Boron neutrino flux and resonant conversion of solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of large uncertainties in the prediction of the boron neutrino flux from the Sun we consider the magnitude of this flux, ΦB, as a parameter to be found from experiment. A consistent description of the data in terms of neutrino resonance conversion admits ΦB/Φ0B=0.4 - 2.5 in small mixing domain and ΦB/Φ0B=1 - 3 in large mixing domain, (here φ0B ≡ 5.7 · 106 cm-2s-1 is the flux in the reference SSM). Variations of the flux within these intervals enlarge the allowed region of mixing angles to sin22θ=(0.06 -2) · 10-2 and sin22θ=0.2 - 0.9 correspondingly. If the value of ΦB is about that measured by Kamiokande, the data fix the region Δm2 ∼ (4-9) · 10-6 eV2 and sin2 2θ ∼ (0.6 - 2) · 10-3 (''very small mixing solution''). We comment on the possibility to measure the neutrino parameters and the original boron neutrino flux in future experiments. (author). 31 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  1. From atomic clocks to coordinate times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, G.

    2006-08-01

    The IAU'1991 Resolution A4, complemented by IAU'2000 Resolution B1.3-4, provide rigorous definitions for barycentric and geocentric reference systems in a relativistic framework and define the coordinate times of these systems as TCB and TCG, respectively. Other coordinate times in use are TT, defined from TCG through IAU'2000 Resolution B1.9, and TDB, whose rigorous definition from TCB is now proposed. For practical use, these coordinate times must be realized and the proper time provided by atomic clocks (Atomic time AT) is used to generate all coordinate times. The present sequence is AT => TT ||> TCG -> TCB ||> TDB, where the sign => indicates the complex series of operations involved in generating International atomic time TAI and where ||> is an exact transformation. The paper examines the uncertainty of realization of TAI and the uncertainty brought by the transformation TCG -> TCB. On-going and future evolutions of atomic clocks are reviewed along with their impact on the diagram of time transformations.

  2. Microphysical Retrieval and Rain Rates of Drizzling Stratocumulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, N.; deSzoeke, S. P.

    2011-12-01

    Stratocumulus clouds play an important role in the radiation budget of the Earth. Climate models do a poor job modeling stratocumulus clouds, underestimating their radiative cooling effect, and resulting in large sea surface temperature discrepancies, the most noticeable of which is located in the southeast tropical Pacific Ocean. An understanding of the microphysical processes within the cloud can provide vital insight into how to better model stratocumulus clouds. In 2008, the NOAA 94-GHz cloud radar measured reflectivity, Doppler velocity, and Doppler width data aboard the Ronald H. Brown on the VOCALS research cruise in the southeast Pacific Ocean. Profiles with maximum reflectivity at least 100 m below cloud base are identified as drizzling. The drop size distribution, modal radius, liquid water content, and rain rates for the drizzling stratocumulus clouds in this region were computed with the microphysical retrieval of Frisch et al. (1995). Comparing the cloud-base rain rates from the microphysical retrieval to the cloud-base Z-R relationship proposed by Comstock et al. (2004), we find cloud base rain rates from the microphysical retrieval span a wider range than the rain rate predicted by the Comstock et al. (2004) Z-R relationship. Drop size distributions with the same modal radius follow the relationship Z=aR^b with the exponent b=1.3 proposed by Comstock. Drop size distributions with modal radius less than 5 micrometers lie below Comstock's rain rate range (a84).

  3. Inhibitors of tick-borne flavivirus reproduction from structure-based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osolodkin, Dmitry I; Kozlovskaya, Liubov I; Dueva, Evgenia V; Dotsenko, Victor V; Rogova, Yulia V; Frolov, Konstantin A; Krivokolysko, Sergey G; Romanova, Ekaterina G; Morozov, Alexey S; Karganova, Galina G; Palyulin, Vladimir A; Pentkovski, Vladimir M; Zefirov, Nikolay S

    2013-09-12

    Flaviviruses form a large family of enveloped viruses affecting millions of people over the world. To date, no specific therapy was suggested for the infected people, making the treatment exclusively symptomatic. Several attempts were performed earlier for the design of fusion inhibitors for mosquito-borne flaviviruses, whereas for the tick-borne flaviviruses such design had not been performed. We have constructed homology models of envelope glycoproteins of tick-transmitted flaviviruses with the detergent binding pocket in the open state. Molecular docking of substituted 1,4-dihydropyridines and pyrido[2,1-b][1,3,5]thiadiazines was made against these models, and 89 hits were selected for the in vitro experimental evaluation. Seventeen compounds showed significant inhibition against tick-borne encephalitis virus, Powassan virus, or Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus in the 50% plaque reduction test in PEK cells. These compounds identified through rational design are the first ones possessing reproduction inhibition activity against tick-borne flaviviruses. PMID:24900762

  4. Biological function of Foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural proteins and non-coding elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Sun, Shi-Qi; Guo, Hui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) represses host translation machinery, blocks protein secretion, and cleaves cellular proteins associated with signal transduction and the innate immune response to infection. Non-structural proteins (NSPs) and non-coding elements (NCEs) of FMDV play a critical role in these biological processes. The FMDV virion consists of capsid and nucleic acid. The virus genome is a positive single stranded RNA and encodes a single long open reading frame (ORF) flanked by a long structured 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and a short 3'-UTR. The ORF is translated into a polypeptide chain and processed into four structural proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4), 10 NSPs (L(pro), 2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3B1-3, 3C(pro), and 3D(pol)), and some cleavage intermediates. In the past decade, an increasing number of studies have begun to focus on the molecular pathogenesis of FMDV NSPs and NCEs. This review collected recent research progress on the biological functions of these NSPs and NCEs on the replication and host cellular regulation of FMDV to understand the molecular mechanism of host-FMDV interactions and provide perspectives for antiviral strategy and development of novel vaccines. PMID:27334704

  5. Development of a fluorometric microplate antiadhesion assay using uropathogenic Escherichia coli and human uroepithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Lindsey L; Mathison, Bridget D; Kaspar, Kerrie L; Khoo, Christina; Chew, Boon P

    2014-05-23

    A fluorometric microplate assay has been developed to determine Escherichia (E.) coli adhesion to uroepithelial cells (UEC). P-fimbriated E. coli were labeled with BacLight Green and preincubated 30 min with human urine or standard. Fluorescent-E. coli were added to UEC in mircoplates at a 400:1 ratio, incubated 1 h, and washed, and the fluorescence intensity was measured. Specific labeling and adherence were confirmed by flow cytometry. A myricetin (1) standard curve (0-30 μg/mL) was developed; the lower limit of detection was 0.1 μg/mL, and half-maximal inhibitory concentration was 0.88 μg/mL (intra- and interassay coefficients of variance were Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) extracts, quercetin (2), and procyanidins B1 (3), B2 (4), and C1 (5) showed similar inhibition. Antiadhesion activity of urine samples from subjects (n = 12) consuming placebo or V. macrocarpon beverage determined using this assay was positively correlated (R(2) = 0.78; p < 0.01) with a radiolabeled-E. coli assay. PMID:24749980

  6. Influence of structural features on immunostimulating activity of glucans extracted from Agaricus blazei mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozarski Maja S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available High molecular weight b-D-glucans derived from Basidiomycetes cell walls are able to specifically activate cellular and humoral components of the host immune system. The aim of this paper was to examine immunomodulating activity of native, chemically and enzimatically modified glucans from Agaricus blazei mushroom and to determine which structural features are of primary importance for their stimulation referring to humane immune cells. The immunomodulating activities were tested in vitro, by stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and measuring of interferon-gamma (IFN-g production by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Measurements of immunomodulatory capacity of Agaricus blazei native glucans showed their expressive immunostimulating effect on activated PBMCs and synthesis of IFN-g. The results obtained after the stimulation of cells with 1M H2SO4 and 1M NaOH, the treated glucans showed that primary structure is of more importance than the tertiary structure of the triple helix for their immunostimulating activity and synthesis of IFN-g. Glucans of lower molecular weight obtained after acid hydrolysis appeared as effective immunostimulators of PBMC's. The results obtained after the incubation of cells with 1,6 b-glucanase modified glucans suggest that b-(1,6 binding of glucose monomers probably has no importance for the production of imunostimulating effects, in vitro. This confirmed that b-(1,3 bonds are the primary determinants of immunomodulatory activities and stimulation of IFN-g synthesis.

  7. UWISH2 -- The UKIRT Widefield Infrared Survey for H2

    CERN Document Server

    D.,; J., C; Davis,; G.,; Ioannidis,; M., T; Gledhill,; M.,; Takami,; A.,; Chrysostomou,; J.,; Drew,; J.,; Eislöffel,; A.,; Gosling,; R.,; Gredel,; J.,; Hatchell,; W., K; Hodapp,; N., M S; Kumar,; W., P; Lucas,; H.,; Matthews,; G., M; Rawlings,; D., M; Smith,; B.,; Stecklum,; P., W; Varricatt,; T., H; Lee,; S., P; Teixeira,; A., C; Aspin,; T.,; Khanzadyan,; J.,; Karr,; -J., H; Kim,; -C., B; Koo,; J., J; Lee,; -H., Y; Lee,; Y., T; Magakian,; A., T; Movsessian,; H., E; Nikogossian,; S., T; Pyo,; T.,; Stanke,

    2010-01-01

    We present the goals and preliminary results of an unbiased, near-infrared, narrow-band imaging survey of the First Galactic Quadrant (10degb<+1.3deg). This area includes most of the Giant Molecular Clouds and massive star forming regions in the northern hemisphere. The survey is centred on the 1-0S(1) ro-vibrational line of H2, a proven tracer of hot, dense molecular gas in star-forming regions, around evolved stars, and in supernova remnants. The observations complement existing and upcoming photometric surveys (Spitzer-GLIMPSE, UKIDSS-GPS, JCMT-JPS, AKARI, Herschel Hi-GAL, etc.), though we probe a dynamically active component of star formation not covered by these broad-band surveys. Our narrow-band survey is currently more than 60% complete. The median seeing in our images is 0.73arcsec. The images have a 5sigma detection limit of point sources of K=18mag and the surface brightness limit is 10^-19Wm^-2arcsec^-2 when averaged over our typical seeing. Jets and outflows from bo...

  8. A PAPR reduction technique using Hadamard transform combined with clipping and filtering based on DCT/IDCT for IM/DD optical OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangone, Fall; He, Jing; Tang, Jin; Xiao, Jiangnan; Chen, Ming; Li, Fan; Chen, Lin

    2014-08-01

    In Intensity Modulator/Direct Detection (IM/DD) optical OFDM systems, the high peak-to-power average ratio (PAPR) will cause signal impairments through the nonlinearity of modulator and fiber. In this paper, a joint PAPR reduction technique based on Hadamard transformation and clipping and filtering using DCT/IDCT transform has been proposed for mitigating the impairments in IM/DD optical OFDM system. We then experimentally evaluated the effect of PAPR reduction on the bit error rate (BER) performance and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique. At a bit error rate (BER) of 1 × 10-3, the receiver sensitivity of the proposed 2.5 Gb/s IM/DD optical OFDM system after 100-km standard single-mode fiber transmission has been improved by 0.8 dB, 1.3 dB and 3.1 dB for a launch power of 6.4 dBm, 8 dBm and 10 dBm respectively when compared with the classical system.

  9. Ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes containing chalconates and triphenylphosphine/arsine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Viswanathamurthi; M Muthukumar

    2011-09-01

    A series of new hexa-coordinated ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes of the type [RuCl(CO)(EPh3)(B)(L1−4)] (4-15) (E = P or As; B = PPh3, AsPh3 or Py; L = 2'-hydroxychalcone) were synthesized from the reaction of [RuHCl(CO)(EPh3)2(B)] (1-3) (E = P or As; B = PPh3, AsPh3 or Py) with equimolar chalcone in benzene under reflux. The new complexes have been characterized by analytical and spectroscopic (IR, electronic, 1H, 31P{1H}, and 13C NMR) methods. On the basis of data obtained, an octahedral structure has been assigned for all the complexes. The complexes exhibit catalytic activity for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols into their corresponding aldehydes and ketones in the presence of -methylmorpholine--oxide (NMO) as co-oxidant and were also found to be efficient transfer hydrogenation catalysts. The antifungal properties of the ligands and their complexes have also been examined and compared with standard Bavistin.

  10. The Use of the LanthaScreen TR-FRET CAR Coactivator Assay in the Characterization of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR Inverse Agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Carazo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR is a critical nuclear receptor in the gene regulation of xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism. The LanthaScreenTM TR-FRET CAR coactivator assay provides a simple and reliable method to analyze the affinity of a ligand to the human CAR ligand-binding domain (LBD with no need to use cellular models. This in silico assay thus enables the study of direct CAR ligands and the ability to distinguish them from the indirect CAR activators that affect the receptor via the cell signaling-dependent phosphorylation of CAR in cells. For the current paper we characterized the pharmacodynamic interactions of three known CAR inverse agonists/antagonists—PK11195, clotrimazole and androstenol—with the prototype agonist CITCO (6-(4-chlorophenylimidazo[2,1-b][1,3] thiazole-5-carbaldehyde-O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyloxime using the TR-FRET LanthaScreenTM assay. We have confirmed that all three compounds are inverse agonists of human CAR, with IC50 0.51, 0.005, and 0.35 μM, respectively. All the compounds also antagonize the CITCO-mediated activation of CAR, but only clotrimazole was capable to completely reverse the effect of CITCO in the tested concentrations. Thus this method allows identifying not only agonists, but also antagonists and inverse agonists for human CAR as well as to investigate the nature of the pharmacodynamic interactions of CAR ligands.

  11. A survey of the Galactic center region in HCO+, H13CO+ and SiO

    CERN Document Server

    Riquelme,; Bronfman,; L.,; Mauersberger,; R.,; May,; J.,; Wilson,; L, T

    2010-01-01

    Aims: A large scale survey of the Galactic center region in he 3 mm rotational transitions of SiO, HCO+ and H13CO+ (beamsize ~ 3. 6 arcmin) was conducted to provide an estimate of cloud conditions, heating mechanisms, chemistry and other properties. Methods: Using the NANTEN 4m telescope from Nagoya University, a region between -5.75b<1.3 (degree) was mapped in the J=1-0 lines of HCO+ and H13CO+ and in the J=2-1 line of SiO with a spacing of 3.75 arcmin (HCO+) and 1.875 arcmin (SiO and H13CO+). Results: Velocity channel maps, longitude-velocity maps and latitude-velocity maps are presented. We identify 51 molecular clouds; 33 of them belong to the Galactic center, and 18 to disk gas. We derive an average of the luminosity ratio of SiO(J=2-1)/CO(J=1-0) in clouds belonging to the Galactic center of 4.9x10^{-3} and for disk clouds of 3.4x 10^{-3}. The luminosity ratio of HCO^+(J=1-0)/CO(J=1\\to0) in the Galactic Center is 3.5x 10^{-2}, and for disk clouds is 1.5x 10^{-2}. We ...

  12. Direct access to burning spherical tokamak experiment by pulsed high-power heating of magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The merging/ reconnection startup of high-beta ST has been developed in the TS-3/4 experiments, leading us to its new extension to the pulsed high-power heating for burning plasma formation. Two STs were produced inductively by swing-down of two or four PF coil currents without using any center solenoid (CS) and they were merged together for high-power reconnection heating. The reconnection outflow speed equals to the Alfven speed under no guiding field condition. The outflow energy is converted mostly into ion thermal energy through ion viscosity and/or fast shock, indicating that the ion temperature increment (and the thermal energy increment) scales with squares of reconnecting magnetic field (Alfven speed). This unique method has the highest heating power MW-GW among all CS-less startups and the heating time much shorter than the energy confinement time and the electron-ion collision time. These facts indicate that the merging of two STs possibly provides a direct path to the burning plasma formation. The TS-3/4 scaling data suggest that two merging STs with B=1-3T, n=1020m-3 will be transformed into an ITER-like ST with T∼20keV within reconnection time. (author)

  13. Natural defects and defects created by ionic implantation in zinc tellurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various defects have been studied in ZnTe crystals by transmission electron microscope and by scanning electron microscope in cathodo-luminescence mode: grain boundaries, sub-grain boundaries, twins. Ionic implants of boron (100 keV - 2x1014 and 1015 ions cm-2) were made on these crystals followed by isochrone annealing (30 minutes) of zinc under partial pressure at 550, 650 and 7500C. The nature of the defects was determined by transmission electron microscope: these are interstitial loops (b=1/3) the size of which varies between 20 A (non-annealed sample) and 180A (annealed at 7500C). The transmission electron microscope was also used to make concentration profiles of defects depending on depth. It is found that for the same implant (2x1014 ions.cm-2), the defect peak moves towards the exterior of the crystal as the annealing temperature rises (400 - 1000 and 7000 A for the three annealings). These results are explained from a model which allows for the coalescence of defects and considers the surface of the sample as being the principal source of vacancies. During the annealings, the migration of vacancies brings about the gradual annihilation of the implant defects. The adjustment of certain calculation parameters on the computer result in giving 2 eV as energy value for the formation of vacancies

  14. Study of χ{sub b} meson production in pp collisions at √(s) = 7 and 8 TeV and observation of the decay χ{sub b} (3P) → Υ (3S)γ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaij, R. [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Adeva, B. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Adinolfi, M. [Bristol Univ. (United Kingdom). H.H. Wills Physics Lab.; and others

    2014-10-15

    A study of χ{sub b} meson production at LHCb is performed on proton-proton collision data, corresponding to 3.0 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected at centre-of-mass energies √(s) = 7 and 8 TeV. The fraction of Υ(nS) mesons originating from χ{sub b} decays is measured as a function of the Υ transverse momentum in the rapidity range 2.0 < y{sup Υ} < 4.5. The radiative transition of the χ{sub b} (3P) meson to Υ(3S) is observed for the first time. The χ{sub b1} (3P) mass is determined to be m{sub χ{sub b{sub 1{sub ({sub 3{sub P{sub )}}}}}}} = 10 511.3 ± 1.7 ± 2.5MeV/c{sup 2}, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. (orig.)

  15. Nitrogen-boron coordination versus OH∙∙∙N hydrogen bonding in pyridoxaboroles - aza analogues of benzoxaboroles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steciuk, I; Durka, K; Gontarczyk, K; Dąbrowski, M; Luliński, S; Woźniak, K

    2015-10-01

    Pyridoxaboroles - fused heterocyclic systems composed of pyridine and five-membered oxaborole rings - have been obtained for the first time from simple halopyridines. Thus, 6-butyl-2-(3'-bromo-4'-pyridyl)-(N-B)-1,3,6,2-dioxazaborocan obtained from 3-bromopyridine was converted into a lithio derivative by Br/Li exchange using nBuLi/THF at -85 °C. This intermediate was trapped with benzaldehydes to give the corresponding pyridoxaboroles after hydrolysis. The use of chlorodiphenylsilane as an electrophile gave rise to a related pyridosiloxaborole. The fluorinated pyridoxaborole was obtained by deprotonation of α-(2-methoxyphenyl)-2-fluoro-4-iodopyridylmethanol with NaH and consecutive iodine-lithium exchange/boronation followed by hydrolysis. Single-crystal X-ray analysis of pyridino[4,3-c]-1,3-dihydro-1-hydroxy-3-mesityl[2,1]oxaborole revealed the formation of a unique 1D coordination polymer based on N-B dative bonds between monomeric molecules. In contrast, the crystal structure of 2-fluoropyridino[4,3-c]-1,3-dihydro-1-hydroxy-3-(2'-methoxyphenyl)[2,1]oxaborole features an infinite H-bonded chain as the main structural motif. The presented considerations are quantified in terms of various computational methods (single molecule and dimer energy calculations, electron density topology, NBO analyses) providing a comprehensive picture of the structural properties of pyridoxaboroles. PMID:26328873

  16. A comparative study of the spectroscopic features of the low-lying electronic states of H2F+ and H2Cl+ ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anjan Chattopadhyay

    2010-03-01

    Configuration interaction studies of H2F+ and H2Cl+ ions, using 6-311G (3, 3) basis sets, have revealed several interesting differences in their spectral behaviour. Both of them are having bent ground state (1A1) equilibrium geometries, but there is a huge difference (∼ 1.93 eV) between their energy barrier to linearity. Their first two excited states are found to be linear 3u and 1u states, correlating to 3B1/3A1 and 1B1/1A1 Renner-Teller pairs, respectively, in the C2v symmetry. Considering only the allowed singlet-singlet transitions at the ground state equilibrium geometry, the lowest energy transitions found to have transition moment values of 0.65 D and 0.48 D for H2F+and H2Cl+, respectively, appearing in the far UV region. Conical intersections take place during the symmetrical stretching of two H-Cl bonds in the chloronium ion for the first two pairs of excited states (11A2/11B1 and 11A2/11B1) in the C2v symmetry. This intersection may initiate pre-dissociation from the upper bound adiabatic 1A″ state to the lower repulsive 1A" state in the Cs symmetry. Fluoronium ion is expected to dissociate via a single electronic state due to the absence of such intersection.

  17. Deep sea hydrothermal plumes and their interaction with oscillatory flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangyu; di Iorio, Daniela

    2012-09-01

    The acoustic scintillation method is applied to the investigation and monitoring of a vigorous hydrothermal plume from Dante within the Main Endeavour vent field (MEF) in the Endeavour Ridge segment. A 40 day time series of the plume's vertical velocity and temperature fluctuations provides a unique opportunity to study deep sea plume dynamics in a tidally varying horizontal cross flow. An integral plume model that takes into account ambient stratification and horizontal cross flows is established from the conservation equations of mass, momentum and density deficit. Using a linear additive entrainment velocity in the model (E = αUm + βU⊥) that is a function of both the plume relative axial velocity (Um) and the relative ambient flow perpendicular to the plume (U⊥) gives consistent results to the experimental data, suggesting entrainment coefficients α = 0.1 and β = 0.6. Also from the integral model, the plume height in a horizontal cross flow (Ua) is shown to scale as 1.8B1/3Ua-1/3N-2/3 for 0.01 ≤ Ua ≤ 0.1 m/s where B is the initial buoyancy transport and N is the ambient stratification, both of which are assumed constant.

  18. Efficacy and safety of 8 weeks versus 12 weeks of treatment with grazoprevir (MK-5172) and elbasvir (MK-8742) with or without ribavirin in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 mono-infection and HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infection (C-WORTHY)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulkowski, Mark; Hezode, Christophe; Gerstoft, Jan;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both hepatitis C virus (HCV) mono-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected patients are in need of safe, effective, all-oral HCV regimens. In a phase 2 study we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of grazoprevir (MK-5172; HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor) and two doses of elbasvir (MK-8742...... (100 mg) plus elbasvir (50 mg) with or without ribavirin (arms B1-3) and HIV/HCV co-infected patients to 12 weeks of therapy with or without ribavirin. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving HCV RNA less than 25 IU/mL 12 weeks after end of treatment (SVR12). Randomisation was by...... (7/188, 4%) and was associated with emergence of resistance-associated variants to one or both drugs. The safety profile of grazoprevir plus elbasvir with or without ribavirin was similar in mono-infected and co-infected patients. No patient discontinued due to an adverse event or laboratory...

  19. Nitrógeno liberado por incubación anaeróbica y fracciones de carbono en macro- y microagregados bajo distintos sistemas de cultivo Nitrogen released by anaerobic incubation and organic carbon fractions in macro- and microaggregates under cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Cozzoli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El contenido de carbono orgánico (CO del suelo determina muchas de sus funciones en el agroecosistema, entre las que se destaca su capacidad de proveer nutrientes como el nitrógeno (N. El contenido de las fracciones de CO y de N mineralizable y su distribución en la masa del suelo dependen de las prácticas de manejo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el contenido de CO total (COT, asociado a la fracción mineral (COA y particulado (COP y del N mineralizable (a través del N liberado por incubación anaeróbica, NAN en la masa total del suelo y en macro- y microagregados, bajo distintos sistemas de cultivo (pasturas y agricultura con labranza convencional (LC y bajo siembra directa (SD y fertilización con N (0 y 120 kg N ha-1. Se muestreó un ensayo de larga duración de rotaciones mixtas y labranzas en Balcarce, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se separaron macro- y microagregados por tamizado en seco y se determinaron los contenidos de COT, COA, COP y NAN en la masa del suelo y en cada fracción de agregados. Los suelos bajo pastura mostraron en general los mayores contenidos de todas las fracciones de CO y de NAN tanto en masa total como en cada fracción de agregados. Por otro lado, los niveles de todas esas variables fueron más bajos cuanto más prolongado fue el período bajo agricultura y bajo LC respecto a SD. No hubo diferencias entre tratamientos en la proporción de macro- y microagregados, pero sí hubo una relación significativa de los contenidos de COT y de COP en macroagregados con su estabilidad en situaciones de escaso disturbio (pasturas y SD. Bajo LC tal relación no fue significativa, y la estabilidad de agregados fue más baja. El NAN en la masa total de los suelos bajo agricultura, se relacionó significativamente con el NAN en los macroagregados y, por tanto, se puede esperar una mayor expresión del potencial de mineralización de N en situaciones de manejo que tiendan a romper los macroagregados o en las que

  20. Nitrogen sediment fluxes in an upwelling system off central Chile (Concepción Bay and adjacent shelf during the 1997-1998 El Niño Flujos de compuestos nitrogenados desde los sedimentos, en un sistema de surgencia de Chile central (Bahía Concepción y plataforma adyacente durante El Niño 1997-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAXEDES MUÑOZ

    2004-06-01

    determinar los flujos totales de NH4+. Además se determinó la concentración de NH4+, NO3- y NO2- en el agua intersticial para estimar los flujos difusivos de compuestos nitrogenados en la interfase agua-sedimento. Los flujos de NH4+ totales variaron entre 0,55 y 2,18 mmol m-2 día-1 al interior de la bahía y entre 1,84 a 2,14 mmol m-2 día-1 en la plataforma. Se observaron flujos difusivos de NO3- en dirección a los sedimentos al interior de la bahía en Marzo de 1998 (-17 x 10-2 mmol m-2 día-1y en la plataforma en Noviembre de 1997 (-2,7 x 10-2 mmol m-2 día-1 asociados a los flujos difusivos de NH4+ más bajos, coincidiendo esto con la mayor gradiente de Eh en los sedimentos superficiales. Además, los bajos flujos de NH4+ medidos en comparación con mediciones previas, sugieren la influencia de un ambiente menos reductor, generado a su vez por la disminución del flujo de material orgánico particulado y por el aumento de las concentraciones de oxígeno disuelto en las aguas del fondo. Estas condiciones fueron generadas probablemente por el evento El Niño. También, con relación a reportes previos se registró un incremento en los coeficientes de irrigación (DI. Todo esto sugiere que durante este período los flujos de otros compuestos nitrogenados podrían haber adquirido relevancia con relación a los flujos de NH4+

  1. Ecomicrobiology and microbial assimilative capacity of the oligotrophic Andean Lake Laja, Chile Ecomicrobiología y capacidad asimilativa microbiana del lago oligotrófico andino Laja, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERNHARD KARRASCH

    2011-09-01

    organic loads as well as global change (temperature and precipitation changes could lead to significant changes in the ecology of Lake Laja.La gran presión generada por el desarrollo socioeconómico del sur de Chile, está causando cada vez más un mayor impacto en los lagos y ríos allí presentes. Sin embargo, el conocimiento de la estructura ecológica y la capacidad microbiana de autodepuración de los cuerpos de agua lacustres es escasa, pero esencial para un futuro uso sostenible de los recursos agua y suelo. Se estudió el lago Laja, por ser un cuerpo de agua muy afectado por la extracción de agua para la generación de energía hidroeléctrica y el riego. Como es característico de la región andina, el lago Laja es oligotrófico limitado por nutrientes nitrogenados. Se encontraron bajas concentraciones de clorofila a y carbono orgánico particulado (POC, así como bajas abundancias y biomasa de bacterias (principalmente ultramicrobacteria y de flagelados heterotróficos. Interrelaciones tróficas débiles se determinaron de la relación bacterias y flagelados heterotróficos. Para las diez enzimas extracelulares estudiadas (fosfatasa, leucina-, arginina-, glicina- y tirosina-aminopeptidasa, a-, b-D-glucosidasa, a-, b-D-galactosidasa, N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidasa, con la excepción de α-β-glucosidase, se analizó un amplio rango de actividad de degradación sobre la materia orgánica. Probablemente, debido a la limitación de nitrógeno, el N-orgánico hidrolizado por enzimas extracelulares alcanzó una actividad promedio de 45 %, comparada con otros estudios en aguas oligotróficas. El posible efecto de la limitación de N en la actividad enzimática extracelular, fue más pronunciado en las tasas de la actividad enzimática extracelular específicas, las cuales excedieron en un factor promedio de dos a las de otros cuerpos de aguas oligotróficos. En general, la actividad de todas las enzimas extracelulares microbianas estudiadas resultaron estar dominadas

  2. Tratamiento de efluentes del cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei por sedimentación y filtración por la ostra Crassostrea rhizophorae Treatment of Litopenaeus vannamei farming effluents by sedimentation and oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ramos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A escala de laboratorio se evaluaron las eficiencias de remoción del material particulado y nutrientes disueltos desde efluentes de cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei, utilizando un sistema combinado de dos fases, sedimentación y filtración por la ostra Crassostrea rhizophorae, empleando tres tiempos de retención hidráulica (TRH del efluente, 6, 12 y 24 h. En la fase de sedimentación, se emplearon estanques de 100 L en los cuales fueron colocados 90 L de efluente. En la fase de filtración, se utilizaron estanques de 50 L en los cuales se colocaron 20 L del efluente sobrenadante correspondiente a cada TRH de la fase de sedimentación. Cada unidad experimental de la fase de filtración fue sembrada con 15 ejemplares adultos de ostras con un peso promedio de 80 g manteniendo una biomasa de 1.200 g estanque-1 . Se utilizó un estanque control para cada TRH, conteniendo solamente conchas de ostras sin animal. Los resultados indicaron que en la fase de sedimentación el mejor desempeño fue alcanzado en el tiempo de 24 h, con 56,1% de remoción para la turbidez, 36,3% para los sólidos volátiles totales, la DB0(5 con 31,0% y el amonio con 21,4%. En la fase de filtración, la mayor eficiencia de remoción fue alcanzada en el tiempo de 6 h, con valores de 62,1% para la turbidez, 69,4% para los sólidos disueltos totales, 35,4% para los sólidos volátiles totales, 100% para la clorofila a y 17,2% para la DB0(5, en relación a los valores del estanque control. En esta fase, el amonio presentó un aumento en su concentración en todos los TRH. Calculadas las eficiencias de remoción con las dos fases integradas: sedimentación y filtración, en el tiempo de 6 h, en relación al efluente bruto, el desempeño mejoró significativamente alcanzando valores de 69,3% para la turbidez, 69,0% para los sólidos disueltos totales, 41,3% para los sólidos volátiles totales y 100% para la clorofila a.Efficiency in removing particulate matter and dissolved

  3. Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment Eficiência de um "wetland" construído no tratamento de efluentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Travaini-Lima

    2012-01-01

    -treatment of UASB wastewater, can increase the retention of nutrients and solids by wetland.OBJETIVO: Comparar as características limnológicas de três diferentes entradas de água no "wetland" construído, com dados de concentração e carga, e avaliar a eficiência de remoção de nutrientes, sólidos, DBO5, clorofila-a e coliformes termotolerantes (TC pelo sistema de tratamento; MÉTODOS: No "wetland" construído, com área total de 82.8 m² e tempo de residência de 1 hora e 58 minutos na estação chuvosa e 2 horas e 42 minutos na seca, foram utilizadas as espécies Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. Os pontos de amostragem avaliados em períodos de seca (D e chuva (R foram: entrada de água proveniente de aquicultura = IA; canal de entrada de escoamento da chuva = IR; entrada de resíduos provenientes de biodigestores = IB; saída de água do "wetland" = OUT. As variáveis analisadas foram: condutividade, pH, temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, alcalinidade, DBO5, sólidos particulados e dissolvidos, nitrogênio, fósforo, clorofila-a e TC. Análises estatísticas multivariadas de Agrupamento e Componentes Principais (ACP foram usadas para agrupar pontos de amostragem com características limnológicas semelhantes; RESULTADOS: Na ACP com dados de concentração foi retido 90.52% da variabilidade dos dados, correlacionando a entrada IB com altas concentrações de condutividade, alcalinidade, pH, TC, nutrientes e sólidos. Para os dados de carga a ACP reteve 80.9% da variabilidade dos dados e correlacionou os pontos IA D, IA R e OUT R com elevada DBO5, clorofila-a, STD, nitrato, nitrito, P-total, temperatura, oxigênio e vazão. As maiores taxas de eficiência de remoção ocorreram na seca, principalmente em concentração, com 78% para amônia, 95.5% para SRP, 94.9% para STS e 99.9% para TC; CONCLUSÕES: O "wetland" foi eficiente na remoção de nutrientes, sólidos, DBO5, clorofila-a e TC

  4. Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment Eficiência de um "wetland" construído no tratamento de efluentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Travaini-Lima

    2012-09-01

    -treatment of UASB wastewater, can increase the retention of nutrients and solids by wetland.OBJETIVO: Comparar as características limnológicas de três diferentes entradas de água no "wetland" construído, com dados de concentração e carga, e avaliar a eficiência de remoção de nutrientes, sólidos, DBO5, clorofila-a e coliformes termotolerantes (TC pelo sistema de tratamento; MÉTODOS: No "wetland" construído, com área total de 82.8 m² e tempo de residência de 1 hora e 58 minutos na estação chuvosa e 2 horas e 42 minutos na seca, foram utilizadas as espécies Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. Os pontos de amostragem avaliados em períodos de seca (D e chuva (R foram: entrada de água proveniente de aquicultura = IA; canal de entrada de escoamento da chuva = IR; entrada de resíduos provenientes de biodigestores = IB; saída de água do "wetland" = OUT. As variáveis analisadas foram: condutividade, pH, temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, alcalinidade, DBO5, sólidos particulados e dissolvidos, nitrogênio, fósforo, clorofila-a e TC. Análises estatísticas multivariadas de Agrupamento e Componentes Principais (ACP foram usadas para agrupar pontos de amostragem com características limnológicas semelhantes; RESULTADOS: Na ACP com dados de concentração foi retido 90.52% da variabilidade dos dados, correlacionando a entrada IB com altas concentrações de condutividade, alcalinidade, pH, TC, nutrientes e sólidos. Para os dados de carga a ACP reteve 80.9% da variabilidade dos dados e correlacionou os pontos IA D, IA R e OUT R com elevada DBO5, clorofila-a, STD, nitrato, nitrito, P-total, temperatura, oxigênio e vazão. As maiores taxas de eficiência de remoção ocorreram na seca, principalmente em concentração, com 78% para amônia, 95.5% para SRP, 94.9% para STS e 99.9% para TC; CONCLUSÕES: O "wetland" foi eficiente na remoção de nutrientes, sólidos, DBO5, clorofila-a e TC

  5. Substratum formulation for laccase and mycelial biomass production of Pleurotus ostreatusFormulação de substratos na produção de biomassa micelial e de lacase de Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silveira do Valle

    2012-10-01

    e de lacase. Assim o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das características físico-químicas de subprodutos da agroindústria na formulação de substratos para o crescimento micelial e a produção de lacase por P. ostreatus. O experimento foi realizado com as matérias-primas: fibra de soja, farelo de trigo, farelo de arroz, grãos de milho e sabugo de milho que foram separadas em função da granulometria e analisadas quanto à relação carbono/nitrogênio (C/N. O crescimento micelial foi avaliado em meio de cultivo sólido particulado em tubos cilíndricos de borosilicato. Em seguida a produção de lacase foi avaliada utilizando um planejamento fatorial fracionário 26-2 com as variáveis: granulometria do meio de cultivo e adição de minerais (cobre, zinco, ferro, cádmio e magnésio no meio de cultivo. A produção de lacase foi determinada pela oxidação do ABTS (ácido 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico. Os resultados indicam que o fator mais importante para o crescimento micelial é a capacidade de retenção de oxigênio do meio de cultivo. Para o crescimento micelial de P. ostreatus o sabugo de milho e o farelo de trigo são os melhores componentes do substrato. As demais matérias-primas reduziram o crescimento micelial. Entretanto o fator mais importante para a indução da produção de lacase é a redução do tamanho da partícula, com aumento da área de contato entre o micélio e o substrato.

  6. Prevención de la neumonía adquirida en la comunidad PREVENTION OF COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA IN ADULTS

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    Manuel Barros M.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available La vacuna anti neumocóccica polivalente disponible desde 1983 incluye 23 serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae, que representan cerca de 90% de las cepas que ocasionan enfermedad neumocóccica invasora en adultos inmunocompetentes. La vacuna confiere protección contra la enfermedad neumocóccica invasora. Se recomienda vacunar a los adultos sanos sobre 65 años de edad, portadores de enfermedades crónicas (cardiopatías, EPOC, nefropatías, diabetes mellitus, cirrosis hepática, pérdida crónica de LCR, asplenia funcional o anatómica, alcoholismo, inmunocomprometidos incluyendo los infectados por VIH, quimioterapia y neoplasias hematológicas. La vacuna anti influenza se prepara con antígenos particulados, e incluye dos tipos antigénicos de virus influenza A y una de influenza B, seleccionados de acuerdo al perfil epidemiológico que arroja la vigilancia mundial de influenza en el año anterior. Debido al cambio antigénico que se produce cada año, es necesario modificar la composición de la vacuna. Los estudios de costo-efectividad han confirmado la eficacia de la vacuna anti influenza en reducir la morbimortalidad asociada a la epidemia de influenza y los gastos de salud involucrados en el manejo de los enfermos. Además, los estudios clínicos han confirmado que la vacunación reduce el riesgo de neumonía, hospitalización y muerte en la población senescente durante la epidemia de influenza, cuando la cepa de la vacuna es similar a la presente en la comunidad. Se recomienda vacunar anualmente a los adultos sanos sobre 65 años de edad, portadores de enfermedades crónicas (cardiopatías, EPOC, nefropatías, diabetes mellitus, cirrosis hepática, pérdida crónica de LCR, asplenia funcional o anatómica, alcoholismo, mujeres embarazadas con más de 3 meses de gestación, inmunocomprometidos, pacientes institucionalizados (geriátricos, residentes en casas de reposo, trabajadores de la salud, viajeros a áreas geográficas de

  7. Metais pesados em solos de área de mineração e metalurgia de chumbo: II - formas e disponibilidade para plantas Heavy metals in soils of a lead mining and metallurgy area: II - forms and plant availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Gomes de Andrade

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As formas e a disponibilidade dos metais pesados em solos contaminados definem o potencial de absorção pelas plantas e de contaminação das águas por lixiviação. Neste trabalho, foram usados diferentes métodos de extrações químicas com o objetivo de identificar as formas de Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni e Zn e avaliar a disponibilidade desses poluentes para girassol (Helianthus annuus L., aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreber (exóticas e grama-batatais (Paspalum notatum Flügge (nativa como espécies indicadoras em solos de área de mineração e metalurgia de Pb, no município de Adrianópolis (PR. Foram coletadas amostras (0 a 40 cm em quatro ambientes da área: solo 1 - referência (mata nativa; solo 2 - pequena ocorrência de rejeitos no perfil; solo 3 - próximo da chaminé da fábrica (aporte de material particulado; solo 4 - intenso descarte de resíduos finos. Os métodos de extração empregados foram: DTPA-TEA pH 7,3; Ca(NO32 0,5 mol L-1; HNO3 0,5, 1,0 e 4,0 mol L-1 e água régia (HNO3/HCl concentrados - 3:1. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, com três repetições. Houve intenso incremento nos teores pseudototais, trocáveis e não trocáveis de metais pesados com a mineração; os teores máximos de Pb e Zn extraídos pela água régia foram de 9.678,2 e 894,8 mg kg-1, respectivamente. Os extratores HNO3 0,5, 1,0 e 4,0 mol L-1 e água régia correlacionaram entre si quanto à extração de metais pesados nos solos. O extrator com princípio de quelação (DTPA-TEA pH 7,3 não foi eficiente na predição da disponibilidade desses metais para as plantas. As extrações nítricas devem ser preferidas para se estabelecer a fitodisponibilidade de Pb e Zn nos solos da área.The forms and availability of heavy metals in contaminated soils determine the uptake potential of plants and water contamination by leaching. In this study different methods of chemical extraction were used, in order to identify the forms of Pb, Cd

  8. HYDROGEOCHEMICAL EVALUATION IN SELECTED SITES OF THE MARACANÃ RIVER WATERSHED (NORTHEAST - PARÁ, BRAZIL = AVALIAÇÃO HIDROGEOQUÍMICA EM ÁREAS SELECIONADAS NA BACIA HIDROGRÁFICA DO RIO MARACANÃ (NORDESTE DO PARÁ

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    Fabiola Fernandes Costa

    2009-01-01

    estiagem foram observadas as leituras elevadas de turbidez (acima de 700 UNT, material particulado em suspensão (máxima registrada de 1.272 mg.L-1 e matéria orgânica (máxima de 12,93 mg.L-1. Por outro lado, os valores mais elevados de pH (máximos de 7,9, condutividade elétrica (máxima de 31.300 uS.cm-1 e clorofila-a (máxima de 49,3 mg.m-3 foram registrados na área estuarina em estiagem mais pronunciada, revelando claramente a entrada das águas oceânicas e a consequente ocorrência de fitoplâncton necessário à cadeia trófica. A sazonalidade exerce notável influência na dinâmica socioambiental e de subsistência das populações tradicionais; exemplo disso é a captura de uma diversidade de pescado durante todo o ciclo anual. Dessa forma, as variáveis aqui discutidas são importantes para a elaboração de um planejamento estratégico visando à sustentabilidade local e regional da bacia.

  9. Fracciones de carbono orgánico en la capa arable: efecto de los sistemas de cultivo y fertilización nitrogenada Organic carbon fractions in the arable layer: cropping systems and nitrogen fertilization effects

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    Maximiliano J Eiza

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de siete sistemas de cultivo (SC en un experimento de larga duración: pastura permanente (PP, agricultura permanente bajo siembra directa (SD (SD100 y labranza convencional (LC (LC100, rotación agricultura pastura (50%-50% del tiempo bajo SD (SD50 y LC (LC50, rotación agricultura pastura (75%-25% del tiempo bajo SD (SD75 y LC (LC75 y dos dosis de fertilización nitrogenada: 0 y 120 kg N ha-1, sobre el carbono orgánico total (COT y particulado (COP, para 0-20 cm en 1994 y para 0-5, 5-20 y 0-20 cm de profundidad en 2003. En 1994, los mayores COP y COT se asociaron a manejos con períodos agrícolas previos cortos. En 2003, se encontraron diferencias entre SC en COT en la capa de 0-5 cm de profundidad, siendo PP, LC50 y SD50 los tratamientos con mayor COT. El COP fue más alto bajo PP, LC50 y SD50 a 0-5 y 0-20 cm de profundidad. A 0-5 cm COP bajo SD fue significativamente mayor que bajo LC. A 5-20 cm de profundidad, las diferencias en COP no fueron claras entre SC aunque, tendió a disminuir con los años bajo agricultura. La fertilización determinó mayor COP a 5-20 y 0-20 cm de profundidad. Las diferencias en la variación entre 1994 y 2003 entre SC fueron significativas para COP y COT. Por otro lado, la variación relativa de COP fue más alta que la de las otras variables. Se concluye que las rotaciones cortas de agricultura-pastura, la SD y la fertilización nitrogenada mejoran el COP y el COT. Para las condiciones de este experimento, COP ha sido un indicador más sensible que COT y sería capaz de detectar los efectos de las prácticas de manejo.In the southeastern Buenos Aires Province (Argentina unsuitable combination of crop rotation and tillage systems (cropping systems, SC has reduced soil organic matter content. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of seven SC in a long term experiment (since 1976 started in 1994: permanent pasture (PP, permanent cropping under no tillage (SD (SD100 and

  10. Poluição atmosférica e doenças respiratórias em crianças na cidade de Curitiba, PR Air pollution and respiratory diseases among children in the city of Curitiba, Brazil

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    Sonia Maria Cipriano Bakonyi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos causados pela poluição atmosférica na morbidade por doenças respiratórias em crianças entre 1999 e 2000. MÉTODOS: Foram obtidos os dados diários de atendimentos por doenças respiratórias para crianças em unidades de saúde no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS no município de Curitiba, PR, Brasil. Níveis diários de material particulado, fumaça, dióxido de nitrogênio e ozônio foram obtidos com o Instituto Ambiental do Paraná e Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento, organização não governamental. Dados diários de temperatura e umidade relativa do ar foram fornecidos pelo Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia. Para verificar a relação existente entre doenças respiratórias e poluição atmosférica, utilizou-se o modelo aditivo generalizado de regressão de Poisson, tendo como variável dependente o número diário de atendimentos por doenças respiratórias e, como variáveis independentes, as concentrações médias diárias dos poluentes atmosféricos. A análise foi ajustada para sazonalidade de longa duração (número de dias transcorridos, sazonalidade de curta duração (dias da semana, temperatura mínima e umidade média. O nível de significância alfa=5% foi adotado em todas as análises . RESULTADOS: Todos os poluentes investigados apresentaram efeitos sobre as doenças respiratórias de crianças. Um aumento de 40,4 µg/m³ na média móvel de três dias de fumaça esteve associado a um aumento de 4,5% (IC 95% 1,5; 7,6 nas consultas por doenças respiratórias de crianças. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados sugerem que a poluição atmosférica promove efeitos adversos para a saúde das crianças, mesmo quando os níveis dos poluentes estão aquém do que determina a legislação.OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of air pollution levels on respiratory morbidity among children from 1999 to 2000. METHODS: Daily records of health center attendance due to respiratory diseases among

  11. Macrofauna del curso inferior y estuario del río Biobío (Chile: cambios asociados a variabilidad estacional del caudal hídrico Macrofauna of the lower reach and estuary of Biobío river (Chile: changes associated to seasonal changes of the river flow

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    CARLOS BERTRÁN

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los sistemas lóticos chilenos de mayor importancia de acuerdo a su caudal es el río Biobío (ca. 37º S. Su estuario es reducido, especialmente en las épocas de máximo caudal. Con el objetivo de poner a prueba la hipótesis de que en verano la disminución del caudal del río Biobío, determina una mayor depositación del material particulado fino y que el aumento del caudal en invierno resulta en el lavado y transporte del material depositado hacia el mar, y consecuentemente en una disminución de la macrofauna bentónica, se recolectaron muestras para análisis sedimentológicos y faunísticos en el curso inferior y estuario del río Biobío, durante agosto de 1993 y marzo de 1994. Los análisis sedimentológicos indican que el tamaño medio del sedimento correspondió a arenas gruesas. La depositación del material fino suspendido, que ocurre durante el verano se manifiesta en el mayor porcentaje de finos y materia orgánica durante este período. La macrofauna bentónica estuvo compuesta por 16 taxa en el muestreo de invierno y 42 taxa en el de verano. Durante el invierno, la mayoría de ellas estuvo representada por muy pocos individuos. Durante el verano aumentó la riqueza específica y abundancias totales de la macrofauna. Los taxa más abundantes fueron un Archiannelida indeterminado y el poliqueto Perinereis gualpensis. El aumento del caudal en la época invernal, determina el transporte del material depositado hacia el mar y consecuentemente el arrastre de organismos bentónicos. Aún cuando los valores de abundancia y biomasa de macrofauna durante el verano fueron de un orden de magnitud mayor que en la fase invernal, fueron menores que los citados para otros estuarios del centro-sur de Chile (ca. 39º S. Eso contribuye a confirmar el carácter atípico del estuario del río Biobío, el que debido a sus cambios estacionales de caudal genera cambios significativos en la estructura comunitaria de la macrofauna bent

  12. Degradación física y química de dos suelos del cordón hortícola platense: Alternativas de tratamiento Physical and chemical degradation of two horticultural soils of La Plata: Alternative treatment

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    Ricardo Andreau

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La producción hortícola/florícola bajo cubierta requiere un manejo intensivo con riego, fertilizaciones y labranzas permanentes. Esto conduce a una degradación difícil de revertir. Entre las problemáticas se encuentran las derivadas de la sodicidad, salinidad, presencia de sustancias tóxicas para los vegetales, pérdida de materia orgánica y fertilidad física. Objetivos: a evaluar el impacto progresivo hasta 21 años de uso intensivo bajo cubierta sobre diferentes propiedades químicas y físico-químicas en dos suelos del área; b analizar el efecto de la aplicación de diferentes enmiendas orgánicas y químicas sobre variables químicas, fisico-químicas y físicas, en un suelo Argiudol vértico representativo de la región con 14 años de uso continuo en invernáculo, a los fines de seleccionar indicadores de calidad. Suelos: Argiudol vértico Serie Arturo Seguí. Antecedentes: 0 -21 años de cultivo bajo cubierta. Análisis: suelo (pH, conductividad eléctrica(CE, RAS, carbono orgánico total(COT y particulado(Cp, N total(Nt, P extractable, NO3-, densidad aparente(Dap, porosidad (P, estabilidad estructural (DMP, agua de riego (CE, cationes y aniones, abonos orgánicos (materia orgánica, pH, Na, humedad. Tratamientos correctores: T0 (Testigo, T1 (Cáscara de arroz +Yeso+ Azufre, T2 (Compost + Yeso + Azufre, T3 (Cama de pollo + Yeso + Azufre, T4 (yeso, T5 (azufre, T6 (yeso + azufre. Se comprobó un deterioro progresivo de las cualidades productivas de los suelos a causa del aumento lineal del pH y curvilíneo de la sodicidad (RAS y la salinidad (CE, disminución curvilínea del COT e incrementos irregulares de P extractable, muy elevados en algunos casos. Los tratamientos con agregado de cáscara de arroz y cama de pollo, ambos con adición de yeso y azufre fueron los más efectivos en términos generales para el control de la pérdida de materia orgánica (COT, CP y propiedades físicas relacionadas (DMP, P, Dap afectadas por el

  13. Heavy metals in geochemical sediment fractions of the border region between Baja California, Mexico, and California, USA; Metales pesados en fracciones geoquimicas de sedimentos de la region fronteriza de Baja California, Mexico, y California, EUA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaescusa-Celaya, Julio A; Gutierrez-Galindo, Efrain A; Flores-Munoz, Gilberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Ensenada, B.C., (Mexico)

    1997-03-01

    water in the coastal zone are being transported outside the region. [Spanish] En este estudio se evalua la concentracion de los metales pesados Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ag, Mn y Fe en las diferentes fracciones geoquimicas del sedimento, como una medida para conocer el impacto de las descargas de agua residuales sobre los sedimentos costeros de la region. Para este proposito, durante un crucero oceanografico realizado en abril de 1992 (ECOBAC IV), se recolectaron 20 muestras de sedimento superficial en la plataforma costera de la region fronteriza de Baja California (Mexico) y California (EUA). Las muestras de sedimento se sometieron a un procedimiento de extraccion secuencial, disenado para obtener las fracciones geoquimicas operacionalmente definidas como: intercambiable (F1), carbonatos (F2), oxihidroxidos de Fe y Mn (F3), materia organica/sulfuros (F4) y residual o litogenica (F5). La especiacion operacional de los metales indica que las principales fases que acumulan metales en el sedimento son la matriz detrital o litogenica, los oxihidroxidos de Fe y Mn y la materia organica/sulfuros, en este orden. La distribucion espacial de los metales pesados en la fase reactiva (definida como la suma de F1-F4) presento, en general, una tendencia a aumentar en concentracion en sedimentos alejados de la costa. Los metales pesados en la fase reactiva aparentemente son controlados por la concentracion de hierro reactivo en los sedimentos, con excepcion del Pb, el Cd y la Ag. Esto sugiere que estos ultimos elementos son controlados por otros procesos, tales como el material particulado de origen biogenico. En contraste, la distribucion espacial de los metales pesados en la fase detrital presento un comportamiento inverso, esto es, las mayores concentraciones de metales se encuentran cercanas a la costa frente a la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales de Punta Bandera, Baja California. Las concentraciones promedio de metales totales (suma de F1-F5) fueron de 7.6, 40, 21, 68

  14. Chemical tracers of shipping emissions in a Mediterranean harbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, M.; Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Román, A.; García, M.

    2009-04-01

    This work was funded by the Spanish Ministries of the Environment (SDG Air Quality and Industrial Environment, EG0X2006-M-Particulado-M1) and Science and Innovation (GRACCIE-SCD2007-00067). The authors would like to express their gratuitude to Alejandro Suárez from the Melilla Harbour Authority. References Dominguez G., et al. (2008) Discovery and measurement of an isotopically distinct source of sulfate in Earth's atmosphere. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) 105 (35), 12769-12773. Ribeiro et al. (2007) in Contribution of Working Group III Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, eds. Metz B., Davidson O.R., Bosch P.R., Dave R., Meyer L.A. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK).

  15. Indicadores de qualidade de solos de área de mineração e metalurgia de chumbo: II - Mesofauna e plantas Soil quality indicators in lead mining and metalurgy area: II - Mesofauna and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Jurema Barros

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A influência do manejo ou a adição de contaminante ao solo, normalmente, induz uma resposta mais rápida sobre a mesofauna do solo do que em outros atributos pedológicos, o que torna esses organismos bons indicadores de qualidade ambiental. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar e quantificar os grupos de organismos da mesofauna dos solos e determinar os teores de Pb e Zn de plantas da área de mineração e metalurgia de Pb, no município de Adrianópolis (PR, de modo que fossem gerados indicadores biológicos da qualidade desses solos. Os solos selecionados apresentaram as seguintes características em relação às formas de contaminação: solo 1 - referência (mata nativa; solo 2 - resíduos incorporados ao perfil; solos 3 e 6 - próximos às chaminés da fábrica, com potencial de aporte de material particulado; e solo 5 - grande volume de rejeitos sobre o solo. Foram utilizados funis de Berlese, coletando-se amostras na profundidade de 0 a 5 cm (20 funis x 5 solos x 1 profundidade x 4 épocas = 400 amostras. Após separação da mesofauna, procedeu-se à triagem e identificação dos organismos com o auxílio de lupa. Amostras de formiga foram digeridas com HNO3 concentrado em sistema fechado de micro-ondas, e os teores de Pb e Zn foram determinados por espectroscopia de emissão atômica com plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP-AES. Plantas da família Poaceae foram coletadas em todos os solos e, após digestão das amostras da parte aérea e da raiz pelo método nítrico-perclórico, determinaram-se os teores de Pb e Zn por ICP-AES. O número total de organismos dos 21 grupos identificados e o Índice de Qualidade Ambiental da Mesofauna não foram bons indicadores do nível de contaminação dos solos por metais pesados. A ocorrência e distribuição de espécies isoladas mostraram-se mais eficientes nesse propósito. A melhor qualidade ambiental do solo 1 (teores naturais de Pb - solo de referência foi atestada pela maior

  16. MEJORAMIENTO DEL PORCENTAJE DE PROTEÍNA EN MAIZ PARA ENSILAJE CON EL AUMENTO Y PARCIALIZACIÓN DE LA FERTILIZACIÓN NITROGENADA Improvement of protein percentage in corn silage with an increase in and partitioning of nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Soto O.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available En suelos arcillosos de mal drenaje se realizaron dos ensayos con el objetivo de determinar la respuesta de maíz (Zea mays L. para ensilaje a la aplicación de N en el rendimiento y contenido de proteína del forraje. En el Ensayo 1 los tratamientos correspondieron a dos híbridos de maíz para ensilaje de distinta precocidad, SX-43 e INIA-150, sembrados con una población de 90.000 plantas ha-1 y cuatro dosis de N: 0, 100, 200 y 400 kg N ha-1. En el Ensayo 2, los tratamientos fueron dos dosis de N: 200 y 400 kg N ha-1, y tres formas de aplicación de nitrógeno: a 1/2 a la siembra + 1/2 a 30 cm de altura de las plantas; b 1/3 a la siembra + 1/3 a 30 cm de altura de las plantas + 1/3 a 60 cm de altura de plantas; y c 1/4 a la siembra + 1/4 a 30 cm de altura de las plantas + 1/4 a 60 cm de altura de plantas +1/4 en floración. Además se incluyó un tratamiento sin aplicación de N. En el Ensayo 1, la aplicación de N aumentó el rendimiento de MS (P In clay soils with poor drainage two trials were carried out with the objective of determining the effect of nitrogen application on maize (Zea mays L. for silage on forage yield and protein content. In Trial 1, the treatments were two corn silage hybrids of different growing periods, SX-43 and INIA-150, sown at 90.000 plants ha-1 and four N rates: 0, 100, 200 and 400 kg N ha-1. In Trial 2, the treatments were two N rates: 200 and 400 kg of N ha-1, and three forms of N application: a 1/2 at sowing + 1/2 at 30 cm plant height; b 1/3 at sowing + 1/3 at 30 cm plant height + 1/3 at 60 cm plant height; and c 1/4 at sowing + 1/4 at 30 cm plant height + 1/4 at 60 cm plant height +1/4 at flowering. One treatment was without N. In Trial 1 N application increased DM yield (P < 0.05, but no significant response was observed with N rates between 100 and 400 kg N ha-1, due to soil limitations. Forage production and protein percentage increased significantly with N application. In Trial 2, DM production in corn

  17. DISLOCATION LINES IN DOPED-Ti SAPPHIRE CRYSTAL AND THE EFFECT OF ANNEALING%钛宝石晶体中的位错以及退火对位错的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾贵平; 殷绍唐; 秦青海; 葛玉香

    2001-01-01

    用化学腐蚀剂腐蚀出样品的(0001)表面上的位错蚀坑,在原生态和退火样品的对应径向线上测量了位错腐蚀坑的密度分布。由位错腐蚀坑的形成理论确定出原生态晶体中很可能有3种位错类型,即Burgers矢量b=1/3,1/3-和的位错线,然而长时间在还原性高温气氛中的退火难以降低晶体中的总的位错密度。在晶体的放肩至等径生长阶段,沿着晶体的生长方向,晶体棒中心的位错密度由高变低,这显示出:在晶体的放肩至等径生长的转变过程中,生长界面发生了翻转,由凹形界面转变为凸形界面,位错线随之从晶体棒的中心向边缘发散。%The dislocation lines in doped-Ti sapphire crystal and the effect of annealing on them are reported in this paper. By the aid of chemical etching method, the outcrops of dislocation lines are revealed in (0001) surface of doped-Ti sapphire crystal (Ti3+: Al2O3). The density distributions of dislocation lines were measured along with three corresponding radial lines in (0001) surface of the sample before and after annealing. Taking advantage of the forming thcory of dislocation etch-pit, three types of dislocation lines in as-grown crystal can be indicated, i.e. b = 1/3,1/3 and . The annealing on crystal of long time in high temperature H2 atmosphere has effect on the first type of the dislocation line, but nearly no effect on other types of the dislocation lines. Therefore, the annealing on crystal hardly reduces the total density of the dislocation lines. During shoulder to equal radius growth, the densities of the dislocation lines at the center of crystal boule decrease from high to low along growth direction. During the following equal radius growth of crystal, the densities of the dislocation lines along radial direction of boule increase all through from low to high. This reveals the growth interface reversing fron concave to convex.

  18. Mechanical stability of a Cm-doped celsian glass-ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation damage due to a α-decay of actinides will modify the material used to store nuclear wastes. For example, ionization-induced processes can fragment the oxide bonds of a glass thereby creating gas bubbles. Phase decomposition, swelling, and disordering of crystalline phases are other possibilities. The self-irradiation damage could also affect the fracture properties of the storage materials. Spontaneous failure and fragmentation of some brittle materials have been observed during storage. The fracture toughness, K/sub Ic/, of a material is of technological and scientific interest. The ease with which a material can be handled and transported depends partially on K/sub Ic/. The resistance to fracture caused by unavoidable thermoelastic stresses is determined by K/sub Ic/. Cracking may, in the presence of water, lead to accelerated material degradation since the amount of leaching is proportional to the available surface area under non-stagnant conditions. This is especially important when the storage time is expected to be very long. From a scientific viewpoint, K/sub Ic/ is a fundamental parameter which characterizes the stress intensity factor at the onset of rapid crack growth resulting in failure. The Hertzian indentation technique was used to measure the fracture properties of a celsian glass-ceramic (B1-3) developed for high-level waste storage. Spontaneous failure due to radiation was not observed, on the contrary, the self-radiation damage caused by recoiling Pu atoms resulting from α-decay of a Cm-244 doped sample to a dose of congruent to 1.5 x 1019 α-decays/cm3 increases K/sub Ic/ by at least 25%. This increase in toughness is probably caused by the internal stresses which result from disordering due to the radiation damage. This is confirmed by the broadening of the x-ray spectra as the result of self-radiation

  19. The Effects of Radiative Transfer on the Probability Distribution Functions of Molecular Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Ossenkopf, V.; Lazarian, A.; Stutzki, J.

    2013-07-01

    We study the effects of radiative transfer on the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the widely studied 13CO 2-1 transition. We find that the integrated intensity maps generally follow a log-normal distribution, with the cases that have τ ≈ 1 best matching the PDF of the column density. We fit a two-dimensional variance-sonic Mach number relationship to our logarithmic PDFs of the form \\sigma _{\\ln (\\Sigma /\\Sigma _0)}^2=A\\times \\ln (1+b^2{\\cal M}_s^2) and find that, for parameter b = 1/3, parameter A depends on the radiative transfer environment. We also explore the variance, skewness, and kurtosis of the linear PDFs finding that higher moments reflect both higher sonic Mach number and lower optical depth. Finally, we apply the Tsallis incremental PDF function and find that the fit parameters depend on both Mach numbers, but also are sensitive to the radiative transfer parameter space, with the τ ≈ 1 case best fitting the incremental PDF of the true column density. We conclude that, for PDFs of low optical depth cases, part of the gas is always subthermally excited so that the spread of the line intensities exceeds the spread of the underlying column densities and hence the PDFs do not reflect the true column density. Similarly, PDFs of optically thick cases are dominated by the velocity dispersion and therefore do not represent the true column density PDF. Thus, in the case of molecules like carbon monoxide, the dynamic range of intensities, structures observed, and, consequently, the observable PDFs are less determined by turbulence and more often determined by radiative transfer effects.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of a novel hypervariable immunoglobulin domain-containing receptor Dscam in Cherax quadricarinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Yu, Ai-Qing; Li, Xue-Jie; Zhu, You-Ting; Jin, Xing-Kun; Li, Wei-Wei; Wang, Qun

    2015-12-01

    Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) mediates innate immunity against pathogens in arthropods. Here, a novel Dscam from red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (CqDscam) was isolated. The CqDscam protein contains one signal peptide, ten immunoglobulin domains, six fibronectin type III domains, one transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail. CqDscam phylogenetically clustered with other invertebrate Dscams. Variable regions of CqDscam in N-terminal halves of Ig2 and Ig3 domains, complete Ig7 domain and TM domain can be reshuffled after transcription to produce a deluge of >37,620 potential alternative splice forms. CqDscam was detected in all tissues tested and abundantly expressed in immune system and nerve system. Upon lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and b-1, 3-glucans (Glu) challenged, the expression of CqDscam was up-regulated, while no response in expression occurred after injection with peptidoglycans (PG). Membrane-bound and secreted types of CqDscam were separated on the protein level, and were both extensively induced post LPS challenge. Membrane-bound CqDscam protein was not detected in the serum, but localized to the hemocyte surface by immuno-localization assay. In the antimicrobial assays, the recombinant LPS-induced isoform of CqDscam protein displayed bacterial binding and growth inhibitory activities, especially with Escherichia coli. These results suggested that CqDscam, as one of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), involved in innate immune recognition and defense mechanisms in C. quadricarinatus, possibly through alternative splicing. PMID:26497093

  1. Cold dark matter as compact composite objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitnitsky, Ariel

    2006-08-01

    Dark matter (DM) being the vital ingredient in the cosmos, still remains a mystery. The standard assumption is that the collisionless cold dark matter (CCDM) particles are represented by some weakly interacting fundamental fields which cannot be associated with any standard quarks or leptons. However, recent analyses of structure on galactic and subgalactic scales have suggested discrepancies and stimulated numerous alternative proposals including, e.g. self-interacting dark matter, self-annihilating dark matter, decaying dark matter, to name just a few. We propose the alternative to the standard assumption about the nature of DM particles (which are typically assumed to be weakly interacting fundamental pointlike particles, yet to be discovered). Our proposal is based on the idea that DM particles are strongly interacting composite macroscopically large objects which made of well-known light quarks (or even antiquarks). The required weakness of the DM particle interactions is guaranteed by a small geometrical factor γ˜(area)/(volume)˜B-1/3≪1 of the composite objects with a large baryon charge B≫1, rather than by a weak coupling constant of a new field. We argue that the interaction between hadronic matter and composite dark objects does not spoil the desired properties of the latter as cold matter. We also argue that such a scenario does not contradict to the current observational data. Rather, it has natural explanations of many observed data, such as ΩDM/ΩB˜1 or 511 KeV line from the bulge of our galaxy. We also suggest that composite dark matter may modify the dynamics of structure formation in the central overdense regions of galaxies. We also present a number of other cosmological/astrophysical observations which indirectly support the novel concept of DM nature.

  2. Transport and imaging of brute-force 13C hyperpolarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Matthew L.; Smith, Bryce A.; Mattingly, Mark; Goloshevsky, Artem G.; Rosay, Melanie; Kempf, James G.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate transport of hyperpolarized frozen 1-13C pyruvic acid from its site of production to a nearby facility, where a time series of 13C images was acquired from the aqueous dissolution product. Transportability is tied to the hyperpolarization (HP) method we employ, which omits radical electron species used in other approaches that would otherwise relax away the HP before reaching the imaging center. In particular, we attained 13C HP by 'brute-force', i.e., using only low temperature and high-field (e.g., T water and obtaining a 13C image of the hyperpolarized, dilute, aqueous product (∼0.01% 13C polarization, a >100-fold gain over thermal signals in the 1 T scanner). An annealing step, prior to polarizing the sample, was also key for increasing T1 ∼ 30-fold during transport. In that time, HP was maintained using only modest cryogenics and field (T ∼ 60 K and B = 1.3 T), for T1(13C) near 5 min. Much greater time and distance (with much smaller losses) may be covered using more-complete annealing and only slight improvements on transport conditions (e.g., yielding T1 ∼ 5 h at 30 K, 2 T), whereas even intercity transfer is possible (T1 > 20 h) at reasonable conditions of 6 K and 2 T. Finally, it is possible to increase the overall enhancement near d-DNP levels (i.e., 102-fold more) by polarizing below 100 mK, where nanoparticle agents are known to hasten T1 buildup by 100-fold, and to yield very little impact on T1 losses at temperatures relevant to transport.

  3. Characterization of macroscopic properties and crystalline defects in neutron-irradiated silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Length change, mechanical properties, helium release behavior, ESR observation and microstructure of neutron-irradiated silicon carbide (SiC) were investigated. Changes in those properties due to annealing were also measured to clarify the relationship between crystalline defects induced by neutron irradiation and macroscopic properties. The effects of external stress on defect annihilation and bubble swelling during annealing of neutron-irradiated specimens were investigated. From those experiments, it is clarified that the decrease in length by annealing below 1300 degC was not affected by the external stress. However, annealing above 1300 degC led to an increase in length in B-containing SiC, and the compressive stress retarded the expansion along the loading direction. The helium release behavior of neutron-irradiated SiC containing B was observed and it was clarified that the helium release rate of ceramic and its powder was different from each other. Defects characterization was carried out by ESR measurement and high-resolution electron microscopy. It was indicated that the vacancies with unpaired electron detected by ESR selectively disappear at lower temperature than those detected by a macroscopic length measurement. High-resolution electron microscopy revealed that very small interstitial type Flank loops lying on {111}, having a Burgers vector b=1/3, were formed in β-SiC heavily-neutron-irradiated in a fast reactor. Defect nuclei, a few nanometer in diameter, in hexagonal α-SiC were induced by lower doses in a thermal reactor. They are on the (0001) basal plane and have a Burgers vector b=1/6 [0001]. (J.P.N.)

  4. THE EFFECTS OF RADIATIVE TRANSFER ON THE PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS OF MOLECULAR MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the effects of radiative transfer on the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the widely studied 13CO 2-1 transition. We find that the integrated intensity maps generally follow a log-normal distribution, with the cases that have τ ≈ 1 best matching the PDF of the column density. We fit a two-dimensional variance-sonic Mach number relationship to our logarithmic PDFs of the form σln2(Σ/Σ0) = A x ln(1+b2Ms2) and find that, for parameter b = 1/3, parameter A depends on the radiative transfer environment. We also explore the variance, skewness, and kurtosis of the linear PDFs finding that higher moments reflect both higher sonic Mach number and lower optical depth. Finally, we apply the Tsallis incremental PDF function and find that the fit parameters depend on both Mach numbers, but also are sensitive to the radiative transfer parameter space, with the τ ≈ 1 case best fitting the incremental PDF of the true column density. We conclude that, for PDFs of low optical depth cases, part of the gas is always subthermally excited so that the spread of the line intensities exceeds the spread of the underlying column densities and hence the PDFs do not reflect the true column density. Similarly, PDFs of optically thick cases are dominated by the velocity dispersion and therefore do not represent the true column density PDF. Thus, in the case of molecules like carbon monoxide, the dynamic range of intensities, structures observed, and, consequently, the observable PDFs are less determined by turbulence and more often determined by radiative transfer effects.

  5. The NOP (ORL1) receptor antagonist Compound B stimulates mesolimbic dopamine release and is rewarding in mice by a non-NOP-receptor-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Miwako; Sakoori, Kazuto; Midorikawa, Naoko; Murphy, Niall P

    2004-09-01

    1. Compound B (1-[(3R, 4R)-1-cyclooctylmethyl-3-hydroxymethyl-4-piperidyl]-3-ethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one, CompB) is a nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) antagonist showing high selectivity for the NOP (ORL1) receptor over classical opioid receptors. We studied the effect of subcutaneous CompB administration on the release of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) and the expression of hedonia in mice. 2. CompB (0.3-30 mg kg(-1)) dose dependently stimulated mesolimbic DA release as measured by in vivo freely moving microdialysis, without any change in locomotor activity. However, intracerebroventricular administered N/OFQ (endogenous agonist of the NOP receptor, 6 nmol) did not influence CompB- (10 mg kg(-1)) induced DA release, despite clearly suppressing release when administered alone. 3. Studies using NOP receptor knockout mice and no-net-flux microdialysis revealed mildly, but not statistically significantly higher endogenous DA levels in mice lacking the NOP receptor compared to wild-type mice. Administration of CompB (10 mg kg(-1)) induced identical increases in mesolimbic DA release in wild-type and NOP receptor knockout mice. 4. CompB was rewarding in approximately the same dose range in which CompB induced major increases in mesolimbic DA release when assayed using a conditioned place preference paradigm. The rewarding effect of CompB (30 mg kg(-1)) was maintained in NOP receptor knockout mice. 5. These results show that CompB stimulates mesolimbic DA release and is rewarding by an action independent of the NOP receptor, the precise site of which is unclear. Consequently, caution should be exercised when interpreting the results of studies using this drug, particularly when administered by a peripheral route. PMID:15289286

  6. The sediment load and deposition by river discharge and their relation to organochlorine pesticides pollutants in the sediment bottom of Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hoang Trung; Kunzmann, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Based on previous results from the "River reef impact studies project that was carried out as a co-operation programme between ZMT (Germany) and NIO (Vietnam) from 2008-2012, the variation of sediment load and associated persistent organic pollutants were investigated in Nha Trang Bay. In northern parts of the bay, both suspended matter load and deposition rates are high during the rainy season (flood events). The total suspended matter (TSM) and particulate nitrogen (PN) concentration show variations both with season (dry and rainy seasons) and increasing distances from the coast: TSM ranged from 2.30 to 19.79 mgL-1; and PN concentration ranged from 0.006 to 0.055 mgL-1. High deposition rates occurred both near the shore and in mid-bay, ranging from 12.8 to 36.1 g m-2 d-1. In the southern section of the bay, sediment deposition was slightly lower, with little seasonal variation. The highest deposition rate was measured at the river estuarine site, amounting to 9.1 g m-2 d-1 (dry season) and 9.0 g m-2 d-1 (rainy season). Further, persistent organic pollutants (POP) concentrations in sediment samples and sediment cores clearly showed the presence of organo-chlorine pesticides (OCP pollutant). High accumulation levels of OCP components were found in almost all sediment samples of Nha Trang Bay. The DDT concentrations showed high levels in sediment located in the estuary at the northern part of the bay (ranged: 20.11µg kg-1 to 5.28µg kg-1), and in the southern part (B1) 3.76µg kg-1. This study provides essential data and information, which are needed to assess the long-term impacts of river input on the degradation of marine ecosystems in the coastal waters of Nha Trang Bay.

  7. What is the best choice for repair of distal penile hypospadias: The tubularized incised plate urethroplasty or anterior urethral advancement technique?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Numerous ingenious methods have been introduced to repair hypospadias with variable results. We tried to evaluate the two techniques, tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIP and anterior urethral advancement (AUA for repair of distal hypospadias and choose the best method to treat the distal type of penile hypospadias with the least complications. Materials and Methods : A total of 140 boys with distal penile hypospadias were divided into two groups. Group A (68 patients was treated with TIP and Group B (72 patients was treated with AUA. All the patients had an average age of three years (2-19 with variable meatal sites coronal (44 sub coronal (53 and anterior penile hypospadias (43. There was no significant difference between both groups with respect to the age and meatal sites. Results: The fistula rate in Group A was 8.8% versus 1.3% in Group B. There was no urethral stricture in both procedures. Wound dehiscence did not occur in Group A versus one case in Group B (1.3%. In Group A, 26 cases (38.3% had mild glanular torsion and five (7.3% had moderate glanular torsion versus none in Group B postoperatively. No postoperative chordee or binding in Group A, versus four patients (5.5% in Group B. No significant difference was observed in both groups with respect to meatal stenosis (7.3% versus 5.5% respectively. There was a significant difference between both groups with regard to the operative time in favour of Group B. Good cosmetic appearance of the glans was achieved in both techniques. Conclusion: Both techniques can treat this anomaly with a high success rate but the modified AUA technique appears to be a good choice due to its simplicity, short operative time and less fistula rate with good cosmetic results.

  8. Synthesis and solid state structures of Chalcogenide compounds of Imidazolin-2-ylidene-1,1-Diphenyl-phosphinamine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naktode Kishor; Suman Das; Abhinanda Kundu; Hari Pada Nayek; Tarun K Panda

    2016-03-01

    We report the synthesis and solid state structures of 1,3-di-aryl-imidazolin-2-ylidine-1,1-diphenylphosphinamine [(aryl=mesityl (1a) and aryl=2,6-diisopripyl (1b)] and their chalcogenide compounds 3-di-aryl-imidazolin-2-ylidine-P, P-diphenylphosphinicamide (2a,b), 1,3-di-aryl-imidazolin-2-ylidine-P,P diphenyl-phosphinothioicamide (3a,b) and 1,3-diaryl-imidazolin-2-ylidine-P,P -diphenyl-phosphinoselenoicamide (4a,b).The compounds 1a,b were prepared in good yield by the reaction of 1,3-di-aryl-imidazolin-2-imine and chlorodiphenylphosphine in the presence of triethylamine in toluene. The reactions of 1a,b with elemental sulphur and selenium afforded the corresponding chalcogenide compounds 3a,b and 4a,b respectively.The corresponding oxo- derivative (2a,b) was obtained by reacting compound 1a,b with 30% aqueous hydrogen peroxide in THF. The molecular structures of 1a, 2a, 3a and 4a,b have been established by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The molecular structures reveal that even C1–N1–P1 angle (124.62o) in compound 1a is less obtuse compared to the corresponding C1–N1–Si1 angles (157.8o) observed in related N-silylated 2-iminoimidazolines and trimethylsilyl iminophosphoranes. C1–N1–P1 angles are further widened in compounds 2a, 3a, and 4a,b due to the attachment of chalcogen atoms onto phosphorus atom.

  9. Frailty score on admission predicts outcomes in elderly burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Kathleen S; Barsun, Alura; Pamlieri, Tina L; Greenhalgh, David G; Sen, Soman

    2015-01-01

    With longer life expectancy, the number of burn injuries in the elderly continues to increase. Prediction of outcomes for the elderly is complicated by preinjury physical fitness and comorbid illness. The authors hypothesize that admission frailty assessment would be predictive of outcomes in the elderly burn population. Our primary aim was to determine if higher frailty scores were associated with higher risk of mortality for elderly burn patients. The secondary aims were to assess if higher frailty scores were associated with increased length of stay, increased needs for mechanical ventilation and poor discharge disposition. A 2-year retrospective chart review was performed of all admitted acute burn patients 65 years or older. Data collected included: age, gender, %TBSA of burn injury, presence of inhalation injury, in hospital mortality, hospital length of stay, ventilator days, ICU length of stay, surgical procedures, insurance status, and discharge disposition. Frailty scores were assessed from admission data and calculated using the Canadian Study of Health and Aging clinical frailty scale. A total of 89 patients met entry criteria. Mean age was 75.3 ± 8.1 years and consisted of 62 men and 27 women. Mean %TBSA was 9.6 ± 9.1% and mean frailty score (FS) was 4.5 ± 1.2. Eighty patients survived to discharge and nine died. Nonsurvivors had significantly higher FS compared to survivors (5.2 ± 1.2 vs 4.4 ± 1.2). FS were also significantly higher in patients discharged to skilled nursing facilities (SNF) (5.34 ± 0.9) compared to those who were discharged home (4.1 ± 1.2) or to physical rehabilitation facilities (4 ± 1.5). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that age (B = 0.04) and discharge to SNF (B = 1.2) are independently associated with higher FS. However, survivors were independently associated with a significantly lower FS (B = -1.3). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed high admission FS independently increased the risk of

  10. Prevalence of esophageal cancer during the pretreatment of hypopharyngeal cancer patients: Routinely performed esophagogastroduodenoscopy and FDG-PET/CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaminato, Shuichiro; Toriihara, Akira; Makino, Tomoko; Shibuya, Hitoshi [Dept. of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan)], Email: S.Nakaminato@gmail.com; Kawano, Tatsuyuki [Dept. of Surgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Kishimoto, Seiji [Dept. of Head and Neck Surgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    Background. The prevalence of esophageal cancer accompanied by hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC) is high and increasing rapidly in Asia. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the prevalence of esophageal cancer during the pretreatment of HPC patients who were routinely examined using esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) and to discuss the utility of these examinations. Material and methods. Between September 2005 and September 2010, 33 patients with newly diagnosed HPC (all with squamous cell carcinoma) underwent EGD (after a conventional endoscopy, iodine staining was performed) and FDG-PET/CT examinations. We evaluated the prevalence of esophageal cancer among HPC patients according to the EGD findings and determined the sensitivity of FDG-PET/CT for the detection of esophageal primary tumors for each clinical T classification. Results. In 17 of the 33 patients (51.5%), 29 biopsy-proven esophageal squamous cell carcinomas were diagnosed using EGD. In eight of the 17 (47.1%) patients, two or more esophageal cancer lesions were diagnosed. Twenty-four of the 29 (82.8%) lesions were superficial esophageal cancers, and the remaining five (17.2%) lesions were advanced esophageal cancers. In six of the 29 (20.7%) esophageal cancer lesions that were detected using FDG-PET/CT, only one of the 29 (3.4%) lesions was evaluated as being equivocal; the remaining 22 (75.9%) lesions were not detected. The distribution of the clinical T classifications detected using FDG-PET/CT was as follows: T1a, 0/21 (0%); T1b, 1/3 (33%); and T3, 5/5 (100%). Conclusions. The prevalence of esophageal cancer during the pretreatment of HPC patients was 51.5%; this prevalence was higher than that in previous reports. We believe that the increasing proportion of superficial lesions (82.8%) detected using iodine staining and EGD may have led to the relatively high prevalence. FDG-PET/CT detected only 20.7% of the esophageal cancers

  11. Fetal bovine serum and human constitutive androstane receptor: Evidence for activation of the SV23 splice variant by artemisinin, artemether, and arteether in a serum-free cell culture system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Aik Jiang; Chang, Thomas K.H., E-mail: thomas.chang@ubc.ca

    2014-06-01

    The naturally occurring SV23 splice variant of human constitutive androstane receptor (hCAR-SV23) is activated by di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), which is detected as a contaminant in fetal bovine serum (FBS). In our initial experiment, we compared the effect of dialyzed FBS, charcoal-stripped, dextran-treated FBS (CS-FBS), and regular FBS on the basal activity and ligand-activation of hCAR-SV23 in a cell-based reporter gene assay. In transfected HepG2 cells cultured in medium supplemented with 10% FBS, basal hCAR-SV23 activity varied with the type of FBS (regular > dialyzed > CS). DEHP increased hCAR-SV23 activity when 10% CS-FBS, but not regular FBS or dialyzed FBS, was used. With increasing concentrations (1–10%) of regular FBS or CS-FBS, hCAR-SV23 basal activity increased, whereas in DEHP-treated cells, hCAR-SV23 activity remained similar (regular FBS) or slightly increased (CS-FBS). Subsequent experiments identified a serum-free culture condition to detect DEHP activation of hCAR-SV23. Under this condition, artemisinin, artemether, and arteether increased hCAR-SV23 activity, whereas they decreased it in cells cultured in medium supplemented with 10% regular FBS. By comparison, FBS increased the basal activity of the wild-type isoform of hCAR (hCAR-WT), whereas it did not affect the basal activity of the SV24 splice variant (hCAR-SV24) or ligand activation of hCAR-SV24 and hCAR-WT by 6-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime (CITCO). The use of serum-free culture condition was suitable for detecting CITCO activation of hCAR-WT and hCAR-SV24. In conclusion, FBS leads to erroneous classification of pharmacological ligands of hCAR-SV23 in cell-based assays, but investigations on functional ligands of hCAR isoforms can be conducted in serum-free culture condition. - Highlights: • FBS leads to erroneous pharmacological classification of hCAR-SV23 ligands. • Artemisinin, artemether, and arteether activate h

  12. Combined theoretical and experimental study of the valence, Rydberg, and ionic states of chlorobenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Michael H.; Ridley, Trevor; Vrønning Hoffmann, Søren; Jones, Nykola C.; Coreno, Marcello; de Simone, Monica; Grazioli, Cesare; Zhang, Teng; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Baiardi, Alberto; Peterson, Kirk A.

    2016-03-01

    New photoelectron (PE) and ultra violet (UV) and vacuum UV (VUV) spectra have been obtained for chlorobenzene by synchrotron study with higher sensitivity and resolution than previous work and are subjected to detailed analysis. In addition, we report on the mass-resolved (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra of a jet-cooled sample. Both the VUV and REMPI spectra have enabled identification of a considerable number of Rydberg states for the first time. The use of ab initio calculations, which include both multi-reference multi-root doubles and singles configuration interaction (MRD-CI) and time dependent density functional theoretical (TDDFT) methods, has led to major advances in interpretation of the vibrational structure of the ionic and electronically excited states. Franck-Condon (FC) analyses of the PE spectra, including both hot and cold bands, indicate much more complex envelopes than previously thought. The sequence of ionic states can be best interpreted by our multi-configuration self-consistent field computations and also by comparison of the calculated vibrational structure of the B and C ionic states with experiment; these conclusions suggest that the leading sequence is the same as that of iodobenzene and bromobenzene, namely: X2B1(3b1-1) Herzberg-Teller contributions has been performed. The other low-lying absorption band near 5.8 eV is dominated by a 1A1 state, but an underlying weak 1B1 state (πσ∗) is also found. The strongest band in the VUV spectrum near 6.7 eV is poorly resolved and is analyzed in terms of two ππ∗ states of 1A1 (higher oscillator strength) and 1B2 (lower oscillator strength) symmetries, respectively. The calculated vertical excitation energies of these two states are critically dependent upon the presence of Rydberg functions in the basis set, since both manifolds are strongly perturbed by the Rydberg states in this energy range. A number of equilibrium structures of the ionic and singlet

  13. Metabolic Syndrome, Strain, and Reduced Myocardial Function: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, André Luiz Cerqueira de, E-mail: andrealmeida@cardiol.br [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia (Brazil); Teixido-Tura, Gisela; Choi, Eui-Young; Opdahl, Anders; Fernandes, Verônica R. S. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wu, Colin O. [National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Bluemke, David A. [National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, National Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, Bethesda, MD (United States); Lima, João A. C. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Subclinical cardiovascular disease is prevalent in patients with Metabolic Syndrome (MetSyn). Left ventricular (LV) circumferential strain (ε{sub CC}) and longitudinal strain (ε{sub LL}), assessed by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography (STE), are indices of systolic function: shortening is indicated by negative strain, and thus, the more negative the strain, the better the LV systolic function. They have been used to demonstrate subclinical ventricular dysfunction in several clinical disorders. We hypothesized that MetSyn is associated with impaired myocardial function, as assessed by STE. We analyzed Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants who underwent STE and were evaluated for all MetSyn components. Among the 133 participants included [women: 63%; age: 65 ± 9 years (mean ± SD)], the prevalence of MetSyn was 31% (41/133). Individuals with MetSyn had lower ε{sub CC} and lower ε{sub LL} than those without MetSyn (-16.3% ± 3.5% vs. -18.4% ± 3.7%, p < 0.01; and -12.1% ± 2.5% vs. -13.9% ± 2.3%, p < 0.01, respectively). The LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was similar in both groups (p = 0.09). In multivariate analysis, MetSyn was associated with less circumferential myocardial shortening as indicated by less negative ε{sub CC} (B = 2.1%, 95%CI:0.6 3.5, p < 0.01) even after adjusting for age, ethnicity, LV mass, and LVEF). Likewise, presence of MetSyn (B = 1.3%, 95%CI:0.3 2.2, p < 0.01) and LV mass (B = 0.02%, 95% CI: 0.01-0.03, p = 0.02) were significantly associated with less longitudinal myocardial shortening as indicated by less negative ε{sub LL} after adjustment for ethnicity, LVEF, and creatinine. Left ventricular ε{sub CC} and ε{sub LL}, markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease, are impaired in asymptomatic individuals with MetSyn and no history of myocardial infarction, heart failure, and/or LVEF < 50%.

  14. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF IMIDAZO THIADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES

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    LAVANYA D

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective:In the present study, we have reported the synthesis, structural confirmation and anti microbial activity of condensed bridgehead nitrogen heterocyclic compounds. (Imidazothiadiazoles. Methods: Use of microwave reactions afforded high yields and decreased reaction time as compared to conventional method. Around 15 new complexes were synthesized, with standard chemicals and procedures.The synthesized complexes were tested for their preliminary tests, physical constants and TLC. The structures of all complexes were confirmed by using IR, 1H NMR techniques. The newly synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity and antifungal activity with the standard drug. Results and discussion: Five 4-substituted Phenacyl bromides were prepared by reacting 4-substituted acetophenones with bromine according to literature and confirmed by physical constants (Table 2. The compound 2-(4-substituted benzyl-6-(4-substituted phenylimidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]-thiadiazoles was confirmed by IR, 1H NMR and other physical parameters. The compounds ( showed absorption bands ranging from 3149-3034 cm-1 for C-H aromatic stretching, 2960-2845 cm-1 for aliphatic stretching, 1521- 1342 cm-1 for NO2 group. (Table 5; Fig.3-12. In 1H NMR spectra the presence of methylene proton and methyl protons between δ 4.27-4.26 ppm and 3.80-2.30 ppm was observed respectively. For aromatic protons multiplets were observed between δ 7.94-7.25 ppm. So all these confirmation authenticate for all synthesized compounds. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial and antifungal activity by disc diffusion method. The antimicrobial activity as calculated by the zones of inhibition against S.aureus (Gram positive and Klebsiella (Gram negative as compared to that of standard drug ciprofloxacin. The results of the antibacterial screening studies clearly show moderate to mild antimicrobial activity. The compound SKN-06 showed better antifungal activity. The

  15. Metabolic Syndrome, Strain, and Reduced Myocardial Function: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subclinical cardiovascular disease is prevalent in patients with Metabolic Syndrome (MetSyn). Left ventricular (LV) circumferential strain (εCC) and longitudinal strain (εLL), assessed by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography (STE), are indices of systolic function: shortening is indicated by negative strain, and thus, the more negative the strain, the better the LV systolic function. They have been used to demonstrate subclinical ventricular dysfunction in several clinical disorders. We hypothesized that MetSyn is associated with impaired myocardial function, as assessed by STE. We analyzed Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants who underwent STE and were evaluated for all MetSyn components. Among the 133 participants included [women: 63%; age: 65 ± 9 years (mean ± SD)], the prevalence of MetSyn was 31% (41/133). Individuals with MetSyn had lower εCC and lower εLL than those without MetSyn (-16.3% ± 3.5% vs. -18.4% ± 3.7%, p < 0.01; and -12.1% ± 2.5% vs. -13.9% ± 2.3%, p < 0.01, respectively). The LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was similar in both groups (p = 0.09). In multivariate analysis, MetSyn was associated with less circumferential myocardial shortening as indicated by less negative εCC (B = 2.1%, 95%CI:0.6 3.5, p < 0.01) even after adjusting for age, ethnicity, LV mass, and LVEF). Likewise, presence of MetSyn (B = 1.3%, 95%CI:0.3 2.2, p < 0.01) and LV mass (B = 0.02%, 95% CI: 0.01-0.03, p = 0.02) were significantly associated with less longitudinal myocardial shortening as indicated by less negative εLL after adjustment for ethnicity, LVEF, and creatinine. Left ventricular εCC and εLL, markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease, are impaired in asymptomatic individuals with MetSyn and no history of myocardial infarction, heart failure, and/or LVEF < 50%

  16. Combined theoretical and experimental study of the valence, Rydberg, and ionic states of chlorobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Michael H; Ridley, Trevor; Vrønning Hoffmann, Søren; Jones, Nykola C; Coreno, Marcello; de Simone, Monica; Grazioli, Cesare; Zhang, Teng; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Baiardi, Alberto; Peterson, Kirk A

    2016-03-28

    New photoelectron (PE) and ultra violet (UV) and vacuum UV (VUV) spectra have been obtained for chlorobenzene by synchrotron study with higher sensitivity and resolution than previous work and are subjected to detailed analysis. In addition, we report on the mass-resolved (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra of a jet-cooled sample. Both the VUV and REMPI spectra have enabled identification of a considerable number of Rydberg states for the first time. The use of ab initio calculations, which include both multi-reference multi-root doubles and singles configuration interaction (MRD-CI) and time dependent density functional theoretical (TDDFT) methods, has led to major advances in interpretation of the vibrational structure of the ionic and electronically excited states. Franck-Condon (FC) analyses of the PE spectra, including both hot and cold bands, indicate much more complex envelopes than previously thought. The sequence of ionic states can be best interpreted by our multi-configuration self-consistent field computations and also by comparison of the calculated vibrational structure of the B and C ionic states with experiment; these conclusions suggest that the leading sequence is the same as that of iodobenzene and bromobenzene, namely: X(2)B1(3b1 (-1)) < A(2)A2(1a2 (-1)) < B(2)B2(6b2 (-1)) < C(2)B1(2b1 (-1)). The absorption onset near 4.6 eV has been investigated using MRD-CI and TDDFT calculations; the principal component of this band is (1)B2 and an interpretation based on the superposition of FC and Herzberg-Teller contributions has been performed. The other low-lying absorption band near 5.8 eV is dominated by a (1)A1 state, but an underlying weak (1)B1 state (πσ(∗)) is also found. The strongest band in the VUV spectrum near 6.7 eV is poorly resolved and is analyzed in terms of two ππ(∗) states of (1)A1 (higher oscillator strength) and (1)B2 (lower oscillator strength) symmetries, respectively. The calculated vertical

  17. Evaluation of intra- and inter-fraction movement of the cervix during intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To assess the degree of intra- and inter-fraction cervical motion throughout a course of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for cervical cancer patients. Materials and methods: A retrospective study of 10 women with stage 1B1-3B cervical cancer diagnosed from September 2007 to July 2008 was conducted. All patients were treated with chemoradiation using IMRT followed by intracavitary brachytherapy. Pretreatment, patients had 2 seeds placed at a depth of 10 mm into the cervix. On-Board Imaging (OBI) was used to obtain anterior/posterior (AP) and lateral X-rays before and after each treatment. OBI images were rigidly aligned to baseline digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs), and movement of cervical seeds was determined in the lateral, vertical, and AP directions. Mean differences in cervical seed position and standard error of the mean (SEM) were calculated. Results: A total of 922 images were reviewed, with approximately 90 images per patient. The mean intra-fractional movement in cervical seed position in the lateral, vertical, and AP directions were 1.6 mm (SD ± 2.0), 2.6 mm (SD ± 2.4), and 2.9 mm (SD ± 2.7), respectively, with a range from 0 to 15 mm for each direction. The mean inter-fractional movement in the lateral, vertical, and AP directions were 1.9 mm (SD ± 1.9), 4.1 mm (SD ± 3.2), and 4.2 mm (SD ± 3.5), respectively, with a range from 0 to 18 mm for each direction. Conclusions: This is the first study to assess intra- and inter-fractional movement of the cervix using daily imaging before and after each fraction. Within and between radiation treatments, cervical motion averages approximately 3 mm in any given direction. However, maximal movement of the cervix can be as far as 18 mm from baseline. This wide range of motion needs to be accounted for when generating planning treatment volumes.

  18. Fetal bovine serum and human constitutive androstane receptor: Evidence for activation of the SV23 splice variant by artemisinin, artemether, and arteether in a serum-free cell culture system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The naturally occurring SV23 splice variant of human constitutive androstane receptor (hCAR-SV23) is activated by di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), which is detected as a contaminant in fetal bovine serum (FBS). In our initial experiment, we compared the effect of dialyzed FBS, charcoal-stripped, dextran-treated FBS (CS-FBS), and regular FBS on the basal activity and ligand-activation of hCAR-SV23 in a cell-based reporter gene assay. In transfected HepG2 cells cultured in medium supplemented with 10% FBS, basal hCAR-SV23 activity varied with the type of FBS (regular > dialyzed > CS). DEHP increased hCAR-SV23 activity when 10% CS-FBS, but not regular FBS or dialyzed FBS, was used. With increasing concentrations (1–10%) of regular FBS or CS-FBS, hCAR-SV23 basal activity increased, whereas in DEHP-treated cells, hCAR-SV23 activity remained similar (regular FBS) or slightly increased (CS-FBS). Subsequent experiments identified a serum-free culture condition to detect DEHP activation of hCAR-SV23. Under this condition, artemisinin, artemether, and arteether increased hCAR-SV23 activity, whereas they decreased it in cells cultured in medium supplemented with 10% regular FBS. By comparison, FBS increased the basal activity of the wild-type isoform of hCAR (hCAR-WT), whereas it did not affect the basal activity of the SV24 splice variant (hCAR-SV24) or ligand activation of hCAR-SV24 and hCAR-WT by 6-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime (CITCO). The use of serum-free culture condition was suitable for detecting CITCO activation of hCAR-WT and hCAR-SV24. In conclusion, FBS leads to erroneous classification of pharmacological ligands of hCAR-SV23 in cell-based assays, but investigations on functional ligands of hCAR isoforms can be conducted in serum-free culture condition. - Highlights: • FBS leads to erroneous pharmacological classification of hCAR-SV23 ligands. • Artemisinin, artemether, and arteether activate h

  19. Estudio de las Interacciones Ácido Húmico-Metales Pesados y Determinación de sus Constantes de Estabilidad por Electroforesis Capilar Study of Humic Acid-Heavy Metal Interactions and the Evaluation of its Stability Constants by Capillary Electrophoresis

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    Silvia Nieto-Velázquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La técnica de electroforesis capilar asociada con el programa computacional SQUAD ha sido empleada para el estudio de la interacción entre metales pesados (Cu2+, Pb2+, Hg2+, Co2+, Cd2+ y un ácido húmico. Dicha interacción, provoca el desplazamiento en el tiempo de migración de los metales en función de la concentración del ácido. De esta información es posible obtener las movilidades electroforéticas efectivas y alimentarlas al programa SQUAD para calcular las constantes de equilibrio considerando una estequiometría 1:1. La afinidad del ácido húmico hacia los metales decrece en el siguiente orden: Cu2+>Pb2+>Hg2+>Co2+>Cd2+. Las respectivas constantes de equilibrio son: (log b1: 3.48±0.33, 3.62±0.24, 3.18±0.19, 2.96±0.20 y 2.58±0.33. Esta tendencia coincide con la teoría ABDB de Pearson y con otros datos de la literatura.The capillary electrophoresis technique associated with the SQUAD computer program has been used to study the interaction between humic acid and heavy metals (Cu2+, Pb2+, Hg2+, Co2+, Cd2+. Such interaction causes a shift in the migration time of metals depending on the concentration of humic acid. From this information the effective electrophoretic mobility was determined and then introduced to the SQUAD program to calculate the equilibrium constants considering a 1:1 stoichiometry. The affinity of humic acid to the metals decreases in the following order: Cu2+>Pb2+>Hg2+>Co2+>Cd2+. The respective equilibrium constants (log b1 are: 3.48±0.33, 3.62±0.24, 3.18±0.19, 2.96±0.20 and 2.58±0.33. This tendency is consistent with the Pearson HSAB theory and with other data published in the literature.

  20. Near ultraviolet photodissociation spectroscopy of Mn+(H2O) and Mn+(D2O)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic spectra of Mn+(H2O) and Mn+(D2O) have been measured from 30 000 to 35 000 cm−1 using photodissociation spectroscopy. Transitions are observed from the 7A1 ground state in which the Mn+ is in a 3d54s1 electronic configuration, to the 7B2 (3d54py) and 7B1 (3d54px) excited states with T0 = 30 210 and 32 274 cm−1, respectively. Each electronic transition has partially resolved rotational and extensive vibrational structure with an extended progression in the metal−ligand stretch at a frequency of ∼450 cm−1. There are also progressions in the in-plane bend in the 7B2 state, due to vibronic coupling, and the out-of-plane bend in the 7B1 state, where the calculation illustrates that this state is slightly non-planar. Electronic structure computations at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ and TD-DFT B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level are also used to characterize the ground and excited states, respectively. These calculations predict a ground state Mn-O bond length of 2.18 Å. Analysis of the experimentally observed vibrational intensities reveals that this bond length decreases by 0.15 ± 0.015 Å and 0.14 ± 0.01 Å in the excited states. The behavior is accounted for by the less repulsive px and py orbitals causing the Mn+ to interact more strongly with water in the excited states than the ground state. The result is a decrease in the Mn-O bond length, along with an increase in the H-O-H angle. The spectra have well resolved K rotational structure. Fitting this structure gives spin-rotation constants εaa″ = −3 ± 1 cm−1 for the ground state and εaa′ = 0.5 ± 0.5 cm−1 and εaa′ = −4.2 ± 0.7 cm−1 for the first and second excited states, respectively, and A′ = 12.8 ± 0.7 cm−1 for the first excited state. Vibrationally mediated photodissociation studies determine the O-H antisymmetric stretching frequency in the ground electronic state to be 3658 cm−1

  1. Effects of phenolic compounds in propolis on digestive and ruminal parameters in dairy cows

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    Sílvia Cristina de Aguiar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Four rumen-cannulated primiparous lactating cows were studied in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the effects of propolis-based products (PBP with different concentrations of propolis and alcohol levels on total digestibility, (TD, ruminal digestibility (RD, intestinal digestibility (ID, pH, ruminal ammonia-nitrogen production (NH3-N, rumen microbial synthesis, and blood parameters. The feed consisted of 591.9 g/kg corn silage and 408.1 g/kg concentrate (dry matter [DM] basis, and treatments differed with regard to the inclusion (via ruminal cannula or exclusion of PBP as follows: control (without the PBP, PBP B1 (3.81 mg of phenolic compounds/kg of ingested DM, PBP C1 (3.27 mg of phenolic compounds/kg of ingested DM, and PBP C3 (1.93 mg of phenolic compounds/kg of ingested DM. Inclusion of PBP reduced the RD of dietary crude protein (CP. Treatment PBP C1 reduced ruminal NH3-N production, while PBP B1 increased the ID of CP relative to that in the control. These findings indicate that propolis had a positive effect on rumen nitrogen metabolism. Rumen pH, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, and blood parameters were not affected by addition of PBP, but there were significant effects on the other parameters when the treatments containing propolis were contrasted. Higher TD of DM (0.717 vs. 0.685, OM (0.737 vs. 0.703, and CP (0.760 vs. 0.739, as well as higher NDF (0.622 vs. 0.558 and TDN (0.747 vs. 0.712 were observed when comparing PBP C1 with C3. Inclusion of propolis in diets for dairy cows have positive effects on protein metabolism in the rumen. Variation in the amounts of phenolic compounds in the different PBP may explain the diverse effects on the digestive parameters evaluated.

  2. Relativistic Pair Beams from TeV Blazars: A Source of Reprocessed GeV Emission rather than Intergalactic Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Lorenzo; Giannios, Dimitrios

    2014-05-01

    The interaction of TeV photons from blazars with the extragalactic background light produces a relativistic beam of electron-positron pairs streaming through the intergalactic medium (IGM). The fate of the beam energy is uncertain. By means of two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we study the nonlinear evolution of dilute ultra-relativistic pair beams propagating through the IGM. We explore a wide range of beam Lorentz factors γ b Gt 1 and beam-to-plasma density ratios α Lt 1, so that our results can be extrapolated to the extreme parameters of blazar-induced beams (γ b ~ 106 and α ~ 10-15, for powerful blazars). For cold beams, we show that the oblique instability governs the early stages of evolution, but its exponential growth terminates—due to self-heating of the beam in the transverse direction—when only a negligible fraction ~(α/γ b )1/3 ~ 10-7 of the beam energy has been transferred to the IGM plasma. Further relaxation of the beam proceeds through quasi-longitudinal modes, until the momentum dispersion in the direction of propagation saturates at Δp b, ∥/γ b mec ~ 0.2. This corresponds to a fraction ~10% of the beam energy—irrespective of γ b or α—being ultimately transferred to the IGM plasma (as compared to the heating efficiency of ~50% predicted by one-dimensional models, which cannot properly account for the transverse broadening of the beam). For the warm beams generated by TeV blazars, the development of the longitudinal relaxation is suppressed, since the initial dispersion in beam momentum is already Δp b0, ∥/γ b mec >~ 1. Here, the fraction of beam energy ultimately deposited into the IGM is only ~α γ b ~ 10-9. It follows that most of the beam energy is still available to power the GeV emission produced by inverse Compton up-scattering of the cosmic microwave background by the beam pairs.

  3. Impactos atmosféricos das transformações territoriais e do crescimento do agronegócio na Amazônia matogrossense Impacts atmosphériques dus aux transformations territoriales et au développement de l’agro-industrie dans l’Amazonie du Mato Grosso

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    Ericka Pardini Morrone

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O estado do Mato Grosso vem sofrendo, desde os anos 70 do século XX, um acentuado processo de transformação do território com a abertura de amplas áreas agrícolas em detrimento dos biomas amazônico e do cerrado. Este desmatamento está voltado, sobretudo, para o cultivo da soja: em 2005, a área usada para o cultivo deste cereal superou 6,1 milhões de hectares com uma produção de 17,76 milhões de toneladas. Assim, o agronegócio é tido como co-responsável pelo aumento das queimadas neste estado, cujo pico de ocorrência foi registrado no mês de setembro de 2004 com quase 25000 focos – 35% de todos os que foram detectados no Brasil no mesmo período. As queimadas são um fenômeno típico de áreas tropicais e, em decorrência delas, são emitidas para a atmosfera milhões de toneladas de gases e material particulado (em inglês, Particulate Matter, PM por ano. Estas emissões causam impactos negativos na saúde humana, além de afetarem os equilíbrios energéticos da atmosfera, cujas alterações têm sido associadas a mudanças climáticas em escala regional e global. Apesar de existirem previsões de concentração de PM baseadas em modelos matemáticos alimentados por dados de satélites, o levantamento de dados em superfície é fundamental. O presente estudo buscou avaliar dados diretos sobre a concentração de PM fino e grosso e sua composição química na região agrícola do Mato Grosso. Para isto, foram efetuadas amostragens nas sedes municipais de Guarantã do Norte, Juara, Feliz Natal, Sinop e Sorriso, entre setembro e outubro de 2009. Estes municípios foram selecionados durante viagem de exploração prévia realizada no âmbito do Ano da França no Brasil (“Conhecendo a Amazônia e as dinâmicas territoriais do Mato Grosso”, em julho de 2009. Sinop, Sorriso e Guarantã do Norte estão localizadas ao longo do principal eixo rodoviário do estado (BR163, enquanto Feliz Natal e Juara ficam, respectivamente, ao

  4. Uso do clorofilômetro no manejo da adubação nitrogenada para milho em sucessão a pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens Use of chlorophyll meter in nitrogen fertilizing management to corn after Brachiaria decumbens pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro José Grava de Godoy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A resposta do milho à adubação nitrogenada em cultivo após pastagem depende da espécie, da quantidade de palha, da relação C:N, da população microbiana, das condições climáticas e de outros fatores. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a utilização da intensidade da cor verde da folha (ICV, medida pelo clorofilômetro, como indicativo para o manejo da adubação nitrogenada em cobertura, na cultura do milho, em sucessão a pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em vasos com 29 litros de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, com três plantas por vaso. Foi utilizado o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com cinco repetições, constituído por quatro níveis de nitrogênio (0, 50, 100 e 150mg dm-3 e quatro de níveis de palhada de B. decumbens (0, 5, 10 e 15Mg ha-1, aplicados em cobertura. As doses de N foram parceladas em três épocas: a1/3 na semeadura; b1/3 no estádio de 4-5 folhas e c1/3 no estádio de 7-8 folhas. As determinações da ICV da folha foram efetuadas um dia antes e uma semana após a adubação nitrogenada em cobertura. As quantidades de fitomassa seca de braquiária influenciaram a ICV da folha somente no estádio de 7-8 folhas. A manutenção de maiores ICV da folha do estádio de 4-5 (46,6 unidades SPAD até o estádio de 8-9 folhas (53,0 unidades SPAD possibilitou o maior acúmulo da fitomassa seca na parte aérea do milho. O monitoramento da ICV da folha pode auxiliar na avaliação da disponibilidade de N para a planta do milho durante o ciclo.The corn response to the nitrogen fertilizing cultivated after pasture depends on of the species, straw amount, C: N rate, microbial population, climatic conditions and other factors. The study was aimed at evaluating the use of the green color intensity of the leaf (GCI, measured by the chlorophyll meter, as indicative for nitrogen fertilizing management sidedress in the corn crop, after B

  5. Síndrome Metabólica, Strain e Redução da Função Miocárdica: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

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    André Luiz Cerqueira de Almeida

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: A doença cardiovascular subclínica é prevalente em pacientes com síndrome metabólica (SM. O strain circunferencial (εCC e o strain longitudinal (εLL do ventriculo esquerdo (VE, avaliados pelo ecocardiograma com speckle tracking (STE, são índices de função sistólica: o encurtamento das fibras circunferenciais e longitudinais do VE é indicado por um valor negativo do strain. Portanto, quanto mais negativo o strain, melhor a função sistólica do VE. O εCC e o εLL têm sido usados para demonstrar disfunção ventricular subclínica em vários distúrbios clínicos. Objetivo: Levantamos a hipótese de que a SM está associada com comprometimento da função miocárdica, quando avaliada pelo STE. Métodos: Este estudo analisou participantes do Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA que realizaram o STE e foram avaliados para todos os componentes da SM. Resultados: Entre os 133 participantes incluídos (mulheres: 63%; idade: 65 ± 9 anos, a prevalência de SM foi de 31% (41/133. Indivíduos com SM apresentaram valores menores do εCC e do εLL que aqueles sem SM (-16,3% ± 3,5% vs. -18,4% ± 3,7%, p < 0,01; e -12,1% ± 2,5% vs. -13,9% ± 2,3%, p < 0,01, respectivamente. A fração de ejeção do VE (FEVE foi semelhante nos dois grupos (p = 0,09. Na análise multivariada, a SM associou-se a um valor mais baixo do strain circunferencial (B = 2,1%, IC 95%: 0,6-3,5; p < 0,01, mesmo após ajuste para idade, etnia, massa VE e FEVE. De maneira semelhante, a presença de SM (B = 1,3%, IC 95%: 0,3-2,2; p < 0,01 e a massa do VE (B = 0,02%, IC 95%: 0,01 0,03; p = 0,02 associaram-se a um valor menor do strain longitudinal após ajuste para etnia, FEVE e creatinina. Conclusão: O εCC e o εLL do VE, marcadores de doença cardiovascular subclínica, estão comprometidos em indivíduos assintomáticos com SM e sem história prévia de infarto miocárdico, insuficiência cardíaca e/ou de FEVE < 50%.

  6. Profiles of serum microRNAs; miR-125b-5p and miR223-3p serve as novel biomarkers for HBV-positive hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giray, Burcu Gurer; Emekdas, Gurol; Tezcan, Seda; Ulger, Mahmut; Serin, Mehmet Sami; Sezgin, Orhan; Altintas, Engin; Tiftik, Eyup Naci

    2014-07-01

    Recently, circulating miRNAs have been reported as promising biomarkers for various pathologic conditions including cancer. Certain microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown early diagnostic potential for many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of certain serum/plasma miRNAs as novel non-invasive biomarkers for early diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). For this reason, the expression levels of 24 miRNA (let-7c, miR-92a-3p, 423-5p, 150-5p, 223-3p, 125b-5p, 342-3p, miR-206, 122-5p, 375, 223-5p, 10a-5p, 23b-5p, 99a-5p, 23a-5p, 10a-3p, 122-3p, 125b-1-3p, 23b-3p, 125b-2-3p, 23a-3p, 92a-1-5p, 92a-2-5p, 99a-3p) were analyzed in plasma of patients with chronic hepatitis B, HBV-positive cirrhosis and HBV-positive HCC and compared with control group samples. Totally 94 plasma samples; 28 control and 66 patient plasma (24 CHB, 22 HBV-positive cirrhosis, 20 HBV-positive HCC) and were included in this study. The expression levels of 24 miRNAs were detected for all control and patient group plasma samples by qRT-PCR using BioMark™ 96.96 Dynamic Array (Fluidigm Corporation) system. The expression levels of miR-125b-5p were detected 2.85 fold, 2.46 fold and 1.89 fold (p = 0.01513, p = 0.0009440, p = 0.0001446) up regulated in CHB, HBV-positive cirrhosis and HBV-positive HCC, respectively when compared versus control group individually by Mann-Whitney U test. The expression levels of miR-223-3p were detected 5.55 fold, 13.88 fold and 12.65 fold (p = 0.01513, p = 0.0009440, p = 0.0001446) down regulated in same comparisons. When all groups were compared versus control group by one-way ANOVA test, the expression levels of miR-223-3p were also found statistically significant (p < 0.05). Although not statistically significant, miR-125b-5p tended to be upregulated. (p = 0.07192). These results significantly imply that miR-125b-5p and miR223-3p could be used as novel non-invasive biomarkers of HBV-positive HCC

  7. Influence of the Anthropogenic Load on Microplankton of a Mesotrophic Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovko, T. V.; Popova, A. F.; Michjliuk, T. I.; Jurishinec, V.; Kemp, R.

    2005-12-01

    Investigation of how plankton associations form under the influence of anthropogenic factors is very important not only for the theoretical knowledge but also for the choosing criteria for ecosystem evaluation. The present study was in the scope of and sponsored by INTAS project 03-51-6196 to accumulate integral parameters of autothrophic and heterothrophic components of the microplankton for subsequent verification of NR index as an alternative evaluator of water environment. The annual dynamics of structural and some functional indicators of phyto-, bactrio, and microzooplankton (below 200 um) has been evaluated at two stations of Kanev reservoir (Dnepr river) that differed by the pollution level. Station 1 is located in green zone; it is relatively clean and considered as control. Station 2 experiences significant anthropogenic load from city of Kiev's industrial and household sewage. The phytoplankton consisted of 135 algae from the following divisions: Cyanophyta - 14, Euglenophyta - 8, Chlorophyta - 56, Bacillariophyta - 40, Dinophyta -6, Cryptophyta - 5, Crysophyta - 5, Xanthophyta - 1. The specific composition phytoplankton at the investigated sites was similar during the summer. The most significant differences between the stations were the quantity (N), biomass (B) square surface (S) and seasonal dynamics of the algae. The maximum values of these indices at the site 1 occurred in the beginning and mid-summer due to Diatoms and were N=4.5x106cells/dm3, B=2.33 mg/dm3, S=1.4x109 um2/dm3. The phytoplankton of the station 2 was characterized by higher values of all indices both all year long and during period of the highest activity in the beginning and mid-fall caused by Blue-Green algae (N=5.5x106 cells/dm3, B=2.9 mg/dm3, S=3.82x109 um2/dm3). The total number, biomass and the surface square of bacteria were invariably higher at the polluted station (N=3.5x109 cells/dm3, B=1.3 mg/dm3, S=10.2x109 um2/dm3) and exceeded that of the control station by 2.6, 1

  8. Luminescent Di- and Trinuclear Boron Complexes Based on Aromatic Iminopyrrolyl Spacer Ligands: Synthesis, Characterization, and Application in OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, D; Gomes, Clara S B; Lopes, Patrícia S; Figueira, Cláudia A; Ferreira, Bruno; Gomes, Pedro T; Di Paolo, Roberto E; Maçanita, António L; Duarte, M Teresa; Charas, Ana; Morgado, Jorge; Vila-Viçosa, Diogo; Calhorda, Maria José

    2015-06-15

    New bis- and tris(iminopyrrole)-functionalized linear (1,2-(HNC4 H3 -C(H)N)2 -C6 H4 (2), 1,3-(HNC4 H3 -C(H)N)2 -C6 H4 (3), 1,4-(HNC4 H3 -C(H)N)2 -C6 H4 (4), 4,4'-(HNC4 H3 -C(H)N)2 -(C6 H4 -C6 H4 ) (5), 1,5-(HNC4 H3 C-(H)N)2 -C10 H6 (6), 2,6-(HNC4 H3 C-(H)N)2 -C10 H6 (7), 2,6-(HNC4 H3 C-(H)N)2 -C14 H8 (8)) and star-shaped (1,3,5-(HNC4 H3 -C(H)N-1,4-C6 H4 )3 -C6 H3 (9)) π-conjugated molecules were synthesized by the condensation reactions of 2-formylpyrrole (1) with several aromatic di- and triamines. The corresponding linear diboron chelate complexes (Ph2 B[1,3-bis(iminopyrrolyl)-phenyl]BPh2 (10), Ph2 B[1,4-bis(iminopyrrolyl)-phenyl]BPh2 (11), Ph2 B[4,4'-bis(iminopyrrolyl)-biphenyl]BPh2 (12), Ph2 B[1,5-bis(iminopyrrolyl)-naphthyl]BPh2 (13), Ph2 B[2,6-bis(iminopyrrolyl)-naphthyl]BPh2 (14), Ph2 B[2,6-bis(iminopyrrolyl)-anthracenyl]BPh2 (15)) and the star-shaped triboron complex ([4',4'',4'''-tris(iminopyrrolyl)-1,3,5-triphenylbenzene](BPh2 )3 (16)) were obtained in moderate to good yields, by the treatment of 3-9 with B(C6 H5 )3 . The ligand precursors are non-emissive, whereas most of their boron complexes are highly fluorescent; their emission color depends on the π-conjugation length. The photophysical properties of the luminescent polyboron compounds were measured, showing good solution fluorescence quantum yields ranging from 0.15 to 0.69. DFT and time-dependent DFT calculations confirmed that molecules 10 and 16 are blue emitters, because only one of the iminopyrrolyl groups becomes planar in the singlet excited state, whereas the second (and third) keeps the same geometry. Compound 13, in which planarity is not achieved in any of the groups, is poorly emissive. In the other examples (11, 12, 14, and 15), the LUMO is stabilized, narrowing the gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO), and the two iminopyrrolyl groups become planar, extending the size of the π-system, to

  9. Analysis of the radiation therapy outcomes and prognostic factors of thymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seok Ho; Lee, Kyu Chan; Choi, Jin Ho; Lee, Jae Ik; Sym, Sun Jin; Cho, Eun Kyung [Gil Medical Center, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) and to investigate the prognostic factors for thymoma when treated with RT. We analyzed 21 patients with thymoma and also received RT from March 2002 to January 2008. The median follow-up time was 37 months (range, 3 to 89 months). The median patient age was 57 years (range, 24 to 77 years) and the gender ratio of males to females was 4 : 3. Of the 21 patients, complete resections (trans-sternal thymectomy) and R2 resections were performed in 14 and 1 patient, respectively. A biopsy was performed in 6 patients (28.7%). The WHO cell types in the 21 patients were as follows: 1 patient (4.8%) had type A, 10 patients (47.6%) had type B1-3, and 10 patients (47.6%) had type C. Based on Masaoka staging, 10 patients (47.6%) were stage II, 7 patients (33.3%) were stage III, and 4 patients (19.1%) were stage IVa. Three-dimensional RT was administered to the tumor volume (planned target volume), including the anterior mediastinum and the residual disease. The total RT dose ranged from 52.0 to 70.2 Gy (median dose, 54 Gy). Consistent with the WHO criteria, the response rate was only analyzed for the 6 patients who received a biopsy only. The prognostic factors analyzed for an estimate of survival included age, gender, tumor size, tumor pathology, Masaoka stage, the possibility of treatment by performing surgery, the presence of myasthenia gravis, and RT dose. The 3-year overall survival rate (OS) and the progression free survival rate (PFS) were 80.7% and 78.2%, respectively. Among the 10 patients with WHO cell type C, 3 of 4 patients (75%) who underwent a complete resection and 3 of 6 patients (50%) who underwent a biopsy survived. Distant metastasis developed in 4 patients (19.1%). The overall response rate in the 6 patients who received biopsy only were as follows: partial remission in 4 patients (66.7%), stable disease in 1 patient (16.6%), and progressive disease in 1 patient (16

  10. Polyphenoloxidase and β-1,3-Glucanase Differential Induction in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Infected by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi race 2 Inducción diferencial de polifenoloxidasa y β -1,3-glucanasa en clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus durante la infección por fusarium oxysporum f. Sp. Dianthi raza 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardila Harold

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the changes on the dynamics of polyphenoloxidase (PFO and β-1,3- glucanase (Glu enzymes in carnation steems, which had been previously inoculatedwith the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi race 2 (Fod. We established the experimental conditions in order to obtain the extract of the enzymes from the carnation steems with the aim to evaluate their enzymatic activity. The best results for PFO were obtained when acetone powder formation, before the extraction with phosphate buffer pH 6,5 aditionated with 3% PVPP, was used, and for Glu, phosphate buffer pH 6.5. The PFO activity quantification was done using catecol at pH 7.0, 37 ºC and measuring the products on 420 nm and, for Glu activity using "laminarina digitata" at 37 ºC and pH 5.5. Then, carnation's cutting from a highly tolerant variety (Carolina and a susceptible (Uconn to Fod race 2, were inoculated with the pathogen, then submitted to the enzymes analysis at different post-inoculation time-lapses. For the susceptible variety, the PFO activity was not affected, whereas in the highly illness
    resistant variety, there was an important inducement 12 h and 24 h post-inoculation, meaning that this enzyme could be playing a significant rol in the defense response, in metabolisms related with the lignification and synthesis of phenolic precursors. Alternatively, the Glu enzyme showed activity inducement in both varieties which seems to comprise a fraction of a non-specific response, uncorrelated with the active defense mechanisms of the carnation against this pathogen.Se evaluó el cambio en el comportamiento de las enzimas polifenoloxidasa (PFO y b-1,3-glucanasa (Glu en tallos de plantas de clavel inoculadas con el patógeno Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Fod raza 2, con el fin de determinar su posible participación en la respuesta defensiva y en la resistencia de la planta al  marchitamiento vascular. Se evaluaron parámetros para la extracción y determinaci

  11. 异氟醚、七氟醚对心肌单相动作电位的作用%The effects of isoflurane and sevoflurane on monophasic action potential of myocardium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷宇; 高鸿; 杨烨

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of isoflurane and sevoflurane on monophasic action potentials(MAPs) of three-layer myocardium in isolated rabbit hearts. Methods The hearts of fifty-six rabbits were perfused by modified krebs- hens lei t buffer with Langendorff device. All of the rabbits were randomly divided into seven groups (n=8) :0. 65 MAC isoflurane group(group A), 0. 65 MAC isoflurane +enanthol groupfgroup B), 1. 3 MAC isoflurane groupCgroup C), 0. 65 MAC sevoflurane group(group D), 0. 65 MAC sevoflurane +enanthol group (group E), 1. 3 MAC sevoflurane group (group F) and enanthol group (group G). HR, MAP including time course(MAPD100 ) and MAP amplitude of endocardium, mid-layer myocardium and epicardium was recorded at the time of equation perfusion (baseline, T(l) and drug treatment for 15 minutes(T1) Results Compared with To, HR in groups B, E and G was significantly slower at Ti. At T, , HR in group B was slower than those in group A, C, D, E, F and G while HR in group E was slower than that in group D and F(P<0. 01). In group B, MAPDlou in three sites at T1 was shortened compared with To, and was also shorter than that in other groups (P<0. 01). In groups C, E and G, the MAPD100 was lengthened at T, and was longer than those in groups A. B, D and F(P<0. 01 or P<0. 05). Group E showed even longer MAPD100, than groups D and F(P<0. 01). Arrhythmia or even electricity activity stop occurred after administration in group B Conclusion Isoflurane lengthened the lime course of MAPs. Similar to hepianol, isoflurane may affect the MAPs of myocardium through block gap junction. Sevoflurane may have no obviously effect on MAPs of myocardium%目的 在兔离体心脏模型上研究异氟醚、七氟醚对心肌单相动作电位(MAPs)的作用.方法 健康家兔56只,离体Langendorff灌注,随机均分为七组:0.65肺泡最小有效浓度(MAC)异氟醚组(A组),0.65 MAC异氟醚+庚醇组(B组),1.3 MAC异氟醚组(C组),0.65 MAC七氟醚组(D组),0.65MAC

  12. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia - Dissertações Defendidas 2002 - Mestrado - Instituto de Geociências - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    mais graves problemas urbanos, sendo um dos principais responsáveis pelo comprometimento da qualidade ambiental em diversas áreas densamente ocupadas. Conforme os espaços urbanos são edificados sem um planejamento que considere a manutenção e/ou criação de mecanismos que gerem amenidades ambientais (por exemplo, áreas verdes e estabelecimento de padrões de ocupação do solo que favoreçam a circulação intra-urbana do ar, mais a população desses locais estará exposta à situações que causem prejuízos a sua saúde. Contudo, propor alternativas é assumir a necessidade de romper não somente com modelos produtivos impactantes, como também com estilos de vida. Costuma-se destacar como um dos grandes desafios para implementação de medidas que visam a melhoria da qualidade ambiental em áreas urbanas, o fato de que por 201 Anuário do Instituto de Geociências - UFRJ Volume 25 / 2002 ser um espaço construído, intervenções seriam extremamente difíceis de serem realizadas. Todavia, esse argumento possui falhas, pois o espaço urbano não é estático, principalmente nas grandes metrópoles. O dinamismo do desenho urbano é uma característica do próprio sistema capitalista que na sua busca pela ampliação acumulada de capital, modifica formas e funções de espaços, gerando fluxos e criando condições de vida diferenciadas de acordo com a situação econômica de cada grupo. É dentro desse contexto socialmente complexo, caracterizado por choques de interesses, que se analisa no presente estudo a qualidade do ar no Município do Rio de Janeiro, ressaltando todas as suas implicações na saúde da população carioca e identificando os principais fatores geoecológicos responsáveis pela distribuição das concentrações de material particulado. Autor: Rafael Silva de Barros Orientador: Carla Bernadete Madureira Título: Estimativa de parâmetros físicos-químicos da água com suporte de sensoriamento remoto – estudo de caso: Baía de