WorldWideScience

Sample records for azolla

  1. Nitrogen fixation by the Azolla-Anabaena azollae symbiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becking, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    A concise outline is presented on the main characteristics of the Azolla association in relation to tropical wetland rice cultivation and the nitrogen economy of paddy soils. Due to the presence of a nitrogen fixing cyanobiont occurring in a special leaf cavity of the Azolla leaf, the water fern Azolla can grow in a nitrogen-deficient environment and is able to contribute considerably to the nitrogen status of the soil. An experimental set-up is presented for how the nitrogen-fixing capacity of Azolla plants can be measured in the field by means of the acetylene reduction assay using a rather simple glass vessel. A comparison was made between 15 N 2 fixation by Azolla and acetylene reduction of Azolla plants under identical conditions

  2. Azolla domestication towards a biobased economy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Paul; Bräutigam, A.; Külahoglu, C.; Tazelaar, A.O.E.; Kurz, S.; Nierop, K.G.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/182329895; van der Werf, A.; Weber, A.P.M.; Schlupmann, Henriette|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304827819

    Due to its phenomenal growth requiring neither nitrogen fertilizer nor arable land and its biomass composition, the mosquito fern Azolla is a candidate crop to yield food, fuels and chemicals sustainably. To advance Azolla domestication, we research its dissemination, storage and transcriptome.

  3. Hydrogen uptake by Azolla-Anabaena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruschel, A.P.; Freitas, J.R. de; Silva, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrogen uptake in the Azolla-Anabaena system is studied. Tritium is used as tracer. Plants are incubated under different atmosphere composition: a) Air + 3 H 2 ; b) Air + CO 2 + 3 H 2 + CO; c) Air + 3 H 2 + CO; d) Air + CO 2 + 3 H 2 + CO to study the pathway of absorbed hydrogen in the Azolla - Anabaena system. Azolla-Anabaena showed greater hydrogen uptake under argonium atmosphere than under air. Carbon monoxide decreased hydrogen uptake. There are evidences of recycling of the hydrogen evolved through notrogenease. (Author) [pt

  4. Effects of different combinations of Hoagland's solution and Azolla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALAN

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... cyanobacteria Anabaena azollae (Shi and Hall, 1988). Anabaena occurs extracellularly and fixes ... The production of N from biological sources namely that of the Azolla-Anabaena symbiosis has ... was added to the plant matter to extract the chlorophyll pigment. Plant material collected from B. vulgaris ...

  5. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Ludmila C.; Alves, Eliakim G.; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: lcvieira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Rafael V. de P., E-mail: rafael@itatijuca.com [Itatijuca Biotech, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Canevesi, Rafael L.S.; Silva, Edson A., E-mail: edson.silva2@unioeste.br [Universidade Estadual do Oeste Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

  6. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Ludmila C.; Alves, Eliakim G.; Marumo, Julio T.; Ferreira, Rafael V. de P.; Canevesi, Rafael L.S.; Silva, Edson A.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

  7. The response of Anabaena -free Azolla and the symbiotic Azolla to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of Anabaena-free (algae free) and symbiotic types of three speeies of Azolla (A. filiculoides, A. pinnata and A. microphylla) were studied in a phytotron at two average temperatures (22 and 33 oC). The growth of both the Anabaena-free and symbiotic types were depressed at a high temperature (33 DC) to ...

  8. Aquatic microphylla Azolla: a perspective paradigm for sustainable agriculture, environment and global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollah, Bharati; Patra, Ashok Kumar; Mohanty, Santosh Ranjan

    2016-03-01

    This review addresses the perspectives of Azolla as a multifaceted aquatic resource to ensure ecosystem sustainability. Nitrogen fixing potential of cyanobacterial symbiont varies between 30 and 60 kg N ha(-1) which designates Azolla as an important biological N source for agriculture and animal industry. Azolla exhibits high bioremediation potential for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Zn. Azolla mitigates greenhouse gas emission from agriculture. In flooded rice ecosystem, Azolla dual cropping decreased CH4 emission by 40 % than did urea alone and also stimulated CH4 oxidation. This review highlighted integrated approach using Azolla that offers enormous public health, environmental, and cost benefits.

  9. Mosquito larval productivity in rice-fields infested with Azolla in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Azolla (Salviniales: Azollaceae) is known to reduce oviposition and adult emergence of a number of mosquito species. Several species of Azolla are reportedly indigenous to Tanzania. However, the potential of Azolla as a biocontrol agent against malaria mosquitoes has not been evaluated in the country.

  10. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Rice - azolla - fish culture - use of nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Iwao.

    1991-01-01

    The primary aim of the expert mission was to provide advice on the use of nuclear techniques to study rice-azolla-fish culture. Results of the work performed so far show that basal application of azolla gives similar or better yields of rice than basal application of urea. Fish productivity was also found to be significantly higher when azolla is present. 2 tabs

  11. Metabolic adaptation, a specialized leaf organ structure and vascular responses to diurnal N2 fixation by nostoc azollae sustain the astonishing productivity of azolla ferns without nitrogen fertilizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Paul; Bräutigam, Andrea; Buijs, Valerie A.; Tazelaar, Anne O.E.; van der Werf, Adrie; Schlüter, Urte; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Bolger, Anthony; Usadel, Björn; Weber, Andreas P.M.; Schluepmann, Henriette

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture demands reduced input of man-made nitrogen (N) fertilizer, yet N2 fixation limits the productivity of crops with heterotrophic diazotrophic bacterial symbionts. We investigated floating ferns from the genus Azolla that host phototrophic diazotrophic Nostoc azollae in leaf

  12. Improving the Nitrogen Mineralization of Dried Azolla pinnata as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An incubation experiment was conducted to improve the rate of nitrogen mineralization of dried Azolla pinnata samples in the Akuse series of the Vertisol. Incubation was done for 60 days at soil moisture content of 40% and at room temperature of 28 °C. The available N (ammonium and nitrate N) was determined for each of ...

  13. Symbiotic Blue Green Algae (Azolla): A Potential Bio fertilizer for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symbiotic Blue Green Algae (Azolla): A Potential Bio fertilizer for Paddy Rice Production in Fogera Plain, Northwestern Ethiopia. ... They were maintained and multiplied in plastic containers at Adet in a greenhouse and then inoculated into concrete tanks for testing their adaptability. Both strains were well adapted to Adet ...

  14. Improving the Nitrogen Mineralization of Dried Azolla pinnata as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    Characterization and comparison of five N2– fixing N2 Azolla-Anabaena associations. 1. Optimization of growth conditions for biomass increase and N content in a controlled environment. Pl. Cell Envir. 3: 261–269. Ramesh K. and Chandrasekaran B. (2004). Soil organic carbon bulk-up and dynamics in rice-rice cropping ...

  15. Alien and exotic Azolla in northern Iran | Hashemloian | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azolla filiculoides a planktonic fern found floating on the surface of wetlands, ponds and rivers. Because of its ability to fix nitrogen through symbiotic cyanobacteria, it causes more rice production in paddy fields and is used as a green fertilizer. A. filiculoides was introduced from Philippine as a green fertilizer for rice crop to ...

  16. The Equipment of Using AZOLLA for O2-Supplimentation and its Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Liu, Xia-Shi; Bian, Zu-Liang; Liu, Chung-Chu

    The equipment of using Azolla for O2-supplementation and food-production in future space station was developed and tested. Dog was used as the O2-consumming animal. The design of this device considered both the requirement of Azolla growth, such as illumination, temperature, humidity, nutrition and biomass harvesting, and also the food supplement, excretion draining and temperature controlling for the dog under the condition of an airtight chamber for a relatively long duration. This device was preliminarily tested for O2-release by Azolla, and data about O2-supplementation by Azolla were obtained. Results showed that Azolla is one potential plant as O2-supplementation in future space station. Key words: Azolla, oxygen supply systems, test, chambers, closed ecological systems, oxygen supplement

  17. Alimentation des lapins ( Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) à base de Azolla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les systèmes intégrés de production constituent l'une des voies essentielles pour une agriculture durable. Cette étude a pour but d'évaluer l'effet d'une alimentation à base de Azolla filiculoïdes, Elaeis guineensis, Ipomoea aquatica et Panicum maximum sur les performances zootechniques des lapins et le potentiel nutritif ...

  18. Methane Emissions and Microbial Communities as Influenced by Dual Cropping of Azolla along with Early Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingna; Xu, Heshui; Jiang, Ying; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Yuegao; Zeng, Zhaohai

    2017-01-01

    Azolla caroliniana Willd. is widely used as a green manure accompanying rice, but its ecological importance remains unclear, except for its ability to fix nitrogen in association with cyanobacteria. To investigate the impacts of Azolla cultivation on methane emissions and environmental variables in paddy fields, we performed this study on the plain of Dongting Lake, China, in 2014. The results showed that the dual cropping of Azolla significantly suppressed the methane emissions from paddies, likely due to the increase in redox potential in the root region and dissolved oxygen concentration at the soil-water interface. Furthermore, the floodwater pH decreased in association with Azolla cultivation, which is also a factor significantly correlated with the decrease in methane emissions. An increase in methanotrophic bacteria population (pmoA gene copies) and a reduction in methanogenic archaea (16S rRNA gene copies) were observed in association with Azolla growth. During rice cultivation period, dual cropping of Azolla also intensified increasing trend of 1/Simpson of methanogens and significantly decreased species richness (Chao 1) and species diversity (1/Simpson, 1/D) of methanotrophs. These results clearly demonstrate the suppression of CH4 emissions by culturing Azolla and show the environmental and microbial responses in paddy soil under Azolla cultivation.

  19. N-Urea Efficiency In Lowland Rice Applied With Azolla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasjid, Havid; Sisworo, E.L.; Wemay, Y.; Sisworo, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    Two N-fertilizer experiments have been conducted using urea tablet and prill urea combined with Azolla application. Twelve treatments have been tested using 2 rice varieties namely Atomita-4 and IR-64. To enable the determination of N-urea efficiency 15 N labelled urea was used. The experiments were conducted in the dry and wet season (DS and WS) 1994/1995 at the experimental station, pusaka negara, Subang West Java. Data obtained from the two experiments showed that the highest N-urea efficiency was found in Atomita-4 applied with urea-tablet (DS=46,1%, WS= 35,8%). Letting the Azolla grow during one lowland rice growth period could increase the N-urea prill efficiency (±5%) compared when no azolla was applied. Apparently Atomita-4 could use N-urea more efficiently compared to IR-64, showing higher grain yield (atomita-4 DS=6.2 ton ha -1 WS=5.9 ton ha -1 ) vs IR-64 (DS=5.8 ton ha -1 , WS=5.3 ton ha -1 ). Decreasing the levels of TSP not influence to the urea efficiency at the DS and WS

  20. Study on O2-supplying characteristics of Azolla in Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Deng, Sufang; Yang, Youquang; Huang, Yibing; Liu, Zhongzhu

    Azolla has high growth and propagation rate, strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability and rich nutrient value. It is able to be used as salad-type vegetable, and can also be cultured on wet bed in multi-layer condition. Hence, it possesses a potential functioning as providing O2, fresh vegetable and absorbing CO2 for Controlled Ecological Life Support System in space. In this study, we try to make clear the O2-providing characteristics of Azolla in controlled close chamber under manned condition in order to lay a foundation for Azolla as a biological component in the next ground simulated experiment and space application. A closed test cham-ber of Controlled Ecological Life Support System and Azolla wet-culturing devices were built to measure the changes of atmospheric O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber under "Azolla-fish -men" coexisting condition. The results showed that, the amount of O2 consumption is 80.49 83.07 ml/h per kilogram fish, the amount of CO2 emissions is 70.49 73.56 ml/(kg • h); O2 consumption of trial volunteers is 19.71 L/h, the volume of respiration release CO2 18.90 L/h .Artificial light intensity of Azolla wet culture under 70009000 Lx, people respiration and Azolla photosynthesis complemented each other, the atmospheric O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber maintained equilibration. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations in close chamber have obvious effects on enhancing Azolla net photosynthesis efficiency. This shows that Azolla has strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability, which equilibrates the O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber in favor of human survival, and then verifies the prospect of Azolla in space application.

  1. Efficacy of oxygen-supplying capacity of Azolla in a controlled life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Deng, Sufang; Yang, Youquan; Huang, Yibing; Liu, Chongchu

    2012-02-01

    Azolla shows high growth and propagation rates, strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability and high nutritional value. It is suitable as a salad vegetable and can be cultured on a multi-layered wet bed. Hence, it possesses potential as a fresh vegetable, and to release O2 and absorb CO2 in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System in space. In this study, we investigated the O2-providing characteristics of Azolla in a closed chamber under manned, controlled conditions to lay a foundation for use of Azolla as a biological component in ground simulation experiments for space applications. A closed test chamber, representing a Controlled Ecological Life Support System including an Azolla wet-culture device, was built to measure the changes in atmospheric O2 and CO2 concentrations inside the chamber in the presence of coexisting Azolla, fish and men. The amount of O2 consumed by fish was 0.0805-0.0831 L kg-1 h-1 and the level of CO2 emission was 0.0705-0.0736 L kg-1 h-1; O2 consumption by the two trial volunteers was 19.71 L h-1 and the volume of respiration-released CO2 was 18.90 L h-1. Under 7000-8000 Lx artificial light and Azolla wet-culture conditions, human and fish respiration and Azolla photosynthesis were complementary, thus the atmospheric O2 and CO2 concentrations inside chamber were maintained in equilibrium. The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration in the closed chamber enhanced the net photosynthesis efficiency of the Azolla colony. This study showed that Azolla has strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability, which equilibrates the O2 and CO2 concentrations inside the chamber in favor of human survival and verifies the potential of Azolla for space applications.

  2. Pengaruh pemberian Azolla (Azolla microphyla, Kaulfuss dan mikroorganisme efektif terhadap produksi rumput raja (Pennisetum purpureum, Schumacher & Thonn c.v King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Yuniati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aims at determining the influence of azolla compost and effective microorganism (EM application on the production of King Grass at the 1st and the 2nd cuttings at Sumbersekar field laboratory, Faculty of Animal Husbandry Brawijaya University for four months. The Randomized Block Factorial design was applied with two factors. The first factor was EM4 consists of E1 (EM4 addition and E0 (without EM4. The second factor was the dosage of fertilizer consists of A100 (100% azolla + 0% urea, A75 (75% azolla + 25% urea, A50 (50% azolla + 50% urea, A25 (25% azolla + 75% urea and A0 (0% azolla + 100% urea. The parameters observed comprised the number of tillers, plant height, dry matter (DM leaf production, organic matter (OM content, crude protein (CP content. The study indicates that there were interaction (P<0.05 between EM4 and fertilizer (azolla dosage on plant height, total OM, total CP, DM leaf production, DM stem production, total DM production, and total CP production at the first cutting. Then, at the second cutting there were interaction (P<0.05 among treatments on the number of tillers, total OM, total CP, DM leaf pro-duction, total DM production, and total CP. At the first cutting, the highest values of plant height, leaf OM, stem OM, leaf CP, stem CP, OM production were 86.39%, 92.40%, 7.85%, and 3.89% respectively found at ElA25. Furthermore, at the second cutting the best treatment were ElA25 in which the value of leaf CP content and total DM content were 8.08% and 4.64 kg/plot respectively. The leaf DM production and stem OM content at the first cutting were higher than those at the second cutting. It can be concluded that azolla can substitute the role of urea by 25%.

  3. Effects of the naturally-occurring contaminant microcystins on the Azolla filiculoides-Anabaena azollae symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A L; Monteiro, B; Azevedo, J; Campos, A; Osório, H; Vasconcelos, V

    2015-08-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) contaminate aquatic ecosystems and are responsible for animal poisoning worldwide. We conducted a toxicity test with the aquatic fern and the biofertilizer, Azolla filiculoides. The sporophytes were exposed to three concentrations (0.01, 0.1 and 1μgmL(-1)) of a microcystin (MC) cyanobacterial crude extract and purified MC-LR. The growth of A. filiculoides decreased only at 1μgmL(-1) crude extract concentration while with MC-LR it decreased at all the tested concentrations, indicating that the presence of other compounds in the crude extract altered toxicity and stimulated the fern growth at lower concentrations (0.01 and 0.1μgmL(-1)). Both phycoerythrocyanin and allophycocyanin levels decreased in all the concentrations of crude extract and MC-LR. The phycocyanin had a marked increase at 0.1μgmL(-1) crude extract concentration and a marked decrease at 1μgmL(-1) MC-LR concentration. These changes in the phycobiliprotein content indicate a shift in the antenna pigments of the cyanobionts of A. filiculoides. The changes in two oxidative stress enzymes, glutathione reductase for the crude extract assay and glutathione peroxidase for MC-LR assay, points towards the induction of stress defense responses. The low bioconcentration factor in both crude extract and MC-LR treatments can suggest the low uptake of microcystins, and indicates that the aquatic fern can be used as a biofertilizer and as animal feed but is not suitable for MC phytoremediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of azolla on rice growth treated with and without N fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, E.L.; Sisworo, W.H.; Hendratno; Rasyid, H.; Solahuddin, S.; Partohardjono, S.

    1987-01-01

    Influence of azolla on rice growth treated with and without fertilizer. An experiment to investigate the influence of azolla on growth of rice treated with and without N fertilizer has been carried out in the rainy season 1984/1985 at the Muara Experimental Station, Bogota. Rice variety used in this experiment was Atomita I. Eight treatments employed in this experiment were treatments without azolla and N fertilizer, with azolla alone, with N fertilizer alone, and a combination of azolla and N fertilizer used was urea labelled with 5% 15 N atom excess. Parameters observed were: dry weight, total-N and N-derived from fertilizer in rough grain, straw and plant. Data from this experiment indicated that azolla was able to produce similar yield of rough grain, straw and plant with those produced by N fertilizer applied at a rate of 90 kg N/ha. These data were much higher compared to N fertilizer applied at a rate of 30 and 60 kg N/ha. The same trend was found in yield of N. It turned out that apparently azolla is effective to increase rice production. (author). 3 figs., 8 refs

  5. Micro-halocline enabled nutrient recycling may explain extreme Azolla event in the Eocene Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kempen, Monique M L; Smolders, Alfons J P; Lamers, Leon P M; Roelofs, Jan G M

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the physicochemical mechanisms that could explain the massive growth of Azolla arctica in the Eocene Arctic Ocean, we carried out a laboratory experiment in which we studied the interacting effects of rain and wind on the development of salinity stratification, both in the presence and in the absence of a dense Azolla cover. Additionally, we carried out a mesocosm experiment to get a better understanding of the nutrient cycling within and beneath a dense Azolla cover in both freshwater and brackish water environments. Here we show that Azolla is able to create a windproof, small-scale salinity gradient in brackish waters, which allows for efficient recycling of nutrients. We suggest that this mechanism ensures the maintenance of a large standing biomass in which additional input of nutrients ultimately result in a further expansion of an Azolla cover. As such, it may not only explain the extent of the Azolla event during the Eocene, but also the absence of intact vegetative Azolla remains and the relatively low burial efficiency of organic carbon during this interval.

  6. Micro-halocline enabled nutrient recycling may explain extreme Azolla event in the Eocene Arctic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique M L van Kempen

    Full Text Available In order to understand the physicochemical mechanisms that could explain the massive growth of Azolla arctica in the Eocene Arctic Ocean, we carried out a laboratory experiment in which we studied the interacting effects of rain and wind on the development of salinity stratification, both in the presence and in the absence of a dense Azolla cover. Additionally, we carried out a mesocosm experiment to get a better understanding of the nutrient cycling within and beneath a dense Azolla cover in both freshwater and brackish water environments. Here we show that Azolla is able to create a windproof, small-scale salinity gradient in brackish waters, which allows for efficient recycling of nutrients. We suggest that this mechanism ensures the maintenance of a large standing biomass in which additional input of nutrients ultimately result in a further expansion of an Azolla cover. As such, it may not only explain the extent of the Azolla event during the Eocene, but also the absence of intact vegetative Azolla remains and the relatively low burial efficiency of organic carbon during this interval.

  7. The potential of the fresh-water fern Azolla in aquatic farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, Peter K.; Werf, vd, Adrie; Schluepmann, Henriette; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Brouwer, Paul; Nierop, Klaas G. J.; Hellgardt, Klaus; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2014-05-01

    With aquatic farming systems a new avenue in agriculture is explored, in which the competition with conventional arable land is avoided. The aquatic, ubiquitous, floating fern Azolla is not yet widely explored as potential crop in such farming systems, despite its high potential because it grows in many natural systems under low-light intensities, has an enormous annual yield, and has special biomass qualities for applications in food, feed and specialty chemical industries. But, what makes Azolla particularly interesting as cost-effective crop is its capability to take up atmospheric nitrogen through symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria Anabaena azollae. This makes Azolla independent of nitrogen fertilization. In order to explore the potential of Azolla as a crop for a suite of applications, we have assembled a team of expertise: AZOFAST, consisting of agricultural engineers, plant physiologists, chemical engineers and organic chemists. Our growth experiments reveal high annual production yields with constant harvest. We are developing a germination and spore collecting/preservation protocol as a first step to domestication. Finally we have explored the biomass quality of different species of extant Azolla. We performed organic chemical analyses on lipid and tannin extracts, and quantified yields of specific compounds within these fractions. In our presentation we will present some of our results to show the potential of Azolla as a new, sustainable aquatic crop serving all kinds of industrial streams from protein feed to platform chemicals.

  8. Crowdfunding the Azolla fern genome project: a grassroots approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fay-Wei; Pryer, Kathleen M

    2014-01-01

    Much of science progresses within the tight boundaries of what is often seen as a "black box". Though familiar to funding agencies, researchers and the academic journals they publish in, it is an entity that outsiders rarely get to peek into. Crowdfunding is a novel means that allows the public to participate in, as well as to support and witness advancements in science. Here we describe our recent crowdfunding efforts to sequence the Azolla genome, a little fern with massive green potential. Crowdfunding is a worthy platform not only for obtaining seed money for exploratory research, but also for engaging directly with the general public as a rewarding form of outreach.

  9. Effects of atmospheric SO[sub 2] on Azolla and Anabaena symbiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, J.-S.; Wellburn, A.R. (Division of Biological Sciences, Institute of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Lancaster Univ., Lancaster (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    The water fern Azolla pinnata R. Br. was fumigated for 1 week with either 25, 50 or 100 nl l[sup -1] SO[sub 2]. The symbiosis of Azolla with Anabaena azollae (spp.) was severely damaged by atmospheric SO[sub 2] even at the lowest concentration studied showing significant reductions in growth, reduction of C[sub 2]H[sub 2], NH[sub 3] assimilation, protein synthesis, and heterocyst development. These disturbances appear to be mainly responsible for the extreme sensitivity of this fern to atmospheric SO[sub 2]. Changes in violaxanthin/antheraxanthin and epoxylutein/lutein ratios also indicate that free radical products are induced by atmospheric SO[sub 2]. These results suggest that the Azolla-Anabeana symbiotic system is a very responsive and reliable lower plant model to study the detailed effects of total sulfur deposition upon the balances between various important plant metabolic processes.

  10. Effect of Azolla Inoculation on the Contribution of Urea-N Fertilizer in Lowland Rice Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havid Rasjid; Elsje L Sisworo; Haryanto

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments (dry and wet seasons) have been conducted to study effect of Azolla inoculated in lowland rice culture. Five treatments combination of urea and Azolla tested were: N-0, N-0+Az, N-45+Az, N-90+Az, and N-90. Experiments were designed with completely randomized design (CRD) and each treatment was replicated 4 times. 15 N-labelled urea was used in this experiment to determine N-derived from fertilizer. Results of this experiments showed that planting season did not influenced production of grain, total-N percentage, and total-N uptake of the plant. Azolla inoculation was able to increase dry matter production, percentage of total-N, and plant total-N uptake up to 36 %. The fertilizer use efficiencies were increased 16 % in dry season and 23 % in wet season respectively. This condition expressed that Azolla inoculation in lowland rice could present N-logg through vaporization and water current. (author)

  11. Studies on Using Azolla for O2-Supplementation and Its Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.-C.; Liu, X.-S.; Chen, M.; Bian, Z.-L.

    Establishment of Controlling Ecological Life Safety System (CELSS) is a key technical part in the study on manned station. In order to meet the requirement of long-term out-earth man-carrying flight, it is necessary to build plant-based O2-supplying CELSS. It also possesses the possibility to contribute the realization of mankind dream to live in out-earth planets. Using the physiological reaction of organisms, this system settled the problem in food supply, O2 and water recycle, the regeneration and utilization of CO2 and life residues, thus guarantee the spacemen the health, safety and efficient work when they are far from earth and arrived the space where human is difficult to life in. Azolla as a plant that possesses high growing speed, short growing cycle, high photosynthesis and O2-releasing capacity, and can be artificially grow in multi-layer facilities, it is hopeful to be an important biological part in CELSS for it's the function in O2 production and to be a part of fresh vegetable as well as CO2 absorption. This paper described the study in Azolla as a plant for supplementary O2 supply in future space station flight. The "Azolla-dog" controlling tight system was firstly established in order to determine the regulation of O2-CO2 variation and balance using different weights of dogs with different Azolla growing areas. The further studies included the development of air-tight cabinets where "Azolla-human" airtight experiments were conducted, and the relationship between Azolla-growing area and O2 requirement by human was analyzed. Based on these works, the further experiment on supplementary O2-supply of Azolla-human system was conducted in demonstration cabin for environmental controlling and life security. The O2-supplying amount of Azolla was further gained, and it will provide the experimental basis to probe optimum condition to grow Azolla in space and human-machine combining experiment, also to lay a basis for Azolla as a biological part to enter

  12. Azolla planting reduces methane emission and nitrogen fertilizer application in double rice cropping system in southern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Heshui; Zhu, Bo; Liu, Jingna

    2017-01-01

    agronomic benefits. However, the effects of the dual cropping of Azolla on methane emissions of double rice cropping paddies have not yet been reported. Here, we conducted a 3-year field experiment to evaluate the impacts of rice + Azolla on methane emission and rice yield in a double rice cropping system...... with that of the conventional rice cropping with common N fertilizer. Moreover, the rice + Azolla with moderate N fertilizer had the lowest yield-scaled methane (25.2 kg Mg−1 grain yield). Here, we showed for the first time that Azolla planting allows sustainable rice production coupled with methane mitigation in double rice...

  13. Salinity induced physiological and biochemical changes in the freshly separated cyanobionts of Azolla microphylla and Azolla caroliniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ravindra Kumar; Tripathi, Keshawanand; Ramteke, Pramod Wasudeo; Varghese, Eldho; Abraham, Gerard

    2016-09-01

    Freshly separated cyanobionts of Azolla microphylla and Azolla caroliniana plants exposed to salinity showed decline in the cellular constituents such as chlorophyll (23.1 and 38.9%) and protein (12.9 and 19.3%). However, an increase in the carotenoid and sugar content was observed. Exposure to salinity stress reduced the heterocyst frequency (35.4 and 57.2%) and nitrogenase activity (37.7 and 46.3%) of the cyanobionts. Increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as super oxide dismutase (50.6 and 11.5%), ascorbate peroxidase (63.7 and 57.9%), catalase (94.2 and 22.5%) as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant proline (18.8 and 13.3%) was also observed in response to salinity. The cyanobionts exhibited significant increase in the intracellular Na(+) level and reduced intracellular K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratio in response to salinity. The results demonstrate the adverse impact of salinity on the freshly separated cyanobionts as similar to free living cyanobacteria. These results may be helpful in the critical evaluation of salinity tolerance mechanism of the cyanobiont and its interaction with the host. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Research of biological isotope effect of deuterium in Anabaena azollae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongbo; Wang Wenqing; Shi Dingji; Luo Shanggeng

    1996-01-01

    Anabaena azollae is cultured in BG-11 medium whose mass fraction of heavy water is 0%, 10%, 30%, 60% and 90%, respectively. During different time, activities of photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogenase are measured. In addition, growth-curve, absorption spectrum and low temperature fluorescence spectrum are given. The change of cellular morphology is observed with scanning electron microscope. The results show that the addition of heavy water causes lagging of the exponential period of growth, and inhibits the activities of photosynthesis respiration and nitrogenase markedly. Absorption spectrum shows that the ratio of phycobilins to carotenoid decreases with increasing percentage of heavy water. Low temperature fluorescence spectrum indicates that the ratio of F 733 /F 695 decreases and photo-energy distributed to system II is more than to system I. According to the maximum of net photosynthesis, the isotope effect is also discussed

  15. The potential of the aquatic water fern Azolla within a biobased economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierop, Klaas G. J.; Jongerius, Anna L.; Bijl, Peter K.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J. M.; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2014-05-01

    Azolla is a free-floating freshwater fern capable of fixing atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen, the latter of which through its symbiosis with the cyanobacteria Anabaena azollae. It is currently ranked among the fastest growing plants on Earth and occurs in both tropical and temperate freshwater ecosystems. Therefore, it is non-directly competitive with food crops. In addition, Azolla does not require inorganic fertilizers, which makes it a potential and unique source of biomass for the sustainable production of fuels and chemicals that are currently derived from fossil (fuel) sources. The biochemical composition of Azolla allows the production of biofuel or biobased chemicals that are of interest to the chemical industry. Of Azolla, two extractable groups of compounds are of particular interest, i.e. the polyphenols (condensed tannins and ester-bound caffeic acid) and the lipids. The antioxidant property of polyphenols and their application to the treatment of cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases has further contributed to the growth of the polyphenol market. In addition, they can be chemically transformed into aromatic platform and specialty chemicals. The composition of the lipid fraction of Azolla is characterized by highly specific compounds consisting of C26-C36 carbon chains all bearing a ω20-hydroxy group. Such compounds produce an oil fraction upon hydrous pyrolysis, or, alternatively, are well suited to be converted to e.g. various specialty chemicals that are hardly available from both natural sources. Indeed, upon chemical conversion these lipids may yield components for fuels, plastics, cosmetics, and lubricants. Another group of interesting compounds within the lipid group are the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The demand for PUFAs has witnessed a significant increase over the last three years, particularly due to their benefits as cholesterol lowering agents. Here we will present some of the thermal and chemical conversions of the

  16. Effect of inoculating blue-green algae and Azolla on rice yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulasooriya, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Nitrogen fixing blue-green algae (BGA) and the Azolla-Anaebaena symbiosis are potential alternative sources of nitrogen for lowland rice production. A survey of the literature shows that on the average, when BGA inoculation is effective, a rice yield increase of 14% (450 kg grain ha -1 ) has been observed. However, in Sri Lanka no significant increases in grain yield have been observed due to BGA inoculation. Azolla inoculation in broadcast, transplanted, and avenue transplanted rice gave yield increases of 12, 22 and 48%, and was equivalent to 55 to 80 kg N ha -1 as urea. Azolla was observed to reduce weed growth by 53%. Azolla is easier to establish in rice fields since it can be easily recognized with the naked eye, however, BGA are better able to withstand periods of desiccation which occur in rain-fed rice production. Most algalization experiments have been performed on a ''black box'' basis where only the final grain yield has been measured. Isotope experiments can play a vital role in understanding the processes by which BGA and Azolla increase rice yields. (author)

  17. Coupling Fe0 nano particles with living and dead Azolla filicoloides to improve removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhshaee, Roohan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The novel living and dead bio–nano couples were prepared. • Living Azolla was more effective stabilizer for nano particles. • Increasing stabilization increased methylene blue (MB) adsorption. • The portion of Fe 0 NPs had the main rule to determine kinetic model to adsorb MB. • It was studied the various factors rule on the living Azolla growth and MB removal. - Abstract: Fe 0 nano particles (FNPs) were connected to the cell wall of the dead and living Azolla filicoloides as an aquatic fern, individually. FNPs mean size was decreased due to the stabilization, especially using the living one. It was compared the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), saturation magnetization (Ms), zeta potential (ZP) and thermal analysis (DSC and TGA) of the dead and living Azolla connected to FNPs, and also the findings of potentiometric titration (PT) of the cell wall's pectin of the dead and living Azolla. It was confirmed (by XRD and XPS) that Fe 0 nano particles when were connected to the living Azolla did not produce Fe 3 O 4 due to oxidation unlike the bare FNPs and the connected form to the dead Azolla, by reason of the more stabilization (more surface protection) of nano iron particles after connecting to the living Azolla. To adsorb methylene blue by these agents at the optimum pre-treatment pH 10 and adsorption pH 8, the parameters of equilibrium sorption, rate constant of second-order sorption and activation energy were obtained as: living Azolla–FNPs > dead Azolla–FNPs > FNPs > dead Azolla, while, their thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) had the reverse arrangement. It was also studied the various factors rule such as photoperiod and the presence of heavy metals on the living Azolla growth coupled with FNPs and its MB removal ability.

  18. Use of multivitamin, acidifier and Azolla in the diet of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Islam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The experiments were carried out to measure the effect of multivitamin, acidifier and Azolla on growth performance, profitability and lipid profiles of blood of broiler chickens to produce safe and cost effective broilers. Methods In experiment 1, 240 day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were fed diets; D1 (control, D2 (D1 with 1 mL multivitamin/liter water, D3 (D1 with 1 mL acidifier/liter water, D4 (D1 with 1 mL multivitamin and 2 mL acidifier/liter water having 3 replications in each, and 20 chicks/replication. In experiment 2, 150 day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were fed diets; T1 (control, T2 (5% Azolla in the diet, T3 (7% Azolla in the diet and T4 (T1 with 1 mL multivitamin and 1 mL acidifier/liter water having 3 replications in each, and 20 chicks/replication in control, and 10 chicks/replication in the remaining dietary treatment groups for 35 days. Results In experiment 1, the highest live weight was observed in D4 (p0.05. The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR (p0.05. However, evidently but not significantly, the highest net profit was obtained in D2 followed by D4, D1, and D3, respectively. In experiment 2, the highest live weight (p0.05. Conclusion In conclusion, Azolla and acidifier reduced lipid profiles of broiler chickens. Considering net profit and lipid profiles, 5% Azolla may be the suitable dietary group for producing safe and profitable broilers. However, more studies are needed to confirm this study prior to suggesting using Azolla in the poultry industry.

  19. The Eocene Arctic Azolla phenomenon: species composition, temporal range and geographic extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Margaret; Barke, Judith; van der Burgh, Johan; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna; Pearce, Martin; Bujak, Jonathan; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2010-05-01

    Azolla is a free-floating freshwater fern that is renowned for its rapid vegetative spread and invasive biology, being one of the world's fastest growing aquatic macrophytes. Two species of this plant have been shown to have bloomed and reproduced in enormous numbers in the latest Early to earliest Middle Eocene of the Arctic Ocean and North Sea based on samples from IODP cores from the Lomonosov Ridge (Arctic) and from outcrops in Denmark (Collinson et al 2009 a,b Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 155,1-14; and doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2009.12.001). To determine the geographic and temporal extent of this Azolla phenomenon, and the spatial distribution of the different species, we have examined samples from 15 additional sites using material from ODP cores and commercial exploration wells. The sites range from the Sub-Arctic (Northern Alaska and Canadian Beaufort Mackenzie Basin) to the Nordic Seas (Norwegian-Greenland Sea and North Sea Basin). Our data show that the Azolla phenomenon involved at least three species. These are distinguished by characters of the megaspore apparatus (e.g. megaspore wall, floats, filosum) and the microspore massulae (e.g. glochidia fluke tips). The Lomonosov Ridge (Arctic) and Danish occurrences are monotypic but in other sites more than one species co-existed. The attachment to one another and the co-occurrence of megaspore apparatus and microspore massulae, combined with evidence that these spores were shed at the fully mature stage of their life cycle, shows that the Azolla remains were not transported over long distances, a fact which could not be assumed from isolated massula fragments alone. Our evidence, therefore, shows that Azolla plants grew on the ocean surfaces for approximately 1.2 million years (from 49.3 to 48.1 Ma) and that the Azolla phenomenon covered the area from Denmark northwards across the North Sea Basin and the whole of the Arctic and Nordic seas. Apparently, early Middle Eocene Northern Hemisphere middle

  20. Arsenic accumulation by the aquatic fern Azolla: Comparison of arsenate uptake, speciation and efflux by A. caroliniana and A. filiculoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xin; Lin Aijun; Zhao Fangjie; Xu Guozhong; Duan Guilan; Zhu Yongguan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates As accumulation and tolerance of the aquatic fern Azolla. Fifty strains of Azolla showed a large variation in As accumulation. The highest- and lowest-accumulating ferns among the 50 strains were chosen for further investigations. Azolla caroliniana accumulated two times more As than Azolla filiculoides owing to a higher influx velocity for arsenate. A. filiculoides was more resistant to external arsenate due to a lower uptake. Both strains showed a similar degree of tolerance to internal As. Arsenate and arsenite were the dominant As species in both Azolla strains, with methlyated As species accounting for <5% of the total As. A. filiculoides had a higher proportion of arsenite than A. caroliniana. Both strains effluxed more arsenate than arsenite, and the amount of As efflux was proportional to the amount of As accumulation. The potential of growing Azolla in paddy fields to reduce As transfer from soil and water to rice should be further evaluated. - Arsenic accumulation and efflux differ between strains of the aquatic fern Azolla

  1. Valorisation de Azolla spp, Moringa oleifera, son de riz, et de co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    Azolla microphylla. Kaulf) dans la production porcine en zone humide. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 3(5): 890-898. Adeyinka SM, Oyedele ... Air, and Soil Pollution 135: 93-104. Costa ML, Santos MCR, Carrapico, F, Pereirac, AL,. 2009.

  2. Partial replacement of fish meal with Azolla meal in diets for Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The replacement of fishmeal (FM) with Azolla meal (AM) in diets on growth and fatty acid in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (initial mean weight: 16.4 g) was studied. Fish were fed with six isonitrogenous (29.2% CP) and isoenergetic (16.9 kJ.g-1) diets containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% AM respectively, ...

  3. Palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological implications of the Eocene Northern Hemisphere Azolla phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barke, J.

    2010-01-01

    The high abundances and cyclic distribution of remains of the freshwater fern Azolla in early middle Eocene sediments from the Arctic Ocean have previously been related to episodic surface water freshening, which was speculated to be orbitally modulated. Our integrated palynological and

  4. TRATAMIENTO DE EFLUENTES PISCÍCOLAS (TILAPIA ROJA EN LAGUNAS CON Azolla pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILLERMO CHAUX F

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas con plantas acuáticas flotantes son una alternativa económicamente sostenible para el tratamiento de efluentes piscícolas. Se evaluó a escala piloto el desempeñ,o de un sistema de lagunas con Azolla pinnata en serie para el tratamiento de efluentes de cría de tilapia roja durante el proceso de levante y engorde. El sistema construido en la piscícola La Yunga (Popayán, Colombia consistió en dos líneas de cinco lagunas en serie; la primera con A. pinnata y la segunda sin la planta acuática; cada laguna se operó con un tiempo de detención de un día. La evaluación se realizó en época seca. La producción de Azolla fresca osciló entre 42 y 87 g/m2.d y el contenido de proteína entre 18,5% y 20,4%. Las eficiencias de remoción obtenidas en las líneas (con Azolla, sin Azolla fueron respectivamente: 56% y 46% DBO5; 49% y 26% DQO; 56% y 33% SST; 28% y 36% N-NTK; -108% y 23% N-NH4+; 64% y 34% fósforo total, mostrando superioridad del sistema con Azolla. Con solo tres lagunas en serie plantadas con A. pinnata se alcanzan las eficiencias máximas obtenidas en la remoción de DBO5, DQO, SST y fósforo total.

  5. Methane emissions and microbial communities as influenced by dual cropping of Azolla along with early Rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jingna; Xu, Heshui; Jiang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    in paddy fields, we performed this study on the plain of Dongting Lake, China, in 2014. The results showed that the dual cropping of Azolla significantly suppressed the methane emissions from paddies, likely due to the increase in redox potential in the root region and dissolved oxygen concentration...... at the soil-water interface. Furthermore, the floodwater pH decreased in association with Azolla cultivation, which is also a factor significantly correlated with the decrease in methane emissions. An increase in methanotrophic bacteria population (pmoA gene copies) and a reduction in methanogenic archaea (16......S rRNA gene copies) were observed in association with Azolla growth. During rice cultivation period, dual cropping of Azolla also intensified increasing trend of 1/Simpson of methanogens and significantly decreased species richness (Chao 1) and species diversity (1/Simpson, 1/D) of methanotrophs...

  6. Application of Azolla and intermittent irrigation to improve the productivity and nutrient contents of local black rice variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulandjari; Yunindanova, M. B.

    2018-03-01

    Black rice is a local rice variety that contains a high level of anthocyanin pigment. Anthocyanin has been reported to be very effective in reducing cholesterol levels as well as cancer cell invasion. One of the main problems in rice cultivation is lack of water. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) has shown to be able to increase rice productivity by increasing the number of tillers. This system is known as a water-efficient cultivation. Other rice cultivation barrier is related to the use of nitrogen fertilizer. One of replacement of nitrogen fertilizer is by adding azolla. The objective of this research was identifying growth and yield of organic black rice with intermittent irrigation and application of azolla. The plant material used was black rice Cempo variety from Sleman, Yogyakarta. This experiment utilized 4 dosages of azolla as the first treatment: 100 gm-2, 200 gm-2 and 400 gm-2. The second treatment was water supply consisted of continuous flooded 2 cm; flooded 2 cm every 3 days; flooded 2 cm every 6 days. The results depicted that the application of azolla was able to increase the growth of black rice. Azolla of 200 gm-2 and 400 gm-2 and intermittent 3 days to 6 days generated higher dry grain, anthocyanin and antioxidant. Azolla 200 gm-2 with intermittent irrigation 3 days could be a good combination to improve plant growth, yield and properties of local black rice.

  7. Azolla as a component of the space diet during habitation on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kishida, Yoshiro; Liu, Chung-Chu; Watanabe, Iwao; Wada, Hidenori; Space Agriculture Task Force

    We evaluate a candidate diet and specify its space agricultural requirements for habitation on Mars. Rice, soybean, sweet potato and a green-yellow vegetable have been selected as the basic vegetarian menu. The addition of silkworm pupa, loach, and Azolla to that basic menu was found to meet human nutritional requirements. Co-culture of rice, Azolla, and loach is proposed for developing bio-regenerative life support capability with high efficiency of the usage of habitation and agriculture area. Agriculture designed under the severe constraints of limited materials resources in space would make a positive contribution toward solving the food shortages and environmental problems facing humans on Earth, and may provide an effective sustainable solution for our civilization.

  8. (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) à base de Azolla filiculoïdes, Elaeis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les systèmes intégrés de production constituent l'une des voies essentielles pour une agriculture durable. Cette étude a pour but d'évaluer l'effet d'une alimentation à base de Azolla filiculoïdes, Elaeis guineensis, Ipomoea aquatica et Panicum maximum sur les performances zootechniques des lapins et le potentiel nutritif ...

  9. Pyrolysis of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth for production of bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bijoy; Singh, Rawel; Krishna, Bhavya B; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2017-10-01

    Pyrolysis of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at different temperatures in the range of 300-450°C in the presence of nitrogen (inert atmosphere). The objective of this study is to understand the effect of compositional changes of various aquatic biomass samples on product distribution and nature of products during slow pyrolysis. The maximum liquid product yield of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth (38.5, 43.4 and 24.6wt.% respectively) obtained at 400, 450 and 400°C. Detailed analysis of the bio-oil and bio-char was investigated using 1 H NMR, FT-IR, and XRD. The characterization of bio-oil showed a high percentage of aliphatic functional groups and presence of phenolic, ketones and nitrogen-containing group. The characterization results showed that the bio-oil obtained from azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth can be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Improvement Bio sorption of Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewater Using Azolla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotb, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to improve the removal process which is vital for some heavy metals and natural radionuclides from industrial wastewater by bio sorption using living organisms with rapid growth as a trial to increase the efficient use of those organisms in the removal process is vital for the toxic elements. Bio sorption of heavy metal (Copper, Manganese, Iron, Zinc, Lead and Strontium) from industrial waste water (contaminated) with six different time periods for Azolla growth. The results indicate that Azolla plant able to on the absorption of ions of heavy elements and Sr and was up to the maximum absorption of most of the elements at a concentration of 50% of polluted water + 50% fresh water so we recommend using the plant Azolla as bio sorbent in the disposal and collection of heavy metals and radionuclides from industrial waste water and deal with it safely to humans and the environment. The results obtained confirm the ability of the fern to grow and absorb ion of heavy metal when mixed with industrial waste water and other sources of polluted water and act as bio filter. The optimum conditions for maximum removal of heavy metals were also determined. Study was conducted on recycling municipal wastewaters for cultivation of Azollamicrophylla biomass, which is used for inoculation into paddy fields as N bio fertilizer and has other applications as green manure,animal feed and bio filter.

  11. Application of Azolla for 2-Chlorophenol and 4-Chrorophenol Removal from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Zazouli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The 2-chlorophenol (2-CP and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP are phenolic compounds which may have adverse effects on human and environment. Therefore, removing these compounds from water and wastewater is necessary. This study aims to analyze 2-CP and 4-CP removal by using Azolla filiculoides biomass. Materials & Methods: Azolla biomass was sun dried, crushed and sieved to particle sizes ranging 1-2 mm. Then it was treated with 0.1M HCl for 5h followed by washing with distilled water and it was used as adsorbent. The residues concentration of 2-CP and 4-CP was measured by spectrophotometer in λmax of 274 and 280 nm, respectively. Results: The solute removed increases as contact time rises. The equilibrium time for 2-CP and 4-CP is 90 and 75, respectively. The removal efficiency of 4-CP is more than 2-CP. An increase in initial concentration of both compounds can lead to decrease of their removal efficiency. The optimum pH to remove both compounds is 5. The equilibrium data matched best on Freundlich isotherm and the adsorption kinetic model follows pseudo-second model. Conclusion: The results indicated that Azolla is an effective adsorbent for removing 2-CP and 4-CP from water and wastewater.

  12. Application of AzollaFiliculoides Biomass in Acid Black 1 Dye Adsorption from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Zazouli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The textile dyes are considered as important pollutants due to the toxicity on human and environment. Therefore, the dye removal from industrial effluents is necessary. This study evaluates the ability of Azolla for the adsorption of acid black 1 (AB1 dye from aqueous solution. Materials and Methods: This was an experimental-laboratory study. The Azolla biomass was sun dried, crushed and sieved to particle sizes in the range of 1-2 mm. Then, it treated with 0.1 M HCl for 5 h, followed by washing with distilled water, and it used as an adsorbent. The effect of study parameter was investigated, and the residues AB1 concentration was measured by DR2800 spectrophotometer at in λmax = 622 nm. Results: The results indicated that the efficiency of AB1 adsorption decreased with increased initial dye concentration. It increased with increased contact time and adsorbent. The highest adsorption efficiency was occurred at pH = 2. The equilibrium data were the best fitted on Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Conclusion: The Azolla could present high ability in dye removal. Therefore, it can be used as inexpensive and effective adsorbent in textile effluent treatment.

  13. Coupling Fe{sup 0} nano particles with living and dead Azolla filicoloides to improve removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhshaee, Roohan, E-mail: roohan_rakhshaee@guilan.ac.ir

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • The novel living and dead bio–nano couples were prepared. • Living Azolla was more effective stabilizer for nano particles. • Increasing stabilization increased methylene blue (MB) adsorption. • The portion of Fe{sup 0} NPs had the main rule to determine kinetic model to adsorb MB. • It was studied the various factors rule on the living Azolla growth and MB removal. - Abstract: Fe{sup 0} nano particles (FNPs) were connected to the cell wall of the dead and living Azolla filicoloides as an aquatic fern, individually. FNPs mean size was decreased due to the stabilization, especially using the living one. It was compared the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), saturation magnetization (Ms), zeta potential (ZP) and thermal analysis (DSC and TGA) of the dead and living Azolla connected to FNPs, and also the findings of potentiometric titration (PT) of the cell wall's pectin of the dead and living Azolla. It was confirmed (by XRD and XPS) that Fe{sup 0} nano particles when were connected to the living Azolla did not produce Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} due to oxidation unlike the bare FNPs and the connected form to the dead Azolla, by reason of the more stabilization (more surface protection) of nano iron particles after connecting to the living Azolla. To adsorb methylene blue by these agents at the optimum pre-treatment pH 10 and adsorption pH 8, the parameters of equilibrium sorption, rate constant of second-order sorption and activation energy were obtained as: living Azolla–FNPs > dead Azolla–FNPs > FNPs > dead Azolla, while, their thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) had the reverse arrangement. It was also studied the various factors rule such as photoperiod and the presence of heavy metals on the living Azolla growth coupled with FNPs and its MB removal ability.

  14. Ability of the aquatic fern Azolla to remove chemical oxygen demand and polyphenols from olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchi, Angelo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biofiltration ability of the aquatic fern Azolla to remove polyphenols and chemical oxygen demand (COD from olive mill wastewater (OMWw collected from the traditional (TS and continuous (CS extraction systems. Azolla biomass was packed into five sequential Imhoff cones and five sequential columns. In both experiments, the filtrates collected from the 5th biofilter showed a decrease in polyphenol contents: from 7650 mg l–1 to 3610 mg l–1 in TS OMWw and from 3852 mg l–1 to 1351 mg l–1 in CS OMWw. The COD contents decreased from 110200 mg L–1 to 52400 mg L–1 in TS OMWw and from 41600 mg L–1 to 2300 mg L–1 in CS OMWw. A 5:1 OMWw to Azolla-fresh-weight ratio was optimal for both polyphenol and COD removal. The biofiltration ability of alfalfa was compared with that of Azolla, but the treatment with alfalfa did not result in the reduction of COD or polyphenols.La eficacia del helecho de agua azolla para eliminar polifenoles y reducir la demanda química de oxígeno (DQO de los alpechines obtenidos en el proceso de obtención tradicional y continuo del aceite de oliva, fue investigado mediante ensayos de filtración. Cinco conos secuenciales de Imhoff y cinco columnas secuenciales se rellenaron de biomasa de Azolla. En ambos experimentos, el filtrado procedente de la quinta extracción mostró una disminución en el contenido de polifenoles de 7650 mg L–1 a 3610 mg L–1en el alpechín obtenido mediante el sistema tradicional y de 3852 mg L–1 a 1351 mg L–1en el alpechín del sistema continuo. La demanda química de oxígeno del alpechín del sistema tradicional disminuyó de 110200 mg L–1 a 52400 mg L–1 en y de 41600 mg L–1a 2300 mg L–1en el procedente del sistema continuo. Una proporción en peso 5:1 de alpechín: Azolla fue la óptima tanto para la reducción de los polifenoles como para la de la DQO. La eficiencia del tratamiento biológico con alfalfa se comparó con la obtenida con Azolla. Los

  15. Las plantas acuáticas en un contexto de aprovechamiento sostenible de los recursos naturales.I. Azolla spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez, Jesus; Gonzalez Garcia, Eliel

    1998-01-01

    Las plantas acuáticas son conceptuadas generalmente como malezas; sin embargo, en ocasiones se les da una utilización económica como alimento animal, fertilizante y para la descontaminación de efluentes. Ello hace que en la literatura aparezca esporádicamente información vinculada con estos usos. Por tal razón, en este artículo se intenta resumir una parte importante de la información referente a las especies del género Azolla. La Azolla, junto al Jacinto de Agua (Eichhornia crassipes),...

  16. APLIKASI KOMBINASI KOMPOS JERAMI, KOMPOS AZOLLA DAN PUPUK HAYATI UNTUK MENINGKATKAN JUMLAH POPULASI BAKTERI PENAMBAT NITROGEN DAN PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN PADI BERRBASIS IPAT-BO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferina Rosiana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian untuk mengetahui efek pemberian kombinasi kompos jerami dengan Azolla dan pupuk hayati majemuk terhadap peningkatan populasi bakteri penambat N dan produktivitas tanaman padi dengan teknologi IPAT-BO dilaksanakan dari bulan April hingga Juli 2012 di kebun percobaan Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor, dengan ketinggian + 740 m dpl. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok faktor tunggal dengan dua belas perlakuan dan tiga kali ulangan. Perlakuan terdiri dari (A tanpa kompos jerami, (B kompos jerami 2,5 ton ha-1, (C kompos jerami 5 ton ha-1, (D kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1, (E kompos jerami 2,5 ton ha-1 + kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1, (F kompos jerami 5 ton ha-1 + kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1, (G pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1, (H kompos jerami 2,5 ton ha-1 + pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1, (I kompos jerami 5 ton ha-1 + pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1, (J kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1 + pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1, (K kompos jerami 2,5 ton ha-1 + kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1 + pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1, (L kompos jerami 5 ton ha-1 + kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1 + pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1.Aplikasi perlakuan kompos jerami, kompos Azolla dan pupuk hayati majemuk memberikan pengaruh terhadap populasi penambat N (Azotobacter sp. dan Azospirilium sp. dan produktifitas tanaman padi. Aplikasi kompos jerami 2,5 ton ha-1 dengan pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1 memberikan hasil GKP yaitu 64,39 g tanaman-1 (6,13 ton ha-1. Kata kunci: IPAT-BO, kompos Azolla, kompos jerami, pupuk hayati.

  17. TRATAMIENTO DE EFLUENTES PISCÍCOLAS (TILAPIA ROJA) EN LAGUNAS CON Azolla pinnata

    OpenAIRE

    GUILLERMO CHAUX F; JULIA ROSA CAICEDO B; JAVIER ERNESTO FERNANDEZ M

    2013-01-01

    Los sistemas con plantas acuáticas flotantes son una alternativa económicamente sostenible para el tratamiento de efluentes piscícolas. Se evaluó a escala piloto el desempeñ,o de un sistema de lagunas con Azolla pinnata en serie para el tratamiento de efluentes de cría de tilapia roja durante el proceso de levante y engorde. El sistema construido en la piscícola La Yunga (Popayán, Colombia) consistió en dos líneas de cinco lagunas en serie; la primera con A. pinnata y la segunda sin la planta...

  18. Reconstruction of the Arctic Ocean environment during the Eocene Azolla interval using geochemical proxies and climate modeling. Geologica Ultraiectina (331)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, E.N.

    2010-01-01

    With the realization that the Arctic Ocean was covered with enormous quantities of the aquatic floating fern Azolla 49 Myrs ago, new questions regarding the Eocene conditions facilitating these blooms arose. This dissertation describes the reconstruction of paleo-environmental conditions

  19. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Azolla microphylla based gold nanoparticles against acetaminophen induced toxicity in a fresh water common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Kunjiappan

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Azolla microphylla phytochemically synthesized GNaP protects liver against oxidative damage and tissue damaging enzyme activities and could be used as an effective protector against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in fresh water common carp fish.

  20. Determinación del aporte de oxígeno disuelto en ambientes acuíferos por la relación simbiótica de Azolla sp. y Anabaena sp. Cayambe/2010

    OpenAIRE

    Vinueza Albán, Jaime Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    Is an aquatic fern Azolla, Anabaena symbiont to make a plant, perfect in the nitrogen supply in rice cultivation where this fern is one of the great benefactors for the production of this grass organically. In this research seeing the benefits of Azolla as green manure, feed supplement for small animals and wastewater treatment, welcomed the idea of whether Azolla can capture and provide oxygen to the water where it is growing. Given that there are some species described Azo...

  1. Ecotoxicidade de herbicidas para a macrófita aquática (Azolla caroliniana Ecotoxicity of herbicides for the aquatic macrophyte (Azolla caroliniana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar Azolla caroliniana como planta-teste em estudos ecotoxicológicos e estimar a CL50;7d dos herbicidas 2,4-D, glyphosate, clomazone e oxyfluorfen. As plantas foram aclimatadas em sala de bioensaio. Para isso, foram selecionadas cinco plantas em 50 mL de meio de cultivo Hoagland. Após esse período, foram adicionados 50 mL de Hoagland mais o herbicida, completando o volume para 100 mL. A concentração letal de 50% (CL50;7d para A. caroliniana exposta ao herbicida 2,4-D foi de 708,35 mg L-1; ao glyphosate (formulação Scout®, de 23,66 mg L-1; ao glyphosate (formulação Trop®, de 38,91 mg L-1; ao clomazone, de 129,63 mg L-1; e ao oxyfluorfen, de 80,50 mg L-1. Os herbicidas glyphosate (Scout® e Trop® e oxyflourfen foram classificados como moderadamente tóxicos a A. caroliniana, e o clomazone e o 2,4-D, como praticamente não tóxicos. Conclui-se que A. caroliniana pode ser utilizada como planta bioindicadora de herbicidas à base de glyphosate e oxyfluorfen.The objectives of this study were to evaluate Azolla caroliniana as test plant in ecotoxicological studies and to estimate the LC50; 7d of the herbicides 2,4 D , glyphosate, and clomazone oxyfluorfen. The plants were acclimatized in the bioassay room. Five plants in 50 mL Hoagland culture medium were selected. After that, 50 mL of Hoagland and the herbicide were added, completing the volume to 100 mL. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50; 7d for A. caroliniana exposed to the herbicide 2,4- D, was 708.35 mg L-1; to glyphosate (formulation Scout®, 23.66 mg L-1; to glyphosate (formulation Trop®, 38.91 mg L-1; to clomazone, 129.63 mg L-1; and to oxyflourfen, 80.50 mg L-1. The herbicides glyphosate (Scout® and Trop® and oxyflourfen were classified as moderately toxic to A. caroliniana, while clomazone and 2,4-D were classified as practically non-toxic. It was concluded that A. caroliniana plants can be used as bio-indicators for glyphosate and

  2. Toxicity of Diclofenac in the Fern Azolla filiculoides and the Lichen Xanthoria parietina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Andrea; Paoli, Luca; Vichi, Marco; Bačkor, Martin; Bačkorová, Miriam; Loppi, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of toxicity, expressed as damage to the photosynthetic apparatus, in the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides and the lichen Xanthoria parietina following treatments with diclofenac at different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/L) and different exposure times (24, 48, 72 and 240 h). Measurements of photosynthetic efficiency, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll degradation indicated dose- and time-dependent toxicity, since significant differences with control samples as well as among treatments, emerged mainly for the highest concentration (100 mg/L) and the longest time (240 h). In addition, also the mycobiont of the lichen X. parietina showed similar toxic effects, expressed as ergosterol content. The absence of relevant alterations at the lowest concentration (0.1 mg/L) suggested a very limited susceptibility of these species to environmentally relevant levels of this pharmaceutical.

  3. Urea application promotes amino acid metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in Azolla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiana Chen

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of urea on nitrogen metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in Azolla pinnata. Compared to controls, the application of urea to A. pinnata resulted in a 44% decrease in nitrogenase activity, no significant change in glutamine synthetase activity, 660% higher glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, 39% increase in free amino acid levels, 22% increase in malondialdehyde levels, 21% increase in Na+/K+- levels, 16% increase in Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase levels, and 11% decrease in superoxide dismutase activity. In terms of H2O2 detoxifying enzymes, peroxidase activity did not change and catalase activity increased by 64% in urea-treated A. pinnata. These findings suggest that urea application promotes amino acid metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in A. pinnata.

  4. Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Shortages in fresh water supplies today affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Phytoremediation strategies, based on the abilities of aquatic plants to recycle nutrients offer an attractive solution for the bioremediation of water pollution and represents one of the most globally researched issues. The subsequent application of the biomass from the remediation for the production of fuels and petrochemicals offers an ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for water pollution problems and production of value-added products. Results In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored. The differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by these aquatic macrophytes were used as the basis for optimization of the composition of wastewater effluents. Analysis of pyrolysis products showed that azolla and algae produce a similar range of bio-oils that contain a large spectrum of petrochemicals including straight-chain C10-C21 alkanes, which can be directly used as diesel fuel supplement, or a glycerin-free component of biodiesel. Pyrolysis of duckweed produces a different range of bio-oil components that can potentially be used for the production of “green” gasoline and diesel fuel using existing techniques, such as catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Conclusions Differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by different aquatic macrophytes can be used for optimization of composition of wastewater effluents. The generated data suggest that the composition of the petrochemicals can be modified in a targeted fashion, not only by using different species, but also by changing the source plants’ metabolic profile, by exposing them to different abiotic or biotic stresses. This study presents an attractive, ecologically friendly and cost

  5. Influence of an azolla layer on growth, production and efficiency and use of 15N Labelled urea fertilizer of lowland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrarti, Etty; Sopandie, Didy; Komarudin Idris; Sisworo, Elsje L

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of an Azolla mat on rice growth, percentage of N-total, N derived from fertilizer and urea efficiency. The experiment used a factorial design which consists of 2 factors : the using of an Azolla mat and the doses of N fertilizer. The first factor comprised 2 levels, with (A1) and without an azolla mat (A0). The second factor comprised 4 levels, 0(N0), 30 (N1), 60(N2) and 90 kg N/ha(N3).Application of 15 N labeled Urea done to determine percentage N-derived from Urea efficiency , which was divided in 2 experiment series as follows : application Urea at planting (experiment I) and one month after planting (experiment II). The experiments were carried out in the green house of Agricultural Faculty of IPB and continued in the laboratory of BATAN. Parameters observed were plant height, number of tillers, number of panicles, number of grains/panicle, dry weight of grain, straw and percentage of empty grain. Result of the experiment showed that an Azolla mat, the doses of N fertilizer and interaction of both increased all the parameters observed yield, except for percentage of empathy grain, up to the dose of N fertilizer at 60 kg N/ha and decreased at the dose of N fertilizer at 90 kg N/ha. The treatment of Urea fertilizer doses resulted in a significant difference on the percentage of N- derived from Urea for both experiment, but not for the treatment of an Azolla mat and the interaction of both treatment. An azolla mat, N fertilizer and interaction of both did not result in a significantly difference on the percentage of total-N and Urea efficiency. The best treatment combination was treatment of an azolla mat and dose of Urea fertilizer of 60 kg N/ha. (author)

  6. Agronomic efficiency and physiologic efficiency determination of Azolla-N and Urea-N applied to lowland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, Elsje L.; Rasjid, Havid; Sisworo, Widjang H.; Wemay, Johannis; Djawanas, Amrin

    1994-01-01

    Data from three field experiments using 15 N labelled Azolla and urea as an N source have been used to determine the agronomical and physiological efficiency of the N-Azoll and N-Urea applied tolowland rice. In general physiological efficiency of N from N-sources applied was lower than the agronomical efficiency. It seems that the increase of N-rates would enhance the agronomical and physiological efficiency of N applied to lowland rice but on the other hand the efficiency of N derived from the applied N-source decreased. Azolla+inorganic N-fertilizer when applied to lowland rice could increase rice yield expresses in dry weight of grain and straw above the control plants. Applying Azolla+inorganic N-fertilizer in the farmer's field located in West Java and West Sumatera often showed higher yields compared to when applied with inorganic N-fertilizer alone although the latter has higher total N-rates. (author). 9 refs, 8 tabs, 5 figs

  7. Effect of feeding different levels of Azolla pinnata on blood biochemicals, hematology and immunocompetence traits of Chabro chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepesh Bharat Mishra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to see the effect of feeding different levels of Azolla meal on blood biochemicals, hematology and immunocompetence traits of Chabro chicken. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 160 Chabro chicks, which were randomly divided into four treatment groups each with four replicates of 10 birds. The first treatment (T1 served as a control in which basal diets was offered without Azolla supplementation while in T2, T3, and T4 groups, basal diet was replaced with Azolla meal at 5%, 7.5%, and 10% levels, respectively. A feeding trial was conducted upto 8 weeks. At the last week of trial, blood samples were collected randomly from one bird of each replicate and plasma was separated to estimate certain biochemical parameters, some blood metabolites, minerals and enzymes like alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST. Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin, packed cell volume, total leukocytes count and differential leukocytes count were estimated in fresh blood just after collection. The humoral immune response was measured against sheep red blood cells,and cell-mediated immune response was measured against phyto hemagglutinin lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA-P. Results: The study showed that hematological profile of the Chabro bird was not affected by any treatment except heterophil and lymphocyte which was found higher in T2 and T3 groups and eosinophil was found higher in a T3 group than control. Blood glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and triglycerides were found similar in all the groups and within the normal values for broiler chicken. Liver enzymes and macro mineral content in blood were found similar in all the treatment groups and within normal physiological range. Although AST was found higher in 10% replacement group than control, the value was within normal range for broiler chicken. Although antibody titer was found similar in all

  8. A study on the Phytoremediation Potential of Azolla pinnata under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upekha Mandakini Lenaduwa Lokuge

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination in aquatic environments has become one of the major environmental problems all over the world. Phytoremediation is a plant based technology that utilizes special plants known as hyperaccumulators to purify heavy metal contaminated sites. Hyperaccumulators are capable of absorbing heavy metals in greater concentrations.  Azolla pinnata is an aquatic macrophyte that has been earmarked for its hyperaccumulation ability. This green technology is often more favoured over conventional methods due to its low cost, low environmental impacts and wider public acceptance.This study was conducted under laboratory conditions to assess the ability of A. pinnata for the removal of Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb through rhizofiltration, which is one of the phytoremediation strategies under laboratory conditions. Under three main experiments, the fern’s phytoremediation ability was investigated. In the first experiment, A. pinnata was exposed to prepared solutions of Cr, Ni and Pb of 2ppm, 4ppm, 6ppm, 8ppm and 10ppm and of Cd solutions of 0.5ppm, 1.0ppm, 1.5ppm, 2.0ppm, 2.5ppm and 3.0ppm respectively. Experiments were carried out separately for Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb concentrations for 7 days. The concentrations of heavy metals used in the experiments largely agreed with the environmentally measured values, although in certain experiments, the initial concentrations exceeded the environmental pollution levels.The presence of Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb caused a maximum inhibition of A.pinnata growth by 47%, 54%, 52% and 45% respectively while the highest removal percentages of Cr- 98%, Ni- 57%, Cd- 88% and Pb- 86% were recorded in 2ppm, 2ppm, 0.5ppm and 8ppm treatments respectively. The highest Bio Concentration Factor (BCF for Cr was 1376.67 when treated with 6ppm, 684.95 at 4ppm for Ni, 1120.06 at 0.5ppm for Cd and 1332.53 at 8ppm for Pb respectively. At the end of the experiments toxic symptoms were observed in plats exposed to Cd and Ni. The findings of

  9. Restoration using Azolla imbricata increases nitrogen functional bacterial groups and genes in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Yang, Ke

    2017-05-01

    Microbial groups are major factors that influence soil function. Currently, there is a lack of studies on microbial functional groups. Although soil microorganisms play an important role in the nitrogen cycle, systematic studies of the effects of environmental factors on microbial populations in relation to key metabolic processes in the nitrogen cycle are seldom reported. In this study, we conducted a systematic analysis of the changes in nitrogen functional groups in mandarin orange garden soil treated with Azolla imbricata. The structures of the major functional bacterial groups and the functional gene abundances involved in key processes of the soil nitrogen cycle were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. The results indicated that returning A. imbricata had an important influence on the composition of soil nitrogen functional bacterial communities. Treatment with A. imbricata increased the diversity of the nitrogen functional bacteria. The abundances of nitrogen functional genes were significantly higher in the treated soil compared with the control soil. Both the diversity of the major nitrogen functional bacteria (nifH bacteria, nirK bacteria, and narG bacteria) and the abundances of nitrogen functional genes in the soil showed significant positive correlations with the soil pH, the organic carbon content, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, and NH 4 + -N and NO 3 - -N contents. Treatment with 12.5 kg fresh A. imbricata per mandarin orange tree was effective to improve the quality of the mandarin orange garden soil. This study analyzed the mechanism of the changes in functional bacterial groups and genes involved in key metabolic processes of the nitrogen cycle in soil treated by A. imbricata.

  10. Dynamics of N-NH4 +, N-NO3 -, and total soil nitrogen in paddy field with azolla and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, W. S.; Wahyuningsih, G. I.; Syamsiyah, J.; Mujiyo

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) is one of macronutrients which is dynamic in the soil and becomes constraint factor for rice crops. The addition of nitrogen fertilizers and its absorption in paddy field causes the dynamics of nitrogen, thus declines of N absorption efficiency. The aim of this research is to know influence Azolla, biochar and different varieties application on N-NH4 +, N-NO3 -, and total soil N in paddy field. This research was conducted in a screen house located in Jumantono Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sebelas Maret (UNS) with altitude 170 m asl from April to June 2016. Treatment factors that were examined consisted of azolla (0 and 10 tons/ha), biochar (0 and 2 tons/ha), and rice varieties (Cisadane, Memberamo, Ciherang, IR64). The results of this research showed that there was no interaction between azolla, biochar and varieties. Nevertheless, azolla treatment with dose of 10 tons/ha increased soil NH4 + content (41 days after planting, DAP) by 13.4% but tend to decrease at 70 and 90 DAP. Biochar treatment with dose of 2 ton/ha increases NO3 - soil content (70 DAP) by 1.7% but decreases total N soil by 5.8% (41 DAP) and 4.7% (90 DAP). Different rice varieties generated different soil NH4 + content (41 DAP) and rice root volume. Cisadane variety can increase soil NH4 + content (41 DAP) by 52.08% and root volume by 51.80% (90 DAP) compared with Ciherang variety. Organic rice field management with azolla and biochar affects the availability of N in the soil and increase N absorption efficiency through its role in increasing rice root volume.

  11. A green chemistry approach for the synthesis and characterization of bioactive gold nanoparticles using Azolla microphylla methanol extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunjiappan, Selvaraj; Chowdhury, Ranjana; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2014-06-01

    This article reports the environmentally benign synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using methanol extract of Azolla microphylla as the stabilizing and reducing agent. The GNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry and FTIR, and the morphological characteristics were analyzed by XRD, FESEM-EDX and HRTEM. The GNPs could be formed in very short time, even in less than 30 min. The nanoparticles measured by UV-spectrophotometer demonstrated a peak at 540 nm corresponding to surface plasmon resonance spectra, and the peaks showed by FTIR suggested the presence of organic biomolecules on the surface of the GNPs. XRD results confirmed the crystalline nature of the GNPs, and FESEM-EDX and HRTEM analyses had been performed in the size ranges of 17-40 nm and 1.25-17.5 nm respectively. The synthesized GNPs showed excellent antioxidant activity. This study shows the feasibility of using plant sources for the biosynthesis of GNPs.

  12. Bimodal effect of hydrogen peroxide and oxidative events in nitrite-induced rapid root abscission by the water fern Azolla pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Cohen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the genus Azolla rapid abscission of roots from floating fronds occurs within minutes in response to a variety of stresses, including exposure to nitrite. We found that hydrogen peroxide, though itself not an inducer of root abscission, modulates nitrite-induced root abscission by Azolla pinnata in a dose-dependent manner, with 2 mM H2O2 significantly diminishing the responsiveness to 2 mM NaNO2, and 10 mM H2O2 slightly enhancing it. Hypoxia, which has been found in other plants to result in autogenic production of H2O2, dramatically stimulated root abscission of A. pinnata in response to nitrite, especially for plants previously cultivated in medium containing 5 mM KNO3 compared to plants cultivated under N2-fixing conditions without combined nitrogen. Plants, including Azolla, produce the small signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO from nitrite using nitrate reductase. We found Azolla plants to display dose-dependent root abscission in response to the NO donor spermine NONOate. Treatment of plants with the thiol-modifying agents S-methyl methanethiosulfonate or glutathione inhibited the nitrite-induced root abscission response. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy revealed higher levels of carbonylation in the abscission zone of dropped roots, indicative of reaction products of polysaccharides with potent free radical oxidants. We hypothesize that metabolic products of nitrite and NO react with H2O2 in the apoplast leading to free-radical-mediated cleavage of structural polysaccharides and consequent rapid root abscission.

  13. Growth and feed utilization by juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella feed with Azolla filiculoides with low lipid diet/ Desempenho e conversão alimentar de juvenis de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella alimentadas com Azolla filiculoides e ração com baixo teor lipídico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Dufech Esteves

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The total supply of fish available for human consumption will depend more of the expansion of low trophy level fish farming than of wild-caught fish. Aquatic plants used at treatment of aquaculture wastewater have been showed like an alternative to exclusive diet feed. The aquatic fern, Azolla filiculoides is an example with high level of protein. Consequently, more research on feed requirements of herbivorous fish is required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella fed with three different diets using low lipid feed and water fern (Azolla filiculoides. The experiment was carried out in nine (9 tanks of 300 L capacity with three fish per tank (initial body weight = 55,43g. Feeding rate was 2.5% Fish were fed on two times a day with three treatments (R= Diet/Azolla on dry weight R= 2.5; R = 5 and R= 10. The specific growth rate (SGR = 1.39%, daily growth gain (DGG = 1.06 g / day and were significantly (p A oferta de pescado para o consumo humano dependerá mais da expansão do cultivo de peixes que se alimentam dos primeiros níveis tróficos do que daqueles oriundos da pesca extrativa. Plantas aquáticas usadas em fitotratamento de efluentes de aquacultura vêm sendo referidas como uma alternativa alimentar ao uso exclusivo de rações. A Azolla filiculoides é uma pteridófita que apresenta alto nível protéico. Assim, pesquisas sobre as exigências nutricionais de espécies herbívoras são necessárias. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi avaliar o crescimento e eficiência alimentar de juvenis de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella alimentadas com três relações (R entre ração com baixo teor lipídico e a planta aquática in natura (Azolla filiculoides. O experimento foi conduzido em nove reservatórios com capacidade de 300L e três indivíduos por unidade (Peso Inicial = 53,43g. A taxa alimentar diária foi de 2,5%, dividida em duas refei

  14. Dietary effects of Azolla pinnata combined with exogenous digestive enzyme (Digestin™) on growth and nutrients utilization of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man 1879)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Ashraf; Saad, Amal; Hanafy, Mohamed; Sharawy, Zaki; El-Haroun, Ehab

    2017-07-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of either individual or combined wheat bran (WB) replacement with Azolla pinnata supplemented with Digestin™ in the diet of freshwater prawn,Macrobrachium rosenbergii Postlarvae (PL) on growth performance, nutrient utilization, chemical body composition and survival (%). Experimental diets were a wheat bran-soybean based diet with no Azolla and Digestin TM (control, T1), and diets containing 17% Azolla supplemented with Digestin TM 0% (T2), 1% (T3), 2% (T4) and 3% (T5). Each experimental diet was allocated into three tanks (6m3/tank) fed for 12 wks. Each tank was subdivided into three equal pens by nets (2m3) and stoked with 84 PL/m2. The experimental diets were readily consumed by prawns PLs where both high growth and good feed efficiency were achieved for all diets. The results showed that the diets containing A. pinnata supplemented with Digestin™ at the level up to 3% have the higher growth and better nutrient utilization than the control diet. No differences were observed for moisture and protein content among the experimental diets. However, the highest protein content was observed on prawns fed on diets T1 and T5 respectively, while the lowest value was recorded for T 4 diet. The results also show that prawn PLs fed the diets contain A. pinnata and supplemented with Digestin TM recorded the highest values of body lipid content compared to the control diet. Feed efficiency and economic conversion rate (ECR) values show that economic performance and the cost-effectiveness of the A. pinnata supplemented with up to 3% Digestin TM recorded the highest net return, and therefore it is recommended for prawn, M. rosenbergii PL's. These results are clearly indicating that A. pinnata have a good potential for use in prawn diets at reasonable levels than other conventional diets.

  15. Revision of species of Minerisporites, Azolla and associated plant microfossils from deposits of the Upper Palaeocene and Palaeocene/Eocene transition in the Netherlands, Belgium and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, D J.; Collinson, M E.

    2001-05-01

    Species of the megaspore genus Minerisporites Potonié, megaspore apparatuses of species of the water fern Azolla Lamarck, and some associated organic-walled microfossils recovered from deposits of the Upper Palaeocene and Palaeocene/Eocene transition in the southern part of the Netherlands and neighbouring Belgium are redescribed on the basis of an examination of specimens under scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Originally studied about 40 years ago by S.J. Dijkstra, the re-examination has enabled emended diagnoses to be produced for six taxa: Minerisporites glossoferus (Dijkstra) Tschudy, M. mirabilis (Miner) Potonié, M. mirabilissimus (Dijkstra) Potonié, Azolla schopfii Dijkstra, A. teschiana Florschütz, and A. velus (Dijkstra) Jain and Hall. In addition, a revised description is provided for massulae of Salvinia Séguier that were originally thought to be megaspores and, hence, named by Dijkstra as Triletes? exiguus. The gross morphology and construction of the exospore of the species of Minerisporites are similar, but nevertheless sufficiently distinct for them to be maintained as separate taxa. Monolete microspores are preserved in hollows in the reticulate surface of some of the specimens of M. mirabilissimus. This is consistent with the presumed isoetalean affinity of Minerisporites. An apparent stratigraphic morphocline from M. glossoferus to M. mirabilis, suggested previously, is confirmed following our reassessment of their characteristics. The species of Azolla are all multi-floated, but they differ from each other in several ways, in particular with respect to the ultrastructure of the megaspore wall. They are also distinct from all other species that have been considered in sufficient detail for satisfactory comparisons to be made. The massulae of A. teschiana are described for the first time. The floats in A. velus are attached to the proximal part of the megaspore only by suprafilosal hairs. There are no maniculae. It is argued that

  16. Cytokinin-induced promotion of root meristem size in the fern Azolla supports a shoot-like origin of euphyllophyte roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jan; Fischer, Angela Melanie; Roettger, Mayo; Rommel, Sophie; Schluepmann, Henriette; Bräutigam, Andrea; Carlsbecker, Annelie; Gould, Sven Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormones cytokinin and auxin orchestrate the root meristem development in angiosperms by determining embryonic bipolarity. Ferns, having the most basal euphyllophyte root, form neither bipolar embryos nor permanent embryonic primary roots but rather an adventitious root system. This raises the questions of how auxin and cytokinin govern fern root system architecture and whether this can tell us something about the origin of that root. Using Azolla filiculoides, we characterized the influence of IAA and zeatin on adventitious fern root meristems and vasculature by Nomarski microscopy. Simultaneously, RNAseq analyses, yielding 36,091 contigs, were used to uncover how the phytohormones affect root tip gene expression. We show that auxin restricts Azolla root meristem development, while cytokinin promotes it; it is the opposite effect of what is observed in Arabidopsis. Global gene expression profiling uncovered 145 genes significantly regulated by cytokinin or auxin, including cell wall modulators, cell division regulators and lateral root formation coordinators. Our data illuminate both evolution and development of fern roots. Promotion of meristem size through cytokinin supports the idea that root meristems of euphyllophytes evolved from shoot meristems. The foundation of these roots was laid in a postembryonically branching shoot system. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. The application dosage of Azolla pinnata in fresh and powder form as organic fertilizer on soil chemical properties, growth and yield of rice plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawati, Mieke Rochimi; Damayani, Maya; Herdiyantoro, Diyan; Suryatmana, Pujawati; Anggraini, Derisfha; Khumairah, Fiqriah Hanum

    2018-02-01

    The yield of rice plants is strongly influenced by N fertilizer. Nitrogen in rice plants has roles in vegetative growth, tiller formation and increasing yield through rice protein formation. Nitrogen supplied from organic fertilizers is better than inorganic fertilizers that may have environmental problem effects. Organic fertilizers from Azolla pinnata water fern contain higher N than other organic fertilizers. Symbiosis between A. pinnata and the N-fixing cyanobacteria results in high content of nitrogen, 3 to 5%. A. pinnata can be added to the rice field as organic fertilizer in form of fresh biomass or composted. Composted form can be ground into powder which passes through 100 mesh sieve. Preparation of compost powder of A. pinnata is done to reduce the constraints of voluminous application of organic fertilizers and to improve the efficiency of its use. The objective of this research was to compare the effect of the use of fresh A. pinnata and compost powder of A. pinnata on some soil and plant chemical properties and rice yield. The treatments applied were fresh A. pinnata at the dose of 0, 10 and 20 ton ha-1 and A. pinnata compost powder at 12.5 and 25 kg ha-1. The results showed that incorporation of fresh A. pinnata at 20 tons ha-1 and its compost powder at 25 kg ha-1 increased the available P of soil, plant P content and tiller number, but did not affect the content of organic-C, total soil N, plant N content and rice yield. This study suggested the benefits of A. pinnata compost powder technology in organic fertilization of soil to increase the nutrient content of soil and rice plants.

  18. Anticaries Activity of Azolla pinnata and Azolla rubra | Prashith ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/star.v3i3.21 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  19. Effets de l'alimentation des poissons avec Azolla sur la production d'un écosystème agro-piscicole en zones marécageuses au Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanangire, CK.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Azolla-based Meal on the Production of an Agro-piscicultural Ecosystem in Rwanda Marshlands. Cette étude analyse les différences de caractères au niveau de la descendance des croisements interspécifiques entre Sesamum indicum L. et Ceratotheca sesamoides Endl. Les résultats obtenus montrent que l'héritabilité de la présence d'une forte pilosité sur les tiges et sur les pétioles est contrôlée par deux gènes assortis et indépendants. Les deux gènes dominants S et P confèrent aux plantes une importante pilosité sur les tiges et sur les pétioles tandis qu'un allèle dominant S-pp et ss-P confère aux plantes une pilosité respectivement abondante sur les tiges st sur les pétioles. Seuls les génotypes homozygotes sspp avec deux gènes récessifs produisent des plantes avec peu de poils sur les tiges et sur les pétioles. Les implications de ces résultats dans l'évolution de ces espèces sont discutées.

  20. Biodiesel Production from Azolla filiculoides (Water Fern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 6 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Biodiesel Production from Azolla filiculoides (Water Fern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The presence of myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), myristic acid (C14:0), stearic acid (C18:3), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid 9C18:2), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5), erucic acid (C22:1) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6) in the macroalgae biodiesel ...

  2. from aqueous solution by Azolla filiculoides

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... tion, electroplating, ion exchange and membrane pro- cesses, are limited in practical application ... adequate dilution of the stock solution with deionised water. All the adsorption experiments were .... aqueous solutions by pre-treated biomass of Australian marine algae. Bioresour. Technol. 69: 223-229.

  3. Effects of different combinations of Hoagland's solution and Azolla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assessments of photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, evapotranspiration, intercellular CO2 concentration and chlorophyll content in Beta vulgaris subsp. cycla 'Fordhook Giant' grown in hydroponic cultures containing different compositions of hydroponic solutions were evaluated in this study. The aim of the study ...

  4. Growth performance and phytoremediation ability of Azolla pinnata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    petroleum is produced with large volume of water, with wastewater accounting for more than 80 % of .... (1985) showed high concentration of pollutants retard growth and increased sensitivity of plants to other stress ... and Marine Research Technology 21: 11- 18. American Public Health Association (APHA) (1998).

  5. Turning the aquatic weed Azolla into a sustainable crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, P.

    2017-01-01

    Growing worldwide demands for food, energy and chemicals threatens natural ecosystems and global climate. Plants are crucial for food production, but may also be used to produce sustainable energy and materials. Hereto novel crops are sought with high productivity per hectare, whilst requiring

  6. Differential Sensitivity of Nitrogen-Fixing, Azolla Microphylla to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    production. Optimum yield also requires knowing the rate to apply, the method and time of application, the source of nutrients to use, and how the elements are influenced by soil and climatic conditions. ... cyanobacteria, algae and higher plants and animals, however ..... large amount of UV abserving pigment flavonoid and ...

  7. Differential Sensitivity of Nitrogen-Fixing, Azolla Microphylla to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of the intensive agriculture in our country between 1960 and 1990 totally over passed the aspect connected with the negative impact of the toxic chemical compounds on the air, water and soil. Using chemical products as nutrients, fertilizers and pesticides, we believe that we attack our safety and we must ...

  8. Potential of Azolla filiculoides in the removal of Ni and Cu from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ra

    Heavy metals constitute a serious health risk because they accumulate in soils, water and organisms. One of the methods of ... The aim of this study was to verify the ability of A. filiculoides to fix Ni and Cu from polluted waters. The maximum uptake ... industries, sewage sludge treatment, warfare and military training, waste ...

  9. Potential of Azolla as a Nitrogenous Biofertiliser for Irrigated Rice at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These treatments were tested on Wahiwahi (indigenous) and IR54 (improved) rice varieties in a split-plot design with 3 replications, in 18 m2 plots each of which received a basal phosphate dose of 20 Kg P ha-1 as Tripe super phospate (TSP). Rice plant height, tiller number, panicles per m2, grains per panicle, grain mass ...

  10. (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) à base de Azolla filiculoïdes, Elaeis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    qui contient de l'acide borique et le rouge de méthyle (indicateur). Le titrage est fait avec ... significant différence) au seuil de 5%. Tableau 1 : Composition centésimale des aliments expérimentaux. Ingrédients. R1 (Ia). R2 (Eg) ..... croissance des lapins (Oryctolagus cuniculus) et la qualité de la viande. Int. J. Biol. Chem.

  11. Potential of Azolla filiculoides in the removal of Ni and Cu from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to verify the ability of A. filiculoides to fix Ni and Cu from polluted waters. The maximum uptake capacities of the collected A. filiculoides from the Asbchin Wetland west of Mazandaran in the northern part of Iran at the optimal conditions for Ni and Cu ions were approximately 0.77 and 0.54 mmol/g ...

  12. Economic evaluation of the successful biological control of Azolla filiculoides in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McConnachie, AJ

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available that it was no longer considered a problem in South Africa. The results reflect the dynamics of biological control on site-specific survey information, and place higher benefit–cost ratios achieved in other national level studies in a better context. It also raises...

  13. Is there foul play in the leaf pocket? The metagenome of floating fern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, L.W.; Brouwer, P.; Bolhuis, H.; Reichart, G.-J.; Koppers, N.; Huettel, B.; Bolger, A.M.; Li, F.-W.; Cheng, S.; Liu, X.; Wong, G.K.-S.; Pryer, K.; Weber, A.; Bräutigam, A.; Schluepmann, H.

    2018-01-01

    Dinitrogen fixation by Nostoc azollae residing in specialized leaf pockets supports prolificgrowth of the floating fern Azolla filiculoides. To evaluate contributions by further microorganisms,the A. filiculoides microbiome and nitrogen metabolism in bacteria persistently associatedwith Azolla ferns

  14. Cytokinin-induced promotion of root meristem size in the fern Azolla supports a shoot-like origin of euphyllophyte roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Jan; Fischer, Angela Melanie; Roettger, Mayo; Rommel, Sophie; Schlupmann, Henriette|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304827819; Bräutigam, Andrea; Carlsbecker, Annelie; Gould, Sven Bernhard

    The phytohormones cytokinin and auxin orchestrate the root meristem development in angiosperms by determining embryonic bipolarity. Ferns, having the most basal euphyllophyte root, form neither bipolar embryos nor permanent embryonic primary roots but rather an adventitious root system. This raises

  15. Metabolic adaptation, a specialized leaf organ structure and vascular responses to diurnal N

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Paul; Bräutigam, Andrea; Buijs, Valerie A.; Tazelaar, Anne O.E.; Werf, van der Adrie; Schlüter, Urte; Reichart, Gert Jan; Bolger, Anthony; Usadel, Björn; Weber, Andreas P.M.; Schluepmann, Henriette

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture demands reduced input of man-made nitrogen (N) fertilizer, yet N2 fixation limits the productivity of crops with heterotrophic diazotrophic bacterial symbionts. We investigated floating ferns from the genus Azolla that host phototrophic diazotrophic Nostoc azollae in leaf

  16. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    khelkady

    length of the fem and roots, and frond diameter. Biomass .... lA). The. Azolla fem is unique in having a single annular guard cell surrounding each stoma, and the ..... Soil Sci. Plant Nut. 37: 323-329. Kitoh S, Shomi N & Ljheda E (1993) The growth and nitrogen fixation of Azolla filiculoides Lam. in polluted water. Aquatic Bot.

  17. Soil Fertility Status on Organic Paddy Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiyo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to determine fertility status of the soil after organic paddy experiments using kinds and doses of organic fertilizers. Experiment was conducted at greenhouse laboratory in Faculty of Agriculture Sebelas Maret University Surakarta. Experimental design used completely randomized design with 9 kinds of treatment was replicated 3 times. Experiments were the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizer, Azolla inoculum and its combinations that are based on fulfilling nutrient requirements of 120 kg N ha-1. Result shows that the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizers and Azolla inoculum had no effect on changes of soil fertility status. Soil fertility status was not significantly correlated with cow manure (0,16ns, Azolla fertilizer (0,26ns and Azolla inoculum (0,16ns. Average of final soil fertility status included fertile category, which was similar as the initial soil fertility status. Average of final soil properties of treatment but nevertheless was relatively higher than in no treatment, indicating the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizer, Azolla inoculum and its combinations had greater impact to soil properties. Cow manure despite increased available K2O and dry grain, but it did not significantly increase the soil fertility status from fertile to very fertile. This was presumably due to the relatively short experiment period, only one planting season had not given significant effect to soil properties. Implication of this study is the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizer, Azolla inoculum and its combinations although did not increase the soil fertility status but could maintain soil fertility status as the initial conditions before planting.

  18. Mitigating yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions through combined application of soil amendments: A comparative study between temperate and subtropical rice paddy soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam, E-mail: litonaslam@yahoo.com [Dept. of Environmental Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202 (Bangladesh); Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Division of Environmental Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510 (Japan); Kim, P.J., E-mail: pjkim@nongae.gsnu.ac.kr [Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Inubushi, K. [Division of Environmental Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510 (Japan)

    2015-10-01

    Effects of different soil amendments were investigated on methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and yield scaled GWPs in paddy soils of Republic of Korea, Japan and Bangladesh. The experimental treatments were NPK only, NPK + fly ash, NPK + silicate slag, NPK + phosphogypsum(PG), NPK + blast furnace slag (BFS), NPK + revolving furnace slag (RFS), NPK + silicate slag (50%) + RFS (50%), NPK + biochar, NPK + biochar + Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK + silicate slag + Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK + phosphogypsum (PG) + Azolla-cyanobacteria. The maximum decrease in cumulative seasonal CH{sub 4} emissions was recorded 29.7% and 32.6% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus phospho-gypsum amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh respectively, followed by 22.4% and 26.8% reduction with silicate slag plus Azolla-cyanobacteria application. Biochar amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh decreased seasonal cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions by 31.8% and 20.0% respectively, followed by 26.3% and 25.0% reduction with biochar plus Azolla-cyanobacteria amendments. Although seasonal cumulative CH{sub 4} emissions were significantly increased by 9.5–14.0% with biochar amendments, however, global warming potentials were decreased by 8.0–12.0% with cyanobacterial inoculation plus biochar amendments. The maximum decrease in GWP was calculated 22.0–30.0% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus silicate slag amendments. The evolution of greenhouse gases per unit grain yield (yield scaled GWP) was highest in the NPK treatment, which was decreased by 43–50% from the silicate slag and phosphogypsum amendments along with Azolla-cyanobacteria inoculated rice planted soils. Conclusively, it is recommended to incorporate Azolla-cyanobacteria with inorganic and organic amendments for reducing GWP and yield scaled GWP from the rice planted paddy soils of temperate and subtropical countries. - Highlights: • Azolla-cyanobacteria with organic and

  19. Mitigating yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions through combined application of soil amendments: A comparative study between temperate and subtropical rice paddy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Kim, P.J.; Inubushi, K.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of different soil amendments were investigated on methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and yield scaled GWPs in paddy soils of Republic of Korea, Japan and Bangladesh. The experimental treatments were NPK only, NPK + fly ash, NPK + silicate slag, NPK + phosphogypsum(PG), NPK + blast furnace slag (BFS), NPK + revolving furnace slag (RFS), NPK + silicate slag (50%) + RFS (50%), NPK + biochar, NPK + biochar + Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK + silicate slag + Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK + phosphogypsum (PG) + Azolla-cyanobacteria. The maximum decrease in cumulative seasonal CH 4 emissions was recorded 29.7% and 32.6% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus phospho-gypsum amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh respectively, followed by 22.4% and 26.8% reduction with silicate slag plus Azolla-cyanobacteria application. Biochar amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh decreased seasonal cumulative N 2 O emissions by 31.8% and 20.0% respectively, followed by 26.3% and 25.0% reduction with biochar plus Azolla-cyanobacteria amendments. Although seasonal cumulative CH 4 emissions were significantly increased by 9.5–14.0% with biochar amendments, however, global warming potentials were decreased by 8.0–12.0% with cyanobacterial inoculation plus biochar amendments. The maximum decrease in GWP was calculated 22.0–30.0% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus silicate slag amendments. The evolution of greenhouse gases per unit grain yield (yield scaled GWP) was highest in the NPK treatment, which was decreased by 43–50% from the silicate slag and phosphogypsum amendments along with Azolla-cyanobacteria inoculated rice planted soils. Conclusively, it is recommended to incorporate Azolla-cyanobacteria with inorganic and organic amendments for reducing GWP and yield scaled GWP from the rice planted paddy soils of temperate and subtropical countries. - Highlights: • Azolla-cyanobacteria with organic and inorganic amendments

  20. Propagation, taxonomy and ecophysiological characteristics of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anabaena symbiosis in freshwater habitats of Beni-Suef Governorate (Egypt). ... Azolla plants accumulated the minerals Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni and Pb when growing in freshwater canals, drains and waste water. Salt stress treatment inhibited growth, nitrogen ...

  1. Holocene climatic fluctuations from Lower Brahmaputra flood plain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    phaea nouchali, Typha latifolia, Trapa bispinosa,. Lemna minor, Eichhornia crassipes, Utricularia flexuosa, U. exoieta, Spirodela polyrhiza, Wolffia arrhiza, Nelumbo nucifera, Myriophyllum indicum,. Ceratopteris thalictroides, Marsilea minuta, Pistia stratiotes, Salvinia oblongifolia and Azolla pinnata, respectively. However ...

  2. Biosolubilization of uranyl ions in uranium ores by hydrophyte plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecal, Alexandru; Calmoi, Rodica; Melniciuc-Puica, Nicoleta

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigated the bioleaching of uranyl ions from uranium ores, in aqueous medium by hydrophyte plants: Lemna minor, Azolla caroliniana and Elodea canadensis under different experimental conditions. The oxidation of U(IV) to U(VI) species was done by the atomic oxygen generated in the photosynthesis process by the aquatic plants in the solution above uranium ores. Under identical experimental conditions, the capacity of bioleaching of uranium ores decreases according to the following series: Lemna minor > Elodea canadensis > Azolla caroliniana. The results of IR spectra suggest the possible use of Lemna minor and Elodea canadensis as a biological decontaminant of uranium containing wastewaters. (author)

  3. Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology - Vol 6, No 1 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symbiotic Blue Green Algae (Azolla): A Potential Bio fertilizer for Paddy Rice Production in Fogera Plain, Northwestern Ethiopia · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. T Feyisa, T Amare, EA Adgo, YG Selassie, 1-11 ...

  4. Biodiversity and Importance of Floating Weeds of Dara Ismail, Khan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These plants include Bryophytes: 1 species, Ricciocarpus natans (L.) Corda; Pteridophytes: 2 species, Azolla pinnata R.Br. and Marselia quadrifolia L., and Spermatophytes: 8 species, Lemna aequinoctialis Welw., L. gibba L., Marselia quadrifoliata L. Nelumbo nucifera Gaerth., Nymphoides cristata (Roxb.) O. Ketze.

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 444 ... Vol 29, No 2 (1996), Research and Development Note: The utilization of Azolla as a source of nitrogen for rice production in Ghana, Abstract. K. Nyalemegbe, J. W. Oteng, ... Vol 33, No 2 (2000), Phytophthora megakarya: A potential threat to the cocoa industry in Ghana, Abstract. IY Opoku, AA Appiah, AY ...

  6. Effect of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on nodulation of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 on Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Paredes, Y.; Ferrera-Cerrato, R.; Alarcon, A.

    2009-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous organic pollutants that are considered toxic and carcinogenic compounds to living organisms. There us scarce information about the effect of PAH on symbiotic systems such as Azolla-Anabaena, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-plants, or legume-rhizobia. (Author)

  7. Physical and ionic characteristics in water soluble fraction (WSF) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The values of ionic and physical characteristics at 25, 50 and 100% water soluble fraction (WSF) of Olomoro well-head crude oil before and after exposure to Azolla africana were investigated. The WSF values before and after exposure to the plants showed that more ions were available after the introduction of the test plant.

  8. African Journal of Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azolla filiculoides a planktonic fern found floating on the surface of wetlands, ponds and rivers. Because of its ability to fix nitrogen through symbiotic cyanobacteria, it causes more rice production in paddy fields and is used as a green fertilizer. A. filiculoides was introduced from Philippine as a green fertilizer for rice crop to ...

  9. 1201-IJBCS-Article-Youssouf Abou

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    The replacement of fishmeal (FM) with Azolla meal (AM) in diets on growth and fatty acid in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (initial mean weight: 16.4 g) was studied. Fish were fed with six isonitrogenous. (29.2% CP) and isoenergetic (16.9 kJ.g-1) diets containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% AM respectively, as ...

  10. 2018-02-21T23:43:24Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    article/90472 2018-02-21T23:43:24Z jasem:ART Differential Sensitivity of Nitrogen-Fixing, Azolla Microphylla to Organochlorine and Organophosphate Insecticide Raja, W Rathaur, P Ashiq, R The development of the intensive agriculture in our ...

  11. Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bahir Dar University

    Symbiotic Blue Green Algae (Azolla): A Potential Bio fertilizer for Paddy. Rice Production in Fogera Plain, Northwestern Ethiopia. Tesfaye Feyisa. 1. , Tadele Amare. 1. , Enyew Adgo. 2 and Yihenew G. Selassie. 2*. 1Adet Agricultural Research Center, PO Box 08, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. 2Bahir Dar University, PO Box 79, Bahir ...

  12. 316-IJBCS-Article-Prof Emile Fiogbe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    Thèse de. Doctorat, Facultés Universitaires Notre-. Dame de la Paix, Namur, Belgique, 220p. Kestemont P, Micha J-C, Falter U. 1989. Les. Méthodes de Production d'Alevins de. Tilapia nilotica. ADCP / REP / 89 / 46,. PNUD-FAO, Rome, 132p. Lejeune A, Cagauan A, Van Hove C. 1999. Azolla Research and Development :.

  13. Batch studies on the removal of Ni (II) from aqueous solution by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are many plants which have the ability to accumulate large amounts of heavy metals and one of them is the aquatic fern, Azolla filiculoides. Toxic metals constitute a serious health risk because they accumulate in soils, water and organisms. One of the methods for removing these pollutants from water and soil is the ...

  14. The Control of Dormancy and Development in Coquillettidia perturbans (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    pit included: Lemna minor L. (duckweed), Azolla sp. (water- fern), Salvinia rotundifolia Willd., Ipomea aquatica Forsh (morning glory), Limnobium...copy Dean School of Medicine Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences 4301 Jones Bridge Road Bethesda, MD 20014 1 copy Commandant Academy

  15. Three new fern records for Kilimanjaro | Hemp | Journal of East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Working on the flora and vegetation of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, three ferns in three families were found that are not yet recorded for the floral region T2. The altitudinal range, localities and habitat description are given for Adiantum reniforme, Azolla africana and Trichomanes radicans. Journal of East African Natural History ...

  16. Differential patterns of evolution and distribution of the symbiotic behaviour in nostocacean cyanobacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papaefthimiou, D.; Hrouzek, Pavel; Mugnai, M. A.; Rasmussen, U.; Lukešová, Alena; Turicchia, S.; Ventura, S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, - (2008), s. 553-564 ISSN 1466-5026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : nostoc strains * ardra * azolla Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology , Virology Impact factor: 2.222, year: 2008

  17. Application of macrophytes as biosorbents for radioactive liquid waste treatment; Aplicacao de macrofitas como biossorventes no tratamento de rejeitos radioativos liquidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Ludmila Cabreira

    2016-07-01

    Radioactive waste as any other type of waste should be treated and disposed adequately. It is necessary to consider its physical, chemical and radiological characteristics for choosing the appropriate action for the treatment and final disposal. Many treatment techniques currently used are economically costly, often invalidating its use and favoring the study of other treatment techniques. One of these techniques is biosorption, which demonstrates high potential when applied to radioactive waste. This technology uses materials of biological origin for removing metals. Among potential biosorbents found, macrophyte aquatics are useful because they may remove uranium present in the liquid radioactive waste at low cost. This study aims to evaluate the biosorption capacity of macrophyte aquatics Pistia stratiotes, Limnobium laevigatum, Lemna sp and Azolla sp in the treatment of liquid radioactive waste. This study was divided into two stages, the first one is characterization and preparation of biosorption and the other is tests, carried out with uranium solutions and real samples. The biomass was tested in its raw form and biosorption assays were performed in polypropylene vials containing 10 ml of solution of uranium or 10ml of radioactive waste and 0.20g of biomass. The behavior of biomass was evaluated by sorption kinetics and isotherm models. The highest sorption capacities found was 162.1 mg / g for the macrophyte Lemna sp and 161.8 mg / g for the Azolla sp. The equilibrium times obtained were 1 hour for Lemna sp, and 30 minutes for Azolla sp. With the real waste, the macrophyte Azolla sp presented a sorption capacity of 2.6 mg / g. These results suggest that Azolla sp has a larger capacity of biosorption, therefore it is more suitable for more detailed studies of treatment of liquid radioactive waste. (author)

  18. Application of macrophytes as biosorbents for radioactive liquid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Ludmila Cabreira

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive waste as any other type of waste should be treated and disposed adequately. It is necessary to consider its physical, chemical and radiological characteristics for choosing the appropriate action for the treatment and final disposal. Many treatment techniques currently used are economically costly, often invalidating its use and favoring the study of other treatment techniques. One of these techniques is biosorption, which demonstrates high potential when applied to radioactive waste. This technology uses materials of biological origin for removing metals. Among potential biosorbents found, macrophyte aquatics are useful because they may remove uranium present in the liquid radioactive waste at low cost. This study aims to evaluate the biosorption capacity of macrophyte aquatics Pistia stratiotes, Limnobium laevigatum, Lemna sp and Azolla sp in the treatment of liquid radioactive waste. This study was divided into two stages, the first one is characterization and preparation of biosorption and the other is tests, carried out with uranium solutions and real samples. The biomass was tested in its raw form and biosorption assays were performed in polypropylene vials containing 10 ml of solution of uranium or 10ml of radioactive waste and 0.20g of biomass. The behavior of biomass was evaluated by sorption kinetics and isotherm models. The highest sorption capacities found was 162.1 mg / g for the macrophyte Lemna sp and 161.8 mg / g for the Azolla sp. The equilibrium times obtained were 1 hour for Lemna sp, and 30 minutes for Azolla sp. With the real waste, the macrophyte Azolla sp presented a sorption capacity of 2.6 mg / g. These results suggest that Azolla sp has a larger capacity of biosorption, therefore it is more suitable for more detailed studies of treatment of liquid radioactive waste. (author)

  19. Impacts of integrated nutrient management on methane emission, global warming potential and carbon storage capacity in rice grown in a northeast India soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharali, Ashmita; Baruah, Kushal Kumar; Baruah, Sunitee Gohain; Bhattacharyya, Pradip

    2018-02-01

    Rice soil is a source of emission of two major greenhouse gases (methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O)) and a sink of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The effect of inorganic fertilizers in combination with various organics (cow dung, green manure (Sesbania aculeata) Azolla compost, rice husk) on CH 4 emission, global warming potential, and soil carbon storage along with crop productivity were studied at university farm under field conditions. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design for 2 years in a monsoon rice (cv. Ranjit) ecosystem (June-November, 2014 and 2015). Combined application of inorganic (NPK) with Sesbania aculeata resulted in high global warming potential (GWP) of 887.4 kg CO 2 ha -1 and low GWP of 540.6 kg CO 2 ha -1 was recorded from inorganic fertilizer applied field. Irrespective of the type of organic amendments, flag leaf photosynthesis of the rice crop increased over NPK application (control). There was an increase in CH 4 emission from the organic amended fields compared to NPK alone. The combined application of NPK and Azolla compost was effective in the buildup of soil carbon (16.93 g kg -1 ) and capacity of soil carbon storage (28.1 Mg C ha -1 ) with high carbon efficiency ratio (16.9). Azolla compost application along with NPK recorded 15.66% higher CH 4 emission with 27.43% yield increment over control. Azolla compost application significantly enhanced carbon storage of soil and improved the yielding ability of grain (6.55 Mg ha -1 ) over other treatments.

  20. Efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers for rice

    OpenAIRE

    Roger, Pierre-Armand; Grant, I.F.; Reddy, P.M.; Watanabe, I.

    1987-01-01

    The photosynthetic biomass that develops in the floodwater of wetland rice fields affects nitrogen dynamics in the ecosystem. This review summarizes available data on the nature, productivity, and composition of the photosynthetic aquatic biomass, and its major activities regarding the nitrogen cycle, i.e., nitrogen fixation by free living blue-green algae and #Azolla$, nitrogen trapping, nitrogen accumulation at the soil surface, its effect on nitrogen losses by ammonia volatilization, nitro...

  1. Notes à La Flore de Corse, XXV

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanmonod, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    These “notes” deal with 110 noteworthy taxa amongst which 21 are new to the island's flora. One of these taxa is native: Reseda alba subsp. hookeri and 20 are introduced: Abies pinsapo, Acer ×coriaceum, Albizia julibrissin, Arundo micrantha, Azolla filiculoides, Bolboschoenus laticarpus, Digitaria ciliaris, Digitaria violascens, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. globulus, Genista januensis subsp. lydia, Hedera helix subsp. maroccana, Morus kagayamae, Oenothera rosea, Paspalum vaginatum, Puccinelli...

  2. 1559-IJBCS-Article-Emile Fiogbe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    atmosphérique (N2) en ammoniac (NH3) par le biais d'une symbiose héréditaire avec une cyanobactérie (Anabeana azolla). Cette bactérie est sous forme de filaments non ramifiée constituant les cellules végétatives dont certaines se différencient en hétérocystes. (Van Hoove, 1983). Ces hétérocystes sont des.

  3. [Features of cyanobacterial-bacterial complexes of microsymbionts of plant syncyanoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobakova, E S; Dol'nikova, G A; Korzhenevskaia, T G

    2001-01-01

    The morphology and ultrastructure of associative microsymbiont complexes (AMC) isolated from the ferns Azolla pinnata and Azolla sp. and the apogeotropic roots of the cycad Cycas revoluta were studied. The composition of the AMC obtained includes the cyanobionts (symbiotic cyanobacteria) and satellite bacteria (SB). It was found that two types of cyanobacteria that substantially differ in their morphological organization are likely present as cyanobionts in the coralloids of C. revoluta. The isolated cyanobiont strains exhibited the morphological traits and regularities of development typical of the genus Nostoc; they were characterized by the ability of their cells to divide in mutually perpendicular planes. When isolating AMC from different morphological zones of C. revoluta apogeotropic roots, SB growth was revealed only around the pieces corresponding to the coralloid apical zone. No AMC components were revealed around the segments of the basal growth zone. Pure cyanobiont cultures were obtained from the AMC of C. revoluta coralloids. The AMC isolated from the ferns A. pinnata and Azolla sp. are characterized by obligate mutual dependence of the partners (the cyanobiont and SB).

  4. Absorption and degradation of 14C-2, 4-D by some free-floating aquatic weeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.

    1980-01-01

    Plants of Salvinia, Lemna, Azolla and Limnobium, which are free-floating aquatic weeds, were grown separately in glass dishes containing initially 400 ml of nutrient solution and 2 μCi of 14 C-2,4-D under controlled conditions of temperature, light and relative humidity. The total uptake of 2,4-D by these plant species increased with the increasing duration of exposure to herbicide. 2,4-D uptake, calculated on per unit dry weight of weed, was maximum in case of Limnobium, followed by Salvinia, Lemna and Azolla. After 20 days of treatment, the highest radioactivity (24%) was obtained in the organic fraction of the extracts of Limnobium and Azolla; followed by Salvinia (8%) and Lemna (6%). In a separate experiment, root uptake and subsequent translocation of 14 C-2,4-D was also studied. At all the stages of sampling, more than half to 3/4th of the absorbed 14 C-2,4-D was found in the roots, and the remaining was present in the shoot. (author)

  5. Potential of some aquatic plants for removal of arsenic from wastewater by green technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Barznji Dana A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation or green technology is counted among the successful and effective biological contaminated water treatment techniques. Basically, the concept of this green, cost-effective, simple, environmentally nondisruptive method consists in using plants and microbiological processes to reduce contaminants in the ecosystem. Different species from aquatic plants (emerged, free-floating, and submerged have been studied to mitigate toxic contaminants such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, zinc, etc. Arsenic is one of the most severe toxic elements; it is widely distributed in the environment, usually found in combination with chloride, oxygen, sulphur and metal ions as a result of mineral dissolution from sedimentary or volcanic rocks and the dilution of geothermal water. The effluents from both industrial and agricultural sectors are also regarded as sources to contaminate water. From the accumulation point of view, several aquatic plants have been mentioned as good arsenic accumulators and their performance is evaluated using the green technology method. These include Spirodela polyrhiza, Wolffia globosa, Lemna gibba, L. minor, Eichhornia crassipes, Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, Azolla pinnata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Pistia stratiotes. The up-to-date information illustrated in this review paper generates knowledge about the ability of some common aquatic plants around the globe to remediate arsenic from contaminated water.

  6. Soils Newsletter. V. 9, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    This Newsletter describes the opening of the Soils and Plant Breeding Laboratory at the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratory and describes the research taking place in the new unit. The Research Co-ordination Meetings on the improvement of yield and nitrogen fixation of the common bean in Latin America (December 1985, CENA, Piracicaba, Brazil), the management of legumes in pastures (March 1986, IAEA, Vienna) and isotopic studies of nitrogen fixation and nitrogen cycling by blue-green algae and Azolla (May 1986, International Rice Research Institute, The Philippines) are summarized, and recent publications are briefly described. Tabs

  7. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Sources and sinks of nitrogen-E phosphorus-based nutrients in cropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetselaar, R.I.

    1992-01-01

    This document is the report of an expert mission to assist in the initiation of research on sustainable agriculture in rice-based cropping systems as related to the flow of plant nutrients, and on the use of legumes in upland cropping systems. Experimental suggestions include an investigation of the acid tolerance of different soybean strains under upland conditions, an analysis of ways to replace fertilizer nitrogen for rice crops by a green manure such as azolla, and a study of the increase in nutrient availability due to th presence of fish in a paddy field

  8. Pteridophyta collected in Northern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan kornaś

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 25 species of Pteridophyta were collected in Northern Nigeria (mainly the Lake Chad Basin and the Mandara Mts. and in the neighbouring parts of Cameroon. 11 of them have not been recorded previously from this area: Isoetes schweinfurthii A. Br. in Bak., Selaginella tenerrima A. Br. ex Kuhn, Ophioglossum gomenzianum Welw. ex A. Br., Marsilea coromandeliana Willd., M. distorta A. Br., M. nubica A. Br., M. subterranea Lepr. ex A. Br., Azolla africana Desv., Ceratopteris richardii Brogn., Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn., and Actiniopleris semiflabellata Pic. Ser.

  9. Non-protein and agro-industrial by-products utilization by ruminants in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tareque, A.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    A series of experiments were designed to (1) investigate mixtures of locally available feedstuffs, particularly agro-industrial by-products with or without non-protein nitrogen supplementation as production rations for local and imported breeds of ruminants, (2) formulate rations based on locally available feedstuffs which can be compounded either on a large scale or at the village level for local animals, (3) determine the nutritive value of some non-conventional feedstuffs in terms of their digestibility and their ability to promote microbial synthesis. Rice straw, constituting about 85% of the total available feed dry matter in Bangladesh, is considered a basal, or sometimes the sole, feed for ruminant animals. The efficiency of utilization of rice straw could be improved by adding non-conventional feed resources, such as azolla, banana plant, sweet potato leaves and other legumes and grasses. Rates of growth and feed efficiency by local animals were found to be higher in those fed with urea treated rice straw or bagasse, with or without the addition of concentrates, than in animals fed untreated straw. Rations were also found to be satisfactory when rice straw was fed in combination with urea, legumes such as cowpea hay, azolla and sweet potato leaves or concentrates. It is concluded that the utilization of rice straw by ruminants can be improved by suitable supplementation with non-conventional feed resources. Research is needed to evaluate the use of molasses as a feed ingredient for ruminants in Bangladesh. (author)

  10. Salinity of the Eocene Arctic Ocean from oxygen isotope analysis of fish bone carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Lindsey M.; Moore, Theodore C.

    2008-03-01

    Stable isotope analysis was performed on the structural carbonate of fish bone apatite from early and early middle Eocene samples (˜55 to ˜45 Ma) recently recovered from the Lomonosov Ridge by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 302 (the Arctic Coring Expedition). The δ18O values of the Eocene samples ranged from -6.84‰ to -2.96‰ Vienna Peedee belemnite, with a mean value of -4.89‰, compared to 2.77‰ for a Miocene sample in the overlying section. An average salinity of 21 to 25‰ was calculated for the Eocene Arctic, compared to 35‰ for the Miocene, with lower salinities during the Paleocene Eocene thermal maximum, the Azolla event at ˜48.7 Ma, and a third previously unidentified event at ˜47.6 Ma. At the Azolla event, where the organic carbon content of the sediment reaches a maximum, a positive δ13C excursion was observed, indicating unusually high productivity in the surface waters.

  11. OPERATIONAL AND FINANCIAL STRATEGIES FOR PEKING DUCK BREEDING START UP BUSINESS INTEGRATED WITH ECO-GREEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T.U.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Duck farming needs to be innovated from traditional maintenance management systems that must be abandoned, costly modern intensive maintenance management and pollute the environment into an efficient and eco-green intensive maintenance system by applying the same system partnership pattern to its core. Integrated eco-green intensive peking duck breeding farm utilizing Azolla Microphylla and hedge leaf as feed supplement and other germplasm utilization. The Azolla Microphylla plant serves as a phytoremediation where it can recycle livestock wastewater into clean water thereby reducing excessive water exploitation and reducing the pollution of the stench. The purpose of this research is to obtain information about the financial strategy to start up the business of peking duck integrated with eco-green model. Beginning from planning activities, the company implements project management system with its Gantt Chart. The mapping of operational strategy is carried out comprehensively by always making continuous improvement (kaizen because in the current era to be good alone is not enough, but struggle is needed to be superior (market leader by beginning by cost leader.

  12. Observations on anopheline breeding in relation to aquatic plants in different breeding habitats of Kheda (Gujarat).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Rajni; Srivastava, H C

    2004-09-01

    Water bodies infested with aquatic vegetations may pose problems in mosquito control through bio-environmental methods. Paucity of information pertaining to association of mosquito breeding with aquatic vegetation was the basis for present investigation. The mosquito breeding sites infested with solitary/dominating plant community viz., Eichhornia crassipes, Ipomoea aquatica, Hydrilla verticillata, Nymphea neuchali, Trapa bispinosa, Lemna paucicostata, Trachelomonas spp., Azolla pinnata, Algae spp. and Cynodon dactylon were selected for the study. The investigation revealed that breeding of eleven anopheline species was associated with Eichhornia in different habitats followed by Hydrilla, algae and Cynodon (8 each), Ipomoea and Trapa (6), Lemna. and Nymphea (5), Azolla and Trachelomonas (4). An. subpictus was associated with all types of vegetation. An. annularis, An. nigerrimus and An. barbirostris were associated with nine plant species. An. culicifacies, the principal malaria vector was found breeding in association with seven aquatic plants and showed strong association with Cynodon, Hydrilla and algae. The species diversity in habitats infested with Hydrilla, algae and Cynodon seems to be most favourable for the breeding of An. culicifacies. It is suggested that thinning or removal of such vegetations at regular interval may help to reduce vector population and enhance the efficacy of biological control agents particularly the larvivorous fishes in such habitats.

  13. Invasive vascular plant species of oxbow lakes in south-western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spałek Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural water reservoirs are very valuable floristic sites in south-western Poland. Among them, the most important for the preservation of biodiversity of flora are oxbow lakes. The long-term process of human pressure on habitats of this type caused disturbances of their biological balance. Changes in the water regime, industrial development and chemisation of agriculture, especially in the period of the last two hundred years, led to systematic disappearances of localities of many plant species connected with rare habitats and also to the appearance of numerous invasive plant species. They are: Azolla filiculoides, Echinocystis lobata, Erechtites hieraciifolia, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Reynoutria japonica, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea and S. graminifolia. Field works were conducted in years 2005-2012.

  14. Distribution and abundance of larval Coquillettidia perturbans in a Florida freshwater marsh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C D; Callahan, J L; Lewis, R H

    1990-09-01

    All instars of larval Coquillettidia perturbans were found in the same habitats, but early instar larvae were more aggregated than later instars. Larvae were most numerous in areas dominated by arrow-arum (Peltandra virginica) and maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), less so in areas dominated by sedges (Carex spp.) and miscellaneous mixed vegetation, and least abundant in pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata) areas. Larvae were uncommon in open water or in areas dominated by small floating plants such as water fern (Salvinia rotundifolia), duckweekd (Lemna minor) and mosquito fern (Azolla caroliniana). Larval concentrations were greatest in water 35-70 cm deep. There was also a tendency for them to concentrate in areas beyond 25 m from shore. Larvae were log-normally distributed in favorable sites and became progressively more aggregated as sites became less favorable.

  15. Inoculant production in developing countries - Problems, potentials and success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannaiyan, S.

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture is a long-term goal that seeks to overcome some of problems and constraints that confront the economic viability, environmental soundness and social acceptance of agricultural production systems. In this context, bio-fertilizers assume special significance particularly because they are 'eco-friendly', but also since their alternative, chemical fertilizers are expensive. Undoubtedly, the most commonly used bio-fertilizers are soil bacteria of the genus Rhizobium, but others like Azolla, Azospirillum, various cyanobacteria also contribute significant amounts of N to e.g. rice. Other bacteria like Frankia and Acetobacter contribute N to trees of the genus Casuarina and sugarcane, respectively. Furthermore, although they are rarely used as inoculants, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) and phosphobacteria help countless plants solubilise and assimilate soil phosphorus. Despite these advantages, bio-fertilizers could be more widely used in developing countries. Contingent upon greater use is improved quality of the inoculants, and all aspects of their production are discussed here. (author)

  16. Potential of macrophytes for removing atrazine from aqueous solution Potencial de macrófitas para remoção de atrazine de solução aquosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P Guimarães

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of three macrophytes, Azolla caroliniana, Salvinia minima, and Lemna gibba was assessed in this study to select plants for use in environmental remediation contaminated with atrazine. Experiments were carried out in a greenhouse over six days in pots containing Hoagland 0.25 strength nutritive solution at the following atrazine concentrations: 0; 0.01; 0.1; 1.0; 10.0 mg L-1. Decrease in biomass accumulation was observed in the three macrophytes, as well as toxic effects evidenced by the symptomatology developed by the plants which caused their deaths. The chlorosis and necrosis allowed to observe in the plants the high sensitivity of the three species to the herbicide. Plants presented low potential for removal of atrazine in solution when exposed to low concentrations of the herbicide. However, at the 10.0 mg L-1 atrazine concentration, L. gibba and A. caroliniana showed potential to remove the herbicide from the solution (0.016 and 0.018 mg atrazine per fresh mass gram, respectively. This fact likely resulted from the processes of atrazine adsorption by the dead material. The percentage of atrazine removed from the solution by the plants decreased when the plants were exposed to high concentrations of the pollutant. Azolla caroliniana, S. minima, and L. gibba were not effective in removing the herbicide from solution. The use of these species to remedy aquatic environments was shown to be limited.Avaliou-se, neste estudo, o potencial de três macrófitas - Azolla caroliniana, Salvinia minima e Lemna gibba - com vistas à seleção de plantas para remediação de ambientes contaminados por atrazine. Foram realizados experimentos em casa de vegetação durante seis dias, em vasos contendo solução nutritiva Hoagland (0,25 de força iônica, nas seguintes concentrações de atrazine: 0; 0,01; 0,1; 1,0; e 10,0 mg L-1. A redução da biomassa acumulada pelas macrófitas foi observada, bem como os efeitos de toxidez evidenciados pela

  17. Competition between Free-Floating Plants Is Strongly Driven by Previously Experienced Phosphorus Concentrations in the Water Column.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin T H M Peeters

    Full Text Available Nutrients can determine the outcome of the competition between different floating plant species. The response of floating plants to current phosphorus levels may be affected by previously experienced phosphorus concentrations because some species have the ability to store excess phosphorus for later use. This might have an impact on their competition. Here, we investigate the effect of previous and actual phosphorus concentrations on the growth rate of free-floating plant species (Azolla filiculoides, Lemna minor/gibba and Ricciocarpus natansand the effect of phosphorus history on the competition between L. minor/gibba and A. filiculoides and between L. minor/gibba and R. natans. As expected, plant growth was lower when previously kept at low instead of high phosphorus concentrations. Growth of L. minor/gibba and A. filiculoides with a phosphorus rich history was comparable for low and high actual phosphorus concentrations, however, internal phosphorus concentrations were significantly lower with low actual phosphorus concentration. This indicates that both species perform luxury phosphorus uptake. Furthermore, internal P concentration in Azolla and Lemna increased within two weeks after a period of P deficit without a strong increase in growth. A. filiculoides in a mixture with L. minor/gibba grew faster than its monoculture. Morphological differences may explain why A. filiculoides outcompeted L. minor/gibba and these differences may be induced by phosphorus concentrations in the past. Growth of L. minor/gibba was only reduced by the presence of A. filiculoides with a high phosphorus history. Growth of L. minor/gibba and R. natans in mixtures was positively affected only when they had a high phosphorus history themselves and their competitor a low phosphorus history. These observations clearly indicate that phosphorus history of competing plants is important for understanding the outcome of the competition. Therefore, actual and previously

  18. Hydrogen photo-evolution by Rhodopseudomonas palustris 6A using pre-treated olive mill wastewater and a synthetic medium containing sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintucci, Cristina; Padovani, Giulia; Giovannelli, Alessio; Traversi, Maria Laura; Ena, Alba; Pushparaj, Benjamin; Carlozzi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adsorbent matrices to convert fresh olive mill wastewater (OMW F ) in feedstock. • Dry-Azolla and granular active carbon for adsorbing polyphenols from OMW F . • Photofermentative processes for biohydrogen production. • Culture mixing by means of an impeller or a magnetic stir bar. • A 30% of dephenolised OMW containing medium suits the photofermentative process. - Abstract: Increasing costs of petroleum, associated with the escalating problems of global climate change, require always greater efforts in order to produce an energy carrier as bioH 2 . In this study, bioH 2 production using photofermentative process was investigated. Two culture broths were used: (a) a synthetic medium rich in sugars (glucose and fructose) and (b) a pre-treated fresh olive-mill wastewater (OMW F ) diluted with water (30%, v:v). The pre-treatment was carried out using two different vegetable matrices (dry-Azolla and granular active carbon) to decrease both the content of polyphenols and the dark colour of wastewater. Rhodopseudomonas palustris 6A isolated from soil spread with OMW was utilized for batch growth experiments, carried out indoors under continuous light (200 μE/m 2 /s). When synthetic medium was used, the culture mixing was performed using either (i) a magnetic stir bar, and (ii) an impeller equipped with five turbines. The latter system made it possible to increase the bioH 2 photo-evolution by 1.4 times. The specific hydrogen photo-evolution rate was 13.5 mL/g(dw)/h in the broth containing diluted OMW F and 11.8 mL/g(dw)/h in the synthetic medium containing sugars (glucose and fructose)

  19. 15N tracer technique for studying efficiency of deep placed fertilizer through nutriseed holder in direct seeded rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asha, V.S.; Arulmozhiselvan, K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to estimate N use efficiency in deep placement of NPK straight fertilizers, two pot experiments were conducted in high clay soil with direct seeded rice. 15 N urea was used as a tracer. A newly designed 'Nutriseed Holder' was used for simultaneous deep placement of fertilizers and sowing of seeds. Each holder had two cavities, one on top for holding seed and another one at bottom for holding fertilizer material. By implanting a holder in puddled soil, a rice hill was established. The length (5 or 10 cm) and width (8 or 12 mm) of nutriseed holder was standardized while evaluating the effect of Azolla, neem and seed inoculants. Appreciably, deep placement of plain NPK fertilizer in 12 mm holder placed at 5 cm depth recorded the highest grain yield with a yield increase of 81.8 per cent during rabi 2002 (cv CO 43) and 84.8 per cent during summer 2003 (cv CO 47) over broadcast application. Further, it increased recovery of added JSN in grain + straw to the tune of 57.1 per cent in rabi and 54.7 per cent in summer as compared to broadcast application (26.1% in rabi, 34.2 in summer). Deep placement enhanced more retention in soil (up to 9.0% in rabi, 14.6% in summer) whereas broadcast application enhanced more retention in Azolla biomass that was grown in floodwater (up to 2.3 % in rabi, 4.3 % in summer). Use of 12 mm width nutriseed holder aiding deep placement at 5 cm depth was found suitable for deriving high yield and N use efficiency. (author)

  20. Helechos y licofitos de la Reserva Natural Educativa Colonia Benítez (Chaco, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Dematteis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La Reserva Natural Educativa Colonia Benítez cuenta con una superficie aproximada de ocho ha, está ubicada en el departamento Primero de Mayo, en la provincia del Chaco, Argentina. Desde el punto de vista fitogeográfico, esta área protegida se localiza dentro del Distrito Chaqueño Oriental de la Provincia Chaqueña. Como objetivos de este trabajo se planteó realizar un inventario de helechos y licofitos y una clave para el reconocimiento de los taxa que crecen en esta reserva. A tal fin, se examinaron las colecciones depositadas en CTES, y se realizaron nuevas recolecciones de especímenes. Se registraron 12 géneros con un total de 17 especies, siendo Doryopteris el género mejor representado con tres especies: D. concolor, D. lorentzii y D. pentagona. El género Adiantopsis presentó dos especies (A. chlorophylla y A. tweediana, al igual que Anemia con (A. simplicior y A. tomentosa var. anthriscifolia y Pteris (Pteris denticulata var. tristicula y Pteris vittata. Los demás géneros presentaron sólo una especie: Adiantum lorentzii, Anogramma chaerophylla, Azolla cristata, Hemionitis tomentosa, Microgramma vaccinifolia, Pityrogramma calomelanos var. calomelanos, Pleopeltis minima y Selaginella sellowii. El hábito terrícola fue el mejor representado con 12 especies, de las cuales una de ellas es rupícola y otras tres se pueden comportar como epífitos facultativos, en tanto que los estrictamente epífitos fueron representados por sólo dos especies. Azolla cristata fue la única especie acuática presente. Se presentan observaciones ecológicas y un análisis biogeográfico de las especies registradas

  1. Occurrence of arsenic species in algae and freshwater plants of an extreme arid region in northern Chile, the Loa River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Albert; Márquez, Anna; López-Sánchez, José Fermín; Rubio, Roser; Barbero, Mercedes; Stegen, Susana; Queirolo, Fabrizio; Díaz-Palma, Paula

    2013-01-01

    This study reports data on arsenic speciation in two green algae species (Cladophora sp. and Chara sp.) and in five aquatic plants (Azolla sp., Myriophyllum aquaticum, Phylloscirpus cf. desserticola, Potamogeton pectinatus, Ruppia filifolia and Zannichellia palustris) from the Loa River Basin in the Atacama Desert (northern Chile). Arsenic content was measured by Mass spectrometry coupled with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-MS), after acidic digestion. Liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS was used for arsenic speciation, using both anionic and cationic chromatographic exchange systems. Inorganic arsenic compounds were the main arsenic species measured in all samples. The main arsenic species in the extracts of freshwater algae and plants were arsenite and arsenate, whereas glycerol-arsenosugar (gly-sug), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and methylarsonic acid (MA) were present only as minor constituents. Of the samples studied, algae species accumulated more arsenic than aquatic plants. Total arsenic content ranged from 182 to 11100 and from 20 to 248 mg As kg(-1) (d.w.) in algae and freshwater plants, respectively. In comparison with As concentration in water samples, there was hyper-accumulation (>0.1% d.w.) in Cladophora sp. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fish growth, yield and economics of conventional feed and weed based polyculture in ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Asadujjaman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish growth, yield and economics of polyculture were evaluated for six months from April to September, 2011 in ponds of Kushtia district, Bangladesh under 4 treatments of feeds and weeds as T0: rice bran, wheat bran and mustard oilcake; T1: Azolla; T2: Grass and T3: Banana leaf. Each treatment had 3 replications. Mean initial stocking weight of fishes like Hypophthalmichthyes molitrix, Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Barbonymus gonionotus was 62, 64, 57, 54, 63, 65 and 25 g, respectively. Stocking density (11,115 fishes/ha, liming (250 kg/ha, basal fertilization (Cowdung, 1,500 kg/ha; urea, 60 kg/ha; and Triple Super Phosphate, TSP 60 kg/ha and periodic fertilization (Urea, 2.5 kg/ha/day; and TSP, 2.5 kg/ha/day were same for all the treatments. Water quality parameters (water temperature, transparency, dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity and free carbon dioxide were monitored fortnightly and fish growth parameters (weight gain and Specific Growth Rate, SGR were monitored monthly. Treatments did not vary significantly for the mean water quality parameters. Treatment T0 varied more significantly (P<0.05 for the mean final weight, weight gain, SGR, survival rate and yield for almost all the species except C. idella and B. gonionotus. Significantly highest CBR was recorded with treatment T1.

  3. Evolutionary Conservation of ABA Signaling for Stomatal Closure1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuqing; Dai, Fei; Franks, Peter J.; Nevo, Eviatar; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Xue, Dawei; Zhang, Guoping; Pogson, Barry J.

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA)-driven stomatal regulation reportedly evolved after the divergence of ferns, during the early evolution of seed plants approximately 360 million years ago. This hypothesis is based on the observation that the stomata of certain fern species are unresponsive to ABA, but exhibit passive hydraulic control. However, ABA-induced stomatal closure was detected in some mosses and lycophytes. Here, we observed that a number of ABA signaling and membrane transporter protein families diversified over the evolutionary history of land plants. The aquatic ferns Azolla filiculoides and Salvinia cucullata have representatives of 23 families of proteins orthologous to those of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and all other land plant species studied. Phylogenetic analysis of the key ABA signaling proteins indicates an evolutionarily conserved stomatal response to ABA. Moreover, comparative transcriptomic analysis has identified a suite of ABA-responsive genes that differentially expressed in a terrestrial fern species, Polystichum proliferum. These genes encode proteins associated with ABA biosynthesis, transport, reception, transcription, signaling, and ion and sugar transport, which fit the general ABA signaling pathway constructed from Arabidopsis and Hordeum vulgare. The retention of these key ABA-responsive genes could have had a profound effect on the adaptation of ferns to dry conditions. Furthermore, stomatal assays have shown the primary evidence for ABA-induced closure of stomata in two terrestrial fern species P. proliferum and Nephrolepis exaltata. In summary, we report, to our knowledge, new molecular and physiological evidence for the presence of active stomatal control in ferns. PMID:28232585

  4. The effects of mixed algal diets on population growth, egg productivity and nutritional profiles in cyclopoid copepods (Thermocyclops hyalinus and Mesocyclops aspericornis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vidhya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of mixed algal diet on dietary profiles of copepods. The microalgae like Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata were mass cultured in artificial medium for a period of 20 days, cells are harvested, dried, powdered and used as feed. The small freshwater cyclopoids Thermocyclops hyalinus were compared to Mesocyclops aspericornis a species of copepod genera commonly preferred by most of the fish larvae. Both species are easily maintained in culture, when fed with mixed algal diets of equal ratios (1:1:1. Biochemical composition, egg production ratios, growth performance and fatty acids profile of the two different species were analyzed after an experimental period of 15 days, all the nutritional values were found to be high and statistically variable. On the basis of biochemical composition, egg production ratio, growth performance, amino acids and fatty acids profile it is found that M. aspericornis was the suitable candidate for larval fish diets.

  5. Late cretaceous aquatic plant world in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Rubén Cúneo

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we describe latest Cretaceous aquatic plant communities from the La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina, based on their taxonomic components and paleoecological attributes. The La Colonia Formation is a geological unit deposited during a Maastrichtian-Danian transgressive episode of the South Atlantic Ocean. This event resulted in the deposition of a series of fine-grained sediments associated with lagoon systems occurring along irregular coastal plains in northern Patagonia. These deposits preserved a diverse biota, including aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. The aquatic macrophytes can be broadly divided into two groups: free-floating and rooted, the latter with emergent or floating leaves. Free-floating macrophytes include ferns in Salviniaceae (Azolla and Paleoazolla and a monocot (Araceae. Floating microphytes include green algae (Botryoccocus, Pediastrum and Zygnemataceae. Among the rooted components, marsileaceous water ferns (including Regnellidium and an extinct form and the eudicot angiosperm Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae are the dominant groups. Terrestrial plants occurring in the vegetation surrounding the lagoons include monocots (palms and Typhaceae, ferns with affinities to Dicksoniaceae, conifers, and dicots. A reconstruction of the aquatic plant paleocommuniy is provided based on the distribution of the fossils along a freshwater horizon within the La Colonia Formation. This contribution constitutes the first reconstruction of a Cretaceous aquatic habitat for southern South America.

  6. Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fishmeal replaced with Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata and the formulated diet fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae to assess the enhancement ability of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and lipid peroxidation (LPx were analysed. In the present study, the S. platensis, C. vulgaris and A. pinnata inclusion diet fed groups had significant (P < 0.05 improvement in the levels of vitamins C and E in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissue. Among all the diets, the replacement materials in 50% incorporated feed fed groups showed better performance when compared with the control group in non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The 50% fishmeal replacement (best performance diet fed groups taken for enzymatic antioxidant study, in SOD, CAT and LPx showed no significant increases when compared with the control group. Hence, the present results revealed that the formulated feed enhanced the vitamins C and E, the result of decreased level of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and LPx revealed that these feeds are non-toxic and do not produce any stress to postlarvae. These ingredients can be used as an alternative protein source for sustainable Macrobrachium culture.

  7. Early and Middle Pleistocene vegetation history of the Médoc region, southwest France

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, C. E.; Jones, R. L.

    2003-09-01

    Pleistocene deposits, together with their pollen, plant macrofossil, foraminiferal, dinoflagellate and coleopteran remains, from five sites along the Atlantic coast of the Médoc Peninsula are described and discussed. Sediments making up the Négade Formation are shown to have been laid down under either estuarine or lagoonal conditions when closed Quercus-Pinus-Tsuga canadensis regional woodland existed. Comparison with plant records from The Netherlands indicates that these deposits are most likely attributable to either the Early Pleistocene Bavel Interglacial (marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 31), or an interglacial of the Waalian (MIS 37-49) or Tiglian (MIS 63-79). In addition, clays assigned to the Argiles du Gurp sensu stricto, were similarly deposited in either an estuary or lagoon, which subsequently was cut off from the sea. A freshwater lake with vegetation dominated by Azolla filiculoides then developed. This was succeeded by reedswamp and an organic mud (termed Lignite in the corresponding French stratigraphical records) formed. Regional Quercus-Abies woodland was replaced by one with Pinus dominant and Pterocarya a minor component. Comparison with plant records from France and other parts of Europe suggest that the clays and organic mud might be correlated with the Holsteinian (Praclaux) Interglacial (MIS 11c). Copyright

  8. Assessing the effectiveness of pollutant removal by macrophytes in a floating wetland for wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Meera; van Bruggen, Johan J. A.; Dalu, Tatenda; Malla, Rabin

    2017-12-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the removal of pollutants by floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) using an edible floating plant, and emergent macrophytes. All experiments were performed under ambient conditions. Physico-chemical parameters were measured, along with microbiological analysis of biofilm within the roots, water column, and sludge and gravel zone. Nitrification and denitrification rates were high in the water zone of Azolla filiculoides, Lemna minor, Lactuca sativa, P. stratiotes, and Phragmites australis. Phosphate removal efficiencies were 23, 10, and 15% for the free-floating hydrophytes, emergent macrophytes, and control and edible plants, respectively. The microbial community was relatively more active in the root zone compared to other zones. Pistia stratiotes was found to be the efficient in ammonium (70%) and total nitrogen (59%) removal. Pistia stratiotes also showed the highest microbial activity of 1306 mg day-1, which was 62% of the total volume. Microbial activity was found in the water zone of all FTWs expect for P. australis. The use of P. stratiotes and the edible plant L. sativa could be a potential option to treat domestic wastewater due to relatively high nutrient and organic matter removal efficiency.

  9. Soils Newsletter. V. 12, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This Newsletter includes reports of four research co-ordination meetings: on isotopic studies on nitrogen fixation and nitrogen cycling by blue-green algae and Azolla (final meeting, September 1989, IAEA, Vienna); on isotopic studies on increasing and stabilizing plant productivity in low phosphate and semi-arid and sub-humid soils of the tropics and sub-tropics (first meeting, October 1989, IAEA, Vienna); on the evaluation and calibration of nuclear techniques compared with traditional methods in soil water studies (July 1989, IAEA, Vienna); and on the use of isotopes in studies to improve the yield and nitrogen fixation of the common bean in Latin America (April 1989, Irapuato, Mexico). A new co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and related techniques in the assessment of irrigation schedules of field crops to increase the effective use of water in irrigation projects is announced, and some of the technical co-operation programmes in the Latin America Region are briefly described. 2 tabs

  10. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae from Martín García Island, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M Ronderos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 230 species of biting midges have been recorded or described from Argentina; 38 of them are known from the Buenos Aires province and only one is cited from Martín García Island. This paper presents the results raised from six collecting trips which took place on the island during spring 2005, summer 2006 and autumn 2009. Diverse sampling sites including permanent and temporary aquatic environments were chosen, most of the ten sampling sites were ponds of diverse origin, some of these environments were covered with floating vegetation as Lemna gibba, Lemna minuscule, Salvinia biloba, Salvinia minima, Azolla filiculoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia, Wolffiella oblonga and Wolffia columbiana. Other sites were placed in urban and suburban areas. Adults were collected with sweep nets at sunrise and sunset and with light traps at intervals of four to five hours at night, depending on electricity availability on the island. Larvae and pupae were collected with different implements depending on characteristics of each surveyed aquatic habitat. In free standing water, they were captured with small sieves or hand pipettes and micropipettes, flotation techniques were utilized for sampling vegetated areas, free and rooted floating hydrophytes were extracted for removing insects among them. Thirteen species of Ceratopogonidae were collected, three of Atrichopogon Kieffer, three of Forcipomyia Meigen, two of Dasyhelea Kieffer, four of Culicoides Latreille, and one of Bezzia Kieffer, all representing new records from the island. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1183-1194. Epub 2011 September 01.Alrededor de 230 especies de ceratopogónidos han sido registradas o descritas en Argentina, 38 de ellas son conocidas para la provincia de Buenos Aires y sólo una ha sido previamente citada para la Isla Martín García. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos a partir de muestreos realizados en seis viajes a la isla

  11. Interactions of gold nanoparticles with freshwater aquatic macrophytes are size and species dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, J Brad; White, Sarah A; Klaine, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    The partitioning of 4- and 18-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to aquatic macrophytes was investigated in vivo with exposure suspension in well water. Three morphologically distinct aquatic macrophytes were studied. Myriophyllum simulans Orch. and Egeria densa Planch. are submerged aquatic vascular plants, whereas Azolla caroliniana Willd. is a free-floating aquatic fern. Because aquatic plants absorb the majority of their nutrients from the water column, it is logical to hypothesize that they may absorb nanomaterials in suspension, potentially facilitating trophic transfer. Each plant was exposed to two different-sized gold nanospheres at a nominal concentration of 250 µg/L AuNPs for 24 h. Macrophytes were harvested at six time points (1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h), dried, and then analyzed for gold concentration via inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Concentrations were normalized to whole-plant dry tissue mass. The present study shows that absorption of AuNPs through root uptake was size and species dependent. Electron microscopy revealed that 4- and 18-nm AuNPs adsorbed to the roots of each species. Root tissue was sectioned, and transmission electron microscopy indicated that 4-nm and 18-nm AuNPs were absorbed by A. caroliniana, whereas only 4-nm AuNPs were absorbed by M. simulans. Egeria densa did not absorb AuNPs of either size. Gold nanoparticles were confirmed in tissue by using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Absorption of AuNPs by plants may be a function of the salinity tolerance of each species. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  12. Diquat associated with copper sources for algae control: Efficacy and ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlich, Nathalia; Da Cruz, Claudinei; Da Silva, Adilson F; Carraschi, Silvia P; Malaspina, Igor C; Pitelli, Robinson A; Bianco, Silvano

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this research were to evaluate the efficacy of copper oxychloride (CuCl2.3Cu(OH)2), copper hydroxide (Cu(OH)2) and diquat (1.1'-ethylene-2.2'-bipyridyldiylium dibromide), isolated and in association with 0.1% of both copper sources, in the control of the unicellular algae Ankistrodesmus gracilis and the filamentous algae Pithophora kewesis, and to determine the acute toxicity of the tested chemicals in Hyphressobrycon eques, Pomacea canaliculata, Lemna minor and Azolla caroliniana. The efficacy was estimated by the methods of chlorophyll a and pheophytin a readings, changed into growth inhibition percentage. Both algae were exposed to the following concentrations: 0.2; 0.4; 0.8; 1.2 mg L(-1) of diquat and its association with the copper sources; and 0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.7; 1.0 and 1.5 mg L(-1) in the isolated applications of copper hydroxide and copper oxychloride. An untreated control was kept. The acute toxicity was estimatedby 50% lethal concentration (LC50). The copper sources were effective for A. gracilis control, at rates as high as 0.1 mg L(-1) (>95% efficacy). Isolated diquat and its association with copper hydroxide were both effective at rates as high as 0.4 mg L(-1), with 95 and 88% control efficacy, respectively. The copper oxychloride was effective at 0.2 mg L(-1), with 93% efficacy. None of the tested chemicals and associations was effective on P. kewesis control. The most sensitive non target organism to the tested chemicals was L. minor; the less sensitive was H. eques.

  13. Desarrollo de una metodología in vitro para estimar la tasa de fermentación de los forrajes en el intestino grueso del cerdo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leterme Pascal

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La metodología para estimar la tasa de fermentación de los forrajes se desarrolló en dos etapas. La primera, de digestibilidad enzimática, simula la digestión ocurrida en el estómago e intestino delgado, mediante el empleo de pepsina y pancreatina; en esta se determina la digestibilidad de la materia seca. La segunda etapa de fermentación simula la fermentación que ocurre en el intestino grueso utilizando como inóculo heces de cerdo; en esta se determina la cantidad de gas producido durante la fermentación de los forrajes y la degradación de la fibra detergente neutra (FDN. Las dos etapas presentaron buena repetibilidad en el tiempo. Abstract Develop of an in vitro methodology to determine the forages fermentation in to the large intestine. The methodology was developing in two phases. The first phase (enzymatic digestibility simulates the digestion occurred in the stomach and small intestine, by means of the employment of pepsin and pancreatin; and the digestibility of the dry matter is determined. The second phase (in vitro fermentation simulates the fermentation that occurs in the large intestine utilizing pig faeces; the quantity of gas produced during the fermentation of the feedstuff is determined and determine the degradation of neutral detergent fiber (NDF. All the phases show a good repeatability throw the time. Key words: digestibility in vitro, pigs, fermentación, forages (Azolla filiculoides, Xanthosoma saggitifolium, Morus alba, Trichanthera gigantea y Salvinia molesta.

  14. Sodium chloride accumulation in glycophyte plants with cyanobacterial symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Thomas George Allan; Sancho, Leopoldo G; Pintado, Ana; Saco, Dolores; Martín, Soledad; Arróniz-Crespo, María; Angel Casermeiro, Miguel; de la Cruz Caravaca, Maria Teresa; Cameron, Steven; Rozzi, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    The majority of plant species are glycophytes and are not salt-tolerant and maintain low sodium levels within their tissues; if . high tissue sodium concentrations do occur, it is in response to elevated environmental salt levels. Here we report an apparently novel and taxonomically diverse grouping of plants that continuously maintain high tissue sodium contents and share the rare feature of possessing symbiotic cyanobacteria. Leaves of Gunnera magellanica in Tierra del Fuego always had sodium contents (dry weight basis) of around 4.26 g kg -1 , about 20 times greater than measured in other higher plants in the community (0.29 g kg -1 ). Potassium and chloride levels were also elevated. This was not a response to soil sodium and chloride levels as these were low at all sites. High sodium contents were also confirmed in G. magellanica from several other sites in Tierra del Fuego, in plants taken to, and cultivated in Madrid for 2 years at low soil salt conditions, and also in other free living or cultivated species of Gunnera from the UK and New Zealand. Gunnera species are the only angiosperms that possess cyanobacterial symbionts so we analysed other plants that have this rather rare symbiosis, all being glycophytes. Samples of Azolla , a floating aquatic fern, from Europe and New Zealand all had even higher sodium levels than Gunnera . Roots of the gymnosperm Cycas revoluta had lower sodium contents (2.52 ± 0.34 g kg -1 ) but still higher than the non-symbiotic glycophytes. The overaccumulation of salt even when it is at low levels in the environment appears to be linked to the possession of a cyanobacterial symbiosis although the actual functional basis is unclear.

  15. Microrefugia and species persistence in the Galápagos highlands: A 26,000-year paleoecological perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron F Collins

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Galápagos Islands are known to have experienced significant drought during the Quaternary. The loss of mesophytic upland habitats has been suggested to underlie the relatively lower endemism of upland compared with lowland plant assemblages. A fossil pollen record spanning the last 26,000 years from an upland bog on Santa Cruz Island, revealed the persistent presence of highland pollen and spore types during the last glacial maximum and a millennial-scale series of droughts in the mid Holocene. The absence of lowland taxa and presence of mesic taxa led to the conclusion that the highland flora of the Galápagos persisted during both these periods. The resiliency of the highland flora of the Galápagos to long-term drought contradicts an earlier hypothesis that an extinction of highland taxa occurred during the last glacial maximum and that rapid Holocene speciation created the modern plant assemblage within the last 10,000 years. Based on the palynological data, we suggest that, even during the height of glacial and Holocene droughts, cool sea-surface temperatures and strong trade-wind activity would have promoted persistent ground level cloudiness that provided the necessary moisture inputs to maintain microrefugia for mesophytic plants. Although moist conditions were maintained, the lack of precipitation caused the loss of open water habitat during such events, and accounts for the known extinctions of species such as Azolla sp., and Elatine sp., while other moisture dependent taxa, i.e. Cyathea weatherbyana, persisted.

  16. Terrestrial ecosystem collapse associated to the K-Pg boundary and dinosaur extinction: palynological evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, A.; Vajda, V.; Lyson, T. R.; Chester, S. G. B.; Sargis, E. J.; Pearson, D. A.; Joyce, W. G.

    2012-04-01

    We report here the discovery of the stratigraphically youngest in situ dinosaur specimen. This ceratopsian brow horn was found in southeastern Montana, in the Western Interior of the United States in a poorly rooted, silty mudstone floodplain deposit and only 13 centimeters below the palynologically defined K-Pg boundary. The boundary is identified using three criteria: 1) substantial decrease in diversity and abundance of Cretaceous pollen and spore taxa that completely disappear from the palynological record a few meters above the boundary, 2) the presence of a "fern spike", and 3) palynostratigraphical correlation to a nearby section where primary extraterrestrial impact markers are present (e.g., iridium anomaly, spherules and shocked quartz). The palynological record in the rock sequence immediately following the K-Pg boundary consistently indicates a sudden and major loss of the Cretaceous components across the North American record. During this rapid decline, the palynological assemblages are dominated by freshwater ferns (Azolla) and algae (usually Pediastrum sp. and Penetetrapites sp.) indicating generalized flooding in the area. The onset of the Paleocene sedimentation is subsequently announced by the presence of variegated beds, multiple lignite seams and small scale meandering river systems, starting with palynological associations that attest for reworking and erosion. The destabilization of terrestrial ecosystems is coincident with the markers of the K-Pg boundary, supporting a catastrophic event taking place over a very short duration. The in situ ceratopsian brow horn demonstrates that a gap devoid of non-avian dinosaur fossils in the last meters of the Cretaceous is artificial and thus inconsistent with the hypothesis that non-avian dinosaurs were extinct prior to the K-Pg boundary asteroid impact event.

  17. Evolutionary Conservation of ABA Signaling for Stomatal Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shengguan; Chen, Guang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Huang, Yuqing; Marchant, D Blaine; Wang, Yizhou; Yang, Qian; Dai, Fei; Hills, Adrian; Franks, Peter J; Nevo, Eviatar; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Sessa, Emily; Wolf, Paul G; Xue, Dawei; Zhang, Guoping; Pogson, Barry J; Blatt, Michael R; Chen, Zhong-Hua

    2017-06-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA)-driven stomatal regulation reportedly evolved after the divergence of ferns, during the early evolution of seed plants approximately 360 million years ago. This hypothesis is based on the observation that the stomata of certain fern species are unresponsive to ABA, but exhibit passive hydraulic control. However, ABA-induced stomatal closure was detected in some mosses and lycophytes. Here, we observed that a number of ABA signaling and membrane transporter protein families diversified over the evolutionary history of land plants. The aquatic ferns Azolla filiculoides and Salvinia cucullata have representatives of 23 families of proteins orthologous to those of Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) and all other land plant species studied. Phylogenetic analysis of the key ABA signaling proteins indicates an evolutionarily conserved stomatal response to ABA. Moreover, comparative transcriptomic analysis has identified a suite of ABA-responsive genes that differentially expressed in a terrestrial fern species, Polystichum proliferum These genes encode proteins associated with ABA biosynthesis, transport, reception, transcription, signaling, and ion and sugar transport, which fit the general ABA signaling pathway constructed from Arabidopsis and Hordeum vulgare The retention of these key ABA-responsive genes could have had a profound effect on the adaptation of ferns to dry conditions. Furthermore, stomatal assays have shown the primary evidence for ABA-induced closure of stomata in two terrestrial fern species P proliferum and Nephrolepis exaltata In summary, we report, to our knowledge, new molecular and physiological evidence for the presence of active stomatal control in ferns. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Sensitivity of aquatic organisms to ethanol and its potential use as bioindicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Ferreira Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the feasibility for the use of the organisms Lemna minor, Azolla caroliniana, Hyphessobrycon eques, Pomacea canaliculata and Daphnia magna as exposure bioindicators for ethanol (lethal and effective concentration 50% - LC50(I/EC50(I. Thus, the following concentrations were used 5.0; 10.0; 20.0; 30.0; 40.0 and 50.0 mg L-1 ethanol on L. minor; 25.0; 50.0; 75.0; 100.0; 150.0 and 200.0 mg L-1 on A. caroliniana; 0.3; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 3.0 mg L-1 on H. eques; 0.05; 0.10; 0.20; 0.40 and 0.80 mg L-1 on P. canaliculata; and 40.0; 60.0; 80.0; 100.0; 120.0 and 140.0 mg L-1 on D. magna. An untreated control was also kept for all organisms, with three repetitions. The increase in the ethanol concentration elevated the electrical conductivity and decreased the water dissolved oxygen and pH. The ethanol LC50 for L. minor and A. caroliniana were 12.78 and 73.11 mg L-1, respectively, and was classified as slightly toxic; 1.22 mg L-1 for H. eques (moderately toxic; 0.39 mg L-1 for P. canaliculata (highly toxic and 98.85 mg L-1 for D. magna (slightly toxic. Thus, H. eques and P. canaliculata have showed good potential for the use as ethanol exposure bioindicators on water bodies.

  19. The improvement of the quality of polluted irrigation water through a phytoremediation process in a hydroponic batch culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnaningdyah, Catur

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of a phytoremediation process using some local hydro macrophytes to reduce fertilizer residue in irrigation water in order to support healthy agriculture and to prevent eutrophication and algae bloom in water. A phytoremediation process was carried out in a hydroponic floating system by using transparent plastic bags of 1 m in diameter and 1 m in height that were placed in collecting ponds before they were used for agricultural activities. Paddy soils were used as substrates in this system. The irrigation water was treated with nutrient enrichment (Urea and SP-36 fertilizers). Then, the system was planted with remediation actors (Azolla sp., Ipomoea aquatica, Limnocharis flava, Marsilea crenata, polyculture of those hydro macrophytes and control). The improvement of the water quality as a result of the phytoremediation process was characterized by a decline in the concentration of some physicochemical parameters, which were measured at 7 days after incubation, as well as an increase in the plankton diversity index value. The results showed that all of the hydro macrophytes used in this research, which was grown in the hydroponic batch culture system for a period of 7 days, were able to significantly improve the irrigation water quality, which was enriched by the synthetic fertilizers Urea and SP36. This was reflected by a significant decrease in the concentration of water TSS, nitrate, BOD, COD and total phosphate and an increase in the value of water DO at 7 days after incubation. Improvement of the water quality is also reflected in the increasing plankton diversity index value as a bioindicator of water pollution indicating a change in the pollution status from moderately polluted to slightly polluted at 7 days after incubation.

  20. Pengaruh Macam dan Waktu Aplikasi Bahan Organik pada Tanaman Ubi Jalar (Ipomoea batatas L. Var. Kawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Edy Suminarti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diversifikasi pangan merupakan langkah tepat untuk mengantisipasi kondisi rawan pangan.  Hal ini menjadi penting karena setiap tahun luas lahan basah telah mengalami penyusutan sekitar 0,1% dari total luas lahan di Indonesia. Sehubungan dengan hal tersebut, dan dalam upaya untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pangan nasional, maka pemanfaatan ubi jalar sebagai sumber bahan pangan alternatif perlu dilakukan. Penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mendapatkan informasi tentang macam dan waktu aplikasi bahan organik yang tepat telah dilakukan di Desa Landungsari, Kabupaten Malang. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Petak Terpisah, macam bahan organik ditempatkan pada petak utama, terdiri dari 3 macam, yaitu  pupuk kandang sapi, kompos azolla dan kompos sampah kota.  Waktu aplikasi bahan organik sebagai anak petak, terdiri dari 3 macam, yaitu : 30 hari sebelum tanam, 15 hari sebelum tanam dan bersamaan tanam. Pengumpulan data dilakukan secara destruktif, meliputi  komponen pertumbuhan dan panen, analisis pertumbuhan tanaman dan analisis tanah. Uji F taraf 5% ditujukan untuk menguji pengaruh perlakuan, sedang perbedaan diantara rata-rata perlakuan didasarkan pada nilai BNT taraf 5%. Interaksi nyata terjadi pada sebagian besar parameter yang diamati, dan hasil umbi tertinggi didapatkan pada kompos sampah kota yang waktu aplikasinya dilakukan 30 hari sebelum tanam : 28,03 ton umbi ha-1. Food diversification is a precise step to anticipate food shortage condition. It becomes important because wetland area is decreasing of approximately 0,1% each year of total area in Indonesia. Related to that point, also in order to meet food national demand, utilization of sweet potato as alternative food resource needs to be done. Research aimed to get information about proper kind and application time of organic matter had been done at Landungsari, Malang. The design used was Split Plot, kind of organic matter was placed as main plot, consisting of 3 kinds, ie: cow manure, azzola

  1. Late Miocene (Pannonian) Vegetation from the Northern Part of Central Paratethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčová, M.; Doláková, N.

    2009-04-01

    During Late Miocene, the Western Carpathian paleogeography started to change. The Lake Pannon retreated southwards, and the northern coast of the back arc basin was slightly elevated due to progradation of deltaic and alluvial facies, especially in the lowlands. The studied „Pannonian lake" sediments come from the Czech and Slovak parts of Central Paratethys. Changes of the sedimentary environment from deep to shallow lake and deltaic environment, followed by development of alluvial plains were noticed. Salinity crisis due to Paratethys isolation led to development of total freshwater environment to the end of this period. Samples from 3 surficial localities and 15 boreholes were palynologically studied. Occasional occurences of Dinoflagellates indicate a slightly higher salinity, whereas green algae Pediastrum, aquatic ferns Azolla, and aquatic and coastal plants (Nelumbo, Nymphaea, Myriophyllum, Sparganium, Potamogeton, Cyperaceae etc.) represent a freshwater environment. Due to paleogeographic changes and climatic oscillations the number of thermophilous taxa decreased and some of them disappeared completely from this area (f. e. Sapotaceae, Palmae). Mostly broad-leaved deciduous elements of mixed mesophytic forests (Quercus, Celtis, Carya, Tilia, Carpinus, Betula, Juglans) with some thermophilous elements admixture of Engelhardia, Castanea, Trigonobalanopsis, Symplocos, Cornaceaepollis satzveyensis generally dominate. Variously high relief of the uplifted mountainy chains created ideal conditions for higher presence of extrazonal vegetation (Cedrus, Tsuga, Picea, Cathaya) in the investigated area. Zonal type of vegetation including marshes, riparian forests with Alnus, Salix, Pterocarya, Liquidambar, Betula, Fraxinus, shrubs and lianas on dryer substrates associated riparian forest (Buxus, Ericaceae, Vitaceae, Lonicera, Rosaceae type Rubus), and coastal swamps with Taxodiaceae, Nyssa, Myrica, Sciadopitys were growing in the floodplain lowlands of Vienna Basin

  2. Differentiation of MIS 9 and MIS 11 in the continental record: vegetational, faunal, aminostratigraphic and sea-level evidence from coastal sites in Essex, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Helen M; Coope, G Russell; Devoy, Robert J N; Harrison, Colin J O; Penkman, Kirsty E H; Preece, Richard C; Schreve, Danielle C

    2009-11-01

    Multidisciplinary investigations of the vegetational, faunal and sea-level history inferred from the infills of buried channels on the coast of eastern Essex have a direct bearing on the differentiation of MIS 11 and MIS 9 in continental records. New data are presented from Cudmore Grove, an important site on Mersea Island that can be linked to the terrace sequence of the River Thames. The vegetational history has been reconstructed from a pollen sequence covering much of the interglacial represented. The temperate nature of the climate is apparent from a range of fossil groups, including plant remains, vertebrates (especially the rich herpetofauna), molluscs and beetles, which all have strong thermophilous components. The beetle data have been used to derive a Mutual Climatic Range reconstruction, suggesting that mean July temperatures were about 2 degrees C warmer than modern values for southeast England, whereas mean January temperatures may have been slightly colder. The sea-level history has been reconstructed from the molluscs, ostracods and especially the diatoms, which indicate that the marine transgression occurred considerably earlier in the interglacial cycle than at the neighbouring Hoxnian site at Clacton. There are a number of palynological similarities between the sequence at Cudmore Grove and Clacton, especially the presence of Abies and the occurrence of Azolla filiculoides megaspores. Moreover, both sites have yielded Palaeolithic archaeology, indeed the latter is the type site of the Clactonian (flake-and-core) industry. However, the sites can be differentiated on the basis of mammalian biostratigraphy, new aminostratigraphic data, as well as the differences in the sea-level history. The combined evidence suggests that the infill of the channel at Cudmore Grove accumulated during MIS 9, whereas the deposits at Clacton formed during MIS 11. The infill of a much later channel, yielding non-marine molluscs and vertebrates including Hippopotamus

  3. Salinity of the Early and Middle Eocene Arctic Ocean From Oxygen Isotope Analysis of Fish Bone Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, L. M.; Moore, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    Plate tectonic reconstructions indicate that the Arctic was largely isolated from the world ocean during the early and middle Eocene, with exchange limited to shallow, and possibly intermittent, connections to the North Atlantic and Tethys (via the Turgay Strait). Relative isolation, combined with an intensification of the hydrologic cycle under an Eocene greenhouse climate, is suspected to have led to the development of a low- salinity surface water layer in the Arctic that could have affected deep and intermediate convection in the North Atlantic. Sediment cores recently recovered from the Lomonosov Ridge by the IODP 302 Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) allow for the first assessment of the salinity of the Arctic Ocean during the early and middle Eocene. Stable isotope analysis performed on the structural carbonate of fish bone apatite from ~30 samples between the ages of ~55 and ~44 myr yielded δ18O values between -6.84‰ and -2.96‰ VPDB, with a mean value of -4.89‰. From the δ18O values we calculate that the Arctic Ocean was probably brackish during most of the early and middle Eocene, with an average salinity of 19 to 24‰. Negative excursions in the δ18O record (<-6‰) indicate three events during which the salinity of the Arctic surface waters was severely lowered: the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), the Azolla event at ~49 Ma, and a third previously unidentified event at ~46 Ma. During the PETM, low salinities developed under conditions of increased regional precipitation and runoff associated with extreme high latitude warmth and possible tectonic uplift in the North Atlantic. During the other two low-salinity events, sea level was lowered by ~20-30 m, implying a possible severing of Arctic connections to the world ocean. The most positive δ18O value (-2.96‰) occurs at ~45 Ma, the age of the youngest dropstone discovered in the ACEX sediments, and may therefore correspond to a climatic cooling rather than a high salinity event.

  4. Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems and its phytoremediation using wetland plants: an ecosustainable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the global problem of heavymetal pollution originating from increased industrialization and urbanization and its amelioration by using wetland plants both in a microcosm as well as natural/field condition. Heavymetal contamination in aquatic ecosystems due to discharge of industrial effluents may pose a serious threat to human health. Alkaline precipitation, ion exchange columns, electrochemical removal, filtration, and membrane technologies are the currently available technologies for heavy metal removal. These conventional technologies are not economical and may produce adverse impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Phytoremediation of metals is a cost-effective "green" technology based on the use of specially selected metal-accumulating plants to remove toxic metals from soils and water. Wetland plants are important tools for heavy metal removal. The Ramsar convention, one of the earlier modern global conservation treaties, was adopted at Ramsar, Iran, in 1971 and became effective in 1975. This convention emphasized the wise use of wetlands and their resources. This review mentions salient features of wetland ecosystems, their vegetation component, and the pros and cons involved in heavy metal removal. Wetland plants are preferred over other bio-agents due to their low cost, frequent abundance in aquatic ecosystems, and easy handling. The extensive rhizosphere of wetland plants provides an enriched culture zone for the microbes involved in degradation. The wetland sediment zone provides reducing conditions that are conducive to the metal removal pathway. Constructed wetlands proved to be effective for the abatement of heavymetal pollution from acid mine drainage; landfill leachate; thermal power; and municipal, agricultural, refinery, and chlor-alkali effluent. the physicochemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating heavy metals. Typha, Phragmites, Eichhornia, Azolla, Lemna, and other aquatic macrophytes are some

  5. Integrative assessment of biomarker responses in teleostean fishes exposed to glyphosate-based herbicide (Excel Mera 71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhendu Dey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study deals with the effects of glyphosate-based herbicide, Excel Mera 71 on Anabas testudineus, Heteropnestes fossilis and Oreochromis niloticus in field conditions (1.85 kg/ha based on anti-oxidative, metabolic and digestive responses. For this study following biomarkers viz., acetylcholinesterase (AChE, lipid peroxidation (LPO, catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, amylase, lipase and protease were investigated in gill, stomach, intestine, liver, kidney, brain, muscle and spinal cord of the concerned fish species. Enzyme activities were significantly altered by glyphosate exposure after 30 days, these activities were tissue as well as species specific. The results suggested that these biomarkers could be used to assess the ecological risks of glyphosate on fish. Bioaccumulation factor (BAF studied in different aquatic natural macrophytes showed order of Alternanthera philoxeroides > Azolla pinnata > Lemna sp. (Minor > Lemna sp. (Major > Pistia stratiotes, while transfer factor (TF showed the order of Pistia stratiotes > Alternanthera philoxeroides > Lemna sp. Bioconcentration factor (BCF study showed maximum accumulation of glyphosate in liver, kidney or intestine, and minimum either in bone or stomach irrespective of fish species. An integrated biomarker response (IBR, which uses a battery of biomarkers to calculate the standardized scores for each biomarker responses ranging from physiological to biochemical/molecular responses, was evaluated by combining the multiple biomarkers into a single value to evaluate quantitatively the toxicological effects of glyphosate. In general, the multiple indices exhibited variations and A. testudineus was more affected than other fish species; maximum IBR value was observed for LPO and minimum in case of ALT. The order of integrated biomarkers caused by glyphosate treatment was

  6. Influence of fertilization on the capability of rice resistance to diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Chang, Yue-Ya; Jiang, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan; Luo, Fan

    2013-04-01

    Organic cultivation of rice requires no use of any agricultural chemicals during the entire period of growth, and so the rice's self-prevention of diseases and pests is vitally important. A field experiment was carried out to study the possible influence of different fertilization on the capability of rice resistance to diseases and pests. A rice variety used for this experiment is Jia-He 218. Four treatments (A, B, C and D) were designed: A is a control, without using any fertilizers; B, after manuring of green azolla, 0.67 kg/m2; C, after manuring of rapeseed cake, 0.30 kg/m2; D, after fertilizing of ammonium bicarbonate, 0.025 kg/m2, and urea, 0.025 kg/m2. The experiment plot is 66.7 m2, with three replicates. The results indicated that the fertilization patterns significantly influence the growth of rice seedlings: The heights by A, B, C and D are 37 cm, 40 cm , 42 cm and 45 cm on average, respectively; the spike numbers, 45, 65, 73 and 75, respectively; chlorophyll contents in leaves, 1.84 mg/g, 2.42 mg/g, 3.02 mg/g and 3.97 mg/g, respectively. The rice with the different fertilization also varies in nutrient concentration in leaves: NH4-N concentration in leaves by A, B, C and D is 47.5 mg/kg, 61.1 mg/kg, 74.7 mg/kg and 135.8 mg/kg on average, respectively; NO3-N in leaves, 138.9 mg/kg, 185.2 mg/kg, 154.3 mg/kg and 293.2 mg/kg, respectively. The fertilization patterns, moreover, show a significant influence on the incidence of diseases and pests to rice seedlings: The incidence of rice cnaphalocrocis medinalis by A, B, C and D is 1.33 %, 1.50 %, 1.75 % and 89.0 % on average, respectively; that of bacterial leaf blight, 0, 1.25 %, 1.75 % and 85.0 %, respectively; number of rice planthopper in each plant, 20, 21, 21 and 30, respectively. As a result, the yield of rice grain by A, B, C and D is 4540 kg/ha, 4606 kg/ha, 4503 kg/ha and 4092 kg/ha on average, respectively. In conclusion, the rice seedlings treated with chemical fertilizers grow large and tender

  7. Influence of Crop Nutrition on Grain Yield, Seed Quality and Water Productivity under Two Rice Cultivation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. SINGH

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The system of rice intensification (SRI is reported to have advantages like lower seed requirement, less pest attack, shorter crop duration, higher water use efficiency and the ability to withstand higher degree of moisture stress than traditional method of rice cultivation. With this background, SRI was compared with traditional transplanting technique at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India during two wet seasons (2009–2011. In the experiment laid out in a factorial randomized block design, two methods of rice cultivation [conventional transplanting (CT and SRI] and two rice varieties (Pusa Basmati 1 and Pusa 44 were used under seven crop nutrition treatments, viz. T1, 120 kg/hm2 N, 26.2 kg/hm2 P and 33 kg/hm2 K; T2, 20 t/hm2 farmyard manure (FYM; T3, 10 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N; T4, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 90 kg/hm2 N; T5, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N + 1.5 kg/hm2 blue green algae (BGA; T6, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N + 1.0 t/hm2 Azolla, and T7, N0P0K0 (control, no NPK application to study the effect on seed quality, yield and water use. In SRI, soil was kept at saturated moisture condition throughout vegetative phase and thin layer of water (2–3 cm was maintained during the reproductive phase of rice, however, in CT, standing water was maintained in crop growing season. Results revealed that CT and SRI gave statistically at par grain yield but straw yield was significantly higher in CT as compared to SRI. Seed quality was superior in SRI as compared to CT. Integrated nutrient management (INM resulted in higher plant height with longer leaves than chemical fertilizer alone in both the rice varieties. Grain yield attributes such as number of effective tillers per hill, panicle length and panicle weight of rice in both the varieties were significantly higher in INM as compared to chemical fertilizer alone. Grain yields of both the varieties were the highest in INM followed by the recommended doses of chemical fertilizer. The grain yield

  8. Biostratigraphic correlation of the western and eastern margins of the Labrador–Baffin Seaway and implications for the regional geology. Fig. 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Nøhr-Hansen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available New analyses of the palynological assemblages in 13 offshore wells on the Canadian margin and six on the West Greenland Margin, in conjunction with onshore data, have led to a new biostratigraphic framework for the Cretaceous–Cenozoic strata of the Labrador Sea – Davis Strait – Baffin Bay (Labrador–Baffin Seaway region and the first broad biostratigraphic correlation of the Canadian and Greenland margins. This framework is based on 167 last occurrences and 18 local/regional peak/common-occurrence events for dinocysts, miospores, fungal spores and Azolla. Detailed biostratigraphic evidence has confirmed the following hiatuses: pre-Aptian in the Hopedale Basin; pre-Albian in the Saglek Basin; Albian–Turonian in some wells of the Hopedale Basin; Turonian–Santonian/Campanian in some areas; pre-Campanian and late Campanian – Thanetian on the Greenland Margin; late Maastrichtian and Danian in some wells of the Hopedale Basin and in the Saglek Basin; Selandian in part of the Hopedale Basin, in all the Saglek Basin wells and in two wells on the West Greenland Margin; late Ypresian and/or Lutetian on both sides; Oligocene to middle Miocene of considerable variability on both margins, with all of the Oligocene and the lower Miocene missing in all the West Greenland Margin wells; and middle to late Miocene on the western side. On the Canadian margin, the hiatuses can be partially matched with the five previously recognised regional unconformities; on the Greenland margin, however, the relationship to the five unconformities is more tenuous. Palynomorph assemblages show that most Aptian to Albian sediments were deposited in generally non-marine to marginal marine settings, interrupted by a short-lived shallow marine episode in the Aptian. A marine transgression started in the Cenomanian–Turonian and led to the most open-marine, oceanic conditions in the Campanian–Lutetian; shallowing probably started in the late Lutetian and continued into

  9. Potential of macrophyte for removing arsenic from aqueous solution Potencial de remoção de arsênio de solução aquosa por macrofita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Guimaraes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential of three aquatic macrophytes, Azoll caroliniana, Salvinia minima and Lemna gibba, was evaluated in this work aimed at selection of plants to be used in remediation of environments contaminated by arsenic (As. The experiments were carried out in a greenhouse during six days in pots containing Hoagland solution (¼ ionic strength at As concentrations of 0.5; 2.5 and 5.0 mg L-1. The three species showed greater As accumulation as the concentration of the metalloid in solution increased. However, a reduction was detected in fresh and dry mass gain when the plants were exposed to high As concentrations. The macrophytes showed differences in efficiency of removal of As in solution. A. caroliniana, S. minima and L. gibba accumulated, on average, 0.130; 0.200; and 1.397 mg mDM-1, respectively, when exposed to 5.0 mg L-1 of As. The macrophytes absorbed a greater quantity of As in solution with low phosphate content. The greater As concentration in L. gibba tissues lowered the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents as shown by the high chlorosis incidence. Lemna gibba also exhibited a decrease in leaf size, with the total chlorophyll and carotenoid synthesis not being affected by As in A. caroliniana. This species exhibited purplish leaves with high concentration of anthocyanin, whose presence suggested association to phosphate deficiency. Marginal necrosis occurred on S. minima floating leaves, with the released daughter-plants not showing any visual symptoms during the treatment. The percentage of As removed from the solution decreased when the plants were exposed to high concentrations of the pollutant. Among the three species studied, only L. gibba could be considered an As hyper-accumulator. The use of this plant species for remediation of aquatic environments was shown to be limited and requires further investigation.O potencial de três macrófitas aquáticas - Azolla caroliniana, Salvinia mínima e Lemna gibba - foi avaliado neste