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Sample records for azlactone-containing polymers combining

  1. Fabrication of Covalently Crosslinked and Amine-Reactive Microcapsules by Reactive Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Azlactone-Containing Polymer Multilayers on Sacrificial Microparticle Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurer, Eric M.; Flessner, Ryan M.; Buck, Maren E.; Lynn, David M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of covalently crosslinked and amine-reactive hollow microcapsules using ‘reactive’ layer-by-layer assembly to deposit thin polymer films on sacrificial microparticle templates. Our approach is based on the alternating deposition of layers of a synthetic polyamine and a polymer containing reactive azlactone functionality. Multilayered films composed of branched poly(ethylene imine) (BPEI) and poly(2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone) (PVDMA) were fabricated layer-by-layer on the surfaces of calcium carbonate and glass microparticle templates. After fabrication, these films contained residual azlactone functionality that was accessible for reaction with amine-containing molecules. Dissolution of the calcium carbonate or glass cores using aqueous ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) or hydrofluoric acid (HF), respectively, led to the formation of hollow polymer microcapsules. These microcapsules were robust enough to encapsulate and retain a model macromolecule (FITC-dextran) and were stable for at least 22 hours in high ionic strength environments, in low and high pH solutions, and in several common organic solvents. Significant differences in the behaviors of capsules fabricated on CaCO3 and glass cores were observed and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Whereas capsules fabricated on CaCO3 templates collapsed upon drying, capsules fabricated on glass templates remained rigid and spherical. Characterization using EDS suggested that this latter behavior results, at least in part, from the presence of insoluble metal fluoride salts that are trapped or precipitate within the walls of capsules after etching of the glass cores using HF. Our results demonstrate that the assembly of BPEI/PVDMA films on sacrificial templates can be used to fabricate reactive microcapsules of potential use in a wide range of fields, including catalysis, drug and gene delivery, imaging, and

  2. Targeting angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms using combined polymer therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Segal

    Full Text Available There is an immense clinical need for novel therapeutics for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms such as osteosarcomas and bone metastases. We developed a new therapeutic strategy to target bone metastases and calcified neoplasms using combined polymer-bound angiogenesis inhibitors. Using an advanced "living polymerization" technique, the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT, we conjugated the aminobisphosphonate alendronate (ALN, and the potent anti-angiogenic agent TNP-470 with N-(2-hydroxypropylmethacrylamide (HPMA copolymer through a Glycine-Glycine-Proline-Norleucine linker, cleaved by cathepsin K, a cysteine protease overexpressed at resorption sites in bone tissues. In this approach, dual targeting is achieved. Passive accumulation is possible due to the increase in molecular weight following polymer conjugation of the drugs, thus extravasating from the tumor leaky vessels and not from normal healthy vessels. Active targeting to the calcified tissues is achieved by ALN's affinity to bone mineral.The anti-angiogenic and antitumor potency of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. We show that free and conjugated ALN-TNP-470 have synergistic anti-angiogenic and antitumor activity by inhibiting proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial and human osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Evaluation of anti-angiogenic, antitumor activity and body distribution of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was performed on severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID male mice inoculated with mCherry-labeled MG-63-Ras human osteosarcoma and by modified Miles permeability assay. Our targeted bi-specific conjugate reduced VEGF-induced vascular hyperpermeability by 92% and remarkably inhibited osteosarcoma growth in mice by 96%.This is the first report to describe a new concept of a narrowly-dispersed combined polymer therapeutic designed to target both tumor and

  3. Combined use of polymer composites and metals in engineering structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoa, S.V.

    2002-01-01

    Polymer matrix composites have found many applications in the construction of light weight structures such as those in aircrafts, automobiles, sports equipment etc. This is because these materials possess high stiffness, high strength and low densities. In applications of polymer matrix composites in the light weight structures, the polymer composites are however, not used by themselves alone in most cases. Usually the polymer composites are used in conjunction with some metal components. The metal components are used either to provide means for joining the composite components or the composites are used to repair the cracked metal structures. The synergistic effect of both metals and composites can provide excellent performance with good economy. This paper presents a few applications where polymer composites are used in conjunction with metals in engineering structures. (author)

  4. Polymer tribology by combining ion implantation and radionuclide tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmers, Heiko; Gladkis, Laura G.; Warner, Jacob A.; Byrne, Aidan P.; Grosso, Mariela F. del; Arbeitman, Claudia R.; Garcia-Bermudez, Gerardo; Geruschke, Thomas; Vianden, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    Radionuclide tracers were ion implanted with three different techniques into the ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene polymer. Tracer nuclei of 7 Be were produced with inverse kinematics via the reaction p( 7 Li, 7 Be)n and caught by polymer samples at a forward scattering angle with a maximum implantation energy of 16 MeV. For the first time, 97 Ru, 100 Pd, and, independently, 111 In have been used as radionuclide tracers in ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. 97 Ru and 100 Pd were recoil-implanted following the fusion evaporation reactions 92 Zr( 12 C,α3n) 97 Ru and 92 Zr( 12 C,4n) 100 Pd with a maximum implantation energy of 8 MeV. 111 In ions were produced in an ion source, mass-separated and implanted at 160 keV. The tribology of implanted polymer samples was studied by tracing the radionuclide during mechanical wear. Uni-directional and bi-directional sliding apparatus with stainless steel actuators were used. Results suggest a debris exchange process as the characteristic feature of the wear-in phase. This process can establish the steady state required for a subsequently constant wear rate in agreement with Archard's equation. The nano-scale implantation of mass-separated 111 In appears best suited to the study of non-linear tribological processes during wear-in. Such non-linear processes may be expected to be important in micro- and nanomachines.

  5. Color combination of conductive polymers for black electrochromism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Haijin; Kim, Yuna; Bhuvana, Thiruvelu; Lee, Jiyea; Yang, Xu; Park, Cheolmin; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2012-01-01

    Conducting polymers that absorb three primary colors, red, green, and blue (RGB), were introduced with a yellow electrochromic polymer (Y) for the preparation of black electrochromic devices. Red poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and blue poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were coated on one side of the electrode as a cathodically coloring electrochromic (EC) layer, while green poly(aniline-N-butylsulfonate) (PANBS) and yellow EC poly{[1,3-bis(9',9'-dihexylfluoren-20-yl)azulenyl]-alt-[2",7"-(9",9"-dihexylfluorenyl]} (PDHFA) were coated on the opposite electrode to complete a complementary EC device. The yellow PDHFA layer effectively compensated for absorption below 450 nm and above the 600 nm region, which was lacking in the RGB electrode. The resultant RGBY ECD provided a black color near the CIE black with L*, a*, and b* values of 32, -1.1, and 3.7, respectively, covering a broad absorption in the visible range in the colored state. The state of the black EC device was maintained, even after the electricity was turned off for 200 h, showing stable memory effect. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. Free energy and scalings for polymer translocation through a nanopore: A molecular dynamics simulation study combined with milestoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Xiang-Gui; Zhao, Li; Lu, Zhong-Yuan; Li, Ze-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations combined with milestoning method are used to study the stochastic process of polymer chain translocation though a nanopore. We find that the scalings for polymer translocation process (the chain is initialized with the first monomer in the nanopore) and for polymer escape process (the chain is initialized with the middle monomer in the nanopore) are different. The translocation process is mainly controlled by the entropic barrier, while the polymer escape process is driven by the effective force due to free energy difference. -- Highlights: ► We study polymer translocating through a nanopore by CGMD combined with milestoning. ► We find that the scalings for polymer translocation and for polymer escape are different. ► The translocation process is mainly controlled by the entropic barrier. ► The polymer escape process is driven by the effective force due to free energy difference.

  7. Glaser coupling of polymers : side-reaction in huisgens "Click" coupling reaction and opportunity for polymers with focal diacetylene units in combination with ATRP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duxbury, C.J.; Cummins, D.M.; Heise, A.

    2009-01-01

    Atom, transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was used in combination with Glaser type coupling, allowing the clean and efficient formation of symmetrically coupled polymers with a central diacetylene unit. The feasibility of the clean acetylene coupling was investigated with alkyne terminated

  8. Electrochemistry, polymers and opto-electronic devices: a combination with a future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Marco-A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemistry came into life with the invention of the pile, by Volta in 1800. He combined different metal discs with a piece of tissue, swollen with an aqueous salt solution. The so-called Pila di Volta used a polymer for the first time in an electrochemical device and can be seen as a powerful idea to create new devices. Recently, polymers became an alternative to make thin and flexible devices. Thus, we find transparent plastic electrodes based on poly(ethylene terephtalate coated with a transition metal oxide. There are also polymer electrolytes based on complexes of inorganic salts and poly(ethylene oxide derivatives, with reasonable ionic conductivity in the absence of solvents. Finally, the electroactive polymers are efficient substitutes for the inorganic semiconductors because they can be synthetically tailored to produce the desired electronic answer. Combining these materials it is possible to assemble different types of electro-optical devices, like electrochromic, photoelectrochemical and light-emitting electrochemical cells.

  9. COMBINED MICROBIAL SURFACTANT-POLYMER SYSTEM FOR IMPROVED OIL MOBILITY AND CONFORMANCE CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet

    2004-08-01

    Many domestic oil fields are facing abandonment even though they still contain two-thirds of their original oil. A significant number of these fields can yield additional oil using advanced oil recovery (AOR) technologies. To maintain domestic oil production at current levels, AOR technologies are needed that are affordable and can be implemented by independent oil producers of the future. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technologies have become established as cost-effective solutions for declining oil production. MEOR technologies are affordable for independent producers operating stripper wells and can be used to extend the life of marginal fields. The demonstrated versatility of microorganisms can be used to design advanced microbial systems to treat multiple production problems in complex, heterogeneous reservoirs. The proposed research presents the concept of a combined microbial surfactant-polymer system for advanced oil recovery. The surfactant-polymer system utilizes bacteria that are capable of both biosurfactant production and metabolically-controlled biopolymer production. This novel technology combines complementary mechanisms to extend the life of marginal fields and is applicable to a large number of domestic reservoirs. The research project described in this report is performed jointly by, Bio-Engineering Inc., a woman owned small business, Texas A&M University and Prairie View A&M University, a Historically Black College and University. This report describes the results of our laboratory work to grow microbial cultures and the work done on recovery experiments on core rocks. We have selected two bacterial strains capable of producing both surfactant and polymers. We have conducted laboratory experiments to determine under what conditions surfactants and polymers can be produced from one single strain. We have conduct recovery experiments to determine the performance of these strains under different conditions. Our results do not show a

  10. Polymer flooding effect of seepage characteristics of the second tertiary combined model of L oilfield block B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan ZHAO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The second tertiary combined model is applied to develop the second and third type reservoirs which have more oil layer quantity and strong anisotropism, compared to the regular main reservoir with polymer injection, whose seepage characteristics of polymer-injection-after-water-drive shows a remarkable difference, in addition. This development appears to have a larger effect on the remaining oil development and production. Simulating the second tertiary combined model by reservoir numerical simulation under different polymer molecular weight, polymer concentration, polymer injection rate on the polymer injection period, conclusions of the influenced seepage characteristics of original and added perforated interval pressure and water saturation are drawn. The conclusion shows that the polymer molecular weight could influence water saturation of added perforated interval; polymer concentration makes a significant impact on reservoir pressure; polymer injection rate has a great influence on the separate rate of original and added perforated interval. This research provides firm science evidence to the theory of the second tertiary combined model to develop and enhance oil injection-production rate.

  11. Combined X-ray and neutron fibre diffraction studies of biological and synthetic polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrot, I.M.; Urban, V.; Gardner, K.H.; Forsyth, V.T.

    2005-01-01

    The fibrous state is a natural one for polymer molecules which tend to assume regular helical conformations rather than the globular structures characteristic of many proteins. Fibre diffraction therefore has broad application to the study of a wide range of biological and synthetic polymers. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the general scope of the method and in particular to demonstrate the impact of a combined approach involving both X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. While the flux of modern X-ray synchrotron radiation sources allows high quality datasets to be recorded with good resolution within a very short space of time, neutron studies can provide unique information through the ability to locate hydrogen or deuterium atoms that are often difficult or impossible to locate using X-ray methods. Furthermore, neutron fibre diffraction methods can, through the ability to selectively label specific parts of a structure, be used to highlight novel aspects of polymer structure that can not be studied using X-rays. Two examples are given. The first describes X-ray and neutron diffraction studies of conformational transitions in DNA. The second describes structural studies of the synthetic high-performance polymer poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA), known commercially as Kevlar[reg] or Twaron[reg

  12. Combined X-ray and neutron fibre diffraction studies of biological and synthetic polymers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrot, I. M. [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL); Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Gardner, K. H. [DuPont Experimental Station; Forsyth, V. T. [Institut Laue Langevin and Keele University

    2005-04-01

    The fibrous state is a natural one for polymer molecules which tend to assume regular helical conformations rather than the globular structures characteristic of many proteins. Fibre diffraction therefore has broad application to the study of a wide range of biological and synthetic polymers. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the general scope of the method and in particular to demonstrate the impact of a combined approach involving both X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. While the flux of modern X-ray synchrotron radiation sources allows high quality datasets to be recorded with good resolution within a very short space of time, neutron studies can provide unique information through the ability to locate hydrogen or deuterium atoms that are often difficult or impossible to locate using X-ray methods. Furthermore, neutron fibre diffraction methods can, through the ability to selectively label specific parts of a structure, be used to highlight novel aspects of polymer structure that can not be studied using X-rays. Two examples are given. The first describes X-ray and neutron diffraction studies of conformational transitions in DNA. The second describes structural studies of the synthetic high-performance polymer poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA), known commercially as Kevlar{reg_sign} or Twaron{reg_sign}.

  13. Combined X-ray and neutron fibre diffraction studies of biological and synthetic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrot, I. M.; Urban, V.; Gardner, K. H.; Forsyth, V. T.

    2005-08-01

    The fibrous state is a natural one for polymer molecules which tend to assume regular helical conformations rather than the globular structures characteristic of many proteins. Fibre diffraction therefore has broad application to the study of a wide range of biological and synthetic polymers. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the general scope of the method and in particular to demonstrate the impact of a combined approach involving both X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. While the flux of modern X-ray synchrotron radiation sources allows high quality datasets to be recorded with good resolution within a very short space of time, neutron studies can provide unique information through the ability to locate hydrogen or deuterium atoms that are often difficult or impossible to locate using X-ray methods. Furthermore, neutron fibre diffraction methods can, through the ability to selectively label specific parts of a structure, be used to highlight novel aspects of polymer structure that can not be studied using X-rays. Two examples are given. The first describes X-ray and neutron diffraction studies of conformational transitions in DNA. The second describes structural studies of the synthetic high-performance polymer poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA), known commercially as Kevlar® or Twaron®.

  14. Combined X-ray and neutron fibre diffraction studies of biological and synthetic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrot, I.M. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University Medical School, Staffordshire ST4 7QB (United Kingdom); Urban, V. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6100 (United States); Gardner, K.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19719 (United States); Forsyth, V.T. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France) and Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University Medical School, Staffordshire ST4 7QB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: tforsyth@ill.fr

    2005-08-15

    The fibrous state is a natural one for polymer molecules which tend to assume regular helical conformations rather than the globular structures characteristic of many proteins. Fibre diffraction therefore has broad application to the study of a wide range of biological and synthetic polymers. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the general scope of the method and in particular to demonstrate the impact of a combined approach involving both X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. While the flux of modern X-ray synchrotron radiation sources allows high quality datasets to be recorded with good resolution within a very short space of time, neutron studies can provide unique information through the ability to locate hydrogen or deuterium atoms that are often difficult or impossible to locate using X-ray methods. Furthermore, neutron fibre diffraction methods can, through the ability to selectively label specific parts of a structure, be used to highlight novel aspects of polymer structure that can not be studied using X-rays. Two examples are given. The first describes X-ray and neutron diffraction studies of conformational transitions in DNA. The second describes structural studies of the synthetic high-performance polymer poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA), known commercially as Kevlar[reg] or Twaron[reg].

  15. Combined electromagnetic and photoreaction modeling of CLD-1 photobleaching in polymer microring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyi; Poon, Joyce K. S.; Liang, Wei; Yariv, Amnon; Zhang, Cheng; Dalton, Larry R.

    2005-08-01

    By combining a solid-state photoreaction model with the modal solutions of an optical waveguide, we simulate the refractive index change due to the photobleaching of CLD-1 chromophores in an amorphous polycarbonate microring resonator. The simulation agrees well with experimental results. The photobleaching quantum efficiency of the CLD-1 chromophores is determined to be 0.65%. The combined modeling of the electromagnetic wave propagation and photoreaction precisely illustrates the spatial and temporal evolution of the optical properties of the polymer material as manifested in the refractive index and their effects on the modal and physical properties of the optical devices.

  16. Entangled Polymer Melts in Extensional Flow - Characterization by Combined Rheology and Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kell; Kirkensgaard, Jacob JK; Hassager, Ole

    Liquid bridges occur in a variety of situations in nature - yet our understanding of the dynamics and stability is very limited. Examples of liquid bridges are the process used byspiders to form draglines and the process used by cats lapping milk. We have an extendedprogram aiming to provide...... generic knowledge about the process in which macromolecular fluidfilaments are extended and stretched and show how the extensional properties are related to theproperties on individual molecules. We combine structural and rheological studies of a series ofmodel polymers with different composition...... and architectures. The project entails synthesizingmodel polymer systems of precisely known molecular architecture, subjecting these materials tocontrolled extensional flows and to measure the molecular deformation under controlled flowsituation by SANS. Neutron contrast is obtained using specific deuterium labeled...

  17. Component dynamics in polymer blends a combined QENS and dielectric spectroscopy investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, S; Arbe, A; Colmenero, J; Faragó, B

    2002-01-01

    The individual dynamics of the two constituents of a binary polymer blend was studied by means of quasielastic neutron scattering and dielectric spectroscopy (DS). The combination of neutron spin-echo and backscattering techniques allowed us to cover the complete crossover from entropy-driven chain dynamics on mesoscopic scales to the alpha relaxation on local length scales. The observed blending effects on the respective relaxation times suggest a purely dynamic origin of the dynamic heterogeneity in polymer blends at temperatures well above the glass-transition temperature without the need to assume local phase separation. In contrast, the results from DS experiments towards much lower temperatures indicate systematic deviations of the segmental dynamics in the blend from its mean-field-like behavior at high temperatures. This additionally increases the dynamic heterogeneity in the segmental dynamics of the two components in the mixture. In the case of the chain dynamics, no similar effect could be observed...

  18. COMBINED MICROBIAL SURFACTANT-POLYMER SYSTEM FOR IMPROVED OIL MOBILITY AND CONFORMANCE CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet

    2005-08-01

    Many domestic oil fields are facing abandonment even though they still contain two-thirds of their original oil. A significant number of these fields can yield additional oil using advanced oil recovery (AOR) technologies. To maintain domestic oil production at current levels, AOR technologies are needed that are affordable and can be implemented by the independent oil producers of the future. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technologies have become established as cost-effective solutions for declining oil production. MEOR technologies are affordable for independent producers operating stripper wells and can be used to extend the life of marginal fields. The demonstrated versatility of microorganisms can be used to design advanced microbial systems to treat multiple production problems in complex, heterogeneous reservoirs. The proposed research presents the concept of a combined microbial surfactant-polymer system for advanced oil recovery. The surfactant-polymer system utilizes bacteria that are capable of both biosurfactant production and metabolically-controlled biopolymer production. This novel technology combines complementary mechanisms to extend the life of marginal fields and is applicable to a large number of domestic reservoirs. The research project described in this report was performed by Bio-Engineering Inc., a woman owned small business, Texas A&M University and Prairie View A&M University, a Historically Black College and University. This report describes the results of our laboratory work to grow microbial cultures, the work done on recovery experiments on core rocks, and computer simulations. We have selected two bacterial strains capable of producing both surfactant and polymers. We have conducted laboratory experiments to determine under what conditions surfactants and polymers can be produced from one single strain. We have conduct recovery experiments to determine the performance of these strains under different conditions. Our results

  19. Effect of combination of irradiation and zeolite on pyrolysis of polymer materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, S; Takesita, H; Yoshii, F; Makuuchi, K [Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Watanuki-machi, Takasaki-shi, Gunma-ken (Japan); Nishimoto, S I [Div. of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry School of Engineering, Lab. of Excited State Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Kyoto Univ., Yoshida Hon-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Fo0r recycling of waste polymers, degradation behavior of polypropylene (PP) and polyoxymethylene (POM) was studied by a combination of radiolysis and thermolysis methods. The results revealed that thermal degradation temperature of PP was significantly reduced when PP was irradiated in the presence of zeolite. Irradiation induced temperature reduction depended on zeolite structure and composition as well as on the morphology of the mixture. In the presence of zeolite, a series of oxidized products were formed. Initial temperature for the pyrolysis of POM was depressed by irradiation and the irradiated POM had lower final temperature of pyrolysis in the presence of zeolite 14 refs, 8 figs, 4 tabs

  20. Effect of combination of irradiation and zeolite on pyrolysis of polymer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, S.; Takesita, H.; Yoshii, F.; Makuuchi, K.; Nishimoto, S.I.

    1998-01-01

    Fo0r recycling of waste polymers, degradation behavior of polypropylene (PP) and polyoxymethylene (POM) was studied by a combination of radiolysis and thermolysis methods. The results revealed that thermal degradation temperature of PP was significantly reduced when PP was irradiated in the presence of zeolite. Irradiation induced temperature reduction depended on zeolite structure and composition as well as on the morphology of the mixture. In the presence of zeolite, a series of oxidized products were formed. Initial temperature for the pyrolysis of POM was depressed by irradiation and the irradiated POM had lower final temperature of pyrolysis in the presence of zeolite

  1. Synthetic approaches towards new polymer systems by the combination of living carbocationic and anionic polymerizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldthusen, Jesper; Ivan, Bela; Muller, Axel. H.E.

    1996-01-01

    Recent efforts to obtain block copolymers by combination of living carbocationic and anionic polymerizations are presented.When tolyl-ended polyisobutylene was used as macroinitiator of anionic polymerization of methacrylate derivatives mixtures of homopolymers and block copolymers were formed due...... to incomplete lithiation of this chain end.In another approach a new functionalization method was developed by end-quenching living polyisobutylene with 1,1-diphenylethylene. After transformation of the groups into 2,2-diphenylvinyl end groups and lithiation polymers were synthesized from protected acrylate...

  2. Combination of carbon dot and polymer dot phosphors for white light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chun; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Kai; Reckmeier, Claas; Zhang, Tieqiang; Zhang, XiaoYu; Zhao, Jun; Wu, Changfeng; Yu, William W; Rogach, Andrey L

    2015-07-28

    We realized white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index (85-96) and widely variable color temperatures (2805-7786 K) by combining three phosphors based on carbon dots and polymer dots, whose solid-state photoluminescence self-quenching was efficiently suppressed within a polyvinyl pyrrolidone matrix. All three phosphors exhibited dominant absorption in the UV spectral region, which ensured the weak reabsorption and no energy transfer crosstalk. The WLEDs showed excellent color stability against the increasing current because of the similar response of the tricolor phosphors to the UV light variation.

  3. Evaluating the combined efficacy of polymers with fungicides for protection of museum textiles against fungal deterioration in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kareem, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Fungal deterioration is one of the highest risk factors for damage of historical textile objects in Egypt. This paper represents both a study case about the fungal microflora deteriorating historical textiles in the Egyptian Museum and the Coptic museum in Cairo, and evaluation of the efficacy of several combinations of polymers with fungicides for the reinforcement of textiles and their prevention against fungal deterioration. Both cotton swab technique and biodeteriorated textile part technique were used for isolation of fungi from historical textile objects. The plate method with the manual key was used for identification of fungi. The results show that the most dominant fungi isolated from the tested textile samples belong to Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Penicillium and Trichoderma species. Microbiological testing was used for evaluating the usefulness of the suggested conservation materials (polymers combined with fungicides) in prevention of the fungal deterioration of ancient Egyptian textiles. Textile samples were treated with 4 selected polymers combined with two selected fungicides. Untreated and treated textile samples were deteriorated by 3 selected active fungal strains isolated from ancient Egyptian textiles. This study reports that most of the tested polymers combined with the tested fungicides prevented the fungal deterioration of textiles. Treatment of ancient textiles by suggested polymers combined with the suggested fungicides not only reinforces these textiles, but also prevents fungal deterioration and increases the durability of these textiles. The tested polymers without fungicides reduce the fungal deterioration of textiles but do not prevent it completely.

  4. Two-Channel SPR Sensor Combined Application of Polymer- and Vitreous-Clad Optic Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yong; Su, Yudong; Liu, Chunlan; Nie, Xiangfei; Liu, Zhihai; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yonghui

    2017-12-09

    By combining a polymer-clad optic fiber and a vitreous-clad optic fiber, we proposed and fabricated a novel optic fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor to conduct two-channel sensing at the same detection area. The traditional optic fiber SPR sensor has many disadvantages; for example, removing the cladding requires corrosion, operating it is dangerous, adjusting the dynamic response range is hard, and producing different resonance wavelengths in the sensing area to realize a multi-channel measurement is difficult. Therefore, in this paper, we skillfully used bare fiber grinding technology and reverse symmetry welding technology to remove the cladding in a multi-mode fiber and expose the evanescent field. On the basis of investigating the effect of the grinding angle on the dynamic range change of the SPR resonance valley wavelength and sensitivity, we combined polymer-clad fiber and vitreous-clad fiber by a smart design structure to realize at a single point a two-channel measurement fiber SPR sensor. In this paper, we obtained a beautiful spectral curve from a multi-mode fiber two-channel SPR sensor. In the detection range of the refractive rate between 1.333 RIU and 1.385 RIU, the resonance valley wavelength of channel Ⅰ shifted from 622 nm to 724 nm with a mean average sensitivity of 1961 nm/RIU and the resonance valley wavelength of channel Ⅱ shifted from 741 nm to 976 nm with a mean average sensitivity of 4519 nm/RIU.

  5. Investigating the dynamics of a direct parallel combination of supercapacitors and polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papra, M.; Buechi, F.N.; Koetz, R. [Electrochemistry Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2010-10-15

    Hydrogen fuelled vehicles with a fuel cell based powertrain are considered to contribute to sustainable mobility by reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from road transport. In such vehicles the fuel cell system is typically hybridised with an energy storage device such as a battery or a supercapacitor (SC) to allow for recovering braking energy and assist the fuel cell system for peak power. The direct parallel combination of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) and a SC without any control electronics is investigated in the present study. It is demonstrated that the combination enhances the dynamics of the PEFC significantly during load changes. However, due to the lack of a power electronic interface the SC cannot be utilised to its optimum capacity. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Striking multiple synergies created by combining reduced graphene oxides and carbon nanotubes for polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Ping’an; Liu Lina; Fu Shenyuan; Yu Youming; Jin Chunde; Wu Qiang; Zhang Yan; Li Qian

    2013-01-01

    The extraordinary properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene stimulate the development of advanced composites. Recently, several studies have reported significant synergies in the mechanical, electrical and thermal conductivity properties of polymer nanocomposites by incorporating their nanohybrids. In this work, we created polypropylene nanocomposites with homogeneous dispersion of CNTs and reduced graphene oxides via a facile polymer-latex-coating plus melt-mixing strategy, and investigated their synergistic effects in their viscoelastic, gas barrier, and flammability properties. Interestingly, the results show remarkable synergies, enhancing their melt modulus and viscosity, O 2 barrier, and flame retardancy properties and respectively exhibiting a synergy percentage of 15.9%, 45.3%, and 20.3%. As previously reported, we also observed remarkable synergistic effects in their tensile strength (14.3%) and Young’s modulus (27.1%), electrical conductivity (32.3%) and thermal conductivity (34.6%). These impressive results clearly point towards a new strategy to create advanced materials by adding binary combinations of different types of nanofillers. (paper)

  7. Efficient Homodifunctional Bimolecular Ring-Closure Method for Cyclic Polymers by Combining RAFT and Self-Accelerating Click Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lin; Sun, Peng; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Ke; Liu, Zhengping

    2017-08-01

    An efficient metal-free homodifunctional bimolecular ring-closure method is developed for the formation of cyclic polymers by combining reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and self-accelerating click reaction. In this approach, α,ω-homodifunctional linear polymers with azide terminals are prepared by RAFT polymerization and postmodification of polymer chain end groups. By virtue of sym-dibenzo-1,5-cyclooctadiene-3,7-diyne (DBA) as small linkers, well-defined cyclic polymers are then prepared using the self-accelerating double strain-promoted azide-alkyne click (DSPAAC) reaction to ring-close the azide end-functionalized homodifunctional linear polymer precursors. Due to the self-accelerating property of DSPAAC ring-closing reaction, this novel method eliminates the requirement of equimolar amounts of telechelic polymers and small linkers in traditional bimolecular ring-closure methods. It facilitates this method to efficiently and conveniently produce varied pure cyclic polymers by employing an excess molar amount of DBA small linkers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Radiation chemistry and advanced polymer materials studied by picosecond pulse radiolysis combined with femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, S.; Yoshida, Y.; Miki, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Ushida, K.; Izumi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    We have synchronized a single picosecond MeV electron pulse from L-band linear accelerator (linac) of The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research of Osaka University to a single femtosecond laser pulse of Ti:Sapphire laser. It is an essential technique for the future femtosecond pulse radiolysis and is also applied to many kinds of combined application of more than two different beams from accelerators in very short time range. Radiation chemistry and new type of polymers have been studied by LL (laser-linac) twin picosecond pulse radiolysis. Especially the early events in radiation chemistry such as geminate recombination processes of electrons and radical cations are have been studied in both liquids and solids. (author)

  9. Two-Channel SPR Sensor Combined Application of Polymer- and Vitreous-Clad Optic Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available By combining a polymer-clad optic fiber and a vitreous-clad optic fiber, we proposed and fabricated a novel optic fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensor to conduct two-channel sensing at the same detection area. The traditional optic fiber SPR sensor has many disadvantages; for example, removing the cladding requires corrosion, operating it is dangerous, adjusting the dynamic response range is hard, and producing different resonance wavelengths in the sensing area to realize a multi-channel measurement is difficult. Therefore, in this paper, we skillfully used bare fiber grinding technology and reverse symmetry welding technology to remove the cladding in a multi-mode fiber and expose the evanescent field. On the basis of investigating the effect of the grinding angle on the dynamic range change of the SPR resonance valley wavelength and sensitivity, we combined polymer-clad fiber and vitreous-clad fiber by a smart design structure to realize at a single point a two-channel measurement fiber SPR sensor. In this paper, we obtained a beautiful spectral curve from a multi-mode fiber two-channel SPR sensor. In the detection range of the refractive rate between 1.333 RIU and 1.385 RIU, the resonance valley wavelength of channel Ⅰ shifted from 622 nm to 724 nm with a mean average sensitivity of 1961 nm/RIU and the resonance valley wavelength of channel Ⅱ shifted from 741 nm to 976 nm with a mean average sensitivity of 4519 nm/RIU.

  10. Mechanisms behind injecting the combination of nano-clay particles and polymer solution for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili Nezhad, Seyyed Shahram; Cheraghian, Goshtasp

    2016-08-01

    Laboratory investigations and field applications have proved injection of polymer solution to be an effective means to improve oil recovery for reservoirs of medium oil viscosity. The incremental oil produced in this case is the result of an increase in areal and vertical sweep efficiencies. Biopolymers and synthetic polymers are the major categories used in the petroleum industry for specific reasons. Biopolymers like xanthan are limited in their application as they are more susceptible to biodegradation. Synthetic polymers like Hydrolyzed PolyAcrylaMide (HPAM) have a much wider application as they are less susceptible to biodegradation. Furthermore, development of nanotechnology has successfully provided technical and economical viable alternatives for present materials. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of combining clay nanoparticles with polymer solution on oil recovery. This paper includes a history match of both one-dimensional and two-dimensional polymer floods using a three-dimensional numerical model for fluid flow and mass transport. Results indicated that the amount of polymer adsorption decreased when clay nanoparticles were added to the PolyAcrylaMide solution; however, mobility ratio improvement is believed to be the main contributor for the proposed method in order to enhance much oil recovery compared to xanthan flood and HPAM flood.

  11. Linear and Nonlinear Rheology Combined with Dielectric Spectroscopy of Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites for Semiconductive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kádár, Roland; Abbasi, Mahdi; Figuli, Roxana; Rigdahl, Mikael; Wilhelm, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear oscillatory shear, extensional and combined rheology-dielectric spectroscopy of hybrid polymer nanocomposites for semiconductive applications were investigated in this study. The main focus was the influence of processing conditions on percolated poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate) (EBA) nanocomposite hybrids containing graphite nanoplatelets (GnP) and carbon black (CB). The rheological response of the samples was interpreted in terms of dispersion properties, filler distortion from processing, filler percolation, as well as the filler orientation and distribution dynamics inside the matrix. Evidence of the influence of dispersion properties was found in linear viscoelastic dynamic frequency sweeps, while the percolation of the nanocomposites was detected in nonlinearities developed in dynamic strain sweeps. Using extensional rheology, hybrid samples with better dispersion properties lead to a more pronounced strain hardening behavior, while samples with a higher volume percentage of fillers caused a drastic reduction in strain hardening. The rheo-dielectric time-dependent response showed that in the case of nanocomposites containing only GnP, the orientation dynamics leads to non-conductive samples. However, in the case of hybrids, the orientation of the GnP could be offset by the dispersing of the CB to bridge the nanoplatelets. The results were interpreted in the framework of a dual PE-BA model, where the fillers would be concentrated mainly in the BA regions. Furthermore, better dispersed hybrids obtained using mixing screws at the expense of filler distortion via extrusion processing history were emphasized through the rheo-dielectric tests. PMID:28336857

  12. Biodegradation of naphthalenesulphonate polymers: the potential of a combined application of fungi and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullotto, Antonella; Lubello, Claudio; Mannucci, Alberto; Gori, Riccardo; Munz, Giulio; Briganti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The potential of several fungi and their synergy with bacterial biomasses were evaluated as a solution for the removal of 2-naphthalensulphonic acid polymers (2-NSAPs) from petrochemical wastewater, characterized by a chemical oxygen demand (COD) greater than 9000 mg/L. The ability of fungi to grow on 2-NSAP mixtures was preliminarily investigated using a solid medium, and then the action of the selected strains, both in suspended and immobilized form, was evaluated in terms of degradation, depolymerization, sorption and an increase in biodegradability of 2-NSAP. Among the 25 fungi evaluated two, in particular, Bjerkandera adusta and Pleurotus ostreatus, have been found to significantly depolymerize 2-NSAP yielding to the corresponding monomer (2-naphthalenesulphonic acid, 2-NSA), which has been further degraded by a bacterial consortia selected in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The fungal treatment alone was able to reduce the COD value up to 44%, while activated sludge removed only 9% of the initial COD. In addition, the combined treatment (fungi and bacteria) allowed an increase in the COD removal up to 62%.

  13. Surface properties and color stability of an acrylic resin combined with an antimicrobial polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pero

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of stomatitis is common since the surface characteristics of the dentures may act as reservoirs for microorganisms and have the potential to support biofilm formation. PURPOSE: To assess the surface properties (wettability/roughness and color stability of an acrylic resin combined with the antimicrobial polymer poly (2-tert-butylaminoethyl methacrylate (PTBAEMA. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Thirty disc-shaped specimens of an acrylic resin (Lucitone 550 were divided into three groups: 0% (control; 5% and 10% PTBAEMA. Surface roughness values (Ra were measured using a profilometer and wettability was determined through contact angle measurements using a goniometer and deionized water as a test liquid. Color data were measured with a spectrophotometer. Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test were used to compare roughness values. Wettability data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. Color data were compared using the Student's t-test and ∆E values were classified according to the National Bureau of Standards (NBS. All statistical analyses were performed considering α=.05. RESULT: Significant differences (p<.05 were detected among the groups for roughness, wettability and color stability. According to the NBS, the color changes obtained in the 5% and 10% PTBAEMA groups were "appreciable" and "much appreciable", respectively. CONCLUSION: It could be concluded that PTBAEMA incorporation in an acrylic resin increased the roughness and wettability of surfaces and produced color changes with clinical relevance.

  14. On the synthesis of peptide imprinted polymers by a combined suspension-Epitope polymerization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotrotsiou, O.; Chaitidou, S.; Kiparissides, C.

    2009-01-01

    In the past, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), prepared by free-radical bulk polymerization, have been used for the selective recognition of small biomolecules (i.e., amino acids and amino acid derivatives). Presently, there is a need for the synthesis of MIPs capable of recognizing larger biomolecules (i.e., peptides and proteins). Moreover, it is highly desirable the production of MIP microparticles with well-defined morphological characteristics (e.g., particle size distribution, porosity, etc.) via particulate polymerization techniques. In the present study, the synthesis of molecularly imprinted microparticles, produced via the suspension and inverse suspension polymerization methods, using the 'epitope approach', is reported. The hydrophobic (i.e., Boc-Trp-Trp-Trp) or hydrophilic (i.e., His-Phe) oligo-peptides were employed as template molecules. The potential of the combined suspension polymerization method with the 'epitope approach' for the production of MIP microparticles is demonstrated, as well as the specificity and selectivity characteristics of the MIP microparticles towards hydrophobic and hydrophilic oligo-peptides. The proposed method appears to be a very promising and efficient technique for separation of proteins.

  15. SAXS Combined with UV-vis Spectroscopy and QELS: Accurate Characterization of Silver Sols Synthesized in Polymer Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulavin, Leonid; Kutsevol, Nataliya; Chumachenko, Vasyl; Soloviov, Dmytro; Kuklin, Alexander; Marynin, Andrii

    2016-12-01

    The present work demonstrates a validation of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) combining with ultra violet and visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) analysis for characterization of silver sols synthesized in polymer matrices. Polymer matrix internal structure and polymer chemical nature actually controlled the sol size characteristics. It was shown that for precise analysis of nanoparticle size distribution these techniques should be used simultaneously. All applied methods were in good agreement for the characterization of size distribution of small particles (less than 60 nm) in the sols. Some deviations of the theoretical curves from the experimental ones were observed. The most probable cause is that nanoparticles were not entirely spherical in form.

  16. Improvement of the coagulation/flocculation process using a combination of Moringa oleifera lam with anionic polymer in water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovani, Milene Carvalho; Camacho, Franciele Pereira; Nishi, Letícia; Coldebella, Priscila Ferri; Valverde, Karina Cardoso; Vieira, Angélica Marquetotti Salcedo; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the impacts of anionic polymer as a flocculant aid on the coagulation/flocculation performance with a saline solution of Moringa oleifera as a coagulant to provide larger flocs and decrease the time sedimentation. For the tests, raw water was used from Pirapó River Basin (Maringá, Paraná, Brazil). Optimization of coagulation/flocculation tests was initially performed in a jar-test with a dosage of M. oleifera Lam (crude extract--MO, oil-extracted with ethanol--MO (et) and hexane--MO (hex) 1% m/v) as the coagulant that ranged from 10 to 60 mg L(-1) and of the anionic polymer 0.1% as a flocculant aid with a dosage that ranged from 0 to 0.4 mg L(-1). The parameters analysed were colour, turbidity and compounds with absorption in UV254nm. In view of the statistical analysis results, MO (hex) with a dosage of 30 mg L(-1) was chosen as a coagulant for the next tests of coagulation/flocculation. When anionic polymer was used alone (0.0 mg L(-1) of MO (hex)), parameters were not removed and there was no generation of heavy flocs as compared with the combination of MO (hex) with the anionic polymer. Statistical analysis showed that MO (hex) obtained the highest removals of the parameters analysed in lower dosages and no significant increase in parameters removal was observed when the polymer dosage was increased. The efficacy of the coagulant +/- anionic polymer was optimal when 30mg L(-1) of MO (hex) was used as a coagulant and 0.1 mg L(-1) of the anionic polymer was used as a flocculant aid, decreasing the time sedimentation from 1 h to 15 min.

  17. Combining first-principles and data modeling for the accurate prediction of the refractive index of organic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Mohammad Atif Faiz; Cheng, Chong; Hachmann, Johannes

    2018-06-01

    Organic materials with a high index of refraction (RI) are attracting considerable interest due to their potential application in optic and optoelectronic devices. However, most of these applications require an RI value of 1.7 or larger, while typical carbon-based polymers only exhibit values in the range of 1.3-1.5. This paper introduces an efficient computational protocol for the accurate prediction of RI values in polymers to facilitate in silico studies that can guide the discovery and design of next-generation high-RI materials. Our protocol is based on the Lorentz-Lorenz equation and is parametrized by the polarizability and number density values of a given candidate compound. In the proposed scheme, we compute the former using first-principles electronic structure theory and the latter using an approximation based on van der Waals volumes. The critical parameter in the number density approximation is the packing fraction of the bulk polymer, for which we have devised a machine learning model. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed RI protocol by testing its predictions against the experimentally known RI values of 112 optical polymers. Our approach to combine first-principles and data modeling emerges as both a successful and a highly economical path to determining the RI values for a wide range of organic polymers.

  18. Linear and Nonlinear Rheology Combined with Dielectric Spectroscopy of Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites for Semiconductive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Kádár

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The linear and nonlinear oscillatory shear, extensional and combined rheology-dielectric spectroscopy of hybrid polymer nanocomposites for semiconductive applications were investigated in this study. The main focus was the influence of processing conditions on percolated poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate (EBA nanocomposite hybrids containing graphite nanoplatelets (GnP and carbon black (CB. The rheological response of the samples was interpreted in terms of dispersion properties, filler distortion from processing, filler percolation, as well as the filler orientation and distribution dynamics inside the matrix. Evidence of the influence of dispersion properties was found in linear viscoelastic dynamic frequency sweeps, while the percolation of the nanocomposites was detected in nonlinearities developed in dynamic strain sweeps. Using extensional rheology, hybrid samples with better dispersion properties lead to a more pronounced strain hardening behavior, while samples with a higher volume percentage of fillers caused a drastic reduction in strain hardening. The rheo-dielectric time-dependent response showed that in the case of nanocomposites containing only GnP, the orientation dynamics leads to non-conductive samples. However, in the case of hybrids, the orientation of the GnP could be offset by the dispersing of the CB to bridge the nanoplatelets. The results were interpreted in the framework of a dual PE-BA model, where the fillers would be concentrated mainly in the BA regions. Furthermore, better dispersed hybrids obtained using mixing screws at the expense of filler distortion via extrusion processing history were emphasized through the rheo-dielectric tests.

  19. Rational preparation of dibenzothiophene-imprinted polymers by surface imprinting technique combined with atom transfer radical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wenming; Liu, Lukuan; Zhou, Zhiping; Liu, Hong; Xie, Binze; Xu, Wanzhen

    2013-01-01

    A computational simulation method is introduced to simulate the dibenzothiophene-monomer pre-assembly system of molecular imprinted polymers. The interaction type and intensity between dibenzothiophene and monomer are discussed from the binding energy and spatial position distribution. The simulation and analysis results indicate that the amount of the function monomer is not the more the better in preparing molecular imprinted polymers. Based on the above results, a novel dibenzothiophene-imprinted polymers with the favorable specific adsorption effect was prepared by surface imprinting technique combined with atom transfer radical polymerization. This combined technologies are used for preparing a desulfurization adsorbent for the first time. Various measures were selected to characterize the structure and morphology of the prepared adsorbent. The characterization results show that the adsorbent has suitable features for further adsorption process. A series of static adsorption experiments were conducted to analyze its adsorption performance. The adsorption process follows Elovich model by the kinetic analysis and Sips equation by the isothermal analysis. The approach we described will provide another opportunity in the deep desulfurization field.

  20. Optimization of tenofovir release from mucoadhesive vaginal tablets by polymer combination to prevent sexual transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notario-Pérez, Fernando; Cazorla-Luna, Raúl; Martín-Illana, Araceli; Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Tamayo, Aitana; Rubio, Juan; Veiga, María-Dolores

    2018-01-01

    The use of sustained-release mucoadhesive vaginal tablets of antiretroviral drugs as microbicidal formulations can be an effective strategy for reducing the sexual transmission of HIV from men to women, which is a main problem particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Different polymers (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), chitosan, guar gum and Eudragit ® RS) have proven some good features for this purpose. At this work, these polymers have been combined in pairs in different proportions to enhance the advantages offered by each one individually. The in vitro release of tenofovir from the matrices, ex vivo mucoadhesive capacity (evaluated on vaginal mucosa) and the degree of swelling in simulated vaginal fluid have been assessed. A multimodal pore size distribution is observed in porosimetry studies -carried out with swelling witnesses-, due to the contribution of polymers with different swelling behaviour to the pore formation, and it is corroborated by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction technique confirms the changes in crystallinity of the formulation after swelling. We can report that the combination of HPMC and chitosan in the same formulation may be useful for the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV, since tablets can be obtained that remain adhered to the vaginal mucosa for 96h, so the drug is released in a sustained manner for 72h. When the formulation contains more chitosan than HPMC the swelling is moderate, making it more comfortable for women to apply. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. A combined semiempirical-DFT study of oligomers within the finite-chain approximation, evolution from oligomers to polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Pedro A

    2009-06-01

    A computationally cheap approach combining time-independent density functional theory (TIDFT) and semiempirical methods with an appropriate extrapolation procedure is proposed to accurately estimate geometrical and electronic properties of conjugated polymers using just a small set of oligomers. The highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gap (HLG) obtained at a TIDFT level (B3PW91) for two polymers, trans-polyacetylene--the simplest conjugated polymer, and a much larger poly(2-methoxy-5-(2,9-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene (MEH-PPV) polymer converge to virtually the same asymptotic value than the excitation energy obtained with time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations using the same functional. For TIDFT geometries, the HLG is found to converge to a value within the experimentally accepted range for the band gap of these polymers, when an exponential extrapolation is used; however if semiempirical geometries are used, a linear fit of the HLG versus 1/n is found to produce the best results. Geometrical parameters are observed to reach a saturation value in good agreement with experimental information, within the length of oligomers calculated here and no extrapolation was considered necessary. Finally, the performance of three different semiempirical methods (AM1, PM3, and MNDO) and for the TIDFT calculations, the performance of 7 different full electron basis sets (6-311+G**, 6-31+ +G**, 6-311+ +G**, 6-31+G**, 6-31G**, 6-31+G*, and 6-31G) is compared and it is determined that the choice of semiempirical method or the basis set does not significantly affect the results. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Superhydrophobic Thin Films Fabricated by Reactive Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Azlactone-Functionalized Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Maren E; Schwartz, Sarina C; Lynn, David M

    2010-09-11

    We report an approach to the fabrication of superhydrophobic thin films that is based on the 'reactive' layer-by-layer assembly of azlactone-containing polymer multilayers. We demonstrate that films fabricated from alternating layers of the azlactone functionalized polymer poly(2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone) (PVDMA) and poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) exhibit micro- and nanoscale surface features that result in water contact angles in excess of 150º. Our results reveal that the formation of these surface features is (i) dependent upon film thickness (i.e., the number of layers of PEI and PVDMA deposited) and (ii) that it is influenced strongly by the presence (or absence) of cyclic azlactone-functionalized oligomers that can form upon storage of the 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone (VDMA) used to synthesize PVDMA. For example, films fabricated using polymers synthesized in the presence of these oligomers exhibited rough, textured surfaces and superhydrophobic behavior (i.e., advancing contact angles in excess of 150º). In contrast, films fabricated from PVDMA polymerized in the absence of this oligomer (e.g., using freshly distilled monomer) were smooth and only moderately hydrophobic (i.e., advancing contact angles of ~75º). The addition of authentic, independently synthesized oligomer to samples of distilled VDMA at specified and controlled concentrations permitted reproducible fabrication of superhydrophobic thin films on the surfaces of a variety of different substrates. The surfaces of these films were demonstrated to be superhydrophobic immediately after fabrication, but they became hydrophilic after exposure to water for six days. Additional experiments demonstrated that it was possible to stabilize and prolong the superhydrophobic properties of these films (e.g., advancing contact angles in excess of 150° even after complete submersion in water for at least six weeks) by exploiting the reactivity of residual azlactones to functionalize the surfaces of the films

  3. Log-pile photonic crystal of CdS-polymer nanocomposites fabricated by combination of two-photon polymerization and in situ synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.-B.; Dong, X.-Z.; Chen, W.-Q.; Duan, X.-M.; Nakanishi, S.; Kawata, S.

    2007-01-01

    A log-pile photonic crystal of CdS nanoparticles-polymer nanocomposites was successfully fabricated by a novel method combining the two-photon polymerization technique and in situ synthesis of CdS nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. The photonic band gap of the three-dimensional (3D) log-pile photonic crystal is confirmed and becomes more effective for CdS nanoparticles-polymer nanocomposites than polymer doped with Cd 2+ ions, because the nanocomposites possess a higher refractive index than the polymer. The proposed concept in the new fabrication method for a 3D microstructure of polymer nanocomposites should be of critical importance in providing a general methodology for functionalization of materials via functional nanocomposites used in the field of laser microstructure fabrication. (orig.)

  4. The material combining conducting polymer and ionic liquid: hydrogen bonding interactions between polyaniline and imidazolium salt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Dybal, Jiří; Trchová, Miroslava

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 197, November (2014), s. 168-174 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08944S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymer * conductivity * imidazolium salt Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.252, year: 2014

  5. Combining Pickering Emulsion Polymerization with Molecular Imprinting to Prepare Polymer Microspheres for Selective Solid-Phase Extraction of Malachite Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixin Liang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Malachite green (MG is currently posing a carcinogenic threat to the safety of human lives; therefore, it is highly desirable to develop an effective method for fast trace detection of MG. Herein, for the first time, this paper presents a systematic study on polymer microspheres, being prepared by combined Pickering emulsion polymerization and molecular imprinting, to detect and purify MG. The microspheres, molecularly imprinted with MG, show enhanced adsorption selectivity to MG, despite a somewhat lowered adsorption capacity, as compared to the counterpart without molecular imprinting. Structural features and adsorption performance of these microspheres are elucidated by different characterizations and kinetic and thermodynamic analyses. The surface of the molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres (M-PMs exhibits regular pores of uniform pore size distribution, endowing M-PMs with impressive adsorption selectivity to MG. In contrast, the microspheres without molecular imprinting show a larger average particle diameter and an uneven porous surface (with roughness and a large pore size, causing a lower adsorption selectivity to MG despite a higher adsorption capacity. Various adsorption conditions are investigated, such as pH and initial concentration of the solution with MG, for optimizing the adsorption performance of M-PMs in selectively tackling MG. The adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics are deeply discussed and analyzed, so as to provide a full picture of the adsorption behaviors of the polymer microspheres with and without the molecular imprinting. Significantly, M-PMs show promising solid-phase extraction column applications for recovering MG in a continuous extraction manner.

  6. Combination of Polymer Technology and Carbon Nanotube Array for the Development of an Effective Drug Delivery System at Cellular Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggio Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, a carbon nanotube (CNT array-based system combined with a polymer thin film is proposed as an effective drug release device directly at cellular level. The polymeric film embedded in the CNT array is described and characterized in terms of release kinetics, while in vitro assays on PC12 cell line have been performed in order to assess the efficiency and functionality of the entrapped agent (neural growth factor, NGF. PC12 cell differentiation, following incubation on the CNT array embedding the alginate delivery film, demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The achieved results indicate that polymeric technology could be efficiently embedded in CNT array acting as drug delivery system at cellular level. The implication of this study opens several perspectives in particular in the field of neurointerfaces, combining several functions into a single platform.

  7. Super-resolution fluorescence imaging of nanoimprinted polymer patterns by selective fluorophore adsorption combined with redox switching

    KAUST Repository

    Yabiku, Y.; Kubo, S.; Nakagawa, M.; Vacha, M.; Habuchi, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    We applied a super-resolution fluorescence imaging based on selective adsorption and redox switching of the fluorescent dye molecules for studying polymer nanostructures. We demonstrate that nano-scale structures of polymer thin films can

  8. Combined polymer-curcumin conjugate and ependymal progenitor/stem cell treatment enhances spinal cord injury functional recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo-Aguilar, Raquel; Alastrue-Agudo, Ana; Cases-Villar, Marta; Lopez-Mocholi, Eric; England, Richard; Vicent, María J; Moreno-Manzano, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) suffers from a lack of effective therapeutic strategies. Animal models of acute SCI have provided evidence that transplantation of ependymal stem/progenitor cells of the spinal cord (epSPCs) induces functional recovery, while systemic administration of the anti-inflammatory curcumin provides neuroprotection. However, functional recovery from chronic stage SCI requires additional enhancements in available therapeutic strategies. Herein, we report on a combination treatment for SCI using epSPCs and a pH-responsive polymer-curcumin conjugate. The incorporation of curcumin in a pH-responsive polymeric carrier mainchain, a polyacetal (PA), enhances blood bioavailability, stability, and provides a means for highly localized delivery. We find that PA-curcumin enhances neuroprotection, increases axonal growth, and can improve functional recovery in acute SCI. However, when combined with epSPCs, PA-curcumin also enhances functional recovery in a rodent model of chronic SCI. This suggests that combination therapy may be an exciting new therapeutic option for the treatment of chronic SCI in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. VUV treatment combined with mechanical strain of stretchable polymer foils resulting in cell alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barb, R.-A. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Magnus, B. [Innovacell Biotechnologie AG, Innsbruck (Austria); Innerbichler, S. [Innerbichler GmbH, Breitenbach am Inn (Austria); Greunz, T. [CDL-MS-MACH, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Wiesbauer, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Marksteiner, R. [Innovacell Biotechnologie AG, Innsbruck (Austria); Stifter, D. [CDL-MS-MACH, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Heitz, J., E-mail: johannes.heitz@jku.at [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Elastic polyurethane (PU) foils were exposed to the vacuum-UV in reactive atmosphere. • The photomodification resulted in improved cytocompatibilty. • Parallel microgrooves formed on the irradiated PU surfaces after strong elongation. • Cells seeded onto microgrooves aligned their shapes in the direction of the grooves. • Elongation occurred also for cells on PU subjected to cyclic mechanical stretching. - Abstract: Cell-alignment along a defined direction can have a direct effect on the cell functionality and differentiation. Oriented micro- or nanotopographic structures on cell culture substrates can induce cell-alignment. Surface chemistry, wettability, and stiffness of the substrate are also important material features as they strongly influence the cell–substrate interactions. For improved bio-compatibility, highly elastic polyurethane (PU) foils were exposed to the vacuum-UV (VUV) light of a Xe{sub 2}{sup *} excimer lamp at 172 nm in a nitrogen containing atmosphere (N{sub 2} or NH{sub 3}). The irradiation resulted in a change in the chemical surface composition. Additionally, the formation of regular parallel microgrooves was observed on the irradiated surfaces after strong uni-axial deformation (i.e., more than about 50% strain) of the photo-modified PU foils. Cell seeding experiments demonstrated that the VUV modified polymer foils strongly enhance cell adhesion and proliferation. Cells seeded onto microgrooves aligned their shapes and elongated in the direction of the grooves. A similar effect was observed for cells seeded on photo-modified PU foils subjected to cyclic mechanical stretching at lower strain levels (i.e., typically 10% strain) without groove-formation. The cells had also here an elongated shape, however they not always align in a defined direction relative to the stretching.

  10. Super-resolution fluorescence imaging of nanoimprinted polymer patterns by selective fluorophore adsorption combined with redox switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yabiku

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We applied a super-resolution fluorescence imaging based on selective adsorption and redox switching of the fluorescent dye molecules for studying polymer nanostructures. We demonstrate that nano-scale structures of polymer thin films can be visualized with the image resolution better than 80 nm. The method was applied to image 100 nm-wide polymer nanopatterns fabricated by thermal nanoimprinting. The results point to the applicability of the method for evaluating residual polymer thin films and dewetting defect of the polymer resist patterns which are important for the quality control of the fine nanoimprinted patterns.

  11. Super-resolution fluorescence imaging of nanoimprinted polymer patterns by selective fluorophore adsorption combined with redox switching

    KAUST Repository

    Yabiku, Y.

    2013-10-22

    We applied a super-resolution fluorescence imaging based on selective adsorption and redox switching of the fluorescent dye molecules for studying polymer nanostructures. We demonstrate that nano-scale structures of polymer thin films can be visualized with the image resolution better than 80 nm. The method was applied to image 100 nm-wide polymer nanopatterns fabricated by thermal nanoimprinting. The results point to the applicability of the method for evaluating residual polymer thin films and dewetting defect of the polymer resist patterns which are important for the quality control of the fine nanoimprinted patterns. 2013 Author(s).

  12. Combinational Effect of Cell Adhesion Biomolecules and Their Immobilized Polymer Property to Enhance Cell-Selective Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rio Kurimoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although surface immobilization of medical devices with bioactive molecules is one of the most widely used strategies to improve biocompatibility, the physicochemical properties of the biomaterials significantly impact the activity of the immobilized molecules. Herein we investigate the combinational effects of cell-selective biomolecules and the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of the polymeric substrate on selective adhesion of endothelial cells (ECs, fibroblasts (FBs, and smooth muscle cells (SMCs. To control the polymeric substrate, biomolecules are immobilized on thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-2-carboxyisopropylacrylamide (poly(NIPAAm-co-CIPAAm-grafted glass surfaces. By switching the molecular conformation of the biomolecule-immobilized polymers, the cell-selective adhesion performances are evaluated. In case of RGDS (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser peptide-immobilized surfaces, all cell types adhere well regardless of the surface hydrophobicity. On the other hand, a tri-Arg-immobilized surface exhibits FB-selectivity when the surface is hydrophilic. Additionally, a tri-Ile-immobilized surface exhibits EC-selective cell adhesion when the surface is hydrophobic. We believe that the proposed concept, which is used to investigate the biomolecule-immobilized surface combination, is important to produce new biomaterials, which are highly demanded for medical implants and tissue engineering.

  13. Durable and mass producible polymer surface structures with different combinations of micro–micro hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yu; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A

    2016-01-01

    Extensive studies have been performed with the aim of fabricating hierarchical surface structures inspired by nature. However, synthetic hierarchical structures have to sacrifice mechanical resistance to functionality by introducing finer scaled structures. Therefore, surfaces are less durable. Surface micro–micro hierarchy has been proven to be effective in replacing micro–nano hierarchy in the sense of superhydrophobicity. However, less attention has been paid to the combined micro–micro hierarchies with surface pillars and pits incorporated together. The fabrication of this type of hierarchy may be less straightforward, with the possibility of being a complicated multi-step process. In this study, we present a simple yet mass producible fabrication method for hierarchical structures with different combinations of surface pillars and pits. The fabrication was based on only one aluminum (Al) mold with sequential mountings. The fabricated structures exhibit high mechanical durability and structural stabilities with a normal load up to 100 kg. In addition, the theoretical estimation of the wetting state shows a promising way of stabilizing a water droplet on the surface pit structures with a more stable Cassie–Baxter state. (paper)

  14. Improving colloidal properties of quantum dots with combined silica and polymer coatings for in vitro immuofluorenscence assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Bingbo [Tongji University, Institute for Advanced Materials and Nano Biomedicine (China); Xing Da [South China Normal University, MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science (China); Lin Chao; Guo Fangfang; Zhao Peng [Tongji University, Institute for Advanced Materials and Nano Biomedicine (China); Wen Xuejun [Clemson University, Clemson-MUSC Bioengineering Program, Department of Bioengineering (United States); Bao Zhihao, E-mail: zbao@tongji.edu.cn; Shi Donglu [Tongji University, Institute for Advanced Materials and Nano Biomedicine (China)

    2011-06-15

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are promising fluorescence probes for immuofluorescence assay in the biological applications. However, water solubilization and non-specific binding are two critical issues to be addressed for the practical uses. Here, we reported a new type of QDs with combined silica and polymer coating. QDs with excellent colloidal properties were prepared via carboxylation of the amino groups on the surface of silica-coated QDs by reacting with multi-carboxyl poly (acrylic acid) (PAA). Hydrodynamic size of PAA-functionalized silica-coated QDs was around 40 nm. They were highly fluorescent (about 47.8% quantum yield). No precipitate of QDs was observed after 3 month storage at 4 Degree-Sign C. When cancer cells (HeLa) were used, the functionalized QDs exhibited little or no non-specific cellular binding. The results from in vitro experiments indicated that PAA-functionalized silica-coated QDs-antibody bioconjugates had excellent antigen-capture ability and exhibited little or no non-specific binding to polystyrene spheres which were used to immobilize the antigen for immuoflurescence assay. The PAA-functionalized silica-coated QDs with improved colloidal properties could serve as excellent alternative fluorescent probes for biodetection.

  15. Fabrication of combined-scale nano- and microfluidic polymer systems using a multilevel dry etching, electroplating and molding process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanzi, Simone; Østergaard, Peter Friis; Matteucci, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Microfabricated single-cell capture and DNA stretching devices have been produced by injection molding. The fabrication scheme employed deep reactive ion etching in a silicon substrate, electroplating in nickel and molding in cyclic olefin polymer. This work proposes technical solutions to fabric......Microfabricated single-cell capture and DNA stretching devices have been produced by injection molding. The fabrication scheme employed deep reactive ion etching in a silicon substrate, electroplating in nickel and molding in cyclic olefin polymer. This work proposes technical solutions...

  16. Determination of imidazole derivatives by micellar electrokinetic chromatography combined with solid-phase microextraction using activated carbon-polymer monolith as adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yung-Han; Lirio, Stephen; Li, Chih-Keng; Liu, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2016-01-08

    In this study, an effective method for the separation of imidazole derivatives 2-methylimidazole (2-MEI), 4- methylimidazole (4-MEI) and 2-acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI) in caramel colors using cation-selective exhaustive injection and sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CSEI-sweeping-MEKC) was developed. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) for the CSEI-sweeping-MEKC method were in the range of 4.3-80μgL(-1) and 14-270μgL(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, a rapid fabrication activated carbon-polymer (AC-polymer) monolithic column as adsorbent for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of imidazole colors was developed. Under the optimized SPME condition, the extraction recoveries for intra-day, inter-day and column-to-column were in the range of 84.5-95.1% (<6.3% RSDs), 85.6-96.1% (<4.9% RSDs), and 81.3-96.1% (<7.1% RSDs), respectively. The LODs and LOQs of AC-polymer monolithic column combined with CSEI-sweeping-MEKC method were in the range of 33.4-60.4μgL(-1) and 111.7-201.2μgL(-1), respectively. The use of AC-polymer as SPME adsorbent demonstrated the reduction of matrix effect in food samples such as soft drink and alcoholic beverage thereby benefiting successful determination of trace-level caramel colors residues using CSEI-sweeping-MEKC method. The developed AC-polymer monolithic column can be reused for more than 30 times without any significant loss in the extraction recovery for imidazole derivatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Microgel polymer composite fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Kehren, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis some novel ideas and advancements in the field of polymer composite fibres, specifically microgel-based polymer composite fibres have been achieved. The main task was to investigate and understand the electrospinning process of microgels and polymers and the interplay of parameter influences, in order to fabricate reproducible and continuously homogenous composite fibres. The main aim was to fabricate a composite material which combines the special properties of polymer fibres ...

  18. Selective extraction and determination of chlorogenic acids as combined quality markers in herbal medicines using molecularly imprinted polymers based on a mimic template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenhua; Zhang, Mingming; Yan, Huijiao; Zhao, Hengqiang; Mu, Yan; Guo, Lanping; Wang, Xiao

    2017-12-01

    We describe a solid-phase extraction adsorbent based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), prepared with use of a mimic template. The MIPs were used for the selective extraction and determination of three chlorogenic acids as combined quality markers for Lonicera japonica and Lianhua qingwen granules. The morphologies and surface groups of the MIPs were assessed by scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The adsorption isotherms, kinetics, and selectivity of the MIPs were systematically compared with those of non-molecularly imprinted polymers. The MIPs showed high selectivity toward three structurally similar chlorogenic acids (chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid). A procedure using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was established for the determination of three chlorogenic acids from Lonicera japonica and Lianhua qingwen granules. The recoveries of the chlorogenic acids ranged from 93.1% to 101.4%. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for the three chlorogenic acids were 0.003 mg g -1 and 0.01 mg g -1 , respectively. The newly developed method is thus a promising technique for the enrichment and determination of chlorogenic acids from herbal medicines. Graphical Abstract Mimic molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective extraction of chlorogenic acids.

  19. Electrochromic properties of multicolored novel polymer synthesized via combination of benzotriazole and N-functionalized 2,5-di(2-thienyl)-1H-pyrrole units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rende, Eda; Kilic, Cihan E.; Udum, Yasemin Arslan; Toffoli, Daniele; Toppare, Levent

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of new conducting polymers is desired since their electrochemical and optical properties enable them to be used as active layers in many device applications. Benzotriazole and N-functionalized 2,5-di(2-thienyl)-1H-pyrrole (SNS Series) containing polymers showed very promising results as electrochromic materials. In order to observe the effect of the combination of these two units, three new monomers; 2-(6-(2,5-bis(5-methylthiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)hexyl)-4,7-di (thiophen-2-yl)-2H benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (M1), 2-(6-(2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)hexyl)-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl) -2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (M2) and 2-(6-(2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)hexyl)-4,7-bis (5-methylthiophen-2-yl)-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (M3) were synthesized. To better characterize the electronic and spectroscopic properties of the monomers, density functional theory (DFT) and its time-dependent generalization (TD-DFT) were used to calculate their vertical ionization potentials, vertical electron affinity and to simulate and interpret their infrared and UV-vis spectra. The monomers were electrochemically polymerized and the resultant polymers were characterized with cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy techniques. An electrochromic device was constructed with electrochemical polymer of M2. The device switched between red and blue colors and showed exceptional optical memory

  20. Antimocrobial Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, William F.; Huang, Zhi-Heng; Wright, Stacy C.

    2005-09-06

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from quaternary ammonium compounds, gentian violet compounds, substituted or unsubstituted phenols, biguanide compounds, iodine compounds, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A)3P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the antimicrobial agent is chlorhexidine, dimethylchlorophenol, cetyl pyridinium chloride, gentian violet, triclosan, thymol, iodine, and mixtures thereof.

  1. Combined novel methods for the determination of the humidification conditions of polymer electrolyte fuel cells; Kombination neuer Methoden zur Bestimmung des Wasserhaushaltes von Polymer-Elektrolyt-Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Robert Martin

    2011-05-02

    The water management is one of the key factors for the performance of a low temperature PEM fuel cell. With respect to the optimization of the fuel cell operation it is important to detect and differentiate water in the membrane, in the gas diffusion layer (GDL) and excess water in the flow field channel. The water content of each component influences the performance in different ways and adapted operation modes have to be kept. This work entitled 'Combined novel methods for the determination of the humidification conditions of PEM fuel cells' provides techniques and guidelines for fuel cell operation and will conclude in a straightforward control and operation strategy. Based on a combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), locally resolved current distribution measurements and neutron radiography an informative basis for the determination of the water content of an operating PEM fuel cell is created. Special attention has been paid to the reproducibility and comparability in order to set up a consistent investigation and control strategy. (orig.)

  2. Combined TGA-MS kinetic analysis of multistep processes. Thermal decomposition and ceramification of polysilazane and polysiloxane preceramic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Garrido, C; Sánchez-Jiménez, P E; Pérez-Maqueda, L A; Perejón, A; Criado, José M

    2016-10-26

    The polymer-to-ceramic transformation kinetics of two widely employed ceramic precursors, 1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-1,3,5,7-tetravinylcyclotetrasiloxane (TTCS) and polyureamethylvinylsilazane (CERASET), have been investigated using coupled thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry (TG-MS), Raman, XRD and FTIR. The thermally induced decomposition of the pre-ceramic polymer is the critical step in the synthesis of polymer derived ceramics (PDCs) and accurate kinetic modeling is key to attaining a complete understanding of the underlying process and to attempt any behavior predictions. However, obtaining a precise kinetic description of processes of such complexity, consisting of several largely overlapping physico-chemical processes comprising the cleavage of the starting polymeric network and the release of organic moieties, is extremely difficult. Here, by using the evolved gases detected by MS as a guide it has been possible to determine the number of steps that compose the overall process, which was subsequently resolved using a semiempirical deconvolution method based on the Frasier-Suzuki function. Such a function is more appropriate that the more usual Gaussian or Lorentzian functions since it takes into account the intrinsic asymmetry of kinetic curves. Then, the kinetic parameters of each constituent step were independently determined using both model-free and model-fitting procedures, and it was found that the processes obey mostly diffusion models which can be attributed to the diffusion of the released gases through the solid matrix. The validity of the obtained kinetic parameters was tested not only by the successful reconstruction of the original experimental curves, but also by predicting the kinetic curves of the overall processes yielded by different thermal schedules and by a mixed TTCS-CERASET precursor.

  3. A combined theoretical and experimental study of the polymer inter-chain structure in poly(phenylene vinylene) derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumpter, B G; Drummond, M L; Shelton, W A; Valeev, E F; Barnes, M D

    2008-01-01

    The structures and photophysical properties of single molecule MEH-PPV (2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene) and CN-PPV (2,5,2' ,5'-tetrahexyloxy-7,8'-dicyano-p-phenylenevinylene) nanoparticles are investigated using electronic structure theory and high resolution fluorescence experiments. It is shown that electron withdrawing substituents, such as CN, on the vinyl group of the PPV polymer backbone cause substantial change in the π electronic structure which subsequently decreases the inter-chain distance. Not only does CN-PPV have a smaller inter-chain separation compared to MEH-PPV, but also an increased binding energy and more efficient charge transport (carrier mobility) due to larger electronic coupling (charge transfer integrals). These changes help explain the enhanced luminescence quantum yield, photo-stability, and lifetime for CN-PPV versus MEH-PPV observed in experimental high resolution fluorescence imaging of individual single molecule nanoparticles

  4. Combination of SEDDS and Preactivated Thiomer Technology: Incorporation of a Preactivated Thiolated Amphiphilic Polymer into Self-Emulsifying Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetényi, Gergely; Griesser, Janine; Nardin, Isabelle; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to create novel mucoadhesive drug delivery systems by incorporating amphiphilic hydrophobically modified, thiolated and preactivated polymers (preactivated thiomers) into self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS). L-Cysteine methyl ester was covalently attached to the polymeric backbone of Pemulen TR-2 and preactivated using 2-mercaptonicotinic acid (2-MNA). These thiomers were incorporated in a concentration of 0.3% (w/v) into SEDDS. The size distribution and the zeta potential of the emulsions were evaluated by dynamic light scattering. Mucoadhesive properties of thiomers-SEDDS spiked with FDA (fluorescein diacetate) were examined utilizing rheological measurement, permeation studies and in vitro residence time study on porcine mucosa. Cell viability tests were additionally performed. 734 ± 58 μmol L-Cysteine methyl ester and 562 ± 71 μmol 2-MNA could be attached per gram polymer of Pemulen TR-2. Emulsions exhibited a droplet size range between 180 and 270 nm. Blank SEDDS possessed a zeta potential value between -5.7 and -8.6 mV, whereas thiomers-SEDDS between -14.6 and -17.2 mV. Viscous modulus of thiomer and preactivated thiomer containing SEDDS-mucus mixture was 8-fold and 11-fold increased in comparison to reference. The amount of FDA permeated the mucus layer was 2-fold lower in case of thiomers-SEDDS compared to blank SEDDS. A prolonged residence time was observed for thiomers-SEDDS over 45 min. During cell viability studies no severe toxic effects were detected. The novel developed SEDDS with incorporated thiomers might be a promising tool for mucoadhesive oral drug delivery.

  5. Polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2004-05-25

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  6. Assessment of a new method for the analysis of decomposition gases of polymers by a combining thermogravimetric solid-phase extraction and thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duemichen, E; Braun, U; Senz, R; Fabian, G; Sturm, H

    2014-08-08

    For analysis of the gaseous thermal decomposition products of polymers, the common techniques are thermogravimetry, combined with Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (TGA-FTIR) and mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). These methods offer a simple approach to the decomposition mechanism, especially for small decomposition molecules. Complex spectra of gaseous mixtures are very often hard to identify because of overlapping signals. In this paper a new method is described to adsorb the decomposition products during controlled conditions in TGA on solid-phase extraction (SPE) material: twisters. Subsequently the twisters were analysed with thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TDS-GC-MS), which allows the decomposition products to be separated and identified using an MS library. The thermoplastics polyamide 66 (PA 66) and polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) were used as example polymers. The influence of the sample mass and of the purge gas flow during the decomposition process was investigated in TGA. The advantages and limitations of the method were presented in comparison to the common analysis techniques, TGA-FTIR and TGA-MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...... showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared...

  8. A short review of radiation-induced raft-mediated graft copolymerization: A powerful combination for modifying the surface properties of polymers in a controlled manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsbay, Murat; Güven, Olgun

    2009-12-01

    Surface grafting of polymeric materials is attracting increasing attention as it enables the preparation of new materials from known and commercially available polymers having desirable bulk properties such as thermal stability, elasticity, permeability, etc., in conjunction with advantageous newly tailored surface properties such as biocompatibility, biomimicry, adhesion, etc. Ionizing radiation, particularly γ radiation is one of the most powerful tools for preparing graft copolymers as it generates radicals on most substrates. With the advent of living free-radical polymerization techniques, application of γ radiation has been extended to a new era of grafting; grafting in a controlled manner to achieve surfaces with tailored and well-defined properties. This report presents the current use of γ radiation in living free-radical polymerization and highlights the use of both techniques together as a combination to present an advance in the ability to prepare surfaces with desired, tunable and well-defined properties.

  9. A short review of radiation-induced raft-mediated graft copolymerization: A powerful combination for modifying the surface properties of polymers in a controlled manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsbay, Murat; Gueven, Olgun

    2009-01-01

    Surface grafting of polymeric materials is attracting increasing attention as it enables the preparation of new materials from known and commercially available polymers having desirable bulk properties such as thermal stability, elasticity, permeability, etc., in conjunction with advantageous newly tailored surface properties such as biocompatibility, biomimicry, adhesion, etc. Ionizing radiation, particularly γ radiation is one of the most powerful tools for preparing graft copolymers as it generates radicals on most substrates. With the advent of living free-radical polymerization techniques, application of γ radiation has been extended to a new era of grafting; grafting in a controlled manner to achieve surfaces with tailored and well-defined properties. This report presents the current use of γ radiation in living free-radical polymerization and highlights the use of both techniques together as a combination to present an advance in the ability to prepare surfaces with desired, tunable and well-defined properties.

  10. A short review of radiation-induced raft-mediated graft copolymerization: A powerful combination for modifying the surface properties of polymers in a controlled manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsbay, Murat [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: mbarsbay@hacettepe.edu.tr; Gueven, Olgun [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: guven@hacettepe.edu.tr

    2009-12-15

    Surface grafting of polymeric materials is attracting increasing attention as it enables the preparation of new materials from known and commercially available polymers having desirable bulk properties such as thermal stability, elasticity, permeability, etc., in conjunction with advantageous newly tailored surface properties such as biocompatibility, biomimicry, adhesion, etc. Ionizing radiation, particularly {gamma} radiation is one of the most powerful tools for preparing graft copolymers as it generates radicals on most substrates. With the advent of living free-radical polymerization techniques, application of {gamma} radiation has been extended to a new era of grafting; grafting in a controlled manner to achieve surfaces with tailored and well-defined properties. This report presents the current use of {gamma} radiation in living free-radical polymerization and highlights the use of both techniques together as a combination to present an advance in the ability to prepare surfaces with desired, tunable and well-defined properties.

  11. Synergistic insecticidal and repellent effects of combined pyrethroid and repellent-impregnated bed nets using a novel long-lasting polymer-coating multi-layer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulde, Michael K; Nehring, Oliver

    2012-08-01

    New and improved strategies for malaria control and prevention are urgently needed. As a contribution to an optimized personal protection strategy, a novel long-lasting insecticide and repellent-treated net (LLIRN) has been designed by binding combinations of permethrin plus N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), or insect repellent 3535 (IR3535), and etofenprox plus DEET, onto fibres of bed net fabric employing a new multi-layer polymer-coating technique. Protective repellent efficacy, toxicological effectiveness and residual activity of 12 LLIRN types have been evaluated by laboratory testing against adult Aedes aegypti. The novel multi-layer LLIRN design allowed simultaneous embedding at concentrations up to 5,930 mg/m(2) for DEET, 3,408 mg/m(2) for IR3535, 2,296 mg/m(2) for permethrin and 2,349 mg/m(2) for etofenprox, respectively. IR3535 layers prevented co-binding of additional pyrethroid-containing polymer layers, thus making pyrethroids plus DEET LLIRNs an ideal combination. All LLIRNs revealed synergistic insecticidal effects which, when measured against concentration controls of the isolated compounds, were significant in all LLIRN types designed. DEET in DEET plus permethrin LLIRNs significantly (p time from 55 to 75 %, the corresponding 100 % kill time (p time of etofenprox from 42 to 50 % (p = 0.004), the 100 % kill time from 25 to 38 % (p biting protection, even at low concentrations. One hundred percent biting and probing protection of stored LLIRNs was preserved for 83 weeks with the 5,930 mg/m(2) DEET and 2,139 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN, for 72 weeks with the 5,002 mg/m(2) DEET and 2,349 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN, for 63 weeks with the 3,590 mg/m(2) DEET and 1,208 mg/m(2) permethrin LLRN, and for 61 weeks with the 4,711 mg/m(2) DEET and 702 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN. Because 100 % bite protection with up to 75 % quicker contact toxicity of pyrethroids were documented, synergistic toxicological and repellent effects of multi-layer polymer

  12. Combined biotin-terpyridine systems : a new versatile bridge between biology, polymer science and metallo-supramolecular chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeier, H.; Pahnke, J.; Weidl, C.H.; Schubert, U.S.

    2004-01-01

    Biotin, a well-known binding unit for the proteins avidin and streptavidin, was combined with the chelating ligand terpyridine via polymeric and nonpolymeric spacers. An ¿-amino-functionalized terpyridyl-poly(ethylene glycol) was prepared and utilized for complex formation with iron(II), nickel(II),

  13. Precursor polymer compositions comprising polybenzimidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Orme, Christopher J.

    2015-07-14

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  14. Biodegradable Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Vroman, Isabelle; Tighzert, Lan

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradable materials are used in packaging, agriculture, medicine and other areas. In recent years there has been an increase in interest in biodegradable polymers. Two classes of biodegradable polymers can be distinguished: synthetic or natural polymers. There are polymers produced from feedstocks derived either from petroleum resources (non renewable resources) or from biological resources (renewable resources). In general natural polymers offer fewer advantages than synthetic polymers. ...

  15. Combining two technologies: multifunctional polymers and self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) for oral insulin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakloetsakun, Duangkamon; Dünnhaupt, Sarah; Barthelmes, Jan; Perera, Glen; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) based on thiolated chitosan for oral insulin administration. The preparations were characterized by particle size, entrapment efficiency, stability and drug release. Serum insulin concentrations were determined after oral administration of all formulations. Insulin SNEDDS formulation was served as control. The optimized SNEDDS consists of 65% (w/w) miglyol 840, 25% (w/w) cremophor EL, 10% (w/w) co-solvents (a mixture of DMSO and glycerol). The formulations in the presence or absence of insulin (5mg/mL) were spherical with the size range between 80 and 160 nm. Entrapment efficiency of insulin increased significantly when the thiolated chitosan was employed (95.14±2.96%), in comparison to the insulin SNEDDS (80.38±1.22%). After 30 min, the in vitro release profile of insulin from the nanoemulsions was markedly increased compared to the control. In vivo results showed that insulin/thiolated chitosan SNEDDS displayed a significant increase in serum insulin (p-value=0.02) compared to oral insulin solution. A new strategy to combine SNEDDS and thiolated chitosan described in the study would therefore be a promising and innovative approach to improve oral bioavailability of insulin. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Solid phase microextraction of diclofenac using molecularly imprinted polymer sorbent in hollow fiber combined with fiber optic-linear array spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebdani, Arezou Amiri; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Khodadoust, Saeid

    2015-08-05

    A simple solid phase microextraction method based on molecularly imprinted polymer sorbent in the hollow fiber (MIP-HF-SPME) combined with fiber optic-linear array spectrophotometer has been applied for the extraction and determination of diclofenac in environmental and biological samples. The effects of different parameters such as pH, times of extraction, type and volume of the organic solvent, stirring rate and donor phase volume on the extraction efficiency of the diclofenac were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration graph was linear (r(2)=0.998) in the range of 3.0-85.0 μg L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.7 μg L(-1) for preconcentration of 25.0 mL of the sample and the relative standard deviation (n=6) less than 5%. This method was applied successfully for the extraction and determination of diclofenac in different matrices (water, urine and plasma) and accuracy was examined through the recovery experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Polymer Nanocomposite Film with Metal Rich Surface Prepared by In Situ Single-Step Formation of Palladium Nanoparticles: An Interesting Way to Combine Specific Functional Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Thompson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a continuous single-step route that permits preparation of a thermostable polymer/metal nanocomposite film and to combine different functional properties in a unique material. More precisely, palladium nanoparticles are in situ generated in a polyimide matrix thanks to a designed curing cycle which is applied to a polyamic acid/metal precursor solution cast on a glass plate. A metal-rich surface layer which is strongly bonded to the bulk film is formed in addition to homogeneously dispersed metal nanoparticles. This specific morphology leads to obtaining an optically reflective film. The metal nanoparticles act as gas diffusion barriers for helium, oxygen, and carbon dioxide; they induce a tortuosity effect which allows dividing the gas permeation coefficients by a factor near to 2 with respect to the neat polyimide matrix. Moreover, the ability of the in situ synthesized palladium nanoparticles to entrap hydrogen is evidenced. The nanocomposite film properties can be modulated as a function of the location of the film metal-rich surface with respect to the hydrogen feed. The synthesized nanocomposite could represent a major interest for a wide variety of applications, from specific coatings for aerospace or automotive industry, to catalysis applications or sensors.

  18. Solid phase microextraction of diclofenac using molecularly imprinted polymer sorbent in hollow fiber combined with fiber optic-linear array spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebdani, Arezou Amiri; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Khodadoust, Saeid

    2015-08-01

    A simple solid phase microextraction method based on molecularly imprinted polymer sorbent in the hollow fiber (MIP-HF-SPME) combined with fiber optic-linear array spectrophotometer has been applied for the extraction and determination of diclofenac in environmental and biological samples. The effects of different parameters such as pH, times of extraction, type and volume of the organic solvent, stirring rate and donor phase volume on the extraction efficiency of the diclofenac were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration graph was linear (r2 = 0.998) in the range of 3.0-85.0 μg L-1 with a detection limit of 0.7 μg L-1 for preconcentration of 25.0 mL of the sample and the relative standard deviation (n = 6) less than 5%. This method was applied successfully for the extraction and determination of diclofenac in different matrices (water, urine and plasma) and accuracy was examined through the recovery experiments.

  19. Development of a model for the rational design of molecular imprinted polymer: Computational approach for combined molecular dynamics/quantum mechanics calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Cunku; Li Xin; Guo Zechong; Qi Jingyao

    2009-01-01

    A new rational approach for the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based on the combination of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and quantum mechanics (QM) calculations is described in this work. Before performing molecular modeling, a virtual library of functional monomers was created containing forty frequently used monomers. The MD simulations were first conducted to screen the top three monomers from virtual library in each porogen-acetonitrile, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. QM simulations were then performed with an aim to select the optimum monomer and progen solvent in which the QM simulations were carried out; the monomers giving the highest binding energies were chosen as the candidate to prepare MIP in its corresponding solvent. The acetochlor, a widely used herbicide, was chosen as the target analyte. According to the theoretical calculation results, the MIP with acetochlor as template was prepared by emulsion polymerization method using N,N-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAAM) as functional monomer and divinylbenzene (DVB) as cross-linker in chloroform. The synthesized MIP was then tested by equilibrium-adsorption method, and the MIP demonstrated high removal efficiency to the acetochlor. Mulliken charge distribution and 1 H NMR spectroscopy of the synthesized MIP provided insight on the nature of recognition during the imprinting process probing the governing interactions for selective binding site formation at a molecular level. We think the computer simulation method first proposed in this paper is a novel and reliable method for the design and synthesis of MIP.

  20. Multiple-level porous polymer monoliths with interconnected cellular topology prepared by combining hard sphere and emulsion templating for use in bone tissue engineering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paljevac, M.; Gradišnik, L.; Lipovšek, S.; Maver, U.; Kotek, Jiří; Krajnc, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2018), s. 1-8, č. článku 1700306. ISSN 1616-5187 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : bone tissue engineering * hierarchical materials * polymer scaffolds Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.238, year: 2016

  1. Safety and Efficacy of Nucleic Acid Polymers in Monotherapy and Combined with Immunotherapy in Treatment-Naive Bangladeshi Patients with HBeAg+ Chronic Hepatitis B Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamun Al-Mahtab

    Full Text Available Previous in vivo studies have suggested that nucleic acid polymers (NAPs may reduce circulating levels of HBsAg in the blood by blocking its release from infected hepatocytes and that this effect may have clinical benefit. NAP treatment, was evaluated in two clinical studies in patients with HBeAg positive chronic HBV infection. The REP 101 study examined REP 2055 monotherapy in 8 patients and the REP 102 study examined REP 2139-Ca, in monotherapy in 12 patients, 9 of which transitioned to short term combined treatment with pegylated interferon alpha 2a or thymosin alpha 1. In both studies NAP monotherapy was accompanied by 2-7 log reductions of serum HBsAg, 3-9 log reductions in serum HBV DNA and the appearance of serum anti-HBsAg antibodies (10-1712 mIU / ml. Eight of the 9 patients transitioning to combined treatment with immunotherapy (pegylated interferon or thymosin alpha 1 in the REP 102 study experienced HBsAg loss and all 9 patients experienced substantial increases in serum anti-HBsAg antibody titers before withdrawal of therapy. For 52 weeks after removal of REP 2055 therapy, rebound of serum viremia (HBV DNA > 1000 copies / ml, HBsAg > 1IU / ml was not observed in 3 / 8 patients. Suppression of serum virema was further maintained for 290 and 231 weeks in 2 of these patients. After withdrawal of all therapy in the 9 patients that transitioned to combination therapy in the REP 102 study, 8 patients achieved HBV DNA < 116 copies / ml after treatment withdrawal. Viral rebound occurred over a period of 12 to 123 weeks in 7 patients but was still absent in two patients at 135 and 137 weeks of follow-up. Administration tolerability issues observed with REP 2055 were rare with REP 2139-Ca but REP 2139-Ca therapy was accompanied by hair loss, dysphagia and dysgeusia which were considered related to heavy metal exposure endemic at the trial site. These preliminary studies suggest that NAP can elicit important antiviral responses during

  2. Safety and Efficacy of Nucleic Acid Polymers in Monotherapy and Combined with Immunotherapy in Treatment-Naive Bangladeshi Patients with HBeAg+ Chronic Hepatitis B Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahtab, Mamun; Bazinet, Michel; Vaillant, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Previous in vivo studies have suggested that nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) may reduce circulating levels of HBsAg in the blood by blocking its release from infected hepatocytes and that this effect may have clinical benefit. NAP treatment, was evaluated in two clinical studies in patients with HBeAg positive chronic HBV infection. The REP 101 study examined REP 2055 monotherapy in 8 patients and the REP 102 study examined REP 2139-Ca, in monotherapy in 12 patients, 9 of which transitioned to short term combined treatment with pegylated interferon alpha 2a or thymosin alpha 1. In both studies NAP monotherapy was accompanied by 2-7 log reductions of serum HBsAg, 3-9 log reductions in serum HBV DNA and the appearance of serum anti-HBsAg antibodies (10-1712 mIU / ml). Eight of the 9 patients transitioning to combined treatment with immunotherapy (pegylated interferon or thymosin alpha 1) in the REP 102 study experienced HBsAg loss and all 9 patients experienced substantial increases in serum anti-HBsAg antibody titers before withdrawal of therapy. For 52 weeks after removal of REP 2055 therapy, rebound of serum viremia (HBV DNA > 1000 copies / ml, HBsAg > 1IU / ml) was not observed in 3 / 8 patients. Suppression of serum virema was further maintained for 290 and 231 weeks in 2 of these patients. After withdrawal of all therapy in the 9 patients that transitioned to combination therapy in the REP 102 study, 8 patients achieved HBV DNA < 116 copies / ml after treatment withdrawal. Viral rebound occurred over a period of 12 to 123 weeks in 7 patients but was still absent in two patients at 135 and 137 weeks of follow-up. Administration tolerability issues observed with REP 2055 were rare with REP 2139-Ca but REP 2139-Ca therapy was accompanied by hair loss, dysphagia and dysgeusia which were considered related to heavy metal exposure endemic at the trial site. These preliminary studies suggest that NAP can elicit important antiviral responses during treatment which may

  3. Polymer compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    A Polymer compound comprising a polymer (a) that contains cyclic imidesgroups and a polymer (b) that contains monomer groups with a 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine side group. According to the formula (see formula) whereby themole percentage ratio of the cyclic imides groups in the polymer compoundwith

  4. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  5. All Polymer Micropump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis an all polymer micropump, and the fabrication method required to fabricate this, are examined. Polymer microfluidic. devices are of major scientific interest because they can combine complicated chemical and biological analys~s in cheap and disposable devices. The electrode system...... in the micropump is based on the conducting polymer poly(3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The majority of the work conducted was therefore aimed at developing methods for patterning and processing PEDOT. First a method was developed, where the conducting polymer PEDOT can be integrated into non...... of the substrate, the PEDOT is integrated into the non-conductive polymer. The result is a material that retains the good conductivity of PEDOT, but gains the mechanical stability of the substrate. The best results were obtained for PEDOTjPMMA. The new mechanically stable PEDOTjPMMA was micro-patterned using clean...

  6. New developments in thermally stable polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrother, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    Advances in high-temperature polymers since 1985 are discussed with the emphasis on the chemistry. High-temperature polymers refer to materials that exhibit glass-transition temperatures greater than 200 C and have the chemical structure expected to provide high thermooxidative stability. Specific polymers or series of polymers were selected to show how the chemical structure influences certain properties. Poly(arylene ethers) and polyimides are the two principal families of polymers discussed. Recent work on poly(arylene ethers) has concentrated on incorporating heterocyclic units within the polymer backbone. Recent polyimide work has centered on the synthesis of new polymers from novel monomers, several containing the trifluoromethyl group strategically located on the molecule. Various members in each of these polymer families display a unique combination of properties, heretofore unattainable. Other families of polymers are also briefly discussed with a polymer from an AB maleimidobenzocyclobutene exhibiting an especially attractive combination of properties.

  7. Hybrid polymer-inorganic photovoltaic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, W.J.E.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Merhari, L.

    2009-01-01

    Composite materials made from organic conjugated polymers and inorganic semiconductors such as metal oxides attract considerable interest for photovoltaic applications. Hybrid polymer-inorganic solar cells offer the opportunity to combine the beneficial properties of the two materials in charge

  8. PHOTOREFRACTIVE POLYMERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morichere, D; Malliaras, G.G; Krasnikov, V.V.; Bolink, H.J; Hadziioannou, G

    The use of polymers as photorefractive materials offers many advantages : flexibility in synthesis, doping, processing and low cost. The required functionalities responsible for photorefractivity, namely charge generation, transport, trapping and linear electrooptic effect are given in the polymer

  9. Photorefractive polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolink, Hendrik Jan; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis and properties of photorefractive polymers. Photorefractive polymers are materials in which the refractive index can be varied by the interaction with light. Unlike in numerous other photosensitive materials, in photorefractive materials this occurs via

  10. Polymer Brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de W.M.; Kleijn, J.M.; Keizer, de A.; Cosgrove, T.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    A polymer brush can be defined as a dense array of polymers end-attached to an interface that stretch out into the surrounding medium. Polymer brushes have been investigated for the past 30 years and have shown to be an extremely useful tool to control interfacial properties. This review is intended

  11. Hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes combining blue-fluorescent polymer and red phosphorescent Pt(II) complexes as active layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germino, Jose Carlos; Faleiros, Marcelo Meira; Moraes, Emmanuel Santos; Atvars, Teresa Dib Zambon, E-mail: kakagermino@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Domingues, Raquel Aparecida [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil); Quites, Fernando Junior [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil); Freitas, Jilian Nei de [Centro de Tecnologia da Informacao Renato Archer, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: In this work we proposed a PFO composite with two salicylidene based Pt(II) coordination compounds, the [Pt(salophen)] and [Pt(sal-3,4-ben)] (red emitters), as emissive layer (EML) for Organic Light-emitting Diodes (OLEDs), combining a blue-fluorescent polymer (PFO) with red-phosphorescent Pt(II) coordination complexes in order to obtain an efficient white electroluminescent EML for WOLEDs application. Firstly, [Pt(salophen)] and [Pt(sal-3,4-ben)] were synthesized, purified and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, yielding their respective expected molecular structures. The photoluminescence properties of the devices were evaluated by steady-state (electronic absorption and emission spectroscopies) and transient (fluorescence decays and TRES) measurements. It was observed the presence of non-radiative energy transfer processes between the PFO derivative and Pt(II) complexes. Posteriorly, the Pt(II) complexes were blended with PVK at 1% mol:mol ratio and OLEDs were made, leading to red-emitting devices with high color purity for the two coordination compounds. However, the two devices present low current efficiency values. In order to improve the electroluminescence properties of Pt(II) complexes PhOLEDs, PVK host was substituted by PFO at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5% mol:mol ratios of complex and it was observed a great improvement of their optical-electronic properties in terms of luminance, voltage, current density and current efficiency in comparison to PVK composites or pure PFO devices. At 2.5% concentration, predominant bands of Pt(II) complexes were observed at low and high voltages. For the other concentrations, a different behavior was observed: the emission bands and device color were function of applied electrical field, exhibiting a red color at lower voltages (5 to 9V) and the PFO characteristic emission between 9 and 13V, leading to a white light emission at 13V. The best results were obtained for [Pt(sal-3,4-ben)] coordination compound

  12. Photoluminescence in conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furst, J.E.; Laugesen, R.; Dastoor, P.; McNeill, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Conjugated polymers combine the electronic and optical properties of semiconductors with the processability of polymers. They contain a sequence of alternate single and double carbon bonds so that the overlap of unhybridised p z orbitals creates a delocalised ρ system which gives semiconducting properties with p-bonding (valence) and p* -antibonding (conduction) bands. Photoluminesence (PL) in conjugated polymers results from the radiative decay of singlet excitons confined to a single chain. The present work is the first in a series of studies in our laboratory that will characterize the optical properties of conjugated polymers. The experiment involves the illumination of thin films of conjugated polymer with UV light (I=360 nm) and observing the subsequent fluorescence using a custom-built, fluorescence spectrometer. Photoluminesence spectra provide basic information about the structure of the polymer film. A typical spectrum is shown in the accompanying figure. The position of the first peak is related to the polymer chain length and resolved multiple vibronic peaks are an indication of film structure and morphology. We will also present results related to the optical degradation of these materials when exposed to air and UV light

  13. Effect of Compatibilization on Interfacial Polarization and Intrinsic Length Scales in Biphasic Polymer Blends of PαMSAN and PMMA : A Combined Experimental and Modeling Dielectric Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharati, A.; Wübbenhorst, M.; Moldenaers, Paula; Cardinaels, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    We describe an approach to tailor the dielectric interfacial properties of polymer blends by the interplay of compatibilizer effects on blend morphology and on blocking of charge carriers. A systematic study of the effect of the concentration of the compatibilizer, a random copolymer of

  14. Preparation and evaluation of open-tubular capillary column combining a metal-organic framework and a brush-shaped polymer for liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Zhang, Lingyi; Zhang, Weibing

    2018-03-30

    In this work, an open-tubular capillary liquid-phase column was prepared by modifying chain polymer on the inner surface of capillary and chemical bonding of metal organic frameworks, NH 2 -UiO-66, to the brushes of chain polymer (poly(glycidyl methacrylate)). Besides advantages of facial preparation and good permeability, the chain polymer effectively increases the modification amount of NH 2 -UiO-66 nanoparticles to increase the phase ratio of open-tubular capillary column and enhance the interactions with analytes. The results of scanning electron microscope energy-dispersive X-ray spectra indicated that NH 2 -UiO-66 nanoparticles were successfully bonded to the chain polymer. Because of the hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding interaction between the analytes and the ligand of NH 2 -UiO-66, different analytes were well separated on the NH 2 -UiO-66-modified poly(glycidyl methacrylate) capillary (1.12 m × 25 μm id × 365 μm od) with the high absolute column efficiency reaching 121 477 plates, benefiting from an open-tubular column and low mass transfer resistance provided by polymer brush and metal-organic framework crystal. The relative standard deviations of the retention time for run-to-run, day-to-day, and column-to-column (n = 3) runs are below 4.28%, exhibiting good repeatability. Finally, the column was successfully applied to separation of flavonoids in licorice. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander

    2015-06-17

    The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.

  16. Polymer Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Daniel T.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2013-07-01

    This review article covers applications in which polymer electrolytes are used: lithium batteries, fuel cells, and water desalination. The ideas of electrochemical potential, salt activity, and ion transport are presented in the context of these applications. Potential is defined, and we show how a cell potential measurement can be used to ascertain salt activity. The transport parameters needed to fully specify a binary electrolyte (salt + solvent) are presented. We define five fundamentally different types of homogeneous electrolytes: type I (classical liquid electrolytes), type II (gel electrolytes), type III (dry polymer electrolytes), type IV (dry single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes), and type V (solvated single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes). Typical values of transport parameters are provided for all types of electrolytes. Comparison among the values provides insight into the transport mechanisms occurring in polymer electrolytes. It is desirable to decouple the mechanical properties of polymer electrolyte membranes from the ionic conductivity. One way to accomplish this is through the development of microphase-separated polymers, wherein one of the microphases conducts ions while the other enhances the mechanical rigidity of the heterogeneous polymer electrolyte. We cover all three types of conducting polymer electrolyte phases (types III, IV, and V). We present a simple framework that relates the transport parameters of heterogeneous electrolytes to homogeneous analogs. We conclude by discussing electrochemical stability of electrolytes and the effects of water contamination because of their relevance to applications such as lithium ion batteries.

  17. Star Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  18. Polymer chemistry (revised edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Mum

    1987-02-01

    This book deals with polymer chemistry, which is divided into fourteen chapters. The contents of this book are development of polymer chemistry, conception of polymer, measurement of polymer chemistry, conception of polymer, measurement of polymer, molecule structure of polymer, thermal prosperities of solid polymer, basic theory of polymerization, radical polymerization, ion polymerization, radical polymerization, copolymerization, polymerization by step-reaction, polymer reaction, crown polymer and inorganic polymer on classification and process of creation such as polymeric sulfur and carbon fiber.

  19. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick van Rijn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials.

  20. Multifunctional Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaska, Alexandra Maria; Song, Haixiang; Guo, Zhanhu

    With more awareness of energy conversion/storage and saving, different strategies have been developed to utilize the sustainable and renewable energy. Introducing nanoscale fillers can make inert polymer matrix possess unique properties to satisfy certain functions. For example, alumina nanoparticles have strengthened the weak thermosetting polymers. A combined mixture of carbon nanofibers and magnetite nanoparticles have made the inert epoxy sensitive for magnetic field for sensing applications. Introducing silica nanoparticles into conductive polymers such as polyaniline has enhanced the giant magnetoresistance behaviors. The introduced nanoparticles have made the transparent polymer have the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding function while reduce the density significantly. With the desired miniaturization, the materials combining different functionalities have become importantly interesting. In this talk, methodologies to prepare nanocomposites and their effects on the produced nanocomposites will be discussed. A variety of advanced polymer nanocomposites will be introduced. Unique properties including mechanical, electrical, magnetoresistance etc. and the applications for environmental remediation, energy storage/saving, fire retardancy, electromagnetic interference shielding, and electronic devices will be presented.

  1. Integration of active and passive polymer optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Kristensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a wafer scale fabrication process for integration of active and passive polymer optics: Polymer DFB lasers and waveguides. Polymer dye DFB lasers are fabricated by combined nanoimprint and photolithography (CNP). The CNP fabrication relies on an UV transparent stamp with nm sized...... wavelength from temperature and refractive index changes in the surroundings is investigated, pointing towards the use of the described fabrication method for on-chip polymer sensor systems....

  2. Safety and Efficacy of Nucleic Acid Polymers in Monotherapy and Combined with Immunotherapy in Treatment-Naive Bangladeshi Patients with HBeAg+ Chronic Hepatitis B Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mahtab, Mamun; Bazinet, Michel; Vaillant, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Previous in vivo studies have suggested that nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) may reduce circulating levels of HBsAg in the blood by blocking its release from infected hepatocytes and that this effect may have clinical benefit. NAP treatment, was evaluated in two clinical studies in patients with HBeAg positive chronic HBV infection. The REP 101 study examined REP 2055 monotherapy in 8 patients and the REP 102 study examined REP 2139-Ca, in monotherapy in 12 patients, 9 of which transitioned to s...

  3. The structure of polymer carriers controls the efficacy of the experimental combination treatment of tumors with HPMA copolymer conjugates carrying doxorubicin and docetaxel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šírová, Milada; Strohalm, Jiří; Chytil, Petr; Lidický, Ondřej; Tomala, Jakub; Říhová, Blanka; Etrych, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 246, JAN 28 (2017), s. 1-11 ISSN 0168-3659 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12742S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02986S; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-28600A; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/12/1254 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Drug delivery * HPMA * Doxorubicin Subject RIV: EC - Immunology; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) OBOR OECD: Immunology; Polymer science (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 7.786, year: 2016

  4. Polymers and colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurtenberger, P.

    1996-01-01

    A wealth of structural information from colloid and polymer solutions on a large range of length scales can be obtained using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments. After a general introduction to the field of soft condensed matter, I shall give a few selected examples on how SANS combined with suitable contrast variation schemes can be used to extract information on the size and conformation of polymer coils in solution and in the melt, and on the local structure and flexibility of polymerlike micelles and microemulsions. (author) 8 figs., tabs., 44 refs

  5. Polymers and colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schurtenberger, P [ETH Zurich, Inst. fuer Polymere, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    A wealth of structural information from colloid and polymer solutions on a large range of length scales can be obtained using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments. After a general introduction to the field of soft condensed matter, I shall give a few selected examples on how SANS combined with suitable contrast variation schemes can be used to extract information on the size and conformation of polymer coils in solution and in the melt, and on the local structure and flexibility of polymerlike micelles and microemulsions. (author) 8 figs., tabs., 44 refs.

  6. Combination of computational methods, adsorption isotherms and selectivity tests for the conception of a mixed non-covalent-semi-covalent molecularly imprinted polymer of vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzio, Kinga; Delépée, Raphaël; Vidal, Richard; Agrofoglio, Luigi A

    2013-08-06

    A novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for vanillin was prepared by photo initiated polymerization in dichloromethane using a mixed semi-covalent and non-covalent imprinting strategy. Taking polymerisable syringaldehyde as "dummy" template, acrylamide was chosen as functional monomer on B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) density functional theory computational method basis with counterpoise. The binding parameters for the recognition of vanillin on imprinted polymers were studied with three different isotherm models (Langmuir, bi-Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich) and compared. The results indicate an heterogeneity of binding sites. It was found and proved by DFT calculations that the specific binding of vanillin in the cavities is due to non-covalent interactions of the template with the hydroxyphenyl- and the amide-moieties. The binding geometry of vanillin in the MIP cavity was also modelled. The obtained MIP is highly specific for vanillin (with an imprinting factor of 7.4) and was successfully applied to the extraction of vanillin from vanilla pods, red wine spike with vanillin, natural and artificial vanilla sugar with a recovery of 80%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Vacuum ultraviolet photochemistry of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skurat, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of vacuum UV radiation (wavelength range from 1 to 200 nm) with polymers is interesting for fundamental and applied sciences. This interest is stimulated by various reasons: - Wide applications of polymeric materials in semiconductor technology, where they are used as photoresist materials in combination with VUV light sources (lasers, excimer lamps, synchrotron radiation and others). - Polymers are widely used as spacecraft materials in the last 20 years. On near-Earth orbits, the polymeric materials of spacecraft surfaces are destroyed by solar radiation. - VUV radiation is one of the components of gas discharge plasmas, which are used for treatment of polymer, with the aim of modifying their surface properties. The main features of interaction of VUV radiation with polymers are discussed. The spectra of intrinsic absorption of saturated polymers (polyethylene, polypropylene, polytetrafluoroethylene and others) are situated mainly in the VUV region. The photochemistry of polymers in the VUV region is very different from their photochemistry at wavelengths longer than 200 nm, where the absorption spectra belong to impurities and polymer defects. The polymer photochemistry in the VUV region is wavelength-dependent. At wavelengths longer than about 140 nm, the main role is played by transformations of primary-formed singlet excited molecules. At shorter wavelengths the role of photoionization increases progressively and the main features of VUV photolysis become similar to the picture of radiolysis, with significant contributions of charge pairs and triplet excited molecules. Very important features of VUV light absorption in polymers are high absorption coefficients. Because of this, the surface layers absorb large doses of energy. This leads to very profound transformation of material on the polymer surface. In particular for polymers which are considered destroyed by radiation (for example, perfluoropolymers), this leads to VUV-induced erosion

  8. Polymer Nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methods for the synthesis of polymer nanocomposites. In this article we .... ers, raw materials recovery, drug delivery and anticorrosion .... region giving rise to dose-packed absorption bands called an IR ... using quaternary ammonium salts.

  9. MICROBIOLIZATION WITH TRICHODERMA SPP., COMBINED OR NOT WITH POLYMER, ON THE HEALTH, GERMINATION AND VIGOR OF BLACK OATS AND BARLEY SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Baseggio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of bioprotectors in the coating of seeds is increasing, and these become an alternative for the use of chemical fungicides. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of Trichoderma spp., with or without polymerization, in the control of pathogens associated with black oats (Avena strigosa and barley (Hordeum vulgare seeds of the cultivars 'Comum' (black oats and BRS Cauê (barley, 2014 crop. After asepsis and dried of the seeds, the treatments were applied, using a dose of 5 mL of Trichoderma spp. kg-1 and 10 mL of seed polymer kg-1 of seeds. Sanity tests; germination; germination and emergency rate index; length of seedling (shoot and root; and fresh and dry weight were performed. The coating of oat and barley seeds with Trichoderma spp. was efficient in the control of pathogens, as well as increased the germination and development of the seedlings for both cultures evaluated.

  10. Ellipsometry-based combination of isothermal sorption-desorption measurement and temperature programmed desorption technique: A probe for interaction of thin polymer films with solvent vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, Mikhail Yu.; Nealey, Paul F.

    2018-05-01

    An environmental chamber equipped with an in situ spectroscopic ellipsometer, programmatic vapor pressure control, and variable temperature substrate holder has been designed for studying polymer coating behavior during an exposure to a solvent vapor and also for probing the residual solvent in the film afterwards. Both sorption-desorption cycle at a constant temperature and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of the residual solvent manifest themselves as a change of the film thickness. Monitoring of ellipsometric angles of the coating allows us to determine the thickness as a function of the vapor pressure or sample temperature. The solvent vapor pressure is precisely regulated by a computer-controlled pneumatics. TPD spectra are recorded during heating of the film in an oil-free vacuum. The vapor pressure control system is described in detail. The system has been tested on 6-170 nm thick polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate), and poly(2-vinyl pyridine) films deposited on silicon substrates. Liquid toluene, water, ethanol, isopropanol, cyclohexane, 1,2-dichloroethane, and chlorobenzene were used to create a vapor atmosphere. Typical sorption-desorption and TPD curves are shown. The instrument achieves sub-monolayer sensitivity for adsorption studies on flat surfaces. Polymer-solvent vapor systems with strong interaction demonstrate characteristic absorption-desorption hysteresis spanning from vacuum to the glass transition pressure. Features on the TPD curves can be classified as either glass transition related film contraction or low temperature broad contraction peak. Typical absorption-desorption and TPD dependencies recorded for the 6 nm thick polystyrene film demonstrate the possibility to apply the presented technique for probing size effects in extremely thin coatings.

  11. Polymer compositions, polymer films and methods and precursors for forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R; Peterson, Eric S; Orme, Christopher J

    2013-09-24

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  12. A comparative study of vitamin E TPGS/HPMC supersaturated system and other solubilizer/polymer combinations to enhance the permeability of a poorly soluble drug through the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Indrajit; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena

    2012-11-01

    In transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS), it is a challenge to achieve stable and prolonged high permeation rates across skin, because the concentration of the drug dissolved in the matrix has to be high in order to maintain zero order release kinetics of the drug. In case of poorly soluble drugs, due to thermodynamic challenges, there is a high tendency for the drug to nucleate immediately after formulating or even during storage. The present study focuses on the efficiency of vitamin E TPGS/HPMC supersaturated solution and other solubilizer/polymer systems to improve the solubility of the drug and inhibit crystal growth in the transdermal formulation. Effect of several solubilizers, for example, Pluronic F-127, vitamin E TPGS and co-solvent, for example, propylene glycol (PG) were studied on the supersaturated systems of ibuprofen as model drug. Various stabilizers such as hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC 3 cps) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K-30) were examined to evaluate their crystal inhibitory effects. Different analytical tools were used in this study to detect the growth of crystals in the systems. Vitamin E TPGS and HPMC 3 cps formulation produced the highest permeation rate of the drug as compared to other systems. In addition, the onset of crystallization time was shown to be longer with this formulation as compared to other solubilizer/polymer combinations.

  13. Conjugated polymer zwitterions and solar cells comprising conjugated polymer zwitterions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrick, Todd; Russell, Thomas; Page, Zachariah; Liu, Yao

    2018-06-05

    A conjugated polymer zwitterion includes repeating units having structure (I), (II), or a combination thereof ##STR00001## wherein Ar is independently at each occurrence a divalent substituted or unsubstituted C3-30 arylene or heteroarylene group; L is independently at each occurrence a divalent C1-16 alkylene group, C6-30arylene or heteroarylene group, or alkylene oxide group; and R1 is independently at each occurrence a zwitterion. A polymer solar cell including the conjugated polymer zwitterion is also disclosed.

  14. Selective molecularly imprinted polymer combined with restricted access material for in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS of parabens in breast milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Israel D.; Melo, Lidervan P.; Jardim, Isabel C.S.F.; Monteiro, Juliana C.S.; Nakano, Ana Marcia S.; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia C.

    2016-01-01

    A new molecularly imprinted polymer modified with restricted access material (a hydrophilic external layer), (MIP-RAM) was synthesized via polymerization in situ in an open fused silica capillary. This stationary phase was used as sorbent for in-tube solid phase microextraction (in-tube SPME) to determine parabens in breast milk samples by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) illustrate MIP surface modification after glycerol dimethacrylate (hydrophilic monomer) incorporation. The interaction between parabens and MIP-RAM was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The Scatchard plot for MIP-RAM presented two linear parts with different slopes, illustrating binding sites with high- and low-affinity. Endogenous compounds exclusion from the MIP-RAM capillary was demonstrated by in-tube SPME/LC-UV assays carried out with blank milk samples. The in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS method presented linear range from 10 ng mL"−"1 (LLOQ) to 400 ng mL"−"1 with coefficients of determination higher than 0.99, inter-assay precision with coefficient of variation (CV) values ranging from 2 to 15%, and inter-assay accuracy with relative standard deviation (RSD) values ranging from −1% to 19%. Analytical validation parameters attested that in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS is an appropriate method to determine parabens in human milk samples to assess human exposure to these compounds. Analysis of breast milk samples from lactating women demonstrated that the proposed method is effective. - Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted polymer modified with a hydrophilic external layer (RAM-MIP) was synthesized in a silica capillary. • RAM-MIP capillary, used as sorbent for in-tube SPME, established specific interaction with parabens present in milk samples. • The matrix components that interacted only with the hydrophilic external layer (non-adsorptive network) were excluded. • The

  15. Selective molecularly imprinted polymer combined with restricted access material for in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS of parabens in breast milk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Israel D.; Melo, Lidervan P. [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Jardim, Isabel C.S.F. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Monteiro, Juliana C.S.; Nakano, Ana Marcia S. [Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Maria Eugênia C., E-mail: mariaeqn@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-08-17

    A new molecularly imprinted polymer modified with restricted access material (a hydrophilic external layer), (MIP-RAM) was synthesized via polymerization in situ in an open fused silica capillary. This stationary phase was used as sorbent for in-tube solid phase microextraction (in-tube SPME) to determine parabens in breast milk samples by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) illustrate MIP surface modification after glycerol dimethacrylate (hydrophilic monomer) incorporation. The interaction between parabens and MIP-RAM was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The Scatchard plot for MIP-RAM presented two linear parts with different slopes, illustrating binding sites with high- and low-affinity. Endogenous compounds exclusion from the MIP-RAM capillary was demonstrated by in-tube SPME/LC-UV assays carried out with blank milk samples. The in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS method presented linear range from 10 ng mL{sup −1} (LLOQ) to 400 ng mL{sup −1} with coefficients of determination higher than 0.99, inter-assay precision with coefficient of variation (CV) values ranging from 2 to 15%, and inter-assay accuracy with relative standard deviation (RSD) values ranging from −1% to 19%. Analytical validation parameters attested that in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS is an appropriate method to determine parabens in human milk samples to assess human exposure to these compounds. Analysis of breast milk samples from lactating women demonstrated that the proposed method is effective. - Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted polymer modified with a hydrophilic external layer (RAM-MIP) was synthesized in a silica capillary. • RAM-MIP capillary, used as sorbent for in-tube SPME, established specific interaction with parabens present in milk samples. • The matrix components that interacted only with the hydrophilic external layer (non-adsorptive network) were excluded.

  16. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Emnéus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements.

  17. Polymer liquids fracture like solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Hassager, Ole

    2017-01-01

    While fracture in brittle solids has been studied for centuries until today, there are few studies on fracture in polymer liquids. Recent developments in experimental techniques, especially the combination of controlled filament stretching rheometry and high speed imaging, have opened new windows...... into the detailed study of fracture processes for polymer liquids. High speed imaging shows that polymer liquids fracture like solids with initiation and propagation of an edge fracture. However, remarkable features such as highly reproducible critical stress, independent appearance of multiple fractures...

  18. Polymer nanocomposites: polymer and particle dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Narayanan, Suresh; Archer, Lynden A.

    2012-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites containing nanoparticles smaller than the random coil size of their host polymer chains are known to exhibit unique properties, such as lower viscosity and glass transition temperature relative to the neat polymer melt. It has

  19. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  20. Ultrasound assisted combined molecularly imprinted polymer for selective extraction of nicotinamide in human urine and milk samples: Spectrophotometric determination and optimization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaram, Arash; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Dashtian, Kheibar

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted dispersive solid phase microextraction followed by UV-vis spectrophotometer (UA-DSPME-UV-vis) was designed for extraction and preconcentration of nicotinamide (vitamin B 3 ) by HKUST-1 metal organic framework (MOF) based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP). This new material was characterized by FTIR and FE-SEM techniques. The preliminary Plackett-Burman design was used for screening and subsequently the central composite design justifies significant terms and possible construction of mathematical equation which give the individual and cooperative contribution of variables like HKUST-1-MOF-NA-MIP mass, sonication time, temperature, eluent volume, pH and vortex time. Accordingly the optimum condition was set as: 2.0mg HKUST-1-MOF-NA-MIP, 200μL eluent and 5.0min sonication time in center points other variables were determined as the best conditions to reach the maximum recovery of the analyte. The UA-DSPME-UV-vis method performances like excellent linearity (LR), limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification of 10-5000μgL -1 with R 2 of 0.99, LOD (1.96ngmL -1 ), LOQ (6.53μgL -1 ), respectively show successful and accurate applicability of the present method for monitoring analytes with within- and between-day precision of 0.96-3.38%. The average absolute recoveries of the nicotinamide extracted from the urine, milk and water samples were 95.85-101.27%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Degradation of Fluorotelomer-Based Polymers Contributes to the Global Occurrence of Fluorotelomer Alcohol and Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylates: A Combined Dynamic Substance Flow and Environmental Fate Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Jianguo; Hu, Jianxin; Wania, Frank

    2017-04-18

    Using coupled dynamic substance flow and environmental fate models, CiP-CAFE and BETR-Global, we investigated whether the degradation of side-chain fluorotelomer-based polymers (FTPs), mostly in waste stocks (i.e., landfills and dumps), serves as a long-term source of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) to the global environment. The modeling results indicate that, in the wake of the worldwide transition from long-chain to short-chain products, in-use stocks of C8 FTPs will peak and decline afterward, while the in-use stocks of C6 FTPs, and the waste stocks of both FTPs will generally grow. FTP degradation in waste stocks is making an increasing contribution to FTOH generation, the bulk of which readily migrates from waste stocks and degrades into PFCAs in the environment; the remaining part of the generated FTOHs degrade in waste stocks, which makes those stocks reservoirs that slowly release PFCAs into the environment over the long run because of the low leaching rate and extreme persistence of PFCAs. Short-chain FTPs have higher relative release rates of PFCAs from waste stocks than long-chain ones. Estimates of in-use and waste stocks of FTPs were more sensitive to the selected lifespan of finished products, while those of the emissions of FTOHs and PFCAs were more sensitive to the degradation half-life of FTPs in waste stocks. Our preliminary calculations highlight the need for environmentally sound management of obsolete FTP-containing products into the foreseeable future.

  2. Selective molecularly imprinted polymer combined with restricted access material for in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS of parabens in breast milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Israel D; Melo, Lidervan P; Jardim, Isabel C S F; Monteiro, Juliana C S; Nakano, Ana Marcia S; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia C

    2016-08-17

    A new molecularly imprinted polymer modified with restricted access material (a hydrophilic external layer), (MIP-RAM) was synthesized via polymerization in situ in an open fused silica capillary. This stationary phase was used as sorbent for in-tube solid phase microextraction (in-tube SPME) to determine parabens in breast milk samples by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) illustrate MIP surface modification after glycerol dimethacrylate (hydrophilic monomer) incorporation. The interaction between parabens and MIP-RAM was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The Scatchard plot for MIP-RAM presented two linear parts with different slopes, illustrating binding sites with high- and low-affinity. Endogenous compounds exclusion from the MIP-RAM capillary was demonstrated by in-tube SPME/LC-UV assays carried out with blank milk samples. The in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS method presented linear range from 10 ng mL(-1) (LLOQ) to 400 ng mL(-1) with coefficients of determination higher than 0.99, inter-assay precision with coefficient of variation (CV) values ranging from 2 to 15%, and inter-assay accuracy with relative standard deviation (RSD) values ranging from -1% to 19%. Analytical validation parameters attested that in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS is an appropriate method to determine parabens in human milk samples to assess human exposure to these compounds. Analysis of breast milk samples from lactating women demonstrated that the proposed method is effective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Optical sensors from electrohydrodynamic jetted polymer fiber resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laye, Fabrice; Kraemmer, Sarah; Castillo, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Electrohydrodynamic jetting is used to manufacture dye-doped polymer fiber resonators. We present comb-like laser emission from different polymer/dye combinations and report the use of these structures as sensitive detection of ethanol and methanol.......Electrohydrodynamic jetting is used to manufacture dye-doped polymer fiber resonators. We present comb-like laser emission from different polymer/dye combinations and report the use of these structures as sensitive detection of ethanol and methanol....

  4. Polymer physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gedde, Ulf W

    1999-01-01

    This book is the result of my teaching efforts during the last ten years at the Royal Institute of Technology. The purpose is to present the subject of polymer physics for undergraduate and graduate students, to focus the fundamental aspects of the subject and to show the link between experiments and theory. The intention is not to present a compilation of the currently available literature on the subject. Very few reference citations have thus been made. Each chapter has essentially the same structure: starling with an introduction, continuing with the actual subject, summarizing the chapter in 30D-500 words, and finally presenting problems and a list of relevant references for the reader. The solutions to the problems presented in Chapters 1-12 are given in Chapter 13. The theme of the book is essentially polymer science, with the exclusion of that part dealing directly with chemical reactions. The fundamentals in polymer science, including some basic polymer chemistry, are presented as an introduction in t...

  5. Antimicrobial polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anjali; Duvvuri, L Sailaja; Farah, Shady; Beyth, Nurit; Domb, Abraham J; Khan, Wahid

    2014-12-01

    Better health is basic requirement of human being, but the rapid growth of harmful pathogens and their serious health effects pose a significant challenge to modern science. Infections by pathogenic microorganisms are of great concern in many fields such as medical devices, drugs, hospital surfaces/furniture, dental restoration, surgery equipment, health care products, and hygienic applications (e.g., water purification systems, textiles, food packaging and storage, major or domestic appliances etc.) Antimicrobial polymers are the materials having the capability to kill/inhibit the growth of microbes on their surface or surrounding environment. Recently, they gained considerable interest for both academic research and industry and were found to be better than their small molecular counterparts in terms of enhanced efficacy, reduced toxicity, minimized environmental problems, resistance, and prolonged lifetime. Hence, efforts have focused on the development of antimicrobial polymers with all desired characters for optimum activity. In this Review, an overview of different antimicrobial polymers, their mechanism of action, factors affecting antimicrobial activity, and application in various fields are given. Recent advances and the current clinical status of these polymers are also discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Integration of conducting polymer network in non-conductive polymer substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; West, Keld; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Anew method for integration ofconjugated, inherently conducting polymers into non-conductive polymer substrates has been developed. Alayer of the conducting polymer is polymerised by chemical oxidation, e.g. using Fe(ID) p-toluene sulfonate (ferri tosylate) followed by washing with a solvent which...... simultaneously removes residual and spent oxidant and at the same time dissolves the top layer of the polymer substrate. This results in an integration of the conducting polymer into the surface layers of the polymer substrate. Several combinations of conducting polymers and substrates have been tested...... absorption during sequential reactive ion etching has allowed for analysis of the PEDOT distribution within the surface layer of thePMMA substrate. The surface resistance ofthe conducting polymer layer remains low while the surface layer at the same time adapts some of the mechanical properties...

  7. Performance limitations of polymer electrolytes based on ethylene oxide polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buriez, Olivier; Han, Yong Bong; Hou, Jun; Kerr, John B.; Qiao, Jun; Sloop, Steven E.; Tian, Minmin; Wang, Shanger

    1999-01-01

    Studies of polymer electrolyte solutions for lithium-polymer batteries are described. Two different salts, lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiTf), were dissolved in a variety of polymers. The structures were all based upon the ethylene oxide unit for lithium ion solvation and both linear and comb-branch polymer architectures have been examined. Conductivity, salt diffusion coefficient and transference number measurements demonstrate the superior transport properties of the LiTFSI salt over LiTf. Data obtained on all of these polymers combined with LiTFSI salts suggest that there is a limit to the conductivity achievable at room temperature, at least for hosts containing ethylene oxide units. The apparent conductivity limit is 5 x 10-5 S/cm at 25 C. Providing that the polymer chain segment containing the ethylene oxide units is at least 5-6 units long there appears to be little influence of the polymer framework to which the solvating groups are attached. To provide adequate separator function, the mechanical properties may be disconnected from the transport properties by selection of an appropriate architecture combined with an adequately long ethylene oxide chain. For both bulk and interfacial transport of the lithium ions, conductivity data alone is insufficient to understand the processes that occur. Lithium ion transference numbers and salt diffusion coefficients also play a major role in the observed behavior and the transport properties of these polymer electrolyte solutions appear to be quite inadequate for ambient temperature performance. At present, this restricts the use of such systems to high temperature applications. Several suggestions are given to overcome these obstacles

  8. Interpenetrating networks of two conducting polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; West, Keld

    2005-01-01

    Interpenetrating networks (IPNs) of two conjugated polymers are prepared by a combination of a chemical oxidation step and a vapour phase polymerisation step on non-conducting surfaces. In this work ferric tosylate was used as the oxidant as it gives very smooth and homogeneous coatings, and beca......Interpenetrating networks (IPNs) of two conjugated polymers are prepared by a combination of a chemical oxidation step and a vapour phase polymerisation step on non-conducting surfaces. In this work ferric tosylate was used as the oxidant as it gives very smooth and homogeneous coatings......, and because its reaction products can be removed efficiently after the formation of the composite. Several combinations of polymers are demonstrated, and the versatility of the proposed method allows extensions to a wide range of conjugated polymers. The IPNs show optical and electrochemical characteristics......, which are sums of the characteristics from the participating conducting polymers....

  9. How do polymers degrade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Suping

    2011-03-01

    Materials derived from agricultural products such as cellulose, starch, polylactide, etc. are more sustainable and environmentally benign than those derived from petroleum. However, applications of these polymers are limited by their processing properties, chemical and thermal stabilities. For example, polyethylene terephthalate fabrics last for many years under normal use conditions, but polylactide fabrics cannot due to chemical degradation. There are two primary mechanisms through which these polymers degrade: via hydrolysis and via oxidation. Both of these two mechanisms are related to combined factors such as monomer chemistry, chain configuration, chain mobility, crystallinity, and permeation to water and oxygen, and product geometry. In this talk, we will discuss how these materials degrade and how the degradation depends on these factors under application conditions. Both experimental studies and mathematical modeling will be presented.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of polymer matrix composite material with combination of ZnO filler and nata de coco fiber as a candidate of semiconductor material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Asep Handaya; Anindita, Hana Nabila

    2015-12-01

    Synthesis of semiconductor composite using acrylic matrix filled with ZnO and nata de coco fiber has been conducted in this research. The purpose of this research is to obtain semiconductor composite material that has a good mechanical strength and thermal resistance. In situ polymerization method is used in this research and the composites are ready to be characterized after 12 hours. The main parameter that is characterized is the electric conductivity of the composite. Additional parameters are also characterized such as composite's elastic modulus and glass transition temperature. The composites that has been made in this research can be classified as semiconductor material because the conductivity is in the range of 10-8-103 S/cm. In general the addition of ZnO and nata de coco filler can increase the conductivity of the composite. The highest semiconductor characteristic in acrylic/ZnO composite is obtained from 30% volume filler that reach 3.4 x 10-7 S/cm. Similar with acrylic/ZnO composite, in acrylic/nata de coco fiber composite the highest semiconductor characteristic is also obtained from 30% volume filler that reach 1.15 x 10-7 S/cm. Combination of 20% volume of ZnO, 10% volume of nata de coco, and 70% volume of acrylic resulting in composite with electric conductivity of 1.92 x 10-7 S/cm. In addition, combination of ZnO and nata de coco fiber as filler in composite can also improve the characteristic of composite where composite with 20% volume of ZnO filler and 10% volume of nata de coco fiber resulting in composite with elastic modulus of 1.79 GPa and glass transition temperature of 175.73°C which is higher than those in acrylic/ZnO composite.

  11. Polymer blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Scott D.; Naik, Sanjeev

    2017-08-22

    The present invention provides, among other things, extruded blends of aliphatic polycarbonates and polyolefins. In one aspect, provided blends comprise aliphatic polycarbonates such as poly(propylene carbonate) and a lesser amount of a crystalline or semicrystalline polymer. In certain embodiments, provided blends are characterized in that they exhibit unexpected improvements in their elongation properties. In another aspect, the invention provides methods of making such materials and applications of the materials in applications such as the manufacture of consumer packaging materials.

  12. Nanocomposites from polymers and layered minerals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.; Gielgens, L.H.; Koster, T.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    Composites consisting of polymer matrix materials and natural or synthetic layered minerals e.g. clays were prepared by using special compatibilizing agents betsveen these two intrinsically non-miscible components. Block or graft copolymers combining one part of the polymer that is identically

  13. Systems for production of polymer encapsuated solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, William L.; Aines, Roger D.; Baker, Sarah E.; Duoss, Eric B.; Maiti, Amitesh; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Vericella, John J.; Lewis, Jennifer A.; Hardin, IV, James O.; Floyd, III, William C.

    2017-11-21

    Encapsulated solids are made by first encapsulating precursor materials in a polymer shell. The precursors are some combination of solids, liquids, gases, and/or gels. The precursors are then transformed into solids by emplacement of the capsule in an environment where gas or fluid transport into or out of the polymer shell causes transformation into solids.

  14. Fabrication of silicon molds for polymer optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Jensen, Søren; Menon, Aric Kumaran

    2003-01-01

    A silicon mold used for structuring polymer microcavities for optical applications is fabricated, using a combination of DRIE (deep reactive ion etching) and anisotropic chemical wet etching with KOH + IPA. For polymer optical microcavities, low surface roughness and vertical sidewalls are often ...... and KOH + IPA etch have been optimized. To reduce stiction between the silicon mold and the polymers used for molding, the mold is coated with a teflon-like material using the DRIE system. Released polymer microstructures characterized with AFM and SEM are also presented....

  15. Characterizing the Polymer:Fullerene Intermolecular Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Sweetnam, Sean

    2016-02-02

    Polymer:fullerene solar cells depend heavily on the electronic coupling of the polymer and fullerene molecular species from which they are composed. The intermolecular interaction between the polymer and fullerene tends to be strong in efficient photovoltaic systems, as evidenced by efficient charge transfer processes and by large changes in the energetics of the polymer and fullerene when they are molecularly mixed. Despite the clear presence of these strong intermolecular interactions between the polymer and fullerene, there is not a consensus on the nature of these interactions. In this work, we use a combination of Raman spectroscopy, charge transfer state absorption, and density functional theory calculations to show that the intermolecular interactions do not appear to be caused by ground state charge transfer between the polymer and fullerene. We conclude that these intermolecular interactions are primarily van der Waals in nature. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  16. Natural polymers: an overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of natural polymers during the world war years led to the development of synthetic polymers like nylon, acrylic, neoprene, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and polyethylene. The increasing popularity of synthetic polymers is partly due...

  17. BioArtificial polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szałata, Kamila; Gumi, Tania

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the polymer science has impact in practically all life areas. Countless benefits coming from the usage of materials with high mechanical and chemical resistance, variety of functionalities and potentiality of modification drive to the development of new application fields. Novel approaches of combining these synthetic substances with biomolecules lead to obtain multifunctional hybrid conjugates which merge the bioactivity of natural component with outstanding properties of artificial polymer. Over the decades, an immense progress in bioartificial composites domain allowed to reach a high level of knowledge in terms of natural-like systems engineering, leading to diverse strategies of biomolecule immobilization. Together with different available options, including covalent and noncovalent attachment, come various challenges, related mainly with maintaining the biological activity of fixed molecules. Even though the amount of applications that achieve commercial status is still not substantial, and is expanding continuously in the disciplines like "smart materials," biosensors, delivery systems, nanoreactors and many others. A huge number of remarkable developments reported in the literature present a potential of bioartificial conjugates as a fabrics with highly controllable structure and multiple functionalities, serving as a powerful nanotechnological tool. This novel approach brings closer biologists, chemists and engineers, who sharing their effort and complementing the knowledge can revolutionize the field of bioartificial polymer science.

  18. Characterizing the Polymer:Fullerene Intermolecular Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Sweetnam, Sean; Vandewal, Koen; Cho, Eunkyung; Risko, Chad; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Salleo, Alberto; Bredas, Jean-Luc; McGehee, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    the polymer and fullerene, there is not a consensus on the nature of these interactions. In this work, we use a combination of Raman spectroscopy, charge transfer state absorption, and density functional theory calculations to show that the intermolecular

  19. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, L.; Evans, O.R.; Foxman, B.M.; Lin, W.

    1999-12-13

    One-dimensional lanthanide coordination polymers with the formula Ln(isonicotinate){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (Ln = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb; 1a-f) were synthesized by treating nitrate or perchlorate salts of Ln(III) with 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions. Single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction studies indicate that these lanthanide coordination polymers adopt two different structures. While Ce(III), Pr(III), and Nd(III) complexes adopt a chain structure with alternating Ln-(carboxylate){sub 2}-Ln and Ln-(carboxylate){sub 4}-Ln linkages, Sm(III), Eu(III), and Tb(III) complexes have a doubly carboxylate-bridged infinite-chain structure with one chelating carboxylate group on each metal center. In both structures, the lanthanide centers also bind to two water molecules to yield an eight-coordinate, square antiprismatic geometry. The pyridine nitrogen atoms of the isonicotinate groups do not coordinate to the metal centers in these lanthanide(III) complexes; instead, they direct the formation of Ln(III) coordination polymers via hydrogen bonding with coordinated water molecules. Photoluminescence measurements show that Tb(isonicotinate){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} is highly emissive at room temperature with a quantum yield of {approximately}90%. These results indicate that highly luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers can be assembled using a combination of coordination and hydrogen bonds. Crystal data for 1a: monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/c, a = 9.712(2) {angstrom}, b = 19.833(4) {angstrom}, c = 11.616(2) {angstrom}, {beta} = 111.89(3){degree}, Z = 4. Crystal data for 1f: monoclinic space group C2/c, a = 20.253(4) {angstrom}, b = 11.584(2) {angstrom}, c = 9.839(2) {angstrom}, {beta} = 115.64(3){degree}, Z = 8.

  20. Ionic Liquids in Polymer Design: From Energy to Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-19

    of Papers published in non peer- reviewed journals: Final Report: Ionic Liquids in Polymer Design: From Energy to Health Report Title ACS Symposium...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: ACS Symposium: Ionic Liquids in Polymer Design: From Energy to Health at Fall 2015 ACS Meeting in Boston, MA The...combination of ionic liquids and polymers has emerged as an active field of exploration in polymer science, where new materials have be realized for

  1. Classical ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaneck, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Although X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of polymers was well established by Clark and coworkers in the 1970s, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of polymer films, was developed later. Previous to the 1970s, the first attempts to use ultraviolet light on polymer films took the form of appearance potential (valence band edge) measurements. Only some years later could the full valence band region of thin polymer films, including insulating polymers, semiconducting polymers and electrically conducting polymers. The development of what might be termed 'classical ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy' of polymer films may be loosely based upon a variety of issues, including adapting thin polymer film technology to ultra high vacuum studies, the widespread use of helium resonance lamps for studies of solid surfaces, the combined advent of practical and sufficient theoretical-computational methods. The advent of, and the use of, easily available synchrotron radiation for multi-photon spectroscopies, nominally in the area of the near UV, is not included in the term 'classical'. At the same time, electrically conducting polymers were discovered, leading to applications of the corresponding semiconducting polymers, which added technologically driven emphasis to this development of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy for polymer materials. This paper traces a limited number of highlights in the evolution of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of polymers, from the 1970s through to 2008. Also, since this issue is dedicated to Prof. Kazuhiko Seki, who has been a friend and competitor for over two decades, the author relies on some of Prof. Seki's earlier research, unpublished, on who-did-what-first. Prof. Seki's own contributions to the field, however, are discussed in other articles in this issue.

  2. FTIR Drug-Polymer Interactions Studies of Perindopril Erbumine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modni, A.; Ahmad, S.; Din, I.; Hussain, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to prepare different combinations of Perindopril Erbumine with different polymers like Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K4M, Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K15M, Xanthan gum and Ethyl cellulose, thereby to determine any possible interactions between Perindopril erbumine and polymers. The analytical technique Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to take spectra of individual drug, polymers and combination of drug with polymers. The results were analyzed to find out any interactions of Perindopril erbumine and polymers. From this study it was concluded that there were no any significant changes in characteristic peaks of drug after combinations with polymers which indicated no interaction between Perindopril erbumine and polymers. (author)

  3. Polymer dynamics from synthetic polymers to proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Polymer dynamics; reptation; domain dynamics biomolecules. Abstract. Starting from the standard model of polymer motion - the Rouse model - we briefly present some key experimental results on the mesoscopic dynamics of polymer systems. We touch the role of topological confinement as expressed in the ...

  4. Photochemical stability of π-conjugated polymers for polymer solar cells: a rule of thumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manceau, Matthieu; Bundgaard, Eva; Carlé, Jon Eggert

    2011-01-01

    A comparative photochemical stability study of a wide range of π-conjugated polymers relevant to polymer solar cells is presented. The behavior of each material has been investigated under simulated sunlight (1 sun, 1000 W m−2, AM 1.5G) and ambient atmosphere. Degradation was monitored during age...... ageing combining UV-visible and infrared spectroscopies. From the comparison of the collected data, the influence of the polymer chemical structure on its stability has been discussed. General rules relative to the polymer structure–stability relationship are proposed....

  5. [New polymer-drug systems based on natural and synthetic polymers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racoviţă, Stefania; Vasiliu, Silvia; Foia, Liliana

    2010-01-01

    The great versatility of polymers makes them very useful in the biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. The combination of natural and synthetic polymers leads to new materials with tailored functional properties. The aim of this work consists in the preparation of new drug delivery system based on chitosan (natural polymer) and polybetaines (synthetic polymers), by a simple process, well known in the literature as complex coacervation methods. Also, the adsorption and release studies of two antibiotics as well as the preservation of their bactericidal capacities were performed.

  6. Shape memory polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2017-08-29

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  7. Shape memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  8. Smart Polymers with Special Wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Baisong; Zhang, Bei; Sun, Taolei

    2017-01-01

    Surface wettability plays a key role in addressing issues ranging from basic life activities to our daily life, and thus being able to control it is an attractive goal. Learning from nature, both of its structure and function, brings us much inspiration in designing smart polymers to tackle this major challenge. Life functions particularly depend on biomolecular recognition-induced interfacial properties from the aqueous phase onto either "soft" cell and tissue or "hard" inorganic bone and tooth surfaces. The driving force is noncovalent weak interactions rather than strong covalent combinations. An overview is provided of the weak interactions that perform vital actions in mediating biological processes, which serve as a basis for elaborating multi-component polymers with special wettabilities. The role of smart polymers from molecular recognitions to macroscopic properties are highlighted. The rationale is that highly selective weak interactions are capable of creating a dynamic synergetic communication in the building components of polymers. Biomolecules could selectively induce conformational transitions of polymer chains, and then drive a switching of physicochemical properties, e.g., roughness, stiffness and compositions, which are an integrated embodiment of macroscopic surface wettabilities. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Depleted depletion drives polymer swelling in poor solvent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherji, Debashish; Marques, Carlos M; Stuehn, Torsten; Kremer, Kurt

    2017-11-09

    Establishing a link between macromolecular conformation and microscopic interaction is a key to understand properties of polymer solutions and for designing technologically relevant "smart" polymers. Here, polymer solvation in solvent mixtures strike as paradoxical phenomena. For example, when adding polymers to a solvent, such that all particle interactions are repulsive, polymer chains can collapse due to increased monomer-solvent repulsion. This depletion induced monomer-monomer attraction is well known from colloidal stability. A typical example is poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in water or small alcohols. While polymer collapse in a single poor solvent is well understood, the observed polymer swelling in mixtures of two repulsive solvents is surprising. By combining simulations and theoretical concepts known from polymer physics and colloidal science, we unveil the microscopic, generic origin of this collapse-swelling-collapse behavior. We show that this phenomenon naturally emerges at constant pressure when an appropriate balance of entropically driven depletion interactions is achieved.

  10. Polymer nanocomposites: polymer and particle dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites containing nanoparticles smaller than the random coil size of their host polymer chains are known to exhibit unique properties, such as lower viscosity and glass transition temperature relative to the neat polymer melt. It has been hypothesized that these unusual properties result from fast diffusion of the nanostructures in the host polymer, which facilitates polymer chain relaxation by constraint release and other processes. In this study, the effects of addition of sterically stabilized inorganic nanoparticles to entangled cis-1,4-polyisoprene and polydimethylsiloxane on the overall rheology of nanocomposites are discussed. In addition, insights about the relaxation of the host polymer chains and transport properties of nanoparticles in entangled polymer nanocomposites are presented. The nanoparticles are found to act as effective plasticizers for their entangled linear hosts, and below a critical, chemistry and molecular-weight dependent particle volume fraction, lead to reduced viscosity, glass transition temperature, number of entanglements, and polymer relaxation time. We also find that the particle motions in the polymer host are hyperdiffusive and at the nanoparticle length scale, the polymer host acts like a simple, ideal fluid and the composites\\' viscosity rises with increasing particle concentration. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F.; Bernabei, Manuele

    2016-05-01

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  12. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F., E-mail: Ferdinando-Bruno@uml.edu [US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, Natick, MA 01760 (United States); Bernabei, Manuele [ITAF, Test Flight Centre, Chemistry Dept. Pratica di Mare AFB, 00071 Pomezia (Rome), Italy (UE) (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  13. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F.; Bernabei, Manuele

    2016-01-01

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  14. Thermosetting Phthalocyanine Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohlen, G.; Parker, J.; Achar, B.

    1985-01-01

    Group of phthalocyanine polymers resist thermal degradation. Polymers expected semiconducting. Principal applications probably in molded or laminated parts that have to withstand high temperatures. Polymers made from either of two classes of monomer: Bisphthalonitriles with imide linkages or Bisphthalonitriles with ester-imide linkages.

  15. based gel polymer electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (PVdF) as a host polymer, lithium perchlorate (LiClO4), lithium triflate ... TG/DTA studies showed the thermal stability of the polymer electrolytes. .... are observed while comparing pure XRD spectra with .... batteries as its operating temperature is normally in the .... chain ion movements and the conductivity of the polymer.

  16. Aerogel / Polymer Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Clayton, LaNetra M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The invention provides new composite materials containing aerogels blended with thermoplastic polymer materials at a weight ratio of aerogel to thermoplastic polymer of less than 20:100. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability. The composite materials also have better flexibility and less brittleness at low temperatures than the parent thermoplastic polymer materials.

  17. Polymer-Graphene Nanocomposite Materials for Electrochemical Biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewski, Peter; Piwowarczyk, Magdalena; Fray, Mirosława El

    2016-07-01

    Biosensing is an important and rapidly developing field, with numerous potential applications in health care, food processing, and environmental control. Polymer-graphene nanocomposites aim to leverage the unique, attractive properties of graphene by combining them with those of a polymer matrix. Molecular imprinted polymers, in particular, offer the promise of artificial biorecognition elements. A variety of polymers, including intrinsically conducting polymers (polyaniline, polypyrrole), bio-based polymers (chitosan, polycatechols), and polycationic polymers (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), polyethyleneimine), have been utilized as matrices for graphene-based nanofillers, yielding sensitive biosensors for various biomolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, and small molecules. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Electroassembly of smart polymer structures (role of polyelectrolytes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gordon G.; Adeloju, Samuel B.; Shaw, Shannon J.

    1997-02-01

    Polymers are ubiquitous in nature, owing to their use as both structural and active components in dynamic, living systems. From a synthetic point of view man has utilized the excellent structural properties of polymers (light weight/high strength) for some decades now. However, the integration of active functional polymers into engineered systems and structures is a more recent endeavour with numerous challenges still to be overcome. Conducting electroactive polymers such as polypyrroles, polythiophenes and polyanilines are a fascinating group of functional polymers. They are electronic conductors and in addition they response to chemical or electrical stimuli in a number of ways. They are truly electrofunctional polymers. This unique combination of properties has led to the use of conducting polymers for electronic components, chemical sensors and biosensors, membranes for solution or gas separations, electromechanical actuators, electro-optical devices, biomaterials capable of controlled release of drugs or stimulation of biological processes, and for corrosion protection.

  19. Stimulus-responsive hydrogels based on associative polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hietala, Sami; Hvilsted, Søren; Jankova Atanasova, Katja

    2008-01-01

    An important group of water soluble polymers are associative ones in which hydrophobic parts of the polymer molecules interact, self-assemble and enhance the viscosity of aqueous solutions even at low polymer concentrations. For many applications it would be beneficial to be able to combine the a......, in press. 3. S. Hietala, P. Mononen, S. Strandman, P. Jarvi, M. Torkkeli, K. Jankova, S. Hvilsted, H. Tenhu Polymer, 48 (2007) 4087-4096........ The resulting hydrogels were studied with respect to the polymer concentration, temperature and ionic strength.3 REFERENCES 1. Nuopponen M.; Kalliomaki K.; Laukkanen A.; Hietala S.; Tenhu H. 1. Polym. Sci. Polym. Chern. 2008, 46, 38-46. 2. Hietala S.; Nuopponen M.; Kalliomaki K.; Tenhu H. Macromolecules...

  20. Electroluminescence of Multicomponent Conjugated Polymers. 1. Roles of Polymer/Polymer Interfaces in Emission Enhancement and Voltage-Tunable Multicolor Emission in Semiconducting Polymer/Polymer Heterojunctions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Xuejun, Ph.D

    1999-01-01

    Effects of the electronic structure of polymer/polymer interfaces on the electroluminescence efficiency and tunable multicolor emission of polymer heterojunction light-emitting diodes were explored...

  1. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Brian [Wheat Ridge, CO; Nguyen, Vinh [Wheat Ridge, CO

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  2. Polymer friction Molecular Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively...... independent of molecular length. For polymer sliding on polymer the friction is significantly larger, and dependent on the molecular chain length. In both cases, the shear stresses are proportional to the squeezing pressure and finite at zero load, indicating an adhesional contribution to the friction force....

  3. Biostable glucose permeable polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A new biostable glucose permeable polymer has been developed which is useful, for example, in implantable glucose sensors. This biostable glucose permeable polymer has a number of advantageous characteristics and, for example, does not undergo hydrolytic cleavage and degradation, thereby providing...... a composition that facilitates long term sensor stability in vivo. The versatile characteristics of this polymer allow it to be used in a variety of contexts, for example to form the body of an implantable glucose sensor. The invention includes the polymer composition, sensor systems formed from this polymer...

  4. Suspensions of polymer-grafted nanoparticles with added polymers-Structure and effective pair-interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Sivasurender; Saw, Shibu; Kandar, A K; Dasgupta, C; Sprung, M; Basu, J K

    2015-08-28

    We present the results of combined experimental and theoretical (molecular dynamics simulations and integral equation theory) studies of the structure and effective interactions of suspensions of polymer grafted nanoparticles (PGNPs) in the presence of linear polymers. Due to the absence of systematic experimental and theoretical studies of PGNPs, it is widely believed that the structure and effective interactions in such binary mixtures would be very similar to those of an analogous soft colloidal material-star polymers. In our study, polystyrene-grafted gold nanoparticles with functionality f = 70 were mixed with linear polystyrene (PS) of two different molecular weights for obtaining two PGNP:PS size ratios, ξ = 0.14 and 2.76 (where, ξ = Mg/Mm, Mg and Mm being the molecular weights of grafting and matrix polymers, respectively). The experimental structure factor of PGNPs could be modeled with an effective potential (Model-X), which has been found to be widely applicable for star polymers. Similarly, the structure factor of the blends with ξ = 0.14 could be modeled reasonably well, while the structure of blends with ξ = 2.76 could not be captured, especially for high density of added polymers. A model (Model-Y) for effective interactions between PGNPs in a melt of matrix polymers also failed to provide good agreement with the experimental data for samples with ξ = 2.76 and high density of added polymers. We tentatively attribute this anomaly in modeling the structure factor of blends with ξ = 2.76 to the questionable assumption of Model-X in describing the added polymers as star polymers with functionality 2, which gets manifested in both polymer-polymer and polymer-PGNP interactions especially at higher fractions of added polymers. The failure of Model-Y may be due to the neglect of possible many-body interactions among PGNPs mediated by matrix polymers when the fraction of added polymers is high. These observations point to the need for a new framework to

  5. Fluorination of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Toit, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Polyethylene and polypropylene were reacted with elemental fluorine under carefully controlled conditions to produce fluorocarbon polymers. Fluorination of polymer films resulted in fluorination of only the outer surfaces of the films, while the reaction of elemental fluorine with powdered hydrocarbon polymers produced perfluorocarbon polymers. Existing and newly developed techniques were used to characterize the fluorinated polymers. It was shown that the degree of fluorination was influenced by the surface area of the hydrocarbon material, the concentration, of the fluorine gas, and the time and temperature of fluorination. A fluidized-bed reactor used for the fluorination of polymer powders effectively increased the reaction rate. The surface tension and the oxygen permeability of the fluorinated polymers were studied. The surface tension of hydrocarbon polymers was not influenced by different solvents, but the surface tension of fluorinated polymers was affected by the type of solvent that was used. There were indications that the surface tension was affected by oxygen introduced into the polymer surface during fluorination. Fluorination lowered the permeability of oxygen through hydrocarbon polymers. 55 refs., 51 figs., 26 tabs

  6. Functional supramolecular polymers for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruijiao; Zhou, Yongfeng; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhu, Xinyuan; Lu, Yunfeng; Shen, Jian

    2015-01-21

    As a novel class of dynamic and non-covalent polymers, supramolecular polymers not only display specific structural and physicochemical properties, but also have the ability to undergo reversible changes of structure, shape, and function in response to diverse external stimuli, making them promising candidates for widespread applications ranging from academic research to industrial fields. By an elegant combination of dynamic/reversible structures with exceptional functions, functional supramolecular polymers are attracting increasing attention in various fields. In particular, functional supramolecular polymers offer several unique advantages, including inherent degradable polymer backbones, smart responsiveness to various biological stimuli, and the ease for the incorporation of multiple biofunctionalities (e.g., targeting and bioactivity), thereby showing great potential for a wide range of applications in the biomedical field. In this Review, the trends and representative achievements in the design and synthesis of supramolecular polymers with specific functions are summarized, as well as their wide-ranging biomedical applications such as drug delivery, gene transfection, protein delivery, bio-imaging and diagnosis, tissue engineering, and biomimetic chemistry. These achievements further inspire persistent efforts in an emerging interdisciplin-ary research area of supramolecular chemistry, polymer science, material science, biomedical engineering, and nanotechnology. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Stochastic resonance during a polymer translocation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Debasish; Muthukumar, M.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the occurrence of stochastic resonance when a flexible polymer chain undergoes a single-file translocation through a nano-pore separating two spherical cavities, under a time-periodic external driving force. The translocation of the chain is controlled by a free energy barrier determined by chain length, pore length, pore-polymer interaction, and confinement inside the donor and receiver cavities. The external driving force is characterized by a frequency and amplitude. By combining the Fokker-Planck formalism for polymer translocation and a two-state model for stochastic resonance, we have derived analytical formulas for criteria for emergence of stochastic resonance during polymer translocation. We show that no stochastic resonance is possible if the free energy barrier for polymer translocation is purely entropic in nature. The polymer chain exhibits stochastic resonance only in the presence of an energy threshold in terms of polymer-pore interactions. Once stochastic resonance is feasible, the chain entropy controls the optimal synchronization conditions significantly.

  8. Physical and Electrical Characterization of Polymer Aluminum Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, David; Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Polymer aluminum capacitors from several manufacturers with various combinations of capacitance, rated voltage, and ESR values were physically examined and electrically characterized. The physical construction analysis of the capacitors revealed three different capacitor structures, i.e., traditional wound, stacked, and laminated. Electrical characterization results of polymer aluminum capacitors are reported for frequency-domain dielectric response at various temperatures, surge breakdown voltage, and other dielectric properties. The structure-property relations in polymer aluminum capacitors are discussed.

  9. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy in polymer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonju; Noda, Isao; Jung, Young Mee

    2015-01-01

    This review outlines the recent works of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) in polymer study. 2DCOS is a powerful technique applicable to the in-depth analysis of various spectral data of polymers obtained under some type of perturbation. The powerful utility of 2DCOS combined with various analytical techniques in polymer studies and noteworthy developments of 2DCOS used in this field are also highlighted. PMID:25815286

  10. Physical and Electrical Characterization of Aluminum Polymer Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, David; Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Polymer aluminum capacitors from several manufacturers with various combinations of capacitance, rated voltage, and ESR values were physically examined and electrically characterized. The physical construction analysis of the capacitors revealed three different capacitor structures, i.e., traditional wound, stacked, and laminated. Electrical characterization results of polymer aluminum capacitors are reported for frequency-domain dielectric response at various temperatures, surge breakdown voltage, and other dielectric properties. The structure-property relations in polymer aluminum capacitors are discussed.

  11. Advanced polymers in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Puoci, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The book provides an up-to-date overview of the diverse medical applications of advanced polymers. The book opens by presenting important background information on polymer chemistry and physicochemical characterization of polymers. This serves as essential scientific support for the subsequent chapters, each of which is devoted to the applications of polymers in a particular medical specialty. The coverage is broad, encompassing orthopedics, ophthalmology, tissue engineering, surgery, dentistry, oncology, drug delivery, nephrology, wound dressing and healing, and cardiology. The development of polymers that enhance the biocompatibility of blood-contacting medical devices and the incorporation of polymers within biosensors are also addressed. This book is an excellent guide to the recent advances in polymeric biomaterials and bridges the gap between the research literature and standard textbooks on the applications of polymers in medicine.

  12. Antiviral Polymer Therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anton Allen Abbotsford

    2014-01-01

    polymerized in a controlled manner with carrier monomers of historically proven biocompatible polymers. The carrier polymers, the loading of ribavirin as well as the size of the polymer were varied systematically with the aid of an automated synthesis platform. These polymers were tested in a cellular assay...... of reversible-addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, which not only controls the size of polymer, but also allows the introduction of a terminal amine on the polymer which can be used for further conjugation. This has allowed for not only fluorescent labeling of the polymer, but also protein...... is mediated through specific transporters, it is thought that the accumulation can be alleviated through the attachment of ribavirin to a macromolecule. To this end, ribavirin was enzymatically modified into a monomer compatible with controlled polymerization techniques. The ribavirin monomers were...

  13. Polymer reaction engineering, an integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, T.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Meyer, T.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2005-01-01

    Summary This chapter contains sections titled: Polymer Materials A Short History of Polymer Reaction Engineering The Position of Polymer Reaction Engineering Toward Integrated Polymer Reaction Engineering The Disciplines in Polymer Reaction Engineering The Future: Product-inspired Polymer Reaction

  14. Two Players Make a Formidable Combination: In Situ Generated Poly(acrylic anhydride-2-methyl-acrylic acid-2-oxirane-ethyl ester-methyl methacrylate) Cross-Linking Gel Polymer Electrolyte toward 5 V High-Voltage Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Ma, Jun; Chai, Jingchao; Liu, Zhihong; Ding, Guoliang; Xu, Gaojie; Liu, Haisheng; Chen, Bingbing; Zhou, Xinhong; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan

    2017-11-29

    Electrochemical performance of high-voltage lithium batteries with high energy density is limited because of the electrolyte instability and the electrode/electrolyte interfacial reactivity. Hence, a cross-linking polymer network of poly(acrylic anhydride-2-methyl-acrylic acid-2-oxirane-ethyl ester-methyl methacrylate) (PAMM)-based electrolyte was introduced via in situ polymerization inspired by "shuangjian hebi", which is a statement in a traditional Chinese Kungfu story similar to the synergetic effect of 1 + 1 > 2. A poly(acrylic anhydride) and poly(methyl methacrylate)-based system is very promising as electrolyte materials for lithium-ion batteries, in which the anhydride and acrylate groups can provide high voltage resistance and fast ionic conductivity, respectively. As a result, the cross-linking PAMM-based electrolyte possesses a significant comprehensive enhancement, including electrochemical stability window exceeding 5 V vs Li + /Li, an ionic conductivity of 6.79 × 10 -4 S cm -1 at room temperature, high mechanical strength (27.5 MPa), good flame resistance, and excellent interface compatibility with Li metal. It is also demonstrated that this gel polymer electrolyte suppresses the negative effect resulting from dissolution of Mn 2+ ions at 25 and 55 °C. Thus, the LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 /Li and LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 /Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 cells using the optimized in situ polymerized cross-linking PAMM-based gel polymer electrolyte deliver stable charging/discharging profiles and excellent rate performance at room temperature and even at 55 °C. These findings suggest that the cross-linking PAMM is an intriguing candidate for 5 V class high-voltage gel polymer electrolyte toward high-energy lithium-on batteries.

  15. Water evaporation on highly viscoelastic polymer surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Gang; Severtson, Steven J

    2012-07-03

    Results are reported for a study on the evaporation of water droplets from a highly viscoelastic acrylic polymer surface. These are contrasted with those collected for the same measurements carried out on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). For PDMS, the evaporation process involves the expected multistep process including constant drop area, constant contact angle, and finally a combination of these steps until the liquid is gone. In contrast, water evaporation from the acrylic polymer shows a constant drop area mode throughout. Furthermore, during the evaporation process, the drop area actually expands on the acrylic polymer. The single mode evaporation process is consistent with formation of wetting structures, which cannot be propagated by the capillary forces. Expansion of the drop area is attributed to the influence of the drop capillary pressure. Furthermore, the rate of drop area expansion is shown to be dependent on the thickness of the polymer film.

  16. High temperature performance of polymer composites

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The authors explain the changes in the thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of polymer composites under elevated temperatures and fire conditions. Using microscale physical and chemical concepts they allow researchers to find reliable solutions to their engineering needs on the macroscale. In a unique combination of experimental results and quantitative models, a framework is developed to realistically predict the behavior of a variety of polymer composite materials over a wide range of thermal and mechanical loads. In addition, the authors treat extreme fire scenarios up to more than 1000°C for two hours, presenting heat-protection methods to improve the fire resistance of composite materials and full-scale structural members, and discuss their performance after fire exposure. Thanks to the microscopic approach, the developed models are valid for a variety of polymer composites and structural members, making this work applicable to a wide audience, including materials scientists, polymer chemist...

  17. Star-Branched Polymers (Star Polymers)

    KAUST Repository

    Hirao, Akira; Hayashi, Mayumi; Ito, Shotaro; Goseki, Raita; Higashihara, Tomoya; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of well-defined regular and asymmetric mixed arm (hereinafter miktoarm) star-branched polymers by the living anionic polymerization is reviewed in this chapter. In particular, much attention is being devoted to the synthetic

  18. Polymer dynamics from synthetic polymers to proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Starting from the standard model of polymer motion – the Rouse model – .... reptation and the escape processes (creep motion) from the tube. .... scattering curves from an arrangement of small mesoscopic spheres also allows a.

  19. Colloidal QDs-polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, H.; Suárez, I.; Rodríguez-Cantó, P.; Abargues, R.; García-Calzada, R.; Chyrvony, V.; Albert, S.; Martínez-Pastor, J.

    2012-04-01

    Nanometer-size colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, or Quantum Dots (NQD), are very prospective active centers because their light emission is highly efficient and temperature-independent. Nanocomposites based on the incorporation of QDs inside a polymer matrix are very promising materials for application in future photonic devices because they combine the properties of QDs with the technological feasibility of polymers. In the present work some basic applications of these new materials have been studied. Firstly, the fabrication of planar and linear waveguides based on the incorporation of CdS, CdSe and CdTe in PMMA and SU-8 are demonstrated. As a result, photoluminescence (PL) of the QDs are coupled to a waveguide mode, being it able to obtain multicolor waveguiding. Secondly, nanocomposite films have been evaluated as photon energy down-shifting converters to improve the efficiency of solar cells.

  20. Hierarchical assembly of branched supramolecular polymers from (cyclic Peptide)-polymer conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ming Liang; Jolliffe, Katrina A; Perrier, Sébastien

    2014-11-10

    We report the synthesis and assembly of (N-methylated cyclic peptide)-polymer conjugates for which the cyclic peptide is attached to either the α- or both α- and ω- end groups of a polymer. A combination of chromatographic, spectroscopic, and scattering techniques reveals that the assembly of the conjugates follows a two-level hierarchy, initially driven by H-bond formation between two N-methylated cyclic peptides, followed by unspecific, noncovalent aggregation of this peptide into small domains that behave as branching points and lead to the formation of branched supramolecular polymers.

  1. Star-Branched Polymers (Star Polymers)

    KAUST Repository

    Hirao, Akira

    2015-09-01

    The synthesis of well-defined regular and asymmetric mixed arm (hereinafter miktoarm) star-branched polymers by the living anionic polymerization is reviewed in this chapter. In particular, much attention is being devoted to the synthetic development of miktoarm star polymers since 2000. At the present time, the almost all types of multiarmed and multicomponent miktoarm star polymers have become feasible by using recently developed iterative strategy. For example, the following well-defined stars have been successfully synthesized: 3-arm ABC, 4-arm ABCD, 5-arm ABCDE, 6-arm ABCDEF, 7-arm ABCDEFG, 6-arm ABC, 9-arm ABC, 12-arm ABC, 13-arm ABCD, 9-arm AB, 17-arm AB, 33-arm AB, 7-arm ABC, 15-arm ABCD, and 31-arm ABCDE miktoarm star polymers, most of which are quite new and difficult to synthesize by the end of the 1990s. Several new specialty functional star polymers composed of vinyl polymer segments and rigid rodlike poly(acetylene) arms, helical polypeptide, or helical poly(hexyl isocyanate) arms are introduced.

  2. Phase behaviour of rod-like colloid + flexible polymer mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Stroobants, A.

    The effect of non-adsorbing, flexible polymer on the isotropic-nematic transition in dispersions of rod-like colloids is investigated. A widening of the biphasic gap is observed, in combination with a marked polymer partitioning between the coexisting phases. Under certain conditions, areas of

  3. Effect of silica nanoparticles on the morphology of polymer blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Weizhen

    2011-01-01

    Polymeric materials are often a combination of different polymers and plasticizers, stabilizers, and organic/inorganic additives to tailor the properties. The type and fineness of the morphology is the key factor for the ultimate properties of polymer blends. Recently, the use of inorganic

  4. Artificially Engineered Protein Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun Jung; Holmberg, Angela L; Olsen, Bradley D

    2017-06-07

    Modern polymer science increasingly requires precise control over macromolecular structure and properties for engineering advanced materials and biomedical systems. The application of biological processes to design and synthesize artificial protein polymers offers a means for furthering macromolecular tunability, enabling polymers with dispersities of ∼1.0 and monomer-level sequence control. Taking inspiration from materials evolved in nature, scientists have created modular building blocks with simplified monomer sequences that replicate the function of natural systems. The corresponding protein engineering toolbox has enabled the systematic development of complex functional polymeric materials across areas as diverse as adhesives, responsive polymers, and medical materials. This review discusses the natural proteins that have inspired the development of key building blocks for protein polymer engineering and the function of these elements in material design. The prospects and progress for scalable commercialization of protein polymers are reviewed, discussing both technology needs and opportunities.

  5. SANS from interpenetrating polymer networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markotsis, M.G.; Burford, R.P.; Knott, R.B.; Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW; Hanley, T.L.; CRC for Polymers,; Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW; Papamanuel, N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) have been formed by combining two polymeric systems in order to gain enhanced material properties. IPNs are a combination of two or more polymers in network form with one network polymerised and/or crosslinked in the immediate presence of the other(s).1 IPNs allow better blending of two or more crosslinked networks. In this study two sets of IPNs were produced and their microstructure studied using a variety of techniques including small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The first system combined a glassy polymer (polystyrene) with an elastomeric polymer (SBS) with the glassy polymer predominating, to give a high impact plastic. The second set of IPNs contained epichlorohydrin (CO) and nitrile rubber (NBR), and was formed in order to produce novel materials with enhanced chemical and gas barrier properties. In both cases if the phase mixing is optimised the probability of controlled morphologies and synergistic behaviour is increased. The PS/SBS IPNs were prepared using sequential polymerisation. The primary SBS network was thermally crosslinked, then the polystyrene network was polymerised and crosslinked using gamma irradiation to avoid possible thermal degradation of the butadiene segment of the SBS. Tough transparent systems were produced with no apparent thermal degradation of the polybutadiene segments. The epichlorohydrin/nitrile rubber IPNs were formed by simultaneous thermal crosslinking reactions. The epichlorohydrin network was formed using lead based crosslinker, while the nitrile rubber was crosslinked by peroxide methods. The use of two different crosslinking systems was employed in order to achieve independent crosslinking thus resulting in an IPN with minimal grafting between the component networks. SANS, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to examine the size and shape of the phase domains and investigate any variation with crosslinking level and

  6. Internally plasticised cellulose polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnup, M.; Hayes, G.F.; Fydelor, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Plasticised cellulose polymers comprise base polymer having a chain of β-anhydroglucose units joined by ether linkages, with at least one of said units carrying at least one chemically unreactive side chain derived from an allylic monomer or a vinyl substituted derivative of ferrocene. The side chains are normally formed by radiation grafting. These internally plasticised celluloses are useful in particular as inhibitor coatings for rocket motor propellants and in general wherever cellulose polymers are employed. (author)

  7. Characterisation of polymers, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Crompton, Roy

    2008-01-01

    This essential guide to Polymer Characterisation is a complete compendium of methodologies that have evolved for the determination of the chemical composition of polymers. This 478-page book gives an up-to-date and thorough exposition of the state-of-the-art theories and availability of instrumentation needed to effect chemical and physical analysis of polymers. This is supported by approximately 1200 references. Volume 1 covers the methodology used for the determination of metals, non-metals and organic functional groups in polymers, and for the determination of the ratio in which different m

  8. Interest of neutron scattering for the investigation of liquid-crystalline polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noirez, L.

    1994-01-01

    Small-angle Neutron scattering is the unique method which allows the determination of polymer conformation in the bulk state. This method has been applied to several kinds of liquid crystalline polymers. Results concerning side-chain liquid-crystal polymer, main-chain liquid-crystal polymer and combined liquid-crystal polymers, are reported. It is shown that the polymer conformation is largely dependent on the insertion site of the liquid crystal molecule and of the structure of the meso-phase. (author). 11 refs

  9. Atomic Origins of the Self-Healing Function in Cement–Polymer Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Manh Thuong; Wang, Zheming; Rod, Kenton A.; Childers, Matthew I.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Koech, Phillip K.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra

    2018-01-09

    Motivated by recent advances in self-healing cement and epoxy polymer composites, we present a combined ab initio molecular dynamics and sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy study of a calcium-silicate-hydrate/polymer interface. On stable, low-defect surfaces, the polymer only weakly adheres through coordination and hydrogen bonding interactions and can be easily mobilized towards defected surfaces. Conversely, on fractured surfaces, the polymer strongly anchors through ionic Ca-O bonds resulting from the deprotonation of polymer hydroxyl groups. In addition, polymer S-S groups are turned away from the cement/polymer interface, allowing for the self-healing function within the polymer. The overall elasticity and healing properties of these composites stem from a flexible hydrogen bonding network that can readily adapt to surface morphology. The theoretical vibrational signals associated with the proposed cement-polymer interfacial chemistry were confirmed experimentally by SFG spectroscopy.

  10. Viscoelasticity in Polymers: Phenomenological to Molecular Mathematical Modelling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banks, H. T; Luke, N. S

    2006-01-01

    We report on two recent advances in the modelling of viscoelastic polymers: (i) a new constitutive model which combines the virtual stick-slip continuum "molecular-based" ideas of Johnson and Stacer with the Rouse bead chain ideas; (ii...

  11. Preparation and Properties of Polyhedral Oligosilsesquioxanes/Polymers Blends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanski, Rusty

    2000-01-01

    .... These materials have the advantage of combining a well defined ceramic type molecule with an organic polymer which can result in a material that may bridge the performance gap between the two systems...

  12. Integrated Instrumentation for Light-Emitting Polymers Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jen, Alex

    2000-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to develop an integrated instrumentation that combines the capability of performing spin coating of uniform polymer thin films under an oxygen and moisture free...

  13. Role of Molecular Interactions for Synergistic Precipitation Inhibition of Poorly Soluble Drug in Supersaturated Drug-Polymer-Polymer Ternary Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Dev; Chauhan, Harsh; Atef, Eman

    2016-03-07

    We are reporting a synergistic effect of combined Eudragit E100 and PVP K90 in precipitation inhibition of indomethacin (IND) in solutions at low polymer concentration, a phenomenon that has significant implications on the usefulness of developing novel ternary solid dispersion of poorly soluble drugs. The IND supersaturation was created by cosolvent technique, and the precipitation studies were performed in the absence and the presence of individual and combined PVP K90 and Eudragit E100. The studies were also done with PEG 8000 as a noninteracting control polymer. A continuous UV recording of the IND absorption was used to observe changes in the drug concentration over time. The polymorphic form and morphology of precipitated IND were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The change in the chemical shift in solution (1)H NMR was used as novel approach to probe IND-polymer interactions. Molecular modeling was used for calculating binding energy between IND-polymer as another indication of IND-polymer interaction. Spontaneous IND precipitation was observed in the absence of polymers. Eudragit E100 showed significant inhibitory effect on nuclei formation due to stronger interaction as reflected in higher binding energy and greater change in chemical shift by NMR. PVP K90 led to significant crystal growth inhibition due to adsorption on growing IND crystals as confirmed by modified crystal habit of precipitate in the presence of PVP K90. Combination of polymers resulted in a synergistic precipitation inhibition and extended supersaturation. The NMR confirmed interaction between IND-Eudragit E100 and IND-PVP K90 in solution. The combination of polymers showed similar peak shift albeit using lower polymer concentration indicating stronger interactions. The results established the significant synergistic precipitation inhibition effect upon combining Eudragit E100 and PVP K90 due to drug-polymer interaction.

  14. Polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, RAJ; Hummelen, JC; Saricifti, NS

    Nanostructured phase-separated blends, or bulk heterojunctions, of conjugated Polymers and fullerene derivatives form a very attractive approach to large-area, solid-state organic solar cells.The key feature of these cells is that they combine easy, processing from solution on a variety of

  15. Experimental investigation of the factors influencing the polymer-polymer bond strength during two-component injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bondo, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Two-component injection moulding is a commercially important manufacturing process and a key technology for combining different material properties in a single plastic product. It is also one of most industrially adaptive process chain for manufacturing so-called moulded interconnect devices (MIDs......). Many fascinating applications of two-component or multi-component polymer parts are restricted due to the weak interfacial adhesion of the polymers. A thorough understanding of the factors that influence the bond strength of polymers is necessary for multi-component polymer processing. This paper...... investigates the effects of the process conditions and geometrical factors on the bond strength of two-component polymer parts and identifies the factors which can effectively control the adhesion between two polymers. The effects of environmental conditions on the bond strength are also investigated...

  16. Physical stability of amorphous acetanilide derivatives improved by polymer excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Tamaki; Yoshioka, Sumie; Aso, Yukio

    2006-08-01

    Crystallization rates of drug-polymer solid dispersions prepared with acetaminophen (ACA) and p-aminoacetanilide (AAA) as model drugs, and polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyacrylic acid (PAA) as model polymers were measured in order to further examine the significance of drug-polymer interactions. The crystallization of AAA and ACA was inhibited by mixing those polymers. The most effective inhibition was observed with solid dispersions of AAA and PAA. The combination of AAA and PAA showed a markedly longer enthalpy relaxation time relative to drug alone as well as a higher T(g) than predicted by the Gordon-Taylor equation, indicating the existence of a strong interaction between the two components. These observations suggest that crystallization is effectively inhibited by combinations of drug and polymer that show a strong intermolecular interaction due to proton transfer between acidic and basic functional groups.

  17. Oriented nanofibers embedded in a polymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Enrique V. (Inventor); Lozano, Karen (Inventor); Rodriguez-Macias, Fernando J. (Inventor); Chibante, Luis Paulo Felipe (Inventor); Stewart, David Harris (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of forming a composite of embedded nanofibers in a polymer matrix is disclosed. The method includes incorporating nanofibers in a plastic matrix forming agglomerates, and uniformly distributing the nanofibers by exposing the agglomerates to hydrodynamic stresses. The hydrodynamic said stresses force the agglomerates to break apart. In combination or additionally elongational flow is used to achieve small diameters and alignment. A nanofiber reinforced polymer composite system is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of nanofibers that are embedded in polymer matrices in micron size fibers. A method for producing nanotube continuous fibers is disclosed. Nanofibers are fibrils with diameters of 100 nm, multiwall nanotubes, single wall nanotubes and their various functionalized and derivatized forms. The method includes mixing a nanofiber in a polymer; and inducing an orientation of the nanofibers that enables the nanofibers to be used to enhance mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Orientation is induced by high shear mixing and elongational flow, singly or in combination. The polymer may be removed from said nanofibers, leaving micron size fibers of aligned nanofibers.

  18. Polymer gels and networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osada, Yoshihito; Khokhlov, A. R

    2002-01-01

    ... or magnetic field, etc.). It was realized that not only can polymer gels absorb and hold a considerable volume of liquids, but they can also be forced to expel the absorbed liquid in a controlled manner. Of particular interest are hydrogels, i.e., polymer gels, which swell extensively in water. The most common hydrogels are polyelectrolyte gels: ...

  19. SANS studies of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wignall, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    Some information provided by the application of small-angle neutron scattering concerning polymer structure is reviewed herein. Information about the polymer structure as examined in H 2 O/D 2 O mixtures is also provided. Examples of results of experiments performed at the National Center for Small-Angle Scattering Research are included

  20. Polymer based tunneling sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tianhong (Inventor); Wang, Jing (Inventor); Zhao, Yongjun (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A process for fabricating a polymer based circuit by the following steps. A mold of a design is formed through a lithography process. The design is transferred to a polymer substrate through a hot embossing process. A metal layer is then deposited over at least part of said design and at least one electrical lead is connected to said metal layer.

  1. Polymers for Combating Biocorrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biocorrosion has been considered as big trouble in many industries and marine environments due to causing of great economic loss. The main disadvantages of present approaches to prevent corrosion include being limited by environmental factors, being expensive, inapplicable to field, and sometimes inefficient. Studies show that polymer coatings with anticorrosion and antimicrobial properties have been widely accepted as a novel and effective approach to prevent biocorrosion. The main purpose of this review is to summarize up the progressive status of polymer coatings used for combating microbial corrosion. Polymers used to synthesize protective coatings are generally divided into three categories: (i traditional polymers incorporated with biocides, (ii antibacterial polymers containing quaternary ammonium compounds, and (iii conductive polymers. The strategies to synthesize polymer coatings resort mainly to grafting antibacterial polymers from the metal substrate surface using novel surface-functionalization approaches, such as free radical polymerization, chemically oxidative polymerization, and surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization, as opposed to the traditional approaches of dip coating or spin coating.

  2. Polymer light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier-Thianche, Emmmanuelle

    1998-01-01

    We study sandwich type semiconducting polymer light emitting diodes; anode/polymer/cathode. ITO is selected as anode, this polymer is a blend of a commercially available polymer with a high hole transport ability: polyvinyl-carbazole and a laser dye: coumarin-515. Magnesium covered with silver is chosen for the anode. We study the influence of polymer thickness and coumarin doping ratio on electroluminescence spectrum, electric characteristics and quantum efficiency. An important drawback is that diodes lifetime remains low. In the second part of our study we determine degradations causes with X-Ray reflectivity experiments. It may be due to ITO very high roughness. We realize a new type of planar electroluminescent device: a channel type electroluminescent device in which polymer layer is inserted into an aluminium channel. Such a device is by far more stable than using classical sandwich structures with the same polymer composition: indeed, charges are generated by internal-field ionization and there is no injection from the electrode to the polymer. This avoids electrochemical reactions at electrodes, thus reducing degradations routes. (author) [fr

  3. Polymers targeting habitual diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of polymeric drug conjugates mainly for the treatment for cancer therapy has been addressed, but these polymers also find their way in treatment of various lifestyle disorders like diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases etc. The focus is being laid to develop biodegradable polymer ...

  4. Stiff quantum polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinert, H.

    2009-01-01

    At ultralow temperatures, polymers exhibit quantum behavior, which is calculated here for the second and fourth moments of the end-to-end distribution in the large-stiffness regime. The result should be measurable for polymers in wide optical traps.

  5. Conducting polymer hydrogels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 269-291 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : aerogel * conducting polymers * conductivity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  6. High Charge Carrier Mobility Polymers for Organic Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Erdmann, Tim

    2017-01-01

    I) Introduction p-Conjugated polymers inherently combine electronic properties of inorganic semiconductor crystals and material characteristics of organic plastics due to their special molecular design. This unique combination has led to developing new unconventional optoelectronic technologies and, further, resulted in the evolution of semiconducting polymers (SCPs) as fundamental components for novel electronic devices, such as organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic light-emit...

  7. Mechanical reinforcement and segmental dynamics of polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shushan

    The addition of nanofiller into a polymer matrix will dramatically change the physical properties of polymer. The introduction of nanofiller makes the polymer more applicable in many industries, such as automobile tires, coatings, semiconductors, and packaging. The altered properties are not the simple combination of the characters from the two components. The interactions in polymer nanocomposites play an important role in determining the physical properties. This dissertation focuses on the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites (silica/poly-2-vinylpyridine) above their glass transition temperature Tg, as a model for automobile tires, which utilize small silica particles in crosslinked rubber far above Tg. We also investigate the impacts of the interaction between particle filler and polymer matrix on the altered mechanical properties. Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) is used to study the glassy bound polymer layers formed around the particles. The results show evidence of the existence of immobilized polymer layers at the surface of each nanoparticle. At the same time, the thickness of the immobilized polymer layers is quantified and formed to be around 2 nm. Then we consider particles with glassy bound polymer layers are bridged together (either rubbery bridge or glassy bridge) by polymer chains and form small clusters. Clusters finally percolate to form a particle-polymer network as loading fraction increases. Rheology is used to study the network formation, and to predict the boundary of rubbery bridge and glassy bridge regimes. The distance between particles determines the type of polymer bridging. The particle spacing larger than Kuhn length makes flexible (rubbery) bridge with rheology described by a flexible Rouse model for percolation. When the spacing is shorter than the Kuhn length (~ 1nm), stiffer bridge forms instead, which is called glassy bridge. The mechanical differences between rubbery bridge and glassy bridge, and the effect of

  8. Theory of polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curro, J.G.; Schweizer, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    We have recently developed a new theoretical approach to the study of polymer liquids. The theory is based on the ''reference interaction site model'' (RISM theory) of Chandler and Andersen, which has been successful in describing the structure of small molecule liquids. We have recently extended our polymer RISM theory to the case of polymer blends. In the present investigation we have applied this theory to two special binary blends: (1) the athermal mixture where we isolate structural effects, and (2) the isotopic mixture in which structurally identical polymer chains interact with dissimilar attractive interactions. By studying these two special cases we are able to obtain insights into the molecular factors which control the miscibility in polymer mixtures. 18 refs., 2 figs

  9. Ion Implantation of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The current paper presents a state-of-the-art review in the field of ion implantation of polymers. Numerous published studies of polymers modified by ion beams are analysed. General aspects of ion stopping, latent track formation and changes of structure and composition of organic materials...... are discussed. Related to that, the effects of radiothermolysis, degassing and carbonisation are considered. Specificity of depth distributions of implanted into polymers impurities is analysed and the case of high-fluence implantation is emphasised. Within rather broad topic of ion bombardment, the focus...... is put on the low-energy implantation of metal ions causing the nucleation and growth of nanoparticles in the shallow polymer layers. Electrical, optical and magnetic properties of metal/polymer composites are under the discussion and the approaches towards practical applications are overviewed....

  10. Polymer wear evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerbon, Mikkel; Sivebæk, Ion Marius

    2012-01-01

    Polymer wear plays an increasing role in manufacturing of machine parts for e.g. medical devices. Some of these have an expected lifetime of five to eight years during which very little wear of the components is acceptable. Too much wear compromises the dosage accuracy of the device and thereby...... the safety of the patients. Prediction of the wear of polymers is complicated by the low thermal conductivity of this kind of material. It implies that any acceleration of testing conditions by increased contact pressure and/or sliding velocity will make the polymer fail due to exaggerated heat buildup....... This is not the kind of wear observed in medical devices. In the present work a method was developed capable of evaluating the wear progression in polymer-polymer contacts. The configuration of the setup is injection moulded specimens consisting of an upper part having a toroid shape and a lower flat part. The sliding...

  11. Chain confinement, phase transitions, and lamellar structure in semicrystalline polymers, polymer blends and polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huipeng

    Recent studies suggest that there are three phase fractions in semicrystalline polymers, the crystalline, the mobile amorphous and the rigid amorphous phases. Due to the distinct properties of the rigid amorphous fraction, RAF, it has been investigated for more than twenty years. In this thesis, a general method using quasi-isothermal temperature-modulated differential scaning calorimetry, DSC, is provided for the first time to obtain the temperature dependent RAF and the other two fractions, crystalline fraction and mobile amorphous fraction, MAF. For poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, our results show RAF was vitrified during quasi-isothermal cooling after crystallization had been completed and became totally devitrified during quasi-isothermal heating before the start of melting. Several years after people initially discovered the existence of RAF, another issue arose relating to the physical location of RAF and mobile amorphous fraction, MAF, within a lamellar stack model. Two very different models to describe the location of RAF were proposed. In the Heterogeneous Stack Model, HET, RAF is located outside the lamellar stacks. In the Homogeneous Stack Model, HSM, RAF was located inside the lamellar stacks. To determine the lamellar structure of semicrystalline polymers comprising three phase, a general method is given in this thesis by using a combination of the DSC and small angle X-ray scattering, SAXS techniques. It has been applied to Nylon 6, isotactic polystyrene, iPS, and PET. It was found for all of these materials, the HSM model is correct to describe the lamellar structure. In addition to the determination of lamellar structures, this method can also provide the exact fraction of MAF inside and outside lamellar stacks for binary polymer blends. For binary polymer blends, MAF, normally is located partially inside and partially outside the lamellar stacks. However, the quantification of the MAF inside and outside the lamellar stacks has now been provided

  12. Temperature- and light-responsive smart polymer materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Florian D; Theato, Patrick

    2013-09-07

    Stimuli-responsive polymers have been attracting great interest within the scientific community for several decades. The unique feature to respond to small changes in the environmental conditions has made this class of materials very promising for several applications in the field of nanoscience, nanotechnology and nanomedicine. So far, several different chemical, physical or biochemical stimuli have been investigated within natural or synthetic polymers. Very interesting and appealing seems to be the combination of several stimuli to tune the properties of these materials in manifold ways. Within this present review, we want to highlight the recent progress in the field of synthetic stimuli-responsive polymers combining temperature and light responsiveness.

  13. Low Band Gap Polymers for Roll-to-Roll Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Hagemann, Ole; Manceau, Matthieu

    2010-01-01

    connected cells were prepared with a total module active area of 96 cm2. The devices were tested for operational stability under simulated sunlight (AM1.5G) and natural sunlight, and the photochemical stability of the polymer was examined using a combination of UV−vis and IR spectroscopy.......We present the synthesis of a low band gap copolymer based on dithienothiophene and dialkoxybenzothiadiazole (poly(dithienothiophene-co-dialkoxybenzothiadiazole), PDTTDABT). The optical properties of the polymer showed a band gap of 1.6 eV and a sky-blue color in solid films. The polymer...... around a 1:2 mixing ratio. Roll-to-roll coated polymer solar cell devices were prepared under ambient conditions employing solution processing in all steps including the metallic back electrode that was printed as a grid giving semitransparent solar cell devices. Solar cell modules comprising 16 serially...

  14. Selective micro metallization of polymers for biomedical and medical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    Integration of micro/nano metallic structures in polymer devices is a broad multi-disciplinary research field, consisting of various combinations of mechanical, chemical and physical fabrication methods. Some of these combinations have been known for years and other combinations or methods are ve...

  15. Miscibility of polymer blends with engineering models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassilis, Harismiadis; van Bergen, A. R. D.; Goncalves, Ana Saraiva

    1996-01-01

    compared. The van der Waals equation of state was recently shown to accurately correlate and predict vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria for binary polymer/solvent solutions. In this work, it is demonstrated that it correlates the upper critical solution behavior of polymer blends with excellent...... accuracy using the usual mixing and combining rules and a single temperature- and composition-independent binary interaction parameter. This interaction parameter can be predicted via a generalized expression that uses only the pure component equation-of-state parameters. Using this generalized expression...

  16. Radiation curable polymer blends for magnetic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosusso, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    Binder resins in magnetic coating formulations must fulfil a diverse set of requirements. These polymers must have the ability to accept high pigment loadings while maintaining good abrasion resistance, substrate adhesion, inherent lubricity and resistance to temperature and humidity effects. In addition, they must act as grinding aids in the dispersion of the magnetic pigment. In the thermally converted coatings now in use, these requirements are usually met by combining several polymers and crosslinking agents into an optimized blend. This approach is also effective in designing radiation curable binder systems. An overview of the methods employed to achieve such optimized blends will be discussed. (author)

  17. Study of Hydrophobic and Ionizable Hydrophilic Copolymers at Polymer/Solid and Polymer/Liquid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perahia, Dvora

    2011-11-01

    Joint experimental-computational efforts were set to characterize the interfacial effects on the structure and dynamics of polymers consisting of highly rigid hydrophilic-ionizable and hydrophobic sub-units within one polymeric chain casted into thin films of several molecular dimensions. Focusing on the ultra thin film region we separate out the interfacial effects from bulk characteristics. Specifically, the study sought to: identify the parameters that control the formation of a stable polymer-solid interface. The study consists of two components, experimental investigations and computational efforts. The experimental component was designed to derive empirical trends that can be used to correlate the set of coupled polymer molecular parameters with the interfacial characteristics of these polymers, and their response to presence of solvents. The computational study was designed to provide molecular insight into the ensemble averages provided by the experimental efforts on multiple length scales from molecular dimensions, to the nanometer lengths to a macroscopic understanding of solvent interactions with structured polymers. With the ultimate goal of correlating molecular parameters to structure, dynamics and properties of ionic polymers, the first stage of the research began with the study of two systems, one which allowed tailoring the flexibility of the backbone without the presence of ionic groups, but with a potential to sulfonate groups at a later stage, and a polymer whose backbone is rigid and the density of the ionic group can be varied. The combined experimental and computational studies significantly extended the understanding of polymers at interfaces from model systems to polydispersed copolymers with blocks of varying nature and complexity. This new insight directly affects the design of polymers for sustainable energy applications from batteries and fuel cells to solar energy.

  18. Double polymer sheathed carbon nanotube supercapacitors show enhanced cycling stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenqi; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Chunhui; Wu, Shiting; Xu, Wenjing; Zou, Mingchu; Ouyang, An; Cao, Anyuan; Li, Yibin

    2015-12-01

    Pseudo-materials are effective in boosting the specific capacitance of supercapacitors, but during service their degradation may also be very strong, causing reduced cycling stability. Here, we show that a carbon nanotube sponge grafted by two conventional pseudo-polymer layers in sequence can serve as a porous supercapacitor electrode with significantly enhanced cycling stability compared with single polymer grafting. Creating conformal polymer coatings on the nanotube surface and the resulting double-sheath configuration are important structural factors leading to the enhanced performance. Combining different polymers as double sheaths as reported here might be a potential route to circumvent the dilemma of pseudo-materials, and to simultaneously improve the capacitance and stability for various energy storage devices.Pseudo-materials are effective in boosting the specific capacitance of supercapacitors, but during service their degradation may also be very strong, causing reduced cycling stability. Here, we show that a carbon nanotube sponge grafted by two conventional pseudo-polymer layers in sequence can serve as a porous supercapacitor electrode with significantly enhanced cycling stability compared with single polymer grafting. Creating conformal polymer coatings on the nanotube surface and the resulting double-sheath configuration are important structural factors leading to the enhanced performance. Combining different polymers as double sheaths as reported here might be a potential route to circumvent the dilemma of pseudo-materials, and to simultaneously improve the capacitance and stability for various energy storage devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05978j

  19. FY1995 establishment of extracellular matrix engineering by the combination of genetic engineering and polymer engineering and the application to super-bioartifical liver; 1995 nendo idenshi kogaku to kobunshi kogaku wo yugoshita atarashii saibogai matrix kogaku no sosei to super bio jinko zoki kaihatsu eno tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Cellular and tissue engineering for bioartificial organs need lots of information about extra-cellular matrices and cytokines network which play important roles for the regulation of cellular function. In order to develop high performance artificial livers, we made establishment of extracellular matrix (ECM) engineering by the combination of genetic engineering and polymer engineering. We designed a superglycoprotein-like polymer (PVLA) as a specific model ligand to asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGP-R) on hepatocytes. Hepatocytes morphology was remarkably affected by PVLA concentration for coating on polystyrene dishes. In addition, hepatic functions such as differentiation and proliferation were closely related with cell morphology. Especially, round hepatocytes on the polystyrene surface coated with high concentration of PVLA were found to reconstruct 3D liver-like tissue stimulated by EGF. It turned out that the adsorptive states of PVLA polymeric micells can switch the function of EGF to be motogenic or mitogenic. The mechanisms of 3D-tissue formation on two types of substrata mediated by ASGP-R were examined. The proliferation and cell death (apoptosis) in hepatitis of hepatocytes were also examined in the viewpoint of cytokine network such as TNF - {alpha} and interferon-{gamma}. The highly efficient gene-transfection into hepatocytes was also successfully made using PVLA as ECM for cell attachment. As one of the trials to clarify liver cells society formation the mechanism of the final differentiation of kupffer cells and the role of HGF in embryonic construction of liver were successfully examined. (NEDO)

  20. Development of controlled drug release systems based on thiolated polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernkop-Schnürch, A; Scholler, S; Biebel, R G

    2000-05-03

    The purpose of the present study was to generate mucoadhesive matrix-tablets based on thiolated polymers. Mediated by a carbodiimide, L-cysteine was thereby covalently linked to polycarbophil (PCP) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). The resulting thiolated polymers displayed 100+/-8 and 1280+/-84 micromol thiol groups per gram, respectively (means+/-S.D.; n=6-8). In aqueous solutions these modified polymers were capable of forming inter- and/or intramolecular disulfide bonds. The velocity of this process augmented with increase of the polymer- and decrease of the proton-concentration. The oxidation proceeded more rapidly within thiolated PCP than within thiolated CMC. Due to the formation of disulfide bonds within thiol-containing polymers, the stability of matrix-tablets based on such polymers could be strongly improved. Whereas tablets based on the corresponding unmodified polymer disintegrated within 2 h, the swollen carrier matrix of thiolated CMC and PCP remained stable for 6.2 h (mean, n=4) and more than 48 h, respectively. Release studies of the model drug rifampicin demonstrated that a controlled release can be provided by thiolated polymer tablets. The combination of high stability, controlled drug release and mucoadhesive properties renders matrix-tablets based on thiolated polymers useful as novel drug delivery systems.

  1. A numerical model to simulate foams during devolatilization of polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Irfan; Dixit, Ravindra

    2014-11-01

    Customers often demand that the polymers sold in the market have low levels of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Some of the processes for making polymers involve the removal of volatiles to the levels of parts per million (devolatilization). During this step the volatiles are phase separated out of the polymer through a combination of heating and applying lower pressure, creating foam with the pure polymer in liquid phase and the volatiles in the gas phase. The efficiency of the devolatilization process depends on predicting the onset of solvent phase change in the polymer and volatiles mixture accurately based on the processing conditions. However due to the complex relationship between the polymer properties and the processing conditions this is not trivial. In this work, a bubble scale model is coupled with a bulk scale transport model to simulate the processing conditions of polymer devolatilization. The bubble scale model simulates the nucleation and bubble growth based on the classical nucleation theory and the popular ``influence volume approach.'' As such it provides the information of bubble size distribution and number density inside the polymer at any given time and position. This information is used to predict the bulk properties of the polymer and its behavior under the applied processing conditions. Initial results of this modeling approach will be presented.

  2. Biomedical applications of polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gebelein, C G

    1991-01-01

    The biomedical applications of polymers span an extremely wide spectrum of uses, including artificial organs, skin and soft tissue replacements, orthopaedic applications, dental applications, and controlled release of medications. No single, short review can possibly cover all these items in detail, and dozens of books andhundreds of reviews exist on biomedical polymers. Only a few relatively recent examples will be cited here;additional reviews are listed under most of the major topics in this book. We will consider each of the majorclassifications of biomedical polymers to some extent, inclu

  3. SANS studies of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wignall, G.D.

    1984-10-01

    Before small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), chain conformation studies were limited to light and small angle x-ray scattering techniques, usually in dilute solution. SANS from blends of normal and labeled molecules could give direct information on chain conformation in bulk polymers. Water-soluble polymers may be examined in H 2 O/D 2 O mixtures using contrast variation methods to provide further information on polymer structure. This paper reviews some of the information provided by this technique using examples of experiments performed at the National Center for Small-Angle Scattering Research (NCSASR)

  4. Development of Silicate Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Simonsen, Morten Enggrob

      The development of inorganic polymers is a new promising technology that may be used in many applications. The syntheses of inorganic polymers are normally carried out either by mixing an amorphous material for example silicium dioxide with a mineral base or dissolving metal oxids or metal...... hydroxide in acid and increase pH to saturation of the metal hydroxide. It is assumed that the syntheses of the inorganic polymer are carried out through polymerisation of oligomers (dimer, trimer) which provide the actual unit structures of the three dimensional macromolecular structure. In this work...

  5. Soluble porphyrin polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Jr., John Devens; Liddell, Paul Anthony

    2015-07-07

    Porphyrin polymers of Structure 1, where n is an integer (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or greater) ##STR00001## are synthesized by the method shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B. The porphyrin polymers of Structure 1 are soluble in organic solvents such as 2-MeTHF and the like, and can be synthesized in bulk (i.e., in processes other than electropolymerization). These porphyrin polymers have long excited state lifetimes, making the material suitable as an organic semiconductor for organic electronic devices including transistors and memories, as well as solar cells, sensors, light-emitting devices, and other opto-electronic devices.

  6. Statistical properties of curved polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    respective ground states decide the conformational statistics of the polymer. For semiflexible polymers, the relevant non-dimensional quantity is lp/L, where lp is the persistence length (which is proportional to the bending modulus k) and L is the contour length of the polymer. In the limit, lp/L ≪ 1, the polymer behaves as.

  7. Conducting polymers: Synthesis and industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The Conducting Polymer project funded by the AIM Materials Program is developing new methods for the synthesis of electronically conducting polymers and is evaluating new industrial applications for these materials which will result in significant reductions in energy usage or industrial waste. The applications specifically addressed during FY 1994 are electrochemical capacitors and membranes for gas separation. As an active material in electrochemical capacitors, conducting polymers have the potential of storing large amounts of electrical energy in low cost materials. Such devices are needed in electronics for power failure back-up and peak power, in power supplies for filtering, and in electric vehicles for peak power and load leveling. As a gas electrically adapt the membrane for specific gas combinations. Potential energy savings in the US. for this application are estimated at 1 to 3 quads/yr.

  8. Polymer Composites Corrosive Degradation: A Computational Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

    2007-01-01

    A computational simulation of polymer composites corrosive durability is presented. The corrosive environment is assumed to manage the polymer composite degradation on a ply-by-ply basis. The degradation is correlated with a measured pH factor and is represented by voids, temperature and moisture which vary parabolically for voids and linearly for temperature and moisture through the laminate thickness. The simulation is performed by a computational composite mechanics computer code which includes micro, macro, combined stress failure and laminate theories. This accounts for starting the simulation from constitutive material properties and up to the laminate scale which exposes the laminate to the corrosive environment. Results obtained for one laminate indicate that the ply-by-ply degradation degrades the laminate to the last one or the last several plies. Results also demonstrate that the simulation is applicable to other polymer composite systems as well.

  9. Functional Nanoporous Polymers from Block Copolymer Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao

    Abstract Self-assembly of block copolymers provides well-defined morphologies with characteristic length scales in the nanometer range. Nanoporous polymers prepared by selective removal of one block from self-assembled block copolymers offer great technological promise due to their many potential...... functionalities remains a great challenge due to the limitation of available polymer synthesis and the nanoscale confinement of the porous cavities. The main topic of this thesis is to develop methods for fabrication of functional nanoporous polymers from block copolymer precursors. A method has been developed......, where living anionic polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) are combined to synthesize a polydimethylsiloxane-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polystyrene (PDMS-b-PtBA-b-PS) triblock copolymer precursor. By using either anhydrous hydrogen fluoride or trifluoroacetic acid, PtBA block...

  10. The interplay of nanostructure and efficiency of polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunhong, Yin

    2008-12-04

    The aim of this thesis is to achieve a deep understanding of the working mechanism of polymer based solar cells and to improve the device performance. Two types of the polymer based solar cells are studied here: the polymer-polymer solar cells, and the polymer-small molecule solar cell which has polymer as electron donor incorporating with organic small molecule as electron acceptor. For the polymer-polymer devices, I compared the photocurrent characteristics of bilayer and blend devices as well as the blend devices with different nano-morphology, which is fine tuned by applying solvents with different boiling points. The main conclusion based on the complementary measurements is that the performance-limiting step is the field-dependent generation of free charge carriers, while bimolecular recombination and charge extraction do not compromise device performance. Regarding polymer-small molecular hybrid solar cells I combined the hole-transporting polymer M3EH-PPV with a novel small molecule electron acceptor vinazene. This molecule can be either deposited from solution or by thermal evaporation, allowing for a large variety of layer architectures to be realized. I then demonstrated that the layer architecture has a large influence on the photovoltaic properties. Solar cells with very high fill factors of up to 57 % and an open circuit voltage of 1V without thermal treatment of the devices were achieved. In the past, fill factors of solar cells exceeding 50 % have only been observed when using fullerene-derivatives as the electron-acceptor. The finding that proper processing of polymer-vinazene devices leads to similar high values is a major step towards the design of efficient polymer-based solar cells. (orig.)

  11. Control of Polymer Nanostructure and Functionality via Radiation Grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmese, G.R.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation grafting provides a useful means for controlling polymer structure and performance. Particularly, it is appropriate for combining materials with distinct thermodynamic characteristics chemically at interfaces. Therefore polymeric materials that generally will not mix - i.e hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers - can be combined efficiently using radiation based methods. This is of particular importance when attempting to form polymer-polymer nanocomposites where the thermodynamic penalty associated with high specific interfacial surface area is very large. Generally, the combination at small scales of such distinct materials is appropriate when specific functionality is desired while maintaining structural performance characteristics. In such cases the hydrophilic polymer lends functional characteristics such as ionic conductivity, self-healing, and actuation, while the hydrophobic polymer component provides structural stability. In this communication a summary of our recent work concerning the use of radiation grafting for the synthesis of nanostructured functional materials is given. Examples to be discussed include toughing of polymeric systems, the synthesis polymeric and inorganic nanotubes, and the design of permeation selective membranes. These examples will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of radiation grafting techniques for controlling polymer properties and small-scale structure

  12. DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM MATRIX TABLETS WITH NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    R. L. C. Sasidhar et al.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to formulate controlled release matrix tablets of losartan Potassium by using a combination of hydrophilic synthetic polymer like poly (ethylene oxides) and natural gums like xanthan gum, karaya gum and guar gum. A combination of synthetic hydrophobic polymers like methacrylates with synthetic hydrophilic polymer like poly (ethylene oxide) was also used in the preparation of matrix tablets and evaluated for their influence on controlled drug release. The matrix ...

  13. Electroactive polymers for sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Electromechanical coupling in electroactive polymers (EAPs) has been widely applied for actuation and is also being increasingly investigated for sensing chemical and mechanical stimuli. EAPs are a unique class of materials, with low-moduli high-strain capabilities and the ability to conform to surfaces of different shapes. These features make them attractive for applications such as wearable sensors and interfacing with soft tissues. Here, we review the major types of EAPs and their sensing mechanisms. These are divided into two classes depending on the main type of charge carrier: ionic EAPs (such as conducting polymers and ionic polymer–metal composites) and electronic EAPs (such as dielectric elastomers, liquid-crystal polymers and piezoelectric polymers). This review is intended to serve as an introduction to the mechanisms of these materials and as a first step in material selection for both researchers and designers of flexible/bendable devices, biocompatible sensors or even robotic tactile sensing units. PMID:27499846

  14. Superabsorbent polymer; Kokyushusei porima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, M. [Sanyo Kasei Kogyo K.K., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-20

    Superabsorbent polymer (SAP) which has the absorbing ability from several hundreds to thousand times of the dead weight possesses many other functions in addition to the absorbing function, and studies on its application to various fields have been carried on very actively. Particularly, about 90% of the demand is for the application to body fluid absorber in the fields of sanitary materials. Basic water absorption mechanism, kinds, production methods, special features and applied cases of superabsorbent polymer are introduced. SAP is structured by loosely bridged water soluble polymer, particularly polymer electrolyte, to provide water unsoluble and water swelling properties. The kinds and production methods of SAP are described. SAP has respiration property in addition to the high water absorbing power and water holding ability. It has carboxyl ions, and has ammonia absorption ability and polyvalent metal ion adsorption ability. Paper diapers, water holding materials for soil, and cold reserving materials are discussed as examples of SAP application. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Rheology of Supramolecular Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabbir, Aamir

    Supramolecular polymers are a broad class of materials that include all polymerscapable of associating via secondary interactions. These materials represent an emerging class of systems with superior versatility compared to classical polymers with applications in food stuff, coatings, cost...... efficient processes or biomedical areas. Design and development of supramolecular polymers using ionic, hydrogen bonding or transition metal complexes with tailored properties requires deep understanding of dynamics both in linear and non-linear deformations. While linear rheology is important to understand...... the dynamics under equilibrium conditions, extensional rheology is relevant during the processing or in the usage of polymers utilizing supramolecular associations for example, acrylic based pressure sensitive adhesives are subjected to extensional deformations during the peeling where strain hardening...

  16. Piezoelectricity in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepler, R.G.; Anderson, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Piezoelectricity and related properties of polymers are reviewed. After presenting a historical overview of the field, the mathematical basis of piezo- and pyroelectricity is summarized. We show how the experimentally measured quantities are related to the changes in polarization and point out the serious inequlity between direct and converse piezoelectric coefficients in polymers. Theoretical models of the various origins of piezo- and pyroelectricity, which include piezoelectricity due to inhomogeneous material properties and strains, are reviewed. Relaxational effects are also considered. Experimental techniques are examined and the results for different materials are presented. Because of the considerable work in recent years polyimylidene fluoride, this polymer receives the majority of the attention. The numerous applications of piezo-and pyroelectric polymers are mentioned. This article concludes with a discussion of the possible role of piezo- and pyroelectricity in biological system

  17. Conjugated Polymer Solar Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paraschuk, Dmitry Y

    2006-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Moscow State University as follows: Conjugated polymers are promising materials for many photonics applications, in particular, for photovoltaic and solar cell devices...

  18. Polymers for Protein Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Pasut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG at the moment is considered the leading polymer for protein conjugation in view of its unique properties, as well as to its low toxicity in humans, qualities which have been confirmed by its extensive use in clinical practice. Other polymers that are safe, biodegradable and custom-designed have, nevertheless, also been investigated as potential candidates for protein conjugation. This review will focus on natural polymers and synthetic linear polymers that have been used for protein delivery and the results associated with their use. Genetic fusion approaches for the preparation of protein-polypeptide conjugates will be also reviewed and compared with the best known chemical conjugation ones.

  19. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  20. Electroluminescence from GaN-polymer heterojunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitara, Basant; Lal, Nidhi; Krupanidhi, S.B.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic and organic semiconductor devices are generally viewed as distinct and separate technologies. Herein we report a hybrid inorganic-organic light-emitting device employing the use of an air stable polymer, Poly (9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) as a p-type layer to create a heterojunction, avoiding the use of p-type GaN, which is difficult to grow, being prone to the complex and expensive fabrication techniques that characterises it. I-V characteristics of the GaN-polymer heterojunction fabricated by us exhibits excellent rectification. The luminescence onset voltage is typically about 8-10 V. The device emits yellowish white electroluminescence with CIE coordinates (0.42, 0.44). - Highlights: → We use a polymer Poly (9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) as a p-type layer to create a heterojunction. → I-V characteristics of the device fabricated by us exhibits excellent rectification. → The p-type polymer also emits yellow light, which when combined in proper composition with GaN, give rise to white light. → Device can be readily fabricated by just spin coating the polymer over GaN reducing the cost of the device.

  1. Radiation treated propylene polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, W.A. III; Baum, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    A method is provided for imparting improved strength and discoloration resistance to a stabilized propylene polymer that is to be exposed to a sterilizing dose of radiation. From 200 to 400 ppm of a phenolic antioxidant containing an isocyanurate group in its molecular structure, and a thiosynergist in an amount at least 6 times the weight of the antioxidant, are incorporated into the polymer before irradiation

  2. Interfaced conducting polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Bober, Patrycja; Trchová, Miroslava; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Bovtun, Viktor; Savinov, Maxim; Petzelt, Jan; Prokeš, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 224, February (2017), s. 109-115 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : polyaniline * polypyrrole * poly(p-phenylenediamine) Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Polymer science; Polymer science (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.435, year: 2016

  3. Sulfur polymer cement concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.H.; McBee, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Sulfur-based composite materials formulated using sulfur polymer cement (SPC) and mineral aggregates are described and compared with conventional portland cement based materials. Materials characteristics presented include mechanical strength, chemical resistance, impact resistance, moisture permeation, and linear shrinkage during placement and curing. Examples of preparation and placement of sulfur polymer cement concrete (SC) are described using commercial scale equipment. SC applications presented are focused into hostile chemical environments where severe portland cement concrete (PCC) failure has occurred

  4. Radiation chemistry of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesby, A.

    1987-01-01

    There are several and quite distinct major fields of interest discussed in this paper. The first deals with the modification of existing polymers either by main-chain scission or by cross-linking; the theories of these patterns of behavior are summarized here, and typical examples of polymers that show these alternative reactions are given. These are not comprehensive to avoid this presentation becoming a catalog of similar patterns of behavior

  5. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  6. Polymer filtration: A new technology for selective metals recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Cournoyer, M.E.; Wilson, K.V.; Sauer, N.N.; Mullen, K.I.; Lu, M.T.; Jarvinen, J.J.

    1995-04-01

    Polymer Filtration (PF) was evaluated for the recovery of electroplating metal ions (zinc and nickel) from rinse waters. Polymer Filtration combines the use of water-soluble metal-binding polymers and ultrafiltration to concentrate metal ions from dilute rinse water solutions. The metal ions are retained by the polymers; the smaller, unbound species freely pass through the ultrafiltration membrane. By using this process the ultrafiltered permeate more than meets EPA discharge limits. The metal ions are recovered from the concentrated polymer solution by pH adjustment using diafiltration and can be recycled to the original electroplating baths with no deleterious effects on the test panels. Metal-ion recovery is accomplished without producing sludge.

  7. Kinetics approach to modeling of polymer additive degradation in lubricants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    llyaI.KUDISH; RubenG.AIRAPETYAN; Michael; J.; COVITCH

    2001-01-01

    A kinetics problem for a degrading polymer additive dissolved in a base stock is studied.The polymer degradation may be caused by the combination of such lubricant flow parameters aspressure, elongational strain rate, and temperature as well as lubricant viscosity and the polymercharacteristics (dissociation energy, bead radius, bond length, etc.). A fundamental approach tothe problem of modeling mechanically induced polymer degradation is proposed. The polymerdegradation is modeled on the basis of a kinetic equation for the density of the statistical distribu-tion of polymer molecules as a function of their molecular weight. The integrodifferential kineticequation for polymer degradation is solved numerically. The effects of pressure, elongational strainrate, temperature, and lubricant viscosity on the process of lubricant degradation are considered.The increase of pressure promotes fast degradation while the increase of temperature delaysdegradation. A comparison of a numerically calculated molecular weight distribution with an ex-perimental one obtained in bench tests showed that they are in excellent agreement with eachother.

  8. Bond strength investigation of two shot moulded polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    This report on the project “Bond strength investigation of two shot moulded polymers” has been submitted for fulfilling the requirements for the course “Experimental Plastic Technology – 42234” at IPL-DTU. Two shot moulding is a classic manufacturing process to combine two different polymers...... in a single product and it is getting more and more importance day by day. One of the biggest challenges of two shot moulding is to achieve a reasonably good bonding between two polymers. The purpose of this project is to investigate the effects of different process, material and machine parameters...... on the bond strength of two shot moulded polymers. For the experiments two engineering polymers (PS and ABS) were used. After all the experimental work, several parameters were found which could effectively control the bond strength of two shot moulded polymers. This report also presents different aspects...

  9. Self-Sensing Ionic Polymer Actuators: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Kruusamäe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ionic electromechanically active polymers (IEAP are laminar composites that can be considered attractive candidates for soft actuators. Their outstanding properties such as low operating voltage, easy miniaturization, and noiseless operation are, however, marred by issues related to the repeatability in the production and operation of these materials. Implementing closed-loop control for IEAP actuators is a viable option for overcoming these issues. Since IEAP laminates also behave as mechanoelectrical sensors, it is advantageous to combine the actuating and sensing functionalities of a single device to create a so-called self-sensing actuator. This review article systematizes the state of the art in producing self-sensing ionic polymer actuators. The IEAPs discussed in this paper are conducting (or conjugated polymers actuators (CPA, ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC, and carbonaceous polymer laminates.

  10. Conjugated Polymers for Flexible Energy Harvesting and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhitao; Liao, Meng; Lou, Huiqing; Hu, Yajie; Sun, Xuemei; Peng, Huisheng

    2018-03-01

    Since the discovery of conjugated polymers in the 1970s, they have attracted considerable interest in light of their advantages of having a tunable bandgap, high electroactivity, high flexibility, and good processability compared to inorganic conducting materials. The above combined advantages make them promising for effective energy harvesting and storage, which have been widely studied in recent decades. Herein, the key advancements in the use of conjugated polymers for flexible energy harvesting and storage are reviewed. The synthesis, structure, and properties of conjugated polymers are first summarized. Then, their applications in flexible polymer solar cells, thermoelectric generators, supercapacitors, and lithium-ion batteries are described. The remaining challenges are then discussed to highlight the future direction in the development of conjugated polymers. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Transient interfacial tension and dilatational rheology of diffuse polymer-polymer interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, G.W.M.; Zdravkov, A.N.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate the influence of molecular weight and molecular weightasymmetry across an interface on the transient behavior of the interfacial tension. The interfacial tension was measured as a function of time for a range of polymer combinations with a broadrange of interfacial properties using a

  12. Flat flexible polymer heat pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshman, Christopher; Li, Qian; Liew, Li-Anne; Yang, Ronggui; Bright, Victor M; Lee, Y C

    2013-01-01

    Flat, flexible, lightweight, polymer heat pipes (FPHP) were fabricated. The overall geometry of the heat pipe was 130 mm × 70 mm × 1.31 mm. A commercially available low-cost film composed of laminated sheets of low-density polyethylene terephthalate, aluminum and polyethylene layers was used as the casing. A triple-layer sintered copper woven mesh served as a liquid wicking structure, and water was the working fluid. A coarse nylon woven mesh provided space for vapor transport and mechanical rigidity. Thermal power ranging from 5 to 30 W was supplied to the evaporator while the device was flexed at 0°, 45° and 90°. The thermal resistance of the FPHP ranged from 1.2 to 3.0 K W −1 depending on the operating conditions while the thermal resistance for a similar-sized solid copper reference was a constant at 4.6 K W −1 . With 25 W power input, the thermal resistance of the liquid–vapor core of the FPHP was 23% of a copper reference sample with identical laminated polymer material. This work shows a promising combination of technologies that has the potential to usher in a new generation of highly flexible, lightweight, low-cost, high-performance thermal management solutions. (paper)

  13. Imprinted Polymers in Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastman, Christopher; Goodrich, Scott; Gartner, Isabelle; Mueller, Anja

    2004-03-31

    In wastewater treatment, a method that specifically recognizes a variety of impurities in a flexible manner would be useful for treatment facilities with varying needs. Current purification techniques (i.e. bacteria, oxidation, reduction, precipitation and filtration) are nonspecific and difficult to control in complex mixtures. Heavy metal removal is particularly important in improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment, as they inhibit or even destroy the bacteria used for filtration. Imprinting polymerization is a technique that allows for the efficient removal of specific compounds and has been used in purification of enantiomers. It has potential to be applied in wastewater systems with the impurities acting as the template for the imprinting polymerization. The polymer with the bound impurities intact can then be removed via precipitation. After removal of the impurity the polymer can be reused. Data for the imprinting polymerization of polyacrylates and polyacrylamides for several metal complexes will be presented. Imprinting polymerization in combination with emulsion polymerization to improve the removal of hydrophobic contaminants will be described. Removal efficiencies will be presented and compared with conventional wastewater treatment methods.

  14. Processing and characterization of ceramic superconductor/polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kander, R.G.; Namboodri, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    One way to more easily process a brittle high-temperature ceramic superconductor into a useful structure is to combine it with a polymer to form a composite material. Processing of polymer-based composites into complex shapes is well established and relatively easy when compared with traditional ceramic processing unit operations. In addition, incorporating a ceramic superconductor into a polymer matrix can improve mechanical performance as compared with a monolithic ceramic. Finally, because ceramic superconductors are susceptible to attack by moisture, a polymer-based composite structure can also provide protection from deleterious environmental effects. This paper focuses on the processing and subsequent characterization of ceramic superconductor/polymer composites designed primarily for electromagnetic shielding and diamagnetic applications. YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x [YBCO] ceramic superconductor is combined with poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA] to form novel composite structures. Composite structures have been molded with both a discontinuous superconducting phase (i.e., ceramic particulate reinforced polymers) and with a continuous superconducting phase (i.e., polymer infiltrated porous ceramics). Characterization of these composite structures includes the determination of diamagnetic strength, electromagnetic shielding effectiveness, mechanical performance, and environmental resistance. The goal of this program is to produce a composite structure with increased mechanical integrity and environmental resistance at liquid nitrogen temperatures without compromising the electromagnetic shielding and diamagnetic properties of the superconducting phase. Composites structures of this type are potentially useful in numerous magnetic applications including electromagnetic shielding, magnetic sensors, energy storage, magnetic levitation, and motor windings

  15. Polymer gel dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldock, C [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney (Australia); De Deene, Y [Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Doran, S [CRUK Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom); Ibbott, G [Radiation Physics, UT M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Jirasek, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Lepage, M [Centre d' imagerie moleculaire de Sherbrooke, Departement de medecine nucleaire et de radiobiologie, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); McAuley, K B [Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON (Canada); Oldham, M [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Schreiner, L J [Cancer Centre of South Eastern Ontario, Kingston, ON (Canada)], E-mail: c.baldock@physics.usyd.edu.au, E-mail: yves.dedeene@ugent.be

    2010-03-07

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. (topical review)

  16. Supercritical transitiometry of polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randzio, S L; Grolier, J P

    1998-06-01

    Employing supercritical fluids (SCFs) during polymers processing allows the unusual properties of SCFs to be exploited for making polymer products that cannot be obtained by other means. A new supercritical transitiometer has been constructed to permit study of the interactions of SCFs with polymers during processing under well-defined conditions of temperature and pressure. The supercritical transitiometer allows pressure to be exerted by either a supercritical fluid or a neutral medium and enables simultaneous determination of four basic parameters of a transition, i.e., p, T, Δ(tr)H and Δ(tr)V. This permits determination of the SCF effect on modification of the polymer structure at a given pressure and temperature and defines conditions to allow reproducible preparation of new polymer structures. Study of a semicrystalline polyethylene by this method has defined conditions for preparation of new microfoamed phases with good mechanical properties. The low densities and microporous structures of the new materials may make them useful for applications in medicine, pharmacy, or the food industry, for example.

  17. Review of Polymer, Dye-Sensitized, and Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. F. Mohd-Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of inorganic nanoparticles semiconductor, conjugated polymer, and dye-sensitized in a layer of solar cell is now recognized as potential application in developing flexible, large area, and low cost photovoltaic devices. Several conjugated low bandgap polymers, dyes, and underlayer materials based on the previous studies are quoted in this paper, which can provide guidelines in designing low cost photovoltaic solar cells. All of these materials are designed to help harvest more sunlight in a wider range of the solar spectrum besides enhancing the rate of charge transfer in a device structure. This review focuses on developing solid-state dye-synthesized, polymer, and hybrid solar cells.

  18. Preparation of micro-porous gel polymer for lithium ion polymer battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Je Young; Kim, Seok Koo; Lee, Seung-Jin; Lee, Sang Young; Lee, Hyang Mok; Ahn, Soonho

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a micro-porous gelling polymer layer which is formed on both the sides of support polyolefin separator with wet or dry processing technique. Morphologies of gel-coated layer are dependent on the compositions and process conditions, such as solvent/non-solvent combination and stretching ratios. The micro-porous gelling layer is used for the assembly of the lithium ion polymer battery of LG Chemical Ltd. The structure of battery is given elsewhere and the battery has excellent discharge performance with 94% of 2C discharge performance at room temperature

  19. Ceramic matrix composites using polymer pyrolysis and liquid densification processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.O.; Petrak, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    The polymer precursor approach for manufacture of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) is both flexible and tailorable to shape and engineering requirements. The tailorability includes a wide range of reinforcements, polymer matrix precursors and fillers. Processing is selected based on cure/pressure requirements to best produce the required shape, radii, fiber volume and fiber orientation. Combinations of tooling used for cure/pressure applications are discussed and fabricated components are shown. ((orig.))

  20. Polymer blend microspheres for controlled drug release: the techniques for preparation and characterization: a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasan, K Priya; Rekha, C

    2012-11-01

    The use of polymers and their microspheres in drug delivery is well known for they are being widely used in the field of drug delivery. The polymer entraps a drug which is to be released in a predesigned manner in the body through biodegradation. The blending of polymers is one way of modifying and enhancing the properties of polymer- based products which is also a cost effective procedure rather than developing a new product. The molecular weight of the polymer, the composition of the blend, the sphere porosity and size, and drug distribution are found to be controllable factors on which drug delivery depends. Polymer blends are obtained by allowing two polymers to combine as one material which has the advantage of two or more polymers. Polymer microspheres are small spherical particles with diameters in the micrometer range between 1μm to 1000μm which are manufactured from various natural and synthetic materials. Microspheres are used to administer medication in a rate- controlled manner and sometimes in a targeted manner. This review presents various polymer blend- combinations in different ratios, the different processing techniques adopted and the details of their characterization through examples found in a literature survey. The characterization of the different polymer blends or microspheres showed changes in structure, increase in drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity.

  1. Flame spraying of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P.; Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M.; Kirk, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

  2. Nanostructured silicate polymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figovskiy Oleg L'vovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been known that acid-resistant concretes on the liquid glass basis have high porosity (up to 18~20 %, low strength and insufficient water resistance. Significant increasing of silicate matrix strength and density was carried out by incorporation of special liquid organic alkali-soluble silicate additives, which block superficial pores and reduce concrete shrinkage deformation. It was demonstrated that introduction of tetrafurfuryloxisilane additive sharply increases strength, durability and shock resistance of silicate polymer concrete in aggressive media. The experiments showed, that the strength and density of silicate polymer concrete increase in case of decreasing liquid glass content. The authors obtained optimal content of silicate polymer concrete, which possesses increased strength, durability, density and crack-resistance. Diffusive permeability of concrete and its chemical resistance has been investigated in various corroding media.

  3. Semi-metallic polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubnova, Olga; Khan, Zia Ullah; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Polymers are lightweight, flexible, solution-processable materials that are promising for low-cost printed electronics as well as for mass-produced and large-area applications. Previous studies demonstrated that they can possess insulating, semiconducting or metallic properties; here we report...... that polymers can also be semi-metallic. Semi-metals, exemplified by bismuth, graphite and telluride alloys, have no energy bandgap and a very low density of states at the Fermi level. Furthermore, they typically have a higher Seebeck coefficient and lower thermal conductivities compared with metals, thus being...... a Fermi glass to a semi-metal. The high Seebeck value, the metallic conductivity at room temperature and the absence of unpaired electron spins makes polymer semi-metals attractive for thermoelectrics and spintronics....

  4. 'Stuffed' conducting polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; Chen, Jun; West, Keld

    2005-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid. In the pres......Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid....... In the present work we demonstrate this principle on three different CP's: polypyrrole (PPy), poly-terthiophene (PTTh) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) (PEDT), using ferrocene as a model molecule to be trapped in the polymer films. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. SOLID STATE BATTERIES WITH CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Bénière , F.; Boils , D.; Cánepa , H.; Franco , J.; Le Corre , A.; Louboutin , J.

    1983-01-01

    The conducting polymers like (CH)x are very interesting materials for electrodes in electrochemical cells. We have combined such electrodes with solid electrolytes to build "all solid-state" batteries. The first prototypes using a silver anode and a silver conducting electrolyte have been working satisfactorily since two years. The performances have been tested with many batteries to study the electrical properties as well as the thermodynamical parameters. A number of cycles of charge-discha...

  6. Electric field induced dewetting at polymer/polymer interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Z.Q.; Kerle, T.; Russell, T.P.; Schäffer, E.; Steiner, U

    2002-01-01

    External electric fields were used to amplify interfacial fluctuations in the air/polymer/polymer system where one polymer dewets the other. Two different hydrodynamic regimes were found as a function of electric field strength. If heterogeneous nucleation leads to the formation of holes before the

  7. Polymer containing functional end groups is base for new polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfield, S. M.

    1971-01-01

    Butadiene is polymerized with lithium-p-lithiophenoxide to produce linear polymer containing oxy-lithium group at one end and active carbon-lithium group at other end. Living polymers represent new approach to preparation of difunctional polymers in which structural features, molecular weight, type and number of end groups are controlled.

  8. Raw and renewable polymers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joseph, S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available in the permeability of the membrane and HO H3C H3C H2C H2C HO OH NH NH OH O OC C n O O O O Fig. 4 Structure of Chitin Raw and Renewable Polymers promoting internal osmotic imbalances. This results in leaching of electrolytes and proteins. 2... is often lost. In most cases this denaturation is not reversible. R-CH-COOH NH2 w Amino acid H2N COOHR a Amino acid Fig. 5 Structure of amino acid Raw and Renewable Polymers The solubilities of proteins vary considerably based on compositions...

  9. Delocalization in polymer models

    CERN Document Server

    Jitomirskaya, S Yu; Stolz, G

    2003-01-01

    A polymer model is a one-dimensional Schroedinger operator composed of two finite building blocks. If the two associated transfer matrices commute, the corresponding energy is called critical. Such critical energies appear in physical models, an example being the widely studied random dimer model. Although the random models are known to have pure-point spectrum with exponentially localized eigenstates for almost every configuration of the polymers, the spreading of an initially localized wave packet is here proven to be at least diffusive for every configuration.

  10. Nanoparticles from Renewable Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Roman Wurm

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of polymers from natural resources can bring many benefits for novel polymeric nanoparticle systems. Such polymers have a variety of beneficial properties such as biodegradability and biocompatibility, they are readily available on large scale and at low cost. As the amount of fossil fuels decrease, their application becomes more interesting even if characterization is in many cases more challenging due to structural complexity, either by broad distribution of their molecular weights polysaccharides, polyesters, lignin or by complex structure (proteins, lignin. This review summarizes different sources and methods for the preparation of biopolymer-based nanoparticle systems for various applications.

  11. Polymers at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Shao-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Kalia and Fu's novel monograph covers cryogenic treatment, properties and applications of cryo-treated polymer materials. Written by numerous international experts, the twelve chapters in this book offer the reader a comprehensive picture of the latest findings and developments, as well as an outlook on the field. Cryogenic technology has seen remarkable progress in the past few years and especially cryogenic properties of polymers are attracting attention through new breakthroughs in space, superconducting, magnetic and electronic techniques. This book is a valuable resource for researchers, educators, engineers and graduate students in the field and at technical institutions.

  12. Ballistic nanoindentation of polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsmann, B.; Rothuizen, H.; Duerig, U.

    2008-09-01

    Indentation of a sharp (20 nm) cantilevered silicon tip into a polymer (SU8) surface is analyzed experimentally and through finite-element simulations. A rate effect on the microsecond scale that eases indentation is found, in contrast to the commonly observed hardening at high strain rates. The observed rate effect is discussed in terms of adiabatic heating and inertial force overshoot. The estimated magnitude of adiabatic heating is marginal, but the force overshoot itself is large enough to explain the data. The data imply that topographic patterning of a polymer at megahertz rates is feasible.

  13. Mechanically Invisible Polymer Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    phase comprises particles, said particles comprising a filler material and an encapsulating coating of a second polymeric material, wherein the backbones of the first and second polymeric materials are the same. The composition may be used in electroactive polymers (EAPs) in order to obtain mechanically......The present invention relates to a composition comprising encapsulated particles in a polymeric material. The composition comprises a continuous phase and a discontinuous phase incorporated therein, wherein the continuous phase comprises a first polymeric material and wherein the discontinuous...... invisible polymer coatings....

  14. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  15. Polymer architecture and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Li Yan; Bae, You Han

    2006-01-01

    Polymers occupy a major portion of materials used for controlled release formulations and drug-targeting systems because this class of materials presents seemingly endless diversity in topology and chemistry. This is a crucial advantage over other classes of materials to meet the ever-increasing requirements of new designs of drug delivery formulations. The polymer architecture (topology) describes the shape of a single polymer molecule. Every natural, seminatural, and synthetic polymer falls into one of categorized architectures: linear, graft, branched, cross-linked, block, star-shaped, and dendron/dendrimer topology. Although this topic spans a truly broad area in polymer science, this review introduces polymer architectures along with brief synthetic approaches for pharmaceutical scientists who are not familiar with polymer science, summarizes the characteristic properties of each architecture useful for drug delivery applications, and covers recent advances in drug delivery relevant to polymer architecture.

  16. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for green algae growth inhibition by polymer particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Tom M; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Hendriks, A Jan; van de Meent, Dik

    2017-07-01

    After use and disposal of chemical products, many types of polymer particles end up in the aquatic environment with potential toxic effects to primary producers like green algae. In this study, we have developed Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) for a set of highly structural diverse polymers which are capable to estimate green algae growth inhibition (EC50). The model (N = 43, R 2  = 0.73, RMSE = 0.28) is a regression-based decision tree using one structural descriptor for each of three polymer classes separated based on charge. The QSAR is applicable to linear homo polymers as well as copolymers and does not require information on the size of the polymer particle or underlying core material. Highly branched polymers, non-nitrogen cationic polymers and polymeric surfactants are not included in the model and thus cannot be evaluated. The model works best for cationic and non-ionic polymers for which cellular adsorption, disruption of the cell wall and photosynthesis inhibition were the mechanisms of action. For anionic polymers, specific properties of the polymer and test characteristics need to be known for detailed assessment. The data and QSAR results for anionic polymers, when combined with molecular dynamics simulations indicated that nutrient depletion is likely the dominant mode of toxicity. Nutrient depletion in turn, is determined by the non-linear interplay between polymer charge density and backbone flexibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Coil–globule transition of a polymer involved in excluded-volume interactions with macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odagiri, Kenta; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Polymers adopt extended coil and compact globule states according to the balance between entropy and interaction energies. The transition of a polymer between an extended coil state and compact globule state can be induced by changing thermodynamic force such as temperature to alter the energy/entropy balance. Previously, this transition was theoretically studied by taking into account the excluded-volume interaction between monomers of a polymer chain using the partition function. For binary mixtures of a long polymer and short polymers, the coil-globule transition can be induced by changing the concentration of the shorter polymers. Here, we investigate the transition caused by short polymers by generalizing the partition function of the long polymer to include the excluded-volume effect of short polymers. The coil-globule transition is studied as a function of the concentration of mixed polymers by systematically varying Flory’s χ-parameters. We show that the transition is caused by the interplay between the excluded-volume interaction and the dispersion state of short polymers in the solvent. We also reveal that the same results can be obtained by combining the mixing entropy and elastic energy if the volume of a long polymer is properly defined

  18. Shape memory polymer medical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Duncan [Pleasant Hill, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Bearinger, Jane P [Livermore, CA; Wilson, Thomas S [San Leandro, CA; Small, IV, Ward; Schumann, Daniel L [Concord, CA; Jensen, Wayne A [Livermore, CA; Ortega, Jason M [Pacifica, CA; Marion, III, John E.; Loge, Jeffrey M [Stockton, CA

    2010-06-29

    A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

  19. Frictional properties of confined polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N; Persson, Bo N J

    2008-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively i...

  20. New polymers for phase partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The synthesizing of several polyethylene glycols having crown ethers attached is reported. This work led to the identification of three new polymer types which promise to be more effective at selectively binding specific cell types. Work was completed on identification of chemical properties of the new polymer crowns and on development of new techniques for determination of polymer-phase composition.

  1. Nonlinear microstructured polymer optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosz, Michael Henoch

    is potentially the case for microstructured polymer optical fibres (mPOFs). Another advantage is that polymer materials have a higher biocompatibility than silica, meaning that it is easier to bond certain types of biosensor materials to a polymer surface than to silica. As with silica PCFs, it is difficult...

  2. Reversible networks in supramolecular polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans - van Beek, D.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Non–covalent interactions between low molecular weight polymers form the basis of supramolecular polymers. The material properties of such polymers are determined by the strength and lifetime of the non–covalent reversible interactions. Due to the reversibility of the interactions between the low

  3. White polymer light-emitting diode based on polymer blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Kyun; Kwon, Soon Kab; Kim, Jun Young; Park, Tae Jin; Song, Dae Ho; Kwon, Jang Hyuk; Choo, Dong Jun; Jang, Jin; Jin, Jae Kyu; You, Hong

    2006-01-01

    A series of white polymer light emitting devices have been fabricated by using a polymer blending system of polyfluorene-based blue and MEH-PPV red polymers. A device structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/polymer/LiF/Al was employed. The white polymer device exhibited a current efficiency of 4.33 cd/A (4,816 cd/m 2 , Q.E. = 1.9 %) and a maximum luminance of 21,430 cd/m 2 at 9.2 V. The CIE coordinates were (0.35, 0.37) at 5 V and (0.29, 0.30) at 9 V.

  4. Magnetic field control of fluorescent polymer nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehyung; He, Le; Bardeen, Christopher J; Morales, Jason R; Beyermann, W P

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale objects that combine high luminescence output with a magnetic response may be useful for probing local environments or manipulating objects on small scales. Ideally, these two properties would not interfere with each other. In this paper, we show that a fluorescent polymer host material can be doped with high concentrations of 20–30 nm diameter magnetic γ-Fe 2 O 3 particles and then formed into 200 nm diameter nanorods using porous anodic alumina oxide templates. Two different polymer hosts are used: the conjugated polymer polydioctylfluorene and also polystyrene doped with the fluorescent dye Lumogen Red. Fluorescence decay measurements show that 14% by weight loading of the γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles quenches the fluorescence of the polydioctylfluorene by approximately 33%, but the polystyrene/Lumogen Red fluorescence is almost unaffected. The three-dimensional orientation of both types of nanorods can be precisely controlled by the application of a moderate strength (∼0.1 T) external field with sub-second response times. Transmission electron microscope images reveal that the nanoparticles cluster in the polymer matrix, and these clusters may serve both to prevent fluorescence quenching and to generate the magnetic moment that rotates in response to the applied magnetic field.

  5. Nanomembranes and Nanofibers from Biodegradable Conducting Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Puiggalí

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a current status report of the field concerning preparation of fibrous mats based on biodegradable (e.g., aliphatic polyesters such as polylactide or polycaprolactone and conducting polymers (e.g., polyaniline, polypirrole or polythiophenes. These materials have potential biomedical applications (e.g., tissue engineering or drug delivery systems and can be combined to get free-standing nanomembranes and nanofibers that retain the better properties of their corresponding individual components. Systems based on biodegradable and conducting polymers constitute nowadays one of the most promising solutions to develop advanced materials enable to cover aspects like local stimulation of desired tissue, time controlled drug release and stimulation of either the proliferation or differentiation of various cell types. The first sections of the review are focused on a general overview of conducting and biodegradable polymers most usually employed and the explanation of the most suitable techniques for preparing nanofibers and nanomembranes (i.e., electrospinning and spin coating. Following sections are organized according to the base conducting polymer (e.g., Sections 4–6 describe hybrid systems having aniline, pyrrole and thiophene units, respectively. Each one of these sections includes specific subsections dealing with applications in a nanofiber or nanomembrane form. Finally, miscellaneous systems and concluding remarks are given in the two last sections.

  6. Metallization of Various Polymers by Cold Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Hanqing; Chu, Xin; Vo, Phuong; Yue, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Previous results have shown that metallic coatings can be successfully cold sprayed onto polymeric substrates. This paper studies the cold sprayability of various metal powders on different polymeric substrates. Five different substrates were used, including carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polyether ether ketone (PEEK), polyethylenimine (PEI); mild steel was also used as a benchmark substrate. The CFRP used in this work has a thermosetting matrix, and the ABS, PEEK and PEI are all thermoplastic polymers, with different glass transition temperatures as well as a number of distinct mechanical properties. Three metal powders, tin, copper and iron, were cold sprayed with both a low-pressure system and a high-pressure system at various conditions. In general, cold spray on the thermoplastic polymers rendered more positive results than the thermosetting polymers, due to the local thermal softening mechanism in the thermoplastics. Thick copper coatings were successfully deposited on PEEK and PEI. Based on the results, a method is proposed to determine the feasibility and deposition window of cold spraying specific metal powder/polymeric substrate combinations.

  7. Preparation, Single-Molecule Manipulation, and Energy Transfer Investigation of a Polyfluorene-graft-DNA polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Mikael; Christensen, Rasmus S; Krissanaprasit, Abhichart; Bakke, Mette R; Riber, Camilla F; Nielsen, Karina S; Zelikin, Alexander N; Gothelf, Kurt V

    2017-08-04

    Conjugated polymers have been intensively studied due to their unique optical and electronic properties combined with their physical flexibility and scalable bottom up synthesis. Although the bulk qualities of conjugated polymers have been extensively utilized in research and industry, the ability to handle and manipulate conjugated polymers at the nanoscale lacks significantly behind. Here, the toolbox for controlled manipulation of conjugated polymers was expanded through the synthesis of a polyfluorene-DNA graft-type polymer (poly(F-DNA)). The polymer possesses the characteristics associated with the conjugated polyfluorene backbone, but the protruding single-stranded DNA provides the material with an exceptional addressability. This study demonstrates controlled single-molecule patterning of poly(F-DNA), as well as energy transfer between two different polymer-DNA conjugates. Finally, highly efficient DNA-directed quenching of polyfluorene fluorescence was shown. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Multifunctional Nanotube Polymer Nanocomposites for Aerospace Applications: Adhesion between SWCNT and Polymer Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol; Wise, Kristopher E.; Kang, Jin Ho; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sauti, Godfrey; Lowther, Sharon E.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Smith, Michael W.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; hide

    2008-01-01

    Multifunctional structural materials can enable a novel design space for advanced aerospace structures. A promising route to multifunctionality is the use of nanotubes possessing the desired combination of properties to enhance the characteristics of structural polymers. Recent nanotube-polymer nanocomposite studies have revealed that these materials have the potential to provide structural integrity as well as sensing and/or actuation capabilities. Judicious selection or modification of the polymer matrix to promote donor acceptor and/or dispersion interactions can improve adhesion at the interface between the nanotubes and the polymer matrix significantly. The effect of nanotube incorporation on the modulus and toughness of the polymer matrix will be presented. Very small loadings of single wall nanotubes in a polyimide matrix yield an effective sensor material that responds to strain, stress, pressure, and temperature. These materials also exhibit significant actuation in response to applied electric fields. The objective of this work is to demonstrate that physical properties of multifunctional material systems can be tailored for specific applications by controlling nanotube treatment (different types of nanotubes), concentration, and degree of alignment.

  9. Polymers of phenylenediamines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, February (2015), s. 1-31 ISSN 0079-6700 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyphenylenediamine * phenylenediamine * conducting polymers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 27.184, year: 2015

  10. Nanoporous thermosetting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Vijay I; Palmese, Giuseppe R

    2005-02-15

    Potential applications of nanoporous thermosetting polymers include polyelectrolytes in fuel cells, separation membranes, adsorption media, and sensors. Design of nanoporous polymers for such applications entails controlling permeability by tailoring pore size, structure, and interface chemistry. Nanoporous thermosetting polymers are often synthesized via free radical mechanisms using solvents that phase separate during polymerization. In this work, a novel technique for the synthesis of nanoporous thermosets is presented that is based on the reactive encapsulation of an inert solvent using step-growth cross-linking polymerization without micro/macroscopic phase separation. The criteria for selecting such a monomer-polymer-solvent system are discussed based on FTIR analysis, observed micro/macroscopic phase separation, and thermodynamics of swelling. Investigation of resulting network pore structures by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and small-angle X-ray scattering following extraction and supercritical drying using carbon dioxide showed that nanoporous polymeric materials with pore sizes ranging from 1 to 50 nm can be synthesized by varying the solvent content. The differences in the porous morphology of these materials compared to more common free radically polymerized analogues that exhibit phase separation were evident from SEM imaging. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the chemical activity of the nanoporous materials obtained by our method could be tailored by grafting appropriate functional groups at the pore interface.

  11. Characterization of healable polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, C.; Weizman, Or; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2010-04-01

    Materials with an internal mechanism for damage repair would be valuable in isolated environments where access is difficult or impossible. Current work is focused on characterizing neat polymers with reformable cross-linking bonds. These bonds are thermally reversible, the result of a Diels-Alder cycloaddition between furan and maleimide monomers. Candidate polymers are examined using modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to confirm the presence of reversible bonding. One polymer, 2MEP3FT, was expected to have these bonds, but none were observed. A second polymer, 2MEP4FS, with a modified furan monomer does exhibit reversible bonding. Further DSC testing and dynamic mechanical thermal analyses (DMA) are conducted to determine material properties such as glass transition temperature, storage modulus and quality of the polymerization. Healing efficiency is established using the double cleavage drilled compression (DCDC) fracture test. A column of material with a central hole is subjected to axial compression, driving cracks up and down the sample. After unloading, the cracks are healed, and the sample is retested. Comparing the results gives a quantitative evaluation of healing.

  12. Knots in polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Knots and topological entanglements play an important role in the statistical mechanics of polymers. While topological entanglement is a global property, it is possible to study the size of a knotted region both numerically and analytically. It can be shown that long-range repulsive interactions, as well as entropy ...

  13. Polyester polymer concrete overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Polyester polymer concrete (PPC) was used in a trial application on a section of pavement that suffers from extensive studded tire wear. The purpose of the trial section is to determine if PPC is a possible repair strategy for this type of pavement d...

  14. Conductive polymer composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a conductive polymer composition comprising graphene and the articles obtained by this process. The process comprises the following steps: A) contacting graphite oxide in an aqueous medium with a water-soluble or dispersible

  15. BEAM applications to polymer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Seiichi

    1994-01-01

    Recently papers about beam applications to polymers have been increasing rapidly both in the fundamental and applied fields. Fairly large number of papers have been published in the fundamental aspects of radiation effects of beam applications to polymers such as pulse radiolysis and high density electronic excitation effects. A number of papers have been published in the more applied aspects of beam applications to polymers such as radiation processing and curing. The present paper describes recent beam applications to polymers. 1. Radiation Effects on Polymers; Radiation effects on polymers have been studied for more than 40 years. Most of work on radiation effects on polymers has been carried out by using high energy photon (gamma-ray) and electron beams, since polymers are sensitive to any kinds of ionizing radiation. Even non-ionizing radiation such as ultraviolet and visible light excites electronic excited states of polymers and then photo-chemical reactions of polymers are induced from the electronic excited states. Studies on radiation effects of other ionizing radiation on polymers have not been so popular for a long time. Recently application of new radiation such as ion beams to polymers have been worthy of remark in fields of advanced science and technology, since new radiation beams induce different radiation effects from those induced by high energy gamma-rays and electrons. 2. Beam Applications of Polymers; Recent progress in beam applications to polymers such as radiation processing and curing, x-ray and electron beam microlithography, and applications of new beams such as ion beams to polymers has been reviewed. (author)

  16. Conducting Polymers for Neutron Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clare Kimblin; Kirk Miller; Bob Vogel; Bill Quam; Harry McHugh; Glen Anthony; Steve Jones; Mike Grover

    2007-01-01

    Conjugated polymers have emerged as an attractive technology for large-area electronic applications. As organic semiconductors, they can be used to make large-area arrays of diodes or transistors using fabrication techniques developed for polymer coatings, such as spraying and screen-printing. We have demonstrated both neutron and alpha detection using diodes made from conjugated polymers and have done preliminary work to integrate a boron carbide layer into the conventional polymer device structure to capture thermal neutrons. The polymer devices appear to be insensitive to gamma rays, due to their small physical thickness and low atomic number

  17. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  18. Design of molecular imprinted polymers compatible with aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piletska, Elena V; Guerreiro, Antonio R; Romero-Guerra, Maria; Chianella, Iva; Turner, Anthony P F; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2008-01-21

    The main problem of poor water compatibility of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was addressed in examples describing design of synthetic receptors with high affinity for drugs of abuse. An extensive potentiometric titration of 10 popular functional monomers and corresponding imprinted and blank polymers was conducted in order to evaluate the subtleties of functional groups ionisation under aqueous conditions. It was found that polymers prepared using 2-trifluoromethacrylic acid (TFMAA) in combination with toluene as porogen possess superior properties which make them suitable for effective template recognition in water. The potential impact of phase separation during polymerisation on formation of high quality imprints has been discussed. Three drugs of abuse such as cocaine, deoxyephedrine and methadone were used as template models in polymer preparation for the practical validation of obtained results. The polymer testing showed that synthesized molecularly imprinted polymers have high affinity and selectivity for corresponding templates in aqueous environment, with imprinting factors of 2.6 for cocaine and 1.4 for methadone and deoxyephedrine. Corresponding blank polymers were unable to differentiate between analytes, suggesting that imprinting phenomenon was responsible for the recognition properties.

  19. Functional Conducting Polymers in the Application of SPR Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapiphun Janmanee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, conducting polymers have emerged as one of the most promising transducers for both chemical, sensors and biosensors owing to their unique electrical, electrochemical and optical properties that can be used to convert chemical information or biointeractions into electrical or optical signals, which can easily be detected by modern techniques. Different approaches to the application of conducting polymers in chemo- or biosensing applications have been extensively studied. In order to enhance the application of conducting polymers into the area of biosensors, one approach is to introduce functional groups, including carboxylic acid, amine, sulfonate, or thiol groups, into the conducting polymer chain and to form a so-called “self-doped” or by doping with negatively charged polyelectrolytes. The functional conducting polymers have been successfully utilized to immobilize enzymes for construction of biosensors. Recently, the combination of SPR and electrochemical, known as electrochemical-surface plasmon resonance (EC-SPR, spectroscopy, has been used for in situ investigation of optical and electrical properties of conducting polymer films. Moreover, EC-SPR spectroscopy has been applied for monitoring the interaction between biomolecules and electropolymerized conjugated polymer films in biosensor and immunosensor applications. In this paper, recent development and applications on EC-SPR in biosensors will be reviewed.

  20. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes....... With the thermally resistant polymer, e.g., polybenzimidazole or a mixture of polybenzimidazole and other thermoplastics as binder, the carbon-supported noble metal catalyst is tape-cast onto a hydrophobic supporting substrate. When doped with an acid mixture, electrodes are assembled with an acid doped solid...

  1. Ecological concepts in recent polymer technology. Part4. Eco-friendly water-absorbing polymer; Kankyo ni chowa shita kyusuisei kobunshi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunioka, M.

    1997-07-01

    As an application example of water-absorbing polymers with biodegradability, it was expected to be applied to soil improvement agents used in planting trees in deserts, besides physiological napkins, paper diapers and medical materials. In this paper, water-absorbing polymers with biodegradability such as natural polymers, petroleum-made polymers and polymers synthesized by radiation cross-linking and chemical cross-linking were introduced. Moreover, a kind of water-absorbing polymers developed by the authors, made from polyamino acid synthesized by microbes, was introduced. In the method developed by the authors, the cross-linking structure could be made by combining PGA carboxyl groups and various amino groups of diamine using carbimide with water solubility. As for this method, all of reactions could be conducted in water and catalytic replacement was not necessary, moreover, hydrogel with the water-absorbing rate of 200 to 1500 times could be produced. 44 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Adsorption and flocculation by polymers and polymer mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, John; Barany, Sandor

    2011-11-14

    Polymers of various types are in widespread use as flocculants in several industries. In most cases, polymer adsorption is an essential prerequisite for flocculation and kinetic aspects are very important. The rates of polymer adsorption and of re-conformation (relaxation) of adsorbed chains are key factors that influence the performance of flocculants and their mode of action. Polyelectrolytes often tend to adopt a rather flat adsorbed configuration and in this state their action is mainly through charge effects, including 'electrostatic patch' attraction. When the relaxation rate is quite low, particle collisions may occur while the adsorbed chains are still in an extended state and flocculation by polymer bridging may occur. These effects are now well understood and supported by much experimental evidence. In recent years there has been considerable interest in the use of multi-component flocculants, especially dual-polymer systems. In the latter case, there can be significant advantages over the use of single polymers. Despite some complications, there is a broad understanding of the action of dual polymer systems. In many cases the sequence of addition of the polymers is important and the pre-adsorbed polymer can have two important effects: providing adsorption sites for the second polymer or causing a more extended adsorbed conformation as a result of 'site blocking'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Structure and Dynamics of Polymer/Polymer grafted nanoparticle composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Lynden

    Addition of nanoparticles to polymers is a well-practiced methodology for augmenting various properties of the polymer host, including mechanical strength, thermal stability, barrier properties, dimensional stability and wear resistance. Many of these property changes are known to arise from nanoparticle-induced modification of polymer structure and chain dynamics, which are strong functions of the dispersion state of the nanoparticles' and on their relative size (D) to polymer chain dimensions (e.g. Random coil radius Rg or entanglement mesh size a) . This talk will discuss polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) comprised of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) tethered silica nanoparticles (SiO2-PEG) dispersed in polymers as model systems for investigating phase stability and dynamics of PNCs. On the basis of small-angle X-ray Scattering, it will be shown that favorable enthalpic interactions between particle-tethered chains and a polymer host provides an important mechanism for creating PNCs in which particle aggregation is avoided. The talk will report on polymer and particle scale dynamics in these materials and will show that grafted nanoparticles well dispersed in a polymer host strongly influence the host polymer relaxation dynamics on all timescales and the polymers in turn produce dramatic changes in the nature (from diffusive to hyperdiffusive) and speed of nano particle decorrelation dynamics at the polymer entanglement threshold. A local viscosity model capable of explaining these observations is discussed and the results compared with scaling theories for NP motions in polymers This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation Award Nos. DMR-1609125 and CBET-1512297.

  4. Forecast Combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermann, Allan G

    2005-01-01

    Forecast combinations have frequently been found in empirical studies to produce better forecasts on average than methods based on the ex-ante best individual forecasting model. Moreover, simple combinations that ignore correlations between forecast errors often dominate more refined combination schemes aimed at estimating the theoretically optimal combination weights. In this paper we analyse theoretically the factors that determine the advantages from combining forecasts (for example, the d...

  5. New method for preparing a liquid crystal polymer that exhibits linearly polarized white fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shijun; Kun, Wang; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of developing a single-chain white-light-emitting polymer, liquid crystal (LC) polymers with a shish-kebab-type moiety on their cross-conjugated (p-phenylene)s-poly(p-phenylenevinylene)s main chain were synthesized by Gilch polymerization. They were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). 1 H-NMR indicated that the polymers had a shish-kebab structure, which strongly suppressed the formation of structural defects in the polymers. DSC revealed that the polymers had thermotropic LC properties, indicating that the LC polymers were enantiotropic. XRD showed that the polymers had a mesophase, which implies that they were in a smectic LC phase. A polymer with 'kebabs' of 2,5-bis(4'-alkoxyphenyl)benzene was combined with an aligned polyimide film with orientated microgrooves. The polymer main chain was aligned due to the orientation of the 'kebabs' of the uniform cross-conjugated structure. It lay between the kebabs and the 'shish' of the polymer main chains. The aligned polymer main chain emitted yellow light while and the oriented LC side chains emitted blue light emission. These two emissions resulted in linearly polarized white fluorescence.

  6. Thermomechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites: Exploring a unified relationship with planar polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Amitabh

    The thermal and mechanical response of polymers, which provide limitations to their practical use, are greatly improved by the addition of a small fraction of an inorganic nanofiller. However, the resulting changes in polymer properties are poorly understood, primarily due to the non-uniform spatial distribution of nanoparticles. This research explores the properties of polystyrene filed with silica nanoparticles and illustrates for the first time that the thermodynamic properties of "polymer nanocomposites" are quantitatively equivalent to the well-understood case of planar polymer films with a uniform thickness. These ideas are quantified by drawing a direct analogy between thin film thickness and an appropriate average ligament thickness measured using electron microscopy. The change in polymer glass transition temperatures with decreasing ligament thickness were found to be quantitatively equivalent to the corresponding thin film data. In combination with viscoelastic properties of the nanocomposites that are in quantitative agreement with data from thin films, these conclusions provide a facile means of understanding and predicting the thermomechanical properties and, potentially, the engineering properties of practically relevant polymer nanocomposites. Grafting of high molecular weight polystyrene onto the silica nanoparticles greatly improves the dispersion quality of nanofillers and also provides a means to tailor the thermo-mechanical properties in nanocomposites. It is concluded that the grafted polystyrene is akin to polymer brushes on flat surfaces. The mobility and stiffness of these grafted chains are expected to be low as compared to the free polymer. In this context a mechanism for the increase in glass transition is proposed: (1) the stiff grafted chains will tend to decrease mobility and thus increase glass transition, (2) the extent of interdigitation of the grafted polystyrene into the matrix will determine the extent to which the nanocomposite

  7. Microbial production of building block chemicals and polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Wook; Kim, Hyun Uk; Choi, Sol; Yi, Jongho; Lee, Sang Yup

    2011-12-01

    Owing to our increasing concerns on the environment, climate change, and limited natural resources, there has recently been considerable effort exerted to produce chemicals and materials from renewable biomass. Polymers we use everyday can also be produced either by direct fermentation or by polymerization of monomers that are produced by fermentation. Recent advances in metabolic engineering combined with systems biology and synthetic biology are allowing us to more systematically develop superior strains and bioprocesses for the efficient production of polymers and monomers. Here, we review recent trends in microbial production of building block chemicals that can be subsequently used for the synthesis of polymers. Also, recent successful cases of direct one-step production of polymers are reviewed. General strategies for the production of natural and unnatural platform chemicals are described together with representative examples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lithium secondary batteries: Role of polymer cathode morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoi, Katsuhiko; Osaka, Tetsuya; Owens, Boone B.

    1988-06-01

    Electrically conducting polymers have been utilized both as the cathode and as the electrolyte element of Li secondary cells. Polymer cathodes were limited in their suitability for batteries because of the low energy content associated with low levels of doping and the inclusion of complex ionic species in the cathode. Recent studies have indicated that doping levels up to 100 percent can be achieved in polyanilene. High doping levels in combination with controlled morphologies have been found to improve the energy and rate capabilities of polymer cathodes. A morphology-modifying technique was utilized to enhance the charge/discharge characteristics of Li/liquid electrolyte polypyrrole cells. The polymer is electropolymerized in a preferred orientation morphology when the substrate is first precoated with an insulating film of nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR). Modification of the kinetic behavior of the electrode results from variations in the chemical composition of the NBR.

  9. Photoreconfigurable polymers for biomedical applications: chemistry and macromolecular engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Congcong; Ninh, Chi; Bettinger, Christopher J

    2014-10-13

    Stimuli-responsive polymers play an important role in many biomedical technologies. Light responsive polymers are particularly desirable because the parameters of irradiated light and diverse photoactive chemistries produce a large number of combinations between functional materials and associated stimuli. This Review summarizes recent advances in utilizing photoactive chemistries in macromolecules for prospective use in biomedical applications. Special focus is granted to selection criterion when choosing photofunctional groups. Synthetic strategies to incorporate these functionalities into polymers and networks with different topologies are also highlighted herein. Prospective applications of these materials are discussed including programmable matrices for controlled release, dynamic scaffolds for tissue engineering, and functional coatings for medical devices. The article concludes by summarizing the state of the art in photoresponsive polymers for biomedical applications including current challenges and future opportunities.

  10. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-loaded activated carbon fiber/polymer materials and their photocatalytic activity for methylene blue mineralization by combined heterogeneous-homogeneous photocatalytic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadirova, Zukhra C., E-mail: zuhra_kadirova@yahoo.com [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences, Mirzo Ulugbek Street 77a, Tashkent 100170 (Uzbekistan); Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos, E-mail: hmirabbos@hotmail.com [Department of Natural and Mathematic Sciences, Turin Polytechnic University in Tashkent, Kichik Halqa Yo’li 17, Tashkent 100095 (Uzbekistan); Katsumata, Ken-Ichi [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Isobe, Toshihiro [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Matsushita, Nobuhiro [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Nakajima, Akira [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Okada, Kiyoshi [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-activated carbon felts was prepared for adsorption-photodegradation of dyes. • Simultaneous mineralization of MB and oxalic acid occurred under UV-irradiation. • Methylene blue adsorption was better fitted to the Langmuir model. • Increasing amount of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} decreased the S{sub BET} and methylene blue adsorption capacity. • Photodegraded amount of MB was increased with increasing the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. - Abstract: Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported activated carbon felts (Fe-ACFTs) were prepared by impregnating the felts consisted of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) with either polyester fibers (PS-A20) or polyethylene pulp (PE-W15) in Fe(III) nitrate solution and calcination at 250 °C for 1 h. The prepared Fe-ACFTs with 31–35 wt% Fe were characterized by N{sub 2}-adsorption, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The Fe-ACFT(PS-A20) samples with 5–31 wt% Fe were microporous with specific surface areas (S{sub BET}) ranging from 750 to 150 m{sup 2}/g, whereas the Fe-ACFT(PE-W15) samples with 2–35 wt% Fe were mesoporous with S{sub BET} ranging from 830 to 320 m{sup 2}/g. The deposition of iron oxide resulted in a decrease in the S{sub BET} and methylene blue (MB) adsorption capacity while increasing the photodegradation of MB. The optimum MB degradation conditions included 0.98 mM oxalic acid, pH = 3, 0.02–0.05 mM MB, and 100 mg/L photocatalyst. The negative impact of MB desorption during the photodegradation reaction was more pronounced for mesoporous PE-W15 samples and can be neglected by adding oxalic acid in cyclic experiments. Almost complete and simultaneous mineralization of oxalate and MB was achieved by the combined heterogeneous-homogeneous photocatalytic processes. The leached Fe ions in aqueous solution [Fe{sup 3+}]{sub f} were measured after 60 min for every cycle and found to be about 2 ppm in all four successive cycles. The developed photocatalytic materials have shown good

  11. Controlled release of tocopherols from polymer blend films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinata, Noe

    Controlled release packaging has great potential to increase storage stability of foods by releasing active compounds into foods continuously over time. However, a major limitation in development of this technology is the inability to control the release and provide rates useful for long term storage of foods. Better understanding of the factors affecting active compound release is needed to overcome this limitation. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between polymer composition, polymer processing method, polymer morphology, and release properties of active compounds, and to provide proof of principle that compound release is controlled by film morphology. A natural antioxidant, tocopherol was used as a model active compound because it is natural, effective, heat stable, and soluble in most packaging polymers. Polymer blend films were produced from combination of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), or polystyrene (PS) with 3000 ppm mixed tocopherols using conventional blending method and innovative blending method, smart blending with a novel mixer using chaotic advection. Film morphologies were visualized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Release of tocopherols into 95% ethanol as a food simulant was measured by UV/Visible spectrophotometry or HPLC, and diffusivity of tocopherols in the polymers was estimated from this data. Polymer composition (blend proportions) and processing methods have major effects on film morphology. Four different types of morphologies, dispersed, co-continuous, fiber, and multilayer structures were developed by either conventional extrusion or smart blending. With smart blending of fixed polymer compositions, different morphologies were progressively developed with fixed polymer composition as the number of rod rotations increased, providing a way to separate effects of polymer composition and morphology. The different morphologies

  12. Induced helical backbone conformations of self-organizable dendronized polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudick, Jonathan G; Percec, Virgil

    2008-12-01

    Control of function through the primary structure of a molecule presents a significant challenge with valuable rewards for nanoscience. Dendritic building blocks encoded with information that defines their three-dimensional shape (e.g., flat-tapered or conical) and how they associate with each other are referred to as self-assembling dendrons. Self-organizable dendronized polymers possess a flat-tapered or conical self-assembling dendritic side chain on each repeat unit of a linear polymer backbone. When appended to a covalent polymer, the self-assembling dendrons direct a folding process (i.e., intramolecular self-assembly). Alternatively, intermolecular self-assembly of dendrons mediated by noncovalent interactions between apex groups can generate a supramolecular polymer backbone. Self-organization, as we refer to it, is the spontaneous formation of periodic and quasiperiodic arrays from supramolecular elements. Covalent and supramolecular polymers jacketed with self-assembling dendrons self-organize. The arrays are most often comprised of cylindrical or spherical objects. The shape of the object is determined by the primary structure of the dendronized polymer: the structure of the self-assembling dendron and the length of the polymer backbone. It is therefore possible to predictably generate building blocks for single-molecule nanotechnologies or arrays of supramolecules for bottom-up self-assembly. We exploit the self-organization of polymers jacketed with self-assembling dendrons to elucidate how primary structure determines the adopted conformation and fold (i.e., secondary and tertiary structure), how the supramolecules associate (i.e., quaternary structure), and their resulting functions. A combination of experimental techniques is employed to interrogate the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure of the self-organizable dendronized polymers. We refer to the process by which we interpolate between the various levels of structural

  13. Controlling Film Morphology in Conjugated Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lee Y.; Munro, Andrea M.; Ginger, David S.

    2009-01-01

    We study the effects of patterned surface chemistry on the microscale and nanoscale morphology of solution-processed donor/acceptor polymer-blend films. Focusing on combinations of interest in polymer solar cells, we demonstrate that patterned surface chemistry can be used to tailor the film morphology of blends of semiconducting polymers such as poly-[2-(3,7-dimethyloctyloxy)-5-methoxy-p-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV), poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT), poly[(9,9-dioctylflorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-benzothiadiazole)] (F8BT), and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N’-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N’-phenyl-1,4-phenylendiamine) (PFB) with the fullerene derivative, [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). We present a method for generating patterned, fullerene-terminated monolayers on gold surfaces, and use microcontact printing and Dip-Pen Nanolithography (DPN) to pattern alkanethiols with both micro- and nanoscale features. After patterning with fullerenes and other functional groups, we backfill the rest of the surface with a variety of thiols to prepare substrates with periodic variations in surface chemistry. Spin coating polymer:PCBM films onto these substrates, followed by thermal annealing under nitrogen, leads to the formation of structured polymer films. We characterize these films with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. The surface patterns are effective in guiding phase separation in all of the polymer:PCBM systems investigated, and lead to a rich variety of film morphologies that are inaccessible with unpatterned substrates. We demonstrate our ability to guide pattern formation in films thick enough of be of interest for actual device applications (up to 200 nm in thickness) using feature sizes as small as 100 nm. Finally, we show that the surface chemistry can lead to variations in film morphology on length scales significantly smaller than those used in generating the original surface patterns. The variety of

  14. High temperature chemically resistant polymer concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    High temperature chemically resistant, non-aqueous polymer concrete composites consist of about 12 to 20% by weight of a water-insoluble polymer binder. The binder is polymerized in situ from a liquid vinyl-type monomer or mixture of vinyl containing monomers such as triallylcyanurate, styrene, acrylonitrile, acrylamide, methacrylamide, methyl-methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and divinyl benzene. About 5 to 40% by weight of a reactive inorganic filler selected from the group consisting of tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate and mixtures containing less than 2% free lime, and about 48 to 83% by weight of silica sand/ and a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide, other orgaic peroxides and combinations to initiate polymerization of the monomer in the presence of the inorganic filers are used.

  15. Metal-polymer nanocomposites for functional applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faupel, Franz; Zaporojtchenko, Vladimir; Strunskus, Thomas [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany). Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft - Materialverbunde; Elbahri, Mady [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany). Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft - Nanochemistry and Engineering

    2010-12-15

    Nanocomposites combine favorable features of the constituents on the nanoscale to obtain new functionalities. The present paper is concerned with the preparation of polymer-based nanocomposites consisting of metal nanoparticles in a polymer matrix and the resulting functional properties. Emphasis is placed on vapor phase deposition which inter alia allows the incorporation of alloy clusters with well defined composition and tailored filling factor profiles. Examples discussed here include optical composites with tuned particle surface plasmon resonances for plasmonic applications, magnetic high frequency materials with cut-off frequencies well above 1 GHz, sensors that are based on the dramatic change in the electronic properties near the percolation threshold, and antibacterial coatings which benefit from the large effective surface of nanoparticles and the increased chemical potential which both strongly enhance ion release. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Polymer physics of nuclear organization and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amitai, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute for Medical Engineering & Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Holcman, D., E-mail: david.holcman@ens.fr [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics (DAMTP), University of Cambridge, Churchill College, CB30DS, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris (France)

    2017-03-23

    We review here recent progress to link the nuclear organization to its function, based on elementary physical processes such as diffusion, polymer dynamics of DNA, chromatin and the search mechanism for a small target by double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) break. These physical models and their analysis make it possible to compute critical rates involved in cell reorganization timing, which depend on many parameters. In the framework of polymer models, various empirical observations are interpreted as anomalous diffusion of chromatin at various time scales. The reviewed theoretical approaches offer a framework for extracting features, biophysical parameters, predictions, and so on, based on a large variety of experimental data, such as chromosomal capture data, single particle trajectories, and more. Combining theoretical approaches with live cell microscopy data should unveil some of the still unexplained behavior of the nucleus in carrying out some of its key function involved in survival, DNA repair or gene activation.

  17. Dielectric Actuation of Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofan

    Dielectric polymers are widely used in a plurality of applications, such as electrical insulation, dielectric capacitors, and electromechanical actuators. Dielectric polymers with large strain deformations under an electric field are named dielectric elastomers (DE), because of their relative low modulus, high elongation at break, and outstanding resilience. Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) are superior to traditional transducers as a muscle-like technology: large strains, high energy densities, high coupling efficiency, quiet operation, and light weight. One focus of this dissertation is on the design of DE materials with high performance and easy processing. UV radiation curing of reactive species is studied as a generic synthesis methodology to provide a platform for material scientists to customize their own DE materials. Oligomers/monomers, crosslinkers, and other additives are mixed and cured at appropriate ratios to control the stress-strain response, suppress electromechanical instability of the resulting polymers, and provide stable actuation strains larger than 100% and energy densities higher than 1 J/g. The processing is largely simplified in the new material system by removal of the prestretching step. Multilayer stack actuators with 11% linear strain are demonstrated in a procedure fully compatible with industrial production. A multifunctional DE derivative material, bistable electroactive polymer (BSEP), is invented enabling repeatable rigid-to-rigid deformation without bulky external structures. Bistable actuation allows the polymer actuator to have two distinct states that can support external load without device failure. Plasticizers are used to lower the glass transition temperature to 45 °C. Interpenetrating polymer network structure is established inside the BSEP to suppress electromechanical instability, providing a breakdown field of 194 MV/m and a stable bistable strain as large as 228% with a 97% strain fixity. The application of BSEP

  18. Polymer Physics Prize Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    Polymer electrolytes have been particularly difficult to describe theoretically given the large number of disparate length scales involved in determining their physical properties. The Debye length, the Bjerrum length, the ion size, the chain length, and the distance between the charges along their backbones determine their structure and their response to external fields. We have developed an approach that uses multi-scale calculations with the capability of demonstrating the phase behavior of polymer electrolytes and of providing a conceptual understanding of how charge dictates nano-scale structure formation. Moreover, our molecular dynamics simulations have provided an understanding of the coupling of their conformation to their dynamics, which is crucial to design self-assembling materials, as well as to explore the dynamics of complex electrolytes for energy storage and conversion applications.

  19. Characterization of polymer surface structure and surface mechanical behaviour by sum frequency generation surface vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opdahl, Aric; Koffas, Telly S; Amitay-Sadovsky, Ella; Kim, Joonyeong; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2004-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to study polymer surface structure and surface mechanical behaviour, specifically to study the relationships between the surface properties of polymers and their bulk compositions and the environment to which the polymer is exposed. The combination of SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM has been used to study surface segregation behaviour of polyolefin blends at the polymer/air and polymer/solid interfaces. SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM experiments have also been performed to characterize the properties of polymer/liquid and polymer/polymer interfaces, focusing on hydrogel materials. A method was developed to study the surface properties of hydrogel contact lens materials at various hydration conditions. Finally, the effect of mechanical stretching on the surface composition and surface mechanical behaviour of phase-separated polyurethanes, used in biomedical implant devices, has been studied by both SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM. (topical review)

  20. Conjugated polymer nanoparticles, methods of using, and methods of making

    KAUST Repository

    Habuchi, Satoshi

    2017-03-16

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for conjugated polymer nanoparticle, method of making conjugated polymer nanoparticles, method of using conjugated polymer nanoparticle, polymers, and the like.

  1. Conjugated polymer nanoparticles, methods of using, and methods of making

    KAUST Repository

    Habuchi, Satoshi; Piwonski, Hubert Marek; Michinobu, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for conjugated polymer nanoparticle, method of making conjugated polymer nanoparticles, method of using conjugated polymer nanoparticle, polymers, and the like.

  2. Solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  3. CLASSIFICATION OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Karpunin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The executed investigations have made it possible to ascertain that a morphological structure of starch granules mainly determine technological peculiarities of starch isolation from raw material, its modification and its later use. Morphological structure of starch granules primarily depends on type of plant starch-containing raw material which has been used for its isolation. Class of raw material exerts a strong impact on the shape and size of the granules. Linear “light” amylose chains and “heavy” amylopectin branch chains form a starch granule ultrastructure. X-ray research has proved that starch granules are characterized by presence of interlacing amorphous and crystalline regions. In this case polymer orientation using stretching of the obtained end product influences on its physical and mechanical  indices which are increasing due to polymer orientation. For the purpose of packaging orientation of polymer films can solve such important problems as significant improvement of operational properties, creation of  thermosetting film materials, improvement of qualitative indices of the recycled film.Results of the conducted research have proved the fact that it is necessary to make changes in technology in order to increase biological degradability of the recycled packaging made from polymers and improve physical and mechanical indices. In this regard film production technology presupposes usage of such substances as stark and others which are characterized by rather large presence of branch chains of molecules and interlacing amorphous and crystalline regions. Such approach makes it possible to obtain after-use package which is strong and quickly degradable by micro-organisms.

  4. Dynamics of polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchenau, U [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik

    1996-11-01

    Neutron scattering from amorphous polymers allows to switch from incoherent to coherent scattering in the same substance. The power of the tool for the study of the picosecond dynamics of disordered matter is illustrated for polybutadiene, polycarbonate and polystyrene. The results suggest a mixture of sound waves and localized modes, strongly interacting with each other, in the picosecond range. (author) 8 figs., tabs., 39 refs.

  5. Conjugated Polymer Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA)............... 12 2.6 Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy... gravimetry analysis (TGA) Thermal analysis of polymer films has been accomplished by TGA and DSC methods with the aid of Perkin-Elmer Series 7 Analysers...The MEH-PPV/acceptor films were prepared by spin-casting of the resulting mixture (with or without precipitate ) on glass substrates of diameter 23 mm

  6. Absorbable and biodegradable polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Shalaby, Shalaby W

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION NOTES: Absorbable/Biodegradable Polymers: Technology Evolution. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONOF NEW SYSTEMS: Segmented Copolyesters with Prolonged Strength Retention Profiles. Polyaxial Crystalline Fiber-Forming Copolyester. Polyethylene Glycol-Based Copolyesters. Cyanoacrylate-Based Systems as Tissue Adhesives. Chitosan-Based Systems. Hyaluronic Acid-Based Systems. DEVELOPMENTS IN PREPARATIVE, PROCESSING, AND EVALUATION METHODS: New Approaches to the Synthesis of Crystalline. Fiber-Forming Aliphatic Copolyesters. Advances in Morphological Development to Tailor the Performance of Me

  7. Mechanoresponsive Healing Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Methods are provided to produce new mechanoresponsive healing systems. Additionally, various embodiments provide a two tier self-healing material system concept that provides a non-intrusive method to mitigate impact damage in a structure ranging from low velocity impact damage (e.g., crack damage) to high velocity impact damage (e.g., ballistic damage.) The various embodiments provide the mechanophore linked polymer PBG-BCB-PBG. The various embodiments provide methods for synthesizing PBG-BCB-PBG.

  8. Electrochemical polymer electrolyte membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Jianhua; Wilkinson, David P

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Polymer Electrolyte Membranes covers PEMs from fundamentals to applications, describing their structure, properties, characterization, synthesis, and use in electrochemical energy storage and solar energy conversion technologies. Featuring chapters authored by leading experts from academia and industry, this authoritative text: Discusses cutting-edge methodologies in PEM material selection and fabricationPoints out important challenges in developing PEMs and recommends mitigation strategies to improve PEM performanceAnalyzes the cur

  9. Understanding Molecular Interactions within Chemically Selective Layered Polymer Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary J. Blanchard

    2009-06-30

    This work focuses on two broad issues. These are (1) the molecular origin of the chemical selectivity achieved with ultrathin polymer multilayers, and (2) how the viscoelastic properties of the polymer layers are affected by exposure to solvent and analytes. These issues are inter-related, and to understand them we need to design experiments that probe both the energetic and kinetic aspects of interfacial adsorption processes. This project focuses on controling the chemical structure, thickness, morphology and sequential ordering of polymer layers bound to interfaces using maleimide-vinyl ether and closely related alternating copolymerization chemistry and efficient covalent cross-linking reactions that allow for layer-by-layer polymer deposition. This chemistry has been developed during the funding cycle of this Grant. We have measure the equilibrium constants for interactions between specific layers within the polymer interfaces and size-controlled, surface-functionalized gold nanoparticles. The ability to control both size and functionality of gold nanoparticle model analytes allows us to evaluate the average “pore size” that characterizes our polymer films. We have measured the “bulk” viscosity and shear modulus of the ultrathin polymer films as a function of solvent overlayer identity using quartz crystal microbalance complex impedance measurements. We have measured microscopic viscosity at specific locations within the layered polymer interfaces with time-resolved fluorescence lifetime and depolarization techniques. We combine polymer, cross-linking and nanoparticle synthetic expertise with a host of characterization techniques, including QCM gravimetry and complex impedance analysis, steady state and time-resolved spectroscopies.

  10. Towards room-temperature performance for lithium-polymer batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, J.B.; Liu, Gao; Curtiss, L.A.; Redfern, Paul C.

    2003-01-01

    Recent work on molecular simulations of the mechanisms of lithium ion conductance has pointed towards two types of limiting process. One has involved the commonly cited segmental motion while the other is related to energy barriers in the solvation shell of polymeric ether oxygens around the lithium ions. Calculations of the barriers to lithium ion migration have provided important indicators as to the best design of the polymer. The theoretical work has coincided with and guided some recent developments on polymer synthesis for lithium batteries. Structural change of the polymer solvation shell has been pursued by the introduction of trimethylene oxide (TMO) units into the polymer. The conductivity measurements on polymers containing TMO unit are encouraging. The architecture of the polymer networks has been varied upon which the solvating groups are attached and significant improvements in sub-ambient performance are observed as a result. However, the above-ambient temperature performance appears controlled by an Arrhenius process that is not completely consistent with the theoretical calculations described here and may indicate the operation of a different mechanism. The new polymers possess significantly lower T g values in the presence of lithium salts, which indicates weaker binding of the lithium ions by the polymers. These properties provide considerable improvement in the transport properties close to the electrode surfaces resulting in decreased impedances at the surfaces both at lithium metal and in composite electrodes. The greater flexibility of the solvation groups combined with appropriate architecture not only has applications in lithium metal-polymer batteries but also in lithium ion liquid and gel systems as well as in fuel cell electrodes

  11. Nanoporous materials modified with biodegradable polymers as models for drug delivery applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruber, Mathias F; Schulte, Lars; Ndoni, Sokol

    2013-01-01

    of principle for a system combining these two encapsulation methods and consisting of a nanoporous polymer (NP) with the pores filled with a degradable polymer mixed with a drug model. Rhodamine 6G (R6G) mixed with Poly(l-Lactic Acid) (PLLA) were confined within the 14nm pores of a NP with gyroid morphology...

  12. Polymers for IUdR radiosensitization of experimental glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Jeffery A.; Xuan Yuan; Brem, Henry

    1997-01-01

    R (fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled anti-IUdR antibody) and for DNA (propidium iodide). Toxicity: Groups of at ≥ 5 non-tumor bearing mice had i.c. implantation of empty (control) or experimental (50% IUdR) polymers (Day 0) alone or combined with cranial external beam irradiation (5 Gy x 2 on days 7 and 8 vs. 2 Gy BID on days 7-10) given via a calibrated 137-Cs irradiator. For in vivo radiosensitization, groups of ≥ 8 mice had sequential i.c. inoculation (2 x 10 5 cells on day 0), craniectomy and implantation of empty (control) or experimental (50% IUdR) polymers, and irradiation. To explore the effect of the timing and escalation of the radiation dose, the interval from implantation of polymers until radiation were: Expt 1:) 5 days (5 Gy on days 7 and 8 (10 Gy total)) vs. Expt 2:) 4 or 7 days (2 Gy BID x 4 on days 7-10 (16 Gy total)). Survival was recorded. Results: In vitro: The polymer provides controlled release of IUdR. After 4 days the cumulative percentages released were 43.7 ± 0.1, 70.0 ± 0.2, and 90.2 ± 0.2 (p 10 ) was -2.02 ± 0.02 or -3.68 ± 0.11 (p < 0.001), respectively. In vivo: Release: The measured activity (cpm) of i.c. 125-IUdR polymers showed protracted decrease vs. time. The proportions of implanted activity were 0.86 ± 0.08, 0.77 ± 0.10, 0.30 ± 0.03 and 0.07 ± 0.01 measured 23, 43, 120 and 311 hours, respectively, after implantation. IUdR polymers caused high tumor labeling. When measured 4 vs. 8 days after IUdR polymer implantation, the mean percentages (± SEM) of labeled tumor cells 0 (coplanar with polymer), 1 and 2 mm distant were striking: 67 ± 11, 42 ± 4, and 32 ± 9 vs. 54 ± 8, 48 ± 5 and 12 ± 4 (p = NS day 4 vs. 8), respectively. Toxicity: No deaths were recorded 80 days after polymer vs. combined polymer and radiation treatments. Radiosensitization: Expt 1: The median survival (d) was 15 for empty polymers alone vs. 16 (p = NS) or 17 (p = NS) for IUdR polymers alone or no treatment, respectively. Survival after empty vs

  13. Polymer crowding and shape distributions in polymer-nanoparticle mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Wei Kang; Denton, Alan R., E-mail: alan.denton@ndsu.edu [Department of Physics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58108-6050 (United States)

    2014-09-21

    Macromolecular crowding can influence polymer shapes, which is important for understanding the thermodynamic stability of polymer solutions and the structure and function of biopolymers (proteins, RNA, DNA) under confinement. We explore the influence of nanoparticle crowding on polymer shapes via Monte Carlo simulations and free-volume theory of a coarse-grained model of polymer-nanoparticle mixtures. Exploiting the geometry of random walks, we model polymer coils as effective penetrable ellipsoids, whose shapes fluctuate according to the probability distributions of the eigenvalues of the gyration tensor. Accounting for the entropic cost of a nanoparticle penetrating a larger polymer coil, we compute the crowding-induced shift in the shape distributions, radius of gyration, and asphericity of ideal polymers in a theta solvent. With increased nanoparticle crowding, we find that polymers become more compact (smaller, more spherical), in agreement with predictions of free-volume theory. Our approach can be easily extended to nonideal polymers in good solvents and used to model conformations of biopolymers in crowded environments.

  14. Polymer crowding and shape distributions in polymer-nanoparticle mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Wei Kang; Denton, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Macromolecular crowding can influence polymer shapes, which is important for understanding the thermodynamic stability of polymer solutions and the structure and function of biopolymers (proteins, RNA, DNA) under confinement. We explore the influence of nanoparticle crowding on polymer shapes via Monte Carlo simulations and free-volume theory of a coarse-grained model of polymer-nanoparticle mixtures. Exploiting the geometry of random walks, we model polymer coils as effective penetrable ellipsoids, whose shapes fluctuate according to the probability distributions of the eigenvalues of the gyration tensor. Accounting for the entropic cost of a nanoparticle penetrating a larger polymer coil, we compute the crowding-induced shift in the shape distributions, radius of gyration, and asphericity of ideal polymers in a theta solvent. With increased nanoparticle crowding, we find that polymers become more compact (smaller, more spherical), in agreement with predictions of free-volume theory. Our approach can be easily extended to nonideal polymers in good solvents and used to model conformations of biopolymers in crowded environments

  15. Synthetic approaches to uniform polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Monzur; Brocchini, Steve

    2006-12-30

    Uniform polymers are characterised by a narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD). Uniformity is also defined by chemical structure in respect of (1) monomer orientation, sequence and stereo-regularity, (2) polymer shape and morphology and (3) chemical functionality. The function of natural polymers such as polypeptides and polynucleotides is related to their conformational structure (e.g. folded tertiary structure). This is only possible because of their high degree of uniformity. While completely uniform synthetic polymers are rare, polymers with broad structure and MWD are widely used in medicine and the biomedical sciences. They are integral components in final dosage forms, drug delivery systems (DDS) and in implantable devices. Increasingly uniform polymers are being used to develop more complex medicines (e.g. delivery of biopharmaceuticals, enhanced formulations or DDS's for existing actives). In addition to the function imparted by any new polymer it will be required to meet stringent specifications in terms of cost containment, scalability, biocompatibility and performance. Synthetic polymers with therapeutic activity are also being developed to exploit their polyvalent properties, which is not possible with low molecular weight molecules. There is need to utilise uniform polymers for applications where the polymer may interact with the systemic circulation, tissues or cellular environment. There are also potential applications (e.g. stimuli responsive coatings) where uniform polymers may be used for their more defined property profile. While it is not yet practical to prepare synthetic polymers to the same high degree of uniformity as proteins, nature also effectively utilises many polymers with lower degrees of uniformity (e.g. polysaccharides, poly(amino acids), polyhydroxyalkanoates). In recent years it has become possible to prepare with practical experimental protocols sufficient quantities of polymers that display many aspects of uniformity. This

  16. Biomolecule-functionalized polymer brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Xu, Fu-Jian

    2013-04-21

    Functional polymer brushes have been utilized extensively for the immobilization of biomolecules, which is of crucial importance for the development of biosensors and biotechnology. Recent progress in polymerization methods, in particular surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), has provided a unique means for the design and synthesis of new biomolecule-functionalized polymer brushes. This current review summarizes such recent research activities. The different preparation strategies for biomolecule immobilization through polymer brush spacers are described in detail. The functional groups of the polymer brushes used for biomolecule immobilization include epoxide, carboxylic acid, hydroxyl, aldehyde, and amine groups. The recent research activities indicate that functional polymer brushes become versatile and powerful spacers for immobilization of various biomolecules to maximize their functionalities. This review also demonstrates that surface-initiated ATRP is used more frequently than other polymerization methods in the designs of new biomolecule-functionalized polymer brushes.

  17. Claisen thermally rearranged (CTR) polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, Alberto; Rangou, Sofia; Shishatskiy, Sergey; Filiz, Volkan; Abetz, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Thermally rearranged (TR) polymers, which are considered the next-generation of membrane materials because of their excellent transport properties and high thermal and chemical stability, are proven to have significant drawbacks because of the high temperature required for the rearrangement and low degree of conversion during this process. We demonstrate that using a [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement, the temperature required for the rearrangement of a solid glassy polymer was reduced by 200°C. Conversions of functionalized polyimide to polybenzoxazole of more than 97% were achieved. These highly mechanically stable polymers were almost five times more permeable and had more than two times higher degrees of conversion than the reference polymer treated under the same conditions. Properties of these second-generation TR polymers provide the possibility of preparing efficient polymer membranes in a form of, for example, thin-film composite membranes for various gas and liquid membrane separation applications. PMID:27482538

  18. Terminology of Polymers Containing Ionizable or Ionic Groups and of Polymers Containing Ions, VII.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarm, V.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The class of ionic polymers has widespread application in many areas of everyday life, in industrial production, and in the processes of living matter. The properties of ionic polymers depend on the polymer structure, and the nature, content, and location of the ionic groups. To clear differences among various ionic polymers, the IUPAC recommendations present 34 definitionsfor the ionomer, polyacid, polybase, polyampholytic polymer, ion-exchange polymer, polybetaine, polyelectrolyte, intrinsically conducting polymer, solid polymer electrolyte, etc

  19. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  20. Planar-Processed Polymer Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Sun, Huabin; Shin, Eul-Yong; Lin, Yen-Fu; Li, Wenwu; Noh, Yong-Young

    2016-10-01

    Planar-processed polymer transistors are proposed where the effective charge injection and the split unipolar charge transport are all on the top surface of the polymer film, showing ideal device characteristics with unparalleled performance. This technique provides a great solution to the problem of fabrication limitations, the ambiguous operating principle, and the performance improvements in practical applications of conjugated-polymer transistors. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Conjugated Polymers for Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livi, Francesco

    This dissertation is aimed at developing materials for flexible, large area, ITO-free polymer solar cells (PSCs) fully printed under ambient conditions. A large screening of conjugated polymers, both novel and well-known materials, has been carried out in order to find suitable candidates...... polymerization method for industrial production of polymers. Several DArP protocols have been employed for the synthesis of PPDTBT leading to polymers with high structural regularity and photovoltaic performances comparable with the same materials synthesized via Stille cross-coupling polymerization...

  2. Multifunctional Polymer/Inorganic Nanocomposites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manias, E

    2003-01-01

    ... in multifunctional nanocomposite materials. Understanding the structure/property relations in polymer/clay nanocomposites is of great importance in designing materials with desired sets of properties...

  3. Wear of polymers and composites

    CERN Document Server

    Abdelbary, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    In the field of tribology, the wear behaviour of polymers and composite materials is considered a highly non-linear phenomenon. Wear of Polymers and Composites introduces fundamentals of polymers and composites tribology. The book suggests a new approach to explore the effect of applied load and surface defects on the fatigue wear behaviour of polymers, using a new tribometer and thorough experiments. It discusses effects of surface cracks, under different static and cyclic loading parameters on wear, and presents an intelligent algorithm, in the form of a neural network, to map the relations

  4. Application of Composite Polymer Electrolytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scrosati, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    ...)PEO-based composite polymer electrolytes, by a series of specifically addressed electrochemical tests which included the determination of the conductivity and of the lithium transference number...

  5. Sustainable polymers from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunqing; Romain, Charles; Williams, Charlotte K

    2016-12-14

    Renewable resources are used increasingly in the production of polymers. In particular, monomers such as carbon dioxide, terpenes, vegetable oils and carbohydrates can be used as feedstocks for the manufacture of a variety of sustainable materials and products, including elastomers, plastics, hydrogels, flexible electronics, resins, engineering polymers and composites. Efficient catalysis is required to produce monomers, to facilitate selective polymerizations and to enable recycling or upcycling of waste materials. There are opportunities to use such sustainable polymers in both high-value areas and in basic applications such as packaging. Life-cycle assessment can be used to quantify the environmental benefits of sustainable polymers.

  6. Phenomenology of polymer solution dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillies, George D. J

    2011-01-01

    ... solutions, not dilute solutions or polymer melts. From centrifugation and solvent dynamics to viscosity and diffusion, experimental measurements and their quantitative representations are the core of the discussion...

  7. Small angle scattering and polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs

  8. Polymer Processing and Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to process and evaluate polymers for use in nonlinear optical, conductive and structural Air Force applications. Primary capabilities are extrusion of...

  9. New trends in the optical and electronic applications of polymers containing transition-metal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Juan; Chen, Yang; Xu, Wen-Juan; Zhao, Qiang; Huang, Wei

    2012-04-13

    Polymers containing transition-metal complexes exhibit excellent optical and electronic properties, which are different from those of polymers with a pure organic skeleton and combine the advantages of both polymers and metal complexes. Hence, research about this class of polymers has attracted more and more interest in recent years. Up to now, a number of novel polymers containing transition-metal complexes have been exploited, and significant advances in their optical and electronic applications have been achieved. In this article, we summarize some new research trends in the applications of this important class of optoelectronic polymers, such as chemo/biosensors, electronic memory devices and photovoltaic devices. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Discovery of Antibiotics-derived Polymers for Gene Delivery using Combinatorial Synthesis and Cheminformatics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potta, Thrimoorthy; Zhen, Zhuo; Grandhi, Taraka Sai Pavan; Christensen, Matthew D.; Ramos, James; Breneman, Curt M.; Rege, Kaushal

    2014-01-01

    We describe the combinatorial synthesis and cheminformatics modeling of aminoglycoside antibiotics-derived polymers for transgene delivery and expression. Fifty-six polymers were synthesized by polymerizing aminoglycosides with diglycidyl ether cross-linkers. Parallel screening resulted in identification of several lead polymers that resulted in high transgene expression levels in cells. The role of polymer physicochemical properties in determining efficacy of transgene expression was investigated using Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) cheminformatics models based on Support Vector Regression (SVR) and ‘building block’ polymer structures. The QSAR model exhibited high predictive ability, and investigation of descriptors in the model, using molecular visualization and correlation plots, indicated that physicochemical attributes related to both, aminoglycosides and diglycidyl ethers facilitated transgene expression. This work synergistically combines combinatorial synthesis and parallel screening with cheminformatics-based QSAR models for discovery and physicochemical elucidation of effective antibiotics-derived polymers for transgene delivery in medicine and biotechnology. PMID:24331709

  11. Clickable antifouling polymer brushes for polymer pen lithography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bog, U.; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Mueller, S. L.; Havenridge, S.; Parrillo, Viviana; Bruns, M.; Holmes, A. E.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, C.; Fuchs, H.; Hirtz, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 13 (2017), s. 12109-12117 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-09368Y Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : antifouling * biofunctional interfaces * polymer brushes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 7.504, year: 2016

  12. Enhancement of Polymer Cytocompatibility by Nanostructuring of Polymer Surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slepička, P.; Kasálková-Slepičková, N.; Bačáková, Lucie; Kolská, Z.; Švorčík, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 2012 (2012), ID527403 ISSN 1687-4110 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : polymer cytocompatibility * polymer surface * nanotechnology Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.547, year: 2012

  13. Radiation Synthesis of Superabsorbent Polymers Based on Natural Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Murat; Hayrabolulu, Hande

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of proposed research contract were first synthesize superabsorbent polymers based on natural polymers to be used as disposable diapers and soil conditioning materials in agriculture, horticulture and other super adsorbent using industries. We have planned to use the natural polymers; locust beam gum, tara gum, guar gum and sodium alginate on the preparation of natural superabsorbent polymers(SAP). The aqueous solution of natural polymers and their blends with trace amount of monomer and cross-linking agents will be irradiated in paste like conditions by gamma rays for the preparation of cross-linked superabsorbent systems. The water absorption and deswellling capacity of prepared super adsorbents and retention capacity, absorbency under load, suction power, swelling pressure and pet-rewet properties will be determined. Use of these materials instead of synthetic super absorbents will be examined by comparing the performance of finished products. The experimental studies achieved in the second year of project mainly on the effect of radiation on the chemistry of sodium alginate polymers in different irradiation conditions and structure-property relationship particularly with respect to radiation induced changes on the molecular weight of natural polymers and preliminary studies on the synthesis of natural-synthetic hydride super adsorbent polymers were given in details

  14. Polymer Crowding in Confined Polymer-Nanoparticle Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Wyatt J.; Denton, Alan R.

    Crowding can influence the conformations and thus functionality of macromolecules in quasi-two-dimensional environments, such as DNA or proteins confined to a cell membrane. We explore such crowding within a model of polymers as penetrable ellipses, whose shapes are governed by the statistics of a 2D random walk. The principal radii of the polymers fluctuate according to probability distributions of the eigenvalues of the gyration tensor. Within this coarse-grained model, we perform Monte Carlo simulations of mixtures of polymers and hard nanodisks, including trial changes in polymer conformation (shape and orientation). Penetration of polymers by nanodisks is incorporated with a free energy cost predicted by polymer field theory. Over ranges of size ratio and nanodisk density, we analyze the influence of crowding on polymer shape by computing eigenvalue distributions, mean radius of gyration, and mean asphericity of the polymer. We compare results with predictions of free-volume theory and with corresponding results in three dimensions. Our approach may help to interpret recent (and motivate future) experimental studies of biopolymers interacting with cell membranes, with relevance for drug delivery and gene therapy. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1106331.

  15. Simultaneous Thermal and Gamma Radiation Aging of Electrical Cable Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, Leonard S.

    2018-04-11

    The polymers used for insulation in nuclear power plant electrical cables are susceptible to aging during long term operation. Elevated temperature is the primary contributor to changes in polymer structure that result loss of mechanical and electrical properties, but gamma radiation is also a significant source of degradation for polymers used within relevant plant locations. Despite many years of polymer degradation research, the combined effects of simultaneous exposure to thermal and radiation stress are not well understood. As nuclear operators contemplate and prepare for extended operations beyond initial license periods, a predictive understanding of exposure-based cable material degradation is becoming an increasingly important input to safety, licensing, operations and economic decisions. We are focusing on carefully-controlled simultaneous thermal and gamma radiation accelerating aging and characterization of the most common nuclear cable polymers to understand the relative contributions of temperature, time, dose and dose rate to changes in cable polymer material structure and properties. Improved understanding of cable performance in long term operation will help support continued sustainable nuclear power generation.

  16. Polymer Microstructures: Modification and Characterization by Fluid Sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, S. A. E.; Baba, M.; Nedelec, J.-M.; Grolier, Jean-Pierre E.

    2008-12-01

    Polymer micro-organization can be modified by a combination of three constraints, thermal, hydrostatic, and fluid sorption. In selecting the fluid’s nature, chemically active or inert, and its physical state, liquid or supercritical, new “materials” can be generated. In addition, the interplay of temperature and pressure allows tailoring the obtained material structure for specific applications. Several complementary techniques have been developed to modify, analyze, and characterize the end products: scanning transitiometry, vibrating-wire (VW)-PVT coupling, thermoporosimetry, and temperature-modulated DSC (TMDSC). The great variety of possible applications in materials science is illustrated with different polymers which can produce materials from soft gel to rigid foams when submitted to fluid sorption, typical fluids being methane or a simple gas (CO2 or N2). Absorption of an appropriate fluid in a cross-linked polymer leads to a swelling phenomenon. Thermoporosimetry is a calorimetric technique developed to measure the shift by confinement of thermal-transition temperatures of the swelling fluids, which can be currently used solvents or mercury. Application of thermoporosimetry to a swollen cross-linked polymer allows calculation of the mesh size distribution and evaluation of the degree of reticulation of the polymer. The same technique can be applied to characterize the pore size distribution in a foamed polymer.

  17. Thermodynamic phase behavior of API/polymer solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, Anke; Ji, Yuanhui; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2014-07-07

    To improve the bioavailability of poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), these materials are often integrated into a polymer matrix that acts as a carrier. The resulting mixture is called a solid dispersion. In this work, the phase behaviors of solid dispersions were investigated as a function of the API as well as of the type and molecular weight of the carrier polymer. Specifically, the solubility of artemisinin and indomethacin was measured in different poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEG 400, PEG 6000, and PEG 35000). The measured solubility data and the solubility of sulfonamides in poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) K10 and PEG 35000 were modeled using the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT). The results show that PC-SAFT predictions are in a good accordance with the experimental data, and PC-SAFT can be used to predict the whole phase diagram of an API/polymer solid dispersion as a function of the kind of API and polymer and of the polymer's molecular weight. This remarkably simplifies the screening process for suitable API/polymer combinations.

  18. Hybrid protein-synthetic polymer nanoparticles for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseva, Neli S; Rydz, Joanna; Stoyanova, Ekaterina V; Mitova, Violeta A

    2015-01-01

    Among the most common nanoparticulate systems, the polymeric nanocarriers have a number of key benefits, which give a great choice of delivery platforms. Nevertheless, polymeric nanoparticles possess some limitations that include use of toxic solvents in the production process, polymer degradation, drug leakage outside the diseased tissue, and polymer cytotoxicity. The combination of polymers of biological and synthetic origin is an appealing modern strategy for the production of novel nanocarriers with unprecedented properties. Proteins' interface can play an important role in determining bioactivity and toxicity and gives perspective for future development of the polymer-based nanoparticles. The design of hybrid constructs composed of synthetic polymer and biological molecules such as proteins can be considered as a straightforward tool to integrate a broad spectrum of properties and biofunctions into a single device. This review discusses hybrid protein-synthetic polymer nanoparticles with different structures and levels in complexity and functionality, in view of their applications as drug delivery systems. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hybrid Polymer-Network Hydrogels with Tunable Mechanical Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Czarnecki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid polymer-network gels built by both physical and covalent polymer crosslinking combine the advantages of both these crosslinking types: they exhibit high mechanical strength along with excellent fracture toughness and extensibility. If these materials are extensively deformed, their physical crosslinks can break such that strain energy is dissipated and irreversible fracturing is restricted to high strain only. This mechanism of energy dissipation is determined by the kinetics and thermodynamics of the physical crosslinking contribution. In this paper, we present a poly(ethylene glycol (PEG based material toolkit to control these contributions in a rational and custom fashion. We form well-defined covalent polymer-network gels with regularly distributed additional supramolecular mechanical fuse links, whose strength of connectivity can be tuned without affecting the primary polymer-network composition. This is possible because the supramolecular fuse links are based on terpyridine–metal complexation, such that the mere choice of the fuse-linking metal ion adjusts their kinetics and thermodynamics of complexation–decomplexation, which directly affects the mechanical properties of the hybrid gels. We use oscillatory shear rheology to demonstrate this rational control and enhancement of the mechanical properties of the hybrid gels. In addition, static light scattering reveals their highly regular and well-defined polymer-network structures. As a result of both, the present approach provides an easy and reliable concept for preparing hybrid polymer-network gels with rationally designed properties.

  20. Polymer solidification national program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1993-04-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed several new and innovative polymer processes for the solidification of low-level radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes streams. Polyethylene and modified sulfur cement solidification technologies have undergone steady, gradual development at BNL over the past nine years. During this time they have progressed through each of the stages necessary for logical technology maturation: from process conception, parameter optimization, waste form testing, evaluation of long-term durability, economic analysis, and scale-up feasibility. This technology development represents a significant investment which can potentially provide DOE with both short- and long-term savings

  1. Monte Carlo simulations of confined polymer systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, Johannes Henricus van

    1991-01-01

    This thesis considers confined polymer systems. These systems are of considerable interest, e.g., thin polymer films, chromotography of polymer solutions, drag reduction, enhanced oil recovery, stabilization of colloidal dispersions, lubrication and biolubrication. The method used to study these

  2. Processing of polymers using reactive solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, P.J.; Kurja, J.; Meijer, H.E.H.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    1997-01-01

    A review with many refs. on processing of polymers using reactive solvents including classification of synthetic polymers, guidelines for the selection of reactive solvents, basic aspects of processing, examples of intractable and tractable polymer/reactive solvent system

  3. Combined nanoimprint and photolithography of integrated polymer optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    are defined in SU-8 resist, doped with Rhodamine 6G laser dye, shaped as planar slab waveguides on a Fused Silica buffer substrate, and with a lst-order DFB surface corrugation forming the laser resonator. When optically pumped at 532 nm, lasing is obtained in the wavelength range 560 nm -600 nm, determined...

  4. Polymer fiber detectors for photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Hubert; Berer, Thomas; Pühringer, Karoline; Nuster, Robert; Paltauf, Günther; Burgholzer, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is a novel imaging method for medical and biological applications, combining the advantages of Diffuse Optical Imaging (high contrast) and Ultrasonic Imaging (high spatial resolution). A short laser pulse hits the sample. The absorbed energy causes a thermoelastic expansion and thereby launches a broadband ultrasonic wave (photoacoustic signal). The distribution of absorbed energy density is reconstructed from measurements of the photoacoustic signals around the sample. For collecting photoacoustic signals either point like or extended, integrating detectors can be used. The latter integrate the pressure at least in one dimension, e.g. along a line. Thereby, the three dimensional imaging problem is reduced to a two dimensional problem. For a tomography device consisting of a scanning line detector and a rotating sample, fiber-based detectors made of polymer have been recently introduced. Fiber-based detectors are easy to use and possess a constant, high spatial resolution over their entire active length. Polymer fibers provide a better impedance matching and a better handling compared with glass fibers which were our first approach. First measurement results using polymer fiber detectors and some approaches for improving the performance are presented.

  5. Numerical solution of the polymer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugse, V.; Karlsen, K.H.; Lie, K.-A.; Natvig, J.R.

    1999-05-01

    The paper describes the application of front tracking to the polymer system, an example of a nonstrictly hyperbolic system. Front tracking computes piecewise constant approximations based on approximate Remain solutions and exact tracking of waves. It is well known that the front tracking method may introduce a blow-up of the initial total variation for initial data along the curve where the two eigenvalues of the hyperbolic system are identical. It is demonstrated by numerical examples that the method converges to the correct solution after a finite time that decreases with the discretization parameter. For multidimensional problems, front tracking is combined with dimensional splitting and numerical experiments indicate that large splitting steps can be used without loss of accuracy. Typical CFL numbers are in the range of 10 to 20 and comparisons with the Riemann free, high-resolution method confirm the high efficiency of front tracking. The polymer system, coupled with an elliptic pressure equation, models two-phase, tree-component polymer flooding in an oil reservoir. Two examples are presented where this model is solved by a sequential time stepping procedure. Because of the approximate Riemann solver, the method is non-conservative and CFL members must be chosen only moderately larger than unity to avoid substantial material balance errors generated in near-well regions after water breakthrough. Moreover, it is demonstrated that dimensional splitting may introduce severe grid orientation effects for unstable displacements that are accentuated for decreasing discretization parameters. 9 figs., 2 tabs., 26 refs.

  6. FEL for the polymer processing industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael J.

    1997-05-01

    Polymers are everywhere in modern life because of their unique combination of end-use functionalities, ease of processing, recycling potential and modest cost. The physical and economic scope of the infrastructure committed to present polymers makes the introduction of entirely new chemistry unlikely. Rather, the breadth of commercial offerings more likely to shrink in the face of the widening mandate for recycling, especially of packaging. Improved performance and new functionality must therefore come by routes such as surface modification. However they must come with little environmental impact and at painfully low cost. Processing with strongly absorbed light offers unique advantages. The journal and patent literatures disclose a number of examples of benefits that can be achieved, principally by use of excimer lasers or special UV lamps. Examples of commercialization are few, however, because of the unit cost and maximum scale of existing light sources. A FEL, however, offers unique advantages: tunability to the optimum wavelength, potential for scale up to high average power, and a path to attractively low unit cost of light. A business analysis of prospective applications defines the technical and economic requirements a FEL for polymer surface processing must meet. These are compared to FEL technology as it now stands and as it is envisioned.

  7. Hybrid Photonic Integration on a Polymer Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyang Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To fulfill the functionality demands from the fast developing optical networks, a hybrid integration approach allows for combining the advantages of various material platforms. We have established a polymer-based hybrid integration platform (polyboard, which provides flexible optical input/ouptut interfaces (I/Os that allow robust coupling of indium phosphide (InP-based active components, passive insertion of thin-film-based optical elements, and on-chip attachment of optical fibers. This work reviews the recent progress of our polyboard platform. On the fundamental level, multi-core waveguides and polymer/silicon nitride heterogeneous waveguides have been fabricated, broadening device design possibilities and enabling 3D photonic integration. Furthermore, 40-channel optical line terminals and compact, bi-directional optical network units have been developed as highly functional, low-cost devices for the wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network. On a larger scale, thermo-optic elements, thin-film elements and an InP gain chip have been integrated on the polyboard to realize a colorless, dual-polarization optical 90° hybrid as the frontend of a coherent receiver. For high-end applications, a wavelength tunable 100Gbaud transmitter module has been demonstrated, manifesting the joint contribution from the polyboard technology, high speed polymer electro-optic modulator, InP driver electronics and ceramic electronic interconnects.

  8. Carrier Transport Enhancement in Conjugated Polymers through Interfacial Self-Assembly of Solution-State Aggregates

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Kui; Khan, Hadayat Ullah; Li, Ruipeng; Hu, Hanlin; Amassian, Aram

    2016-01-01

    and extension of the conjugated backbone of the polymer which clearly translate to significant improvements of carrier transport at the semiconductor-dielectric interface in organic thin film transistors. This study points to opportunities in combining

  9. Monte Carlo Simulation of a Solvated Ionic Polymer with Cluster Morphology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthews, Jessica L; Lada, Emily K; Weiland, Lisa M; Smith, Ralph C; Leo, Donald J

    2005-01-01

    .... Traditional rotational isomeric state theory is applied in combination with a Monte Carlo methodology to develop a simulation model of the conformation of Nafion polymer chains on a nanoscopic level...

  10. Electrochromic artificial muscles based on nanoporous metal-polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detsi, E.; Onck, P. R.; De Hosson, J. T. M.

    2013-01-01

    This work shows that a nano-coating of electrochromic polymer grown onto the ligaments of nanoporous gold causes reversible dimensional and color changes during electrochemical actuation. This combination of electromechanical and optical properties opens additional avenues for the applications of

  11. Supramolecular materials based on hydrogen-bonded polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, Gerrit; Ruokolainen, Janne; Ikkala, Olli; Binder, W

    2007-01-01

    Combining supramolecular principles with block copolymer self-assembly offers unique possibilities to create materials with responsive and/or tunable properties. The present chapter focuses on supramolecular materials based on hydrogen bonding and (block co-) polymers. Several cases will be

  12. Ultimate performance of polymer: Fullerene bulk heterojunction tandem solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotlarski, J.D.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    We present the model calculations to explore the potential of polymer:fullerene tandem solar cells. As an approach we use a combined optical and electrical device model, where the absorption profiles are used as starting point for the numerical current-voltage calculations. With this model a maximum

  13. Entangled Polymer Melts in Extensional Flow: Synthesis, Rheology, Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorokhin, Andriy

    This thesis contains 5 chapters and reprints in Appendices, combined of both published and unpublished materials. The first chapter is an introduction to the goals, methods and problem identification of the project of the entangled polymer melts in extensional flow, which is aimed to shed some li...

  14. Polymeric Medical Sutures: An Exploration of Polymers and Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Cassandra M.; Schneiderman, Deborah K.; Yu, Ming; Javner, Cassidy H.; Distefano, Mark D.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2017-01-01

    With new K-12 national science standards emerging, there is an increased need for experiments that integrate engineering into the context of society. Here we describe a chemistry experiment that combines science and engineering principles while introducing basic polymer and green chemistry concepts. Using medical sutures as a platform for…

  15. Salt-Doped Polymer Light-Emitting Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Bathilde

    Polymer Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells (PLECs) are solid state devices based on the in situ electrochemical doping of the luminescent polymer and the formation of a p-n junction where light is emitted upon the application of a bias current or voltage. PLECs answer the drawbacks of polymer light-emitting diodes as they do not require an ultra-thin active layer nor are they reliant on low work function cathode materials that are air unstable. However, because of the dynamic nature of the doping, they suffer from slow response times and poor stability over time. Frozen-junction PLECs offer a solution to these drawbacks, yet they are impractical due to their sub-ambient operation temperature requirement. Our work presented henceforth aims to achieve room temperature frozen-junction PLECS. In order to do that we removed the ion solvating/transporting polymer from the active layer, resulting in a luminescent polymer combined solely with a salt sandwiched between an ITO electrode and an aluminum electrode. The resulting device was not expected to operate like a PLEC due to the absence of an ion-solvating and ion-transporting medium. However, we discovered that the polymer/salt devices could be activated by applying a large voltage bias, resulting in much higher current and luminance. More important, the activated state is quasi static. Devices based on the well-known orange-emitting polymer MEH-PPV displayed a luminance storage half-life of 150 hours when activated by forward bias (ITO biased positively with respect to the aluminum) and 200 hours when activated by reverse bias. More remarkable yet, devices based on a green co-polymer displayed no notable decay in current density or luminance even after being stored for 1200 hours at room temperature! PL imaging under UV excitation demonstrates the presence of doping. These devices are described herein along with an explanation of their operating mechanisms.

  16. Conformation sensitive charge transport in conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattias Andersson, L.; Hedström, Svante; Persson, Petter

    2013-01-01

    Temperature dependent charge carrier mobility measurements using field effect transistors and density functional theory calculations are combined to show how the conformation dependent frontier orbital delocalization influences the hole- and electron mobilities in a donor-acceptor based polymer. A conformationally sensitive lowest unoccupied molecular orbital results in an electron mobility that decreases with increasing temperature above room temperature, while a conformationally stable highest occupied molecular orbital is consistent with a conventional hole mobility behavior and also proposed to be one of the reasons for why the material works well as a hole transporter in amorphous bulk heterojunction solar cells

  17. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of semicrystalline polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, C

    2009-11-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is an effective analytical tool to characterize the physical properties of a polymer. DSC enables determination of melting, crystallization, and mesomorphic transition temperatures, and the corresponding enthalpy and entropy changes, and characterization of glass transition and other effects that show either changes in heat capacity or a latent heat. Calorimetry takes a special place among other methods. In addition to its simplicity and universality, the energy characteristics (heat capacity C(P) and its integral over temperature T--enthalpy H), measured via calorimetry, have a clear physical meaning even though sometimes interpretation may be difficult. With introduction of differential scanning calorimeters (DSC) in the early 1960s calorimetry became a standard tool in polymer science. The advantage of DSC compared with other calorimetric techniques lies in the broad dynamic range regarding heating and cooling rates, including isothermal and temperature-modulated operation. Today 12 orders of magnitude in scanning rate can be covered by combining different types of DSCs. Rates as low as 1 microK s(-1) are possible and at the other extreme heating and cooling at 1 MK s(-1) and higher is possible. The broad dynamic range is especially of interest for semicrystalline polymers because they are commonly far from equilibrium and phase transitions are strongly time (rate) dependent. Nevertheless, there are still several unsolved problems regarding calorimetry of polymers. I try to address a few of these, for example determination of baseline heat capacity, which is related to the problem of crystallinity determination by DSC, or the occurrence of multiple melting peaks. Possible solutions by using advanced calorimetric techniques, for example fast scanning and high frequency AC (temperature-modulated) calorimetry are discussed.

  18. Entanglements in Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Renxuan; Lee, Youngmin; Aplan, Melissa; Caggiano, Nick; Gomez, Enrique; Colby, Ralph

    Conjugated polymers, such as poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and poly-((9,9-dioctylfluorene)-2,7-diyl-alt-[4,7-bis(thiophen-5-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole]-2',2''-diyl) (PFTBT), are widely used as hole and electron transport materials in a variety of electronic devices. However, fundamental knowledge regarding chain entanglements and nematic-to-isotropic transition is still lacking and are crucial to maximize charge transport properties. A systematic melt rheology study on P3HT with various molecular weights and regio regularities was performed. We find that the entanglement molecular weight Me is 5.0 kg/mol for regiorandom P3HT, but the apparent Me for regioregular P3HT is significantly higher. The difference is postulated to arise from the presence of a nematic phase only in regioregular P3HT. Analogously, PFTBT shows a clear rheological signature of the nematic-to-isotropic transition as a reversible sharp transition at 278 C. Shearing of this nematic phase leads to anisotropic crystalline order in PFTBT. We postulate that aligning the microstructure will impact charge transport and thereby advance the field of conducting polymers. National Science Foundation.

  19. Polymer article of manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newlove, J.C.; McDougall, L.A.

    1987-12-15

    It is an object of this invention to provide an article and its use to enhance the production of hydrocarbons from geologial reservoirs, more particularly from fractured formations. It has been an additional object to devise a composition for providing controlled release of a reagent downhole, in a pipeline, in other oil-containing environments or fluids. It has been discovered that it is possible to provide for the introduction of an additive reagent into a liquid hydrocarbon by providing solid polymeric bodies each comprising a polymeric matrix containing a substantially water insoluble reagent such as a wax crystal modifier, demulsifier, scale inhibitor, corrosion inhibitor, biocide, ashless dispersant, antioxidant and mixtures thereof. These bodies are, in use, positioned at a location where it is desired to release the reagent into the substantially hydrocarbon fluid and, upon contact with fluid in this location, active reagent is released into the fluid. Thus in accordance with this invention there is provided a solid polymeric body comprising a polymer matrix containing a substantially water-insoluble reagent leachable into a substantially hydrocarbon liquid environment. The object of this invention has been realized in specific form by beads comprising a copolymeric matrix of methylmethacrylate and methacrylic acid containing the behenyl half ester of a C/sub 24/-C/sub 28/ alkenyl succinic anhydride polymer and having a diameter ranging from 0.2 to 1 mm. Such beads, when introduced downhole in a hydraulic fracturing operation, were found to inhibit paraffin wax deposition.

  20. Polymer dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren

    2006-01-01

    , elektronstrålelithografi og Röntgenstrålelithografi. Andre polymerer er også blevet formgivet via ”nanoimprint” lithografi for at skabe laserresonatorer. En række lasere, både baseret på et flydende forstærkningsmedium og et faststof forstærkningsrmedium er blevet udviklet. Laserne giver både lys i flere ”modes” og i een......Formålet med dette Ph.D. arbejde har været at udvikle miniaturiserede polymer farvestoflasere, egnet til at blive integreret i mikrochips som også indeholder andre polymerstrukturer – som for eksempel kan findes i ”Laboratorie-på-en-chip” kredsløb. Lasernes funktion skal være at levere lys til...... meget følsomme sensorformål, og at undgå at skulle opliniere eksterne lyskilder til sensorer på polymerchips. En enkelt type gennemsigtig ”resist” (SU-8) er blevet brugt til at udvikle en række laserresonatorer i polymer. ”Resisten” er blevet formgivet via en række lithografiske teknikker: UV lithografi...

  1. Homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, C; Androsch, R; Schmelzer, J W P

    2017-11-15

    The pathway of crystal nucleation significantly influences the structure and properties of semi-crystalline polymers. Crystal nucleation is normally heterogeneous at low supercooling, and homogeneous at high supercooling, of the polymer melt. Homogeneous nucleation in bulk polymers has been, so far, hardly accessible experimentally, and was even doubted to occur at all. This topical review summarizes experimental findings on homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers. Recently developed fast scanning calorimetry, with cooling and heating rates up to 10 6 K s -1 , allows for detailed investigations of nucleation near and even below the glass transition temperature, including analysis of nuclei stability. As for other materials, the maximum homogeneous nucleation rate for polymers is located close to the glass transition temperature. In the experiments discussed here, it is shown that polymer nucleation is homogeneous at such temperatures. Homogeneous nucleation in polymers is discussed in the framework of the classical nucleation theory. The majority of our observations are consistent with the theory. The discrepancies may guide further research, particularly experiments to progress theoretical development. Progress in the understanding of homogeneous nucleation is much needed, since most of the modelling approaches dealing with polymer crystallization exclusively consider homogeneous nucleation. This is also the basis for advancing theoretical approaches to the much more complex phenomena governing heterogeneous nucleation.

  2. Developments in polymer degradation - 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassie, N.

    1987-01-01

    A selection of topics which are representative of the continually expanding area of polymer degradation is presented. The aspects emphasised include the products of degradation of specific polymers, degradation by high energy radiation and mechanical forces, fire retardant studies and the special role of small radicals in degradation processes. (author)

  3. Wood and concrete polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, K.

    1974-01-01

    There are several ways to prepare and use wood and concrete polymer composites. The most important improvements in the case of concrete polymer composites are obtained for compressive and tensile strengths. The progress in this field in United States and other countries is discussed in this rview. (M.S.)

  4. All-Polymer Electrochemical Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafka, Jan Robert

    This thesis presents fabrication strategies to produce different types of all-polymer electrochemical sensors based on electrodes made of the highly conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Three different systems are presented, fabricated either by using microdrilling or by hot...

  5. Degradable polymers for tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijkhuizen-Radersma, Riemke; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.; Zhang, Zheng; Grijpma, Dirk W.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter elaborates the degradable polymers for tissue engineering and their required scaffold material in tissue engineering. It recognizes the examples of degradable polymers broadly used in tissue engineering. Tissue engineering is the persuasion of the body to heal itself through the

  6. Graphene-based polymer nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tkalya, E.

    2012-01-01

    The main reason for the rapid development of polymer composite materials is that the traditional "pure" polymers have largely played out its performance capabilities whereas technology requires materials with new properties and advances. There are a number of advantages polymeric composites have

  7. Contact mechanics in glassy polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van L.C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Polymers, primarily semi-crystalline, are widely used in applications where low friction is required; examples are cups in artificial hip joints, bearings and gears. Until now there is no clear indication why some polymers display low friction and others don’t. In this thesis a systematic

  8. Radiation synthesis of polymer polyol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jianmei; Zeng Xinmiao; Zhou Chengfei; Cao Wei; Zhai Tong; Wu Dezhen

    2010-01-01

    The polymer polyol was synthesized by γ irradiation. The properties of polymer polyol synthesized with different radiation dose were studied. The experiment result showed the radiation dose hadn't significant influence on the hydroxyl value of polymer polyol. The sample with different solid content had different hydroxyl value. When the radiation dose is between 1 to 12 kGy, the viscosity and hydroxyl value of polymer polyol were increased with the increment of radiation dose. When radiation dose is between 1 to 12 kGy, with the increment of radiation dose, viscosity of polymer polyol was rapidly increased, and the content solid of sample has few change. When radiation dose is higher than 20 kGy, the viscosity and hydroxyl value of polymer polyol have gradually increase with the increment of radiation dose. The size of polymer particles is 0.1-0.6 μm. The value of 150 mesh filter was 100%. The polymer polyol may be used as PU foam and elastomer. (authors)

  9. HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Qingfeng, Li; He, Ronghuan

    2003-01-01

    This paper will report recent results from our group on polymer fuel cells (PEMFC) based on the temperature resistant polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI), which allow working temperatures up to 200°C. The membrane has a water drag number near zero and need no water management at all. The high working...

  10. Fifty years of polymer science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du Prez, Filip; Hoogenboom, Richard; Klumperman, Bert; Meier, Michael; Monteiro, Michael; Müller, Alejandro; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2015-01-01

    The European Polymer Journal (EPJ) has been serving the scientific community for 50 years, which makes it one of the older macromolecular journals with a broad focus. Since its launch 50 years ago, EPJ has provided a distinguished forum for publications in polymer research, including chemistry,

  11. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qui; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling

    2004-05-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding in the swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to the naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of the injected solution bypasses the target pore space containing oil. The objective of this work is to investigate whether combining these two technologies could broaden the applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium--polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 9.2 to 12.9.

  12. Characterization of ethyl cellulose polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnaj, Tazin; Ahmed, Salah U; Plakogiannis, Fotios M

    2013-01-01

    Ethyl cellulose (EC) polymer was characterized for its property before considering the interactions with the plasicizer. Ethocel Std.10 FP Premium from Dow chemical company USA was tested for its solubility, morphology and thermal properties. Seven percentage of EC solution in ethanol was found to be the right viscosity used to prepare the film. The EC polymer and EC film without any plasticizers showed almost identical thermal behavior, but in X-ray diffraction showed different arrangements of crystallites and amorphous region. Dynamic mechanical analysis of film showed that without a plasticizer, EC film was not flexible and had very low elongation with high applied force. The aim of the work was to avoid using the commercially available EC dispersions Surelease® and Aquacoat®; both already have additives on it. Instead, Ethocel EC polymer (powder) was characterized in our laboratory in order to find out the properties of polymer before considering the interactions of the polymer with various plasticizers.

  13. Accelerated Characterization of Polymer Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wroczynski; l. Brewer; D. Buckley; M. Burrell; R. Potyrailo

    2003-07-30

    This report describes the efforts to develop a suite of microanalysis techniques that can rapidly measure a variety of polymer properties of industrial importance, including thermal, photo-oxidative, and color stability; as well as ductility, viscosity, and mechanical and antistatic properties. Additional goals of the project were to direct the development of these techniques toward simultaneous measurements of multiple polymer samples of small size in real time using non-destructive and/or parallel or rapid sequential measurements, to develop microcompounding techniques for preparing polymers with additives, and to demonstrate that samples prepared in the microcompounder could be analyzed directly or used in rapid off-line measurements. These enabling technologies are the crucial precursors to the development of high-throughput screening (HTS) methodologies for the polymer additives industry whereby the rate of development of new additives and polymer formulations can be greatly accelerated.

  14. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  15. Direct Photopatterning of Electrochromic Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Dyer, Aubrey L.; Shen, D. Eric

    2013-01-01

    Propylenedioxythiophene (ProDOT) polymers are synthesized using an oxidative polymerization route that results in methacrylate substituted poly(ProDOTs) having a Mn of 10–20 kDa wherein the methacrylate functionality constitutes from 6 to 60% of the total monomer units. Solutions of these polymers...... show excellent film forming abilities, with thin films prepared using both spray‐casting and spin‐coating. These polymers are demonstrated to crosslink upon UV irradiation at 350 nm, in the presence of an appropriate photoinitiator, to render the films insoluble to common organic solvents....... Electrochemical, spectroelectrochemical, and colorimetric analyses of the crosslinked polymer films are performed to establish that they retain the same electrochromic qualities as the parent polymers with no detriment to the observed properties. To demonstrate applicability for multi‐film processing...

  16. Polymer research by neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, D.

    1993-01-01

    Polymer physics aims on an understanding of the macroscopic behavior of polymer systems on the basis of their molecular structure and dynamics. For this purpose neutrons serve as a unique probe, allowing a simultaneous investigation of polymer structure and dynamics on a molecular scale. Furthermore, hydrogen deuterium exchange facilitates molecular labeling and offers the possibility to observe selected chains or chain parts in dense systems. Neutron small angle scattering reveals information on the conformation and possible aggregation of polymer chains. Data on linear and star like molecules are shown as examples. High resolution neutron spin-echospectroscopy observes the molecular dynamics of long chain molecules. Results on the large scale motion of chins in polymer melts are presented. finally, experiments on chain relaxation close to the glass transition are displayed. Three distinctly different relaxation processes are revealed. (author)

  17. Polymer materials for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, H.

    1993-01-01

    The radiation-resistant polymer materials have recently drawn much attention from the viewpoint of components for fusion reactors. These are mainly applied to electrical insulators, thermal insulators and structural supports of superconducting magnets in fusion reactors. The polymer materials used for these purposes are required to withstand the synergetic effects of high mechanical loads, cryogenic temperatures and intense nuclear radiation. The objective of this review is to summarize the anticipated performance of candidate materials including polymer composites for fusion magnets. The cryogenic properties and the radiation effects of polymer materials are separately reviewed, because there is only limited investigation on the above-mentioned synergetic effects. Additional information on advanced polymer materials for fusion reactors is also introduced with emphasis on recent developments. (orig.)

  18. Ion beam modification of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofield, C.J.; Sugden, S.; Ing, J.; Bridwell, L.B.; Wang, Y.Q.

    1993-01-01

    The implantation of polymers has received considerable attention in recent years, primarily to examine doping of conducting polymers and to increase the surface conductivity (by many orders of magnitude) of highly insulating polymers. The interest in these studies was partly motivated by possible applications to microelectronic device fabrication. More recently it has been observed that ion implantation can under some conditions lead to the formation of a hard (e.g. as hard as steel, ca. 3 MPa) and conducting surface layer. This paper will review the ion beam modification of polymers resulting from ion implantation with reference to fundamental ion-solid interactions. This leads us to examine whether or not implantation of polymers is a contradiction in terms. (Author)

  19. Polymers – A New Open Access Scientific Journal on Polymer Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymers is a new interdisciplinary, Open Access scientific journal on polymer science, published by Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI. This journal welcomes manuscript submissions on polymer chemistry, macromolecular chemistry, polymer physics, polymer characterization and all related topics. Both synthetic polymers and natural polymers, including biopolymers, are considered. Manuscripts will be thoroughly peer-reviewed in a timely fashion, and papers will be published, if accepted, within 6 to 8 weeks after submission. [...

  20. EDITORIAL: Electroactive polymer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Kim, Kwang J.; Ryeol Choi, Hyouk; Madden, John D. W.

    2007-04-01

    Imitating nature's mechanisms offers enormous potential for the improvement of our lives and the tools we use. This field of the study and imitation of, and inspiration from, nature's methods, designs and processes is known as biomimetics. Artificial muscles, i.e. electroactive polymers (EAPs), are one of the emerging technologies enabling biomimetics. Polymers that can be stimulated to change shape or size have been known for many years. The activation mechanisms of such polymers include electrical, chemical, pneumatic, optical and magnetic. Electrical excitation is one of the most attractive stimulators able to produce elastic deformation in polymers. The convenience and practicality of electrical stimulation and the continual improvement in capabilities make EAP materials some of the most attractive among activatable polymers (Bar-Cohen Y (ed) 2004 Electroactive Polymer (EAP) Actuators as Artificial Muscles—Reality, Potential and Challenges 2nd edn, vol PM136 (Bellingham, WA: SPIE Press) pp 1-765). As polymers, EAP materials offer many appealing characteristics that include low weight, fracture tolerance and pliability. Furthermore, they can be configured into almost any conceivable shape and their properties can be tailored to suit a broad range of requirements. These capabilities and the significant change of shape or size under electrical stimulation while being able to endure many cycles of actuation are inspiring many potential possibilities for EAP materials among engineers and scientists in many different disciplines. Practitioners in biomimetics are particularly excited about these materials since they can be used to mimic the movements of animals and insects. Potentially, mechanisms actuated by EAPs will enable engineers to create devices previously imaginable only in science fiction. For many years EAP materials received relatively little attention due to their poor actuation capability and the small number of available materials. In the last fifteen

  1. Functionalization of polymer powders for SLS-processes using an atmospheric plasma jet in a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, Marius; Schmitt, Adeliene; Schmidt, Jochen; Peukert, Wolfgang; Wirth, Karl-Ernst [Institute of Particle Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

    2015-05-22

    Recently additive manufacturing processes such as selective laser sintering (SLS) of polymers have gained more importance for industrial applications [1]. Tailor-made modification of polymers is essential in order to make these processes more efficient and to cover the industrial demands. The so far used polymer materials show weak performance regarding the mechanical stability of processed parts. To overcome this limitation, a new route to functionalize the surface of commercially available polymer particles (PA12; PE-HD; PP) using an atmospheric plasma jet in combination with a fluidized bed reactor has been investigated. Consequently, an improvement of adhesion and wettability [2] of the polymer surface without restraining the bulk properties of the powder is achieved. The atmospheric plasma jet process can provide reactive species at moderate temperatures which are suitable for polymer material. The functionalization of the polymer powders improves the quality of the devices build in a SLS-process.

  2. The Role of Electron Affinity in Determining Whether Fullerenes Catalyze or Inhibit Photooxidation of Polymers for Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hoke, Eric T.

    2012-05-21

    Understanding the stability and degradation mechanisms of organic solar materials is critically important to achieving long device lifetimes. Here, an investigation of the photodegradation of polymer:fullerene blend fi lms exposed to ambient conditions for a variety of polymer and fullerene derivative combinations is presented. Despite the wide range in polymer stabilities to photodegradation, the rate of irreversible polymer photobleaching in blend fi lms is found to consistently and dramatically increase with decreasing electron affi nity of the fullerene derivative. Furthermore, blends containing fullerenes with the smallest electron affi nities photobleached at a faster rate than fi lms of the pure polymer. These observations can be explained by a mechanism where both the polymer and fullerene donate photogenerated electrons to diatomic oxygen to form the superoxide radical anion which degrades the polymer. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.

  3. SULFUR POLYMER ENCAPSULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KALB, P.

    2001-01-01

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ((approx)$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not

  4. Physical Properties of Polymers (Ultrastructure Processing of Polymers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-30

    vinyl benzene Network-Diluent Systems". 17. J . Appl. Polym. Sci. 28, 219-224 (1983) (with R. Vukovic and W.J. MacKnight) "Compatibility of Some...Temperature of Polymer Networks by Dil uents". 23. J . Appl. Polym. Sci. 28, 1379-1389 (1983) (with R. Vukovic , V. Kuresevic, N. Segudovic, and W.J...AFOSR 80-0101 IV. DATES: 1 January 1980 - 30 September 1982 V. SENIOR RESEARCH PERSONNEL*: Dr. C. Crosby Dr. G. ten Brinke Dr. T. Ellis Dr. R. Vukovic

  5. Mechanisms of proton conductance in polymer electrolyte membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eikerling, M.; Kornyshev, A. A.; Kuznetsov, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    We provide a phenomenological description of proton conductance in polymer electrolyte membranes, based on contemporary views of proton transfer processes in condensed media and a model for heterogeneous polymer electrolyte membrane structure. The description combines the proton transfer events...... in a single pore with the total pore-network performance and, thereby, relates structural and kinetic characteristics of the membrane. The theory addresses specific experimentally studied issues such as the effect of the density of proton localization sites (equivalent weight) of the membrane material...

  6. Hybrid polymer photonic crystal fiber with integrated chalcogenide glass nanofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markos, Christos; Kubat, Irnis; Bang, Ole

    2014-01-01

    The combination of chalcogenide glasses with polymer photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) is a difficult and challenging task due to their different thermo-mechanical material properties. Here we report the first experimental realization of a hybrid polymer-chalcogenide PCF with integrated As2S3 glass...... nanofilms at the inner surface of the air-channels of a poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) PCF. The integrated high refractive index glass films introduce distinct antiresonant transmission bands in the 480-900 nm wavelength region. We demonstrate that the ultra-high Kerr nonlinearity of the chalcogenide glass...

  7. DNA: Polymer and molecular code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankar, G. V.

    1999-10-01

    The thesis work focusses upon two aspects of DNA, the polymer and the molecular code. Our approach was to bring single molecule micromanipulation methods to the study of DNA. It included a home built optical microscope combined with an atomic force microscope and an optical tweezer. This combined approach led to a novel method to graft a single DNA molecule onto a force cantilever using the optical tweezer and local heating. With this method, a force versus extension assay of double stranded DNA was realized. The resolution was about 10 picoN. To improve on this force measurement resolution, a simple light backscattering technique was developed and used to probe the DNA polymer flexibility and its fluctuations. It combined the optical tweezer to trap a DNA tethered bead and the laser backscattering to detect the beads Brownian fluctuations. With this technique the resolution was about 0.1 picoN with a millisecond access time, and the whole entropic part of the DNA force-extension was measured. With this experimental strategy, we measured the polymerization of the protein RecA on an isolated double stranded DNA. We observed the progressive decoration of RecA on the l DNA molecule, which results in the extension of l , due to unwinding of the double helix. The dynamics of polymerization, the resulting change in the DNA entropic elasticity and the role of ATP hydrolysis were the main parts of the study. A simple model for RecA assembly on DNA was proposed. This work presents a first step in the study of genetic recombination. Recently we have started a study of equilibrium binding which utilizes fluorescence polarization methods to probe the polymerization of RecA on single stranded DNA. In addition to the study of material properties of DNA and DNA-RecA, we have developed experiments for which the code of the DNA is central. We studied one aspect of DNA as a molecular code, using different techniques. In particular the programmatic use of template specificity makes

  8. Protein Polymers and Amyloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Michael Wulff

    2014-01-01

    Several human disorders are caused by a common general disease mechanism arising from abnormal folding and aggregation of the underlying protein. These include the prevalent dementias like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, where accumulation of protein fibrillar structures, known as amyloid fibrils......, is a general hallmark. They also include the α1-antitrypsin deficiency, where disease-causing mutations in the serine protease inhibitor, α1-antitrypsin (α1AT), leads to accumulation of the aberrant protein in the liver of these patients. The native metastable structure of α1AT constitutes a molecular trap...... that inhibits its target protease through a large conformational change but mutations compromise this function and cause premature structural collapse into hyperstable polymers. Understanding the conformational disorders at a molecular level is not only important for our general knowledge on protein folding...

  9. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  10. Conducting Polymer Based Nanobiosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Soon Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, conducting polymer (CP nanomaterials have been used in a variety of fields, such as in energy, environmental, and biomedical applications, owing to their outstanding chemical and physical properties compared to conventional metal materials. In particular, nanobiosensors based on CP nanomaterials exhibit excellent performance sensing target molecules. The performance of CP nanobiosensors varies based on their size, shape, conductivity, and morphology, among other characteristics. Therefore, in this review, we provide an overview of the techniques commonly used to fabricate novel CP nanomaterials and their biosensor applications, including aptasensors, field-effect transistor (FET biosensors, human sense mimicking biosensors, and immunoassays. We also discuss prospects for state-of-the-art nanobiosensors using CP nanomaterials by focusing on strategies to overcome the current limitations.

  11. Photorefractivity of triphenylamine polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, S.; Kinashi, K.; Sakai, W.; Tsutsumi, N.

    2012-10-01

    We present here the enhanced photorefractive performance and dynamic holographic image of poly(4-diphenylamino)styrene (PDAS)-based photorefractive polymeric composites (PPCs). PDAS and FDCST were synthesized as a photoconductive polymer and a nonlinear optical (NLO) dye, respectively. PPC films including PDAS, TPA (or ECZ), FDCST, and PCBM were investigated. The photorefractive quantities of the PDAS-based PPCs were measured by a degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) technique. Additionally, the dynamic holographic images were recorded through an appropriate PDAS-based PPC. Those dynamic holographic images clearly duplicate the original motion with high-speed quality. The present approach provides a promising candidate for the future application of dynamic holographic displays.

  12. Self-healing polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A three dimensional structure fabricated from a self-healing polymeric material, comprising poly(ester amides) obtained from ethylene glycol, azelaic acid and 1,1-aminoundecanoic acid, wherein polymeric material has a melt index above 2.5 g/10 min. as determined by ASTM D1238 at 190.degree. C. and 2.16kg, impact resistance and ductility sufficient to resist cracking and brittle fracture upon impact by a 9 mm bullet fired at a temperature of about 29.degree. C. at subsonic speed in a range from about 800 feet/sec to about 1000 feet/sec. It has been determined that the important factors necessary for self-healing behavior of polymers include sufficient impact strength, control of the degree of crystallinity, low melting point and the ability to instantly melt at impacted area.

  13. Electrochromic in conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picado Valenzuela, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    This revision considered object the description of one of the materials with the greatest potential in the field of electrochromic (mainly in the visible region): the conjugated polymers (CP), area of enormous potential both now and in a short time ahead. The CP are insulating materials and organic semiconductors in a state not doped. They can be doped positively or negatively being observed a significant increase in the conductivity and being generated a color change in these materials. The understanding of how optical properties vary based on the chemical structure of the polymer or its mixtures and more precisely of the alternatives that can be entered into the conjugated system or π system to obtain a material that besides to be flexible, environmentally stable, presents the colored states. The revision was centred chiefly in the polypyrrole (Ppy), the polythiophene (PTh) and their derivatives such as poly (3.4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The advantage of using monomers with variable structure, to adjust the composition of the copolymer, or to blend with the PC, allows to obtain a variety of colored states that can be modulated through the visible spectrum and even with applications to wavelengths outside of this region. Because the PC presented at least two different colored states can be varied continuously as a function of the voltage applied. In some cases, they may submit multicoloured statements, which offers a range of possibilities for their application in flexible electronic devices type screens and windows. Applications include smart windows, camouflage clothing and data screens. This type of material is emerging as one of the substitutes of the traditional inorganic semiconductor, with the advantage of its low cost, high flexibility and the possibility to generate multiple colors through the handling of the monomers in the structure and control of energy of his band gap. (author) [es

  14. Monitoring of polymer melt processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alig, Ingo; Steinhoff, Bernd; Lellinger, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The paper reviews the state-of-the-art of in-line and on-line monitoring during polymer melt processing by compounding, extrusion and injection moulding. Different spectroscopic and scattering techniques as well as conductivity and viscosity measurements are reviewed and compared concerning their potential for different process applications. In addition to information on chemical composition and state of the process, the in situ detection of morphology, which is of specific interest for multiphase polymer systems such as polymer composites and polymer blends, is described in detail. For these systems, the product properties strongly depend on the phase or filler morphology created during processing. Examples for optical (UV/vis, NIR) and ultrasonic attenuation spectra recorded during extrusion are given, which were found to be sensitive to the chemical composition as well as to size and degree of dispersion of micro or nanofillers in the polymer matrix. By small-angle light scattering experiments, process-induced structures were detected in blends of incompatible polymers during compounding. Using conductivity measurements during extrusion, the influence of processing conditions on the electrical conductivity of polymer melts with conductive fillers (carbon black or carbon nanotubes) was monitored. (topical review)

  15. combination Dictionary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    of the idiomatic expression as a whole" (Crystal 2003: 225-226). Idiomatic .... nations and idioms.11 Nonetheless, free combinations of words have not been .... those who thronged Emmett place last night wanted to see the film, and they.

  16. Winning Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Criscuolo, Paola; Laursen, Keld; Reichstein, Toke

    2018-01-01

    examine the effectiveness of different combinations of knowledge sources for achieving innovative performance. We suggest that combinations involving integrative search strategies – combining internal and external knowledge – are the most likely to generate product and process innovation. In this context......, we present the idea that cognitively distant knowledge sources are helpful for innovation only when used in conjunction with knowledge sources that are closer to the focal firm. We also find important differences between product and process innovation, with the former associated with broader searches......Searching for the most rewarding sources of innovative ideas remains a key challenge in management of technological innovation. Yet, little is known about which combinations of internal and external knowledge sources are triggers for innovation. Extending theories about searching for innovation, we...

  17. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Performance and produced polymer evaluation of four alkaline-surfactant-polymer projects concluded that only one of the projects could have benefited from combining the alkaline-surfactant-polymer and gelation technologies. Cambridge, the 1993 Daqing, Mellott Ranch, and the Wardlaw alkaline-surfacant-polymer floods were studied. An initial gel treatment followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood in the Wardlaw field would have been a benefit due to reduction of fracture flow. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls or 3.3% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery improvement over a waterflood was 392,000 bbls or 6.5% OOIP. Placing a gel into the B sand prior to an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood resulted in 989,000 bbl or 16.4% OOIP more oil than only water injection. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls or 9.9% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand.

  18. Thermoresponsive Polymers for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theoni K. Georgiou

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermoresponsive polymers are a class of “smart” materials that have the ability to respond to a change in temperature; a property that makes them useful materials in a wide range of applications and consequently attracts much scientific interest. This review focuses mainly on the studies published over the last 10 years on the synthesis and use of thermoresponsive polymers for biomedical applications including drug delivery, tissue engineering and gene delivery. A summary of the main applications is given following the different studies on thermoresponsive polymers which are categorized based on their 3-dimensional structure; hydrogels, interpenetrating networks, micelles, crosslinked micelles, polymersomes, films and particles.

  19. Physics of photorefraction in polymers

    CERN Document Server

    West, Dave

    2004-01-01

    Photorefractive polymer composites are an unusually sensitive class of photopolymers. Physics of Photorefraction in Polymers describes our current understanding of the physical processes that produce a photorefractive effect in key composite materials. Topics as diverse as charge generation, dispersive charge transport, charge compensation and trapping, molecular diffusion, organic composite structure, and nonlinear optical wave coupling are all developed from a physical perspective. Emphasis is placed on explaining how these physical processes lead to observable properties of the polymers, and the authors discuss various applications, including holographic archiving.

  20. Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor); Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

  1. Bridging scales in polymer physics and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hütter, M.; Kröger, M.; Öttinger, H.C.; Schweizer, T.

    2001-01-01

    Understanding both the flow behavior of polymers during processing and the end-use properties offinished plastic products from a molecular picture of the constituent polymers has been a long-standing dreamin polymer engineering and science. It is the goal of our work in the Polymer Physics Group to

  2. Statistical thermodynamics of equilibrium polymers at interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gucht, van der J.; Besseling, N.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of a solution of equilibrium polymers (or living polymers) at an interface is studied, using a Bethe-Guggenheim lattice model for molecules with orientation dependent interactions. The density profile of polymers and the chain length distribution are calculated. For equilibrium polymers

  3. Fast polymer nanorectifiers for inductively coupled RFID tags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, L.A.; Balocco, C.; King, R.; Whitelegg, S.; Song, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, an alternative approach to high switching speed organic rectifiers based on a semiconducting polymer, poly(dialkylquarterthiophene) (PQT-12) is demonstrated. It is shown that by using a linear array of polymer nanowires with intentionally broken symmetry, nanodevices displaying diode-like I/V characteristics can be obtained. The so-called self-switching devices (SSDs) are single-layered planar structures that can be easily fabricated in a single step of nanolithography. In addition, since SSD arrays possess substantially lower parasitic capacitance between contacts than conventional vertical organic diodes (VODs) and organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), very high switching speeds may be achieved. As the result of this combination of favourable properties, we have demonstrated polymer nanorectifiers operating with frequencies well in excess of 1 MHz that have the potential to pave the way towards ultra low-cost radio frequency identification (RFID) tags

  4. Redox electrodes comprised of polymer-modified carbon nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mark; Emmett, Robert; Karakaya, Mehmet; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao; Clemson Physics Team; Clemson Chemical Engineering Team

    2013-03-01

    A shift in how we generate and use electricity requires new energy storage materials and systems compatible with hybrid electric transportation and the integration of renewable energy sources. Supercapacitors provide a solution to these needs by combining the high power, rapid switching, and exceptional cycle life of a capacitor with the high energy density of a battery. Our research brings together nanotechnology and materials chemistry to address the limitations of electrode materials. Paper electrodes fabricated with various forms of carbon nanomaterials, such as nanotubes, are modified with redox-polymers to increase the electrode's energy density while maintaining rapid discharge rates. In these systems, the carbon nanomaterials provide the high surface area, electrical conductivity, nanoscale and porosity, while the redox polymers provide a mechanism for charge storage through Faradaic charge transfer. The design of redox polymers and their incorporation into nanomaterial electrodes will be discussed with a focus on enabling high power and high energy density electrodes.

  5. High performance lignin-acrylonitrile polymer blend materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naskar, Amit K.; Tran, Chau D.

    2017-11-14

    A polymer blend material comprising: (i) a lignin component having a weight-average molecular weight of up to 1,000,000 g/mol; and (ii) an acrylonitrile-containing copolymer rubber component comprising acrylonitrile units in combination with diene monomer units, and having an acrylonitrile content of at least 20 mol %; wherein said lignin component is present in an amount of at least 5 wt % and up to about 95 wt % by total weight of components (i) and (ii); and said polymer blend material possesses a tensile yield stress of at least 5 MPa, or a tensile stress of at least 5 MPa at 10% elongation, or a tensile stress of at least 5 MPa at 100% elongation. Methods for producing the polymer blend, molded forms thereof, and articles thereof, are also described.

  6. Fluorinated Polymers as Smart Materials for Advanced Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa F. Cardoso

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorinated polymers constitute a unique class of materials that exhibit a combination of suitable properties for a wide range of applications, which mainly arise from their outstanding chemical resistance, thermal stability, low friction coefficients and electrical properties. Furthermore, those presenting stimuli-responsive properties have found widespread industrial and commercial applications, based on their ability to change in a controlled fashion one or more of their physicochemical properties, in response to single or multiple external stimuli such as light, temperature, electrical and magnetic fields, pH and/or biological signals. In particular, some fluorinated polymers have been intensively investigated and applied due to their piezoelectric, pyroelectric and ferroelectric properties in biomedical applications including controlled drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, microfluidic and artificial muscle actuators, among others. This review summarizes the main characteristics, microstructures and biomedical applications of electroactive fluorinated polymers.

  7. Wafer-scale fabrication of polymer distributed feedback lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Balslev, Søren

    2006-01-01

    The authors demonstrate wafer-scale, parallel process fabrication of distributed feedback (DFB) polymer dye lasers by two different nanoimprint techniques: By thermal nanoimprint lithography (TNIL) in polymethyl methacrylate and by combined nanoimprint and photolithography (CNP) in SU-8. In both...... techniques, a thin film of polymer, doped with rhodamine-6G laser dye, is spin coated onto a Borofloat glass buffer substrate and shaped into a planar waveguide slab with first order DFB surface corrugations forming the laser resonator. When optically pumped at 532 nm, lasing is obtained in the wavelength...... range between 576 and 607 nm, determined by the grating period. The results, where 13 laser devices are defined across a 10 cm diameter wafer substrate, demonstrate the feasibility of NIL and CNP for parallel wafer-scale fabrication of advanced nanostructured active optical polymer components...

  8. Water Soluble Polymers for Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeran Gowda Kadajji

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in polymer science have led to the development of novel drug delivery systems. Some polymers are obtained from natural resources and then chemically modified for various applications, while others are chemically synthesized and used. A large number of natural and synthetic polymers are available. In the present paper, only water soluble polymers are described. They have been explained in two categories (1 synthetic and (2 natural. Drug polymer conjugates, block copolymers, hydrogels and other water soluble drug polymer complexes have also been explained. The general properties and applications of different water soluble polymers in the formulation of different dosage forms, novel delivery systems and biomedical applications will be discussed.

  9. Polymer and Polymer Gel of Liquid Crystalline Semiconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teppei Shimakawa; Naoki Yoshimoto; Jun-ichi Hanna

    2004-01-01

    It prepared a polymer and polymer gel of a liquid crystalline (LC) semiconductor having a 2-phenylnaphthalene moiety and studied their charge carrier transport properties by the time-of-flight technique. It is found that polyacrylate having the mesogenic core moiety of 2-phenylnaphtalene (PNP-acrylate) exhibited a comparable mobility of 10-4cm2/Vs in smectic A phase to those in smectic A (SmA) phase of small molecular liquid crystals with the same core moiety, e.g., 6-(4'-octylphenyl)- 2-dodecyloxynaphthalene (8-PNP-O12), and an enhanced mobility up to 10-3cm2/Vs in the LC-glassy phase at room temperature, when mixed with a small amount of 8-PNP-O12. On the other hand, the polymer gel consisting of 20 wt %-hexamethylenediacrylate (HDA)-based cross-linked polymer and 8-PNP-O12 exhibited no degraded mobility when cross-linked at the mesophase. These results indicate that the polymer and polymer composite of liquid crystalline semiconductors provide us with an easy way to realize a quality organic semiconductor thin film for the immediate device applications.

  10. Understanding Toughness in Bioinspired Cellulose Nanofibril/Polymer Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Alejandro J; Lossada, Francisco; Zhu, Baolei; Rudolph, Tobias; Walther, Andreas

    2016-07-11

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are considered next generation, renewable reinforcements for sustainable, high-performance bioinspired nanocomposites uniting high stiffness, strength and toughness. However, the challenges associated with making well-defined CNF/polymer nanopaper hybrid structures with well-controlled polymer properties have so far hampered to deduce a quantitative picture of the mechanical properties space and deformation mechanisms, and limits the ability to tune and control the mechanical properties by rational design criteria. Here, we discuss detailed insights on how the thermo-mechanical properties of tailor-made copolymers govern the tensile properties in bioinspired CNF/polymer settings, hence at high fractions of reinforcements and under nanoconfinement conditions for the polymers. To this end, we synthesize a series of fully water-soluble and nonionic copolymers, whose glass transition temperatures (Tg) are varied from -60 to 130 °C. We demonstrate that well-defined polymer-coated core/shell nanofibrils form at intermediate stages and that well-defined nanopaper structures with tunable nanostructure arise. The systematic correlation between the thermal transitions in the (co)polymers, as well as its fraction, on the mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms of the nanocomposites is underscored by tensile tests, SEM imaging of fracture surfaces and dynamic mechanical analysis. An optimum toughness is obtained for copolymers with a Tg close to the testing temperature, where the soft phase possesses the best combination of high molecular mobility and cohesive strength. New deformation modes are activated for the toughest compositions. Our study establishes quantitative structure/property relationships in CNF/(co)polymer nanopapers and opens the design space for future, rational molecular engineering using reversible supramolecular bonds or covalent cross-linking.

  11. Phases of polymer systems in solution studied via molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Joshua Allen [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Polymers are amazingly versatile molecules with a tremendous range of applications. Our lives would be very different without them. There would be no multitudes of plastic encased electronic gizmos, no latex paint on the walls and no rubber tires, just to name a few of the many commonplace polymer materials. In fact, life as we know it wouldn’t exist without polymers as two of the most essential types of molecules central to cellular life, Proteins and DNA, are both polymers! [1] With their wide range of application to a variety of uses, polymers are still a very active field in basic research. Of particular current interest is the idea of combining polymers with inorganic particles to form novel composite materials. [2] As computers are becoming faster, they are becoming all the more powerful tools for modeling and simulating real systems. With recent advances in computing on graphics processing units (GPUs) [3–7], questions can now be answered via simulation that could not even be asked before. This thesis focuses on the use of computer simulations to model novel polymerinorganic composite systems in order to predict what possible phases can form and under what conditions. The goal is to provide some direction for future experiments and to gain a deeper understanding of the fundamental physics involved. Along the way, there are some interesting and essential side-tracks in the areas of equilibrating complicated phases and accelerating the available computer power with GPU computing, both of which are necessary steps to enable the study of polymer nanocomposites.

  12. Peptide/protein-polymer conjugates: synthetic strategies and design concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Marc A; Klok, Harm-Anton

    2008-06-21

    This feature article provides a compilation of tools available for preparing well-defined peptide/protein-polymer conjugates, which are defined as hybrid constructs combining (i) a defined number of peptide/protein segments with uniform chain lengths and defined monomer sequences (primary structure) with (ii) a defined number of synthetic polymer chains. The first section describes methods for post-translational, or direct, introduction of chemoselective handles onto natural or synthetic peptides/proteins. Addressed topics include the residue- and/or site-specific modification of peptides/proteins at Arg, Asp, Cys, Gln, Glu, Gly, His, Lys, Met, Phe, Ser, Thr, Trp, Tyr and Val residues and methods for producing peptides/proteins containing non-canonical amino acids by peptide synthesis and protein engineering. In the second section, methods for introducing chemoselective groups onto the side-chain or chain-end of synthetic polymers produced by radical, anionic, cationic, metathesis and ring-opening polymerization are described. The final section discusses convergent and divergent strategies for covalently assembling polymers and peptides/proteins. An overview of the use of chemoselective reactions such as Heck, Sonogashira and Suzuki coupling, Diels-Alder cycloaddition, Click chemistry, Staudinger ligation, Michael's addition, reductive alkylation and oxime/hydrazone chemistry for the convergent synthesis of peptide/protein-polymer conjugates is given. Divergent approaches for preparing peptide/protein-polymer conjugates which are discussed include peptide synthesis from synthetic polymer supports, polymerization from peptide/protein macroinitiators or chain transfer agents and the polymerization of peptide side-chain monomers.

  13. Approaches for Making High Performance Polymer Materials from Commodity Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xi

    2004-01-01

    A brief surrey of ongoing research work done for improving and enhancing the properties of commodity polymers by the author and author's colleagues is given in this paper. A series of high performance polymers and polymer nanomaterials were successfully prepared through irradiation and stress-induced reactions of polymers and hydrogen bonding. The methods proposed are viable, easy in operation, clean and efficient.1. The effect of irradiation source (UV light, electron beam, γ -ray and microwave), irradiation dose, irradiation time and atmosphere etc. on molecular structure of polyolefine during irradiation was studied. The basic rules of dominating oxidation, degradation and cross-linking reactions were mastered. Under the controlled conditions, cross-linking reactions are prevented, some oxygen containing groups are introduced on the molecular chain of polyolefine to facilitate the interface compatibility of their blends. A series of high performance polymer materials: u-HDPE/PA6,u-HDPE/CaCO3, u-iPP/STC, γ-HDPE/STC, γ-LLDPE/ATH, e-HDPE, e-LLDPE and m-HDPEfilled system were prepared (u- ultraviolet light irradiated, γ- γ-ray irradiated, e- electron beam irradiated, m- microwave irradiated)2. The effect of ultrasonic irradiation, jet and pan-milling on structure and changes in properties of polymers were studied. Imposition of critical stress on polymer chain can cause the scission of bonds to form macroradicals. The macroradicals formed in this way may recombine or react with monomer or other radicals to form linear, branched or cross-linked polymers or copolymers. About 20 kinds of block/graft copolymers have been synthesized from polymer-polymer or polymer-monomer through ultrasonic irradiation.Through jet-milling, the molecular weight of PVC is decreased somewhat, the intensity of its crystalline absorption bonds becomes indistinct. The processability, the yield strength, strength at break and elongation at break of PVC get increased quite a lot after

  14. Recent advances in photorefractive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jayan; Christenson, C. W.; Lynn, B.; Blanche, P.-A.; Voorakaranam, R.; Norwood, R. A.; Yamamoto, M.; Peyghambarian, N.

    2011-10-01

    Photorefractive composites derived from conducting polymers offer the advantage of dynamically recording holograms without the need for processing of any kind. Thus, they are the material of choice for many cutting edge applications, such as updatable three-dimensional (3D) displays and 3D telepresence. Using photorefractive polymers, 3D images or holograms can be seen with the unassisted eye and are very similar to how humans see the actual environment surrounding them. Absence of a large-area and dynamically updatable holographic recording medium has prevented realization of the concept. The development of a novel nonlinear optical chromophore doped photoconductive polymer composite as the recording medium for a refreshable holographic display is discussed. Further improvements in the polymer composites could bring applications in telemedicine, advertising, updatable 3D maps and entertainment.

  15. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Walter C.

    1994-01-01

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is .gtoreq.2 and is the number of selective layers.

  16. Polymer electronic devices and materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, William Kent; Baca, Paul Martin; Dirk, Shawn M.; Anderson, G. Ronald; Wheeler, David Roger

    2006-01-01

    Polymer electronic devices and materials have vast potential for future microsystems and could have many advantages over conventional inorganic semiconductor based systems, including ease of manufacturing, cost, weight, flexibility, and the ability to integrate a wide variety of functions on a single platform. Starting materials and substrates are relatively inexpensive and amenable to mass manufacturing methods. This project attempted to plant the seeds for a new core competency in polymer electronics at Sandia National Laboratories. As part of this effort a wide variety of polymer components and devices, ranging from simple resistors to infrared sensitive devices, were fabricated and characterized. Ink jet printing capabilities were established. In addition to promising results on prototype devices the project highlighted the directions where future investments must be made to establish a viable polymer electronics competency.

  17. Culture experiments on conductive polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoda, Mitsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast L929 and myoblast C2C12 cells of the mouse connective tissue origin were sown on the surface of conductive polymer films (polypyrrole, PPy and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT) in the cell culture medium, and the proliferative process of these cells was observed. Without changing the form, fibroblast L929 and myoblast C2C12 cells were observed to proliferate almost similarly to the cell which cultured on a dish on the market and to maintain compatibility. In other word, it has been understood these two kinds of conductive polymers used in this study, the PEDOT films maintain the secretion function of the cell cultured on the surface of these polymers. Therefore, the PPy- and the PEDOT-coated electrode suggested the possibility usable as a nerve stimulation electrode with biocompatibility, because these polymers were effective to culture the cell.

  18. Finely divided, irradiated tetrafluorethylene polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.T.; Rodway, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    Dry non-sticky fine lubricant powders are made by γ-irradiation of unsintered coagulated dispersion grade tetrafluoroethylene polymers. These powders may also be dispersed in an organic medium for lubricating purposes

  19. NMR Studies of Polymer Nanocomposites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenbaum, Steve

    2001-01-01

    ... of their kind ever published. Standard ambient pressure results for lithium ion conducting polymer electrolytes containing nanoscopic silica are included, as well as the description of a novel scheme to produce highly conducting...

  20. Polyphosphazine-based polymer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V.; Avci, Recep; Groenewold, Gary S.

    2010-05-25

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  1. Water Soluble Polymers for Pharmaceutical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Veeran Gowda Kadajji; Guru V. Betageri

    2011-01-01

    Advances in polymer science have led to the development of novel drug delivery systems. Some polymers are obtained from natural resources and then chemically modified for various applications, while others are chemically synthesized and used. A large number of natural and synthetic polymers are available. In the present paper, only water soluble polymers are described. They have been explained in two categories (1) synthetic and (2) natural. Drug polymer conjugates, block copolymers, hydrogel...

  2. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of dilute polymer solutions in flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinwo, Folarin; Hsiao, Kai-Wen; Schroeder, Charles M

    2014-11-07

    Modern materials processing applications and technologies often occur far from equilibrium. To this end, the processing of complex materials such as polymer melts and nanocomposites generally occurs under strong deformations and flows, conditions under which equilibrium thermodynamics does not apply. As a result, the ability to determine the nonequilibrium thermodynamic properties of polymeric materials from measurable quantities such as heat and work is a major challenge in the field. Here, we use work relations to show that nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities such as free energy and entropy can be determined for dilute polymer solutions in flow. In this way, we determine the thermodynamic properties of DNA molecules in strong flows using a combination of simulations, kinetic theory, and single molecule experiments. We show that it is possible to calculate polymer relaxation timescales purely from polymer stretching dynamics in flow. We further observe a thermodynamic equivalence between nonequilibrium and equilibrium steady-states for polymeric systems. In this way, our results provide an improved understanding of the energetics of flowing polymer solutions.

  3. Growing perovskite into polymers for easy-processable optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Sofia; Colella, Silvia; Listorti, Andrea; Roiati, Vittoria; Liscio, Andrea; Palermo, Vincenzo; Rizzo, Aurora; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Here we conceive an innovative nanocomposite to endow hybrid perovskites with the easy processability of polymers, providing a tool to control film quality and material crystallinity. We verify that the employed semiconducting polymer, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), controls the self-assembly of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) crystalline domains and favors the deposition of a very smooth and homogenous layer in one straightforward step. This idea offers a new paradigm for the implementation of polymer/perovskite nanocomposites towards versatile optoelectronic devices combined with the feasibility of mass production. As a proof-of-concept we propose the application of such nanocomposite in polymer solar cell architecture, demonstrating a power conversion efficiency up to 3%, to date the highest reported for MEH-PPV. On-purpose designed polymers are expected to suit the nanocomposite properties for the integration in diverse optoelectronic devices via facile processing condition.

  4. Applications of polymers for biomolecule immobilization in electrochemical biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teles, F.R.R.; Fonseca, L.P.

    2008-01-01

    Polymers are becoming inseparable from biomolecule immobilization strategies and biosensor platforms. Their original role as electrical insulators has been progressively substituted by their electrical conductive abilities, which opens a new and broad scope of applications. In addition, recent advances in diagnostic chips and microfluidic systems, together with the requirements of mass-production technologies, have raised the need to replace glass by polymeric materials, which are more suitable for production through simple manufacturing processes. Conducting polymers (CPs), in particular, are especially amenable for electrochemical biosensor development for providing biomolecule immobilization and for rapid electron transfer. It is expected that the combination of known polymer substrates, but also new transducing and biocompatible interfaces, with nanobiotechnological structures, like nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanoengineered 'smart' polymers, may generate composites with new and interesting properties, providing higher sensitivity and stability of the immobilized molecules, thus constituting the basis for new and improved analytical devices for biomedical and other applications. This review covers the state-of-the-art and main novelties about the use of polymers for immobilization of biomolecules in electrochemical biosensor platforms

  5. Physical stability of API/polymer-blend amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkemper, Kristin; Kyeremateng, Samuel O; Bartels, Mareike; Degenhardt, Matthias; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2018-03-01

    The preparation of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) is a well-established strategy for formulating active pharmaceutical ingredients by embedding them in excipients, usually amorphous polymers. Different polymers can be combined for designing ASDs with desired properties like an optimized dissolution behavior. One important criterion for the development of ASD compositions is the physical stability. In this work, the physical stability of API/polymer-blend ASDs was investigated by thermodynamic modeling and stability studies. Amorphous naproxen (NAP) and acetaminophen (APAP) were embedded in blends of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) and either poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) or poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVPVA64). Parameters for modeling the API solubility in the blends and the glass-transition temperature curves of the water-free systems with Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory and Kwei equation, respectively, were correlated to experimental data. The phase behavior for standardized storage conditions (0%, 60% and 75% relative humidity (RH)) was predicted and compared to six months-long stability studies. According to modeling and experimental results, the physical stability was reduced with increasing HPMCAS content and increasing RH. This trend was observed for all investigated systems, with both APIs (NAP and APAP) and both polymer blends (PVP/HPMCAS and PVPVA64/HPMCAS). PC-SAFT and the Kwei equation turned out to be suitable tools for modeling and predicting the physical stability of the investigated API/polymer-blends ASDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Stochastic entangled chain dynamics of dense polymer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivotides, Demosthenes; Wilkin, S Louise; Theofanous, Theo G

    2010-10-14

    We propose an adjustable-parameter-free, entangled chain dynamics model of dense polymer solutions. The model includes the self-consistent dynamics of molecular chains and solvent by describing the former via coarse-grained polymer dynamics that incorporate hydrodynamic interaction effects, and the latter via the forced Stokes equation. Real chain elasticity is modeled via the inclusion of a Pincus regime in the polymer's force-extension curve. Excluded volume effects are taken into account via the combined action of coarse-grained intermolecular potentials and explicit geometric tracking of chain entanglements. We demonstrate that entanglements are responsible for a new (compared to phantom chain dynamics), slow relaxation mode whose characteristic time scale agrees very well with experiment. Similarly good agreement between theory and experiment is also obtained for the equilibrium chain size. We develop methods for the solution of the model in periodic flow domains and apply them to the computation of entangled polymer solutions in equilibrium. We show that the number of entanglements Π agrees well with the number of entanglements expected on the basis of tube theory, satisfactorily reproducing the latter's scaling of Π with the polymer volume fraction φ. Our model predicts diminishing chain size with concentration, thus vindicating Flory's suggestion of excluded volume effects screening in dense solutions. The predicted scaling of chain size with φ is consistent with the heuristic, Flory theory based value.

  7. Nano-Star-Shaped Polymers for Drug Delivery Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Da-Peng; Oo, Ma Nwe Nwe Linn; Deen, Gulam Roshan; Li, Zibiao; Loh, Xian Jun

    2017-11-01

    With the advancement of polymer engineering, complex star-shaped polymer architectures can be synthesized with ease, bringing about a host of unique properties and applications. The polymer arms can be functionalized with different chemical groups to fine-tune the response behavior or be endowed with targeting ligands or stimuli responsive moieties to control its physicochemical behavior and self-organization in solution. Rheological properties of these solutions can be modulated, which also facilitates the control of the diffusion of the drug from these star-based nanocarriers. However, these star-shaped polymers designed for drug delivery are still in a very early stage of development. Due to the sheer diversity of macromolecules that can take on the star architectures and the various combinations of functional groups that can be cross-linked together, there remain many structure-property relationships which have yet to be fully established. This review aims to provide an introductory perspective on the basic synthetic methods of star-shaped polymers, the properties which can be controlled by the unique architecture, and also recent advances in drug delivery applications related to these star candidates. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. EFRC: Polymer-Based Materials for Harvesting Solar Energy (stimulus)"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2016-12-08

    The University of Massachusetts Amherst is proposing an Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) on Polymer-Based Materials for Harvesting Solar Energy that will integrate the widely complementary experimental and theoretical expertise of 23 faculty at UMass-Amherst Departments with researchers from the University of Massachusetts Lowell, University of Pittsburgh, the Pennsylvania State University and Konarka Technologies, Inc. Collaborative efforts with researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the University of Bayreuth, Seoul National University and Tohoku University will complement and expand the experimental efforts in the EFRC. Our primary research aim of this EFRC is the development of hybrid polymer-based devices with efficiencies more than twice the current organic-based devices, by combining expertise in the design and synthesis of photoactive polymers, the control and guidance of polymer-based assemblies, leadership in nanostructured polymeric materials, and the theory and modeling of non-equilibrium structures. A primary goal of this EFRC is to improve the collection and conversion efficiency of a broader spectral range of solar energy using the directed self-assembly of polymer-based materials so as to optimize the design and fabrication of inexpensive devices.

  9. The Role of Polymer Fractionation in Energetic Losses and Charge Carrier Lifetimes of Polymer: Fullerene Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Baran, Derya

    2015-08-10

    Non-radiative recombination reduces the open-circuit voltage relative to its theoretical limit and leads to reduced luminescence emission at a given excitation. Therefore it is possible to correlate changes in luminescence emission with changes in open-circuit voltage and in the charge carrier lifetime. Here we use luminescence studies combined with transient photovoltage and differential charging analyses to study the effect of polymer fractionation in indacenoedithiophene-co-benzothiadiazole (IDTBT):fullerene solar cells. In this system, polymer fractionation increases electroluminescence and reduces non-radiative recombination. High molecular weight and fractionated IDTBT polymers exhibit higher carrier lifetime-mobility product compared to their non-fractionated analogues, resulting in improved solar cell performance.

  10. The Role of Polymer Fractionation in Energetic Losses and Charge Carrier Lifetimes of Polymer: Fullerene Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Baran, Derya; Vezie, Michelle S; Gasparini, Nicola; Deledalle, Florent; Yao, Jizhong; Schroeder, Bob C.; Bronstein, Hugo; Ameri, Tayebeh; Kirchartz, Thomas; McCulloch, Iain; Nelson, Jenny; Brabec, Christoph J

    2015-01-01

    Non-radiative recombination reduces the open-circuit voltage relative to its theoretical limit and leads to reduced luminescence emission at a given excitation. Therefore it is possible to correlate changes in luminescence emission with changes in open-circuit voltage and in the charge carrier lifetime. Here we use luminescence studies combined with transient photovoltage and differential charging analyses to study the effect of polymer fractionation in indacenoedithiophene-co-benzothiadiazole (IDTBT):fullerene solar cells. In this system, polymer fractionation increases electroluminescence and reduces non-radiative recombination. High molecular weight and fractionated IDTBT polymers exhibit higher carrier lifetime-mobility product compared to their non-fractionated analogues, resulting in improved solar cell performance.

  11. Polymer concrete development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    Our work to date has involved working with aggregate gradations to minimize the voids and with different combinations of monomers, catalysts and promoters to achieve suitable strengths and workability. At present, tests are being made to evaluate the...

  12. News from Online: Industrial Chemicals and Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney Judd, Carolyn

    1999-02-01

    of the American Chemical Society Divisions of Polymer Chemistry and Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering and General Electric Corporation. The POLYED site, http:/ /chemdept.uwsp.edu/polyed/index.htm, is hosted by the University of Wisconsin at Stevens Point. This National Center for Polymer Education is another good place to go for information. More education is available at the Ziegler Research Group Home Page at http://www.chem.ucalgary.ca/groups/ziegler/index.html . Go to Metallocene as Olefin Polymerization Catalysis: An Introduction ( http://www.chem.ucalgary.ca/groups/ziegler/met_intro.html ) for historical accounts of metallocene and Ziegler-Natta catalysts. Movies are available here too. This Canadian site is well-documented and educational. Back at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, The Why Files site at http://whyfiles.news.wisc.edu helps bring important chemical and technology news to the public. Go to the archived files of October 1997 ( http://whyfiles.news.wisc.edu/shorties/catalyst.html ) to find information about the importance of low-temperature metallocene catalysts. The Why Files received funding from the National Science Foundation. Go here for science information in an easy-to-read format. One of the driving forces toward better catalysis is the attempt to reach 100% product, combining efficiency with lowered pollution. Companies can look to the Environmental Protection Agency for information: Environsense at http://es.epa.gov/ is pledged to offer "Common Sense Solutions to Environmental Problems". So where can we get these polymers? The American Chemical Society can help. Go to Chemcylopedia at http://pubs.acs.org/chemcy99/ for great information. Both purchasers and users of chemicals can benefit from this site. Searches can be made on the chemical or on the supplier. Information provided includes CAS Registry Numbers and special shipping requirements as well as potential applications. Do you remember that we started with paper? Let

  13. Ring closure in actin polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Supurna, E-mail: supurna@rri.res.in [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sebanti [Doon University, Dehradun 248001 (India)

    2017-03-18

    We present an analysis for the ring closure probability of semiflexible polymers within the pure bend Worm Like Chain (WLC) model. The ring closure probability predicted from our analysis can be tested against fluorescent actin cyclization experiments. We also discuss the effect of ring closure on bend angle fluctuations in actin polymers. - Highlights: • Ring closure of biopolymers. • Worm like chain model. • Predictions for experiments.

  14. Stochastic Models of Polymer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Stochastic Models of Polymer Systems The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the...ADDRESS. Princeton University PO Box 0036 87 Prospect Avenue - 2nd floor Princeton, NJ 08544 -2020 14-Mar-2014 ABSTRACT Number of Papers published in...peer-reviewed journals: Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Stochastic Models of Polymer Systems Report Title

  15. High cation transport polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Rathke, Jerome W [Homer Glen, IL; Klingler, Robert J [Westmont, IL

    2007-06-05

    A solid state ion conducting electrolyte and a battery incorporating same. The electrolyte includes a polymer matrix with an alkali metal salt dissolved therein, the salt having an anion with a long or branched chain having not less than 5 carbon or silicon atoms therein. The polymer is preferably a polyether and the salt anion is preferably an alkyl or silyl moiety of from 5 to about 150 carbon/silicon atoms.

  16. Radiation processing of natural polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman; Kamaruddin Hashim; Zulkafli Ghazali; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Jamaliah Sharif

    2006-01-01

    Radiation processing of natural polymer has been the subject of interest of countries in this region in the past 5 ∼ 7 years. Although some of the output of the research have been commercialized in particular for the applications in the agriculture and healthcare sectors, the potential applications of radiation processing of natural polymers in the medical sector are yet to be fully understood and developed. (author)

  17. Nanoporous polymer liquid core waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Ndoni, Sokol

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate liquid core waveguides defined by UV to enable selective water infiltration in nanoporous polymers, creating an effective refractive index shift Δn=0.13. The mode confinement and propagation loss in these waveguides are presented.......We demonstrate liquid core waveguides defined by UV to enable selective water infiltration in nanoporous polymers, creating an effective refractive index shift Δn=0.13. The mode confinement and propagation loss in these waveguides are presented....

  18. Graphene-Based Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-31

    polymerize in-situ around the fillers or even graft to them [71], thus it overcomes the problem of dramatically increased viscosity of the polymer...filler dispersion, increased polymer viscosity during processing and filler damage due to thermal degradation or strong shear forces [3, 82]. At...123, 124]. Figure 1.12 (a) SEM image of the fracture surface of GO/PVA nanocomposite film [85]. (b) TEM image of a clay reinforced Nylon-6

  19. Polymer Brushes: Synthesis, Characterization, Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advincula, Rigoberto C.; Brittain, William J.; Caster, Kenneth C.; Rühe, Jürgen

    2004-09-01

    Materials scientists, polymer chemists, surface physicists and materials engineers will find this book a complete and detailed treatise on the field of polymer brushes, their synthesis, characterization and manifold applications. In a first section, the various synthetic pathways and different surface materials are introduced and explained, followed by a second section covering important aspects of characterization and analysis in both flat surfaces and particles. These specific surface initiated polymerization (SIP) systems such as linear polymers, homopolymers, block copolymers, and hyperbranched polymers are unique compared to previously reported systems by chemisorption or physisorption. They have found their way in both large-scale and miniature applications of polymer brushes, which is covered in the last section. Such 'hairy' surfaces offer fascinating opportunities for addressing numerous problems of both academic and, in particular, industrial interest: high-quality, functional or protective coatings, composite materials, surface engineered particles, metal-organic interfaces, biological applications, micro-patterning, colloids, nanoparticles, functional devices, and many more. It is the desire of the authors that this book will be of benefit to readers who want to "brush-up on polymers".

  20. Osmotic load from glucose polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, W W; Poh, D; Leong, M; Tam, Y K; Succop, P; Checkland, E G

    1991-01-01

    Glucose polymer is a carbohydrate source with variable chain lengths of glucose units which may result in variable osmolality. The osmolality of two commercial glucose polymers was measured in reconstituted powder infant formulas, and the change in osmolality of infant milk formulas at the same increases in energy density (67 kcal/dL to 81 and 97 kcal/dL) from the use of additional milk powder or glucose polymers was compared. All samples were prepared from powders (to nearest 0.1 mg), and osmolality was measured by freezing point depression. For both glucose polymers the within-batch variability of the measured osmolality was less than 3.5%, and between-batch variability of the measured osmolality was less than 9.6%. The measured osmolality varies linearly with energy density (p less than 0.001) and was highest in infant formula reconstituted from milk powder alone. However, there exist significant differences in the measured osmolality between different glucose polymer preparations. At high energy densities (greater than or equal to 97 kcal/dL), infant milk formulas prepared with milk powder alone or with the addition of certain glucose polymer preparation may have high osmolality (greater than or equal to 450 mosm/kg) and theoretically predispose the infant to complications of hyperosmotic feeds.

  1. UV-cured polymer optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñón, Victor; Santiago, Freddie; Vogelsberg, Ashten; Davenport, Amelia; Cramer, Neil

    2017-10-01

    Although many optical-quality glass materials are available for use in optical systems, the range of polymeric materials is limited. Polymeric materials have some advantages over glass when it comes to large-scale manufacturing and production. In smaller scale systems, they offer a reduction in weight when compared to glass counterparts. This is especially important when designing optical systems meant to be carried by hand. We aimed to expand the availability of polymeric materials by exploring both crown-like and flint-like polymers. In addition, rapid and facile production was also a goal. By using UV-cured thiolene-based polymers, we were able to produce optical materials within seconds. This enabled the rapid screening of a variety of polymers from which we down-selected to produce optical flats and lenses. We will discuss problems with production and mitigation strategies in using UV-cured polymers for optical components. Using UV-cured polymers present a different set of problems than traditional injection-molded polymers, and these issues are discussed in detail. Using these produced optics, we integrated them into a modified direct view optical system, with the end goal being the development of drop-in replacements for glass components. This optical production strategy shows promise for use in lab-scale systems, where low-cost methods and flexibility are of paramount importance.

  2. Polymer reinforcement of cement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swamy, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    In the last couple of decades several cement- and concrete-based composites have come into prominence. Of these, cement-polymer composites, like cement-fibre composites, have been recognised as very promising, and considerable research and development on their properties, fabrication methods and application are in progress. Of the three types of concrete materials which incorporate polymers to form composites, polymer impregnated concrete forms a major development in which hardened concrete is impregnated with a liquid monomer which is subsequently polymerized to form a rigid polymer network in the pores of the parent material. In this first part of the extensive review of the polymer reinforcement of cement systems, the process technology of the various monomer impregnation techniques and the properties of the impregnated composite are assessed critically. It is shown that the high durability and superior performance of polymer impregnated concrete can provide an economic and competitive alternative in in situ strengthening, and in other areas where conventional concrete can only at best provide adequate performance. The review includes a section on radiation-induced polymerization. (author)

  3. Polymer Thin Film Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A. C.; Oslanec, R.; Composto, R. J.; Vlcek, P.

    1998-03-01

    We study the dewetting dynamics of thin polystyrene (PS) films deposited on silicon oxide surfaces using optical (OM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopes. Quantitative analysis of the hole diameter as a function of annealing time at 175^oC shows that blending poly(styrene-block-methyl-methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) with PS acts to dramatically slow down the dewetting rate and even stops holes growth before they impinge. AFM studies show that the hole floor is smooth for a pure PS film but contains residual polymer for the blend. At 5% vol., a PS-b-PMMA with high molar mass and low PMMA is a more effective stabilizing agent than a low molar mass/high PMMA additive. The optimum copolymer concentration is 3% vol. beyond which film stability doesn't improve. Although dewetting is slowed down relative to pure PS, PS/PS-b-PMMA bilayers dewet at a faster rate than blends having the same overall additive concentration.

  4. A supramolecular miktoarm star polymer based on porphyrin metal complexation in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhanyao; Dehaen, Wim; Lyskawa, Joël; Woisel, Patrice; Hoogenboom, Richard

    2017-07-25

    A novel supramolecular miktoarm star polymer was successfully constructed in water from a pyridine end-decorated polymer (Py-PmDEGA) and a metalloporphyrin based star polymer (ZnTPP-(PEG) 4 ) via metal-ligand coordination. The Py-PmDEGA moiety was prepared via a combination of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) and subsequent aminolysis and Michael addition reactions to introduce the pyridine end-group. The ZnTPP(PEG) 4 star-polymer was synthesized by the reaction between tetrakis(p-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin and toluenesulfonyl-PEG, followed by insertion of a zinc ion into the porphyrin core. The formation of a well-defined supramolecular AB 4 -type miktoarm star polymer was unambiguously demonstrated via UV-Vis spectroscopic titration, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and diffusion ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY).

  5. Functional patterns obtained by nanoimprinting lithography and subsequent growth of polymer brushes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genua, A; AlduncIn, J A; Pomposo, J A; Grande, H; Kehagias, N; Reboud, V; Sotomayor, C; Mondragon, I; Mecerreyes, D

    2007-01-01

    In this work the growth of polymer brushes was combined with nanoimprint lithography (NIL) in order to obtain new functional nanopatterns. First, a functional thermoplastic methacrylic copolymer poly(methyl methacrylate-co-2-bromoisobutyryl-oxy-ethyl methacrylate) was synthesized. This copolymer was successfully patterned by NIL using a silicon stamp at 160 deg. C and 60 bar. Next, hydrophilic polymer brushes based on poly(3-sulfopropylmethacrylate) and hydrophobic polymer brushes based on a poly(fluorinated methacrylate) were grown on the imprinted surfaces. The surface properties of the patterned polymer were accordingly modified and, as a consequence, the water contact angle was modified from 80.3 deg. to 32.5 deg. in the case of the hydrophilic brushes and to 118.1 deg. in the case of the hydrophobic brushes. As an application we demonstrated the use of hydrophobic polymer brushes in order to modify the surface of polymeric stamps for NIL with self-demoulding properties

  6. Changes in molecular structure and properties of irradiated polymers of different compositions - ESR and NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carswell-Pomerantz, T.; Babanalbandi, A.; Dong, L.; Hill, D.J.T.; Perera, M.C.S.; Pomery, P.J.; Saadat, G.; Whittaker, A.K.

    1999-01-01

    Investigations of molecular structural changes in polymers during exposure to high energy radiation is the long term interest of the Polymer Materials and Radiation Group at the University of Queensland. Recently, the group had looked at a range of polymers including natural and synthetic rubbers, methacrylates and polyesters. The objective of the work has been to investigate the relationships between polymer structure and sensitivity towards high energy radiation, including gamma radiation. This report will focus on the Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies of the effects of gamma irradiation on these polymers. Other methods such as Gas Chromatography (GC), Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), Fourier Transformed Infra Red (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) have also been used as these methods combine with ESR and NMR, to provide a more complete picture of the mechanism of the structural changes. (author)

  7. Fluid Structure Interaction Analysis in Manufacturing Metal/Polymer Macro-Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baesso, R.; Lucchetta, G.

    2007-01-01

    Polymer Injection Forming (PIF) is a new manufacturing technology for sheet metal-polymer macro-composites, which results from the combination of injection moulding and sheet metal forming. This process consists on forming the sheet metal according to the boundary of the mould cavity by means of the injected polymer. After cooling, the polymer bonds permanently to the metal resulting in a sheet metal-polymer macro-composite product. Comparing this process to traditional ones (where the polymeric and metal parts are joined together after separate forming) the main advantages are both reduction of production costs and increase of part quality. This paper presents a multi-physics numerical simulation of the process performed in the Ansys/CFX environment

  8. POLYMER COMPOSITE FILMS WITH SIZE-SELECTED METAL NANOPARTICLES FABRICATED BY CLUSTER BEAM TECHNIQUE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceynowa, F. A.; Chirumamilla, Manohar; Popok, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Formation of polymer films with size-selected silver and copper nanoparticles (NPs) is studied. Polymers are prepared by spin coating while NPs are fabricated and deposited utilizing a magnetron sputtering cluster apparatus. The particle embedding into the films is provided by thermal annealing...... after the deposition. The degree of immersion can be controlled by the annealing temperature and time. Together with control of cluster coverage the described approach represents an efficient method for the synthesis of thin polymer composite layers with either partially or fully embedded metal NPs....... Combining electron beam lithography, cluster beam deposition and thermal annealing allows to form ordered arrays of metal NPs on polymer films. Plasticity and flexibility of polymer host and specific properties added by coinage metal NPs open a way for different applications of such composite materials...

  9. Room temperature synthesis of heptazine-based microporous polymer networks as photocatalysts for hydrogen evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailasam, Kamalakannan; Schmidt, Johannes; Bildirir, Hakan; Zhang, Guigang; Blechert, Siegfried; Wang, Xinchen; Thomas, Arne

    2013-06-25

    Two emerging material classes are combined in this work, namely polymeric carbon nitrides and microporous polymer networks. The former, polymeric carbon nitrides, are composed of amine-bridged heptazine moieties and showed interesting performance as a metal-free photocatalyst. These materials have, however, to be prepared at high temperatures, making control of their chemical structure difficult. The latter, microporous polymer networks have received increasing interest due to their high surface area, giving rise to interesting applications in gas storage or catalysis. Here, the central building block of carbon nitrides, a functionalized heptazine as monomer, and tecton are used to create microporous polymer networks. The resulting heptazine-based microporous polymers show high porosity, while their chemical structure resembles the ones of carbon nitrides. The polymers show activity for the photocatalytic production of hydrogen from water, even under visible light illumination. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Development of polymer films by the coalescence of polymer particles in powdered and aqueous polymer-modified mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, M.U.K.; Ohama, Y.; Demura, K.; Iqbal, M.Z.

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates and compares the coalescence of polymer particles (continuous polymer films formation) in powdered polymer-modified mortars (PPMMs) and aqueous polymer-modified mortars (APMMs). Polymer-modified mortars (PMMs) using various redispersible polymer powders (powdered cement modifiers) and polymer dispersions (aqueous cement modifiers) were prepared by varying the polymer-cement ratio (P/C) and were tested for the characterization of polymer films using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) after curing for 28 days. It is concluded from the test results that mortar constituents of unmodified mortar (UMM) are loosely joined with each other due to the absence of polymer films, thus having a structure with comparatively lower mechanical and durability characteristics. By contrast, mortar constituents in PPMMs and APMMs are compactly joined with each other due to the presence of interweaving polymer films, thereby forming a monolithic structure with improved mechanical and durability characteristics. However, the results make obvious the poor coalescence of polymer particles or development of inferior quality polymers films in PPMMs as compared to that observed in APMMs. Moreover, PPMMs show less uniform distribution of polymer films as compared to that in APMMs. Different powdered cement modifiers have different film-forming capabilities. However, such difference is hardly recognized in aqueous cement modifiers. The polymer films in PPMMs and APMMs may acquire different structures. They may appear as mesh-like, thread-like, rugged, dense or fibrous with fine or rough surfaces. Development of coherent polymer films is not well pronounced at a P/C of 5% in PPMMs, whereas sometimes coherent polymer films are observed at a P/C of 5% in APMMs. At a P/C of 10% or more, fully developed, coherent polymer films are observed in both PPMMs and APMMs

  11. Fabrication of raised and inverted SU8 polymer waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Anthony S.; Mitchell, Arnan; Balkunje, Vishal S.; Austin, Mike W.; Raghunathan, Mukund K.

    2005-01-01

    Polymer films with high optical transmission have been investigated for making optical devices for several years. SU8 photoresist and optical adhesives have been investigated for use as thin films for optical devices, not what they were originally designed for. Optical adhesives are typically a one component thermoset polymer and are convenient to use for making thin film optical devices such as waveguides. They are prepared in minutes as thin films unlike SU8, which has to be carefully thermally cured over several hours for optimum results. However SU8 can be accurately patterned to form the geometry of structures required for single mode optical waveguides. SU8 in combination with the lower refractive index optical adhesive films such as UV15 from Master Bond are used to form single and multi mode waveguides. SU8 is photopatternable but we have also used dry etching of the SU8 layer or the other polymer layers e.g. UV15 to form the ribs, ridges or trenches required to guide single modes of light. Optical waveguides were also fabricated using only optical adhesives of different refractive indices. The resolution obtainable is poorer than with SU8 and hence multi mode waveguides are obtained. Loss measurements have been obtained for waveguides of different geometries and material combinations. The process for making polymer waveguides is demonstrated for making large multi mode waveguides and microfluidic channels by scaling the process up in size.

  12. Polymer Nanocomposites with Prescribed Morphology: Going Beyond Nanoparticle-Filled Polymers (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaia, Richard A; Maguire, John F

    2006-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs), i.e., nanoparticles (spheres, rods, and plates) dispersed in a polymer matrix, have garnered substantial academic and industrial interest since their inception, ca. 1990...

  13. Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael

    2015-06-09

    A scaling theory is developed for selective adsorption of polymers induced by the strong binding between specific monomers and complementary surface adsorption sites. By "selective" we mean specific attraction between a subset of all monomers, called "sticky", and a subset of surface sites, called "adsorption sites". We demonstrate that, in addition to the expected dependence on the polymer volume fraction ϕ bulk in the bulk solution, selective adsorption strongly depends on the ratio between two characteristic length scales, the root-mean-square distance l between neighboring sticky monomers along the polymer, and the average distance d between neighboring surface adsorption sites. The role of the ratio l / d arises from the fact that a polymer needs to deform to enable the spatial commensurability between its sticky monomers and the surface adsorption sites for selective adsorption. We study strong selective adsorption of both telechelic polymers with two end monomers being sticky and multisticker polymers with many sticky monomers between sticky ends. For telechelic polymers, we identify four adsorption regimes at l / d 1, we expect that the adsorption layer at exponentially low ϕ bulk consists of separated unstretched loops, while as ϕ bulk increases the layer crosses over to a brush of extended loops with a second layer of weakly overlapping tails. For multisticker chains, in the limit of exponentially low ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers are well separated from each other. As l / d increases, the conformation of an individual polymer changes from a single-end-adsorbed "mushroom" to a random walk of loops. For high ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers at small l / d are mushrooms that cover all the adsorption sites. At sufficiently large l / d , adsorbed multisticker polymers strongly overlap. We anticipate the formation of a self-similar carpet and with increasing l / d a two-layer structure with a brush of loops covered by a self-similar carpet. As l / d exceeds the

  14. Dihydroxybenzene/benzoquinone-containing polymers: organic redox polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulay, S. [Universite de Blida, Lab. de Chimie-Physique Macromoleculaire, Institut de Chimie Industrielle (Algeria)

    2000-08-01

    Polymers containing hydroquinone, catechol or their corresponding benzoquinones are a special class of redox polymers. Three pathways of their syntheses are possible: condensation polymerization of suitable monomers, addition polymerization of vinyl monomers containing redox moiety, and chemical attachment of redox unit onto pre-made polymeric matrix. A range of functionalized matrices have been employed such as polyethers, polyesters, polycarbonates, polyurethanes, polyamides and others. Protection of their phenolic functionality has conducted to chemically interesting redox polymer precursors. The presence of a redox moiety coupled with the extant functionalization of the polymer matrix makes the materials very valuable, of wide properties and consequently of vast applicability. For instance, in the oil field, some polymers such as carboxy-methyl-cellulose (CMC) are often applied as to bring about a viscosity improvement and therefore to facilitate the oil drilling. In this regard, Patel evaluated sulfo-alkylated polymeric catechol, namely sulfo-methylated and sulfo-ethylated resins. Indeed, polymeric catechol chemically modified as such exhibited a marked ability to control the viscosity, the gel strength, as well as the filtrate loss of aqueous oil drilling fluids.

  15. Nanostructured polymer membranes for proton conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Park, Moon Jeong

    2013-06-18

    Polymers having an improved ability to entrain water are characterized, in some embodiments, by unusual humidity-induced phase transitions. The described polymers (e.g., hydrophilically functionalized block copolymers) have a disordered state and one or more ordered states (e.g., a lamellar state, a gyroid state, etc.). In one aspect, the polymers are capable of undergoing a disorder-to-order transition while the polymer is exposed to an increasing temperature at a constant relative humidity. In some aspects the polymer includes a plurality of portions, wherein a first portion forms proton-conductive channels within the membrane and wherein the channels have a width of less than about 6 nm. The described polymers are capable of entraining and preserving water at high temperature and low humidity. Surprisingly, in some embodiments, the polymers are capable of entraining greater amounts of water with the increase of temperature. The polymers can be used in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes in fuel cells.

  16. A salt water battery with high stability and charging rates made from solution processed conjugated polymers with polar side chains

    OpenAIRE

    Moia, Davide; Giovannitti, Alexander; Szumska, Anna A.; Schnurr, Martin; Rezasoltani, Elham; Maria, Iuliana P.; Barnes, Piers R. F.; McCulloch, Iain; Nelson, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    We report a neutral salt water based battery which uses p-type and n-type solution processed polymer films as the cathode and the anode of the cell. The specific capacity of the electrodes (approximately 30 mAh cm-3) is achieved via formation of bipolarons in both the p-type and n-type polymers. By engineering ethylene glycol and zwitterion based side chains attached to the polymer backbone we facilitate rapid ion transport through the non-porous polymer films. This, combined with efficient t...

  17. Forecast combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Aiolfi, Marco; Capistrán, Carlos; Timmermann, Allan

    2010-01-01

    We consider combinations of subjective survey forecasts and model-based forecasts from linear and non-linear univariate specifications as well as multivariate factor-augmented models. Empirical results suggest that a simple equal-weighted average of survey forecasts outperform the best model-based forecasts for a majority of macroeconomic variables and forecast horizons. Additional improvements can in some cases be gained by using a simple equal-weighted average of survey and model-based fore...

  18. Combined homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slović Živana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Combined homicide is a combination of two or more different modes of killing. These homicides occur when multiple perpetrators have different mode of killing, to hide the true manner of death, or when an initially unsuccessful attack with one weapon is abandoned and changed by another mode which is more successful, or due to availability of weapons at the scene of homicide, or unexpected appearance of possible eyewitness, or else. Case report: This case report is about 65-year old woman who was found in her residence on the floor next to the bed lying on her back with two kitchen knives in her neck. Autopsy revealed an abrasion on the frontal part of the neck and a bruise of the soft tissues of the neck with a double fracture of both greater horns of the hyoid bone and a fracture of both superior horns of the thyroid cartilage. The cause of death was exsanguination into right half of the thoracic cavity from the left subclavian artery which was cut, on the spot of stab wound in the neck. Conclusion: Hemorrhage in the soft tissue near broken hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage indicate that the victim was first strangulated and then stabbed with kitchen knives. Combined homicides are caused by one or more killers in order to accelerate the killing, or to be sure to provide the fatal outcome. This case is also interesting because the killer left weapon in the victim's neck.

  19. Free radical transfer in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonntag, C. von; Bothe, E.; Ulanski, P.

    1998-01-01

    For the present study of free-radical transfer in polymers pulse radiolysis and product studies have been carried out in aqueous solutions using thus far only the water-soluble polymers polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid and polyvinyl alcohol. When OH radicals, generated in the radiolysis of N 2 O-saturated aqueous solutions, react with polymers the lifetime of the polymer radical thus created very much depends on the number of radicals per polymer chain. When there are a large number of radicals per chain their bimolecular decay may be faster than the corresponding (diffusion controlled) decay of monomeric radicals, but when the macromolecule contains only few or even just one radical their lifetime is considerably prolonged. Highly charged polymers such as polyacrylic acid at high pH attain a rod-like conformation which again favors a long lifetime of the radicals. Under such conditions, radical transfer reactions can occur. For example, in polyacrylic acid OH radicals generate two kinds of radicals side by side. The radical in β-position to the carboxylate group converts into the thermodynamically more stable α-radicals by an H-transfer reaction as can be followed by spectrophotometry. Besides radical transfer reactions β-fragmentation reactions occur causing chain scission. Such reactions can be followed in a pulse radiolysis experiment by conductometry, because counter ions are released upon chain scission. Such a process is especially effective in the case of polymethacrylic acid, where it results in a chain depolymerization. An intramolecular H-abstraction is also observed in the γ-radiolysis of polyacrylic acid with the corresponding peroxyl radicals. This causes a chain reaction to occur. The resulting hydroperoxides are unstable and decarboxylate given rise to acetylacetone-like products. In polyvinyl alcohol the peroxyl radicals in α-position to the alcohol function undergo HO 2 -elimination. This prevents a scission of the polymer chain in the

  20. Resonant infrared laser deposition of polymer-nanocomposite materials for optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee K.; Schriver, Kenneth E.; Haglund, Richard F.

    2011-11-01

    Polymers find a number of potentially useful applications in optoelectronic devices. These include both active layers, such as light-emitting polymers and hole-transport layers, and passive layers, such as polymer barrier coatings and light-management films. This paper reports the experimental results for polymer films deposited by resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) and resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition (RIR-PLD) for commercial optoelectronic device applications. In particular, light-management films, such as anti-reflection coatings, require refractive-index engineering of a material. However, refractive indices of polymers fall within a relatively narrow range, leading to major efforts to develop both low- and high-refractive-index polymers. Polymer nanocomposites can expand the range of refractive indices by incorporating low- or high-refractive-index nanoscale materials. RIR-MAPLE is an excellent technique for depositing polymer-nanocomposite films in multilayer structures, which are essential to light-management coatings. In this paper, we report our efforts to engineer the refractive index of a barrier polymer by combining RIR-MAPLE of nanomaterials (for example, high refractive-index TiO2 nanoparticles) and RIR-PLD of host polymer. In addition, we report on the properties of organic and polymer films deposited by RIR-MAPLE and/or RIR-PLD, such as Alq3 [tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum] and PEDOT:PSS [poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate)]. Finally, the challenges and potential for commercializing RIR-MAPLE/PLD, such as industrial scale-up issues, are discussed.

  1. Mechanics of biological polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomakin, Joseph

    2009-12-01

    displayed a darker coloration and significantly increased n of 0.0470.004, suggesting both cuticles to be less cross-linked, a finding consistent with reduced beta-alanine metabolism. Suppression of the tanning enzyme laccase2 (TcLac2) resulted in a pale cuticle with an n of 0.043+/-0.005, implicating laccases in the formation of both pigments and cross-links during sclerotization. Cuticular cross-linking was increased and n decreased with decreased expression of structural proteins, CP10 and CP20. This work establishes n as an important novel parameter for confirming metabolic pathways within load bearing tissues and for understanding structure function relationships within biological polymer composites. Additionally, Tribolium castaneum elytral indentation modulus (800+/-200 MPa) was determined by nanoindentation and a 4nm regular hexagonal pattern on the dorsal side of elytra investigated via scanning, transmission and atomic microscopy. Based on studied biological materials, the combination of rigid macromolecules immersed in a ductile matrix was found to be significant in achieving exceptional mechanical performance. Inspired by this biological design principle, the synthesis, properties and structure of Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate/agarose semi-interpenetrating network hydrogels were explored. The resulting novel composite materials were 9x stiffer than agarose and 5x tougher than PEGDA alone and showed good biocompatibility, suggesting promise as a scaffold material for tissue engineering constructs for cartilage regeneration.

  2. Polymer depletion-driven cluster aggregation and initial phase separation in charged nanosized colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gögelein, Christoph; Nägele, Gerhard; Buitenhuis, Johan; Tuinier, Remco; Dhont, Jan K. G.

    2009-05-01

    We study polymer depletion-driven cluster aggregation and initial phase separation in aqueous dispersions of charge-stabilized silica spheres, where the ionic strength and polymer (dextran) concentration are systematically varied, using dynamic light scattering and visual observation. Without polymers and for increasing salt and colloid content, the dispersions become increasingly unstable against irreversible cluster formation. By adding nonadsorbing polymers, a depletion-driven attraction is induced, which lowers the stabilizing Coulomb barrier and enhances the cluster growth rate. The initial growth rate increases with increasing polymer concentration and decreases with increasing polymer molar mass. These observations can be quantitatively understood by an irreversible dimer formation theory based on the classical Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek pair potential, with the depletion attraction modeled by the Asakura-Oosawa-Vrij potential. At low colloid concentration, we observe an exponential cluster growth rate for all polymer concentrations considered, indicating a reaction-limited aggregation mechanism. At sufficiently high polymer and colloid concentrations, and lower salt content, a gas-liquidlike demixing is observed initially. Later on, the system separates into a gel and fluidlike phase. The experimental time-dependent state diagram is compared to the theoretical equilibrium phase diagram obtained from a generalized free-volume theory and is discussed in terms of an initial reversible phase separation process in combination with irreversible aggregation at later times.

  3. Lateral phase separation of mixed polymer brushes on planar and spherical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lehn, Reid; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2012-02-01

    A mixed polymer brush consists of two (or more) polymer species grafted to a surface at a high density, inducing the polymers to highly stretch to maximize favorable solvent interactions while minimizing polymer overlap. The enthalpic and entropic interactions between the different polymers give rise to lateral phase behavior on the surface. Understanding this phase separation behavior is interesting for applications in nanotemplating and controlled protein adsorption. In this work, we present a novel theoretical model to quickly predict lateral phase separated morphologies of mixed polymer brushes on planar, cylindrical and spherical surfaces. The model combines a Flory-Huggins model for enthalpic interactions between the polymer components with an Alexander-de Gennes model for the entropy of the brush layers. When there is a length difference between the polymer components, these two interactions along with the conformational entropy of the system lead to a range of morphologies including stripes, dimples, mixing, and complete phase separation. The computational efficiency of this model allows for phase diagrams to be generated with great accuracy. The results of our model thus allow for the fast prediction of lateral morphologies on different geometries.

  4. Sago Starch-Mixed Low-Density Polyethylene Biodegradable Polymer: Synthesis and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Enamul Hoque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on synthesis and characterization of sago starch-mixed LDPE biodegradable polymer. Firstly, the effect of variation of starch content on mechanical property (elongation at break and Young’s modulus and biodegradability of the polymer was studied. The LDPE was combined with 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% of sago for this study. Then how the cross-linking with trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA and electron beam (EB irradiation influence the mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer was investigated. In the 2nd study, to avoid overwhelming of data LDPE polymer was incorporated with only 50% of starch. The starch content had direct influence on mechanical property and biodegradability of the polymer. The elongation at break decreased with increase of starch content, while Young’s modulus and mass loss (i.e., degradation were found to increase with increase of starch content. Increase of cross-linker (TMPTA and EB doses also resulted in increased Young’s modulus of the polymer. However, both cross-linking and EB irradiation processes rendered lowering of polymer’s melting temperature. In conclusion, starch content and modification processes play significant roles in controlling mechanical, thermal, and degradation properties of the starch-mixed LDPE synthetic polymer, thus providing the opportunity to modulate the polymer properties for tailored applications.

  5. Surface characterization of plasma treated polymers for applications as biocompatible carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bacakova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine surface properties of polymer surfaces after plasma treatment with the aim of further cytocompatibility tests. Examined polymers were poly(ethyleneterephthalate (PET, high-density polyethylene (HDPE, poly(tetrafluoro-ethylene (PTFE and poly(L-lactic acid (PLLA. Goniometry has shown that the plasma treatment was immediately followed by a sharp decrease of contact angle of the surface. In the course of ageing the contact angle increased due to the reorientation of polar groups into the surface layer of polymer. Ablation of polymer surfaces was observed during the degradation. Decrease of weight of polymer samples was measured by gravimetry. Surface morphology and roughness was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM. The PLLA samples exhibited saturation of wettability (aged surface after approximately 100 hours, while the PET and PTFE achieved constant values of contact angle after 336 hours. Irradiation by plasma leads to polymer ablation, the highest mass loss being observed for PLLA. The changes in the surface roughness and morphology were observed, a lamellar structure being induced on PTFE. Selected polymer samples were seeded with VSMC (vascular smooth muscle cells and the adhesion and proliferation of cells was studied. It was proved that certain combination of input treatment parameters led to improvement of polymer cytocompatibility. The plasma exposure was confirmed to significantly improve the PTFE biocompatibility.

  6. Synthetic Effect of Vivid Shark Skin and Polymer Additive on Drag Reduction Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural shark skin has a well-demonstrated drag reduction function, which is mainly owing to its microscopic structure and mucus on the body surface. In order to improve drag reduction, it is necessary to integrate microscopic drag reduction structure and drag reduction agent. In this study, two hybrid approaches to synthetically combine vivid shark skin and polymer additive, namely, long-chain grafting and controllable polymer diffusion, were proposed and attempted to mimic such hierarchical topography of shark skin without waste of polymer additive. Grafting mechanism and optimization of diffusion port were investigated to improve the efficiency of the polymer additive. Superior drag reduction effects were validated, and the combined effect was also clarified through comparison between drag reduction experiments.

  7. Molecular and supramolecular orientation in conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldissi, M.

    1987-01-01

    Intrinsic anisotropy in electrical and optical properties of conducting polymers constitutes a unique aspect that derives π-electron delocalization along the polymer backbone and from the weak inter-chain interaction. To acquire such an intrinsic property, conducting polymers have to be oriented macroscopically and microscopically (at the chain level). A review of the various techniques, including stretch-alignment of the polymer and of precursor polymers, polymerization in ordered media, i.e., in a liquid crystal solvent, and synthesis of liquid crystalline conducting polymers will be given. 29 refs

  8. Polymers for energy storage and conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    One of the first comprehensive books to focus on the role of polymers in the burgeoning energy materials market Polymers are increasingly finding applications in the areas of energy storage and conversion. A number of recent advances in the control of the polymer molecular structure which allows the polymer properties to be more finely tuned have led to these advances and new applications. Polymers for Energy Storage and Conversion assimilates these advances in the form of a comprehensive text that includes the synthesis and properties of a large number of polymer systems for

  9. Editorial of the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Francolini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The special issue “Antimicrobial Polymers” includes research and review papers concerning the recent advances on preparation of antimicrobial polymers and their relevance to industrial settings and biomedical field. Antimicrobial polymers have recently emerged as promising candidates to fight microbial contamination onto surfaces thanks to their interesting properties. In this special issue, the main strategies pursued for developing antimicrobial polymers, including polymer impregnation with antimicrobial agents or synthesis of polymers bearing antimicrobial moieties, were discussed. The future application of these polymers either in industrial or healthcare settings could result in an extremely positive impact not only at the economic level but also for the improvement of quality of life.

  10. A review of mechanical and tribological behaviour of polymer composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, K.; Debnath, S.; Ganesan, R.; Palanikumar, K.

    2018-04-01

    Composite materials are finding increased applications in many industrial applications. A nano-composite is a matrix to which nanosized particles have been incorporated to drastically improve the mechanical performance of the original material. The structural components produced using nano-composites will exhibit a high strength-to-weight ratio. The properties of nano-composites have caused researchers and industries to consider using this material in several fields. Polymer nanocomposites consists of a polymer material having nano-particles or nano-fillers dispersed in the polymer matrix which may be of different shapes with at least one of the dimensions less than 100nm. In this paper, comprehensive review of polymer nanocomposites was done majorly in three different areas. First, mechanical behaviour of polymer nanocomposites which focuses on the mechanical property evaluation such as tensile strength, impact strength and modulus of elasticity based on the different combination of filler materials and nanoparticle inclusion. Second, wear behavior of Polymer composite materials with respect to different impingement angles and variation of filler composition using different processing techniques. Third, tribological (Friction and Wear) behaviour of nanocomposites using various combination of nanoparticle inclusion and time. Finally, it summarized the challenges and prospects of polymer nanocomposites.

  11. Cycloadditions in modern polymer chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaittre, Guillaume; Guimard, Nathalie K; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2015-05-19

    Synthetic polymer chemistry has undergone two major developments in the last two decades. About 20 years ago, reversible-deactivation radical polymerization processes started to give access to a wide range of polymeric architectures made from an almost infinite reservoir of functional building blocks. A few years later, the concept of click chemistry revolutionized the way polymer chemists approached synthetic routes. Among the few reactions that could qualify as click, the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) initially stood out. Soon, many old and new reactions, including cycloadditions, would further enrich the synthetic macromolecular chemistry toolbox. Whether click or not, cycloadditions are in any case powerful tools for designing polymeric materials in a modular fashion, with a high level of functionality and, sometimes, responsiveness. Here, we wish to describe cycloaddition methodologies that have been reported in the last 10 years in the context of macromolecular engineering, with a focus on those developed in our laboratories. The overarching structure of this Account is based on the three most commonly encountered cycloaddition subclasses in organic and macromolecular chemistry: 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions, (hetero-)Diels-Alder cycloadditions ((H)DAC), and [2+2] cycloadditions. Our goal is to briefly describe the relevant reaction conditions, the advantages and disadvantages, and the realized polymer applications. Furthermore, the orthogonality of most of these reactions is highlighted because it has proven highly beneficial for generating unique, multifunctional polymers in a one-pot reaction. The overview on 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions is mostly centered on the application of CuAAC as the most travelled route, by far. Besides illustrating the capacity of CuAAC to generate complex polymeric architectures, alternative 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions operating without the need for a catalyst are described. In the area of (H)DA cycloadditions

  12. Bioinspired bioadhesive polymers: dopa-modified poly(acrylic acid) derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulicht, Bryan; Mancini, Alexis; Geman, Nathanael; Cho, Daniel; Estrellas, Kenneth; Furtado, Stacia; Hopson, Russell; Tripathi, Anubhav; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2012-11-01

    The one-step synthesis and characterization of novel bioinspired bioadhesive polymers that contain Dopa, implicated in the extremely adhesive byssal fibers of certain gastropods, is reported. The novel polymers consist of combinations of either of two polyanhydride backbones and one of three amino acids, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or Dopa, grafted as side chains. Dopa-grafted hydrophobic backbone polymers exhibit as much as 2.5 × the fracture strength and 2.8 × the tensile work of bioadhesion of a commercially available poly(acrylic acid) derivative as tested on live, excised, rat intestinal tissue. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Fabrication of submicron structures in nanoparticle/polymer composite by holographic lithography and reactive ion etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A. Ping; He, Sailing; Kim, Kyoung Tae; Yoon, Yong-Kyu; Burzynski, Ryszard; Samoc, Marek; Prasad, Paras N.

    2008-11-01

    We report on the fabrication of nanoparticle/polymer submicron structures by combining holographic lithography and reactive ion etching. Silica nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in a (SU8) polymer matrix at a high concentration, and in situ polymerization (cross-linking) is used to form a nanoparticle/polymer composite. Another photosensitive SU8 layer cast upon the nanoparticle/SU8 composite layer is structured through holographic lithography, whose pattern is finally transferred to the nanoparticle/SU8 layer by the reactive ion etching process. Honeycomb structures in a submicron scale are experimentally realized in the nanoparticle/SU8 composite.

  14. Polymer-filled microcontainers for oral delivery loaded using supercritical impregnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marizza, Paolo; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Müllertz, Anette

    2014-01-01

    with a quasi-no-waste performance. Then ketoprofen is impregnated in the polymer matrix by using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as loading medium. The amount of polymer is controlled by the volume and the number of droplets of dispensed polymer and drug loading is tuned by varying the impregnation...... procedures. This work proposes an effective loading technique for a poorly soluble model drug in microcontainers, by combining inkjet printing and supercritical fluid impregnation. Well defined quantities of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) solutions are dispensed into microcontainers by inkjet printing...

  15. Finite element analysis of Polymer reinforced CRC columns under close-in detonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    Polymer reinforced Compact Reinforced Composite, PCRC, is a Fiber reinforced Densified Small Particle system, FDSP, combined with a high strength longitudinal flexural rebar arrangement laced together with polymer lacing to avoid shock initiated disintegration of the structural element under blast...... load. Experimental and numerical results of two PCRC columns subjected to close-in detonation are presented in this paper. Additionally, a LS-DYNA material model suitable for predicting the response of Polymer reinforced Compact Reinforced Concrete improved for close-in detonation and a description...

  16. Green polymer chemistry: enzyme catalysis for polymer functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sanghamitra; Puskas, Judit E

    2015-05-21

    Enzyme catalyzed reactions are green alternative approaches to functionalize polymers compared to conventional methods. This technique is especially advantageous due to the high selectivity, high efficiency, milder reaction conditions, and recyclability of enzymes. Selected reactions can be conducted under solventless conditions without the application of metal catalysts. Hence this process is becoming more recognized in the arena of biomedical applications, as the toxicity created by solvents and metal catalyst residues can be completely avoided. In this review we will discuss fundamental aspects of chemical reactions biocatalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B, and their application to create new functionalized polymers, including the regio- and chemoselectivity of the reactions.

  17. Green Polymer Chemistry: Enzyme Catalysis for Polymer Functionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Sen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme catalyzed reactions are green alternative approaches to functionalize polymers compared to conventional methods. This technique is especially advantageous due to the high selectivity, high efficiency, milder reaction conditions, and recyclability of enzymes. Selected reactions can be conducted under solventless conditions without the application of metal catalysts. Hence this process is becoming more recognized in the arena of biomedical applications, as the toxicity created by solvents and metal catalyst residues can be completely avoided. In this review we will discuss fundamental aspects of chemical reactions biocatalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B, and their application to create new functionalized polymers, including the regio- and chemoselectivity of the reactions.

  18. Biomass Biorefinery for the production of Polymers and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Oliver P. Peoples

    2008-05-05

    The conversion of biomass crops to fuel is receiving considerable attention as a means to reduce our dependence on foreign oil imports and to meet future energy needs. Besides their use for fuel, biomass crops are an attractive vehicle for producing value added products such as biopolymers. Metabolix, Inc. of Cambridge proposes to develop methods for producing biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in green tissue plants as well as utilizating residual plant biomass after polymer extraction for fuel generation to offset the energy required for polymer extraction. The primary plant target is switchgrass, and backup targets are alfalfa and tobacco. The combined polymer and fuel production from the transgenic biomass crops establishes a biorefinery that has the potential to reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oil imports for both the feedstocks and energy needed for plastic production. Concerns about the widespread use of transgenic crops and the grower’s ability to prevent the contamination of the surrounding environment with foreign genes will be addressed by incorporating and expanding on some of the latest plant biotechnology developed by the project partners of this proposal. This proposal also addresses extraction of PHAs from biomass, modification of PHAs so that they have suitable properties for large volume polymer applications, processing of the PHAs using conversion processes now practiced at large scale (e.g., to film, fiber, and molded parts), conversion of PHA polymers to chemical building blocks, and demonstration of the usefulness of PHAs in large volume applications. The biodegradability of PHAs can also help to reduce solid waste in our landfills. If successful, this program will reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as contribute jobs and revenue to the agricultural economy and reduce the overall emissions of carbon to the atmosphere.

  19. Two-step sulfonation process for the conversion of polymer fibers to carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Bryan E.; Patton, Jasson T.; Hukkanen, Eric J.; Bernius, Mark T.

    2017-11-14

    Disclosed herein are processes for preparing carbon fibers, comprising: sulfonating a polymer fiber with a sulfonating agent that is fuming sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, or a combination thereof; treating the sulfonated polymer with a heated solvent, wherein the temperature of the heated solvent is at least 95.degree. C.; and carbonizing the resulting product by heating it to a temperature of 501-3000.degree. C. Carbon fibers prepared according to these methods are also disclosed herein.

  20. Influence of Natural, Synthetic Polymers and Fillers on sustained release matrix tablets of Pregabalin

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaya Durga. K; Ashok Kumar. P; Suresh V Kulkarni

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop sustained release matrix tablets of Pregabalin for the treatment of neuropathic pain and epilepsy. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation and formulated using drug with Hydrophilic, hydrophobic, synthetic, natural polymers and 4 different fillers were used. The effect of Polymer concentration, combination and fillers on drug release rate was analyzed for the formulations F-1 to F-17. The tablets were subjected to physicochemical studies,...