WorldWideScience

Sample records for azerbaijan

  1. Kenaf and bioremediation in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists, businesses, and the Azerbaijan government are bringing together two ancient natural resources, petroleum and kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), to create a balance between economic growth and environmental reclamation. Oil and kenaf have been used for over 2000 years. Although oil continu...

  2. Russian Federation’s Relations with Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçin CANAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relations of the Russian Federation, that is one of the main players of the second “Great Game”, with Azerbaijan. Nagorno Karabakh issue, legal status of the Caspian and struggle for the pipelines influence both internal and foreign policies of Azerbaijan as well as the relations between Moscow and Baku. Therefore, Russian Federation’s relations with Azerbaijan will be examined within the context of these problems. It is mentioned that there are two rival groups in the region (Russian Federation-Armenia-Iran on the one side and USA-Turkey-Azerbaijan-Georgia on the other. This group will be discussed in this article by examing the relations between Russian Federation and Azerbaijan. This article argues that there are no such rival groups in the region.

  3. The oil tax regime of Azerbaijan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Gerard

    1998-07-01

    Azerbaijan has a long history in the oil business and a chance of a spectacular future. To understand why the oil tax regime evolved into its present form and how it is likely to develop, it is necessary to know something of the country's history and the commercial environment. Consequently the presentation begins by discussing these items. It then outlines the Production Sharing Agreement regime in Azerbaijan and then deals with the Kazakh and Georgian Tax Codes, as these are likely to be the basis of a new general tax law in Azerbaijan from 1999. The presentation includes comments on the New Draft Tax Code of 1998.

  4. TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY OF AZERBAIJAN

    OpenAIRE

    Musayeva, Naila; Silinevica, Irena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore tourism development impact on the economy of Azerbaijan. International tourism as a source of both direct and indirect incomes of the state encourages the development of different sectors not specific to the tourism infrastructure, but through the multiplier effect. In this context, the authors analyze the impact of tourism on employment in Azerbaijan and calculate the indirect impact of tourism on the economy of Azerbaijan due to the multiplier effect. ...

  5. FACTORS DETERMINING THE DIFFERENCES IN FDI INFLOWS INTO AZERBAIJAN''S AND RUSSIA''S OIL SECTORS AFTER INDEPENDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Eyyubov, Kamran

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the FDI inflows into Azerbaijan's and Russia's oil sectors between 1991 and 2006. It identifies the main reasons for Azerbaijan's advantage over Russia. The author first gives a brief explanation of FDI in general, then identifies the different patterns of FDI inflow into the oil sectors of both Azerbaijan and Russia, and concludes his article by pointing out the main determinants of the differences in FDI inflow into the oil sectors of these two countries.

  6. Private TV and Radio Broadcasting in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vefalı ENSEROV

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The change of mass media and its innovation like the other areas were inevitable in post-soviet countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In this means, media area of Azerbaijan began to privatization process after independence and since mid 1990`s private radio and television channels began to broadcast in the country one by one that uni-centrally, officially and ideologically was directed by Moscow before. Progress which is related to privatization process of broadcasting in Azerbaijan is being handled in this study. This study also includes legal regulations in the mass media area and mechanism of auto-control. The activities of national private broadcasting companies are also scrutinized in the study as well as the condition of the communication freedom.

  7. Colloquium on Azerbaijan; Colloque sur l'Azerbaidjan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The main topics on this conference day were: - the power rise of Azerbaijan: encouraging economic indicators, creation of the oil fund supplied by part of the petroleum profits, rationalization of the governmental structure, privatization of numerous companies; - the action of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) in Azerbaijan: transition towards a market economy, investment in various sectors (petroleum, small and medium-size companies, agriculture..); - present day situation of Azerbaijan: economy, foreign investments, role of France; - status of the TRACECA program 10 years after (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia): investment, development of road, maritime and rail transport; - the oil and gas context in Azerbaijan: Caspian area, exploration and production, pipeline projects; - French experience of companies working in Azerbaijan; - reality of business in Azerbaijan; - geo-strategy of Azerbaijan. (J.S.)

  8. An Analysis of Youth Employment in Azerbaijan Success of Leadership

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    Fariz AHMADOV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our project statement includes youth unemployment, underemployment as well as the attitude of young people to the labor market. Youth unemployment is a global problem. In Azerbaijan, it is becoming more challenging not only because of the lack of jobs, but also the lack of technical skills such as CV and cover letter writing, job interviewing and so on. This paper offers a first comprehensive study of the relationship between labor market policies and youth employment in Azerbaijan. The second aim of this paper to learn the performance of young leaders, and leadership in Azerbaijan. Article has emerged as a result of project and primary, secondary data.

  9. Cement Industry Overview and Market Price Forecasting In Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Global economic situation and energy resources’ prices influence local economic trends, investment of capital, status of financial institutions and cement industry in Azerbaijan in whole. These trends influence demand and activities of cement business communities which start to optimize expenses and find new priority decisions in business. Moreover some independent economic analysts refer to forecasts that since 2016 yearly demand will increase 4-5% in Azerbaijan. Objectives are to forecast c...

  10. The borders between Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Russia: Soviet heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Arkhipova, Ekaterina

    2005-01-01

    The administrative-territorial reforms carried out under Soviet power in the Caucasus to delimitate Russia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia have always been and remain a bone of contention. So far their governments have not yet come to terms on several problems on certain border stretches. For fourteen years now, delimitation has been going on with varying intensity. Russia and Azerbaijan have come the closest to settling these disputes with respect to the Daghestanian stretch of their common border....

  11. The Persistence of Profits in Azerbaijan's Banking System

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    K. Batu TUNAY

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the persistence of profits in Azerbaijan's banking sector in the short-run and the long-run is investigated. Although there are a lot of researches done in the case of different countries, enough study has been implemented for the case of Azerbaijan despite of its high speed economic growth. This research analysis continuity of profits by using system panel data method. Obtained results indicate that profits demonstrate no persistence or a little persistence. In this context, existence of competitive powers in the sector can be stated.

  12. EXPORT BASIS AND FORMATION OF AZERBAIJAN ENERGY POLICY

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    F. I. Iousoubov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a current situation in national economy and export  of Azerbaijan, budget policy in oil production countries and reveals that nowadays an increase of export potential and diversification of export basis must be one of the main purposes of foreign economy strategy of any state.The paper also shows the necessity to form a State system for encouraging export and national economy in Azerbaijan and prospects of its development and considers an influence of world financial crisis on energy policy of the country.

  13. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP INITIATIVE IN AZERBAIJAN

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    Krystyna GOMOLKA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Azerbaijan established political relations with the EU during the implementation of TACIS Programme projects and signed the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement with the EU in 1996. It joined the European Neighbourhood Policy in 2004 and the Eastern Partnership programme in 2009. Despite the sceptical attitude taken by Azerbaijan's government towards the Eastern Partnership initiative, the EU earmarked further funds for Azerbaijan for 2011–2014 as part of the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument. During the third Eastern Partnership summit in Vilnius in November 2013, Azerbaijan signed only an agreement concerning visa facilitations and readmission. However, it also undertook certain measures as part of the five Eastern Partnership initiatives. In the framework of the Integrated Border Management Programme, Azerbaijan implemented projects connected with improving the access of resettled people to the judicial system, creation of electronic border control systems, social protection, increasing public awareness to eliminate domestic violence, improving assimilation of asylumseekers and immigrants, and supporting occupational health organisations. Activities aimed at supporting SMEs included training for entrepreneurs, promotional conferences and loans to the SME sector. Recommendations of the initiative promoting the creation of regional electrical and renewable energy markets were implemented by Azerbaijan in the form of 33 projects as part of the INOGATE Programme. With respect to environmental management, Azerbaijandeveloped a digital regional atlas of natural disasters, and with respect to natural disaster mitigation it planned population protection measures. Azerbaijan was ranked last but one in the evaluation presented in the annual report prepared by the EU. The transformation process in this country has been slow and illusory in certain aspects. Nevertheless, the EU has continued its

  14. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Azerbaijan

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    Majori Giancarlo

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax, although causing a less serious disease than Plasmodium falciparum, is the most widespread of the four human malarial species. Further to the recent recrudescence of P. vivax cases in the Newly Independent States (NIS of central Asia, a survey on the genetic diversity and dissemination in Azerbaijan was undertaken. Azerbaijan is at the crossroads of Asia and, as such, could see a rise in the number of cases, although an effective malaria control programme has been established in the country. Methods Thirty-six P. vivax isolates from Central Azerbaijan were characterized by analysing the genetic polymorphism of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP and the merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1 genes, using PCR amplifications and amplicons sequencing. Results Analysis of CSP sequences showed that all the processed isolates belong to the VK 210 type, with variations in the alternation of alanine residue (A or aspartic acid residue (D in the repeat motif GDRA(A/DGQPA along the sequence. As far as MSP-1 genotyping is concerned, it was found that the majority of isolates analysed belong to Belem and Sal I types. Five recombinant isolates were also identified. Combined analysis with the two genetic markers allowed the identification of 19 plasmodial sub-types. Conclusion The results obtained in the present study indicate that there are several P. vivax clones circulating in Azerbaijan and, consequently, a careful malaria surveillance could be of paramount importance to identify, at early stage, the occurrence of possible P. vivax malaria outbreaks.

  15. An overview of women's work and employment in Azerbaijan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, M.; Tijdens, K.; Hughie-Williams, M.; Ramos Martin, N.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides information on Azerbaijan on behalf of the implementation of the DECISIONS FOR LIFE project in that country. The DECISIONS FOR LIFE project aims to raise awareness amongst young female workers about their employment opportunities and career possibilities, family building and the

  16. FINANCIAL MARKET OF AZERBAIJAN: CURRENT CONDITION AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Guliyev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the economic model of Azerbaijan. Main components of the financial market are being analyzed: state budget, state oil fund, banking system, foreign debt and etc. This article assesses the impact of the global financial crisis on the national economy. Moreover, future development perspectives of the financial market and the economy are being examined as well.

  17. Hyperspectral remote sensing and mud volcanism in Azerbaijan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, K.H.

    2005-01-01

    The fact that Azerbaijan mud volcanoes are closely associated with oil and gas makes their study and identification of the physical and chemical properties of insitu mud volcano surfaces important. Although the composition of in-situ mud volcano surfaces can be highly variable, it usually correspond

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxocariasis in Children in East- Azerbaijan Province, Iran

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    Yagoob Garedaghi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ascarid of dogs and cats, the main representative of which is a Toxocara canis. Distribution of the disease is world wide and is more prevalent in children. The present study was carried out in children of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran, to determine the toxocariasis seropositivity. Material and Methods: For the present seroepidemiological study, blood samples were collected at random from children of all the five districts of the East Azerbaijan Province. A total of 336 children, 187 males and 149 females in age group of 0-15 years were selected for the present study. ELISA was used for detection of IgG antibodies against Toxocara excretory secretary antigen. A questionnaire interview was conducted to obtain the data concerning their age, sex and habits. The particular points in the questionnaire asked were recorded on the format right on the spot. Results: Gender was found to be a significant risk factor for the Toxocara infection in children population. Male children were found more infected (41.71% as compared to females (24.16%. The total seroprevalence of T. canis antibodies in children of East Azerbaijan Province was 29.46 %. The risk factors that were found associated with the infection of toxocariasis in children population of East Azerbaijan Province include family back ground, status of living conditions, awareness, etc. Conclusion: The present study reveals high prevalence of T. canis infection in children of East Azerbaijan Province. It is important to raise the awareness of health professionals, public and educators to the fact that toxocariasis is a public health problem. Health promotion by means of a school based educational approach, diagnosis and continuous programme of treatment are necessary. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 581-586

  19. [The aspects of pricing policy in Azerbaijan pharmaceutical sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhalilova, K I; Alieva, K Ia

    2012-01-01

    The effect of macro-, middle- and microeconomic factors on price formation in Azerbaijan pharmaceutical market has been studied. Worldwide pharmaceutical leaders have the goals to become leader on the pharmaceutical market of Azerbaijan and maximize their market share. Non-leaders pharmaceutical companies use different strategies of price formation: prime cost plus markup, or price formation on the base of current prices. It was revealed that domestic pharmaceutical market has high demand elasticity. Future market development is related to stimulation of product development, and hard penetration to the market through realization of price formation strategy. Non-state pharmaceutical organizations to achieve the purpose of survive in conditions of high competition should take in to account the factor perceptions of assortment by customers.

  20. Cement Industry Overview and Market Price Forecasting In Azerbaijan

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    Latafat Gardashova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Global economic situation and energy resources’ prices influence local economic trends, investment of capital, status of financial institutions and cement industry in Azerbaijan in whole. These trends influence demand and activities of cement business communities which start to optimize expenses and find new priority decisions in business. Moreover some independent economic analysts refer to forecasts that since 2016 yearly demand will increase 4-5% in Azerbaijan. Objectives are to forecast cement price in the market using Fuzzy c-means (together with Fuzzy Inference System and ANFIS which are entered MATLAB mathematical packet and to compare the results of these methods.Taking into consideration the results of research and applied forecast models the cement price can show the stable slow increasing in the market even there is probability of some periodic fluctuations and regulating actions by the state authorities. Therefore it is high probability that the cement price will increase next 1-2 years.

  1. Molecular Identification of Nosema species in East Azerbaijan province, Iran

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    Razmaraii, N.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nosema is a genus of microsporidia, which have significant negative impacts on honeybees. The aim of thisstudy is the epidemiological evaluation and molecular characterization of Nosema spices in various countiesof East-Azerbaijan province (Northwest of Iran. 387 samples were collected from colonies maintained invarious counties of East-Azerbaijan province. Samples after preparation were examined by a lightmicroscope for presence of Nosema spores. PCR method (SSUrRNA gene was used to differentiatebetween Nosema apis (N. apis and N. ceranae. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Totalinfection prevalence of the microscopic evaluation and PCR tests were 225 (58.1% and 260 (67.1%respectively, total validity of PCR test against the microscopic test was computed equal to 1.1 in this case.Disease distribution in various counties of study area was variable and N. ceranae was the only Nosema species found to infect honeybees. The one species presence and different distribution of Nosema positive samples in various counties of East-Azerbaijan province may be due to multiple reasons. Furthermore,epidemiological information helps us to improve disease management practices in the studied area, apply new hygiene policy and reduce extra costs of production.

  2. [Genetic Diversity of Vitis vinifera L. in Azerbaijan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salayeva, S J; Ojaghi, J M; Pashayeva, A N; Izzatullayeva, V I; Akhundova, E M; Akperov, Z I

    2016-04-01

    To examine the genetic diversity of Vitis vinifera L., growing in the Republic of Azerbaijan in the region near the Caspian Sea, nuclear genomes of 31 cultivated and 34 wild grapevine accessions were studied at population and individual levels using five ISSR primers. In total, 51 fragments were amplified, of which 45 were found to be polymorphic. A high level of polymorphism was revealed (the mean PPF and PIC values constituted 87.69% and 0.94, respectively). High values of the EMR, MI, and RP indices showed the effectiveness of the application of ISSR primers and the possibility of their use in further investigations in this direction. Cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance values showed that all genotypes could be grouped into seven main clusters. Furthermore, no differences between the wild and cultivated grape wine accessions were revealed. For instance, there was no distinct distribution of the accessions according to their geographical localization. On the basis of the PIC values, the group of cultivars from Absheron Peninsula--was distinguished by the highest polymorphism level (PIC = 0.36). Natural populations from the Guba and Shabran regions were characterized by a relatively low polymorphism level (PIC = 0.31 and PIC = 0.28, respectively); and a wild population from Nabran demonstrated the lowest polymorphism level (PIC = 0.25). The data obtained confirmed paleontological and historical data of different periods, provide the supposition that Azerbaijan is the center of diversity of V. vinifera L. In addition, our data indicate that Azerbaijan grape landraces originated from local wild forms.

  3. Hotel industry in Azerbaijan: problems perspectives of entrepreneurship development

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    Gasanov Arzu Nadzhaf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the essence of the entrepreneurship activity and the characteristic features of a businessman. The definition of the entrepreneurship according to the Azerbaijan legislation is given. Then, the tourism, peculiarities and legislation base of business in tourism industry and hotel economy characterized, the main data of the activities of replacement enterprises in the country, the level of quality of hotel service and analyzed, the main problems are listed and the conclusion about the state of the business in the sphere of hotel industry is made.

  4. Antagonistic activity of probiotic lactobacilli against human enteropathogenic bacteria in homemade tvorog curd cheese from Azerbaijan

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    Reza Masoumikia

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Homemade tvorog curd cheese in Azerbaijan harbor a variety of probiotics with industrial applications as well as potentiality to be preserved in a biobank for the future medicinal applications especially against antibiotic resistant pathogenes.

  5. Country Partnership Framework for Azerbaijan for the Period FY16-FY20

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The country partnership framework (CPF) for Azerbaijan covering the period FY2016-20, sets out the World Bank Group (WBG) support to the country on its path toward a sustainable, inclusive, and private sector-led growth underpinned by a diversified asset base. The country’s strategic goals are laid out in its development strategy - Azerbaijan 2020: vision for the future and other strategic...

  6. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    Azerbaijan; and NK. The U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees ( UNHCR ) has reported that at the beginning of 2013, there were still about 2,850... UNHCR has reported that at the beginning of 2013, there were still over 600,000 people considered refugees or displaced persons in Azerbaijan.41 The...since the Soviet collapse in 1991, some observers lament. The countries are faced with ongoing budgetary burdens of arms races and caring for refugees

  7. Distribution of Radioactive Materials in the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan - 13567

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandergraaf, Tjalle T. [Consultant, Pinawa, MB, R0E 1L0 (Canada); Mamedov, Gudrat G.; Ramazanov, Mahammadali A.; Badalov, Vatan H. [Baku State University, Baku (Azerbaijan); Naghiyev, Jalal A. [Institute of Radiation Problems of ANAS, Baku (Azerbaijan); Mehdiyeva, Afat A. [National Aerospace Agency of Ministry of Defense Industry, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2013-07-01

    The Absheron Peninsula forms the extreme Eastern part of Azerbaijan and juts into the Caspian Sea. The region has a long history of oil and gas exploration, transport, and processing and includes a number of abandoned chemical plants that were used in the separation of iodine from formation waters. As a result of lax environmental standards during the Soviet era, the industrial activity has led to serious contamination from oils residues, heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Radiometric surveys performed over a wide range of the Absheron Peninsula showed generally low NORM concentrations. However, radiation levels two to three orders of magnitude above background levels were detected at two abandoned iodine separation plants near the capital city, Baku. These elevated radiation levels are mainly due to Ra-226 and U-238 with lower contributions from Ra-228 and U-235. (authors)

  8. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF FARM DATA SYSTEM IN AZERBAIJAN

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    Namig SHALBUZOV

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Scarce information on production costs and farms profitability, in line with the lack of adequate institutional arrangements between the institutions collecting, processing and analyzing information are serious obstacles to the preparation of relevant analyses. The establishment of FDMS will address these problems and allow to collect, process and analyze information on small and medium farms level, which produce more than 90 percent of agricultural products in Azerbaijan Republic. Establishment process of FDMS is analysed and recommendations for improvement are put forward in this article. This can also be in interest of Republic of Moldova which has signed the association agreement with EU and is going to enter this organisation in future. Because, establishment of FADN is one of the most important terms obligatory for EU member states.

  9. Geo-economic development scenarios for the republic of Azerbaijan

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    Cheshmi Hajiyeva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides systematic analysis of Azerbaijan’s geo-economic development potential scenarios in the context of multivariation and multi-vector nature of the existing economic development paradigm. Methodological framework of the research was formed based on ‘intersection points’ of the pair ‘post-positivism → post-structuralism’. The author first provided scientific substantiation of the key mono- and multi-factor scenarios of Azerbaijan development based on technogenic and evolutionary competitiveness models. Analysing combination of interrelations between events and processes (such as revolutionary, political, social, military, etc. in the triad ‘country → multidimensional communication space → global economy’ allowed for determining an integrative approach to formation of a single scenario for providing high competitive status of the country and its economic impact expansion in the Eurasian continent

  10. Hyundai’s Customer Satisfaction Analysis in Azerbaijan Market

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    Khayala Babayeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In modern economies, level of customer satisfaction is main indicator which intends to show organization’s position in comparison with its competitors. Determining customer satisfaction level allows any organization to detect the problems and gives a way in order to solve such issues. In this article, the aim is to measure the satisfaction level of Hyundai customers in Azerbaijan and for that a survey has been conducted. The research has been implemented on two basis: customer Satisfaction of Hyundai clients on a the car they drive; and b the service they have paid for repairing their car in the service center. Authors have developed confidence interval and hypothesis testing for each outcome from the survey. In addition to these, NPS level of Hyundai has been computed. Those figures help the authors to measure the real population’s satisfaction level. The results of the analysis claim that ultimate amount of customers are dissatisfied with car’s quality. Furthermore most of drivers’ satisfaction level of services which Hyundai provides is satisfactory.

  11. Problems Encountered during the Transition to Market Economy in Azerbaijan and Solution Attempts

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    Elchin SULEYMANOV

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After re-gaining its independence on 18 October 1991, the Republic of Azerbaijan started the transformation to the market-based economy and the integration into the world economy. The country’s oil and natural gas reserves have been considered the main source for financing a range of government programs for reforms. On the one hand, these reserves had to be used effectively; on the other hand, there was a huge demand for foreign investment for extraction. To this end, Azerbaijan has signed “Contract of the Century” in 1994. Although Azerbaijan has wide oil and natural gas reserves, it has faced a number of difficulties in its transition path. This study analyzes these problems and reforms for solving them. One of the types of the problems related to the economic structure of the former Soviet Union: disruption of the economic ties between the republics resulted in a decline of production, high levels of unemployment and prices and consequently led to an economic recession in all of the republics. Another set of problems related to the lack of sufficient institutional bases to transform to the market economy. Moreover, internal conflicts between the political parties and groups for having authority as well as political chaos in the republic can be considered other serious problems during the transition period. Furthermore, Karabakh war and occupation of 20 percent of the Azerbaijani territory by the Armenian military forces had made the situation extremely complicated. Despite all of these extremes, Azerbaijan transformed to the market-based economy decidedly and even became one of the fast growing countries of the world. Even in 2013, with the GDP growth rate of 5.6 percent, Azerbaijan was a leader among growing economies. In parallel with this significant economic development, there is still a need for some socio-economic and institutional reforms in order to get a well-functioning market-based economy in Azerbaijan.

  12. Womenʼs Burden of Disease and Injuries in East Azerbaijan

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    Sevil Hakimi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is assessment of burden of disease in East Azerbaijan women. Materials and Methods: In this project we used of disability adjusted life years (DALY as an index of burden of disease. Results: Cardiovascular disease, cancers and unintended injuries 71.98% of DALY for premature death. The 3 leading causes of YLD in East Azerbaijan province were: psycineurotic disorders, musculoskeletal and urogenital diseases.Conclusion: This study shows that YLL is 3 fold of YLD and this indicated to lower quality of life of women.

  13. Study of Development of Information and Communication Technology in Azerbaijan with Marketing Approach

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    Rovshan Karimov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to study of development and also spread of information and communication technology, including activity of mobile operators and telecommunications satellite in Azerbaijan. In the study work, particular emphasis is laid on conducting marketing in order to investigate the current condition of communication technology, and also the role of related subjects of entrepreneurship as key players in the market. With applying marketing, the advantages and also existing problems in this sector are revealed. The carried research allows determine the socioeconomic effect of communication technologies, as well as business strategy and the peculiarities of functioning of mobile operators with taking into consideration interests of customers in Azerbaijan.

  14. Etiologic assessment of maternal mortality in west Azerbaijan, Iran: a retrospective descriptive study

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    Shiva Jabbari

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Maternal mortality is still considerably high in West Azerbaijan. Increasing the coverage and the quality of prenatal and postpartum care, family planning counseling, and improving the skills and knowledge of the medical and midwifery staff would be effective in reducing maternal mortality rates. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1846-1850

  15. Kenaf and bioremediation in Azerbaijan: Planting locations, plant populations, and varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists, businesses, and the Azerbaijan government are bringing together two ancient natural resources, petroleum and kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), to create a balance between economic growth and environmental reclamation. Oil and kenaf have been used for over 3000 years. Although oil continu...

  16. Macroeconomic Analysis and Graphical Interpretation of Azerbaijan Economy in 1991-2012

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    Khatai ALIYEV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze macroeconomic performance and discuss transition indicators in Azerbaijan economy for 1991-2012. After regaining independence in 1991, Azerbaijan implemented economic transition process toward market economy. In the first years of independence, serious economic recession was observed. However, after 1995, the restructuring of the economy started. In this sense, signing the “Contract of the Century” was a turning point toward oil based high speed economic growth or oil boom period. Thus, by opening “Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan” pipeline in 2005, Azerbaijan’s macroeconomic indicators experienced considerable growth for the following years. On the other hand, Azerbaijan officially declared the end of economic transition process in its economy in 2009. In this paper, the authors discuss the political-economic and economic process in the whole period as well as analyze the macroeconomic performance with and without oil & gas contribution. In addition, the authors question what would happen if economic transition period ended in Azerbaijan’s economy. It is concluded that oil & gas production has a serious impact over macroeconomic indicators and transition indicators, and for Azerbaijan it implies only a partly end of economic transition, though not completely.

  17. Education and the Crisis of Social Cohesion in Azerbaijan and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta; Johnson, Mark S.; Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the role of education in the maintenance of social cohesion and the formation of new identities amid the economic decline and political volatility of six new nations: Azerbaijan, in the southern Caucasus, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan in Central Asia. The authors first…

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF ENERGY RESOURCES IN DEVELOPING “PRAGMATIC” RELATIONS BETWEEN AZERBAIJAN AND THE WEST

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    Sabina STRIMBOVSCHI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to research the way energy resources shaped Azerbaijan’s foreign policy and contributed to developing its strategic relations with western actors trying, at the same time, to bring arguments whether or not the democratic deficit in Azerbaijan is related to the”resource nationalism”. The author makes a retrospective analysis of the most important events that have influenced Azerbaijan’s foreign policy since the collapse of USSR. In this regard, it is assessed the impact of the “Contract of the Century” on the evolution of the country, forasmuch the signing of the document is considered the first strategic move made by Azerbaijan since 1991. Because Nagorno-Karabakh is a crucial priority for the country’s territorial integrity, it is examined the manner in which Azerbaijani authorities are trying to make use of the energy resources projects in order to speed up the settlement of the protracted conflict, but without success so far. Last but not least, are analysed the EU-Azerbaijan relations, both on the energy and political level, highlighting on the one hand, the reluctance of Azerbaijan towards the democratic reforms promoted within the Eastern Partnership, but on the other hand, the interest of Baku to negotiate the unwanted agreements with Brussels, counting on its advantage as a supplier of energy resources on the European market. Consequently, some key questions have emerged: Is the EU’s strategic objective to ensure its energy security more important than promoting and encouraging its partners to adopt the fundamental values of the EU? What impact may have the Strategic modernization partnership on the EU-Azerbaijan relations? Is European Union’s credibility in danger, by having so diverse approaches towards the Eastern Partnership countries?

  19. Geolocation Support for Water Supply and Sewerage Projects in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qocamanov, M. H.; Gurbanov, Ch. Z.

    2016-10-01

    Drinking water supply and sewerage system designing and reconstruction projects are being extensively conducted in Azerbaijan Republic. During implementation of such projects, collecting large amount of information about the area and detailed investigations are crucial. Joint use of the aerospace monitoring and GIS play an essential role for the studies of the impact of environmental factors, development of the analytical information systems and others, while achieving the reliable performance of the existing and designed major water supply pipelines, as well as construction and exploitation of the technical installations. With our participation the GIS has been created in "Azersu" OJSC that includes systematic database of the drinking water supply and sewerage system, and rain water networks to carry out necessary geo information analysis. GIScreated based on "Microstation" platform and aerospace data. Should be mentioned that, in the country, specifically in large cities (i.e. Baku, Ganja, Sumqait, etc.,) drinking water supply pipelines cross regions with different physico-geographical conditions, geo-morphological compositions and seismotectonics.Mains water supply lines in many accidents occur during the operation, it also creates problems with drinking water consumers. In some cases the damage is caused by large-scale accidents. Long-term experience gives reason to say that the elimination of the consequences of accidents is a major cost. Therefore, to avoid such events and to prevent their exploitation and geodetic monitoring system to improve the rules on key issues. Therefore, constant control of the plan-height positioning, geodetic measurements for the detailed examination of the dynamics, repetition of the geodetic measurements for certain time intervals, or in other words regular monitoring is very important. During geodetic monitoring using the GIS has special significance. Given that, collecting geodetic monitoring measurements of the main pipelines

  20. The features of the use of GIS technologies for monitoring of the situation of main water lines in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Gojamanov

    2014-11-01

    a comprehensive attract the materials of the aerospace sensing and GIS technologies. In this paper describe the work experience and are the results of monitoring of pipelines of water supply in Azerbaijan.

  1. The importance of Sumgait industrial center in economic development of Azerbaijan in the context of innovative economics

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    Shafa Aliyev

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses production capacity of Sumgait industrial center in Azerbaijan. The author observes priority policy directions to utilize available production capacity of this regional industrial complex.

  2. [HELMINTH FAUNA OF WILD BOARS (SUS SCROFA L.1758) IN AZERBAIJAN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fataliev, Q H

    2015-01-01

    A total of 41 wild boar specimens, including 19, 10, 10, and 2 specimens from the Lesser-Caucasus, the Greater Caucasus, the Kura-Araks lowland, and Lankaran natural region were studied. On the whole, 16 helminth species were revealed, including 2, 2, 1, and 11 species of trematodes, cestodes, acanthocephalans, and nematodes. The distribution of helminths in landscape-ecological zones of Azerbaijan is analyzed.

  3. The Distribution of Health Services in Iran Health Care System: A Case Study at East Azerbaijan

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    Hassan Almaspoor-khangah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is necessary that various aspects of health information and statistics are identified and measured since health problems are getting more complex day by day. Objective: This study is aimed to investigate the distribution of health services in the health care system in Iran and the case of study is East Azerbaijan province. Methods: This research was a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study. The statistical population included all health service providers in East Azerbaijan Province in the public, private, charity, military, social security, and NGO sectors. In this study, the data from all functional health sectors, including hospitals, health centers, and clinical, rehabilitation centers and all clinics and private offices were studied during 2014. The data relevant to performance were collected according to a pre-determined format (researcher- built checklist which was approved by five professionals and experts Health Services Management (content validity. Results: The study findings showed that the public sector by 45.28% accounted for the highest share of provided services and the private sector, social security, military institutions, charities and NGOs institutions by 25.47%, 18.92%, 4.37%, 3.3%, and 2.66% next rank in providing health services in East Azerbaijan province have been allocated. Conclusion: The results show that most of the health services in East Azerbaijan Province belongs to the public sector and the private sector has managed to develop its services in some parts surpassed the public sector. According to the study findings, Policies should be aimed to create balance and harmony in the provision of services among all service providers.

  4. MEDICAL SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND HIGHER EDUCATION IN AZERBAIJAN FROM BIOETHICAL DEVELOPMENTS PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    VUGAR, MAMMADOV; KERIM, MUNIR; LALA, JAFAROVA

    2017-01-01

    Azerbaijan is a modern, rapidly developing democratic country at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. The country is currently harmonizing its national legislation with international norms, and reforming its national scientific and medical. Higher standards of medical research and education will enhance public health and protect human rights to life and health that are specified in Azerbaijan Constitution. In order to raise its medical research and education to international standards, Azerbaijani scientists and authorities are studying the experience of other countries and taking measures to implement international standards and norms in the country’s national legislation. Cooperation with the WHO, UNESCO and other international and foreign organizations, both on regional and global level is creating steps to achieve this goal. These steps include, for example, creation of the Azerbaijan unit of the UNESCO Chair in Bioethics and teaching bioethics based on UNESCO’s Bioethics Core Curriculum. Another step is providing research fellowship for young Azerbaijani professionals to study at leading medical research and educational centers around the world including Harvard Medical School and Boston Children’s Hospital in the USA, and Koc University in Turkey. A complementary step is the development of local bioethical research, including its legal, ethical and scientific foundations. Adherence to ethical principles in different spheres of life is currently one of the most challenging social and professional issues, especially, this is true with the development of new medical technologies in recent decades and the development of new ethical and legal standards, issues involving different areas of health and medicine and their relation to human rights. Bioethics in Azerbaijan is developing as an important field that deals with universal moral principles within the context of both national laws and the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

  5. Objective necessity to create and develop financial and industrial groups in the republic of Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    Lala Neymatova

    2015-01-01

    In the article on the basis of long-term statistical data, it is analysed the main indicators, characterizing the activities of business organizations, their distribution by ownership forms, groups of countries, as well as a state of the newly-established and liquidated enterprises by the spheres of economic activity, their financial condition; it is identified the reserves and the expediency of creation and development of financial and industrial groups in Azerbaijan is substantiated.

  6. Fauna and Larval Habitats of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae of West Azerbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran.

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    Farahnaz Khoshdel-Nezamiha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several important diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes. Despite of the potential of the occurrence of some mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile, dirofilariasis and malaria in the region, there is no recent study of mosquitoes in West Azerbaijan Province. The aim of this investigation was to study the fauna, composition and distribution of mosquitoes and the characteristics of their larval habitats in this province.Larvae and adult collections were carried out from different habitats using the standard methods in twenty five localities of seven counties across West Azerbaijan Province.Overall, 1569 mosquitoes including 1336 larvae and 233 adults were collected from 25 localities. The details of geographical properties were recorded. Five genera along with 12 species were collected and identified including: Anopheles claviger, An. maculipennis s.l., An. superpictus, Culex pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. modestus, Cx. hortensis, Cx. mimeticus, Culiseta Longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caspius s.l., Oc. geniculatus and Uranotaenia unguiculata. This is the first record of Oc. geniculatus in the province.Due to the geographical location of the West Azerbaijan Province, it comprises different climatic condition which provides suitable environment for the establishment of various species of mosquitoes. The solidarity geographical, cultural and territorial exchanges complicate the situation of the province and its vectors as a threat for future and probable epidemics of mosquito-borne diseases.

  7. Comparative Study: Impact of Family, School, and Students Factors on Students Achievements in Reading in Developed (Estonia) and Developing (Azerbaijan) Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukakidze, Berika

    2013-01-01

    The work is based on PISA 2009 International Assessment Study. Two counties were selected: a developed country, Estonia and a developing country, Azerbaijan. The following Datum was used for statistical analysis: students average scores in reading (162 schools, 4 600 students from Azerbaijan; 17 schools, 4 923 students from Estonia). The work is…

  8. Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence by type and severity: population-based studies in Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2013-08-01

    The article estimates the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) by type and severity in population-based samples from three countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). The article utilized nationally representative data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in Azerbaijan (2006), Moldova (2005), and Ukraine (2007). Respondents were selected using stratified multistage cluster sampling. The sample included ever-married (or cohabitating) females of reproductive age (15-49 years old); weighted sample n = 3,847 in Azerbaijan, n = 4,321 in Moldova, and n = 2,355 in Ukraine. The analysis used multinomial survey logistic regression adjusting for the sampling design and sampling weights. Ten percent of ever-partnered women in Azerbaijan and Ukraine and 20% in Moldova ever experienced physical IPV (without sexual) from their most recent husband or cohabitating partner; 3% of women in Azerbaijan and Ukraine and 5% in Moldova experienced sexual IPV (with or without physical), and 2% of women in Azerbaijan, 3% in Ukraine, and 6% in Moldova experienced violence resulting in severe physical injuries from their most recent partner. In all three countries physical, sexual, and injurious IPV was higher among formerly married women. Compared to women with above secondary education, women with secondary education or below demonstrated higher risk for physical IPV (in Moldova and Ukraine), sexual IPV in Moldova, and injurious IPV in all three countries. Poor socioeconomic status-as indicated by low household wealth status in Azerbaijan and partner's unemployment in Moldova and Ukraine-was significantly associated with higher risk for physical and injurious IPV. In Moldova and Ukraine partners' low level of education was associated with higher risk for sexual IPV. The article demonstrates that experiences and factors associated with IPV are diverse and context specific. The findings may be helpful in targeting interventions to

  9. DISTRIBUTION OF ANOPLOSEFALYATS (FAUNA, TAXONOMY AND BIOLOGY IN DOMESTIC RUMINANTS ANIMALS OF AZERBAIJAN AND THEIR ECOLOGICAL-GEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Ismailov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anoplotsefalyats (Moniezia expansa, M. benedeni, M.autumnalia, Avitellina centripunctata, Thyzaniezia giardi are common in farm ruminants of Azerbaijan. There are no strict zoning in their distribution and no specificity for the hosts. It was established that in Azerbaijan there are 27 species of oribatid mites that are involved in the life cycle of monieziozis out of which 20 species recorded to be new to our fauna, as their intermediate hosts. Infection of the final (sheep, goats, cattle, buffalo and intermediate hosts (oribatid mites happens all the year round. Maximum infection occurs in early spring and late autumn.

  10. One-dimensional velocity model of the Middle Kura Depresion from local earthquakes data of Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetirmishli, G. C.; Kazimova, S. E.; Kazimov, I. E.

    2011-09-01

    We present the method for determining the velocity model of the Earth's crust and the parameters of earthquakes in the Middle Kura Depression from the data of network telemetry in Azerbaijan. Application of this method allowed us to recalculate the main parameters of the hypocenters of the earthquake, to compute the corrections to the arrival times of P and S waves at the observation station, and to significantly improve the accuracy in determining the coordinates of the earthquakes. The model was constructed using the VELEST program, which calculates one-dimensional minimal velocity models from the travel times of seismic waves.

  11. CHILDHOOD GUILLIAN-BARRE SYNDROME IN THE IRAN’S EAST AZERBAIJAN PROVINCE: 2001-2005

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    M. Barzegar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available  ObjectiveThis study aims at determining the epidemiologic, presenting symptoms, clinical course and electrophysiologic features of childhood Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS in the East Azarbaijan province over a period of five years.Materials & Methods All the patients, agedResultsOne hundred and twelve subjects were enrolled during this period. The average annual incidence rate was 2.21 per 100000 population of children agedConclusion The axonal type of GBS is a relatively common form of childhood GBS occurring in East Azerbaijan.Keywords: Guillian-Barre syndrome , Childhood, Epidemiology, Electrodiagnosis, Clinical features, East Azarbaijan

  12. How Fiscal Policy Affects Non-Oil Economic Performance in Azerbaijan?

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    Khatai Aliyev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of fiscal policy in promoting economic growth has been subject to many studies since its suggestion by Keynes who stated expansionary/contractionary impact of public expenditures/taxes. In this context, effectiveness of fiscal policy use to develop non-oil sector in resource rich economies should be studied. This paper investigates short- and long-run effects of budget expenditures and tax related budget revenues (direct transfers from oil fund excluded over non-oil GDP while controlling for oil price volatility and oil production in case of Azerbaijan. Autoregressive Distributed Lag Bounds Testing (ARDLBT Approach to cointegration is employed for data covering 2000Q1-2015Q2. Estimation results theoretically consistent and statistically significant long-run effects of both budget expenditures and tax-related budget revenues. However, in the short-run, the effects are contrary to the theoretical expectations. Findings are useful for Azerbaijan fiscal policy makers especially in the current complicated nature of economic processes in the economy due to oil related challenges.

  13. Sources of Stress for Nurses in Neonatal Intensive Care Units of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

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    Leila Valizadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress is one of the main factors affecting one's efficiency as well as staff health and quality of nursing services. Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs can be stressful environments for nurses, infants and families as well. Since there is no evidence in this regard in Iran, the present study aimed to determine stress levels related to care delivering in NICU from the viewpoint of nurses in NICUs of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran during 2011.Methods: This was a descriptive study including a purposive sample of 110 nurses working in NICUs of hospitals in East Azerbaijan Province. The data collection tool was a self-report questionnaire. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were assessed by content validity and Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α = 0.84.Results: According to factor analysis, the stressors included environmental and nurse and human factors. Stress sources in total and separately in each category were reported as moderate. The mean and 95% confidence interval of the factors in the categories were 2.75 (0.84; 2.59-2.91 and 3.21 (0.72; 3.07-3.35, respectively. Therefore, human factors caused significantly higher levels of stress compared to environmental factors (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Stressors involved in NICU nursing include environmental and human factors. Planning to remove or reduce their impact can improve the quality of nursing services in intensive care units and, thus, decrease the adverse effects of stress on workers.

  14. Biogenic amines determination in some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province of Iran

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    Seyed Mehdi Razavi Rohani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BA are nitrogenous compounds that possess biological activity. The source of production is the microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. This compounds are found in various types of cheese. The aim of this work was to evaluate the BA content of some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province Iran. For this purpose, 70 samples of Koopeh, 10 samples of Lighvan and 5 samples of Red Salmas cheeses were obtained from local supermarkets of different cities of West Azerbaijan province. After preparation of samples, biogenic amines content was evaluated by modified HPLC method. The presence of histamine, cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine in tested cheeses were observed. Total amount of biogenic amines was highest in Red Salmas cheese with 1426.91 ppm. It followed by Lighvan cheese and Koopeh cheese with 1008.98 and 517.71 ppm, respectively. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were detected in Koopeh cheese at levels up to 156.09, 282.34, 70.80, 8.48 ppm respectively. These amines were detected also in Lighvan cheese at levels up to 277.53, 342.74, 37.58, 351.12 ppm and in Red Salmas cheese samples at levels up to 438.03, 701.05, 105.21, 182.62 ppm, respectively. Large amounts of biogenic amines can indicate non hygienic conditions and contamination of used milk for cheese production.

  15. The effect of the rise of petroleum in Azerbaijan: diagnosis and policies

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    Aurèlia Mañé Estrada

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Azerbaijan must face up to a double challenge: to go from being a centrally planned economy to being a market economy and managing productively the significant hydrocarbon resources found in the Caspian Sea. Some International Monetary Fund experts feel that the most plausible hypothesis regarding the Azeri economy’s futureis that it will behave in a way similar to the OPEC countries. Specifically, they argue that Azerbaijan may suffer a contraction of manufacturing production as a result of the boom in the hydrocarbons sector –the so-called “Dutch syndrome”– and that the phenomenonmay be aggravated by a undervaluation of the currency typical of economies in transition. This study sets out to determine whether this diagnosis is accurate and whether the series of political economics measures they propose for remedying the situation is appropriate for putting the country on the path of balanced growth. In both cases the answer is no, given that it appears unlikely that in the short term Dutch syndrome effects will be generated in this economy and that the most probable result of the policies proposedwould be the creation of a petroleum enclave which, in the context of globalization, would encourage a new “petro-dollarization” of international financial markets.

  16. First report of citrus exocortis viroid and two citrus variants of the hop stunt viroid on lemon in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budwood received from a lemon tree growing at the Bioresources Institute Nakhichivan, Azerbaijan, produced symptoms corresponding with citrus viroids and cachexia on biological indicators ‘S-1’ citron and ‘Parson’s Special’ (PSM) mandarin, respectively. Sequential poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis...

  17. Methodology and estimation of the welfare impact of energy reforms on households in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klytchnikova, Irina

    This dissertation develops a new approach that enables policy-makers to analyze welfare gains from improvements in the quality of infrastructure services in developing countries where data are limited and supply is subject to interruptions. An application of the proposed model in the former Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan demonstrates how this approach can be used in welfare assessment of energy sector reforms. The planned reforms in Azerbaijan include a set of measures that will result in a significant improvement in supply reliability, accompanied by a significant increase in the prices of energy services so that they reach the cost recovery level. Currently, households in rural areas receive electricity and gas for only a few hours a day because of a severe deterioration of the energy infrastructure following the collapse of the Soviet Union. The reforms that have recently been initiated will have far-reaching poverty and distributional consequences for the country as they result in an improvement in supply reliability and an increase in energy prices. The new model of intermittent supply developed in this dissertation is based on the household production function approach and draws on previous research in the energy reliability literature. Since modern energy sources (network gas and electricity) in Azerbaijan are cleaner and cheaper than the traditional fuels (fuel wood, etc.), households choose modern fuels whenever they are available. During outages, they rely on traditional fuels. Theoretical welfare measures are derived from a system of fuel demands that takes into account the intermittent availability of energy sources. The model is estimated with the data from the Azerbaijan Household Energy Survey, implemented by the World Bank in December 2003/January 2004. This survey includes an innovative contingent behavior module in which the respondents were asked about their energy consumption patterns in specified reform scenarios. Estimation results strongly

  18. Implementation of pasture leasing rights for mobile pastoralists – a case study on institutional change during post-socialist reforms in Azerbaijan

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    Regina Neudert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Our study focuses on pasture reform in Azerbaijan within the context of transition and pasture reform in Central Asian and Caucasian countries. Despite the rapid emergence of individualised rights for pasture plots, which is an exceptional development in this region, pasture reform in Azerbaijan has received little attention in the scientific literature. Using evidence from an empirical case study we analyse the implementation and outcomes of the reform process for pastoral land in the context of the macroeconomic development in Azerbaijan and in comparison to pasture reforms in other post-socialist transition countries. We apply the evolutionary theory of property rights to explain and analyse the exceptionally rapid emergence of individual property rights to pasture in Azerbaijan.

  19. 23 May 2016 - Signature of a MoU between the National Nuclear Research Center, Republic of Azerbaijan, and the ALICE Collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    From left to right: Head of the Nuclear Physics Department, National Nuclear Research Center A. Rustamov; Chairman, National Nuclear Research Center A. Garibov; Deputy Minister for Communication and High Technology of the Republic of Azerbaijan E. Velizadeh; CERN Director for Research and Computing E. Elsen; ALICE Collaboration Spokesperson P. Giubellino. Are also attending: Permanent Representative of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva Ambassador V. Sadiqov and Director for International Relations C. Warakaulle.

  20. Sustainable Solution for Increasing the Share of Solar Photovoltaic Usages on Residential Houses in Azerbaijan

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    Elnur Abbasov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Azerbaijan, as the largest nation state in the South Caucasus Region, has the potential for developing and using renewable sources of energy in order to support the environmental challenge resolution associated with climate change, improving the environmental situation in the country. Solar photovoltaic (PV comprises one of the direct usages of solar energy. In this paper, a sustainable PV usage scenario in residential houses was introduced to reduce negative environmental effects in land use, water consumption, air pollution, etc. It was recommended by the author that PV systems can be part of function and design of residential building components, such as roofs, walls and windows.  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.71.4.12070

  1. Need for Service Design Development for Sustainable Rural Tourism in Azerbaijan

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    Heikkilä Jonna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ‘Development of Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Support of Local Handicrafts in Rural Azerbaijan’ is a joint effort between the Turku University of Applied Sciences Ltd. and Sustainable Future in Finland and Ekoloji Tarazliq NGO as a local partner, with the aim of creating rural businesses and services in order to attract tourists to the three project areas. Thus far, most of the tourists in Azerbaijan have been business travellers staying in the capital, Baku. The project (implemented in 2012-2014 has introduced PPP or public-private partnership approaches in the promotion of sustainable tourism through the involvement of various stakeholders from small-scale entrepreneurs to national level authorities. The most important stakeholder groups are the local communities, entrepreneurs, handicraft masters, and owners of households providing accommodation services to travelers.

  2. The Affordances of Social Networking Sites for Relational Maintenance in a Distrustful Society: The Case of Azerbaijan

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    Katy E. Pearce

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Internet and social media afford opportunities for relational maintenance, but most scholarship has focused on relational maintenance in high-trust environments. This study explores relational maintenance online and offline in a distrustful society. In distrustful societies, trust is situated within one’s particularized kin network, and friendships have strategic significance and are characterized by norms of reciprocity. In distrustful societies, relational maintenance behaviors are different from trustful societies and take on greater significance. This preliminary study, based on informant interviews in Azerbaijan, examines both offline relational maintenance and the affordances of social networking sites (SNSs for relational maintenance in such an environment. SNSs do provide for some relational maintenance behaviors through supplementing offline behaviors at a low cost and give some additional benefits like status display, yet SNSs do not replace traditional relational maintenance behaviors in Azerbaijan.

  3. EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMES OF BRITISH ORGANIZATIONS IN AZERBAIJAN AS AN ELEMENT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM FOREIGN LANGUAGE POLICY

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    G. Y. Niyazova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the United Kingdom language policy on the territory of Azerbaijan after the Soviet Union collapse, which is a bright example of the world political map redrawing. Taking into account the fact that the language is an important tool of the extending one’s influence over the country, we can say with certainty that the success of the specific state laying a claim to play the leading role in on the global political arena strongly depends on its ability to promote its language abroad, to enhance its status and to create such conditions where in the foreign country its language conquers the status close to the status of the native language. In this regard, the United Kingdom activity can serve as an example of a successful foreign language state policy.The authors analyze the activity of such organizations as the British Council, the BBC and BP on spreading the English language. The aforesaid British organizations are the master plate of the efficient language state policy tools, as long as they not only actively develop the global picture of the world, but also promote the interests of the United Kingdom on the territory of the former Soviet Union.Azerbaijan encourages the United Kingdom intention to spread the English language on its territory and does its best in assisting in the implementation of the proposed initiatives, realizing that the spread of the English language being the language of a global communication in Azerbaijan would contribute to the raising of Azerbaijan status on the world arena.

  4. PARASITES AND PREDATORS OF THE MAIN PEST OF STONE-FRUIT CROPS IN THE SHEKI-ZAKATALY ZONE OF AZERBAIJAN

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    Z. M. Mamedov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches made by us have shown that 31 species of vermin and 13 species of predators play significant role in regulation of the quantity of 11 most harmful insects which inhabit in fruit tree gardens of Sheki-Zakatala region of Azerbaijan. In general 44 species of entomophages which are related to the order of hymenopterans, neuropteras, coleopteras and dipteras. Their host significance in regulation of the quantity of hosts was identified.

  5. Spread of carbapenem-resistant international clones of Acinetobacter baumannii in Turkey and Azerbaijan: a collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S S; Alp, E; Ulu-Kilic, A; Dinc, G; Aktas, Z; Ada, B; Bagirova, F; Baran, I; Ersoy, Y; Esen, S; Guven, T G; Hopman, J; Hosoglu, S; Koksal, F; Parlak, E; Yalcin, A N; Yilmaz, G; Voss, A; Melchers, W

    2016-09-01

    Epidemic clones of Acinetobacter baumannii, described as European clones I, II, and III, are associated with hospital epidemics throughout the world. We aimed to determine the molecular characteristics and genetic diversity between European clones I, II, and III from Turkey and Azerbaijan. In this study, a total of 112 bloodstream isolates of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. were collected from 11 hospitals across Turkey and Azerbaijan. The identification of Acinetobacter spp. using conventional and sensitivity tests was performed by standard criteria. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect OXA carbapenemase-encoding genes (bla OXA-23-like, bla OXA-24-like, bla OXA-51-like, and bla OXA-58-like). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing was used to investigate genetic diversity. The bla OXA-51-like gene was present in all 112 isolates, 75 (67 %) carried bla OXA-23-like, 7 (6.2 %) carried bla OXA-58-like genes, and 5 (4.5 %) carried bla OXA-24-like genes. With a 90 % similarity cut-off value, 15 clones and eight unique isolates were identified. The largest clone was cluster D, with six subtypes. Isolates from clusters D and I were widely spread in seven different geographical regions throughout Turkey. However, F cluster was found in the northern and eastern regions of Turkey. EU clone I was grouped within J cluster with three isolates found in Antalya, Istanbul, and Erzurum. EU clone II was grouped in the U cluster with 15 isolates and found in Kayseri and Diyarbakır. The bla OXA-24-like gene in carbapenemases was identified rarely in Turkey and has been reported for the first time from Azerbaijan. Furthermore, this is the first multicenter study in Turkey and Azerbaijan to identify several major clusters belonging to European clones I and II of A. baumannii.

  6. The features of the use of GIS technologies for monitoring of the situation of main water lines in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojamanov, M. H.; Z, Qurbanov, Ch.

    2014-11-01

    The characteristic feature of the unified system of water supply of Azerbaijan is the large spatial remoteness between the main water sources (Greater and Small Caucasian mountains) and water-using economic areas (Baku, Ganja, Sumgait etc). When operating the pipelines arise accident and emergency situations, which are connected with interaction of the technological elements of the water supply and the natural environment. Often this process is a violation of dynamic equilibrium, and is accompanied by activation of dangerous natural and natural-anthropogenic processes that have a negative impact on the condition of pipelines. Given that in Azerbaijan the basis of the water supply network was put in the XIX century, it is necessary to pay close attention to the assessment of the ecological situation of main lines of water pipelines, i.e. to conduct their monitoring. Ensuring the reliability of existing and planned pipelines, a comprehensive study of the impacts on the natural environment during the construction and operation of the technical facilities, the organization of system of information and analytical monitoring requires a comprehensive attract the materials of the aerospace sensing and GIS technologies. In this paper describe the work experience and are the results of monitoring of pipelines of water supply in Azerbaijan.

  7. Implementation and evaluation of a training program as part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April eJohnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A training program for animal and human health professionals has been implemented in Azerbaijan through a joint agreement between the United States Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the Government of Azerbaijan. The training program is administered as part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program, and targets key employees in Azerbaijan’s disease surveillance system including physicians, veterinarians, epidemiologists, and laboratory personnel. Training is aimed at improving detection, diagnosis, and response to especially dangerous pathogens, although the techniques and methodologies can be applied to other pathogens and diseases of concern. Biosafety and biosecurity training is provided to all trainees within the program. Prior to 2014, a variety of international agencies and organizations provided training, which resulted in gaps related to lack of coordination of training materials and content. In 2014 a new training program was implemented in order to address those gaps. This paper provides an overview of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program training program in Azerbaijan, a description of how the program fits into existing national training infrastructure, and an evaluation of the new program’s effectiveness to date. Long-term sustainability of the program is also discussed.

  8. The Cooperation of Turkey and Azerbaijan in Military Sphere at the Turn of 20th-21st Centuries

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    Parubochaya Elena Fedorovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to an urgent problem dealing with the cooperation of the Turkish Republic and Azerbaijan Republic in the military sphere at the end of 20th – the beginning of 21st century. For Azerbaijan’ s leaders Turkey has always been a special partner. This statement has an explanation. Ankara was the first state, which recognized the independence of Azerbaijan Republic. Moreover, Turkish government made great efforts to strengthen new state in different spheres. Military ties were one of the most important for both sides. The cooperation between two states in the military sphere can be subdivided into several periods. The article gives the detailed analysis of normative documents concluded by the Republics’ governments. The first period of military contacts (1990s was the time of Turkish educational support. Ankara provided training assistance to the military forces of Azerbaijan. Military staff was restrained by Turkish instructors. Special uniform, armament and other equipment to make transformation was given to Baku by Turkish partners. Step by step, Azerbaijan’ s military sphere was moving to Western standards. The year 1999 has become an important period for the military relations of Ankara and Baku. Since this year the military cooperation has extended and intensified, it is possible to name it as a new period of states’ military collaboration. Turkish government gave financial aid to Ministry of Defense of Republic of Azerbaijan, provided the material and technical support to Baku for improving long-term military cooperation. In 2010 the Turkey-Azerbaijan Strategic Partnership Agreement was signed. It should be noticed that Baku refused to sign the agreement of Azerbaijan’s participation in Collective security treaty organization, leaving the block of CSTO states headed by the Russian Federation. It’s possible to say about the strengthening of the Baku-Ankara alliance. This action may lead to complication of Baku

  9. THUNDERSTORM ACTIVITY AND LIGHTNING PROTECTION OF POWER PLANTS AND EQUIPMET ON THE TERRITORY OF AZERBAIJAN REPUBLIC

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    A. M. Gashimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the results of a wind parameters analysis at the wind power parks construction territory in the north of the Azerbaijan Republic are presented. By means of extrapolation the  speeds  of  a  wind  stream  at  heights  of  80  and  100  m  have  been  calculated.  In  the conditions  of the  Azerbaijan  Republic  initially the  wind  potential  was  defined  at  height of 10–15 m from the earth surface by the data of the “weather vane” established at hydrome- teorological station, located within the precincts of Baku city. The subsequent measurements were spent at height of 40 m by means of “anemometer” located outside of city boundaries in a southern direction. It is established that at height of 100 m the wind speed essentially ex- ceeds the wind speed at height of 22 m. Hence, the height of 100 m is profitable for construc- tion and operation of wind constructions. Results of actual measurements have shown that wind speed depends on height and time of day. It is established that change of a wind stream within a month corresponds to change of the daily schedule of power station capacity and correlation factor of two processes appears high enough and makes 0.61. Note that for building the park of wind power plant it is necessary within 1 year continuously to spend actual meas- urements of a wind parameters at various heights (to 100 m. Otherwise placing of wind sta- tion on the given site can be not profitable. It is necessary to notice that the efficiency of wind units, besides their constructive features also depends on a correct choice of their installation place.On the other hand, the transmission of energy, produced by the wind power plants, in the power supply systems to the consumer is closely connected with a wind speed, air density, distribution of a wind stream, etc. parameters. From the told follows that research of a wind parameters represents the economic and somewhat legal value.

  10. Genetic diversity for gliadin patterns of durum wheat landraces in the Northwest of Iran and Azerbaijan

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    Mohammad Zaefizadeh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify gliadin band patterns and the extent of genetic diversity in durum wheat genotypes from Northwestern Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan. Gliadins from 46 landraces and four cultivars were evaluated through acid PAGE analyses. Sixty-six polymorphic bands and 81 patterns were identified. Twenty-four different motility bands and 22 patterns were found in the ω gliadin region with 14 polymorph bands and 20 patterns for α and γ gliadins, and 14 bands and 19 different patterns for β gliadins. The combination of these patterns generated 38 and 39 combinations for Gli-1 and Gli-2 loci, respectively. The genetic diversity index (H was higher for α gliadins (0.924, followed by ω and γ gliadins (0.899 and 0.878, respectively, and for β gliadin patterns (0.866. Extensive polymorphism (H = 0.875 was observed in four gliadin pattern regions, with higher genetic diversity in the Iranian landraces than in the Azerbaijani ones. Each genotype had special identifying patterns in the gliadin acid PAGE analysis, and cluster analysis based on Jaccard's similarity coefficients formed six groups. Gliadin has a simple, repeatable and economic analysis, and can be used in genetic studies

  11. Hyalomma aegyptium on Spur-thighed Tortoise (Testudo graeca in Urmia Region West Azerbaijan, Iran

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    M Tavassoli

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ticks are obligate blood feeders that parasitize a wide variety of animals. Hyalomma aegyptium, parasitize tortoises and other small wild life and livestock. This study was carried out to determine spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca infestation to H. ageyptium in Urmia region West Azerbaijan of Iran. Methods: The study was carried out over a 16 month period from the spring of 2004 to the fall of 2005. A total of 32 tor¬toises were sampled. Results: The results indicated that 14 tortoises infected with ticks. A total of 117 ticks were collected from infested animals, the minimum and maximum tick infestation was 1-60. Ticks were attached to the axilla of fore and hind legs of tortoises. All ticks were determined to be H. aegyptium. Conclusion: H. aegyptium was the most common tick species in the study area. Due to tendency of some people to keeping tortoise as pet animal, more attention must be done to tortoise’s tick infestation. Due to existence of H. aegyptium on tor¬toises in this region more study will need to evaluate presence of this tick on other animal species and its role on transmis¬sion of diseases.

  12. Mediterranean-Paratethys connectivity during the Messinian salinity crisis: The Pontian of Azerbaijan

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    van Baak, Christiaan G. C.; Stoica, Marius; Grothe, Arjen; Aliyeva, Elmira; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-06-01

    Prior to the onset of the Messinian Salinity Crisis, a connection was established between the Mediterranean Sea and the Paratethys region to the north. Rivers currently draining into the Caspian Sea thereby became important for the Mediterranean hydrological budget. The role of this connection and the influence of the Paratethys on the hydrological budget of the Mediterranean Sea during the Messinian Salinity Crisis is however poorly understood because of a lack of records in the Paratethys with a high-resolution (cyclostratigraphic) age model. Here, we present a high-resolution integrated stratigraphic study of a key section in the Caspian Sea region (Azerbaijan), to assess the connectivity of the Caspian Sea during the salinity crisis. The studied section spans the time interval between ~ 6.16 Ma and Crisis, the studied section changes from anoxic to oxic conditions and an abundant ostracod fauna develops. A sea-level drop in the order of 100-200 m is evident from changes in the ostracod faunal assemblage and is dated at 5.6 Ma. The top of the section marks a second sea-level drop and the complete freshening of the record. The Pontian phase of Mediterranean-Paratethys connectivity represents a maximum size of Paratethys at a time of minimum Atlantic-Mediterranean connectivity. Enhanced Paratethys outflow water at this time likely led to increased stratification and affected the Mediterranean throughout the Messinian Salinity Crisis.

  13. Scenario-based earthquake hazard and risk assessment for Baku (Azerbaijan

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    G. Babayev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A rapid growth of population, intensive civil and industrial building, land and water instabilities (e.g. landslides, significant underground water level fluctuations, and the lack of public awareness regarding seismic hazard contribute to the increase of vulnerability of Baku (the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan to earthquakes. In this study, we assess an earthquake risk in the city determined as a convolution of seismic hazard (in terms of the surface peak ground acceleration, PGA, vulnerability (due to building construction fragility, population features, the gross domestic product per capita, and landslide's occurrence, and exposure of infrastructure and critical facilities. The earthquake risk assessment provides useful information to identify the factors influencing the risk. A deterministic seismic hazard for Baku is analysed for four earthquake scenarios: near, far, local, and extreme events. The seismic hazard models demonstrate the level of ground shaking in the city: PGA high values are predicted in the southern coastal and north-eastern parts of the city and in some parts of the downtown. The PGA attains its maximal values for the local and extreme earthquake scenarios. We show that the quality of buildings and the probability of their damage, the distribution of urban population, exposure, and the pattern of peak ground acceleration contribute to the seismic risk, meanwhile the vulnerability factors play a more prominent role for all earthquake scenarios. Our results can allow elaborating strategic countermeasure plans for the earthquake risk mitigation in the Baku city.

  14. Spatial analysis of hail and its suppression methods (Case Study: East-Azerbaijan Province, Iran

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    Terifeh Beheshtizadeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric hazards are considered as the mainenvironmental hazards, which threaten plants, animals and human communities. Hailing is one of these hazards which cause a lot of damages to differentactivities, especially agriculture, transportation, economy and so on in theworld. East Azerbaijan is one of the main areas of these activities in Iran. Inthis paper to study the time and place of occurring of hail in East Azerbaijanprovince, the data are collected from 10 synoptic stations in a span of 10year-time (2001-2010. For presenting the diagrams Excel software and forzoning GIS software were used. The results of this study show that the mostproportion of hailing is related to Marand St. with 10 times falling, and theleast one is related to Jolfa St. with only one time falling of hail. Thisissue is clearly observable in zoning map of the province. Time survey forhailing showed that the most rate of hail falling is occurring in April whichis 23 times and the least one is related to September which is only one time.In the circular diagram for seasonal falling it is considered that the mostrate of hailing is in the spring which is 49 times and the least one is in thesummer which is 8 times. In the rest of this study the principles andfundamentals of decreasing hail is discussed and methods of decreasing damagesand hail suppression is studied.

  15. Dirrofilariasis in Shepherd Dogs of High Altitudes Areas in West Azerbaijan-Iran

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    Mojtaba Hadian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the biology and ecology of the arthropod vectors are different, some factors, such as global warming, the increasing abundance of mosquitoes, the movement of domestic hosts, and the abundance of wild reservoirs, can act as favourable factors for the distribution of infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in shepherd dogs living in the high altitude of mountainous area (i.e.1200 meters above the sea level. The study group was comprised of 160 shepherd dogs living in 4 mountainous regions (Targavar, Margavar, Kolshin and Hovarchin of west Azerbaijan where continuous movement of sheep and goat flocks resulted to have a little information about shepherd dogs in these regions. Additionally, arduous pathways have made impossible any access by car to some territories of these areas. The dogs were mostly mixed raced with different ages (from 1 to 10 years and sexes (male = 136, female = 24. Blood samples were collected from cephalic vein. Direct thin and thick blood smears and modified knott’s technique were used for detecting D.immitis microfilariae and other blood parasites. The results indicated that 40 (25 % of dogs were infected with D. immitis microfilariae. In examination of the dogs, no severe life threatening feature of the disease was diagnosed. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05 of Dirrofilaria infection among gender, age groups and geographical areas. High prevalence of asymptomatic Dirrofilariasis in shepherd dogs in this area highlights the need of controlling and preventive programs.

  16. Patterns of Brucellosis Infection Symptoms in Azerbaijan: A Latent Class Cluster Analysis

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    Rita Ismayilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis infection is a multisystem disease, with a broad spectrum of symptoms. We investigated the existence of clusters of infected patients according to their clinical presentation. Using national surveillance data from the Electronic-Integrated Disease Surveillance System, we applied a latent class cluster (LCC analysis on symptoms to determine clusters of brucellosis cases. A total of 454 cases reported between July 2011 and July 2013 were analyzed. LCC identified a two-cluster model and the Vuong-Lo-Mendell-Rubin likelihood ratio supported the cluster model. Brucellosis cases in the second cluster (19% reported higher percentages of poly-lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, arthritis, myositis, and neuritis and changes in liver function tests compared to cases of the first cluster. Patients in the second cluster had a severe brucellosis disease course and were associated with longer delay in seeking medical attention. Moreover, most of them were from Beylagan, a region focused on sheep and goat livestock production in south-central Azerbaijan. Patients in cluster 2 accounted for one-quarter of brucellosis cases and had a more severe clinical presentation. Delay in seeking medical care may explain severe illness. Future work needs to determine the factors that influence brucellosis case seeking and identify brucellosis species, particularly among cases from Beylagan.

  17. The Caspian Sea regionalism in a globalized world: Energy security and regional trajectories of Azerbaijan and Iran

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    Hedjazi, Babak

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation is fundamentally about the formation of new regional spaces in Central Eurasia viewed from a dynamic, comparative and historical approach. Analyzing the global-local economic and political interactions and their consequences on resource rich countries of the Caspian Sea enable us to reframe security as a central element of the new global order. In this respect, the dissertation examines how two particular states, Azerbaijan and Iran, respond to the changing global security environment and optimize their capacity to absorb or control change. Here, security as I conceive is multidimensional and engages various social, political and economic domains. My research is articulated along three hypotheses regarding the formation of a new regional space and its consequences on territorial polarization and interstate rivalry. These hypotheses, respectively and cumulatively, elucidate global and domestic contexts of regional space formation, regional strategic and discursive trajectories, and regional tensions of global/local interactions. In order to empirically test these hypotheses, a series of thirty interviews were conducted by the author with local and foreign business representatives, civilian and government representatives, and corroborated by economic data collected from the International Energy Agency. The findings of the research validate the primary assumption of the dissertation that Azerbaijan and Iran have chosen the regional scale to address discrepancies between their aspired place in the new world order and the reality of their power and international status. Extending the argument for structural scarcity of oil towards contenders, this dissertation concludes that the Caspian oil has become a fundamental element of the regional discourse. The mismatch between the rhetoric of sovereign rights and energy security on one side and the reality of regional countries' powerlessness and their need to reach international markets on the other side are

  18. Formation of Grain Quality in Bread Wheat Varieties under Mil-Garabakh Region of Azerbaijan: Az Wheat

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    HASANOVA G. M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Grain quality in bread wheat varieties was studied under Mil-Garabakh region of Azerbaijan. It was revealed that in these conditions the gluten content was relatively high, while the quality of gluten determined by DCO and sedimentation index was low. Apparently, this is due to the fact that in Tartar AIA ЗОС during grain ripening period temperature was high. Usually under these conditions, high bread baking quality of wheat grain was not formed. However, bread obtained from varieties Girmizi bugda, Azeri, Gobustan, Murov with high gluten content and low DCO had good quality.

  19. - and Syn-Eruptive Surface Movements of Azerbaijan Mud Volcanoes Detected Through Insar Analysis: Preliminary Results

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    Antonielli, Benedetta; Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico; Luzi, Guido; Feyzullayev, Akper; Aliyev, Chingiz

    2014-05-01

    Mud volcanism is a process that consists in the extrusion of mud, fragments or blocks of country rocks, saline waters and gases, mostly methane. This mechanism is typically linked to in-depth hydrocarbon traps, and it builds up a variety of conical edifices with dimension and morphology similar to those of magmatic volcanoes. Interferometry by Satellite Aperture Radar (InSAR) techniques have been commonly used to monitor and investigate the ground deformation connected to the eruptive phases of magmatic volcanoes. InSAR techniques have also been employed to explore the ground deformation associated with the LUSI mud volcano in Java (Indonesia). We aim to carry out a study on the paroxysmal activities of the Azerbaijan mud volcanoes, among the largest on Earth, using similar techniques. In particular the deformations of the mud volcanic systems were analyzed through the technique of satellite differential interferometry (DInSAR), thanks to the acquisition of 16 descending and 4 ascending Envisat images, spanning about 4 years (October 2003-November 2007); these data were provided by the European Space Agency. The preliminary analysis of a set of 77 interferograms and the unwrapping process elaboration of some of them selected according to the best coherence values, allowed the detection of significant deformations in correspondence of Ayaz-Akhtarma and Khara Zira Island mud volcanoes. This analysis has allowed to identify relevant ground deformations of the volcanic systems in connection with the main eruptive events in 2005 and in 2006 respectively, that are recorded by the catalogue of Azerbaijan mud volcano eruptions until 2007. The preliminary analysis of the interferograms of the Ayaz-Akhtarma and the Khara Zira mud volcanoes shows that the whole volcano edifice or part of it is subject to a ground displacement before or in coincidence with the eruption. Assuming that the movement is mainly vertical, we suppose that deformation is due to bulging of the volcanic

  20. Determination of fluorosis prevalence in rural communities  of East Azerbaijan Province

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    Mohammad Ali Hosseinpour Feizi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Intake of high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water can cause dental fluorosis. In this study, the prevalence of dental fluorosis in rural communities of East Azerbaijan Province was studied. Materials and Methods: 3 villages of Bashsizkooh, Bostanabad (fluoride concentration in drinking water = 0.12 mg/L, Nagharehkub,  Ahar (current water resource = 0.6 mg/L, old water resource = 1.1-1.2 mg/L, and Gharehbolaq, Jolfa (current water resource = 0.35 mg/L and old water resource = 2.4 mg/L old source were selected as low, medium, and high exposure to fluoride respectively. All village residents above 6 years old were visited by physician. Quality of water resources was determined by referring to the records archived and through conducting new analysis.Results: Dental fluorosis was observed in 62.7 % of the people visited. In 31.5% of participants, fluorosis Grade 1; in 22.4 % of participants, fluorosis grade 2; in 7.7 % of participants, fluorosis grade 3; and finally fluorosis grade 4 was observed in 4 patients. Different levels of fluorosis were observed in residents of the villages of Gharebolaq, Nagharehkub, and Bashsizkooh (83.3%, 70.5 %, and 32.5 % respectively. There was a significant difference in prevalence of fluorosis between villages (P < 0.001. Fluorosis was observed in both permanent and temporary teeth. Mean cumulative fluoride index (MCFI in people with and without fluorosis was 22660.2 and 4743.2 mg, respectively. There was a correlation between this index and fluorosis (R =0.413. Conclusion: In all three villages studied, even Bashsizkooh, different grades of fluorosis were endemic. It is recommended that the responsible authorities take a  new measure and approach  for the intake of fluoride from drinking water.

  1. Studying the Distribution of Outpatient Services in Health Care System in East Azerbaijan

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    Ali janati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: It is necessary that various aspects of health information and statistics are identified and measured since health problems are getting more complex day by day. This study was aimed to investigate the distribution of outpatient services in East Azerbaijan province. Material and Methods : This research was a descriptive, cross-sectional study. In this study, the data from all functional health sectors, including hospitals, health centers, and all clinics and private offices (public, private, charitable, military, social security and NGOs sectors in 2014 were studied. The relevant performance data were collected according to pre-determined format (researcher-made check list approved by five professionals and experts in health services management (content validity. The study was conducted in different sites including Deputy of Treatment, health section of University of Medical Sciences, Social Security Organization, Iran Health Insurance, Imam Khomeini Relief Committee, Welfare Organization and healthcare organizations of the oil industry. In order to analyze the data, SPSS 18 software was used. Results: The information and data were collected according to pre-determined format     (researcher-made check list approved by five professionals and experts in health services management (content validity and reliability. In general, the highest and the lowest outpatient services, have been provided in the private sector (53.6% and the charitable sector (0.6%, respectively. Social security with 27.7% and public sector with 13.4% are the largest providers of outpatient services after private sector in this province. Conclusion: The results showed that the private sector in comparison with public sector is at the forefront of outpatient services. So, policies and decisions should be aimed to protecting and reinforcing these sectors.

  2. CHILDHOOD GUILLIAN-BARRE SYNDROME IN THE IRAN’S EAST AZERBAIJAN PROVINCE: 2001-2005

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    M. Barzegar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aims at determining the epidemiologic, presenting symptoms, clinical course and electrophysiologic features of childhood Guillain-Barre Syndrome(GBS in the East Azarbaijan province over a period of five years. Materials & Methods All the patients, aged< 15 years, referred/admitted to Tabriz Children Hospital with GBS between January 2001 and December 2005 were investigated.Results One hundred and twelve subjects were enrolled during this period. The average annual incidence rate was 2.21 per 100000 population of children aged<15years(CI 95%: 1.8-2.6; the highest proportion of 29% was observed in winter (P=0.10; mean age (SD of subjects was 5.1 (3.3 years, while 61.6% were ≤5years. The male/female ratio was 1.3. Antecedent events were identified in 80(71.4% patients. The most common manifestation was limb weakness; at the peak of the disease course, only 8 (7.1% patients were able to walk without assistance. Cranial nerve involvement was found in 37.5%. Fifteen percent of patients had autonomic dysfunction, and 32.2% complained of neuropathic pain. Artificial ventilation was needed in 10.7% of patients, and three patients (2.7% died due to cardiac arrest. Electrophysiological examination showed the demyelinating type of the disease in 54.5%; axonal type in 35.7% and 9.8% as unclassified or normal pattern. Short time to reach nadir (P=0.008, cranial nerve involvement (P=0.000, autonomic involvement (P=0.001, and axonal pattern on electro diagnosis (P=0.043 were found as risk factors for respiratory failure. In follow-up, at the end of one year, 95% of patients could walk without aid. ConclusionThe axonal type of GBS is a relatively common form of childhood GBS occurring in East Azerbaijan.

  3. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Fall Injuries in East Azerbaijan, Iran; A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Saber Ghaffari-Fam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of fall injuries in East Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on Hospital Information System (HIS data for patients referred to the Imam Reza Hospital between 2008 and 2013. We recorded the demographic characteristics and epidemiological patterns of patients who were admitted to our center due to fall injuries. To standardize the reports the International Classification of Diseases (ICD, the International Classification of Diseases 9 Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM was used. Equally, the hospitalization period and number, admission ward, and the final status of victims after discharge from the hospital were extracted from the HIS. Results: Overall we included a total number of 3397 patients with mean age of 39.2±22.7 years. There were 2501 (73.6% men among the patients. Long bone fracture (48.1% and intracranial injury (24.2% were the most frequent injuries among fall injury victims. Operations on spinal cord and spinal canal structures (12.0%, Operations on nose (11.6% were the most common operations being performed in these patients. The survival was significantly lower in patients with age more than 60 years when compared to other age groups ( p=0.001. The survival rate was significantly lower in age group of >60 years, compared to other age groups ( p=0.001. Conclusion: Given the high rate of fall injuries and death among the elderly that increases with age, appropriate measures must be taken to control and prevent injuries while prioritizing the elderly.

  4. About the status of certain species of Dryopteris Adans. s. str. in tne flora of Azerbaijan

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    A. M. Askerov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the status of some taxa of fern genus Dryopteris Adans. s. str. (Dryopteridaceae Ch­ing is analyzed in South Caucasus. Based on the critical treatment of herbarium material both collected by authors in various regions of Azerbaijan and that deposited in BAK and LE, as well as analysis of relevant literature, D. talyschensis (Askerov et A. Bobr. Askerov et U. Aktcay, D. schorapanensis Askerov, D. iranica Fras.-Jenk., and D. raddeana (Fomin Fomin are recognized as worthy being accepted at the rank of a species, and D. borreri (Newm. Newm. ex Oberh. et Tavel, D. remota (A. Br. ex Döll. Druce, and D. assimilis S. Walker are prior names for the other South Caucasian representatives of the genus. Dryopteris talyschensis known before as D. raddeana var. talyschensis Askerov et A. Bobr. (Asgarov, Bobrov, 1972 by its morpho-biological and ecological featers differs considerably from D. raddeana which is a relic and endemic species of hircanian flora. Dryopteris schorapanensis initially (Askerov, 1978 described as a hybrid, later, based on morphological and cytogenetic studies, has been proven to be a distinct apomictic triploid species (Johns et al., 1996; Fraser-Jenkins, 2007. Similarly, it was demonstrated that D. affinis subsp. coriacea Fras.-Jenk. is rather widespread in the Caucasus, possess original morphology and should better be treated as another apomictic triploid species, D. iranica. Although Fraser-Jenkins (1977, 1986 considered D. radd­eana as D. pallida (Bory Fomin subsp. subsp. raddeana (Fomin Fr.-Jenk., we accepte it with species status. Finally, the names D. borreri, D. remota, and D. assimilis are recognized as prior for D. affinis p. p., D. kemulariae, and D. expansa p. p., respectively.

  5. Active sulfur cycling by diverse mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms in terrestrial mud volcanoes of Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green-Saxena, A; Feyzullayev, A; Hubert, C R J; Kallmeyer, J; Krueger, M; Sauer, P; Schulz, H-M; Orphan, V J

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial mud volcanoes (TMVs) represent geochemically diverse habitats with varying sulfur sources and yet sulfur cycling in these environments remains largely unexplored. Here we characterized the sulfur-metabolizing microorganisms and activity in four TMVs in Azerbaijan. A combination of geochemical analyses, biological rate measurements and molecular diversity surveys (targeting metabolic genes aprA and dsrA and SSU ribosomal RNA) supported the presence of active sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing guilds in all four TMVs across a range of physiochemical conditions, with diversity of these guilds being unique to each TMV. The TMVs varied in potential sulfate reduction rates (SRR) by up to four orders of magnitude with highest SRR observed in sediments where in situ sulfate concentrations were highest. Maximum temperatures at which SRR were measured was 60°C in two TMVs. Corresponding with these trends in SRR, members of the potentially thermophilic, spore-forming, Desulfotomaculum were detected in these TMVs by targeted 16S rRNA analysis. Additional sulfate-reducing bacterial lineages included members of the Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae detected by aprA and dsrA analyses and likely contributing to the mesophilic SRR measured. Phylotypes affiliated with sulfide-oxidizing Gamma- and Betaproteobacteria were abundant in aprA libraries from low sulfate TMVs, while the highest sulfate TMV harboured 16S rRNA phylotypes associated with sulfur-oxidizing Epsilonproteobacteria. Altogether, the biogeochemical and microbiological data indicate these unique terrestrial habitats support diverse active sulfur-cycling microorganisms reflecting the in situ geochemical environment.

  6. Genotypic characteristics of hydatid cysts isolated from humans in East Azerbaijan Province (2011-2013

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    Amir Vahedi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cystic echinococcosis (CE is one of the important helminthic diseases of human and animals, which causes by Echinococcus granulosus. Canids are its definite and grazers especially sheep, and cattle, and also wild herbivores are its intermediate hosts. Human can also be accidentally infected by a parasite. This study aimed to investigate genotypes of the hydatid cysts isolated from hydatidosis patients in order to confine the source of the infection, 2013. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 55 paraffin blocks of identified hydatid cysts have been undergone genotyping using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP technique. The ITS1 region of rDNA has been amplified using BD1 forward and 4s reverse primers. PCR products have been digested using HpaII and RsaI restriction endonucleases. RFLP products studied using gel electrophoresis. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows using the chi-square test. Results: About 29 (52.72%, 16 (29.1%, 3 (5.45%, 3 (5.45%, 1 (1.81%, 1 (1.81%, 1 (1.81% and 1 (1.81% out of 55 hydatid cysts were located in lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, pancreas, brain, and femore, respectively. The frequency of hydatidosis observed higher in patients from rural areas (P = 0.013; odds ratio = 0.599; 95% confidence interval: 0.28, 1.27. Based on RFLP results, the entire studied hydatid cysts identified as sheep strain (G1. Conclusion: According to the results of the present observation, it can be concluded that the majority of cases of human hydatidosis in East Azerbaijan Province are caused by sheep strain (G1 of E. granulosus, which indicates the sheep-doge cycle in the studied area.

  7. Frequency and causes of discharges against medical advice from hospital cardiac care units of East Azerbaijan, Iran

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    Saber Azami-Aghdash

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discharges against medical advice (DAMA is a common problem of hospitals that could lead increasing the complications and readmission. For this, the aim of this study is to investigate the frequency and effective factors of DAMA in patients with cardiovascular disease in hospital cardiac care units (CCU of East Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed, in 2013, in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Required information was extracted using valid and reliable forms of medical records of 2000 patients admitted to 20 CCU in 17 hospitals of East Azerbaijan, by two trained interviewers. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, percentage, etc., chi-square test, and linear regression model using the SPSS software. The tests were considered a statistically significant level of 0.05%. Results: The results showed that 272 patients (13.6% were DAMA from the hospital. The frequency of DAMA was in men more than women. The most frequency of discharge has occurred in the range of 40-80 years old. Results of linear regression showed that there was a significant correlation between DAMA and type of insurance, history of myocardial infarction (MI, comorbid disease, cause of hospitalization, location of hospital, and staying < 48 hours (P < 0.050. Conclusion: In this study, the rate of DAMA was relatively high compared with similar studies and it is considered as a concern problem that should study the reasons and its effective factors and plan effective interventions to reduce them.

  8. Changing patterns of human anthrax in Azerbaijan during the post-Soviet and preemptive livestock vaccination eras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Kracalik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We assessed spatial and temporal changes in the occurrence of human anthrax in Azerbaijan during 1984 through 2010. Data on livestock outbreaks, vaccination efforts, and human anthrax incidence during Soviet governance, post-Soviet governance, preemptive livestock vaccination were analyzed. To evaluate changes in the spatio-temporal distribution of anthrax, we used a combination of spatial analysis, cluster detection, and weighted least squares segmented regression. Results indicated an annual percent change in incidence of (+11.95% from 1984 to 1995 followed by declining rate of -35.24% after the initiation of livestock vaccination in 1996. Our findings also revealed geographic variation in the spatial distribution of reporting; cases were primarily concentrated in the west early in the study period and shifted eastward as time progressed. Over twenty years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the distribution of human anthrax in Azerbaijan has undergone marked changes. Despite decreases in the incidence of human anthrax, continued control measures in livestock are needed to mitigate its occurrence. The shifting patterns of human anthrax highlight the need for an integrated "One Health" approach that takes into account the changing geographic distribution of the disease.

  9. Changing patterns of human anthrax in Azerbaijan during the post-Soviet and preemptive livestock vaccination eras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracalik, Ian; Abdullayev, Rakif; Asadov, Kliment; Ismayilova, Rita; Baghirova, Mehriban; Ustun, Narmin; Shikhiyev, Mazahir; Talibzade, Aydin; Blackburn, Jason K

    2014-07-01

    We assessed spatial and temporal changes in the occurrence of human anthrax in Azerbaijan during 1984 through 2010. Data on livestock outbreaks, vaccination efforts, and human anthrax incidence during Soviet governance, post-Soviet governance, preemptive livestock vaccination were analyzed. To evaluate changes in the spatio-temporal distribution of anthrax, we used a combination of spatial analysis, cluster detection, and weighted least squares segmented regression. Results indicated an annual percent change in incidence of (+)11.95% from 1984 to 1995 followed by declining rate of -35.24% after the initiation of livestock vaccination in 1996. Our findings also revealed geographic variation in the spatial distribution of reporting; cases were primarily concentrated in the west early in the study period and shifted eastward as time progressed. Over twenty years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the distribution of human anthrax in Azerbaijan has undergone marked changes. Despite decreases in the incidence of human anthrax, continued control measures in livestock are needed to mitigate its occurrence. The shifting patterns of human anthrax highlight the need for an integrated "One Health" approach that takes into account the changing geographic distribution of the disease.

  10. EVALUATION OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT FIELDS CULTURE, CAPABILITY, INFORMATION AND HUMAN RESOURCES OF YOUTH AND SPORT OFFICES OF WEST AZERBAIJAN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roba Yadollahzadeh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Management has a significant importance in sport organizations, specially, if it is accompanied with a strategic and program-oriented approach. Now in this progressing and developing world sport is not an exception, and many sport organizations are in rapid progress and in most cases the strategic approach of these organizations is the top priority. This study aims at evaluating the fields of strategic management in West Azarbaijan province offices of sport and youth. The subjects of the study are 47 managers and their assistants of W.Azarbaijan youth and sport offices. The tool of gathering data is a standard questionnaire which is made by Vic Gilgeous (improving strategic concerns.The method of descriptive research is a kind of analysis that, it is performed in a field study. For data analyzing, some parameters of descriptive and inferential statistics such as standard deviation, mean, frequency and some other like one sample t-test were used. The results show that the amount of realization of the culture, information and the strategic management resources in offices of youth and sports of W. Azerbaijan, are not in an appropriate condition (p < 0.05.So according to the results of the study we can deduce that the culture, information and strategic management resources in W. Azerbaijan offices of youth and sports, are significantly different with the society average and these fields need to be improved and strengthened.

  11. IN SITU AND EX SITU CONSERVATION OF RARE AND ENDANGERED GEOPHYTES OF THE HIRKAN NATIONAL PARK (AZERBAIJAN

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    IBADLI Oruc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hirkan National Park consists of natural region of Talish Mountains characterized with their unique natural complex. This research was carried out from 2004 to 2007 in order to study the floristic and taxonomical composition of geophytes, elaborate optimal measures of biosafety and their sustainable use. According to floristic composition of the National Park it is a valuable forest which includes 150 endemic species of trees and bushes out of 435 species of trees and bushes. As a result of researches for the first time were found that more than 15 geophyte species are endemic plants of Caucasus or Azerbaijan. Some geophyte species are Allium lenkoranicum Miscz. ex Grossh., A. talyschense Miscz. ex Grossh., Bellevalia fominii Woronow, Ornithogalum hyrcanum Grossh., Fritillaria grandiflora Grossh., Crocus caspius Fisch. & C. A. Mey., Iris helena (C. Koch C. Koch, Himantoglossum formosum (Stev. C. Koch, Ophrys oestrifera M. Bieb., etc. among many others. Isolation of a geographical position of Talish, which vegetation differ a variety of life forms, allows considering geophytes as a group of independent bioecological value. 92 species of geophytes identified and registered in the Hirkan National Park is grouped into 21 families and 46 genera, including 33 rare and endangered species, of which 11 species are included into the “Red Data Book” of Azerbaijan.

  12. Theoretical and Practical Issues of the Implementation of International Norms on Human Rights to the National Legislation (the Example of the Republic of Azerbaijan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyev, Subhan F.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the features of the implementation of international norms on human rights to the national law system of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Using the method of the critical analysis of national legislative framework on human rights, the authors argue that there are some certain problems connected with the application…

  13. New Class Divisions in the New Market Economies: Evidence from the Careers of Young Adults in Post-Soviet Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ken; Pollock, Gary

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents evidence from the biographies of samples totaling 1,215 young adults in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia, who all reached age 16 between 1986 and 1992, and whose subsequent life histories coincided with their countries' transitions from communism. The evidence is used to examine whether new classes are being created in the new…

  14. Determination of antibiotic residues in the pasteurized milk produced in West Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirin Forouzan; Amir Rahimirad; Roya Seyedkhoei; Jafar Asadzadeh; Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To monitor antibiotic residues in pasteurized milk in West Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran.Methods:In this study, 848 pasteurized milk samples were collected from factories and tested for the presence of antibiotic residues using the Copan test kit based on the manufacturer’s instructions.Results:Results indicated that 30.14% of samples were contaminated with a variety of antibiotics based on the detection of associated residues and 3.19% of these samples were suspected. Given the current rise of antimicrobial resistance among microbial pathogens, these findings amplify the need to ensure continuous monitoring of pasteurized milk that intended for human consumption.Conclusions:Continuous monitoring of pasteurized milk may improve human health but also limit the development and transmission of antibiotic resistant strains in the environment.

  15. Mutation analysis of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in Azerbaijani population, a report from West Azerbaijan province of Iran

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    Morteza Bagheri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Phenylketonuria (PKU is a genetic inborn error of phenylalanine (Phe metabolism resulting from insufficiency in the hepatic enzyme, phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH, which leads to elevated levels of Phe in the blood. The present study was carried out for mutation analysis of the PAH gene in West Azerbaijan province of Iran. Materials and Methods:A total of 218 alleles from 40 PKU families were studied using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR method. Results:The frequencies of IVS10-11, S67P, R261Q, R252W, IVS11nt-1 g>c, R408Q, and Q232Q mutations were 28(35, 17(21.25, 15(18.75, 3(3.75, 3(3.75, 2(2.5, and 1(1.25, in cases group, and 51(23.4, 31(14.2, 27(12.4, 6(2.75, 6(2.75, 4(1.83, and 2(0.92 in total group, respectively. The mutations of R243Q, 364delG, L333F, 261X, I65T, and R408W were not detected in our samples. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the IVS10-11 mutation has the highest frequency in the tested population. To our knowledge, this report is the first in its own kind and provides better understanding of the genetic heterogeneity, the origin and distributions of PAH mutations in West Azerbaijan province of Iran.

  16. Evaluating soil contamination risk impact on land vulnerability and climate change in east Azerbaijan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Farzin; Anaya-Romero, Maria; de La Rosa, Diego

    2010-05-01

    Increased land degradation is one possible, and important, consequence of global climate change. As reported by IPCC, warming is likely to be well above the global mean in central Asia, the Tibetan Plateau and northern Asia, above the global mean in eastern Asia and South Asia, and similar to the global mean in Southeast and west Asia. Following these variation, agricultural face will abruptly be transformed in Iran which has been located in Middle East, west Asia. During 1951 to 2003 several stations in different climatological zones of Iran reported significant decrease in frost days due to rise in surface temperature. Also, some stations show a decreasing trend in precipitation (Anzali, Tabriz, Zahedan) while others (Mashad, Shiraz) have reported increasing trends. Based on land evaluation methodologies, a semi-empirical model named Pantanal within the new MicroLEIS DSS framework is used for assessing limitations for vulnerability of an area about 9000ha located in east Azerbaijan province of Iran is closed to Tabriz. The Pantanal approach is a land vulnerability evaluation model based on three kinds of information: I) monthly meteorological data; II) soil survey data; and III) agricultural management information. The major discussed agro contaminants were phosphorous, nitrogen, heavy metals and pesticides. Climate data such as mean average maximum and minimum temperatures for each month and total annual precipitation for last 20 consecutive years (1986-2006) were collected from Ahar meteorological station. The second scenario is based on projected changes in surface air temperature and precipitation for west Asia for the 2080s. In West Asia, climate change is likely to cause severe water stress in 21st century. In details, the mean temperature (°C) will increase 5.1, 5.6, 6.3 and 5.7 in winter, spring, summer and autumn respectively, in the future scenario at the study area. On the other hand, total precipitation will decrease 11 and 25 percent in winter and

  17. 13 May 2016 - Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva V. Sadiqov signing the guest book with Head of Associate Member and Non-Member State Relations E. Tsesmelis and Adviser C. Schäfer. Permanent Mission First Secretary H. Huseynov is also present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2016-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Vaqif Sadiqov Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  18. Quantitative Assessment of Spatio-Temporal Desertification Rates in Azerbaijan during Using Timeseries Landsat-8 Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramov, Emil; Mammadov, Ramiz

    2016-07-01

    The main goals of this research are the object-based landcover classification of LANDSAT-8 multi-spectral satellite images in 2014 and 2015, quantification of Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) rates within the land-cover classes, change detection analysis between the NDVIs derived from multi-temporal LANDSAT-8 satellite images and the quantification of those changes within the land-cover classes and detection of changes between land-cover classes. The object-based classification accuracy of the land-cover classes was validated through the standard confusion matrix which revealed 80 % of land-cover classification accuracy for both years. The analysis revealed that the area of agricultural lands increased from 30911 sq. km. in 2014 to 31999 sq. km. in 2015. The area of barelands increased from 3933 sq. km. in 2014 to 4187 sq. km. in 2015. The area of forests increased from 8211 sq. km. in 2014 to 9175 sq. km. in 2015. The area of grasslands decreased from 27176 sq. km. in 2014 to 23294 sq. km. in 2015. The area of urban areas increased from 12479 sq. km. in 2014 to 12956 sq. km. in 2015. The decrease in the area of grasslands was mainly explained by the landuse shifts of grasslands to agricultural and urban lands. The quantification of low and medium NDVI rates revealed the increase within the agricultural, urban and forest land-cover classes in 2015. However, the high NDVI rates within agricultural, urban and forest land-cover classes in 2015 revealed to be lower relative to 2014. The change detection analysis between landscover types of 2014 and 2015 allowed to determine that 7740 sq. km. of grasslands shifted to agricultural landcover type whereas 5442sq. km. of agricultural lands shifted to rangelands. This means that the spatio-temporal patters of agricultural activities occurred in Azerbaijan because some of the areas reduced agricultural activities whereas some of them changed their landuse type to agricultural. Based on the achieved results, it

  19. Seismic Tomography of Siyazan - Shabran Oil and Gas Region Of Azerbaijan by Data of The Seismic Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetirmishli, Gurban; Guliyev, Ibrahim; Mammadov, Nazim; Kazimova, Sabina; Ismailova, Saida

    2016-04-01

    The main purpose of the research was to build a reliable 3D model of the structure of seismic velocities in the earth crust on the territory of Siyazan-Shabran region of Azerbaijan, using the data of seismic telemetry stations spanning Siyazan-Shabran region (Siyazan, Altiagaj, Pirgulu, Guba, Khinalig, Gusar), including 7 mobile telemetry seismic stations. Interest to the problem of research seismic tomography caused by applied environmental objectives, such as the assessment of geological risks, engineering evaluation (stability and safety of wells), the task of exploration and mining operations. In the study region are being actively developed oil fields, and therefore, there is a risk of technogenic earthquakes. It was performed the calculation of first arrival travel times of P and S waves and the corresponding ray paths. Calculate 1D velocity model which is the initial model as a set of horizontal layers (velocity may be constant or changed linearly with depth on each layer, gaps are possible only at the boundaries between the layers). Have been constructed and analyzed the horizontal sections of the three-dimensional velocity model at different depths of the investigated region. By the empirical method was proposed density model of the sedimentary rocks at depths of 0-8 km.

  20. Epidemiology of Head Lice Infestation in Primary SchoolPupils, in Khajeh City, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shayeghi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediculus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae or head louse is an obligate ectoparasite transmitted mainly through physical contact. This study was conducted to survey the prevalence of head lice infestation rate and some risk factors in Primary School pupils, in Khajeh City East Azerbaijan Province, IranMethods: We selected 20 primary schools of Khajeh City during 2008 and 2009. Totally 500 pupils including 200 boys and 300 girls from all grade 1-5 were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling in rural areas of Khajeh City and were examined for lice. In addition, a standard questionnaire recorded information about demographic features of each pupil. Results were analyzed by SPSS software.Results: The total prevalence of head lice infestation in this study was 4.8%. and the prevalence rate was significantly higher in girls (6.66% than in boys (2%. Epidemiological factors such as: sex, school grade, family size, parent's education, type of house, hair washing (per week, number of using comb per day, were evaluated and results showed significant difference in head lice infestation and sex, school grade ,family size ,father education ,and type of house (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Pediculosis is a public health problem in many parts of the world, and due to the higher prevalence of pediculosis in crowded families, family by lower levels of father's education and socioeconomic status in our study and rural area, it is necessary to give health education for families to prevent of pediculosis in this area.

  1. Does the Budget Expenditure Composition Matter for Long-Run Economic Growth in a Resource Rich Country? Evidence from Azerbaijan

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    Khatai Aliyev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the role of budget expenditure composition over Azerbaijan’s non-oil economic growth in the long-run by classifying public spending as capital, social and other expenditures. Authors’ employ ARDLBT approach to co-integration for the period of 2000Q1-2014Q4 to estimate long-run contribution of each spending category before-and-after the oil boom while controlling for oilrelated factors. Empirical results endorse the validity of long-run association among variables. Results concluded insignificant negative impact of capital expenditures, and significant negative impact of other expenditures. However, social spending has statistically and economically strong positive impact over the non-oil output growth. Therefore, research findings confirm that public expenditure composition significantly matters for long-run non-oil economic growth, and social expenditures have the greater positive impact in a resource-rich economy, Azerbaijan. Research results are highly useful for the government officials to consider while planning the expenditures in order to minimize negative response of non-oil sector to the fiscal contraction.

  2. IN THE AZERBAIJAN FIELD TURKISH LITERATURE, THE FIRST PERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS AND “MOLLA NESREDDIN DERGISI” / AZERBAYCAN SAHASI TÜRK EDEBIYATINDA ILK SÜRELI YAYIN FAALIYETLERI VE “MOLLA NESREDDIN DERGISI”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mithat DURMUŞ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Azerbaijan Field Turkish Literature, the firstperiodical publication studies started at the end of the19th century. This date includes the same period for theTurkish Field Turkish Literature. In this study, in whichlevel the periodical publication activities at bothgeography are and through which aims the experiencesare realized are tried to be explained. It is given greatimportance to the “Molla Nesreddin” magazine which waspublished at the and of the 19th century and at thebeginning of the 20th century and which is an greatexample for the Azerbaijan Field Turkish Literature.

  3. Feasibility study concerning remediation and rehabilitation of industrial polluted lands on the Absheron Peninsula, Republic of Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivin, Majorie; Helsen, Stefan; Cuyvers, Lars

    2014-05-01

    ECOREM is carrying out a feasibility study focused on the remediation and rehabilitation of industrial polluted lands, located on the Absheron Peninsula (Republic of Azerbaijan), on behalf of the State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic (SOCAR). The objective of this study is to support SOCAR with specific technologies and capacity building for environmental remediation works on various sectors of the Peninsula. As an independent consultancy company, ECOREM provides sustainable and quality advice, seeking the balance to the interests of the client and the environment in the broadest sense of the word. Within this study, it is important to underline that extraction activities in the country have been going on for more than a century. Given that the age of the environmental problems is equal to the history of the oil production, it is nearly impossible to point out the responsibilities of the various companies or to define the exact activities that occurred on a particular location. From the data gathered so far, more than 3600 ha of oil contaminated area are known in Baku and the Absheron Peninsula. Within this feasibility study, ECOREM will advice SOCAR on suitable and best available remediation technologies to apply on prior contaminated areas. According to the Environmental Policy of the Company, SOCAR would like to act in priority on the numerous contaminated lands of the Absheron Peninsula. Through the exploitation of the extensive GIS database provided by SOCAR, the oil contaminated sites will be examined in details in order to determine the most sensitive areas, on which remediation works or monitoring should be implemented in priority. To locate these sites, ECOREM will provide SOCAR with technical support in order to conduct risk analysis, remediation and monitoring of soil and/or groundwater oil pollutions. According to these results, practical solutions will be proposed concerning the possible reuse and management of contaminated soils and hazardous

  4. Thermal history, exhumation, uplift, and long-term landscape evolution of the Eastern Great and Northern Lesser Caucasus, Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilger, Tatiana; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton; Mosar, Jon

    2015-04-01

    The Caucasus orogen (Great and Lesser Caucasus) is the highest mountain range between Asia and Europe, whose growth takes place since the beginning of the Cenozoic (Mosar et al. 2010). The orogen has evolved as a result of the active north directed convergence of the Arabian plate (Nikishin et al. 2001). The Great Caucasus (GC) represents a doubly verging fold-and-thrust belt, with a per-and a retro wedge actively propagating into the foreland sedimentary basins to the south and to the north (Sholpo 1993). Thermochronometric techniques (fission-track, (U-Th-Sm)/He, each on apatite and zircon) are used to reconstruct the thermal evolution of the upper crust, the subsidence, as well as the rock and surface uplift of the Eastern GC and Northern Lesser Caucasus and to connect them with the thrust kinematics of the GC. Samples were taken along different transects in Eastern GC and Northern Lesser Caucasus in Azerbaijan. Most samples of Eastern GC are Lower Jurassic age sandstones (deep marine and slope facies). Several sedimentary rock samples of Cretaceous, Miocene, Pliocene and Quaternary age were taken from the outcrops in the Kura basin and along rivers in the Eastern GC. Samples of the Lesser Caucasus are igneous and sedimentary origin and have Lower Jurassic to Holocene age. The first AFT-data in the Eastern Great Caucasus were investigated. All researched samples show recessed AF-ages. Most dated sedimentary samples have several populations of apatite minerals. Apatite minerals have low U-concentration (up to 10 ppm). Most dated samples taken in Aalenian sandstone have very young AFT-ages (up to 10 Ma). Some samples show Oligocene AF-ages of 23-28Ma. The preliminary data confirm orogeny in the Eastern Great Caucasus since Oligocene and propagation of orogeny since middle Miocene (Mosar et al. 2010). References Mosar, J., Kangarli, T., Bochud, M., Glasmacher, U.A., Rast, A., Brunet, M.-F. & Sosson, M. 2010. Cenozoic-Recent tectonics and uplift in the Greater

  5. Ma Biao,Vice Chairman of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference and Vice President of the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament,leads a delegation on a good-will visit to Azerbaijan and Turkey during 3rd-10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Ma Biao and his party meeting with H.E.Mr.Ali Ahmadov,Deputy Prime Minister of Azerbaijan.Ma Biao and his party visiting the Center for Strategic Studies under the President of Azerbaijan.Ma Biao warmly shaking hands with Deputy Prime Minister Ali Ahmadov.Ma Biao and his party attending the seminar entitled"The Silk Road:Communication,Cooperation and Win-Win"co-hosted by the CPAPD and Marmara Group Foundation in Istanbul.

  6. Estimation of the Impacts of Non-Oil Traditional and NonTraditional Export Sectors on Non-Oil Export of Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicat Hagverdiyev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The significant share of oil sector of the Azerbaijan export portfolio necessitates promotion of non-oil exports. This study analyzes weather the commodities which contain the main share (more than 70% in non-oil export are traditional or non-traditional areas, using the so-called Commodity-specific cumulative export experience function, for the 1995-2015 time frame. Then, the impact of traditional and non-traditional exports on non-oil GDP investigated employing econometric model. The results of the study based on 16 non-oil commodities show that cotton, tobacco, and production of mechanic devices are traditional sectors in non-oil export. The estimation results of the model indicate that both, traditional and non-traditional non-oil export sectors have economically and statistically significant impact on non-oil GDP.

  7. The Problems of the Variety of Formation and Functioning of the Special Economic Zones in Azerbaijan in the Context of the World Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh.T. Aliyev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The variety of formation and functioning of the special economic zones in the context of the world experience is investigated in the article. The stages of formation of such zones in the different countries of the world, of their peculiarities and characteristic features, and the different variants of functioning are analyzed in the given article. There is shown a number of practical examples of the variants of SEZ, which function in the countries of the world, and also their effectiveness and the gained experience. There is also given a number of suggestions and the necessity on use of the new economic instruments, on transition to the innovation economics and formation of SEZ in Azerbaijan in present conditions is validated.

  8. Hybrid solar-wind installation prospects for hot water and heating supply of private homes in the Absheron peninsula conditions of the Republic of Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Huseynov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the environmental problems arising from the use of traditional energy resources for the production of electricity and heat. The advantages of replacing conventional energy resources and shifting to wind and solar energy technologies are explained. The possibilities of the combined use of solar and wind energy to provide an average family of 5 people with hot water and heating are explored. Experimental results were obtained from full-scale tests under prevailing conditions at Baku. Solar-wind hybrid systems for heating and hot water were designed and developed at the Institute of Radiation Problems of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. The paper also examines the possibility of supplying a family of 5 people with hot water produced by solar energy year-round and presents the results of the calculation of the energy balance of such facility.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.71.3.12274

  9. International conference on "Photosynthesis research for sustainability-2013: in honor of Jalal A. Aliyev", held during June 5-9, 2013, Baku, Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Huseynova, Irada M; Govindjee

    2013-12-01

    In this brief report, we provide a pictorial essay on an international conference "Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability-2013 in honor of Jalal A. Aliyev" that was held in Baku, Azerbaijan, during June 5-9, 2013 ( http://photosynthesis2013.cellreg.org/ ). We begin this report with a brief note on Jalal Aliyev, the honored scientist, and on John Walker (1997 Nobel laureate in Chemistry) who was a distinguished guest and lecturer at the Conference. We briefly describe the Conference, and the program. In addition to the excellent scientific program, a special feature of the Conference was the presentation of awards to nine outstanding young investigators; they are recognized in this report. We have also included several photographs to show the pleasant ambience at this conference. (See http://photosynthesis2013.cellreg.org/Photo-Gallery.php ; https://www.dropbox.com/sh/qcr124dajwffwh6/TlcHBvFu4H?m ; and https://www.copy.com/s/UDlxb9fgFXG9/Baku for more photographs taken by the authors as well as by others.) We invite the readers to the next conferences on "Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability-2014: in honor of Vladimir A. Shuvalov" to be held during June 2-7, 2014, in Pushchino, Russia. Detailed information for this will be posted at the Website: http://photosynthesis2014.cellreg.org/ , and for the subsequent conference on "Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability-2015" to be held in May or June 2015, in Baku, Azerbaijan, at http://photosynthesis2015.cellreg.org/ .

  10. Food Security in Azerbaijan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamran Ismayilov

    2009-01-01

    @@ In the 21st century the society got some achievements in technological,education,economic,social-political,cultural and etc.sectors.But society couldn't solve fully the food security problem yet.According to the information given by FAO if in 1970 there were 400 billion hungry people in the world,in 2008 the number of hungry people was doubled and increased to 800 billion people.

  11. Biosurveillance of avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses in the Barda region of Azerbaijan using real time RT-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalala eZeynalova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Azerbaijan State Veterinary Control Service (SVCS has conducted active serological surveillance for avian influenza (AI in poultry since 2006, when the first outbreak of AI H5N1 occurred in Azerbaijan. Samples are collected from September to May annually and tested using a hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay to detect antibodies against H5 AI viruses. HI testing is also performed for Newcastle disease virus (NDV upon request, but since this method cannot distinguish between natural infections and immune responses to vaccination, all positive results require follow-up epidemiological investigations. Furthermore, blood collection for the surveillance program is time-intensive and can be stressful to birds. In order to improve the national surveillance program, alternative sampling and testing methodologies were applied among a population of birds in the Barda region and compared with results of the national surveillance program. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected instead of blood. Rather than testing individual samples, RNA was pooled to conserve resources and time, and pools were tested by real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR. Environmental sampling at a live bird market was also introduced as another surveillance mechanism. A total of 1,030 swabs were collected, comprising tracheal and cloacal samples from 441 birds and 148 environmental surface samples from farms or the live bird market. During the same time, 3,890 blood samples were collected nationally for the surveillance program; 400 of these samples originated in the Barda region. Birds sampled for rRT-PCR were likely different than those tested as part of national surveillance. All swab samples tested negative by rRT-PCR for both AI and NDV. All blood samples tested negative for H5 by HI, while 6.2% of all samples and 5% of the Barda samples tested positive for exposure to NDV. Follow-up investigations found that positive samples were from birds vaccinated in the

  12. Biosurveillance of avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses in the Barda region of Azerbaijan using real time RT-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeynalova, Shalala; Guliyev, Fizuli; Vatani, Mahira; Abbasov, Bahruz

    2015-01-01

    The Azerbaijan State Veterinary Control Service (SVCS) has conducted active serological surveillance for avian influenza (AI) in poultry since 2006, when the first outbreak of AI H5N1 occurred in Azerbaijan. Samples are collected from September to May annually and tested using a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay to detect antibodies against H5 AI viruses. HI testing is also performed for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) upon request, but since this method cannot distinguish between natural infections and immune responses to vaccination, all positive results require follow-up epidemiological investigations. Furthermore, blood collection for the surveillance program is time-intensive and can be stressful to birds. In order to improve the national surveillance program, alternative sampling and testing methodologies were applied among a population of birds in the Barda region and compared with results of the national surveillance program. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected instead of blood. Rather than testing individual samples, RNA was pooled to conserve resources and time, and pools were tested by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Environmental sampling at a live bird market was also introduced as another surveillance mechanism. A total of 1,030 swabs were collected, comprising tracheal, and cloacal samples from 441 birds and 148 environmental surface samples from farms or the live bird market. During the same time, 3,890 blood samples were collected nationally for the surveillance program; 400 of these samples originated in the Barda region. Birds sampled for rRT-PCR were likely different than those tested as part of national surveillance. All swab samples tested negative by rRT-PCR for both AI and NDV. All blood samples tested negative for H5 by HI, while 6.2% of all samples and 5% of the Barda samples tested positive for exposure to NDV. Follow-up investigations found that positive samples were from birds vaccinated in

  13. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from gut of honeybees (Apis mellifera) from West Azerbaijan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifpour, Mohammad Farouq; Mardani, Karim; Ownagh, Abdulghaffar

    2016-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and phylogenetic analysis were used for molecular identification of lactic acid bacteria (LABs) isolated from Apis mellifera. Eighteen honeybee workers were collected from three different apiaries in West Azerbaijan. LABs from the gut of honeybees were isolated and cultured using routine biochemical procedures. Genomic DNA was extracted from LABs and a fragment of 1540 bp in size of 16S rRNA gene was amplified. PCR products were digested using HinfI endonuclease and digested products with different RFLP patterns were subjected to nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results revealed that Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria spp. are were the most abundant LABs in honeybee gut. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were closely clustered with high similarity percentage with the same bacteria isolated from honeybees’ gut elsewhere. It was concluded that LABs isolated from honeybees had low sequence divergence in comparison with LABs isolated from other sources such as dairy products. PMID:28144419

  14. Evaluation of Association Between HLA Class II DR4–DQ8 Haplotype and Type I Diabetes Mellitus in Children of East Azerbaijan State of Iran

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    Nasrin Sohrabi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Association between HLA-DR4–DQ8 haplotype and type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM-1A was investigated in children of East Azerbaijan state of Iran because such an association has not been previously studied in this population. Methods: HLA-typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific priming. For haplotype analysis, the logistic regression model was performed. Results: Of the three investigated alleles, the frequency of DRB1*0401 was significantly higher among patients compared with that in healthy subjects (76.74% vs. 23.26%. Conclusion: The findings of the current study are consistent with those of previous studies and show that DRB1*0401 is associated with DM-1A; the frequencies of the two other alleles were also higher among patients, although the differences were not statistically significant. Two haplotypes associated with these alleles were also surveyed, and DRB1*0401−-DQA1*0301−, and DRB1*0401−-DQA1*0301−-DQB1*0302− were the most frequent haplotypes among the patient group.

  15. An empirical study to investigate the effects of thinking styles on emotional intelligence: A case study of Jihad Agriculture Organization of east Azerbaijan province

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    Habibeh Ayagh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An empirical study to investigate the effects of thinking styles on emotional intelligence among employees of agriculture industry in east Azerbaijan province. The proposed study uses a standard thinking style questionnaire originally developed by Sternberg and Wagner (1992 [Sternberg, R. J., & Wagner, R. K. (1992. Thinking styles inventory. Unpublished test, Yale University]. There are 716 employees working for this agriculture-based unit and the study uses random sampling technique and chooses 255 employees for this study. Cronbach alpha has been used to verify the overall questionnaire and different tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Pearson correlation test are used to examine different hypotheses of this survey. The results indicate there is positive and meaningful relationship between thinking style and emotional intelligence. We can also confirm that four thinking style’s components including functions, levels, scope and learning have meaningful impact on emotional intelligence when the level of significance is five or even one percent. However, forms did not have any meaningful impact on emotional intelligence.

  16. A study on the effect of workaholism on human resource productivity: A case study of managers of East Azerbaijan Water and Waste Water Company

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    Ali Akbar Ahmadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available These days, work is considered as an integral part of the human life and many people spend significant amount of their time in different organizations and departments to earn income. Unlimited organizational pressures and demands facing people have made them allocate much of their time on working. Because of these pressures, people are becoming increasingly subject to workaholism. On the other hand, leaders and managers are trying to improve performance and activities of their respective organizations. Therefore, different concepts such as productivity are turned to the major subject of the management and organizational studies within the same organizations. Note that today changeable and competitive environment and the available limited resources and facilities have turned the concept of productivity into one the most important preoccupations of management within modern organizations. In view of the limited studies and information available in Iran on workaholism and its adverse consequences, the present research intends to investigate and identifies the impacts of workaholism components on human resource productivity. In the present, research the descriptive-survey research method is used and where statistical community includes 130 managers of the East Azerbaijan Water and Waste Company. Using the correlation coefficient and linear regression technique the research tries to investigate the relationships between the concepts of workaholism and human resource productivity and demonstrates how they are applied in above-mentioned community.

  17. Isolation, identification, and monitoring of antibiotic resistance in Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from sheep in East Azerbaijan province, Iran

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    I. Khalili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in order to isolate, identify, and assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of the causative agent(s of pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep in East Azerbaijan province, northwest of Iran. Pneumonia was detected in 320 cases, and the affected lungs were sampled in the slaughterhouse. The samples were investigated bacteriologically for the isolation of two microorganisms from the Pasteurellaceae family. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from six (1.87% samples, while none of the lung tissues were positive for Mannheimia haemolytica. After the isolation and detection of microorganisms via cultural and morphological tests, the bacteria were identified on the basis of biochemical criteria and polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all P. multocida isolates, using broth microdilution method. Evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of eight antimicrobial agents against the tested isolates showed that all the organisms were resistant to amoxicillin and relatively susceptible to ceftiofur. In conclusion, P. multocida was introduced as the main cause of ovine pneumonic pasteurellosis in the studied district, and the outbreak frequency significantly varied in different seasons of the year (P

  18. The investigation of the organizational health relationship with the citizenship behavior and organizational commitment in East-Azerbaijan high schools during 2013-2014

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    Khalegh Ebadipour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between the organizational health of the high schools and citizenship behavior with teachers' organizational commitment. The used methodology of the study was an applied type of study purposefully and it was also a descriptive correlation method in terms of the application. The statistical population of the study included the whole high school teachers of East Azerbaijan Province during 2013-2014 educational years. The number of the statistical population was estimated about 384 people using Cochran formula. The cluster sampling method was also applied in order to take up the volume of the sample. Three standard questionnaires of the organizational health, organizational commitment and citizenship behavior were also applied to gather the related data in this study.T-test, separation correlation coefficient and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to analyze the research hypotheses. The results of the study showed that there is a significant positive correlation between the schools' organizational health with the organizational commitment and teachers' organizational commitment with 0.51 and 0.39; respectively in 0.01 significant level statistically. The whole dimensions of the organizational health have positive significant correlation with the citizenship behavior and organizational commitment.

  19. Study on Leishmania infection in cats from Ahar,East Azerbaijan Province and North West Iran by parasitological,serological and molecular methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taher; Nemati; Majid; Khanmohammadi; Ahad; Bazmani; Nasrin; Mirsamadi; Mohammad; Hassan; Kohansal; Koshki; Mehdi; Mohebali; Mohammad; Fatollahzadeh; Esmail; Fallah

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study Leishmania infection in cats and its potential role in triuismission of the disease to human by parasitological,serological and molecular methods in Ahar District,East Azerbaijan Province.Methods:In this study,65 cats from different parts of Ahar Province were trapped.The cats were anesthetized with chloroform and blood samples were taken from jugular vein and tested by direct agglutination lest.Spleen and liver smear samples were prepared in order to microscopically examine these organs,and also cultured in Novy-MucNeal-Nicolle and Roswell Park Memorial Institute 1 641) media.Finally,spleen tissue DNA was extracted to perform polymerase chain reaction analysis.Results:In direct agglutination test,4(6%) cats had a positive titer,while 14(22%) cats had a titer of 1:80 which was suspected for an infection and 47(729c) cats were negative.Culture results were negative and ill polymerase chain reaction no amplification was observed.Conclusions:Wc found no case of feline visceral leishmaniasis.It needs more extensive studies by using a larger number of cats to firmly establish leishmaniasis in this area.

  20. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from gut of honeybees (Apis mellifera) from West Azerbaijan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifpour, Mohammad Farouq; Mardani, Karim; Ownagh, Abdulghaffar

    2016-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and phylogenetic analysis were used for molecular identification of lactic acid bacteria (LABs) isolated from Apis mellifera. Eighteen honeybee workers were collected from three different apiaries in West Azerbaijan. LABs from the gut of honeybees were isolated and cultured using routine biochemical procedures. Genomic DNA was extracted from LABs and a fragment of 1540 bp in size of 16S rRNA gene was amplified. PCR products were digested using HinfI endonuclease and digested products with different RFLP patterns were subjected to nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results revealed that Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria spp. are were the most abundant LABs in honeybee gut. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were closely clustered with high similarity percentage with the same bacteria isolated from honeybees' gut elsewhere. It was concluded that LABs isolated from honeybees had low sequence divergence in comparison with LABs isolated from other sources such as dairy products.

  1. Molecular characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase, plasmid-mediated AmpC cephalosporinase and carbapenemase genes among Enterobacteriaceae isolates in five medical centres of East and West Azerbaijan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Ghotaslou, Reza; Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Hasani, Alka

    2016-11-01

    Very little is known about the occurrence and various types of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC and carbapenemase in Iran. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of ESBLs, AmpCs and carbapenemase genes among Enterobacteriaceae in Azerbaijan and to characterize the genetic composition of the detected genes. A total of 307 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, recovered from five medical centres, were screened for ESBL, AmpC and carbapenemase activities by the disc diffusion method and phenotypic confirmatory tests. The 162 selected strains (third-generation cephalosporins, cefoxitin- or carbapenem-resistant strains with positive or negative phenotypic confirmatory tests) were selected for multiplex PCR screening for β-lactamase genes, and detected genes were confirmed by sequencing. Of 162 isolates, 156 harboured 1 to 6 β-lactamase genes of 41 types. The most prevalent genes were blaTEM-1 (29.9 %), followed by blaCTX-M-15 (25.7 %). Plasmid-mediated AmpC was detected in 66 strains (21.5 %) alone or in combination with other genes. Carbapenemase-encoding genes were detected in 18 strains (5.8 %) of 27 carbapenem-non-susceptible isolates including 11, 7, 3 and 1 cases of blaOXA-48, blaNDM-1, blaKPC-2 and blaKPC-3 genes, respectively. Interestingly, 148 (94.8 %) of 156 strains with any β-lactamase gene were found to have a multidrug-resistant pattern. The rate of resistance to β-lactams and multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is high in Azerbaijan. All positive strains for carbapenemase genes were resistant to all β-lactams. The present study reveals the high occurrence of CTX-M-type ESBLs followed by TEM and SHV variants among Enterobacteriaceae isolates. East Azerbaijan seems to be an alarming focus for OXA-48, NDM-1 and KPC dissemination.

  2. Characterization of industrial waste from a natural gas distribution company and management strategies: a case study of the East Azerbaijan Gas Company (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Hassan; Aslhashemi, Ahmad; Assadi, Mohammad; Khodaei, Firoz; Mardangahi, Baharak; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Roshani, Babak

    2012-10-01

    Although a fundamental prerequisite for the successful implementation of any waste management plan is the availability of sufficient and accurate data, there are few available studies regarding the characterization and management of gas distribution company waste (GDCW). This study aimed to characterize the industrial waste generated by the East Azerbaijan Gas Distribution Company (EAGDC) and to present environmental management strategies. The EAGDC serves 57 cities and 821 villages with a total population of more than 2.5 million as well as numerous industrial units. The methodology of this study was based on a checklist of data collected from each zone of the company, site visits (observation), and quantity and quality analysis according to the formal data available from different zones. The results indicate that more than 35 different kinds of industrial solid waste are generated in different industrial installations. The most important types of generated waste include empty barrels (including mercaptans, diesel fuel, deionized waters and oil), faulty gas meters and regulators, a variety of industrial oils, sleeves, filter elements and faulty pipes, valves and fittings. The results indicated that, currently, GDCW is generally handled and disposed of with domestic waste, deposited in companies' installation yards and stores or, sometimes, recycled through non-scientific approaches that can create health risks to the public and the environment, even though most of the GDCW was determined to be recyclable or reusable materials. This study concludes that gas distribution companies must pay more attention to source reduction, recycling and reusing of waste to preserve natural resources, landfill space and the environment.

  3. SUFFIX OF -(yAn IN IRAN (AZERBAIJAN TURKISH DIALECTS İRAN (AZERBAYCAN TÜRK AĞIZLARINDA -(yAn EKİ

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    Talip DOĞAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available -(GAn suffix has a wide function field by using it as a relative clause in both old and modern Turkish dialects and accents, as a adverbial clause within the morphological and lexical elements and as the formation of past tense.Today, as in the past, Iran is one of the regions that represents the south-west branch of Turkish and that Oghuz Turkish has been widely used. In this study, -(yAn suffix has been examined for the dialects in Azerbaijan region of Iran according to its usage characteristics and functions with a diachronic and simultaneous examination -(GAn ekinin, Türkçenin hem tarihî hem de modern lehçe ve ağızlarında sıfat-fiil, yanına aldığı bazı morfolojik ve leksik unsurlarla birlikte zarf-fiil ve geçmiş zaman kipi teşkilinde kullanılmak suretiyle geniş bir işlev sahasına sahip olduğu görülür.İran, tarihte olduğu gibi bugün de Türkçenin güney-batı kolunu temsil eden Oğuzcanın yaygın bir şekilde kullanıldığı bölgelerden biridir. Bu çalışmada -(yAn eki İran’ın Azerbaycan bölgesi ağızlarında, art ve eş zamanlı bir incelemeyle, kullanılma özellikleri ve taşıdığı işlevler açısından ele alınmıştır.

  4. Incidence of Giardia lamblia Subspecies by PCR-RFLP in Stool Specimens of Hospitalized Children at Urmia Mutahhari Hospital, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.

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    Khosro Hazrati Tappeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia is one of the most prevalent intestinal flagellate protozoa that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts causing severe intestinal disorder in children.This study was performed to determine subspecies of G.lamblia by the PCR-RFLP method, targeting the glutamate dehydrogenase(gdhlocus, in hospitalized children at Urmia Mutahhari Hospital, West Azerbaijan Province,Iran and determining the infection transformational storages in this area.Overall, 720 stool specimens were collected from the hospitalized children, 34 samples were positive and Giardia cysts were detected under the microscope. Cysts were partially purified by the sucrose density gradient method and then washed with sterile distilled water to remove effectively the PCR inhibitors. Genomic DNA of G. lamblia isolates was extracted by freeze-thaw cycles followed by phenol/ chloroform/isoamyl alcohol method. The single step PCR-RFLP assay was used to differentiate the assemblages between A and B, which were found in humans. In this method, 432 bp expected size was amplified, and then for detection of subspecies, specific restriction RsaI and BspLI enzymes were used.Totally 34 samples were positive in terms of Giardia cyst out of 720 examined samples microscopically, so the parasite spread rate is reported 4.72%. Analysis PCR-RFLP on these samples revealed that 28 samples (93.3% have the genotype BIII and 2 samples (6.7% belong to the subgroup BIV.PCR-RFLP is a proper analytical method for determining the genotype among parasite types, using the glutamate dehydrogenizes zone's genes. Based on the results, an animal origin of infection cycle is suggested.

  5. SOME THOUGHTS ABOUT CRAFTSMAN INSCRIPTIONS PRESENT AT THE TURKISH ERA BUILDINGS IN NORTHERN AZERBAIJAN / KUZEY AZERBAYCAN’DAKI TÜRK DÖNEMI YAPILARINDA BULUNAN USTA KITABELERI ÜZERINE BAZI DÜSÜNCELER

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    Dr. Ersel ÇAĞLITÜTÜNCĐGĐL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkic republics, which gained theirindependency after the collapse of Soviet Union, get intouch with the other states on social, economic andcultural relations, especially with Türkiye. Manyscientists have had the chance to go to these regions forthe scientific researches and to examine the artmonuments, which are the most important evidences ofthe Turkish identity, after the collapse.Turkish art, which takes its strength fromthe depth of history, has been fed continually from itsroots extended to Central Asia and Caucasus. In thisstudy, the inscriptions, which are the primary sources ondating the architectural monuments constructed inAzerbaijan between XI-XIX centuries, have beenexamined and the superscriptions of the constructionand decoration masters’ and some other problems havebeen introduced.

  6. Development of three quantitative real-time PCR assays for the detection of Rickettsia raoultii, Rickettsia slovaca, and Rickettsia aeschlimannii and their validation with ticks from the country of Georgia and the Republic of Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ju; You, Brian J; Liu, Evan; Apte, Anisha; Yarina, Tamasin R; Myers, Todd E; Lee, John S; Francesconi, Stephen C; O'Guinn, Monica L; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Vephkhvadze, Nino; Babuadze, Giorgi; Sidamonidze, Ketevan; Kokhreidze, Maka; Donduashvili, Marina; Onashvili, Tinatin; Ismayilov, Afrail; Agayev, Nigar; Aliyev, Mubariz; Muttalibov, Nizam; Richards, Allen L

    2012-12-01

    A previous surveillance study of human pathogens within ticks collected in the country of Georgia showed a relatively high infection rate for Rickettsia raoultii, R. slovaca, and R. aeschlimannii. These 3 spotted fever group rickettsiae are human pathogens: R. raoultii and R. slovaca cause tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA), and R. aeschlimannii causes an infection characterized by fever and maculopapular rash. Three quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, Rraoul, Rslov, and Raesch were developed and optimized to detect R. raoultii, R. slovaca, and R. aeschlimannii, respectively, by targeting fragments of the outer membrane protein B gene (ompB) using species-specific molecular beacon or TaqMan probes. The 3 qPCR assays showed 100% specificity when tested against a rickettsiae DNA panel (n=20) and a bacteria DNA panel (n=12). The limit of detection was found to be at least 3 copies per reaction for all assays. Validation of the assays using previously investigated tick nucleic acid preparations, which included Rickettsia-free tick samples, tick samples that contain R. raoultii, R. slovaca, R. aeschlimannii, and other Rickettsia spp., gave 100% sensitivity for all 3 qPCR assays. In addition, a total of 65 tick nucleic acid preparations (representing 259 individual ticks) collected from the country of Georgia and the Republic of Azerbaijan in 2009 was tested using the 3 qPCR assays. R. raoultii, R. slovaca, and R. aeschlimannii were not detected in any ticks (n=31) from the Republic of Azerbaijan, but in the ticks from the country of Georgia (n=228) the minimal infection rate for R. raoultii and R. slovaca in Dermacentor marginatus was 10% and 4%, respectively, and for R. aeschlimannii in Haemaphysalis sulcata and Hyalomma spp. it was 1.9% and 20%, respectively.

  7. Application of ALD Images and Caliper Data for the breakout analysis from the wells which were drilled in the Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirov, Elnur

    2016-04-01

    compressive strength of the rock. This can create the enlargement of the borehole with two failure zones opposite to each other with circumference at 180 degrees (for instance top side vs bottom side of the borehole or right side vs left side of the borehole). The image tracks for Rhob (density), Pe (photoelectric absorption) and Caliper can show the data such as edges of the track from the top, right, bottom and left sides of the hole (the center of the track is the bottom side of the borehole). Generally the color gradation (different spectrums) can be used in order to show the orientation change in the measurement around the wellbore. The azimuthal density, Pe, and Caliper data can be pointed and visualized as a log curves which can represent the average of all available data (an average of the top, right, bottom and left sides (or quadrants) or as 8 (RT) or 16 (RM) individual bins and as an ALD Image log. In addition, the Caliper data can give us information about the diameter and geometry of the borehole while drilling, trip in and trip out activities (for more detailed breakout analysis and interpretations). This paper (abstract) will present the results of a breakout analysis conducted from the wells which were drilled in the Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic in order to evaluate the available ALD images, caliper information and eventually incorporation of all available data into the wellbore stability monitoring service (breakout analysis).

  8. Depositional cycles and Fe/Mn ratio in Upper Absheron substage succession in the western flank of the South Khazarian/Caspian depression of the Azerbaijan Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirov, Elnur

    2016-04-01

    The Caspian Sea, the largest land locked basin in the world, isolated from ParaTethys at the end of Messinian. Since that time sedimentation there took place under conditions of isolated basin temporarily connected with Black Sea in Upper Pliocene (Akchagyl). For the first time very detailed study (centimeter scale) of outcrop was carried out for stratigraphy and paleoecology of the Upper absheron substage deposits cropped out in the Western flank of the South Caspian depression (Shikhovo exposure) of the Azerbaijan Republic. The data obtained demonstrated the high-frequency cyclicity in sedimentation accompanied by rapid lateral and vertical depositional environment change. Most of these system tracts have not yet been studied in detail. The depositional setting during accumulation of this succession has changed within shore face-shelf environment. On the background of these cycles, the depositional series of a higher order containing sediments deposited during very small-scale sea level fall and rise occur. Some information contained in this document is the new data, due to more recent observations and interpretations. The results of the field works on exposures of the Eopleistocene deposits exposed in the Western flank of the South Caspian depression (Shikhovo outcrop) demonstrated the high-frequency cyclicity in sedimentation. It is possible to observe several full depositional sequences developed from transgressive system tract to low stand system tract, to high stand system tract and return to sedimentation under conditions of sea level rise. The studied successions are characterized by steep foresets, about 12°, which is evidence of steep slope existed during the sediment accumulation. On the background of above mentioned cycles, the depositional series of a higher order containing sediments formed during very small-scale sea level fall and rise occur. Below we give the lithofacial characteristics of one full depositional cycle and our interpretation of

  9. Azerbaycan Türkçesi İle Doğu Anadolu Ağızlarındaki Ortaklıklar Üzerine On The Common Traits Of The Azerbaijan Turkish And The Eastern Anatolia Dialects

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    Engin GÖKÇÜR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We call Oghuz Turkish spoken from Central Asia to Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Empire, since 11th century, as the Western Turkic. This period is divided into two branches in time. One of them is the Eastern Oghuz branch covering Eastern Anatolia and Azerbaijani and the other one is the Western Oghuz branch covering Ottoman field. The Eastern Oghuz branch covering Eastern Anatolia and Azerbaijani, and the Western Oghuz branch covering Ottoman field are represented by a single written language named as “Western Turkish” till 16thCentury. Azerbaijan and the Ottoman writing languages separated fromeach other in the 16th century as a result of the fact that the Azerbaijanterritory was dominated by Karakoyunlu and Akkoyunlu in the 15thCentury and Safavid Empire in the 16th century. For that reason,Western Turkic reaches the present day from the 16th century with twowriting languages including some phonetic and morphologic differences.Although the East Anatolian dialects have been in the Western Oghuzbranch, they still have the traits of the Eastern Oghuz branch in termsof phonetics and morphology.In studies of language products in the provinces of EasternAnatolia it is seen that the dialects of the region are in the domain ofAzerbaijan Turkish. So in this article, the studies of the dialects of theEastern Anatolia Region (Erzurum, Elazığ, Erzincan, Kars, Iğdır,Ardahan, Muş, Bitlis ve Van are examined; and the phonetic andmorphological similarities of this studies with Azerbaijani Turkic areidentified. 11. yüzyıldan itibaren Orta Asya’dan Abbasi Devleti'nin başkenti Bağdat’a kadar olan bölgede konuşulan Oğuz Türkçesine Batı Türkçesi denilmektedir. Bu dönem zamanla iki kola ayrılmıştır. Bunlardan biri Azerbaycan ve Doğu Anadolu sahasını içine alan Doğu Oğuz kolu, diğeri Osmanlı sahasını içine alan Batı Oğuz koludur. Azerbaycan ve Doğu Anadolu sahasının içinde bulunduğu Doğu Oğuz kolu ile Osmanl

  10. Application of Formation Testing While Drilling (GeoTap) for acquiring formation pressure data from the Azeri, Chirag and Guneshli wells which were drilled in the Khazarian-Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirov, Elnur

    2016-04-01

    A new technology to acquire wireline quality pressure tests using a Logging While Drilling approach has been successfully implemented few years ago in Azeri, Chirag and Guneshli wells which were drilled in the Khazarian-Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic. The Formation Tester While Drilling tool (GeoTap) uses a testing sequence similar to wireline tools. A single probe is extended to the borehole wall and a small pretest volume withdrawn from the formation. The resulting pressure transient is then analyzed for formation pressure, formation permeability and mobility information. Up-link and down-link capabilities have been added to achieve test control and quality feedback. An efficient downlink algorithm is used downhole to analyze the data. The parameters and pressure data are transmitted to the surface in real-time for continuous monitoring of the test. More detailed pressure data is recorded and retrieved after returning to surface. Use of a quartz gauge allows excellent accuracy. Azeri, Chirag and Guneshli fields consist of layered sand reservoirs alternation with shale sequences and detailed pressure data is acquired on a high percentage of wells in order to understand lateral and vertical continuity of different flow units. The formation tester can be utilized with the 'triple combo' Logging While Drilling string which eliminates the need to rig up wireline on many wells. Wireline formation tester runs are time consuming - particularly if high deviation or high overbalance conditions are encountered requiring pipe conveyed techniques. Non-Productive Time is high when the wireline tools are stuck and fishing operations are required. The Sperry Drilling GeoTap formation pressure tester service provides real-time formation pressure measurements. It bridges the critical gap between drilling safety and optimization, by providing early and reliable measurements of key reservoir properties, while improving reservoir understanding and completion design in real

  11. A systematic catalogue of butterflies of the former Soviet Union (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lituania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan) with special account to their type specimens (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea, Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Stanislav K; Bolshakov, Lavr V

    2016-09-01

    A catalogue of butterflies of Russia and adjacent countries is given, with special account to the name-bearing types depository. This catalogue contains data about 86 species (3 of them are questionable) of Hesperiidae (22 genera); 47 species of Papilionidae (14 genera); 89 species of Pieridae (5 of them are questionable)  (15 genera); 1 species (1 genus) of Libytheinae(dae); 2 species of Danainae(dae) (2 genera); 160 species of Nymphalinae(dae) (1 of them is questionable) (23 genera); 259 species of Satyrinae(dae) (14 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Oeneis and Pseudochazara) (34 genera); 3 species of Riodinidae (2 genera); 318 species of Lycaenidae (11 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Neolycaena and Plebeius) (57 genera). In total: 965 species of butterflies, 174 genera, by countries: Armenia-244, Azerbaijan-225, Belarus-107, Estonia-113, Georgia-211, Kyrgyzstan-316, Kazakhstan-344, Latvia-115, Lituania-126, Moldova-87, Russia-522, Tajikistan-295, Turkmenistan-159, Ukraine-192, Uzbekistan-241. Detailed distribution and subspecific structure (if present) for every species is provided. Lectotypes of the following species-group taxa are designated: Hesperia poggei Lederer, 1858, Parnassius felderi Bremer, 1861, P. eversmanni Eversmann, 1851, P. boedromius Püngeler, 1901, Limenitis moltrechti Kardakov, 1928, L. sydyi Kindermann, 1853, L. amphyssa Ménétriès, 1859, L. doerriesi Staudinger, 1892, L. helmanni duplicata Staudinger, 1892, L. homeyeri Tancré, 1881, Argynnis penelope Staudinger, 1891, A. thore borealis Staudinger, 1861, Vanessa io geisha Stichel, [1908], Melitaea maturna staudingeri Wnukowsky, 1929 (=uralensis Staudinger, 1871), M. didymina Staudinger, 1895, Papilio fascelis Esper, 1783, Thecla quercivora Staudinger, 1887, Lycaena orion var. ornata Staudinger, 1892. The following nomenclatural acts are established: Neolycaena submontana baitenovi (Zhdanko, 2011), comb. et stat.n. The following new synonymy is provided: Hesperia

  12. Azerbaijan, Central Asia, and Future Persian Gulf Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    alliances among Muslim states, were turning the ECO into a more meaningful economic group with immense regional potential. Moreover, the 12Moscow AU...markets.18 The Saudi business conglomerate Dallah al- Baraka also commenced the development of the country’s oil industry at the Tengiz oil field. The...three Kilo- class submarines for coastal defense in the Strait of Hormuz. The sale may have been a principal means to keep Russian-Iranian relations

  13. Etiology of Short Stature in East Azerbaijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Nikzad

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Short stature is a common problem encountered by pediatricians and is the most common cause for referral to pediatric endocrinologists. Although most children referred with short stature are normal and classified as normal variants of stature (constitutional growth delay and familial short stature, it may sometimes be the only obvious manifestation of an endocrine or systemic disease. The objective of this study was to assess the characteristics of patients referred to pediatric endocrinology clinic because of short stature and determination of the etiology.Methods: Three hundred-seventy nine children and adolescents were studied which referred with short stature to pediatric endocrinology clinic. After complete clinical and paraclinical evaluation and appropriate treatment (if needed, patients were followed for at least six months.Findings: From 379 studied patients with a mean age of 9.7±3.7 years, 192 (50.7% were girls and 187 (49.3% boys (P=0.066; short stature in 132 (34.8% of patients was not approved. Normal variants of Short stature (familial and constitutional constituted 53.3% of etiology in short patients. In 11.5% of short patients, no obvious etiology was found, and 9.8% were born with intra uterine growth retardation. Other causes were growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism, skeletal dysphasia, Turner syndrome, and malnutrition.Conclusion: A great number of children and adolescents referred with short stature to pediatric endocrinology clinics are not really short. Greater than half of short patients are normal variants of Short stature.

  14. [Myocardial Infarction and Stroke Among Railway Employees in Azerbaijan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizov, V; Rzayeva, A; Agayeva, K; Mammedbeyli, A; Khatamzade, E

    2017-02-01

    We studied the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke in two groups of railway employees aged over 39 years including pensioners. The first (main) group included employees (n=15 671) responsible for movement of trains and exposed to `action of harmful occupational factors. The second (control) group included persons (n=19 132) who were not exposed to harmful occupational factors. Both main and control groups were divided into subgroups according to age. Prospective follow-up of persons with postinfarction atherosclerosis and consequences of stroke was also conducted during 5 years. There was no significant difference in incidence of MI between main and control groups except age subgroups 65-69 years where it was significantly higher among subjects from the main group. Incidence of stroke, mortality in acute periods of MI and stroke in main and control groups were similar.

  15. Assessment of environmental health in the 2012 East Azerbaijan earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Fatemi

    2013-09-01

    Material and Methods: Through multi-stages stratified sampling, we selected 8 and 4 villages from the earthquake zones of Heris and Varzaghan respectively. The collecting data tools in this research were the WHO checklist in 7 categories, 14 subcategories, and 37 environmental health activities and also the minimum standards of Sphere Project checklist. The status of environmental health in each village was assessed using the mentioned checklists. This study was carried out with attendance of research team in earthquake zones 21 days after the occurrence of earthquake. Results: Among the 37 environmental health activities, 7 activities were the joint ones, which Environmental Health Department had to carry it out with the coordination of other related organizations. In other words, the environmental health has the supervising role in these activities. Totally, such activities had more nonconformities compared with the activities in which environmental health was administered as the main responder. The details of results have been expressed in the full text. Conclusion: Providing intra-sector coordination, prioritizing the needs of the affected population and considering the principles of community based management in the natural disaster are proposed as the recommendations of this study.

  16. [Peculiarity of consumer preference shaping in pharmaceutical market in azerbaijan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurova, L

    2011-01-01

    Pharmaceutical market researches in terms of consumer behavior are topical in current social-economical conditions. Thereby the goal of these researches is studying of particular properties of consumer behavior on the drug market and identifying of factors affect on its formation. The method of questioning was used. The questionnaire has been completed from the point of view of possibilities and interests of common consumer. One part of questions was concerned to demographical and personal characteristics of customers. For the analysis of consumer behavior have been used parameters such as frequency of visits to definite pharmacy, attraction of pharmacy, types of purchases. The survey had been determined the basic factors of pharmacy visitors' consumer behavior. According to the consumers opinion the main criteria of choice of pharmacy were professional knowledge and experience of pharmacy's workers. Some of economical factors, such as affordability and etc. have been analyzed.

  17. Problems of Development of Economic Entities in the Republic of Azerbaijan Проблемы развития хозяйственных субъектов в Азербайджанской Республике

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerimov Elsevar Nariman ogly

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article were systematized and analyzed the problems of economic entities in the Republic of Azerbaijan. Particular attention is paid to economic and legal foundations, as well as trends in education and development, assessing their status in the region. Substantiates the main directions of development of small and medium-sized businesses, as well as commercial production companies in the country.В статье систематизируются и анализируются проблемы развития хозяйственных субъектов в Азербайджанской Республике. Особое внимание уделяется экономическим и юридическим основам, а также тенденциям образования и развития, оценке их состояния в регионах. Обосновываются основные направления развития малого и среднего предпринимательства, а также коммерческих производственных предприятий в республике.

  18. Patterns of Brucellosis Infection Symptoms in Azerbaijan: A Latent Class Cluster Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Ismayilova; Emilya Nasirova; Colleen Hanou; Rivard, Robert G.; Bautista, Christian T.

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis infection is a multisystem disease, with a broad spectrum of symptoms. We investigated the existence of clusters of infected patients according to their clinical presentation. Using national surveillance data from the Electronic-Integrated Disease Surveillance System, we applied a latent class cluster (LCC) analysis on symptoms to determine clusters of brucellosis cases. A total of 454 cases reported between July 2011 and July 2013 were analyzed. LCC identified a two-cluster mo...

  19. Working overseas : Canadian oil and gas specialists are on the job from Argentina to Azerbaijan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentein, J.

    2010-05-15

    The recent economic downturn has caused some Canadian oil and gas workers to seek employment in remote locations overseas. Some international oil and gas operators offer their overseas rotational workers online training in the languages and cultures of the countries they work in. Despite this fact, many workers are not prepared for the cultural differences and extreme poverty of some of the countries they reside in. Overseas operators are increasingly relying on the use of homegrown workers for their foreign operations. Employing local workers saves money in salaries and travel, while also winning political approval. Canada's expatriate workers are not required to pay personal income tax if they can prove that they do not reside permanently in Canada. Many Canadian and American specialists working overseas function primarily as a training pool for future local replacements. Many employees are given security briefings for countries that pose higher threats to their safety, such as Yemen, many African countries, and Colombia. Despite the potential hardship and danger, employees are attracted by the significant financial rewards accrued during foreign assignments. 5 figs.

  20. Gliadin and glutenin polymorphism in durum wheat landraces and breeding varieties of Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadigov-Baykishi Hamlet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat genotypes including 7 landraces and 17 breeding varieties were studied. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under acidic conditions of pH 3.1 was used to study gliadin and glutenin polymorphisms. In total, 32 gliadin and 8 high molecular weight glutenin alleles were identified. The contribution of B genome (58.5% to the allelic variation of durum wheat varieties was higher than of A genome. The cluster analysis delineated genotypes into four main clusters. According to cluster analysis, legitimacy identifying the distribution of botanical varieties through the tree was observed. The study confirms the suitability of biochemical markers for cultivar identification and genetic relation study in durum wheat genotypes.

  1. The Study of the Components of Urban Social Capital in Central Cities of East Azerbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ostad Rahimi

    2013-07-01

    This kinds of social capital has various positive and negative effects. Thus general trust of people to the country should be increased. Also reliability of people should be increased by increasing their general trust and the strengthening of social capital.

  2. Geomorphological analysis of the drainage system on the active convergent system in Azerbaijan, NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh Firouz, Amaneh; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Giachetta, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    Rivers are important landforms to reconstruct recent tectonic history because they are sensitive to surface movements, especially uplift and tilting. The most important drainage basins of NW Iran are, from north to south, the Arax River, the Urmia Lake and the Ghezel Ozan River catchment. The morphology of the two adjacent catchments draining into the Caspian Sea, the Arax and Ghezel Ozan were studied to better understand the active tectonics and the effect of fault activity on morphology and erosion rate of NW Iran. We performed a quantitative analysis of channel steepness and concavity, from slope-area plots calculated from digital elevation model. This information has been combined with GPS velocity vectors and seismicity. Both catchments developed under uniform climate conditions. Results show that the two rivers are in morphological disequilibrium; they exhibit profiles with prominent convexities and knickpoints. The Arax River shows higher channel steepness and concavity index in downstream part of the profile. Distribution of knickpoints show scattered elevation between 700m and 3000m. GPS rates display shortening 10 ± 2 mma-1 and 14 ± 2 mma-1 in upstream and downstream, respectively. The river profiles of Ghezel Ozan River and its tributaries reveal more disequilibrium downstream where channel steepness and concavity index are higher than upstream. Most knickpoints occur between 1000m and 2000m. The amount of shortening by GPS measurement changes from upstream 13 ± 2 mma-1to downstream 14 ± 2 mma-1. Recorded earthquakes, such as Rudbar earthquake (Mw=7.3, 1990), are more frequent downstream. The Urmia Lake is surrounded by many small and large catchments. Only major catchments were considered for the analysis. One of the most active faults, the north Tabriz fault, corresponds to a major knickpoints on the Talkhe rud River. Concordance between river profile analysis, GPS and seismotectonic records suggests that the characteristics of the river profiles are related to active fault systems.

  3. "How to" of fiscal sustainability in oil-rich countries: the case of Azerbaijan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Bandiera; N. Budina; S. van Wijnbergen

    2008-01-01

    Assessing fiscal sustainability - i.e. considering whether or not a country can maintain its current fiscal policies without running into solvency problems and possible default - requires projections on a government’s future revenue stream, expenditures and contingent liabilities within a macroecono

  4. GLOBALIZATION: SOCIOPHILOSOPHICAL ASPECTS OF ITS IMPACT ON THE YOUTH OF AZERBAIJAN

    OpenAIRE

    Guliyev, Elmir

    2007-01-01

    The author analyzes the impact of the sociocultural changes that have taken place in the republic in the last few decades and concludes that the axiological landmarks of the younger generation are extremely important for the country’s successful integration into the globalized world and for balancing the negative effects of this process.

  5. Effect of Common Culture and Civilization on Political Changes of Iran and Azerbaijan Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Davoodi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Goal of this research is to study cultural closeness, language, civilization and observing good neighborliness in order to provide opportunities for development of relations between two countries with humanitarian helps in different fields on the basis of UN charter criteria. Such articles are written with problem but the writer makes the work easy by viewing the concepts and creating suitable solutions and makes use of some valuable and potential subjects. As a result of this innovation, reader of this article utilizes it in the best manner.

  6. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    Reporters Without Borders and other NGOs raised concerns in September 2010 that the number of independent media had declined since the last legislative...Deterioration of Freedom of Expression Ahead of Elections, Reporters Without Borders , September 15, 2010. 56 EIU, Georgia Country Report, June 4, 2009

  7. Identification of Lactobacillus species isolated from traditional cheeses of west Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ehsani

    2014-06-01

    Results: In present study, from a total of 118 isolates of lactobacilli were determined. Lactobacillus plantarum (24%, Lactobacillus casei (20% and Lactobacillus agillis (18% from facultative heterofermentative Lactobacilli and Lactobacillus delbrueckii (21%, Lactobacillus helveticus (14% and Lactobacillus salvariu s (3% from obligative homofermentative Lactobacilli were found to be more dominant species.Conclusions: So for achievement to organoleptic characteristics of traditional cheeses in industrial productions, mixed starters including dominant Lactobacillus species identified in cheeses can be employed.

  8. Coercion or Compulsion?: Rationales behind Informal Payments for Education in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepisto, Eric; Kazimzade, Elmina

    2009-01-01

    Although informal payments are necessary for education systems in many countries, they prohibit education accessibility and equity in Eastern Europe and neighboring states. Exploring the rationales and the relationships is a promising approach for understanding corruption in education and ensuring educational equity. In this article, rationales…

  9. Estimation of deepwater temperature and hydrogeochemistry of springs in the Takab geothermal field, West Azerbaijan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Reza; Moore, Farid; Mohammadi, Zargham; Keshavarzi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water samples from 19 hot and cold springs are used to characterize Takab geothermal field, west of Iran. The springs are divided into two main groups based on temperature, host rock, total dissolved solids (TDS), and major and minor elements. TDS, electrical conductivity (EC), Cl(-), and SO4 (2-) concentrations of hot springs are all higher than in cold springs. Higher TDS in hot springs probably reflect longer circulation and residence time. The high Si, B, and Sr contents in thermal waters are probably the result of extended water-rock interaction and reflect flow paths and residence time. Binary, ternary, and Giggenbach diagrams were used to understand the deeper mixing conditions and locations of springs in the model system. It is believed that the springs are heated either by mixing of deep geothermal fluid with cold groundwater or low conductive heat flow. Mixing ratios are evaluated using Cl, Na, and B concentrations and a mass balance approach. Calculated quartz and chalcedony geothermometer give lower reservoir temperatures than cation geothermometers. The silica-enthalpy mixing model predicts a subsurface reservoir temperature between 62 and 90 °C. The δ(18)O and δD (δ(2)H) are used to trace and determine the origin and movement of water. Both hot and cold waters plot close to the local meteoric line, indicating local meteoric origin.

  10. The Caucasian Triangle (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia – Tourism Development and Threats to General and Distinctive Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Roistomashvili

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caucasus triangle is one of the most interesting regions in the world firstly, with its geo-political location and also being a part of post-social space. These involve a number of factors determining existence and development of these three states. The world order today from economic and political point of view require readiness from certain states for establishing themselves in this big space. It especially concerns developing and semi-developed countries and the countries having less experience of being a state, which in fact are in the process of creating the institutes which will determine their independence and co-existence with the democratic world having more experience in this respect.Study on the Caucasus triangle arises great interest. The actuality of this issue is also determined by the political and economic dynamic changes taking place inside these states (evolution of Soviet space. Their political choice is determined by the less-stable environment and weakness of state, political partners and political and economic interests generally and towards one another. Unpredictable situation within the triangle is more important as it is a live process with new and changeable threats. For this reason it is very interesting for the scientists to study the development of this kind of countries. Ambition of these countries to establish themselves in the field of tourism is very important for us and that is why it is necessary to follow the process in dynamics, analyze and evaluate their development in this respect.

  11. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-06

    weapons of mass destruction and other trafficking in the Caspian Sea.80 In November 2004, Gen. Charles Wald, then-deputy head of EUCOM, suggested that...Relations on December 6, 2007. Agreed to by the Senate on December 13, 2007. CRS-43 S.Res. 439 (Lugar)/H.Res. 997 ( Wexler ) Expresses the strong...Senate on April 28, 2008. H.Res. 1166 ( Wexler )/S.Res. 550 (Biden) Expresses the sense of the House/Senate regarding provocative and dangerous

  12. A new leech species (Hirudinida: Erpobdellidae: Erpobdella) from a cave in the West Azerbaijan province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka, Joanna M; Bielecki, Aleksander; Kur, Jarosław; Pikuła, Dorota; Kilikowska, Adrianna; Biernacka, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Erpobdella borisi n. sp. is a predatory leech inhabiting cave waters in Iran. Probably, it is either a troglobiont or troglophile. The leech has no eyes, and the complete mid-body somite is divided unequally into five annuli. Results of phylogenetic analysis based on morphological characters and COI gene sequence indicate the species to be closely related to Erpobdella japonica, E. octoculata and E. testacea.

  13. HPLC Measurement of MDMA Content in Ecstasy Tablets Available in the Black Market of West Azerbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghafari

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: There is variability in the physicochemical properties of ecstasy tablets available in the black market for illicit drugs in northwest Iran. This variability may potentially put abusers at increased risk of overdose due to inadvertent excess ingestion of the tablets to achieve desired effects and also experiencing more harm due to tablets adulterants.

  14. Prevalence of Tuberculosis among Veterans, Military Personnel and their Families in East Azerbaijan Province Violators of the last 15 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad Aminjan, Maboud; Moaddab, Seyyed Reza; Hosseini Ravandi, Mohammad; Kazemi Haki, Behzad

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays in the world, tuberculosis is the second largest killer of adults after HIV. Due to the location of presidios that is mostly located in hazardous zones soldiers and army personnel are considered high risk, therefore we decided to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis status in this group of people. This was a cross-sectional descriptive research that studied the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in soldiers and military personnel in the last 15 years in tuberculosis and lung disease research center at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The statistical population consisted of all the soldiers and military personnel. The detection method in this study was based on microscopic examination following Ziehl-Neelsen Stain and in Leuven Stein Johnson culturing. Descriptive statistics was used for statistical analysis and statistical values less than 0.05 were considered significant. By review information in this center since the 1988-2013 with 72 military personnel suffering from tuberculosis, it was revealed that among them 30 women, 42 men, 14 soldiers, 29 family members, and 29 military personnel are pointed. A significant correlation was found between TB rates among military personnel and their families. Although in recent years, the national statistics indicate a decline of tuberculosis, but the results of our study showed that TB is still a serious disease that must comply with the first symptoms of tuberculosis in military personnel and their families that should be diagnosed as soon as possible.

  15. Human Brucellosis Trends: Re-Emergence and Prospects for Control Using a One Health Approach in Azerbaijan (19832009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-25

    negative bacterium that primarily infects animals and secondarily infects humans through direct contact with contaminated materials or by consuming ...increased public health awareness, food safety measures and livestock vaccination (Corbel, 1997). “One Health” approaches to disease management have...Geor- gia where, interestingly, ethnic Azerbaijanis compose a majority of the reported cases (>60%) (Akhvlediani et al., 2010). The lack of synchrony

  16. Association between proto-oncogene mutations and clinicopathologic characteristics and overall survival in colorectal cancer in East Azerbaijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolatkhah R

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Roya Dolatkhah,1 Mohammad Hossein Somi,2 Iraj Asvadi Kermani,1 Morteza Bonyadi,3 Bita Sepehri,2 Kamal Boostani,2 Saleh Azadbakht,2 Nikou Fotouhi,2 Faris Farassati,4 Saeed Dastgiri1,5 1Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Liver and Gastrointestinal Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Center of Excellence for Biodiversity, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran; 4Molecular Medicine Laboratory, University of Kansas Medical School, Kansas City, KS, USA; 5Tabriz Health Services Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third-most common cancer in Iran. The increasing incidence of CRC in the past three decades has made it a major public health burden in the country. This study aimed to determine any relationship of specific mutations in CRCs with clinicopathologic aspects and outcome of patients. Materials and methods: This study was conducted on 100 CRC patients by the case-only method. Polymerase chain-reaction products were analyzed by Sanger sequencing, and sequence results were compared with the significant KRAS and BRAF gene mutations in the My Cancer Genome database. Logistic regression models were used to detect associations of clinicopathologic characteristics with each of the mutations. Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression models were constructed to estimate overall survival in patients. Results: A total of 26 subjects (26% had heterozygote-mutant KRAS, and mutations were not detected in the amplified exon of BRAF in both tumor and normal tissues of the 100 CRCs. Rectal tumors had 1.53-fold higher likelihood of KRAS mutations than colon tumors, and men had 1.37-fold higher odds than women. The presence of metastasis increased the likelihood of KRAS mutations 2.36-fold over those with nonmetastatic CRCs. Compared to patients with KRAS wild-type cancers, those with KRAS mutations had significantly higher mortality (hazard ratio 3.74, 95% confidence interval 1.44–9.68; log-rank P=0.003. Conclusion: Better understanding of the causality of CRC can be established by combining epidemiology and research on molecular mechanisms of the disease. Keywords: proto-oncogene, sequence analysis, regression, colorectal cancer, survival

  17. Survey of Layer Flocks Contamination to Mycoplasma gallisepticum in East Azerbaijan Province by Rapid Slide Agglutination (R.S.A Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Nazeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluation of R.S.A. method efficiency in distinguishing M. gallisepticum and contamination rate of MG in Iran. In this study totally 300 serum samples from 20 farms collected and sent to laboratory. In lab, samples centrifuged at 2500 rpm for 5 min. Separated serums kept in Bain Marie at 56ºC. Then 50 μ of serum are mixed with 50 : RSA-MG antigen on the slide and were assayed under light. Of 300 serum samples, 52 samples (17.3% were positive, 10 samples (3.3% were suspicious and 238 samples (79.3% were negative reported. Finally, primarily can be conclude that R.S.A method is specific method for detection of M. gallisepticum and has minimum Err with maximum sensitivity. Secondarily can be conclude that contamination rate of M. gallisepticum in Iran is higher than standard levels and must be take measures in this field.

  18. Identification of magnetic anomalies based on ground magnetic data analysis using multifractal modelling: a case study in Qoja-Kandi, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, E.; Feizi, F.; Karbalaei Ramezanali, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Ground magnetic anomaly separation using the reduction-to-the-pole (RTP) technique and the fractal concentration-area (C-A) method has been applied to the Qoja-Kandi prospecting area in northwestern Iran. The geophysical survey resulting in the ground magnetic data was conducted for magnetic element exploration. Firstly, the RTP technique was applied to recognize underground magnetic anomalies. RTP anomalies were classified into different populations based on the current method. For this reason, drilling point area determination by the RTP technique was complicated for magnetic anomalies, which are in the center and north of the studied area. Next, the C-A method was applied to the RTP magnetic anomalies (RTP-MA) to demonstrate magnetic susceptibility concentrations. This identification was appropriate for increasing the resolution of the drilling point area determination and decreasing the drilling risk issue, due to the economic costs of underground prospecting. In this study, the results of C-A modelling on the RTP-MA are compared with 8 borehole data. The results show that there is a good correlation between anomalies derived via the C-A method and the log report of boreholes. Two boreholes were drilled in magnetic susceptibility concentrations, based on multifractal modelling data analyses, between 63 533.1 and 66 296 nT. Drilling results showed appropriate magnetite thickness with grades greater than 20 % Fe. The total associated with anomalies containing andesite units hosts iron mineralization.

  19. Identification of magnetic anomalies based on ground magnetic data analysis using multifractal modeling: a case study in Qoja-Kandi, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, E.; Feizi, F.; Karbalaei Ramezanali, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    Ground magnetic anomaly separation using reduction-to-the-pole (RTP) technique and the fractal concentration-area (C-A) method has been applied to the Qoja-Kandi prosepecting area in NW Iran. The geophysical survey that resulted in the ground magnetic data was conducted for magnetic elements exploration. Firstly, RTP technique was applied for recognizing underground magnetic anomalies. RTP anomalies was classified to different populations based on this method. For this reason, drilling points determination with RTP technique was complicated. Next, C-A method was applied on the RTP-Magnetic-Anomalies (RTP-MA) for demonstrating magnetic susceptibility concentration. This identification was appropriate for increasing the resolution of the drilling points determination and decreasing the drilling risk, due to the economic costs of underground prospecting. In this study, the results of C-A Modeling on the RTP-MA are compared with 8 borehole data. The results show there is good correlation between anomalies derived via C-A method and log report of boreholes. Two boreholes were drilled in magnetic susceptibility concentration, based on multifractal modeling data analyses, between 63 533.1 and 66 296 nT. Drilling results show appropriate magnetite thickness with the grades greater than 20 % Fe total. Also, anomalies associated with andesite units host iron mineralization.

  20. Detection of Bendiocarb and Carbaryl Resistance Mechanisms among German Cockroach Blattella germanica (Blattaria: Blattellidae Collected from Tabriz Hospitals, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insecticide resistance is one of the serious problems for German cockroach control program. This study was conducted to determine the bendiocarb and Carbaryl resistance mechanisms in German cockroaches using the piperonyl butoxide (PBO.Methods: Bioassay tests were conducted with 4 to 6 different concentrations of both insecticides with four replicates of 10 susceptible strain cockroaches per concentration to determine of discriminative concentration. After determining discriminative concentration, the result was compared to wild strain. The levels of susceptibility and resistance ratio (RR and synergism ratio (SR were calculated for each five wild strains. Moreover resistance mechanisms in wild strains were determined using PBO synergist in vivo.Results: Hospital strains showed different levels of resistance to bendiocarb and carbaryl compared to susceptible strain. The bendiocarb and carbaryl resistance ratios ranged from 2.11 to 7.97 and 1.67 to 2 at LD50 levels, respec­tively. The synergist PBO significantly enhanced the toxicity of bendiocarb and carbaryl to all strains with different degrees of synergist ratio, 1.31, 1.39, 3.61, 1.78, 1.62 and 2.1 fold for bendiocarb, 1.19, 1.18, 1.12. 1.29, 1.45 and 1.11- fold for carbaryl, suggesting monooxygenase involvement in bendiocarb and carbaryl resistance.Conclusion: The synergetic effect of PBO had the highest effect on bendiocarb and resistance level was significantly reduced, which indicates the important role of monoxidase enzyme in creating resistance to Bendiocarb. Piperonyl butoxide did not have a significant synergistic effect on carbaryl and did not significantly break the resistance.

  1. Comparison of Continuation Rates and Reasons of Discontinuation for Cyclofem and Depot -medroxyprogesterone acetate in Rural Areas of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Hassanzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study continuation rate and reasons for discontinuation of Depot-medroxyprogestroneacetate (DMPAand Cyclofem have been compared.Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 422 women (202 Cyclofemand220 DMPA userswho had started using the methods 12-24 months before the study in East Azerbaijanhealth houses. Data were collected by reviewing the records and interview with the clients and analysedusing Kaplan-Meier and Cox Regression.Results: The 3, 6, 9, 12 months continuation rate were 56%, 37%, 30%, 27% respectively for Cyclofemversus 75%, 59.5%, 48%, 42.5% for DMPA. Menstrual changes were reported significantly more by theDMPA users than the Cyclofem users (85% vs. 73%, P=0.008 as the main reason for thediscontinuation, the difference mainly reflected of amenorrhea (50% vs. 23%, P=0.003. None of DMPAusers and 11% of Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits and lack of method supplies as their maindiscontinuation reason.Conclusion: Discontinuation rate was high for the both methods but it was higher for Cyclofem.Thecommon side effects mentioned as the main reasons for discontinuation of the both methods are nothealth threatening. Therefore, health care providers may help to improve their continuation rate byappropriate consultation.

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Chlorhexidine, Peracetic acid/ Peroxide hydrogen and Alcohol based compound on Isolated Bacteria in Madani Heart Hospital, Tabriz, Azerbaijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghotaslou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of chemical agents on the clinical isolates in Madani Heart Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Methods: The minimum bactericide concentration (MBC of disinfectants including chlorhexidine (Fort, peracetic acid (Micro and an alcohol based compound (Deconex on selected bacteria at various dilutions were determined by the standard suspension technique. Results: MBC of Micro, Fort and Deconex were 2-128 mg/L, 2-64 mg/L and 4 - 32 mg/L, respectively. The Gram negative bacteria were more resistance to disinfectant relation to Gram positive bacteria. Conclusion: The results showed that these agents are able to eradicate the bacteria and they can be used lonely.

  3. The Effectiveness of Group Mindfulness Training on the Quality of Life among Patients with PTSD Caused by the War in the East Azerbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naimeh Yousefi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: since the quality of family life is critical in multiple dimensions and stress of life both mentally and physically have major effect on humans. Having a partner with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD affects the quality of life and increases the stress among couples. A major problem in this research is that if group mindfulness training can enhance the quality of life among spouses with Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD or not. Methodology: In this study, 15 participants were randomly assigned to the experimental group and 15 participants were in the control group and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire was used to gather the related data. Findings: After 8 sessions the results showed that group mindfulness training techniques increased the quality of life in all its dimensions except social function.

  4. The Effect of Folic Acid Consumption (In Prenatal Care on Blood Pressure Change during Pregnancy in Urban and Rural Health Centers in Eastern Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Rasoolpoor-Farzin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Preeclampsia is one of the most threatening problems in pregnancy and potentially is followed by preterm birth, miscarriage, low birth weight and maternal mortality. Folic acid supplementation is commonly prescribed for women in child bearing age to reduce the prevalence of neural tube defects. However, its role in pre-eclampsia and hypertension is not proven and is debatable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of folic acid on before pregnancy care on blood pressure in pregnancy. Material and Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted as census on all 1939 women referred to receive prenatal care between 2008 and 2013 in rural and urban healthcare centers in Sarab, Bostanabad and Khosroshahr. We compared blood pressure changes in two groups with folic acid consumption and another group, not consuming folic acid. Collected data were filled in the checklist and underwent statistical analysis of descriptive and analytical methods by SPSS 16. Results: The mean age of women in this study was 25.98±5.78 years. Ninety-two percent of mothers had regular consumption of folic acid during pregnancy. The peak period of high blood pressure was reported at weeks 37-35 with 8.2% in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure at week 37-35 and more than 37 weeks with 1.6%. Systolic and diastolic pressure in mothers taking folic acid was significantly lower (P Conclusion: Folic acid intake during pregnancy, as a part of prenatal care, significantly reduces the incidence of hypertension of pregnancy. During this period, folic acid intake can diminish pre-eclampsia and promote maternal and new born health.

  5. Identification of Echinococcus Granulosus Strains in Isolated Hydatid Cyst Specimens from Animals by PCR-RFLP Method in West Azerbaijan – Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleh Hanifian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was DNA extraction from protosco­lecses of Echinococcus granulosus and identification of these strains in West-Azerbai­jan Province, north western Iran.Methods: Thirty one livestock isolates from sheep and cattle were collected from abattoirs of the province. To investigate the genetic variation of the isolates, after DNA extraction by Glass beads-phenol chloroform method; PCR-RLFP analysis of rDNA-ITS1 was performed using three different restric­tion enzymes of Taq 1, Rsa 1 and Alu 1.Result: Amplified PCR products for all isolates were 1000bp band which is expected band in sheep strains (G1-G3 complex. The results of RFLP analy­sis also were the same for all isolates. PCR-RFLP patterns restriction en­zymes were identical as follows, Rsa1 bands under UV showed two bands approximately 655bp and 345bp. Alu1 bands were as follows: two approx­imately 800bp and 200bp and Taq1 did not cut any region and bands were approximately 1000 bp in all samples.Conclusions: Based on PCR-RFLP patterns of ITS1 fragment produced with endonucleases enzyme digestion in animal isolates, it can be concluded that a single strain of E. granulosus (sheep strain or G1-G3 complex is domi­nant genotype in this province

  6. Determination of Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infection with Babesia ovis in Small Ruminants from West Azerbaijan Province, Iran by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Esmaeilnejad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small ruminants’ babesiosis caused by Babesia ovis, is transmitted during blood feeding by infected ticks and is the most economically important tick-borne disease in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was carried out to to estimate the infection rate of B. ovis in sheep and goats by PCR. We have analysed risk factors that might influence infection of sheep and goats with B. ovis.Methods: A total 402 blood samples were examined microscopically for the presence of Babesia infection. All samples were tested by PCR. During sampling, whole body of each animal and farm dogs was examined for the presence of ticks.Results: Forty-two animals (10.4% were positive for Babesia spp. upon microscopic examination, whereas 67 animals (16.7% yielded the specific DNA for B. ovis of which 52 animals were sheep and 15 animals were goats.Twenty-nine farms (72.5% were found positive for B. ovis. The percentage of positive animals in each location varied from 13 % to 20 %. The relative risk of the presence of ticks in sheep and goats (P< 0.01 and farm dogs (P< 0.01 for PCRpositive results forB. ovis in sheep and goats was found 3.8 and 2.9, respectively. A total of 747 ticks identified as Rhipicephalus bursa, R. sanguineus and R. turanicus on the basis of morphological features.Conclusion: Other animal species besides dogs may also be risk factors for babesiosis in sheep and goats. Also, R. bursa may play an important role as a vector of the parasite in Iran.

  7. Legislative and policy analysis of HIV prevention, treatment and care for people who use drugs and incarcerated people in Central Asia and Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozac, David; Elliott, Richard

    2011-04-01

    In January 2011, the Regional Office for Central Asia of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network released an extensive report assessing the legislative and policy environment affecting the response to HIV in six countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The report, which draws in part upon the work of a national expert group in each country, puts forward dozens of recommendations for legislative and policy reform, including recommendations for specific reform tailored to the situation in each of the participating countries, with a particular focus on addressing the fast-growing HIV epidemic linked to injection drug use and in prisons.

  8. Identifying and Prioritizing the Export Barriers and Proposing Initiatives to Developing Small to Medium Enterprises (SMEs Export Case Study: Feed Industry in West Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Rahmani Yushanlouie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study considers the difficulties of feed industry SMEs regarding export and testssome hypotheses to clarify the relevant barriers. The applied research method is descriptive.340 Questionnaires were distributed and 142 questionnaires were correctly answered. Thefindings show that regulations, bank and finance systems, and health permits, between the sixidentified factors, are the most important ones and have the highest regression coefficients onthe export development barriers construction. The next factors are the lack of marketing plan,specialized educations, and cultural level of society. While previous studies have focused onexport barriers, there are rare studies to investigate them in developing countries. So, thecurrent paper aims to help policy makers and managers to improve the performance of firmsand following the Iranian industry.

  9. POMEGRANATE IN WRITTEN AND SPOKEN LITERATURE / AZERBAYCAN SÖZLÜ VE YAZILI EDEBIYATINDA NAR

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    Dr. Mehmet İSMAİL

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the scientists punica’s native land isAzerbaijan. This fruit grows up in many countries allover the world and there are lots of kinds of it inAzerbaijan. This is a survey of pomegranate as it featuresin the folklore (tale, legend, myth, proverb, riddle, curse,praise, expression, folk song of Azerbaijan. And alsosome examples of folk-literature is added in which punicaexists.

  10. THE ROLE OF XYLOPHAGY IN THE REGULATION OF THE NUMBER OF TICKS AND THE POSSIBILITY OF ITS USE IN THE BIOLOGICAL STRUGGLE IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE ABSHERON PENINSULA OF AZERBAIJAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Shirinova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the forest and fruit conenoses Absheron, identified 37 species xylophagous harmful to forest crops. Of these, 6 species (Lucanus ibericus L., Oructes nasicornis L., Perotis lugubris Sub., Dicerca aenea Sem., Megopis scabricornis Scop., Cerambyx cerdo L. are the most serious pests. Their bioecological particular economic importance and natural enemies has been studied. We have found that 34 entomophagous play a role in regulation of the number xylophagous. Of these, 12 species have economic value, of which 4 types (Xorides irrigator F., Atanycollus initiator Nees, Nidobius umbratus Mots., Tanasimus formicarius L. examined in more detail bioecology, distribution and economic value

  11. 中亚-阿塞拜疆地区油气资源及合作对策%OIL AND GAS RESOURCES IN CENTRAL ASIA-AZERBAIJAN REGION AND THE COOPERATION POLICY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清云

    2010-01-01

    油气合作是以获取油气资源为目标的合作,需要研究油气资源的分布;资源国良好的投资环境和稳定的投资政策是油气合作项目得以顺利实施、并最终取得效益的重要前提.中亚各国和阿塞拜疆的油气资源分布具有很大的不均一性,各国的投资环境、对外合作政策也存在着很大的差别.在分析中亚-阿塞拜疆地区油气资源总量及其分布规律的基础上,研究了资源国的投资政策,就进一步扩大与上述资源国的合作提出了4点建议.

  12. The U.N. Population Fund: Background and the U.S. Funding Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-20

    natural disasters; 5) elimination of female genital mutilation ; and 6) access by unaccompanied women and other vulnerable individuals to vital services...activities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Nigeria , Tanzania, Uganda, Haiti, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Russia, Albania, Romania, and...activities in Albania, Azerbaijan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Georgia, Haiti, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Nigeria , Romania, Russia, Rwanda

  13. Economic and Strategic Expectations from Trans Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elchin Suleymanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the successful implementation of the oil strategy, Azerbaijan began to define strategic objectives in relation to gas export policy. Currently, Azerbaijan is the only country in the region exporting gas to the international markets (Turkey, Russia, Georgia. For this reason, it is seen as “the provider and participant” of Southern Gas Corridor by EU. In this direction, Azerbaijan aims to be the country of an important and strategic natural gas exporter. From Shahdeniz field to the end European user, it targets to take part in the every ring of the value chain. These assumptions bring Azerbaijan to the position of a remarkable natural gas supplier for the export of large amount of gas to the European markets through Nabucco West. The implementation of the project with financial and technical capabilities of Azerbaijan and Turkey has made it a project to be realized between Turkey-Azerbaijan. TANAP means Turkey and Azerbaijan will emerge together in the European market for energy transportation. Along with Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan and Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum, TANAP has reinforced Turkey’s position as a necessary energy corridor in delivering the energy resources of the Caspian Sea to the Western markets. In this paper, expected strategic and economic outcomes of TANAP are analyzed.

  14. THE SPECTRUM OF AZERBAIJAN’S INCREASING ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanase Ion Alexandru

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to underline the key measures that Azerbaijan took during the past 20 years in regards to sustainable development. Although the country broke up from the Soviet Union in the 1990s, there has been a particular and precise preoccupation regarding its evolution as a nation. It is important to underline the fact that, in present time, Azerbaijan is an important country in the South Caucasus, which has economic relations with other parties such as the European Union, Turkey, Russia, and others. These relationships are based, mostly, on the fact that Azerbaijan is a reach resource country that supplies many countries with oil and gas.

  15. IRAN THE BEATING HEART OF ASIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Iran is a vast country covering 1,648,000 square kilometers in southwestern Asia. Its neighbors are Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Armenia on the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan on the east, and Turkey and Iraq on the west.

  16. Colloquium on Caucasus; Colloque sur le Caucase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document is the proceedings of a colloquium organized by the French senate on Caucasus. Caucasus encompasses three countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. In their presentations, the different participants stress on some particular political-economical aspects of this region: present day economic status, role in the development of central Asia, political stability of South Caucasus, influence of foreign countries (Russia, USA), relations with the European Union, the energy, road and rail paths, the stakes of Azerbaijan on the petroleum scene (hydrocarbons production and transit), hydrocarbons exploitation in Azerbaijan (regional cooperation, foreign investments, profits), experience of foreign companies working in Caucasus countries (beverage industry), juridical framework of investments made in Caucasus countries, business reality in these countries. (J.S.)

  17. The Impact of Turkey's Domestic Resources on the Turkic Republics of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Akkoyunlu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how Turkey's domestic resources, which are Turkey's historical, cultural and political relations with the Turkic states and Turkey's economic interests in the region, affect Turkey's foreign relations with Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Findings show that the Turkic Republics' interest in Turkish development model gradually declined starting from the 1994s. The hypothesis that the stronger socio-cultural ties between Turkey and the Turkic states are the closer the foreign relations are between Turkey and the Turkic states is applicable to all five republics. In the field of business the study finds that Turkish economy follows a similar pattern in its relations with the Azerbaijani and the Central Asian market. Common policy goals of Turkey and the five states led Turkey to establish close foreign relations with these five regional countries. The hypothesis that the more Turkey has business interests in the Caspian Sea Region the more Turkey will have closer foreign relations with Turkic states is mostly apparent in the case of Azerbaijan. In the area of energy politics Turkey has its strongest link with Azerbaijan. Besides being strong economic partners Turkey is Azerbaijan's biggest supporter in the region against Armenia.

  18. Cyberspace Operations, Stuxnet, Jus ad Bellum and Jus in Bello

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    is as old as humankind. Early in our history, no justification for war was needed other than mankind’s desire to satisfy his lust to rape , pillage...computers in Iran, India, Indonesia, China, Azerbaijan, South Korea, Malaysia , the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Finland, and

  19. Preparing for Catastrophe: A New U.S. Framework for International Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    Afghanistan Angola Balkans Caucasus (Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia) Colombia Congo North Korea East Timor Eritrea-Ethiopia Conflict Horn of Africa...as the real “strategic” danger. Disease, overpopulation , unprovoked crime, scarcity of resources, refugee migrations, the increasing erosion of...Belize Hurricane Mitch * Sierra Leone Complex Emergency * Colombia Earthquake * Somalia Complex Emergency Costa Rica Hurricane Mitch * Sudan Complex

  20. Innovative Features of Comparative-Historical Research of European and Azerbaijani Cultural Heritage (Based on the Materials of British and Azerbaijani Literature of the XX Century)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, Nicolas; Hasanov, Elnur L.

    2016-01-01

    The beginning of the twentieth century is characterized as a period of formation of literary prose in Azerbaijan literature, which reminds already formed a new type of British prose. These new development trends appeared in plot, content, style, the world of characters, artistic-philosophical thought as well as in narrative features. The genre of…

  1. SELF-DEFENSE IN KARABAKH CONFLICT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of force is one of the principles of international law which has been banned by the UN Charter and modern constitutions. However, since the enforcement of the UN Charter, self-defense has become the preferred excuse for states to justify their use of force. But applying self-defense requires some conditions. Immediacy is one of the important conditions of self-defense. Immediacy defined as the time span between armed attacks and reaction to it, is the main discourse. This condition requires self defense immediately after the armed conflict or during a rational time span since its occurance.In this respect, the emerging Karabakh Conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan in the 1990s is important. After Armenia’s armed attacks, Azerbaijan has acted within the scope of legitimate self-defense. But in accordance with UN Security Council cease-fire resolution Azerbaijan has suspended its self-defense actions. However, today, still twenty percent of Azerbaijani territory is still under Armenian occupation. Accordingly, after a long time the validity of Azerbaijan’s right to legitimate self-defense is still subject to arguments.In this article, by comparing two different approaches (strict and board interpretation approaches on the temporal link between the measures of self-defense and the armed attacks (immediacy, the temporal link between the self-defense countermeasures of Azerbaijan and armed attacks by Armenia in Karabakh Conflict will be examined.

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    scientific and methodologi- cal production of different associates is quite different. The leaders in science and pedagogy hold new forms of...Soviet government and the people of Azerbaijan. At the congress the following dialog took place between M. J. Baghyrov and S. M. Afandiyev. M. J

  3. Corruption in Higher Education: Some Findings from the States of the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Paul; Petrov, Georgy

    2004-01-01

    Many observers have noted that corruption in higher education is widespread in the states of the former Soviet Union. Little empirical evidence is available, however. This article examines some theoretical approaches to the study of corruption, and presents empirical data on corruption in higher education from Russia and Azerbaijan, collected by…

  4. 地热能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    ENVIRONMENTAL ADVANTAGES OF INVESTMENT IN GEOTHERMAL POWER PROJECTS IN RUSSIA;Geothermal energy and its relationship with Plio-Quaternary volcanic field and fracture systems in Azerbaijan area;GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA;Geothermal Energy Resources of India: Present Status and future prospects;GEOTHERMAL ENERGY SUPPLY OF THE RUHR-UNIVERSITY BOCHUM……

  5. Project on Asia's sustainable development starts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A research project of the Association of Academies of Sciences in Asia (AASA) on the sustainable development in Asia has been latmched. The fast meeting of its expert panel was held on 25 February in Beijing, bringing together more than 20 experts from 10 Asian countries, including Russia, ROK, Turkey, Israel, India, Mongolia, Iran,Azerbaijan, and the Philippines.

  6. Comparison of Learning Strategies for Mathematics Achievement in Turkey with Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Serpil; Cene, Erhan; Demir, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine learning strategies accounted for mathematics achievement across Turkey and neighboring countries. Turkey, Bulgaria, Greece, Azerbaijan, Russian Federation, Israel, Serbia, Romania and Jordan were involved in Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2009) study. Since other neighbors of Turkey…

  7. Emergence of African swine fever virus, northwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Pooneh; Sohrabi, Amir; Ashrafihelan, Javad; Edalat, Rosita; Alamdari, Mehran; Masoudi, Mohammadhossein; Mostofi, Saied; Azadmanesh, Kayhan

    2010-12-01

    In 2008, African swine fever was introduced into Georgia, after which it spread to neighboring Armenia, Azerbaijan, and the Russian Federation. That same year, PCR and sequence analysis identified African swine fever virus in samples from 3 dead female wild boars in northwestern Iran. Wild boars may serve as a reservoir.

  8. The Effect of Perceived Spiritual Leadership on Envy Management of Faculty Members through the Role of Professional Development Mediation and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Zarin Daneshvar; Saidabadi, Reza Yousefi; Niazazari, Kiumars

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: the present study aimed to investigate the effect of perceived spiritual leadership on envy management of faculty members of Islamic Azad Universities of East Azerbaijan province through the role of professional development mediation and job satisfaction. Methodology: this study was a descriptive and correlational study that was conducted…

  9. On stereotypes, media and redressing gendered social inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, J.

    2010-01-01

    ‘Combating gender stereotypes: The role of education and the media’ was one of the two central themes of a ministerial conference of the Council of Europe (24-25 May 2010, Baku, Azerbaijan). The conference aims to develop cross-European policy directed at gender equality. This talk suggests that any

  10. Assessment of Mobilization and Leadership Challenges in Azerbaijani IDP and Refugee Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Friedrich W.; Findlay, Henry J.

    2002-01-01

    A study analyzed community mobilization and leadership challenges in Azerbaijan refugee and internally displaced people (IDP) camps. The research determined that there is a lack of capacity to mobilize the community to effective community action and learning. (Contains 21 references.) (Author/JOW)

  11. Eastern Partnership – at the Delineation of the Spheres of Influence between West and East [Parteneriatul Estic – la linia de demarcaţie a sferelor de influenţă dintre Vest şi Est

    OpenAIRE

    Oehler-Şincai Iulia Monica

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern Partnership, encompassing EU’s relations with Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Republic of Moldova and Ukraine, was launched in May 2009 as an “eastern dimension” of the European Neighbourhood Policy. Its declared objective is supporting the reform process in the six former Soviet republics on their way towards the market economy and their gradual integration into the EU economy.

  12. Groundwater institutions and management problems in the developing world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegerich, K.

    2006-01-01

    The Role of Groundwater in Delhi¿s Water Supply: Interaction between formal and informal Development of the Water System, and possible scenarios of Evolution; A. Maria. Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Analysis of the Secondary Towns of Azerbaijan: Does groundwater play a role? S. Puri and T. Roma

  13. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    All information has been obtained from foreign radio and television broadcasts, news agency transmissions, newspapers , books, and periodicals. Items...COMMERCE 8NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE ’TIC Q.,’U ’ SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 PROLIFERATION ISSUES JPRS-TND-92-023 CONTENTS 16 July 1992 [This...Experts To Tour Azerbaijan ........................................................................................ 12 To Conduct Biochemical Analysis

  14. The Idea of English in Iran: An Example from Urmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Karim; Richards, Jack C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the place of English in Iran. To do this, we look at the social presence of English in Urmia (the capital of West Azerbaijan province, Iran). The paper draws on instances of the use of English in different contexts in Urmia, including its use in academia, business, state and private education, media, and people's ordinary…

  15. The Search for Quality: A Five Country Study of National Strategies to Improve Educational Quality in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, D.W.; Weidman, J.; Cohen, M.; Mercer, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the strategies employed over the last decade by governments of five Central Asia republics-Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan-to raise educational quality at the primary and secondary levels. Data are drawn from a 2002 cross-national study sponsored by the Asian…

  16. Exploring the Future of Security in the Caribbean: a Regional Security Partnership?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    office, along with the research librarians in the Combined Arms Research Library. My father, Lt Col (Ret’d) Nestor Ogilvie served as an invaluable...Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia Herzegovina, Croatia, Finland , Georgia, Ireland, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Montenegro, Russia, Serbia, Sweden, Switzerland

  17. HIV/AIDS prevalence in the Southern Caucasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvitsinadze, L; Tvildiani, D; Pkhakadze, G

    2010-12-01

    According to statistics, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia, are the countries with low prevalence of HIV (AIDS in Southern Caucasus: Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. It also provides a comparison with HIV/AIDS situation in Eastern Europe. The work is mainly based on the review of UNAIDS 2010 country progress reports and end-year reports of HIV/AIDS Surveillance in Europe. Tables and graphs have been created to summarize the obtained information and to improve the analysis. Trends in HIV/AIDS spread in Southern Caucasus are similar to trends in Eastern Europe: the number of HIV and AIDS cases continues to increase. The vast majority of people living with HIV/AIDS were aged 25-49-years at the time of diagnosis. The official information confirms that the epidemic in Southern Caucasus remains located among males (with 83.8% in Azerbaijan, 75% in Georgia, and 73% in Armenia) and most-at-risk populations. In Georgia and Azerbaijan, as in Eastern Europe, the predominant mode of transmission is through injecting drug use (58.8% and 64.2%, respectively), while in Armenia over the last several years the transmission has shifted from injecting drug use to heterosexual spread (50.2%). The second reported mode of transmission in Georgia and Azerbaijan is unprotected heterosexual activity (34.9% and 23.4%, respectively). Medical transmission, mother to child transmission, and transmission among men who have sex with men are rare, typically comprising less than 3% of total registered transmission in each country of the region. As UNAIDS contends the prevalence values are underestimated, and the registered numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in the region do not reflect the actual spread of the infection. There is also a substantial discrepancy between the cumulative number of HIV/AIDS cases reported in the national case reporting systems and the HIV prevalence reported in surveys (high prevalence observed in IDUs in Armenia and Azerbaijan, and in MSM in Georgia). In the context of such

  18. Petro-States - Predatory or Developmental?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    Political attention is increasing on the glaring contradiction in most oil-rich countries between natural abundance and economic and social misery. How can it be that oil is not a blessing, but becomes a curse? Although drawing on economic analysis (Dutch disease), the analytical framework established in this report on Angola and Azerbaijan pays special attention to political and institutional factors and concentrates on the role of the state. Selected variables that are likely to decide whether the petro-states become ''predatory'' or ''developmental'' are studied for both countries. The analysis indicates a danger that oil resources will continue to trickle away instead of trickling down to the benefit of the broader Angolan and Azerbaijani population. Concerted action by international oil companies and the Bretton Woods institutions provides the best hope of moving the present political leadership in Angola and Azerbaijan into a developmental direction. (author)

  19. EXISTING ELECTION SYSTEMS AND REGULATION OF DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil-zade F. A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the principles set in the Constitution, election is the only democratic and legal way access to power. On the one hand, elections are the most widely used form of the implementation of direct power of people. On the other hand, it is the most democratic way of organizing the the state power and local government authorities. At the same time, elections are political tools for the realization of citizens’ the right to vote, and an oppartunity of assesment the state power and local government authorities. In this article, the most widespread electoral systems in the world and their application possibilities in Azerbaijan were analyzed, at the same time has been talking about the features of the election system of Azerbaijan were studied

  20. The evaluation of the relationship between firms information quality with loans accreditation Iranian bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the effects of the quality of financial information companies on the accreditation of loans and bank contracts of the branches of Bank Mellat in the East Azerbaijan province. This is an applied research using 67 branches of Bank Mellat of the East Azerbaijan province. The study chooses a sample of 31 branches to evaluate the effects of the quality of financial information companies on the accreditation of loans and bank contracts. There are variables associated with quality of financial information such as their relevance, timeliness, and reliability over the period 2010-2011 using multi-variables linear-regression technique. The results of this study show that relevance, timeliness, and reliability variables are effective on the accreditation of loans and bank contracts of the branches.

  1. Colloquium on Central Asia; Colloque sur l'Asie centrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  2. Identifying the source of petroleum pollution in sediment cores of southwest of the Caspian Sea using chemical fingerprinting of aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirneshan, Golshan; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Memariani, Mahmoud

    2017-02-15

    In this study, the concentration and sources of aliphatic and petroleum markers were investigated in 105 samples of Anzali, Rezvanshahr and Astara cores from the southwest of Caspian Sea. Petroleum importation was diagnosed as a main source in most depths of cores by the results of unresolved complex mixture, carbon preference index and hopanes and steranes. From the chemical diagnostic parameters, petroleum inputs in sediment of cores were determined to be different during years and the sources of hydrocarbons in some sections differed than Anzali and Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan oils. Diagenic ratios in most sediments of upper and middle sections in Astara core were determined to be highly similar to those of Azerbaijan oil, while the presence of Turkmenistan and Anzali oils were detected in a few sections of Anzali and Rezvanshahr cores and only five layers of downer section in Anzali core, respectively.

  3. 10th International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management

    CERN Document Server

    Hajiyev, Asaf; Nickel, Stefan; Gen, Mitsuo

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management (ICMSEM2016) held from August 30 to September 02, 2016 at Baku, Azerbaijan and organized by the International Society of Management Science and Engineering Management, Sichuan University (Chengdu, China) and Ministry of Education of Azerbaijan. The aim of conference was to foster international research collaborations in management science and engineering management as well as to provide a forum to present current research findings. The presented papers were selected and reviewed by the Program Committee, made up of respected experts in the area of management science and engineering management from around the globe. The contributions focus on identifying management science problems in engineering, innovatively using management theory and methods to solve engineering problems effectively and establishing novel management theories and methods to address new engineering management issues.

  4. Iran funds dam completion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Iran has signed a contract with unnamed foreign financiers for US$300M to fund two half-finished dam schemes, according to Tehran radio. The schemes are the Ostur dam in Mianeh in East Azerbaijan province and the Molla Sadra dam in Fars province. The Ostur dam will have a storage capacity of 2B m3 and a 160 MW hydro power station.

  5. Bioecological features and corrective properties of Achillea filipendulina Lam., Calendula officinalis L. and Hypericum perforatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshan Shamilov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to investigations on bioecological features and corrective properties of two species from the family Asteraceae Dumort. (Achillea filipendulina Lam. and Calendula officinalisL. and one species from the family Hypericaceae Juss. (Hypericum perforatumL. which are growing in the flora of Azerbaijan. It has revealed that the extract obtained from the collection of these plants shows corrective influence.

  6. THE ETIOLOGIC SPECTRUM OF PATHOGENS OF VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS IN CHILDREN FROM BAKU

    OpenAIRE

    N. N. Aliev; S. N. Musaev; N. A. Azizova; L. I. Rustamova; Z. M. Kulieva

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of research on the study of etiology, the logical structure of viral diarrhea in Baku (Azerbaijan) in 2015. It was found that more than half (62.6%), gastroenteritis in children of viral etiology, of which the leading role as an etiological factor, have a company — and adenoviruses, among infants astroviruses. But-roviral gastroenteritis and enterovirus takes only insignificant-tive percentage of cases. There were no significant differences in the proportion o...

  7. Building Partnerships by Design or by Default?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    means of security. For the first 150 years of American history, this was predominately accomplished through purchase, occupation , or through the use...senior enlisted and junior officers) from the region, including Azerbaijan, Georgia, Bulgaria, Greece, Lithuania , Malta, Poland, Romania, and the... disease , hunger, or privation that might present a serious threat to life or that can result in great damage to or loss of property. Humanitarian

  8. GUAM AND THE PRC

    OpenAIRE

    Jinguo, Wang; Zhizun, Wang

    2008-01-01

    The GUAM organization was officially founded as a political, economic, and strategic union called upon to strengthen the sovereignty of four former Soviet republics-Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and Moldova. In the ten years of its existence, GUAM has become an important structure striving to consolidate regional economic cooperation by developing the Europe-Caucasus-Asia transportation corridor. GUAM has also been a forum for discussing security problems, helping to settle conflicts, and eli...

  9. The U. S. -IRI relations in the regional security context

    OpenAIRE

    Evseyev, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The author concentrates on American-Iranian relations during the Obama presidency and their impact on security in the Central Caucasus; he also closely examines Iran's bilateral relations with Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Georgia in the economic, political, and military spheres. He reveals that the intensity of the American-Iranian confrontation and the regional security level are two sides of the same coin. This conclusion is based on the author's analysis of the current state of and the future ...

  10. Alievův Ázerbájdžán: Případová studie hybridního režimu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Šmíd

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the transition process in Azerbaijan after the fall of Soviet system from the point of view of classical Linz´s theory of authoritarian regimes. The author’s focus is on the period 1991 – 1995 and the presidential elections, which appear to be crucial for the regime development. Goal of this article is categorization of Azerbaijanis regime according to the Linz´s typology.

  11. The East Mediterranean Triangle at Crossroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    defense and security, agriculture , tourism. . . . We are pursuing a strong relationship—strong on trade, strong on investment, strong on political...Azerbaijan and Israel signed an arms supply agreement worth $1.6 billion, which included Israel selling drones and missile defense systems to... drones strayed into Turkish air- space. On the other hand, the Iranian nuclear deal ad- opted in 2015 amplifies the level of anxiety in Israel’s defense

  12. Antidumping Action in the United States and Around the World: An Analysis of International Data. CBO Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Granular PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) resin Granular PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) resin Gray portland cement and clinker High-tenacity rayon...export values) are Taiwan, the People’s Republic of China, Saudi Arabia, and Russia . The changing number of countries covered over time...Latvia Norway People’s Republic of China 32 Poland Romania Russia 6 Singapore South Korea Spain Sweden Taiwan 16 18 Azerbaijan 1

  13. Detection and analysis of changes in desertification in the Caspian Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasova, Tahira

    2010-01-01

    The Caspian Region includes the Caspian Sea and five littoral states: Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Russian. 40% of the Caspian coastal zone is arid, 69% of this territory undergone desertification according to international reports. Among the reasons are soil erosion caused by water, wind and irrigation, the salinization of soil, intense bioresources usage, and soil pollution due to oil extraction and production. Desertification is a serious problem, at global, national and ...

  14. Effects of Nano Fertilizer Application and Maternal Corm Weight on Flowering at Some Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Ecotypes

    OpenAIRE

    AMIRNIA, Reza; Bayat, Mahdi; TAJBAKHSH, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    To develop saffron planting in Urmia, West Azerbaijan, Iran, a split-split plot experiment based on CRBD was carried out in the Urmia University's research farm for two years . Nanofertilizers (Fe, P, K and nofertilizer (control)) as main plots, saffron ecotypes (Mashhad, Torbat-Heydarieh, Torbat-jam, Gonabad, Ghaen and Birjand) as subplots and maternal corm weight (6, 8, 10 and 12 g) as sub-sub plots were considered. Throughout the two years of the study, results showed significant differenc...

  15. A New Age for Aerostats: Proving Airfield-Centric MANPADS Defense for Civil Aircraft Supporting Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    groups have also used MANPADS in Nicaragua, Costa Rica , Vietnam, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Afghanistan. 37 In New York, officials arrested three... Costa , O., Holzapfel, F., and Sachs, G. “Trajectory Optimization for Protecting Airliners against Terroristic Threats.” American Institute of...Dec 2009. 75 Hall, Mimi. “ Drones Could Defend Airports.” USA Today, 23 Mar 2007. 76 Doyle, John M. 77 Aviation Week and Space Technology, “No

  16. The Russian Military and the Georgia War: Lessons and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    sweeten this unsavory power pill. The respected Vedomosti newspaper reported that the Defense Ministry of Azerbaijan has contracted with... Alternative bypasses to the Russia-centered Northern Distribution Network (NDN) are thus of importance to U.S. strategists and logisticians... alternative to Pakistan involves Georgia and Central Asia. Supplies coming by ship can dock at ports in the Mediterranean (Turkey) and the Black Sea

  17. A Comparison of Ice Cold Water Pretreatment and α-Bromonaphthalene Cytogenetic Method for Identification of Papaver Species

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Rezaei Osalou; Sheida Daneshvar Rouyandezagh; Behrouz Alizadeh; Celal Er; Cafer Sirri Sevimay

    2013-01-01

    The plants belonging to many species in genus Papaver are very similar and have very small chromosomes that make identification very difficult. The study aimed to compare the effects of α-bromonaphtalene and ice cold water pretreatment to identify chromosomes of Papaver species collected from different areas of Iranian West Azerbaijan and Turkish Van, Agri and, Hakkari provinces. The seeds were germinated in Jacobson trays at 24°C under continuous light. Thereafter, roots from 1.5 ...

  18. Russia and the Caspian Sea: Projecting Power or Competing for Influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    will continue to be a spoiler in the Caspian region, block- ing any prospective collective settlement . Pipelines. Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and...project.” He stated that Russia has: answers that are economically more effective, and we are going to realise them. Blue Stream is already op...region. Cooperating for Caviar? In addition to its significant hydrocarbon reserves, the Caspian contains another high- value natural re- source: it

  19. Mechanisms Fostering Social Entrepreneurship as Potential Instruments for Economic Development: The Eastern Partnership Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Plotnieks Dāvis

    2014-01-01

    With its plan to assign 600 million euros through the European Neighbourhood Instrument for Eastern Partnership countries, the European Union intended to increase the efficiency of institutions, attenuate social problems, and create an environment that fosters economic growth and human well-being in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine. A few scholars have criticized the amount of funding and planned initiatives of the European Neighbourhood Instrument as insufficient a...

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SELF-ESTEEM AND TELEVISION VIEWING HABITS OF ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Aliyev, B; Turkmen, A

    2014-01-01

    Televisions are ubiquitous in Azerbaijan homes. Adolescents have far greater access to television than ever before with far less monitoring by caregivers. Most adolescent view an average of 3-4 hours of television a day and fi rst develop program preferences at age 2. In addition the nature of televi- sion programming has changed. One shift has been the increase in frequency and intensity of sexual and violent acts on television. Cable services offer programs with even more frequent and more ...

  1. EKOLOGICAL-FAUNAL ANALYSES OF THE TREMATODES OF WATER-MARSH BIRDS OF THE TRANSBOUNDARY JANDAN LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Mahmudova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2000-08 in the Jandar Lake, which is situated on the territories of Azerbaijan and Georgia, the author studied waterfowls of 23 species and found 35 species of trematodes. Trematode fauna was richer in birds with a wider range of food and bigger sizes, obligate ichthyophagous birds were infected with trematode more than birds, which rarely eating fish. Among the found trematodes 4 species are dangerous to birds, 3 species – to fish, and 3 species to human.

  2. New record and new associations of two leaf miner parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žikić V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two braconid species were reared on leaf miners collected from the vicinity of Shahin Dezh, West Azerbaijan province (northwest of Iran. Apanteles corvinus Reinhard was reared on Leucoptera malifoliella (Costa (Lepidoptera: Lyonetidae on apple and Protapanteles liparidis (Bouchй was reared on Phyllonorycter populifoliella (Treitschke on Populus. This is the first report of A. corvinus from Iran and of the new trophic association of P. liparidis with poplar leaf miner, P. populifoliella.

  3. Genetic landscape of populations along the Silk Road: admixture and migration patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Mezzavilla, Massimo; Vozzi, Diego; Pirastu, Nicola; Girotto, Giorgia; D’Adamo, Pio; Gasparini, Paolo; Colonna, Vincenza

    2014-01-01

    Background The ancient Silk Road has been a trading route between Europe and Central Asia from the 2nd century BCE to the 15th century CE. While most populations on this route have been characterized, the genetic background of others remains poorly understood, and little is known about past migration patterns. The scientific expedition “Marco Polo” has recently collected genetic and phenotypic data in six regions (Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan) along the Sil...

  4. The Impact of Turkey’s Domestic Resources on the Turkic Republics of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Akkoyunlu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how Turkey’s domestic resources, which are Turkey’s historical, cultural and political relations with the Turkic states and Turkey’s economic interests in the region, affect Turkey’s foreign relations with Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Findings show that the Turkic Republics’ interest in Turkish development model gradually declined starting from the 1994s. The hypothesis that the stronger socio-cultural ties between Turkey and the Turkic states are the closer the foreign relations are between Turkey and the Turkic states is applicable to all five republics. In the field of business the study finds that Turkish economy follows a similar pattern in its relations with the Azerbaijani and the Central Asian market. Common policy goals of Turkey and the five states led Turkey to establish close foreign relations with these five regional countries. The hypothesis that the more Turkey has business interests in the Caspian Sea Region the more Turkey will have closer foreign relations with Turkic states is mostly apparent in the case of Azerbaijan. In the area of energy politics Turkey has its strongest link with Azerbaijan. Besides being strong economic partners Turkey is Azerbaijan’s biggest supporter in the region against Armenia.

  5. THE SURVEY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CREATIVITY OF STAFFS AND ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS (Case study of: The East Azarbaijan province and Ardebil Province Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavakkol Salimi Maghvan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between employee creativity and organizational effectiveness in educational organizations of East Azerbaijan and Ardabil provinces. This investigation was an applied research using a descriptive methodology with correlation tests. The statistical population for this research included all employees of East Azerbaijan and Ardabil provinces in 2010, comprising 45 and 19 departments, respectively, or a total of 64 departments. Using Morgan table for estimation of sample size, and according to random sampling method, 56 departments (29 and 17 departments, respectively with 297 employees (179 and 118 employees, respectively were selected, and were tested using simple random technique. Data collection was performed using two questionnaires, for which validity and reliability testing had been performed previously. The creativity questionnaire was filled by organizational employees, while the organizational effectiveness questionnaire was filled by executives of educational departments. In this research, according to the objectives of the research, descriptive statistics was used for creation of frequency tables and charts and computation of suitable central indices, while the study hypothesis was tested using Pearson’s correlation test. The results of this investigation showed that there is a statistically significant relationship between employee creativity and organizational effectiveness in educational departments of East Azerbaijan and Ardabil provinces (p < 0.05.

  6. Allelic Prevalence of ABO Blood Group Genes in Iranian Azari Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nojavan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ABO blood group system is the most important blood group in transfusion and has been widely used in population studies. Several molecular techniques for ABO allele’s detection are widely used for distinguishing various alleles of glycosyl transferase locus on chromosome 9. Methods: 744 randomly selected samples from Azari donors of East Azerbaijan province (Iran were examined using well-adjusted multiplex allele- specific PCR ABO genotyping technique. Results: The results were consistent for all individuals. The ABO blood group genotype of 744 healthy Azari blood donors was: 25.8% AA/AO (2, 7.6% AO (1, 1.6% BB, 11.3% B0 (1, 10% AB, 9.3% 0(10(1 and 15.3%0(10(2. The highest genotype frequency belonged to O01/O02 genotype (15.3% and the lowest frequency belonged to A101/A102 genotype (0.4%. Conclusions: The frequencies of ABO alleles didn’t show significant differences between East Azerbaijan province population and that of other areas of the country. Meanwhile, statistical analysis of frequencies of A and B alleles between East Azerbaijan province population and neighbor countries showed significant differences whereas the frequency of allele O between them did not show significant difference (P>0.05.

  7. Sleep paralysis in medieval Persia – the Hidayat of Akhawayni (? –983 AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golzari SE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Samad EJ Golzari,1 Kazem Khodadoust,5 Farid Alakbarli,6 Kamyar Ghabili,2 Ziba Islambulchilar,3 Mohammadali M Shoja,1 Majid Khalili,1 Feridoon Abbasnejad,1 Niloufar Sheikholeslamzadeh,7 Nasrollah Moghaddam Shahabi,4 Seyed Fazel Hosseini,2 Khalil Ansarin11Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences; 2Medical Philosophy and History Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences; 4Students' Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 5Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences; 6Institute of Manuscripts of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan; 7Faculty of Law, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IranAbstract: Among the first three manuscripts written in Persian, Akhawayni's Hidayat al-muta`allemin fi al-tibb was the most significant work compiled in the 10th century. Along with the hundreds of chapters on hygiene, anatomy, physiology, symptoms and treatments of the diseases of various organs, there is a chapter on sleep paralysis (night-mare prior to description and treatment of epilepsy. The present article is a review of the Akhawayni's teachings on sleep paralysis and of descriptions and treatments of sleep paralysis by the Greek, medieval, and Renaissance scholars. Akhawayni's descriptions along with other early writings provide insight into sleep paralysis during the Middle Ages in general and in Persia in particular.Keywords: sleep paralysis, night-mare, Akhawayni, Persia

  8. Determining the Risk of Intra-Community Transmission of Tuberculosis in the Northwest of Iran Through 15 Loci Miru-Vntr Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afaghi-Gharamaleki, Ali; Moaddab, Seyyedreza; Darbouy, Mojtaba; Ansarin, Khalil; Hanifian, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to investigating the effect of travelling on the transmission of tuberculosis from high- to low-burden TB countries. Mycobacteria samples isolated from patients of distinct and relatively co-related countries (Azerbaijan Republic and Tabriz [located in the northwest of Iran]) were analyzed through 15 loci MIRU-VNTR typing method. PCR was done using special primers for each of the loci; then the number of allele repeats for all loci were determined by the size of their fragments. Finally, the created numeric patterns for each isolate were analyzed and clustered, using MIRU-VNTRplus.org website. All 119 isolates dispersing at 106 distinct patterns were composed of 10 clusters with 23 members and 96 unique patterns. Nine and five loci had high and moderate discriminatory power, respectively, but only one of them was poor in clustering. The study showed that 89.08% of TB cases involved resulted from the reactivation pattern and 10.92% were related to ongoing transmission. Although Azerbaijan Republic is a higher-burden TB region than Tabriz and Azerbaijan people make frequent tours to Tabriz to receive low or free medical services, the findings showed no TB transmission from the regions at least during the year of the study.

  9. The legislation of CIS countries on the issue of genetically modified products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammadov, Vugar; Mustafayeva, Aytan

    2011-12-01

    Genetic engineering is a fast-moving research field that produces many achievements, including genetically modified organisms, which are used during the production of food products. Recent decades have shown that scientists, policy makers and the general public cannot reach a consensus about the benefits and hazards of genetically modified food products. Opinions are so different, and both sides are so well-grounded, that it is not easy to reach a conclusion about this scientific achievement. Nevertheless, food security is one of the main objectives of the state, which is responsible for providing safe food products to its own citizens in the marketplace. This is why states are interested in reviewing these scientific achievements, in terms of the state's national interests and the security of its citizens. This article sets forth: (1) the main advantages and disadvantages of genetically modified products; (2) the role of national legislation in the control of food security; and (3) the attitude toward genetically modified products in the national legislatures of CIS countries. Taking these points into account, the authors come to the conclusion that actual Azerbaijan law is not responding to the changes, which have taken place in recent decades, in development of the world market and technological conditions in the production of food products. This provides the basis to conclude that, in actual conditions, the rights ofAzerbaijan citizens to the safety of food products are not well protected. At the end of this article, the authors make recommendations about the necessity of amendments to the legislation in their own country, towards the goal of greater control over such products in Azerbaijan.

  10. Fundamentals of Chemistry at Surfaces and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    Physics Club , Westridge High School, Pasadena, CA, 2012 Lecture: Electron Transfers and Other Reactions in Chemistry, Baku State University, Azerbaijan...of the Vibrational Mode of an Adatom-Substrate System Under a Resonant Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. B, 78, 125303 (2008). 9P. Guyot-Sionnest, P. Dumas , Y...Under a Resonant Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. B, 78, 125303 (2008). 9P. Guyot-Sionnest, P. Dumas , Y. J. Chabal, “Lifetime of an adsorbate-substrate

  11. Introducing Au Potential Areas, Using Remote Sensing and Geochemical Data Processing Using Fractal Methods in Chartagh, Western Azerbijan - Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Edris; Feizi, Faranak

    2016-06-01

    The studied area - Chartagh - is located in the East of Azerbaijan gharbi Province, Iran. In this paper, geology map, ASTER satellite images were used and after processing these images with ENVI softwares, geochemical data analysis consisting of lithogeochemical samples, within geological field observations. On ASTER data; using a number of selected methods including band ratio, Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) and Spectral Angle Maper (SAM) distinguished alternation zones. Geochemical anomalies were separated by number - size (N-S) fractal method. (N-S) fractal method was utilized for High intensive Au, As and Ag anomalies.

  12. Effect of Dietary Sodium Nitrate Consumption on Egg Production, Egg Quality Characteristics and Some Blood Indices in Native Hens of West Azarbaijan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Safary, H.; Daneshyar, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sodium nitrate consumption on egg quality and quantity, and some blood parameters of native breeder hens of West Azerbaijan province. One hundred native hens were used from wk 25 to 32 of age. These birds were divided into two groups. One group was fed the control diet (CD) but the other fed the same diet supplemented with 4.2 g/kg sodium nitrate (ND). After 2 wks of adaptation, eggs were collected daily and egg mass and egg production were m...

  13. South Caucasus. An Uncertain Path. Analyzing Vulnerabilities in Respecting Human Rights and Some Recommendations for Democratic Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gherasim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen years after Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia Achieved independence, power is still concentrated in the hands of a few. There are strong regional disparities within all three countries, with the capitals having the lion’s share of population, power and resources. Minorities are poorly represented in public life and suffer from lack of educational opportunities and breaches of human rights from those that make up the majority. More often than not, continue weak statehood means that states are incapable of providing basic public services, let alone ensure protection against human rights abuses.

  14. In exile

    OpenAIRE

    Hazare, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "Born in 1987 in Zahedan, Iran, Reza Hazare hails from a family of Afghan refugees forced to leave their homeland during the civil wars. Hazare studied art in Tehran, worked with artists such as Basem Rassam and Vahik Hartounian before settling in Baku, Azerbaijan to continue his education and life. This book was produced in the context of Art Dubai's Marker, a curated not-for-profit gallery programme that concentrates each year on a particular theme or...

  15. From the Editor

    OpenAIRE

    Ugur Demiray

    2012-01-01

    Greetings Dear readers of TOJDE,TOJDE is appeared on your screen now as Volume 13 Number: 1 In this issue it is published 5 notes for Editor, 16articles, 2 books reviews a nd this time, 53 authors from 12 different countries are placed. These published articles are from Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Greece, Iran, Malaysia, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Turkey, UAE and USA.The first Notes for editor arrived from USA, written by Kevin YEE and Jace HARGIS. They focused on Simply including a narrative co...

  16. Phenomenon of Plenty: Theory and diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Uzhegov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Present study theoretically explores and empirically diagnoses the Phenomenon of Plenty - paradox of below-potential economic performance of nations generously endowed with natural resources, focusing on oil-rich CIS members: Russia, Azerbaijan, and Kazakhstan. Extending theoretical structure to proposed Four-Component Process it reports existence of direct de-servisation finding previously overlooked cause of oil paradox - downturn of non-tradable sector long-time lacking production forces. Application of elaborated 5-Sign Algorithm for Diagnosis of the Phenomenon of Plenty elicits its presence across evaluated nations.

  17. A study on religious values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robabeh Poorjebelli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate and to compare the adherence rate of religious values between the two ethnic groups of Turkish and Kurdish who live in West Azerbaijan province. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, low, medium and high, and distributes it among a sample of 200 people who live in these two regions. The result of our survey indicates that Azeri people were more religious than Kurdish people were. In addition, the study investigates the relationship between personal characteristics including age, gender and marital status and adherence rate of religious values and detects some meaningful relationships between these two items.

  18. The Effects of FDI on Human Capital Stock in Central Asian Turkic Republics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmuş Çağrı YILDIRIM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment contributes to the education level of a country through many channels. On the other hand, educated labor increases foreign direct investment inflows. The subject of this paper is to investigate the contribution of foreign direct investment to the level of education in Central Asian Turkic Republics. In this study, the contribution of FDI to level of education is examined by Panel OLS methodology for 1999-2011 periods in Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyz Republic, except Turkmenistan. As a result of the study, there is not a significant relationship between FDI stock and level of education which is used as an indicator for human capital investment.

  19. 地热能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    [ 篇名 ] A new ideal evaporative freezing cycle, [ 篇名 ] Application of dynamic response of a penny shaped fluid-filled subsurface crack to fracture characterization in Higashi-Hachimantai field, [ 篇名 ] CLASSIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN AZERBAIJAN-IRAN, [篇名 ] Corrosion of Piping Under Insulation in Geothermal Energy Extraction Processes, [ 篇名 ] DEEP GEOTHERMAL HEAT EXCHANGERS: HEATING AND COOLING OF LARGE BUILDINGS, [ 篇名 ] DESIGN AND STUDY OF A GEOTHERMAL DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM AT HAMMAM-RIGHA (ALGERIA), [篇名] Development of geothermal air-conditioning system using foundation pile introduce of system to practical building and investigation of system performance.

  20. Evolution of New Disease Specificity at a Simple Resistance Locus in a Crop–Weed Complex: Reconstitution of the Lr21 Gene in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Li; Brooks, Steven; Li, Wanlong; Fellers, John; Nelson, James C.; Gill, Bikram

    2009-01-01

    The wheat leaf-rust resistance gene Lr21 was first identified in an Iranian accession of goatgrass, Aegilops tauschii Coss., the D-genome donor of hexaploid bread wheat, and was introgressed into modern wheat cultivars by breeding. To elucidate the origin of the gene, we analyzed sequences of Lr21 and lr21 alleles from 24 wheat cultivars and 25 accessions of Ae. tauschii collected along the Caspian Sea in Iran and Azerbaijan. Three basic nonfunctional lr21 haplotypes, H1, H2, and H3, were ide...

  1. Restoration and Rehabilitation of world heritage Site of Chupan Church

    OpenAIRE

    Darvish Rohani, S.

    2015-01-01

    Church of Chupan is located in Jolfa cityin north of Iran and is laid at south side of Arax River. Built of the church traced back to 14th to 15th century and the time when Armenians were inhabited in the region. Chupan church had been inscribed at World Heritage List of UNESCO under no 1262 in 2008, as one of the five churches of “Armenian Monasteries of Azerbaijan province of Iran” dossier. As it is located at a religious and tourism road of Darresham and each year most of A...

  2. “In the army, regardless of ethnicity or faith, those who are part of the collective should fulfill their public service”– Interview with Sergei Mel’kov, Co-chairman of the Association of Military Politologists, Moscow, 8 October 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Sieca-Kozlowski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available PIPSS.ORG – Based on prognoses about the growth of the Muslim population in Russia over the next 20 years, both Western and Russian demographers predict an increase of Muslim recruits in the army. I understand this issue arose under Brezhnev and then faded away with the collapse of the USSR, since Azerbaijan and the Central Asian Republics ceased to be part of the USSR. Today with the growth of the Muslim population this question has arisen again. Is there data on this issue?Sergei Mel’kov: T...

  3. Kurdistan Region, Asia as seen from STS-58

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Lake Urmia (Orumiyeh) in the high desert palteau of northwest Iran dominates the center of the northeast-looking view. The left edge of the view cuts Lake Van in eastern Turkey. The Caucasus mountains in war-torn Georgia appear just beyond. Mount Ararat is a major peak north of Lake Van. The Caspian Sea, an international body of water, stretches across the top right of the view. Countries bordering the Caspian are Iran in the south, Kazakhstan in the west, and Russia and Azerbaijan in the west. The shuttle stabilizer, OMS pods and open payload bay can also be seen just above the horizon.

  4. Taking control: how citizens can hold industry to account

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Emma; Schwarte, Christoph; Cotula, Lorenzo; Garside, Ben; Siegele, Linda

    2009-01-15

    The oil, gas and mining industries look set to remain major players in global development, despite urgent efforts to end the world's fossil fuel dependency and diversify energy sources. The activities of the extractive industries often impinge directly, and sometimes harshly, on communities and the environment. But local people are rising to the challenge. From Azerbaijan to Nigeria, Kazakhstan, Mali and Mongolia, citizens are working to promote transparency, accountability and responsible practice in these industries. A lack of skills and resources can impede crucial progress – so knowing the tools that work to make industry accountable is key.

  5. Responsiveness of Anopheles maculipennis to different imagicides during resurgent malaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vatandoost Hasasan; Zahirnia Amir Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the susceptibility of main malaria vector in Astra County, borderline of Iran and Republic of Azerbaijan for better control. Methods:Susceptibility of Anopheles maculipennis to diagnostic doses of DDT 4%, dieldrin 0.4%, malathion 5%, lambdacyhalothrin 0.1%, and delamethrin 0.025%, was tested according to method recommended by WHO. All the impregnated papers were provided by WHO. Results: It was shown that this species exhibited resistance to DDT, dieldrin, whereas susceptible to malathrion, lambdacyhalothrin and deltamethrin. Conclusions:Findings of susceptibility tests of this species provided a clue for control of malaria vector in the region.

  6. The petroglyphs of Dowzdaghi, Northwestern Iran

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    Mehdi Kazempur

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with recording and interpreting a complex of petroglyphs at Dowzdaghi in the northern part of Iranian Azerbaijan in Northwestern Iran. The assemblage can be divided into four sub-assemblages; the designs and images depicted on the surfaces of isolated boulders usually constitute a panel and sometimes individual motifs and inscriptions. The investigations have revealed more than 400 carved and scratched drawings on rock boulders on Mt. Dowzdaghi. The main themes include anthropomorphic figures, animals (ibex, with long elaborated curved horn, deer, dog, horse, bull, ram, fox, snake, alligator, and hedgehog, hunting scenes, Arabic and Persian inscriptions, and symbolic designs.

  7. Green Marketing and Its Impacts on Consumer Behavior in Sports Shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Shahlaee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigation of green marketing and its impacts on consumer behavior in sports shops in East Azerbaijan province of Iran. The present study is functionalized by objectives and done by field. The study statistical society was sports shops in East Azerbaijan and 210 samples were chosen randomly according to Morgan sampling method and 196 questionnaires were collected finally. The author-prepared questionnaire’s validity was approved by some experts in sport management and marketing. Field and the reliability were assessed by pilot study using Chronbach’s Alpha (α= 819% which showed that the tool was reliable. The questionnaire had 30 items rated by Lakers scale. Questionnaire introduction contained demographic pieces information of age, income and education degree. Results shows that a significant relationship between green products features, green promotion, green pricing and green distributing with consumer green behavior; and education, income, and age, but not marital status, gender had a moderating effect on consumer green sports behavior.

  8. Azerbaijani Women, Online Mediatized Activism and Offline Mass Mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkin Mehrabov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite its post-Soviet history, Azerbaijan is an under-investigated country in academic research—compared with the other former constituencies, such as the Baltic countries or Russia, of the USSR—and gender questions of the contemporary Azerbaijani society are even less touched on. Within the current context of the post-“Arab Spring” era of mediatized connectivity and collective political engagement, this article looks into and analyzes how Azerbaijani women participate in different online and offline social and political movements, and if (and how they are impeded by the increased state authoritarianism in Azerbaijan. Using data, obtained from online information resources, yearly reports of human rights organizations, focus group discussions, and interviews, the study detects four major activist constellations within the Azerbaijani field of gendered politics. Based on the analysis of conditions of detected groups, the article claims that flash mobs, a tactic employed mainly by liberal activists, emerge as the promising way in overcoming the normative nature of Azerbaijani patriarchal society, thus providing an opportunity for normalization and internalization of the feeling of being on the street and acting in concert with others—the practices which might lead towards an increasing participation of (especially young women in the political processes of the country.

  9. Global situation of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)--a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesy, A

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the actual world FMD situation. In 2000, fifty nine countries officially reported outbreaks of FMD. The disease occurred in Europe (Greece), Asia (Russia, Mongolia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Japan, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, in Caucasian region--Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia as well as in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan), Africa (Egypt, Kenya, Mauritania, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe) and in South America (Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador and Venezuela). In 2001, FMD was still spreading throughout the endemic regions and appeared in some of the west European countries--Great Britain, The Netherlands, France and Ireland. In South America, FMD occurred in Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil and Colombia. In Asia the FMD spread in Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Mongolia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Yemen, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Iran, Bhutan, Nepal, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Taiwan. The FMD situation in Africa was unclear, but probably most countries in West, East and South Africa were affected. The most recent data of the OIE from May 2002 confirmed FMD outbreaks in population of pigs in Republic of Korea.

  10. HANDICRAFT IN LATE BRONZE-EARLY IRON AGE IN NAKHCHIVAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toğrul HALİLOV

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article handicraft have been learnt in the Nakhchivan late bronze-early iron age. It was defined that pottery wasone of the ancient craftsmanship areas in Nakhichivan. At that time Nakhichivan, as well as the other regions of Azerbaijan, was an important centre of craftsmanship. The pottery products differed from one another in their size, shape, ornaments on them, the material the were made of and the technology. The pottery products made by Nakhichivan potters were divided into two groups-welfare and kitchen ceramics. Their similar monuments in the South Caucasus and the Middle East in the same period, the archaeological materials found in the Urmia basin and Eastern Anatolia. As a result of comparative investigation it is defined that oldest labour tools producted from bone and stone in Nakchivan. New type of labour tools are producted connecting to treatmen of metal in following period. Stone and bone tools are used little in iron and bronz period. It is defined that daggers, arrow and spear heads, jewelry founded in archaeological monument belong to epoch late bronze-early iron age in the Nakhchivan have got peculiarity of culture of Khojalı-Gadabay in Azerbaijan. Some of daggers belong to culture Near East.

  11. Distribution and origins of n-alkanes, hopanes, and steranes in rivers and marine sediments from Southwest Caspian coast, Iran: implications for identifying petroleum hydrocarbon inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirneshan, Golshan; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Memariani, Mahmoud

    2016-09-01

    The occurrence of n-alkanes and biomarkers (hopane and sterane) in surface sediments from Southwestern coasts of Caspian Sea and 28 rivers arriving to this lake, determined with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, was used to assess the impacts of anthropogenic activities in the studied area. The concentrations of total n-alkanes (Σ21 n-alkane) in costal and riverine sediments varied from 249.2 to 3899.5 and 56 to 1622.4 μg g(-1), respectively. An evaluation of the source diagnostic indices indicated that petroleum related sources (petrogenic) were mainly contributed to n-alkanes in costal and most riverine sediments. Only the hydrocarbons in sediment of 3 rivers were found to be mainly of biogenic origin. Principal component analysis using hopane diagnostic ratios in costal and riverine sediments, and Anzali, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan oils were used to identify the sources of hydrocarbons in sediments. It was indicated that the anthropogenic contributions in most of the costal sediment samples are dominated with inputs of oil spills from Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan countries.

  12. Using ANN and EPR models to predict carbon monoxide concentrations in urban area of Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shakerkhatibi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forecasting of air pollutants has become a popular topic of environmental research today. For this purpose, the artificial neural network (AAN technique is widely used as a reliable method for forecasting air pollutants in urban areas. On the other hand, the evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR model has recently been used as a forecasting tool in some environmental issues. In this research, we compared the ability of these models to forecast carbon monoxide (CO concentrations in the urban area of Tabriz city. Methods: The dataset of CO concentrations measured at the fixed stations operated by the East Azerbaijan Environmental Office along with meteorological data obtained from the East Azerbaijan Meteorological Bureau from March 2007 to March 2013, were used as input for the ANN and EPR models. Results: Based on the results, the performance of ANN is more reliable in comparison with EPR. Using the ANN model, the correlation coefficient values at all monitoring stations were calculated above 0.85. Conversely, the R2 values for these stations were obtained <0.41 using the EPR model. Conclusion: The EPR model could not overcome the nonlinearities of input data. However, the ANN model displayed more accurate results compared to the EPR. Hence, the ANN models are robust tools for predicting air pollutant concentrations.

  13. Self-Defense in Karabakh Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of force is one of the principles of international law that has been banned by the UN Charter and modern constitutions. However, since the enforcement of the UN Charter, self-defense has become the preferred excuse for states to justify their use of force. Applying self-defense, however, requires some conditions. Immediacy is one of the important conditions of self-defense. This is defined as the timeframe between armed attacks and reaction to it. This situation requires self-defense immediately after the armed conflict or during a reasonable timeframe since its occurance.In this respect, emerging Karabakh Conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan in the 1990s is important. In this article, by comparing two different approaches (strict and board interpretation of the temporal link between the measures of self-defense and the armed attacks (immediacy, the temporal link between the self-defense countermeasures of Azerbaijan and attacks by Armenia in Karabakh Conflict will be examined.

  14. The Effectiveness of the Community Medicine Undergraduate Program in Medical Schools on Enabling Medical Graduates to Work in the Health Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jabbari Bayrami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main mission of medical schools is to train competent medical trainees for providing primary health care services, management of health care team and improving the health status of the population. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the undergraduate program of community medicine department among the graduates as general (family physicians in health system of East Azerbaijan, North-West of` Iran. Methods: In this cross- sectional study all family physicians of East Azerbaijan province were included. A questionnaire on the views of graduates about the effectiveness of community medicine undergraduate program was used for gathering data. Data were analyzed by T-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation. Results: Performance of community medicine department in creating competency for providing effective health services among physicians was 2.13 and management competency was 1.96 out of 4. To teach the necessary skills to meet the professional needs in Primary Health Care (PHC, Tabriz Community Medicine Department was better compared to Azad and other medical schools (p<0.001. Conclusions: The results of the study showed that the community medicine program in undergraduate medical education was effective for future career of physicians in the health system. There is a need to revise the health management courses in community medicine program.

  15. Evaluation of atherosclerotic findings in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Afshin Mohammadi1, Ali Bazazi2, Mohammad Ghasemi-rad21Department of Radiology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, West-Azerbaijan, Iran; 2Student Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, West-Azerbaijan, IranBackground: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, a highly prevalent condition, is a feature of metabolic syndrome and is characterized by excessive accumulation of fat in the liver cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between NAFLD and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis.Methods: We examined 250 consecutive patients with ultrasonographically confirmed NAFLD and 85 age-matched and gender-matched controls with normal parenchymal liver echogenicity for determination of CIMT and presence of carotid atherosclerotic plaque.Results: Compared with control subjects, patients with NAFLD showed an increased mean CIMT (0.81 ± 0.14 mm compared with control subjects (0.58 ± 0.15 mm. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001. After performing multivariate analysis, the presence of NAFLD was associated with abnormal CIMT independent of other atherogenic risk factors or its association with metabolic syndrome.Conclusion: NAFLD can be an independent risk factor for developing atherosclerosis. Therefore, NAFLD with and without metabolic syndrome can be associated with increased CIMT and increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients with NAFLD incidentally diagnosed on abdominal ultrasonography.Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, carotid intima media thickness, risk factor

  16. Seismic Microzonation Study in Tabriz Metropolitan City for Earthquake Risk Mitigation x

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebad Ghanbari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Azerbaijan is the site of convergent plate collisions along the Alpine-Himalayan active mountain belt. Brittle faults in the Azerbaijan area are mostly Cenozoic in or younger. The data presented demonstrate clearly that geological structures are commonly repeated at all scales from outcrop to regional. Several regional earthquakes have been strongly felt and caused damages in and around Tabriz during history. Urban seismic risk is increasing with population growth and encroachment of vulnerable built in environment into areas susceptible seismic hazard. Seismic -hazard assessment an estimate of ground motion at the site of interest, taking into account instrumental and historical earthquake records, information on tectonics, geology, and attenuation characteristics of seismic waves Tabriz is important industrial city of Iran. It has a very high population density about 2.000000 people in area just 90 km2 . The main objective of the Tabriz seismic instrumentation and microzonation study was to carry out and propose new building in Tabriz and suburbs in order to apply these criteria its development programs and determine the potential for damage to existing constructions during earthquake motions, and finally earthquake risk mitigation assessment.

  17. Azerbaıjan in Serbıan Lıterature − Between Realıstıc Travelogue and Mystıcal Lure in Postmodern Lıterature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Bulatovic

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a comparative method, the author of this paper intends to show Azerbaijan as a literary motif that inspired two representative Serbian writers. Both used different literary forms, opposite styles and belonged to different epochs. Ivo Andrć, Serbian Nobel Prize Winner, wrote the poetic travel writing From my trip through Azerbaijan (Literary Gazette, 1948. With great admiration he describes a celebration of the 800th anniversary of the birth of a great Azerbaijani poet Nezami Ganjavi, customs and virtues of the people who live there, their culture and rich literary tradition. Miomir Petrovic, one of the foremost writers of the younger generation, published the novel Persian Mirror (subheading: novel-arabesque in 2001. This novel has a complex structure with several genres exploited simultaneously, all imbued with lyrical intensity. Through a metaphysical adventure in the Middle East and the Caucasus, the hero of this novel finds the immortal verses of Nezami Ganjavi, whose poem Khusraw o Shirin gives answers to all his questions. The Azerbaijani cities of Baku and Ganja are key poetic toponyms in his quest.

  18. OBJECT-ORIENTED APPROACH TO IDENTIFYING THE RELEVANCE OF IT-EDUCATION TO THE LABOR MARKET DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuma H. Mamedova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues of human resources development and IT-staff training. The authors put a special emphasis on bringing the IT-staff training system in line with the labor market demands both in quantitative and qualitative terms. Based on the object-oriented approach, the authors explore the reasons behind the existing imbalance between the markets of IT-education services and IT-specialists in Azerbaijan, the challenges facing the IT education and specificity of the IT-specialists market being described.For overcoming the above gap between the IT labor market supply and demand, the authors put forward a model of professional competences, reflecting the real-life requirements for a specialist’s quality. Additionally, the paper outlines the recommended trends of IT-sector development in Azerbaijan, which include organization of innovative research and education centers for specialists’ training and retraining, legislative and institutional coordination of the IT industry and education, development of new educational standards, increase in the number of IT-profile students.

  19. An application of MC-SDSS for water supply management during a drought crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeihouni, Mehrdad; Toomanian, Ara; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem; Shahabi, Mahmoud; Bazdar, Saba

    2015-07-01

    Climate change influences many countries' rainfall patterns and temperatures. In Iran, population growth has increased water demands. Tabriz is the capital of East Azerbaijan province, in northwestern Iran. A large proportion of the water required for this city is supplied from dams; thus, it is important to find alternatives to supply water for this city, which is the largest industrial city in northwestern Iran. In this paper, the groundwater quality was assessed using 70 wells in Tabriz Township. This work seeks to define the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as chloride, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, hardness, and sulfate using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and geostatistics; map groundwater quality for drinking purposes employing multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM), such as the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and fuzzy logic, in the study area; and develop an Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) for managing a water crisis in the region. The map produced by the AHP is more accurate than the map produced using fuzzy logic because in the AHP, priorities were assigned to each parameter based on the weights given by water quality experts. The final map indicates that the groundwater quality increases from the north to the south and from the west to the east within the study area. During critical conditions, the groundwater quality maps and the presented SDSS core can be utilized by East Azerbaijan Regional Water Company to develop an SDSS to drill new wells or to select existing wells to supply drinking water to Tabriz City.

  20. State at War, State in War: The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict and State-Making in Armenia, 1991-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taline Papazian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Armenia’s accession to independence came along with open war with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, an Armenian populated enclave dispatched within the Azerbaijani SSR in 1923. These specific conditions determined state-building in Armenia, launching two complementary processes: building of a national army from a meagre Soviet heritage and accumulating scarce resources into a restricted number of state institutions, the Defence Ministry in particular. Open conflict ended in 1994, freezing Armenian advances in Nagorno-Karabakh and Azerbaijan, thus marking victory in the eyes of the Armenian military. This sense of victory coupled with the return of soldiers to civilian life transcribed into a “Karabakh syndrome”, a tentative notion for the mindset of victorious militiamen eager to be rewarded for their sacrifices in war by economic or political benefits. Starting from 1995, this syndrome weighed on the Republic’s political life, eventually resulting in the resignation of then President Levon Ter Petrossian.

  1. A review of the spider genus Haplodrassus Chamberlin, 1922 in Crimea (Ukraine) and adjacent areas (Araneae, Gnaphosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovblyuk, Mykola M; Kastrygina, Zoya A; Omelko, Mikhail M

    2012-01-01

    Eight species of Haplodrassus are recorded from Crimea: Haplodrassus bohemicus Miller & Buchar, 1977; Haplodrassus dalmatensis (L. Koch, 1866); Haplodrassus isaevi Ponomarev & Tsvetkov, 2006; Haplodrassus minor (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879); Haplodrassus kulczynskii Lohmander, 1942; Haplodrassus pseudosignifer Marusik, Hippa & Koponen, 1996; Haplodrassus signifer (C.L. Koch, 1839) and Haplodrassus umbratilis (L. Koch, 1866). The occurrence of Haplodrassus cognatus (Westring, 1861) in Crimea has not been confirmed. Haplodrassus bohemicus is a new species record for the Crimean fauna. Haplodrassus pseudosignifer is a new species record for Crimea and Ukraine as a whole, with Crimea as the westernmost point of its distribution range. Haplodrassus invalidus is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Azerbaijan, Caucasus and the former Soviet Union. Azerbaijan is the easternmost point of its known distribution range. All Crimean Haplodrassus species have only one peak of activity of adult specimens during the year. In Crimea we found syntopically two closely related species Haplodrassus dalmatensis and Haplodrassus isaevi in two localities (Sudak Distr., 10 km W Sudak, Mezhdurechie Vill., steppe; and Feodosiya Distr., Karadag Nature Reserve, steppes). These species differ in their phenology. The reproductive period of Haplodrassus dalmatensis isin May-July, and that of Haplodrassus isaevi occurs is in October-December. These phenological differences probably represent an additional mechanism of reproductive isolation between the two species. Diagnostic drawings are provided for all mentioned species as well as for Haplodrassus deserticola Schmidt & Krause, 1996 and Haplodrassus pugnans (Simon, 1880).

  2. A review of the spider genus Haplodrassus Chamberlin, 1922 in Crimea (Ukraine and adjacent areas (Araneae, Gnaphosidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Kovblyuk

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Eight species of Haplodrassus are recorded from Crimea: H. bohemicus Miller & Buchar, 1977; H. dalmatensis (L. Koch, 1866; H. isaevi Ponomarev & Tsvetkov, 2006; H. minor (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879; H. kulczynskii Lohmander, 1942; H. pseudosignifer Marusik, Hippa & Koponen, 1996; H. signifer (C.L. Koch, 1839 and H. umbratilis (L. Koch, 1866. The occurrence of H. cognatus (Westring, 1861 in Crimea has not been confirmed. Haplodrassus bohemicus is a new species record for the Crimean fauna. Haplodrassus pseudosignifer is a new species record for Crimea and Ukraine as a whole, with Crimea as the westernmost point of its distribution range. Haplodrassus invalidus is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Azerbaijan, Caucasus and the former Soviet Union. Azerbaijan is the easternmost point of its known distribution range. All Crimean Haplodrassus species have only one peak of activity of adult specimens during the year. In Crimea we found syntopically two closely related species H. dalmatensis and H. isaevi in two localities (Sudak Distr., 10 km W Sudak, Mezhdurechie Vill., steppe; and Feodosiya Distr., Karadag Nature Reserve, steppes. These species differ in their phenology. The reproductive period of H. dalmatensis is in May-July, and that of H. isaevi occurs is in October-December. These phenological differences probably represent an additional mechanism of reproductive isolation between the two species. Diagnostic drawings are provided for all mentioned species as well as for H. deserticola Schmidt & Krause, 1996 and H. pugnans (Simon, 1880.

  3. An evaluation of earthquake hazard parameters in the Iranian Plateau based on the Gumbel III distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Hiwa; Bayrak, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    The Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution (GIII) of the extreme value method is employed to evaluate the earthquake hazard parameters in the Iranian Plateau. This research quantifies spatial mapping of earthquake hazard parameters like annual and 100-year mode beside their 90 % probability of not being exceeded (NBE) in the Iranian Plateau. Therefore, we used a homogeneous and complete earthquake catalogue during the period 1900-2013 with magnitude M w ≥ 4.0, and the Iranian Plateau is separated into equal area mesh of 1° late × 1° long. The estimated result of annual mode with 90 % probability of NBE is expected to exceed the values of M w 6.0 in the Eastern part of Makran, most parts of Central and East Iran, Kopeh Dagh, Alborz, Azerbaijan, and SE Zagros. The 100-year mode with 90 % probability of NBE is expected to overpass the value of M w 7.0 in the Eastern part of Makran, Central and East Iran, Alborz, Kopeh Dagh, and Azerbaijan. The spatial distribution of 100-year mode with 90 % probability of NBE uncovers the high values of earthquake hazard parameters which are frequently connected with the main tectonic regimes of the studied area. It appears that there is a close communication among the seismicity and the tectonics of the region.

  4. The Trans-Caspian energy route: Cronyism, competition and cooperation in Kazakh oil export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliyev, Farid [School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen (Germany)], E-mail: f.guliyev@jacobs-university.de; Akhrarkhodjaeva, Nozima [School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The article delineates the major national, regional and international level stakeholders in the westward Trans-Caspian transportation of Kazakh oil, supplemented with a discussion of the prospect of expansion of the Trans-Caspian/South Caucasus corridor in light of the presumably harmful effect of the war between Russia and Georgia in August 2008. It demonstrates that while foreign companies have been backed by their respective governments, national firms have also enjoyed considerable state support, partly due to their close links to the interests of state elites in Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. It appears that most companies along the shipping line either belong to the governments of Kazakhstan or Azerbaijan, directly or indirectly (through subsidiaries), or enjoy favoritism and a near monopoly in their markets (crony capitalism). Some of these firms are privately owned but registered in offshore tax havens, while some others have rather obscure ownership structures and corporate profiles. It suggests that cronyism and state capture comprise that politico-economic environment within which the future of Caspian transport systems will have to be decided.

  5. The Trans-Caspian energy route. Cronyism, competition and cooperation in Kazakh oil export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliyev, Farid; Akhrarkhodjaeva, Nozima [School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The article delineates the major national, regional and international level stakeholders in the westward Trans-Caspian transportation of Kazakh oil, supplemented with a discussion of the prospect of expansion of the Trans-Caspian/South Caucasus corridor in light of the presumably harmful effect of the war between Russia and Georgia in August 2008. It demonstrates that while foreign companies have been backed by their respective governments, national firms have also enjoyed considerable state support, partly due to their close links to the interests of state elites in Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. It appears that most companies along the shipping line either belong to the governments of Kazakhstan or Azerbaijan, directly or indirectly (through subsidiaries), or enjoy favoritism and a near monopoly in their markets (crony capitalism). Some of these firms are privately owned but registered in offshore tax havens, while some others have rather obscure ownership structures and corporate profiles. It suggests that cronyism and state capture comprise that politico-economic environment within which the future of Caspian transport systems will have to be decided. (author)

  6. Investigation of Polluted Zones by Lead in North West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodadadi A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available National project of Important Heavy Metals Identification of Iran (IHMI, following the UNDP and supported by Department of Environment of Iran (DOE, has been completed by Modares Environmental Research Center (MERC. Due to this project the pollution potential sources was investigated by overall distribution maps of any parameters that may cause the lead pollution. Then the sampling points was determined by some geo-statistical analysis and the sampling process was done according to standard methods of sampling, preserving, transferring to lab, measuring and analyzing etc through the 3 months in three phases of materials (effluent and discharges, solid waste, water, soil and sediment samples from natural sources like river etc.. After gathering the final results, overlaying the potential sources and polluted positions (according to violation of national and international standards of sampled points by Geographic Information Systems (GIS led the research to closing to the pollutant sources in north west provinces (Eastern Azerbaijan, Western Azerbaijan, Ardabil and Zanjan. The synthetic and natural pollution sources observed were 17 and 20 respectively. Abir River, Niroo Gostar Taban Industrial Complex and Copper Industries were the most important pollution sources in material phases of Natural, effluent and solid waste respectively.

  7. IMPORTANCE OF TANAP IN COMPETITION BETWEEN RUSSIA AND CENTRAL ASIA

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    Tugce Varol Sevim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available TANAP natural gas which was initiated by Azerbaijan’s SOCAR and Turkey's BOTAŞ has altered the dynamics and strategies in the region. TANAP project not only formed new competition picture from Nabucco versus South Stream to TANAP versus South Stream but also triggered the competition between Russia and Central Asia in terms of pipeline strategies. Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan are landlocked countries in the east Caspian region and Azerbaijan is the only post-Soviet state that had succeeded to reach world markets by non-Russian routes. In this sense if TANAP would establish until 2018-2019, it would have an impact as in the case of Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline which was considered as the “Contract of the Century” in the 1990s. In this paper, it is aimed to analyze how TANAP will affect upon Russian foreign energy policy strategy upon Central Asian states and Azerbaijan as well as emphasizing on the risks and opportunities of the project.

  8. TÜRKİYE’DE BİR AZERBAYCANŞİNASLIK OCAĞI: AZERBAYCAN KÜLTÜR DERNEĞİ / AN AZERBAIJANI STUDIES HEARTH IN TURKEY: AZERBAIJANI CULTURE ASSOCIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refik TURAN

    2016-09-01

    ği ile iki ülke toplumları arasında kültürel ilişki ve işbirliğinin geliştirilmesinde daha etkin rol oynayabilecek özel statülü bir kültür kurumu hâline dönüştürülmesinin uygun olacağı düşünülmektedir. / The Azerbaijani Culture Association was founded in Ankara on February 1, 1949, in the second period of the activities of Azerbaijan national immigration, which began with the arrival of M. Amin Rasulzade in Turkey in 1947, in Turkey. The association followed a policy to provide Anatolian Turkism's support to Azerbaijani action by means of maintaining the action for the independence and freedom of Azerbaijan and introducing Azerbaijan with its various aspects. Since the 1970s, the association has been partially effective in the increase of Turkish society's attention and sensitivity to these issues through publications and other activities by paying more attention to the general issues of Turkism and Turkish world. Azerbaijani journal, which began to be published by the Azerbaijani Culture Association since April 1952, has been the voice of enslaved Turks under the government of USSR by giving place to the issues of both Azerbaijan and the entire Turkish World on their pages in accordance with the general purpose and mission of the association. The Azerbaijani Culture Association has been the voice of Azerbaijan national immigration with limited opportunities during the most difficult days of the cold war period and has successfully fulfilled its mission to follow and introduce the action for the independence and freedom of Azerbaijan. The action for the independence and freedom of Azerbaijan, which was adopted as a natural mission by the association that conducted an active operation during the period that led to the dissolution of the USSR and the independence of Azerbaijan, resulted in success with the declaration of independence of Azerbaijan on October 18, 1991. Today, the association is continuing its activities for the development of

  9. Structural problems and prospects of innovative development of economies of countries of the South Caucasus

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    A.A. Egiazarian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is justification of prospects of further innovative development of economies of three countries of the South Caucasus. The results of the analysis. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the South Caucasus countries have found their place in the capitalist world economy as peripheral states. However, all three states in the region have their own economic structural features and differences, both in terms of their current situation and prospects in terms of economic development. In this paper, key features and prospects of economic development are analyzed and identified. In terms of economic prospects the opportunities and challenges of participation in the South Caucasus countries and the Eurasian Customs Unions are discussesed. In the last years the South Caucasian countries showed rather high rates of economic growth, but the level of economic development of their economy is low. Economic systems of those countries are characterized with a number of structural imbalances and problems. In Azerbaijan economic growth was provided at the expense of increase of oil’s production and export. In Georgia and Armenia economic growth was provided at the expense of external financing that stimulated consumer demand, growth in building sector and in sectors of services. Nowadays economies of the South Caucasian countries have been practically exhausted opportunities of extensive growth. In Azerbaijan the oil boom will come to the end soon. In Armenia and Georgia quite high shortage level of the current account remains and both countries have rather big external debt. In the conditions of world economy growth deterioration, especially in Russia, volumes of foreign trade and streams of money transfers will be reduce. It will negatively affect the prospects of their economic growth. All countries of the region need some new markets and strategic investments. The Customs Union represents an attempt to make

  10. On the novel “Armenian Named Letters” of the Mevlüt SüleymanlıMevlüt Süleymanlı’nın “Ermeni Adındaki Harfler” romanı ve tarihi gerçekler

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    Ayvaz Morkoç

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mevlüt Süleymanli, born in 1943, is one of the significant living representatives of the contemporary Azerbaijan novelism. He is a bright person who combines talents of a novelist,  short story writer, scriptwriter, radio and television producer. He entered Azerbaijan literature in 1964 with his poem “Ellerim” (“My Hands” which was published in the newspaper “Azerbaycan Gençleri” (“Azerbaijan Youth”. Süleymanli who was living in a village, enriched his literary works with his observations of those years. He successfully used elements of folk literature and folklore. In his works he masterfully showed his love to Azerbaijan people, language, culture and literature. In his works he mostly criticized social and ethic aspects and Soviet system. In this work, the novel “Armenian Named Letters” which expresses the view of Süleymanlı on Armenians in the form of novel, was crticised, analysed and evaluated.   Özet 1943 yılında dünyaya gelen Mevlüt Süleymanlı, çağdaş Azerbaycan romancılığının yaşayan önemli temsilcilerindendir. Romancı, hikâyeci, senaryo yazarı, radyo ve televizyon yapımcısı gibi çok sayıda niteliği bünyesinde barındıran bir aydındır. Edebiyat dünyasına 1964 yılında Azerbaycan Gençleri gazetesinde yayımlanan “Ellerim” şiiri ile adım atmıştır. Köyde yaşayan Süleymanlı, bu yıllara ait gözlemlerini edebi eserlerinde zengin malzeme halinde sunmuştur. Halk edebiyatı ve folklora ait unsurları başarıyla kullandığı görülür. Azerbaycan halkına, diline, kültür ve edebiyatına olan sevgisini eserlerinde ustaca dile getirmiştir. Kaleme aldığı ürünlerinde toplumsal ve ahlaki tenkitlere ağırlık vermiş, Sovyet sistemine eleştiriler yöneltmiştir. Pek çok ünlü roman ve hikâyenin yazarı olan Süleymanlı, son eseri Ermeni Adındaki Harfler adlı romanıyla edebiyat dünyasında adından çokça söz ettirmektedir. Türklerle Ermenilerin kaotik

  11. Oil, Water, and Wildlife: The Gulf of Mexico Disaster and Related Environmental Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickman, John W. [Purdue University

    2010-08-04

    The BP Macondo oil field spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest oil spill in U.S. history and has the potential to impact sea turtle and marine mammal populations, and others. This presentation will review the genotoxic effects of oil exposure in wildlife and discuss the potential for an oil spill to impact wildlife populations. Whereas some aspects of a spill are predictable, each spill is different because oils are highly variable, as are the environments in which they occur. The presentation will discuss what has been learned from previous spills, including the Exxon Valdez and the soviet oil legacy in Azerbaijan, and the potential dangers of offshore oil development in the Arctic. Related Purdue University research efforts in oil-spill related engineering and science also will be highlighted.

  12. EITI and sustainable development: Lessons and new challenges for the Caspian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ospanova, Saule; Ahmadov, Ingilab; Wilson, Emma

    2013-03-01

    EITI requires countries to declare the revenues they receive from companies in the oil, gas and mining sectors, and for companies to declare what they pay. This paper highlights key issues and challenges related to implementing EITI, and suggests several ways for these new rules to help reduce poverty, improve lives and ensure that extractive industries operate in a sustainable, environmentally responsible way. Focusing on three countries of the Caspian Sea Region - Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, the paper will be of particular interest to those preparing for, and attending, the EITI conference in Sydney in May 2013. It will also inform the public and stakeholders working towards EITI implementation in the Caspian Region, and contributes to on-going debates on EITI and sustainable development more broadly.

  13. The Eurasian Otter in the South Caucasus

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    Gorgadze G.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of Mustelidae are to be found in the south Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia: Lutra lutra, Martes martes, Martes foina, Meles meles, Mustela vison, Mustela nivalis and Vormela peregusna. The rarest of these species are the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra and the marbled polecat (Vormela peregusna. The Eurasian otter, one of most endangered species of the south caucasian fauna, is still suffering under the influence of poaching, habitat loss, disturbance and pollution. No fundamental research has been undertaken on otters in any of the south Caucasian countries and, therefore, data provided in the literature are scarce. Further, no DNA analysis has been undertaken in this part of the world and, therefore, the actual number of subspecies is not clear.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of intraspecific forms of the house mouse Mus musculus: Analysis of variability of the control region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltsev, A N; Stakheev, V V; Bogdanov, A S; Fomina, E S; Kotenkova, E V

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of the control region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or D-loop of 96 house mice (Mus musculus) from Russia, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan has been used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships and phylogeographic patterns of intraspecific forms. New data on the phylogenetic structure of the house mouse are presented. Three phylogroups can be reliably distinguished in the eastern part of the M. musculus species range, the first one mainly comprising the haplotypes of mice from Transcaucasia (Armenia); the second one, the haplotypes of mice from Kazakhstan; and the third one, the haplotypes of mice from Siberia and some other regions. The morphological subspecies M. m. wagneri and M. m. gansuensis have proved to be genetically heterogeneous and did not form discrete phylogroups in the phylogenetic tree.

  15. Caucasus Seismic Information Network: Data and Analysis Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph Martin; Mary Krasovec; Spring Romer; Timothy O' Connor; Emanuel G. Bombolakis; Youshun Sun; Nafi Toksoz

    2007-02-22

    The geology and tectonics of the Caucasus region (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia) are highly variable. Consequently, generating a structural model and characterizing seismic wave propagation in the region require data from local seismic networks. As of eight years ago, there was only one broadband digital station operating in the region – an IRIS station at Garni, Armenia – and few analog stations. The Caucasus Seismic Information Network (CauSIN) project is part of a nulti-national effort to build a knowledge base of seismicity and tectonics in the region. During this project, three major tasks were completed: 1) collection of seismic data, both in event catalogus and phase arrival time picks; 2) development of a 3-D P-wave velocity model of the region obtained through crustal tomography; 3) advances in geological and tectonic models of the region. The first two tasks are interrelated. A large suite of historical and recent seismic data were collected for the Caucasus. These data were mainly analog prior to 2000, and more recently, in Georgia and Azerbaijan, the data are digital. Based on the most reliable data from regional networks, a crustal model was developed using 3-D tomographic inversion. The results of the inversion are presented, and the supporting seismic data are reported. The third task was carried out on several fronts. Geologically, the goal of obtaining an integrated geological map of the Caucasus on a scale of 1:500,000 was initiated. The map for Georgia has been completed. This map serves as a guide for the final incorporation of the data from Armenia and Azerbaijan. Description of the geological units across borders has been worked out and formation boundaries across borders have been agreed upon. Currently, Armenia and Azerbaijan are working with scientists in Georgia to complete this task. The successful integration of the geologic data also required addressing and mapping active faults throughout the greater Caucasus. Each of the major

  16. Measuring unintended pregnancies in postpartum Iranian women: validation of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanaei, S; Shaghaghi, A; Jafarabadi, M A; Kousha, A

    2015-09-28

    Research suggests a relatively sizable rate of unintended pregnancies in some subgroups of Iranian women, but there is no concise, standard scale to measure the pregnancy intention of Iranian women. Therefore, the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP) were investigated. The Persian version of the LMUP was tested on randomly selected married women aged 15-49 years in the city of Ajabshir, East Azerbaijan province, north-west of Islamic Republic of Iran. The scale's face validity and internal consistency was examined and its construct validity was tested by exploratory factor analysis. The internal consistency of the scale was acceptable (Cronbach alpha coefficient 0.87). Structural indicators of the Kaiser-Meyer- Olkin measure (0.85) and Bartlett test of sphericity (P pregnancy intentions.

  17. Impact of Fiscal Decentralization on Non-Oil Economic Growth in a ResourceRich Economy

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    Fakhri HASANOV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates effects of fiscal decentralization on non-oil sector development in case of Azerbaijan for the quarterly period of 2002 through 2013. Results obtained from Autoregressive Distributed Lag Bounds Testing approach show that share of local expenditures and revenues in total, measures of fiscal decentralization, have negative impact on non-oil GDP. This finding is consistent with other studies outcomes and can be considered adequate for the Azerbaijani economy due to the number of institutional constraints. The results of the research would provide a good insight for policy makers in implementing economic reforms to develop institutional aspects of decentralization and thus make it supportive for non-oil economic growth

  18. A Comparison of Foreign Direct Investments in Eurosian Countries to World Trend in the Period of 1995 - 2011

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    Hayri Tuzla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The world which rapidly globalizes and where the boundaries diminish day by day, the foreign direct investments affect many diverse macroeconomic variables, specifically economic growth and unemployment. Most current studies support that there exists a strong causality relationship between foreign direct investments and economic growth.On the other hand, there exists a weaker positive causality relationship between economic growth and foreign direct investments. Moreover, it is an undeniable fact that the economic growth leads to a decline in unemployment. This study aims to compare the foreign direct investment trends of seven Eurasian countries (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan in the period of 1995 and 2011. The results are compared to both the world foreign direct investment trend and the other Central Asian countries.

  19. Theoretical and empirical applications of petroleum production function framework for analysis of the Phenomenon of Plenty

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    Sergey Uzhegov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines how analysis of the Phenomenon of Plenty, paradox of economic underperformance of resource-rich nations, could benefit from theoretical and empirical application of suggested petroleum production function framework, basing on sample oil-abundant countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, in particular Russia, Azerbaijan, and Kazakhstan. Proposed approach displays capacity of oil-economy production function to shed light on larger scope of theoretical issues. Empirical testing of suggested theoretical framework exhibited ability of proxied components of devised production function, capturing main metrics of the Phenomenon of Plenty and additionally factoring in corruption, to exert a strong impact on the majority of twelve principal macroeconomic indicators monitored by CIS supra-national institutions: with most pronounced influence on gross domestic product, industrial production, capital investments, and export to CIS countries.

  20. A social work study on measuring adherence to religious values

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    Mahsa Allahyari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, including gender, marital status, level of education and age on adherence to religious values among young people in city of Shahin Dezh and Takab, located in province of West Azerbaijan, Iran in 2014. The study has accomplished between two groups of Turk and Kurd with the population of 85,000 and 89,000, respectively. The study uses a sample of 20 and 30 people from Turkish and Kurdish tribes, respectively, and uses t-student test as well as regression analysis to examine different hypotheses of the survey. The results show that there was a meaningful difference among various variables of gender, marital status, education level and age in adherence to religious values among the youth who live in this city.

  1. Sustainable energy lessons from domestic architecture of rock villages of cold dry regions of Iran (case studies: Benakohul, Samarkhazan and Hilehvar villages)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehmani, Roghaiyeh [Department of Architecture, Bostanabad Branch, Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: R_sana20@yahoo.com; A' zami, Ahadollah [Department of Architecture, Jolfa International Branch, Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: Azami@iauj.ac.ir; Sadeghi, Alireza [Department of Architecture, Azarshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: irsesta@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    As the years pass, the importance of energy sustainability has been increasingly felt and emphasised. This paper presents a study of the construction methods used in Iran to build kohuls (a sort of underground barn) and the lessons to be learnt from them. The study was done in the villages of Benakohul, Hilehvar and Samarkhazan in East Azerbaijan province of northwest Iran. Kohuls are usually constructed in places surrounded by mountains. During winter they act as a shelter for animals, whose body heat and respiration keep them warm. In summer, the animals are away and the atmosphere in the kohul, insulated by the mountain, cools off and stays cold, making it an ideal place to store meat. The heat produced by the cattle inside the kohul also functions as a strong adhesive, reinforcing the walls and ceilings and increasing the sustainability and durability of the kohul. If they are unused for a long period, they decay naturally and eventually collapse.

  2. QUALITY ASSESSEMENT OF ANTE-NATAL CARE USING THE METHOD OF LOT QUALITY ASSURANCE SAMPLING

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    Sh. Salarilak

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available To determine the coverage rate, timeliness and quality of ante-natal care in rural areas under the coverage of Health Houses in West Azerbaijan province, 30 Health Houses (HH were randomly selected out of 731 HH in the province. In each HH, using the method of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS 28 women having recently born babies was selected. Data were collected using check-list for facilities, and questionnaires and forms to be completed from the files by interview. The study showed that the method of LQAS is quite effective for evaluation of this service at HH level. The weighted total coverage of ante-natal care was 46.2%. Quality of care was acceptable for 53.9% of mothers. The weighted average of time lines of care was 49.8%. Availability of facilities in delivery of this service was 100%, showing there was no short coming in this respect.

  3. RADIATION CHEMICAL CONVERSION OF OIL DERIVED FROM OIL-BITUMEN ROCK

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    Lala Jabbarova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of research in the radiation processing of synthetic oil derived from oil–bitumen rock of the Balakhany deposit in Azerbaijan are presented. The study has been conducted on a 60Co gamma-source at a dose rate of P = 0.5 Gy/s and various absorbed doses of D = 43–216 kGy. Samples of synthetic oil from natural bitumen rocks have been analyzed by chromatography, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and IR-spectroscopy, and their radiation resistance has been evaluated. The results of the study allow for both assessment of the feasibility of manufacturing petrochemicals for various applications by radiation processing and use of these materials for isolating radioactive sources to preclude their impact on the environment.

  4. [The malaria situation in the WHO European region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatinelli, G

    2000-01-01

    The number of indigenous malaria cases in European region peaked in 1997, when 77,985 cases were officially reported. These were caused almost exclusively by P. vivax, P. falciparum being restricted to a rather limited number of cases in Tajikistan only. Another important problem in the European Region is the importation of malaria associated with a high fatality rate from tropical endemic countries. There were 841 cases of malaria in Armenia, 567 of which were locally transmitted, 30 out of 81 districts recorded malaria cases. 89% of the indigenous cases were registered in Masis district, in the Ararat valley. In 1998, total number of cases increased to 1156. Of the 542 indigenous cases registered, 376 were in Masis district. 9911 cases were officially reported in 1997 in Azerbaijan and 5175 cases in 1998. Approximately half of malaria cases were reported from seven districts: Nakhichivan (10.4%), Imishli (14.6%), Fizuli (8.1%), Sabirabad (6.8%), Saatly (6%), Bejlagan (5.6%) and Bilasuvar (4.8%). Local transmission is also reported from the periurban areas of Baku, where many displaced people are living in temporary shelters. In 1997, a total of 30,054 malaria cases were officially registered in Tajikistan, of which 85.3% occurred in the Khatlon region, 10.5% in Dushanbe region, 3.5% in Gorno-Badakhshan region and 0.7% in Leninabad region. Following implementation of malaria control activities with WHO assistance, the number of malaria cases officially registered in 1998 dropped to 19,361 (187 were cases of falciparum malaria). A dramatic change occurred in malaria situation in Turkmenistan in 1998, when 115 indigenous cases were registered. The majority of malaria cases (104) were registered in the Kushka district, in south-east of Turkmenistan, among military service personnel. In recent years, the Government of Turkey has renewed its efforts to fight malaria, incorporating them into GAP with support from UNDP and WHO. In 1998, 36,451 cases were reported, 87

  5. EU’S DEPENDENCE ON RUSSIAN ENERGY RESOURCES AND THE NEW ALTERNATIVE OF OIL AND GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

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    Sabina STRIMBOVSCHI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author tackles the EU-Russia energy relations from the beginning of their cooperation in this field until now. Likewise, the disputes that emerged, along the time, at the EU’s border and vicinity are presented and analyzed, by trying to explain how Russia uses its energy resources as a tool of hard power in its foreign policy. However, taking into consideration the previous gas crises and the policy of Russia toward the Eastern Partnership (EaP states that aim to follow Euro-Atlantic integration, the author treats and highlights the EU’s strategic interest to establish new partnerships with other energy exporting states. In this regard, one of the EaP states that present a huge interest for the EU in order to develop a bilateral energy relation is Azerbaijan, a Caspian state with great oil and gas resources.

  6. Genomic analysis of highly virulent Georgia 2007/1 isolate of African swine fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David A G; Darby, Alistair C; Da Silva, Melissa; Upton, Chris; Radford, Alan D; Dixon, Linda K

    2011-04-01

    African swine fever is widespread in Africa but has occasionally been introduced into other continents. In June 2007, African swine fever was isolated in the Caucasus Region of the Republic of Georgia and subsequently in neighboring countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and 9 states of the Russian Federation). Previous data for sequencing of 3 genes indicated that the Georgia 2007/1 isolate is closely related to isolates of genotype II, which has been identified in Mozambique, Madagascar, and Zambia. We report the complete genomic coding sequence of the Georgia 2007/1 isolate and comparison with other isolates. A genome sequence of 189,344 bp encoding 166 open reading frames (ORFs) was obtained. Phylogeny based on concatenated sequences of 125 conserved ORFs showed that this isolate clustered most closely with the Mkuzi 1979 isolate. Some ORFs clustered differently, suggesting that recombination may have occurred. Results provide a baseline for monitoring genomic changes in this virus.

  7. Ekonomik Büyümenin Belirleyicileri ve 2008 Krizi: Orta Asya Ülkeleri ve Türkiye Ekonomisi İçin Panel Veri Analizi(The Determinats of Economic Growth and 2008 Crisis: Panel Data Analysis for Central Asia Countries and Turkey’s Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MERCAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the determinants of economic growth and the effects of 2008 global economic crisis on growth were analysed by using 1990-2012 periods’ annual data in the sample of Turkey and Central Asia Countries (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The 2008 crisis started in the USA in mid-2008 in mortgage markets and also affected the financial markets and the reel sector and it spread all over European Countries (EU and the world from September 2008 and it caused a shrink in world economy by 2.3 % and distorted the macroeconomic balances of countries including in particular the economic growth. According to the empirical findings of the analysis the government expenditures, the export and the private consumption expenditure in order made the most contribution to the countries’ economic growth. Effect of the crisis on economic growth was negative and statistically significant.

  8. THE STATE OF AZADİSTAN(THE STATE, ESTABLİSHED IN IRAN 1920

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    Abbas KARAAĞAÇLI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Towards the end of World War I, an important anti-colonialist and liberationist political and social movement emerged in the Azerbaijan Region in Iran. They have coalesced under the leadership of the revolutionist and intellectual venerable Sheikh Mohammed Hiyabâni, who has been among the leaders of the Iranian Democratic Party’s Regional Organization during the Constitutional Revolution (1908-1911 and one of the members of the first parliament. Their goal and aims were to contribute to the independence of Iran, and especially to resist the attempts and practices for dividing Iran between the Prime Minister Vosouq al-Dowleh and the British government. This article analyzes the emergence, continuation and fall of the Azadistan (Land of Freedom Movement.

  9. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Trombidiformes: Eriophyoidea) of Rosales trees in Iran: two new species and three new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfollahi, Parisa; Irani-Nejad, Karim Haddad; De Lillo, Enrico

    2014-09-11

    This paper describes two new species of Eriophyoidea associated with trees belonging to the order Rosales in the south-western portion of East Azerbaijan province, Iran, collected during a survey in 2011: Aceria lobolinguae n. sp. on Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (Elaeagnaceae) and Rhinophytoptus nemalobos n. sp. on Prunus domestica L. (Rosaceae). Additionally, Phyllocoptes abaenus Keifer on Prunus armeniaca L. (Rosaceae), Aculus fockeui (Nalepa & Trouessart) on Prunus amygdalus Stokes and Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae), and Aceria mori (Keifer) on Morus alba L. (Moraceae) were collected and are new records for the mite fauna of Iran. New locality records and host plant data are provided for Eriophyes similis (Nalepa), Eriophyes pyri (Pagenstecher) and Calepitrimerus baileyi (Keifer) which are eriophyoid species previously known from Iran. 

  10. Determinants of Farmers’ Participation in Horticulturebased Extension Programs in Iran: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Akbari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discover the determinants of farmers’ participation in horticulture-based Education programs in the Western Azerbaijan province, Iran. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, the study also tries to make a comparison between participants and non-participants, who have achieved in this program. A sample of 231 farmers (137 participants and 94 non-participants was selected based on a stratified random sampling method. Data gathering instrument was a questionnaire that its validity was approved by a group of experts and its reliability was confirmed by calculating Cronbach's alpha (α=0.71. The results showed that, there were significant differences between participants and non-participants in agricultural education programs in terms of all the TPB contexts. Additionally, the results of the regression analysis showed that attitude to how thinking and decision and subjective norms were the best determinants of farmers’ participation.

  11. “Fear or Love Thy Neighbour”? The EU Framework for Promoting Regional Cooperation in the South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Babayan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Building on the model of the enlargement policy, the European Union (EU designed the European Neighbourhood Policy and the Eastern Partnership to further promote its norms and principles. One of the goals of its new policies has been to foster regional cooperation among partner countries and their neighbours. This article specifies the EU’s framework for promoting regional cooperation through the aforementioned policies and discusses its potential impact on the example of the South Caucasus republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The South Caucasus has not only been an arena of intraregional conflicts, but has also often been troubled by disputes between its neighbours. This article argues that, due to a lack of proactive and consistent engagement, the EU’s framework risks leaving regional conflicts in the current state of stagnation and without advancement in regional cooperation.

  12. ENHANCING REGIONAL INTEGRATION THROUGH COMMERCIAL TIES IN THE EASTERN NEIGHBOURHOOD OF THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Lucian Moga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic unification across Europe has been the main impetus for the European integration process and this rationale stood also behind the European Union (EU approach towards its neighbourhood. Since the launch of the European Neighbourhood Policy (2004, the economic incentives have been the most effective instruments for generating structural change in the neighbourhood, taking into account the fact that EU membership has not been yet considered. Our research will aim at investigating the potential of the European Union to promote economic cooperation in its Eastern vicinity by seeking to include the Eastern Partnership states into a network that shares the same economic principles and values. Among these values, we argue that deep economic engagement through bilateral and multilateral frameworks of trade relations has played a major in enhancing the economic development of the six-Post Soviet states: Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia.

  13. Prevalence of Cercariae Infection in Lymnaea auricularia (Linnaeus, 1758 in NorthWest of Iran

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    Abbas Imani-Baran

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The pond snail Lymnaea auricularia serves as an intermediate host for many digenian species. In West Azerbaijan province, northwestern Iran, the cercariae infection investigation was undertaken in L. auricularia from May to November 2010. Of 6759 collected Lymnaeid snails, 370(5.5% L. auricularia snails were identified. Cercariae infection was found in a number of 276 (74.56 % snails. The results showed that removed cercariae from L. auricularia belonged to Echinostomcercariae (96.38 % and Furcocercariae (3.62 % which were found in two out of 28 sites during the course of study. In summer and fall, the highest prevalence of cercariae infection was recorded for both identified cercariae. It is concluded that L. auricularia could be an important intermediate host of large group digenian trematodes in the region, which is necessary to take consideration in the control program of trematode infection.

  14. Georgian – Turkish Relations since the Breakdown of Soviet Union

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    Fatih Mehmet SAYIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Georgian - Turkish relations since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Georgia managed to establish relations with Turkey only after gaining independence. Nowadays Georgia has very close relations with its Southern neighbor. Due to its strategic location, Georgia occupies a significant place in Turkish foreign policy. Georgia is a necessary bridge connecting Turkey with Azerbaijan and Central Asian States. Furthermore, Georgia has become a key transit route for Caspian energy resources. For Georgia Turkey is a window to Europe and the largest trade partner. The main goal of this article is to analyze various aspects of Turkish – Georgian relations and co-operation in different fields. There is outstanding cooperation between Turkey and Georgia in the fields such as energy, transport, economy, trade, defense, security etc.

  15. Minority representation in a semi-democratic regime: the Georgian case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zollinger, Daniel; Bochsler, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Guinea, Tanzania, Gabon, Kenya, Mauritania, and Congo (Brazzaville). This article highlights the impact of the electoral system and the importance of political plurality and electoral district design in such contexts. The article argues that the interests of minorities are best protected if they can......This article suggests that in most semi-democracies, the same solution might not be that favourable to minorities. Many semi-democratic countries either restrict party competition or limit parties of ethnic minorities, including: Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kirgistan, Cameron, Equatorial...... elect their representatives in small, ethnically homogeneous electoral districts. Plurality or majority voting systems offer minorities the possibility to run with independent candidates. The case study in this article elections to municipal councils in Georgia in 2006 under a mixed electoral system...

  16. Seismic databases and earthquake catalogue of the Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoladze, Tea; Javakhishvili, Zurab; Tvaradze, Nino; Tumanova, Nino; Jorjiashvili, Nato; Gok, Rengen

    2016-04-01

    The Caucasus has a documented historical catalog stretching back to the beginning of the Christian era. Most of the largest historical earthquakes prior to the 19th century are assumed to have occurred on active faults of the Greater Caucasus. Important earthquakes include the Samtskhe earthquake of 1283, Ms~7.0, Io=9; Lechkhumi-Svaneti earthquake of 1350, Ms~7.0, Io=9; and the Alaverdi(earthquake of 1742, Ms~6.8, Io=9. Two significant historical earthquakes that may have occurred within the Javakheti plateau in the Lesser Caucasus are the Tmogvi earthquake of 1088, Ms~6.5, Io=9 and the Akhalkalaki earthquake of 1899, Ms~6.3, Io =8-9. Large earthquakes that occurred in the Caucasus within the period of instrumental observation are: Gori 1920; Tabatskuri 1940; Chkhalta 1963; 1991 Ms=7.0 Racha earthquake, the largest event ever recorded in the region; the 1992 M=6.5 Barisakho earthquake; Ms=6.9 Spitak, Armenia earthquake (100 km south of Tbilisi), which killed over 50,000 people in Armenia. Recently, permanent broadband stations have been deployed across the region as part of various national networks (Georgia (~25 stations), Azerbaijan (~35 stations), Armenia (~14 stations)). The data from the last 10 years of observation provides an opportunity to perform modern, fundamental scientific investigations. A catalog of all instrumentally recorded earthquakes has been compiled by the IES (Institute of Earth Sciences, Ilia State University). The catalog consists of more then 80,000 events. Together with our colleagues from Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkey the database for the Caucasus seismic events was compiled. We tried to improve locations of the events and calculate Moment magnitudes for the events more than magnitude 4 estimate in order to obtain unified magnitude catalogue of the region. The results will serve as the input for the Seismic hazard assessment for the region.

  17. Spatial Analysis of Stomach Cancer Incidence in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakzad, Reza; Khani, Yousef; Pakzad, Iraj; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Mohammadian-Hashejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid; Towhidi, Farhad; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza

    2016-01-01

    Stomach cancer, the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death through the world, is very common in parts of Iran. Geographic variation in the incidence of stomach cancer is due to many different factors. The aim of this study was to assess the geographical and spatial distribution of stomach cancer in Iran using data from the cancer registry program in Iran for the year 2009. The reported incidences of stomach cancer for different provinces were standardized to the world population structure. ArcGIS software was used to analyse the data. Hot spots and high risk areas were determined using spatial analysis (Getis-Ord Gi). Hot and cold spots were determined as more than or less than 2 standard deviations from the national average, respectively. A significance level of 0.10 was used for statistical judgment. In 2009, a total of 6,886 cases of stomach cancers were reported of which 4,891 were in men and 1,995 in women (standardized incidence rates of 19.2 and 10.0, respectively, per 100,000 population). The results showed that stomach cancer was concentrated mainly in northwest of the country in both men and women. In women, northwest provinces such as Ardebil, East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijan, Gilan, and Qazvin were identified as hot spots (pQazvin, Zanjan and Kurdistan, the incidences were higher than the national average and these were identified as hot spots (P<0.01). As stomach cancer is clustered in the northwest of the country, further epidemiological studies are needed to identify factors contributing to this concentration.

  18. Trend of tuberculosis cases under directly observed treatment, short-course strategy in Tabriz, Iran, from 2001 to 2011

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    Zhila Khamnian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The universal target under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs is to reduce the worldwide burden of tuberculosis (TB 2015, and we wanted to evaluate development in TB control by assessment of the time trend in incidence and death rate in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: This was a retrospective trend analysis of the data have been recorded in East Azerbaijan State TB center during 10 years. Data were related to patients have been registered for treatment under the directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS strategy from 2001 to 2011. Results: In total, 3283 TB patients were treated under DOTS strategy during 2001-2011. Males constituted 55.0% of subjects. The risk was the highest among the productive age group (15-44 years. About 61.0% of cases had pulmonary, and 78.0% of pulmonary TB patients were found to be the sputum smear positive than 46.0% of them were new sputum smear positive, and 2.0% of them were relapse. On average, for sputum smear positive, TB cases from 2005 to 2011; the treatment success rate was 87.3%; the cure rate was 80.2%; the treatment failure rate was 0.5% and death rate was 10.3%. In general, the TB incidence rate for all TB cases was decreased from 11.9-8.1 a 100000 population and the smear-positive pulmonary TB incidence rate were decreased from 4.7 to 4.1 a 100000 population in eastern Azerbaijan province during 2001-2011. Conclusion: In general, we had a decrease in the incidence rate for all of TB cases. In addition, we had a fall in cure rate and had an increase in drug side effects rate in this year that can be because of elevated old people ratio and high death rate by other indirect causes and lack of regular visits and medications taking according to the treatment protocol.

  19. Legal Status Of The Caspian Sea: History And Present

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    Ardak Kapyshev

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At  the  present  stage  one  of  the  unsolved   problems in  interstate relations of  Caspian bordering countries is defining international­legal status of the Caspian Sea. It is noted in the article that this problem is not a new one at all. The history of “division” of the Caspian Sea begins in the ancient age, namely in VIII century. It is underlined that the basic stumbling block  is the position of Iran on the right to use the Caspian Sea, and also occurrence of extra regional players, such as  the USA, China, etc. First of  all, it is connected with rich oil fields and other minerals, and also with convenient geopolitical and geostrategic position. The only way to worry out the international­legal delimitation of the Caspian Sea problem is a negotiating process. By now, despite of  certain disagreements on  legal status of  the Caspian Sea, five Caspian bordering countries managed to achieve certain progress, admitting the possibility of applying the principle of sectorial sectioning on the Caspian Sea.  Clear proof  of  it is the agreements on  division of ground on the northern part of Caspian Sea signed between Kazakhstan, Russia and Azerbaijan. It is important that Kazakhstan, Russia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan clearly stated their positions and agreed to make a compromise in their official statements. More than likely, in the near future Iran will soften its position, considering its present  situation and   strained relations with the USA. It has been alleged that the constructive  dialog  already  started; everything depends on  the mobility,  concurrency and rationality of actions of all Caspian bordering countries.

  20. Caspian Region in the System of International Regions

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    Kosov Gennadiy Vladimirovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The given research paper presents an attempt to analyze the Caspian region from the point of view of its cross-border specifics. In contrast to the traditional understanding of the Caspian region as the region of heightened geopolitical significance the authors analyze its peculiarities and potential in the context of the cross-border cooperation dynamics. It is especially emphasized that the Caspian region may be considered as a cross-border region which, despite the substantial similarities is different from international transnational regions. The authors focus attention on a key contradiction of the Caspian region. On the one hand, national interests and foreign policy of the states-members of the Caspian region (Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan have a national country and regional importance, since their implementation will form an effective regional security system. On the other hand, the Caspian region attracts the attention of the world powers, becoming a subject of their interest, as it is of great importance for world energy markets and has status of a transit zone between Europe and Asia. For Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan the Caspian status is combined with their most important characteristic of post-Soviet states - shared long historical stage of development within the Soviet Union. The article distinguished and analyzed four main periods of establishment of cross-border cooperation in the Caspian region. The national specificity of modernization reforms in all the countries of the Caspian region have interrelations with further development of cross-border cooperation, the priority of that performs convergence of Caspian states on a number of strategic issues, including economic cooperation and security.

  1. Investigation of Ego and Task Orientation among International Wrestling Referees

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    Barbas I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: study was to investigate any possible effect(s of experiences from active membership and participation in task or ego orientations among referees in the sport of wrestling. Material: The sample consisted of 213 international referees from 30 countries (Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria, France, Italy, Germany, Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, Russia, Poland, Hungary, U.S.A, Ukraine, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Egypt, Canada, Georgia, Croatia, Uzbekistan, Norway, Cuba, Belarus, & Tunisia. Their age ranged from 26 to 60 yrs. old ( M =43, SD =8.6. During the procedure, the participants were asked to fill a specific questionnaire, the «Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire» (Duda & Nicholls, 1992. Results: Results showed that the referees from elite wrestling level’ countries (Russia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, U.S.A., Korea, Japan, Kazakhstan, & Cuba are more task oriented than those from the non-elite wrestling level’ countries. Researchers believe that this occurred because referees from non-elite wrestling level’ countries might have less game-sport experience and more specifically in high level games. At the same time, the Olympic experience referees were more task oriented than the non-Olympic experienced. Conclusion: Referee’s decisions are an important issue in the sport milieu. The investigations in decision-making by referees and factors that affect it are rather scarce and research should focus on such topics. Improvement of decision-making by referees, would lead to safer and better performance. Thus, better understanding of referees’ behavior, through identification and operationalization of the factors affecting it, might lead to more effective selection, training and performance.

  2. Evaluation of Microbial Quality in Biosolids Generated from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants

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    B Ghoreishi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Qualitative evaluation of sewage sludge before any kind of application is essential. The present study was aimed to investigate Total coliform, Fecal coliform and Salmonella in sewage sludge produced at wastewater treatment plants in Azerbaijan Province, Iran. Materials and Methods: Nine wastewater treatment plants were chosen in East Azerbaijan Province, and their sludge from drying bed was studied. Total coliforms, thermo-tolerant coliforms, and Salmonella spp., were surveyed during winter time, 2015. Total and thermos-tolerant coliforms were enumerated by EPA method 1680 and salmonella was counted using EPA method 1682.   Results: In the case of total coliform, sludge sample from Jolfa with 1.82×106 MPN/g showed the highest contamination, while Sarab showed lowest fecal coliform count with 2.02×103 MPN/g. As in the case for fecal coliform, the bacteria count for thermo-tolerant coliforms was higher in Jolfa than other cities; on the other hand, Ahar with no fecal coliform count or less than 2.2 showed the minimum contamination rate to fecal coliforms. In case of Salmonella spp., sludge samples from Ahar and Bostan Abad did not show any salmonella. While sludge sample from Tabriz wastewater treatment plant was determined as the most contaminant sludge with bacteria count equal to 84 per  g. Moreover, sludge sample from Sarab wastewater treatment plant showed the least contamination rate, and bacteria count was 6 per  g. Conclusion: From the stand point of microbial quality, all sludge samples met class B standards set by USEPA, while none of them could provide class A standards. Thus, special precautions must be taken in case of soil amendments by the sludge produced from wastewater treatment plants. 

  3. Detection of Rare Beta Globin Gene Mutations in Northwestern Iran

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    M Haghi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent molecular studies on Iranian β-thalassemia genes revealed the presence of eight common mutations associated with thalassemia. Although these mutations are frequent, there are other rare and unknown mutations that can create large problems in designing preventive programs. We detected and explained the common mutations in north-western Iran previously and detection of the rare and unknown mutations could be useful in diagnosis and design of future preventive programs. Methods: In this study, 5ml peripheral blood from 20 Azari- β-thalassemia patients whose mutation was not revealed in the previous study was collected and DNA extraction was done by isopropanol and proteinase k method. Initially, samples were examined for the rare mutations: Codon6, Codon16, Codon41/42, Codon36/37, -88 and Codon22 by ARMS – PCR techniques and then the unknown cases were directly sequenced. Results: According to our results, Codon15(TGG-TGA, Codon16(-C, Codon36/37(-T, IVSII-848(C-A, IVSII-745(C-G, -28(A-C( and Codon25/26(+T were recognized and added to the spectrom of beta globin gene mutations in Azerbaijan and Iran. Also, we detected four SNP sites: 5’UTR+20(C-T, Codon2 (CAC-CAT , IVSII-16(C-G and IVSII-666(T-C in β-thalassemia genes. Conclusion: Our results could be useful for developing molecular screening plans and help prenatal diagnosis of beta thalassemia in Azerbaijan , Iran and other neighboring countries.

  4. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Yield, Component Yield and Essential Oil of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L. under Water Deficit Stress

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    E. Rezaei Chiyaneh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the production of medicinal plants can be influenced by environmental factors such as water limitation. In other hand salicylic acid as a plant regulator can enhance drought resistance in plants. In order to investigate the effect of different irrigation intervals on yield, yield components and essential oil of black cumin (Nigella sativa L., a field experiment was conducted a farm located in West Azerbaijan province- city Nagadeh, West- Azerbaijan, during growing season of 2011- 2012. The experiment was arranged as split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Irrigation intervals (6, 12 and 18 days and three levels of salicylic acid concentration (0, 0.5 and 1 mM considered as in main plots and sub-plots, respectively. Results showed that irrigation had significant effects on all characteristics such as Plant height, number of follicule per plant, number of seed per follicule, biological yield, grain yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield with the exception of 1000- seed weight. With increasing irrigation intervals from 6 to 18 days, plant height, number of follicule per plant, number of seed per follicule, biological yield, grain yield, essential oil percentage and essential oil yield were decreased up to 49, 52, 40, 35, 43, 20 and 55 %, respectively. In contrast, yield components and yield were enhanced up to treatments 0.5 mM of salicylic acid. Grain yield and essential oil yield with application of 0.5 mM salicylic acid increased up to 13 and 11 % compared to control, respectively. It seems that due to the limited sources of water in the region irrigation after 12 days and 0.5 mM salicylic acid concentration are suitable for black cumin grain production.

  5. Calculation of Confidence Intervals for the Maximum Magnitude of Earthquakes in Different Seismotectonic Zones of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Mona; Zare, Mehdi; Holschneider, Matthias; Zöller, Gert

    2016-10-01

    The problem of estimating the maximum possible earthquake magnitude m_max has attracted growing attention in recent years. Due to sparse data, the role of uncertainties becomes crucial. In this work, we determine the uncertainties related to the maximum magnitude in terms of confidence intervals. Using an earthquake catalog of Iran, m_max is estimated for different predefined levels of confidence in six seismotectonic zones. Assuming the doubly truncated Gutenberg-Richter distribution as a statistical model for earthquake magnitudes, confidence intervals for the maximum possible magnitude of earthquakes are calculated in each zone. While the lower limit of the confidence interval is the magnitude of the maximum observed event,the upper limit is calculated from the catalog and the statistical model. For this aim, we use the original catalog which no declustering methods applied on as well as a declustered version of the catalog. Based on the study by Holschneider et al. (Bull Seismol Soc Am 101(4):1649-1659, 2011), the confidence interval for m_max is frequently unbounded, especially if high levels of confidence are required. In this case, no information is gained from the data. Therefore, we elaborate for which settings finite confidence levels are obtained. In this work, Iran is divided into six seismotectonic zones, namely Alborz, Azerbaijan, Zagros, Makran, Kopet Dagh, Central Iran. Although calculations of the confidence interval in Central Iran and Zagros seismotectonic zones are relatively acceptable for meaningful levels of confidence, results in Kopet Dagh, Alborz, Azerbaijan and Makran are not that much promising. The results indicate that estimating m_max from an earthquake catalog for reasonable levels of confidence alone is almost impossible.

  6. Local Technical Resources for Development of Seismic Monitoring in Caucasus and Central Asia - GMSys2009 Data Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkhaidze, D.; Basilaia, G.; Elashvili, M.; Shishlov, D.; Bidzinashvili, G.

    2012-12-01

    Caucasus and Central Asia represents regions of high seismic activity, composing a significant part of Alpine-Himalayan continental collision zone. Natural catastrophic events cause significant damage to the infrastructure worldwide, among these approximately ninety percent of the annual loss is due to earthquakes. Monitoring of Seismic Activity in these regions and adequate assessment of Seismic Hazards represents indispensible condition for safe and stable development. Existence of critical engineering constructions in the Caucasus and Central Asia such as oil and gas pipelines, high dams and nuclear power plants dramatically raises risks associated with natural hazards and eliminates necessity of proper monitoring systems. Our initial efforts were focused on areas that we are most familiar; the geophysical community in the greater Caucuses and Central Asia experiencing many of the same problems with the monitoring equipment. As a result, during the past years GMSys2009 was develop at the Institute of Earth Sciences of Ilia State University. Equipment represents a cost-effective, multifunctional Geophysical Data Acquisition System (DAS) to monitor seismic waves propagating in the earth and related geophysical parameters. Equipment best fits local requirements concerning power management, environmental protection and functionality, the same time competing commercial units available on the market. During past several years more than 30 units were assembled and what is most important installed in Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. GMSys2009 utilizes standard MiniSEED data format and data transmission protocols, making it possible online waveform data sharing between the neighboring Countries in the region and international community. All the mentioned installations were technically supported by the group of engineers from the Institute of Earth Sciences, on site trainings for local personnel in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan was provided creating a

  7. Calculation of Confidence Intervals for the Maximum Magnitude of Earthquakes in Different Seismotectonic Zones of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Mona; Zare, Mehdi; Holschneider, Matthias; Zöller, Gert

    2017-03-01

    The problem of estimating the maximum possible earthquake magnitude m_max has attracted growing attention in recent years. Due to sparse data, the role of uncertainties becomes crucial. In this work, we determine the uncertainties related to the maximum magnitude in terms of confidence intervals. Using an earthquake catalog of Iran, m_max is estimated for different predefined levels of confidence in six seismotectonic zones. Assuming the doubly truncated Gutenberg-Richter distribution as a statistical model for earthquake magnitudes, confidence intervals for the maximum possible magnitude of earthquakes are calculated in each zone. While the lower limit of the confidence interval is the magnitude of the maximum observed event,the upper limit is calculated from the catalog and the statistical model. For this aim, we use the original catalog which no declustering methods applied on as well as a declustered version of the catalog. Based on the study by Holschneider et al. (Bull Seismol Soc Am 101(4):1649-1659, 2011), the confidence interval for m_max is frequently unbounded, especially if high levels of confidence are required. In this case, no information is gained from the data. Therefore, we elaborate for which settings finite confidence levels are obtained. In this work, Iran is divided into six seismotectonic zones, namely Alborz, Azerbaijan, Zagros, Makran, Kopet Dagh, Central Iran. Although calculations of the confidence interval in Central Iran and Zagros seismotectonic zones are relatively acceptable for meaningful levels of confidence, results in Kopet Dagh, Alborz, Azerbaijan and Makran are not that much promising. The results indicate that estimating m_max from an earthquake catalog for reasonable levels of confidence alone is almost impossible.

  8. Ampelographic Characteristics and Molecular Investigation of Azerbaijani Local Grape Varieties by Microsatellites

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    VUGAR SALIMOV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at introducing of some local grapevine varieties cultivated in different areas of Azerbaijan. The cultivars are grown in the ampelographic collection of the Azerbaijani Scientific Research Institute of Viticulture and Wine-making. The description of their ampelographic specifications was based on the OIV list. Comparing cultivars, it has been found that, although there are similarities in various descriptor traits, most of the characteristics are distinctive of specific cultivars. A considerable polymorphism was found concerning the botanical features of leaves, clusters, berries, as well as considering some biological and technological characteristics. In more details, these genotypes differ each other by the morphological features of leaves; the shape, size and structure of clusters; the shape, color and flavor of berries; the productivity indices; the resistance to pests and diseases; the duration of their vegetative period; the sugar and acid contents; and the number of seeds in the berry. This study was carried out on nine grape cultivars grown in region Garabagh, Nakhchyvan and Absheron in 2008- 2012. Analyses of the ampelographic features of the studied grape varieties showed that the genotypes considerably differ by their main morphological, biological and technological characteristics. 42 Azerbaijani grape varieties (including above mentioned have been investigated comparatively with Caucasian countries` and European grape varieties. Based on the descriptive statistics Azerbaijani samples appeared having the highest genetic diversity. The first two coordinates of the PCoA differentiated the samples into two main clusters, despite the presence of overlapping zones: i the group clusterizing the most part of cultivars from Azerbaijan; ii the other Caucasian and European varieties. STRUCTURE analysis revealed the optimal K value equal to 3, highlighting 3 groups: i Central European group; ii an admixed group, containing

  9. Climatic Suitability of Growing Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo L. as a Medicinal Plant in Iran

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    Mohammad BANNAYAN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of production by including a broader range of plant species, can significantly contribute to improve health and nutrition, livelihoods, household food security and ecological sustainability. Exploring the climate impact on any given crop is one of the first priorities to find new suitable areas for production and management of new crops. Summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. is an economically valuable plant with various medicinal potentials. In order to investigate summer squash cultivation feasibility under Iran�s climate, three main agricultural regions (Azerbaijan, Khorasan and central part of Iran (Fars and Isfahan were selected. These regions suitability for summer squash cultivation were evaluated by considering three vital climate variables encompass temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours. These regions show distinct and representative climatic conditions of Iran. Annual and growing season average of maximum, minimum, mean temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours were calculated (May-September for all locations with 44 years historical weather data (1961-2005 for 8 locations (Oroomieh, Tabriz, Khoy, Mashhad, Sabzevar, Birjand, Shiraz and Isfahan, 39 years (1966-2005 for 2 locations (Kashan and Fassa, 28 years (1977-2005 for 4 locations (Ardebil, Abadeh, Bojnurd and Shargh Isfahan and 20 years (1985-2005 for 9 locations (Mahabad, Sarab, Maragheh, Parsabad, Khalkhal, Ferdous, Ghaen, Kashmar and Sarakhs. Climatic demands of summer squash were determined by four years field studies at four different locations in Iran. Our results showed Azerbaijan region has a suitable condition for this crop cultivation especially from precipitation and temperature perspectives. Central part of Iran and Khorasan were also found as partly suitable locations however as they are near to deserts with hotter and drier climate, there might be some other crops considered as priorities in these areas.

  10. AN ASSESSMENT ON UPPER KARABAKH ISSUE AND TURKEY-ARMENIA RELATIONS YUKARI KARABAĞ SORUNU VE TÜRKİYE-ERMENİSTAN İLİŞKİLERİ ÜZERİNE BİR DEĞERLENDİRME

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    Mustafa GÖKÇE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Karabakh issue has been one of the most important issues affecting stability in Caucasia after the fall of Soviets. In Karabakh which is a historical Turkish native country, Armenians were placed as from the Russia of Tsarizm and a region where the Armenians have a high population was created within the Azerbaijan lands. This field which is a mountainous region located in the upper parts of Karabakh is called Upper Karabakh or Nagorno- Karabakh. Due to the activities of Armenians settling in the region, conflicts started to happen as of the 19th Century and when came to 20th Century, these conflicts confronted us as a serious issue. During the fall of Soviets that have continued the population policies of the Russia of Tsarizm, the conflicts in Azerbaijan lands awaked again. In Upper Karabakh issue, Turkey has been seen as an important actor that would affect the process because of its historical and cultural bonds with Azerbaijan and also being a border neighbour to the region. While its military intervention in the region was discussed at the process when conflicts were experienced, Turkey has followed a more cautious policy and made efforts for solving the problem through peaceful ways at an international platform. Turkey, which is among the countries first recognizing the independencies of Azerbaijan and Armenia, has given importance to the Upper Karabakh issue in its relations with these countries. Being on the side of Azerbaijan, Turkey has closed the border of Armenia as a sanction. Within this scope, the relations started with Armenia were broken in a short time. And the steps taken towards normalizing the relations recently didn’t give any positive results due to the historical problems with Armenia and the continuation of occupancy in Azerbaijan lands. Yukarı Karabağ sorunu, Sovyetlerin çöküşünden sonra Kafkasya’daki istikrarı etkileyen sorunların başında yer almaktadır. Tarihi bir Türk yurdu olan Karaba

  11. Assessment of electrocardiography, echocardiography, and heart rate variability in dynamic and static type athletes

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    Ataei A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mehrnoush Toufan,1 Babak Kazemi,1 Fariborz Akbarzadeh,1 Amin Ataei,1 Majid Khalili21Cardiovascular Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, AzerbaijanBackground: Over the last two decades, morphological cardiac changes induced by athletic conditioning have been of great interest. Therefore, several studies have been orchestrated to delineate electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography, and heart rate variability (HRV findings in athletes.Purpose: To assess the ECG, echocardiography, and HRV in a group of dynamic and static type athletes.Methods: Fifty professional athletes (20 static and 30 dynamic exercise athletes and 50 healthy nonathletes (control group were recruited. Standard 12-lead ECG and transthoracic echocardiography was performed on all athletes and the control group. Through echocardiography, variables including left ventricular (LV end-diastolic/systolic diameter, LV mass, and left atrial volume index were measured. In addition, both the athletes and the control group underwent ECG Holter monitoring for 15 minutes and several parameters related to HRV (time and frequency domain were recorded.Results: The most common ECG abnormalities among the athletes were sinus bradycardia and incomplete right bundle branch block. LV end-diastolic diameter and left atrial volume index were significantly greater in the dynamic athletes (P < 0.001. LV end-systolic diameter was significantly lower in the static group (P < 0.001. LV mass of the dynamic and static athletes was significantly greater than that of the controls (P < 0.001. Among the ECG Holter monitoring findings, the dynamic athletes had lower systolic blood pressure than the controls (P = 0.01. Heart rate was lowest in the control group (P < 0.001.Conclusion: The most common ECG abnormalities among adolescent Iranian athletes were sinus bradycardia and incomplete right bundle branch block. Static exercise seemed

  12. NECATİ ŞİİRİNDE NESİMİ’DEN ETKİLENMENİN BOYUT VE BİÇİMLERİ / LEVELS AND FORMATS OF NASSIMI'S INFLUENCE TO THE POETRY OF NEJATI

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    Seadet ŞIHIYEVA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetDivanının birtakım yapısal özellikleri, ayrı ayrı şiirlerinin teknik yönleri ve söyleyiş tarzıyla kendi yolunu çizen Türk divan şiirinin ünlü isimlerinden İsa Necati’nin gerek kaynakları, gerek etki alanında Azerbaycan edebiyatı temsilcilerinin de önemli yeri vardır. Necati’nin Nesimi’ye (öl. 1417 yazdığı nazireler onun Azerbaycan-Türk şiirinden kaynaklanmasının açık göstergelerindendir. Nesimi ve Necati’nin şimdiye dek araştırılmamış edebî ilişkilerine onların aynı redifli çoklu sayıda şiirleri tanıklık etmektedir. Necati’nin şiiri bu cihetleri, aynı zamanda Nesimi’nin kardeşi Şah Handan’ın adını şiirine getirmesi, Fazlullah ve Nesimi’nin trajik ölümüne poetik işaretleriyle Nesimi araştırmacılığı için de özel bir önem arz etmektedirAbstractThe outstanding poet of Turkic poetry of XVI century Isa Nejati has drawn an own career with some specific architectonics, technical ability and a way of thoughts expression. The special place among his ideological sources took Azerbaijan poetry of XII-XIV centuries. He had mentioned not only a name of Nizami, but also used the motives and images, nontraditional for classical poetry and borrowed of products of this outstanding poet. Many nazires written on the gazelles of Nassimi are indicators of taking from Azerbaijan-Turkic poetry. Set of verses with identical redif, poetical figures and style are witnesses of a literary communication of Nejati with Nassimi. His Divan has special value for Nassimi studies. And also very important are beyts, mentioning a name of his brother and poetic hints on the tragic death of the poet and his tutor Fazlullah.

  13. Incidence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Oskoo (Northwest Iran: An Approach through WHO CVD-risk Management Package for Low–and Medium-Resource Settings on 37,329 Adults ≥30 Years Old

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    Ahmadali Khalili

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors [hypertension (HTN, obesity, Dyslipidemia (DLP, diabetes mellitus (DM and smoking] in Oskoo. Methods: This study was planned according to WHO protocol “WHO CVD-risk management package for low and medium-resource settings” and named “East Azerbaijan healthy heart program”. The pilot study of this program was done in Oskoo in 2007-2009. In this study, demographic data and CVD risk factors of 37,329 adults aged ≥30 years old living in Oskoo were collected. In addition, blood samples of 17,388 adults ≥40 years old were taken (free of charge for assessment of serum glucose and lipid profile. Results: The study covered 93.52% of Oskoo town population aged≥30 years old. We studied 18637 male (91.50% coverage and 18692 female (95.52% coverage participants. The incidence of HTN [SBP≥140 & DBP≥90 mmHg] was 16.25% (M:15.08%, F:17.29%, pre-hypertension [SBP=120-139 & DBP=80-89 mmHg] =37.78% (M:41.38%, F:34.18%, DM [fast blood glucose (FBS≥126mg/dl] was 7.45% (M:6.35%, F:8.54%, smoking was 9.40% (M:17.00%, F:1.57%, hypercholesterolemia (>200mg/dl was 47.64% (M:42.46%, F:52.81% and obesity [body mass index (BMI ≥27] was 50.47% (M:38.79%, F:62.09%. Conclusion: Considering high incidence of CVD risk factors (except smoking in Oskoo adults ≥30 years, it is recommended that this pilot study expanded to all of East Azerbaijan. Free of charge taking blood samples from people ≥ 40 years to evaluate lipid profile and glucose levels is worthy to early detecting the prevalent DM or DLP in this target population.

  14. Helicobacter pylori vacA i region polymorphism but not babA2 status associated to gastric cancer risk in northwestern Iran.

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    Mottaghi, Batool; Safaralizadeh, Reza; Bonyadi, Morteza; Latifi-Navid, Saeid; Somi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori-specific genotypes have been strongly associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer (GC). The aim of the present work was to study the associations of H. pylori virulence factors, vacA i region polymorphisms and babA2 status with GC risk in Azerbaijan patients. The DNA extracted from gastric biopsy specimens was used to access the babA2 and vacA genotypes. Overall, babA2 was present in 85.39 % (76/89) of H. pylori strains: 19 out of 24 (79.16 %) strains from GC, 16 out of 17 (94.14 %) strains from peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and 41 out of 48 (85.14 %) strains from chronic gastritis. No significant association was found between babA2 genotype and clinical outcomes (P > 0.05). i1 vacA polymorphism was detected in 46/89 (51.68 %) strains: in 21/24 (87.5 %), 6/17 (35.29 %) and 19/48 (39.58 %) patients with GC, PUD and chronic gastritis, respectively. i2 allele was detected in 43 (48.31 %) out of all 89 strains examined: 3 (14.28 %) of 24 strains from GC, 11 (64.71 %) of 17 from PUD, and 29 (60.42 %) of 48 strains from chronic gastritis. In this study, multiple linear regression analysis confirmed the strong association of i1 allele with GC (partial regression correlation 0.455 ± 0.101; P = 0). Results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that vacA i1 genotype was significantly associated with GC compared with a control group (gastritis) (odds ratio 13.142, 95 % CI 3.116-55.430; P = 0). Findings from the measurement of H. pylori babA2 and vacA genotypes indicate a strong correlation between the vacA i1 allele and GC risk in the Azerbaijan area of Iran.

  15. The political economy of oil in post-Soviet Kazakhstan

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    Omarova, Saule Tarikhovna

    This dissertation examines the way in which the Kazakhstani state redefined its role in managing oil and gas resources between 1992 and 1998. The governments of hydrocarbon-rich post-Soviet republics such as Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan faced the common challenge of restructuring their petroleum industries to boost the export of oil and gas. This study argues that by 1998 three patterns have emerged, ranging from a more radical state retrenchment in Russia, to reinforced state monopoly in Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, to a "mixed" pattern of state participation in Kazakhstan, consisting of both large-scale privatization of oil assets and the formation of a fully state-owned national oil company, Kazakhoil. This dissertation analyzes the process of restructuring Kazakhstan's oil sector through comparison with the Russian petroleum industry. In Russia, several private, vertically integrated oil companies (VICs) were formed on the basis of existing oil-producing units and soon emerged as essential players in the Russian oil sector. By contrast, Kazakhstan's marginalized status within the Soviet system of oil production resulted in the absence of organizationally strong sectoral interests capable of claiming control over the industry after the independence. Privatization of Kazakhstan's oil enterprises, conducted by the government in spite of the resistance from local oil managers, transferred controlling stakes to foreign investors and further weakened domestic oil interests. Unencumbered state autonomy allowed the increasingly authoritarian Kazakhstani government to adopt relatively modern and investor-friendly petroleum legislation by decree. In Russia, the government's efforts to reform oil-related legislation were blocked by the leftist-dominated Duma, the democratically elected lower chamber of the Russian parliament. On the basis of these findings, this dissertation concludes that the dynamics of state withdrawal from the oil sector in post

  16. Comparison of Scheimpflug imaging parameters between steep and keratoconic corneas of Caucasian eyes

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    Huseynova T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tukezban Huseynova,1 Farah Abdulaliyeva,2 Michele Lanza3 1Briz-L Eye Clinic, 2National Ophthalmology Center, Baku, Azerbaijan; 3Second University of Naples, Caserta, Campania, Italy Purpose: To compare the keratometric and pachymetric parameters of healthy eyes with those affected by steep cornea and keratoconus (KC using Scheimpflug camera.Setting: Briz-L Eye Clinic, Baku, Azerbaijan.Design: A cross-sectional study.Methods: In this study, 49 KC (Amsler–Krumeich stage 1 eyes and 36 healthy eyes were enrolled. A complete ophthalmic evaluation and a Scheimpflug camera scan were performed in every eye included in the study. Tomographic parameters such as parameters from the front and back cornea, maximum keratometry reading (Kmax, corneal volume (CV, anterior chamber volume (ChV, anterior chamber depth (ACD, anterior chamber angle (AC angle, keratometric power deviation (KPD, maximum front elevation (Max FE, and maximum back elevation (Max BE, as well as pachymetric progression indices (PPI, Ambrosio relational thickness (ART, index of surface variance (ISV, index of vertical asymmetry (IVA, center keratoconus index (CKI, index of height asymmetry (IHA, index of height decentration (IHD, and radius minimum (RM were collected and statistically compared between the two groups.Results: PPI, ART, ISV, IVA, CKI, IHA, IHD, and RM parameter values were significantly different (P<0.05 between the KC and healthy eyes. There were no significant differences in K mean and Q values of the frontal corneal parameters, as well as in Kmax, AC angle, RM, back, and front astigmatism, between stage 1 keratoconic and normal Caucasian eyes with steep cornea. All other parameters such as K mean and Q values of the back corneal parameters, Max FE, Max BE, ACD, ChV, and CV showed significant differences between the groups (P<0.05 for all. Conclusion: Scheimpflug imaging is able to detect corneal morphological differences between stage 1 KC eyes and healthy eyes with

  17. Individual and community level socioeconomic inequalities in contraceptive use in 10 Newly Independent States: a multilevel cross-sectional analysis

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    Janevic Teresa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Little is known regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and contraceptive use in the Newly Independent States (NIS, countries that have experienced profound changes in reproductive health services during the transition from socialism to a market economy. Methods Using 2005–2006 data from Demographic Health Surveys (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Moldova and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan, we examined associations between individual and community socioeconomic status with current modern contraceptive use (MCU among N = 55,204 women aged 15–49 married or in a union. Individual socioeconomic status was measured using quintiles of wealth index and education level (higher than secondary school, secondary school or less. Community socioeconomic status was measured as the percentage of households in the poorest quintile of the nationals household wealth index (0%, 0–25%, or greater than 25%. We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate associations adjusted for age, number of children, urban/rural, and socioeconomic variables. Results MCU varied by country from 14% (in Azerbaijan to 62% (in Belarus. Overall, women living in the poorest communities were less likely than those in the richest to use modern contraceptives (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 0.82, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.76, 0.89. Similarly, there was an increasing odds of MCU with increasing individual-level wealth. Women with a lower level of education also had lower odds of MCU than those with a higher level of education (aOR = .75, 95%CI = 0.71, 0.79. In country-specific analyses, community-level socioeconomic inequalities were apparent in 4 of 10 countries; in contrast, inequalities by individual-level wealth were apparent in 7 countries and by education in 8 countries. All countries in which community-level socioeconomic status was associated with

  18. EU Humanitarian Programs and regional identity in the South Caucasus

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    Arkhipova Ekaterina Vladimirovna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available EU Humanitarian Programs in the Southern Caucasus States are considered in the article. The increasing number and importance of the programs developing person-toperson contacts for the conflicting areas are noted. The influence of TRACECA and INOGATE programs was very significant in developing the local economies. Humanitarian aspects became important since 1992 when the first peace-building conferences of the Minsk group on Nagorno-Karabakh conflict took place. The political cooperation was institutionalized in 2004 with the implementing the European Neighborhood program. According to the “Eastern Partnership” a number of grants was offered to develop so called “new democracies”. A lot of educational programs provided the space for the personal cooperation in the area now are implementing. Mobility Partnerships program provides the regional cooperation in the migration policy. Consequently all the EU programs make the European volumes popular for the Caucasian inhabitants. That’s why the author puts the question about possible transformations in the regional identity. The states elites declare the importance for developing close contacts with EU institutes. Still there are some arguable issues. The status of sexual minorities in Azerbaijan provides the base for the mutual discontent in their relations with EU. Yet Azerbaijan has enough financial resources (based on the petrol supplies to reduce the EU influence in some objectionable fields. Georgia under M. Saakashvili ruling showed a strong trend towards EU and “Western” values on the whole. But this trend was mainly based on the strategies of the state financial surviving. There are some evidences proving that the main target of this police was to make a distance from the Russian policy. Armenia may be introduces as the state with strong interests in European cooperation for developing its economy. But there are also some important projects connecting Armenia with Russia, still

  19. Patterns and trends in human papillomavirus-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

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    Bray, Freddie; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Znaor, Ariana; Brotons, Maria; Poljak, Mario; Arbyn, Marc

    2013-12-31

    This article provides an overview of cervical cancer and other human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the Former Yugoslav Republic [FYR] of Macedonia) and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan). Despite two- to three-fold variations, cervical cancer incidence rates are high in many countries in these two regions relative to other populations on the European and Asian continents. In Central and Eastern Europe, Romania and the FYR of Macedonia had the highest rates in 2008 alongside Bulgaria, Lithuania and Serbia, while in Central Asia, rates are elevated in Kyrgyzstan (the highest rates across the regions), Kazakhstan and Armenia. In each of these countries, at least one woman in 50 develops cervical cancer before the age of 75. The high cervical cancer burden is exacerbated by a lack of effective screening and an increasing risk of death from the disease among young women, as observed in Belarus, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. In several countries with longstanding cancer registries of reasonable quality (Belarus, Estonia and the Russian Federation), there are clear birth cohort effects; the risk of onset of cervical cancer is increasing in successive generations of women born from around 1940-50, a general phenomenon indicative of changing sexual behaviour and increasing risk of persistent HPV infection. There are limited data for other HPV-related cancers and other diseases at present in these countries. While options for reducing the HPV-related disease burden are resource-dependent, universal HPV vaccination with enhanced screening would maximally reduce the burden of

  20. National Laboratory Planning: Developing Sustainable Biocontainment Laboratories in Limited Resource Areas.

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    Yeh, Kenneth B; Adams, Martin; Stamper, Paul D; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Hewson, Roger; Buck, Charles D; Richards, Allen L; Hay, John

    2016-01-01

    Strategic laboratory planning in limited resource areas is essential for addressing global health security issues. Establishing a national reference laboratory, especially one with BSL-3 or -4 biocontainment facilities, requires a heavy investment of resources, a multisectoral approach, and commitments from multiple stakeholders. We make the case for donor organizations and recipient partners to develop a comprehensive laboratory operations roadmap that addresses factors such as mission and roles, engaging national and political support, securing financial support, defining stakeholder involvement, fostering partnerships, and building trust. Successful development occurred with projects in African countries and in Azerbaijan, where strong leadership and a clear management framework have been key to success. A clearly identified and agreed management framework facilitate identifying the responsibility for developing laboratory capabilities and support services, including biosafety and biosecurity, quality assurance, equipment maintenance, supply chain establishment, staff certification and training, retention of human resources, and sustainable operating revenue. These capabilities and support services pose rate-limiting yet necessary challenges. Laboratory capabilities depend on mission and role, as determined by all stakeholders, and demonstrate the need for relevant metrics to monitor the success of the laboratory, including support for internal and external audits. Our analysis concludes that alternative frameworks for success exist for developing and implementing capabilities at regional and national levels in limited resource areas. Thus, achieving a balance for standardizing practices between local procedures and accepted international standards is a prerequisite for integrating new facilities into a country's existing public health infrastructure and into the overall international scientific community.

  1. The Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention Based on the Health Belief Model in the Empowerment of Stockbreeders Against High-Risk Behaviors Associated with Brucellosis

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    Vahid Babaei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Brucellosis is among the most common zoonotic diseases. Educational programs can be effective in the prevention of this disease in humans. The present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention based on the Health Belief Model (HBM in the empowerment of stockbreeders against high risk behaviors associated with brucellosis in Charuymaq county, East Azerbaijan. Materials and Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted in 2014 in Charuymaq county. A total of 200 people selected through stratified random sampling participated in the study. Data were collected using a researcher-designed questionnaire including items on participants' demographic information, knowledge and the HBM constructs. Training sessions were then designed and held for the intervention group. Three months after the intervention was held, data were collected from both groups and then analyzed using descriptive statistics including the Mann-Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon test. Results: The mean scores obtained for knowledge, HBM constructs (perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers and benefits and self-efficacy and brucellosis preventive behaviors showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention however, after the educational intervention, significant differences were observed between the mean scores obtained by the intervention group and the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: The cooperation of charismatic individuals with intervention programs and the use of education theories can be more effective in modifying high-risk behaviors these programs should therefore be widely implemented across the country.

  2. Women and health consequences of natural disasters: Challenge or opportunity?

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    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Tourani PhD, Sogand; Khankeh, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Disasters do not affect people equally; the impact of disasters on the lives of women is different from other groups of a community. Women's fundamental rights to health and safety are violated after disasters. The authors of this study aimed to explore various factors of women's health with reference to previous natural disasters in Iran. A qualitative approach using in-depth unstructured interviews and field observations was employed to explore women's health factors in the affected regions. A total of 22 participants affected by disasters, as well as key informants, were interviewed applying the purposeful sampling method. Data were collected in 2014 in three provinces, including East Azerbaijan, Bushehr, and Mazandaran. A content analysis using the Graneheim approach was performed for analyzing the transcribed interviews. Two themes and four categories were extracted from the data. The themes that emerged included psycho-physical effects and women's health status. Physical and psycho-emotional effects and reproductive and environmental health effects were the four emergent categories. The findings implied that managing women's health challenges may result in reducing the distressing effects of disaster. These findings support identification and application of the mechanisms by which women's well-being in physical, mental, reproductive, and environmental aspects can be protected after disasters.

  3. The Relationship between Folic Acid Intake and Infant Birth Weight

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    Fariba Esmailzadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Folic acid is a B vitamin which 5mg daily intake before gestation and until the tenth week of pregnancy is recommended. Since no study has been conducted in some regions of East Azerbaijan including Bostanabad, Khosroshahr and Sarab and no prevalence was spotted in country specific studies, therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between folic acid intake and infant birth weight. Material and Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort. In this study, 1939 of pregnant women who were referred to health care centers before pregnancy were selected randomly. They were divided into two groups: first group of pregnant women who regularly took folic acid before pregnancy and second group included the women who did not take folic acid supplements. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using T-Test and ANOVA. Results: This study was conducted on 1939 mothers who had an average age of 25.98 years and average infants birth weight was 3.209 kg. Totally, 92.9% of the mothers had regular consumption of folic acid during pregnancy. Analysis of the results showed that with increasing maternal BMI, birth weight also increased. It showed a significant relationship between regular folic acid intake and increase in infant birth weight. Conclusion : Our results showed that both high maternal pre-pregnancy weight and folic acid intake lead to higher birth weight infants.

  4. Prevalence of virulent Yersinia enterocolitica in bulk raw milk and retail cheese in northern-west of Iran.

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    Hanifian, Shahram; Khani, Sajjad

    2012-04-02

    To determine the prevalence of virulent Yersinia enterocolitica, 554 samples consisting of 354 bulk raw milks and 200 traditional cheeses were collected from different parts of Eastern-Azerbaijan province, during a 23-month period from 2008 to 2010. The occurrence of virulent strains of Y. enterocolitica in samples enriched in peptone sorbitol bile broth (PSBB) was evaluated via the detection of attachment invasion locus (ail) gene by PCR. The viability of virulent Y. enterocolitica in the PCR-positive samples was tested using conventional culture method and the isolates were confirmed by the second-phase ail-PCR. According to the results, 8.66% of total samples including 7.62% of bulk raw milks and 10.5% of raw milk cheeses were found ail-positive by PCR method; subsequently Y. enterocolitica was isolated by the culture method and confirmed by the second phase ail-PCR in 2.88% of total samples including 2.26% of raw milks and 4% of cheese samples. It was concluded that, a sample enrichment followed by ail-PCR was more sensitive and robust to detect and distinguish the virulent strains of Y. enterocolitica compared to the conventional culture method.

  5. Effects of geomagnetic activity variations on the physiological and psychological state of functionally healthy humans: Some results of Azerbaijani studies

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    Babayev, Elchin S.; Allahverdiyeva, Aysel A.

    There are collaborative and cross-disciplinary space weather studies in the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences conducted with purposes of revealing possible effects of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray variability on certain technological, biological and ecological systems. This paper describes some results of the experimental studies of influence of the periodical and aperiodical changes of geomagnetic activity upon human brain, human health and psycho-emotional state. It also covers the conclusions of studies on influence of violent solar events and severe geomagnetic storms of the solar cycle 23 on the mentioned systems in middle-latitude location. It is experimentally established that weak and moderate geomagnetic storms do not cause significant changes in the brain's bioelectrical activity and exert only stimulating influence while severe disturbances of geomagnetic conditions cause negative influence, seriously disintegrate brain's functionality, activate braking processes and amplify the negative emotional background of an individual. It is concluded that geomagnetic disturbances affect mainly emotional and vegetative spheres of human beings while characteristics reflecting personality properties do not undergo significant changes.

  6. Patient Safety in Medical Education: Students’ Perceptions, Knowledge and Attitudes

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    Nabilou, Bahram; Feizi, Aram; Seyedin, Hesam

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students’ perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students studying medicine, nursing, and midwifery were recruited through census for the study. A questionnaire was used for collecting data, which were then analyzed through SPSS statistical software (version 16.0), using Chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient, F and LSD tests. A total of 121 questionnaires were completed, and 50% of the students demonstrated good knowledge about patient safety. The relationships between students’ attitudes to patient safety and years of study, sex and course were significant (0.003, 0.001 and 0.017, respectively). F and LSD tests indicated that regarding the difference between the mean scores of perceptions of patient safety and attitudes to patient safety education, there was a significant difference among medical and nursing/midwifery students. Little knowledge of students regarding patient safety indicates the inefficiency of informal education to fill the gap; therefore, it is recommended to consider patient safety in the curriculums of all medical and paramedical sciences and formulate better policies for patient safety. PMID:26322897

  7. Patient Safety in Medical Education: Students' Perceptions, Knowledge and Attitudes.

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    Bahram Nabilou

    Full Text Available Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students' perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students studying medicine, nursing, and midwifery were recruited through census for the study. A questionnaire was used for collecting data, which were then analyzed through SPSS statistical software (version 16.0, using Chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient, F and LSD tests. A total of 121 questionnaires were completed, and 50% of the students demonstrated good knowledge about patient safety. The relationships between students' attitudes to patient safety and years of study, sex and course were significant (0.003, 0.001 and 0.017, respectively. F and LSD tests indicated that regarding the difference between the mean scores of perceptions of patient safety and attitudes to patient safety education, there was a significant difference among medical and nursing/midwifery students. Little knowledge of students regarding patient safety indicates the inefficiency of informal education to fill the gap; therefore, it is recommended to consider patient safety in the curriculums of all medical and paramedical sciences and formulate better policies for patient safety.

  8. Documentation of Customer Management Processes: Regards for MSCs Performance

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    Hassan Khalili

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks the role of documentation of customer management processes on MSCs performance. Customer management processes includes: customer acquisition and customer retention that document the process helps sales managers in better planning. The population of the research is firms of industrial state of East Azerbaijan and Fars Provinces. The questionnaire gathered as an email and firm Attending survey, the dataset involved responses from sales and directors of the 127 firms. KMO and Bartlett's sphericity index for sampling adequacy was used the results indicate that the number of samples is suitable for factor analysis. Construction validation, so Cronbach's alpha, Spearman-Brown coefficient and Guttman split-half Coefficient was used to assess questionnaire that results show that the instrument has good validity and reliability. The regression analysis and path analysis have used for analyzing data and testing the research hypothesizes. In accordance with the results of simple linear regression analysis, documentation in compared management practices to facilitate employee and customer relationships for predict of performance has no information relative content. In addition, environmental turbulence has a negative impact on performance. But the results of hierarchical regression analyzes showed that documentation has information valuable content for predict of performance. Finally, ‎ the results of article have presented ‎solutions to salesperson and managers, and will help academics to understand the documentation CM processes.

  9. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B, C and HIV/AIDS in Asylum Seekers in Istanbul

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    Kadriye Kart Yaşar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:This study aimed to determine prevalence of hepatitis B, C and HIV/AIDS in asylum seekers in Istanbul, Turkey. Methods: The data about asylum seekers who applied in Istanbul between March 2008 and March 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. Demographic features and markers of blood borne infections (HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV results of asylum seekers were reviewed. Results: In total 3043 asylum seekers were included into the study. The leading origin countries of the refugees were from Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan and majority of them (2328 people, 77% were male. The young adults between 25 and 45 years constituted the most crowded group. Overall prevalence of HCV, HBsAg and HIV/AIDS were 12.2%, 5.9% and 0.7%, respectively. The highest seropositivity rate for anti-HCV, HBsAg and anti-HIV were found in Georgian males (47.1%; in Moldovan males (13.2% and in Somali males (3.1%, respectively. Conclusion:Mostly asylum seekers who have migrated to our country were young adult males from Asia. The highest prevalence rate of HCV was found in Georgian males. Therefore, the increased potential of migration to our country along the recent years necessitates development of an appropriate health approach concerning asylum seekers. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;4(1: 20-25

  10. Prediction Value of CRIB-II in Outcome of Preterm and Low Birth Weight Infants: a Prospective Cohort Study

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    Mohammad Heidarzadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common methods of identifying mortality risk is the Clinical Risk Index for Babies scoring system (CRIB- II. The aim of this study was assessing the value of CRIB- II in predicting mortality risk in preterm and low birth weight infants in East Azerbaijan- Iran. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was carried out in 2013-2014 during 6 months in NICUs of Alzahra, Taleqani and Children hospitals of Tabriz-Iran. All infants ≤ 32 weeks’ gestational age or ≤ 1500gr birth weight were included in the study using consecutive method. After calculating CRIB- II score, the infants were followed up at 3 months of age and their outcome was determined. The data was analyzed using SPSS-13, t- test, receiver operating characteristics (ROC and area under curve (AUC and relative risk (RR. Results: Of total 215 infants, 64 infants (29.7% died in the hospital and one infant (0.4% died after discharging from the hospital. 150 (68.8% infants, were alive at 3 months age follow up. The mean of CRIB- II score in the group of dead infants was higher and statistically significant compared to the group of alive infants (P

  11. A novel robust chance constrained possibilistic programming model for disaster relief logistics under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rahafrooz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel multi-objective robust possibilistic programming model is proposed, which simultaneously considers maximizing the distributive justice in relief distribution, minimizing the risk of relief distribution, and minimizing the total logistics costs. To effectively cope with the uncertainties of the after-disaster environment, the uncertain parameters of the proposed model are considered in the form of fuzzy trapezoidal numbers. The proposed model not only considers relief commodities priority and demand points priority in relief distribution, but also considers the difference between the pre-disaster and post-disaster supply abilities of the suppliers. In order to solve the proposed model, the LP-metric and the improved augmented ε-constraint methods are used. Second, a set of test problems are designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed robust model against its equivalent deterministic form, which reveales the capabilities of the robust model. Finally, to illustrate the performance of the proposed robust model, a seismic region of northwestern Iran (East Azerbaijan is selected as a case study to model its relief logistics in the face of future earthquakes. This investigation indicates the usefulness of the proposed model in the field of crisis.

  12. A Qualitative Study of Bottlenecks and Causes of Fractions for Dedicated Incomes of Health Centers and Solutions for their Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Alidoost, Saeide; Abdolahi, Hossein Mashhadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary health care is one of effective approaches for improving public health. Providing optimal cares requires supplication of various resources such as financial resources. “Fractions of incomes” in health centers is one of the remarkable problems for the domain of financial resources management in Iran. This study was aimed to identify bottlenecks and causes of fractions for incomes in health centers and solutions for their reduction. Methods: The current study was conducted in a qualitative phenomenology method in East Azerbaijan province of Iran in 2014. Data collection method was focus group discussion and semi-structured interview. Purposive sampling was used for selecting participants. Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted based on pre-prepared guidance and continued till data saturation. Validity of guidance was approved by qualitative studies experts. Data were analyzed using content analysis method. Results: Based on the opinions of participants, two and six themes were respectively extracted for bottlenecks of fractions and causes and solutions for their reduction. Themes for bottlenecks of fractions included cash (monetary) and non-cash (non-monetary) fractions and themes for causes and solutions included causes and solutions for fractions per capita, insurance deductions, fractions related to sending documents, registration fractions, discounts fractions, and incomplete deposit of cash incomes. Conclusion: All cash and non-cash incomes of health centers are subject to fractions. The causes of fractions are related to the whole process of converting services to incomes and insurance requirements. Identified solutions and interventions also focus on these areas.

  13. Peculiarities of the dielectric response of the silver-modified-zeolite porous microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyatova, U.; Ozturk Koc, S.; Orbukh, V. I.; Eyvazova, G. M.; Agamaliev, Z. A.; Lebedeva, N. N.; Koçum, İ. C.; Salamov, B. G.; Ozer, M.

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize electrical conductivity and dielectrical properties of the silver-exchanged zeolite - natural clinoptilolite from Western part of Turkey and Azerbaijan in the range of frequencies from 200 Hz to 1 MHz and at room temperature. For a better understanding the effect of concentration and content of silver in the nanoporous zeolite volume on the conductivity, a study of the dielectric properties of an un-modified and silver-modified zeolite plates with different amounts of Ag ions and Ag nanoparticles is performed. Un-modified and three different types of the silver ion-exchanged modified clinoptilolite plates were prepared. It was found, that with increasing silver concentration, resistance of zeolite plate monotonically decreases at the same time a capacitance is increases. It is suggested an explanation of the observed frequency dependence of the capacitance and resistance of zeolite plates on the silver concentrations may be explain on the basis of an electrode-dielectric interface gap model. At the same time, the observed phenomenon can be explained by considering the fact that with increasing content of silver the conductivity increases. These results show that Ag nanoparticles play significant role for performance improvement in plasma electronic devices with zeolite cathode.

  14. New data on the genus Hybos Meigen (Diptera: Hybotidae) from the Palaearctic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshev, Igor; Grootaert, Patrick; Kustov, Semen

    2015-03-23

    The taxonomy and distribution of the genus Hybos Meigen in the Palaearctic Region is reviewed with a special reference to the European fauna. Twenty-three species have been recorded from the Palaearctic, of which only four species are known from Europe. We describe two new species, H. andradei sp. nov. (Portugal) and H. mediasiaticus sp. nov. (Middle Asia). The status of two previously considered doubtful species of Hybos are validated: H. striatellus Villeneuve, 1913 (Algeria) and H. vagans Loew, 1874 (the Caucasus). Both species are re-described, and the lectotype of H. striatellus is designated. A key to species of Hybos from the western Palaearctic is compiled. Numerous new data on distributions of H. culiciformis (Fabricius, 1775), H. femoratus (Müller, 1776), H. grossipes (Linné, 1767) and H. vagans are given. Hybos culiciformis is recorded for the first time from Algeria, Byelorussia, Croatia, Cyprus, Lebanon, and Portugal; H. femoratus-from Estonia, Georgia (including Abkhazia), Kazakhstan, Mongolia and Ukraine; H. grossipes-from Byelorussia, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Mongolia, Ukraine; H. vagans-from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia (including Abkhazia), Russia, Turkey. The variation of some characters in H. culiciformis is discussed and is confirmed for Portugese specimens by COI barcoding. Female postabdominal structures are examined and described for H. andradei sp. nov., H. culiciformis, H. femoratus, H. grossipes, H. mediasiaticus sp. nov., and H. striatellus. Possible relationships of the West-Palaearctic species are discussed. A check-list of Hybos from the Palaearctic Realm is provided.

  15. Isolation and molecular characterization of Acanthamoeba genotypes isolated from soil sources of public and recreational areas in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamati, Seyed Ahmad; Niyyati, Maryam; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Lasjerdi, Zohreh

    2016-12-01

    Pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba are causative agents of a sight threating infection of the cornea known as Acanthamoeba keratitis. AK cases have been reported in Iran recently due to inappropriate usage of contact lens maintenance and most patients report a contact with contaminated sources such as dust, water or soil. Sixty soil samples were collected from public and recreational areas in the province of East Azerbaijan, Iran and checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. Samples were cultured on non-nutrient agar plates seeded with heat killed Escherichia coli. PCR and sequencing of the DF3 region were carried out in order to genotype the isolated strains of Acanthamoeba. Thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays were performed in order to investigate the pathogenic potential of isolated Acanthamoeba strains. Acanthamoeba spp. was isolated from 41.6% of soil samples and genotyping of the strains resulted in the identification of genotypes T3, T4, T5 and T11. Most of the isolates belonging to genotypes T3 and T4 showed high pathogenic potential, indicating that they might present a potential health hazard for humans and other animals in this region. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification of genotypes T3 and T11 from soil sources in the country.

  16. The relative significance of lexical richness and syntactic complexity as predictors of academic reading performance

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    Mehdi Karami

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reading academic texts that include mainly university textbooks has been a challenge for EAP learners. There are various reasons for text difficulty; however, linguistic elements were investigated in this study. The aim of this study was to determine whether lexical richness of the readers would be a more potent predictor of their academic reading performance or their ability for producing and processing complex syntactic structures. The study involved 50 ELT teacher trainees, 25 juniors and 25 seniors, at Shahid Madani University of Azerbaijan, Iran. In a standard multiple regression design, the participants were given an opinion essay-writing task and an IELTS academic reading test. Their scores on IELTS academic reading test were regressed against LFP (Lexical Frequency Profile and MLTU (Mean Length of T-Unit indexes of their essays. LFP index is a measure of lexical richness adapted to the web for free online access under the name Web-VocabProfile, and MLTU index is a measure of syntactic complexity. Results indicated that the ability in producing and processing complex syntactic structures rather than mere grammatical knowledge can be considered as effective a predictor of academic reading comprehension as lexical richness. Therefore, lexical richness may no longer be supposed as the single most important predictor of academic reading performance.

  17. An evaluation of eco-friendly naturally coloured cottons regarding seed cotton yield, yield components and major lint quality traits under conditions of East Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Lale; Killi, Fatih; Mustafayev, Sefer A

    2009-10-15

    In the study carried out in 2002-2003 in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey (in Kahramanmaras Province), four different naturally coloured cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (dark brown, light brown, cream and green) lines from Azerbaijan and two white linted cotton varieties (Maras-92 and Sayar-314 (G. hirsutum L.)) of the region were used as material. The aim of this study was to determine seed cotton yield and yield components and major lint quality traits of investigated coloured cotton lines comprising white linted local standard cotton varieties. Field trials were established in randomized block design with four blocks. According to two year's results, it was determined that naturally coloured cottons were found similar to both white linted standard cotton varieties for sympodia number and seed cotton yield. For boll number per plant, except green cotton line all coloured cotton lines were similar to standard varieties or even some of them were better than standards. For ginning outturn, dark brown, cream and green cotton lines were found statistically similar to standard Maras-92. But all naturally coloured cotton lines had lower seed cotton weight per boll and generally lower fiber quality than white linted standard varieties. For fiber length and fiber strength cream cotton line was the best coloured cotton. And for fiber fineness only green cotton line was better than both standards. It can be said that naturally coloured cotton lines need to be improved especially for fiber quality characters in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey.

  18. Investigation of five polymorphic DNA markers associated with late onset Alzheimer disease

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    Gharesouran Jalal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory and cognitive impairment and is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly. The aim of our study was to examine the polymorphic DNA markers CCR2 (+190 G/A, CCR5Δ32, TNF-α (-308 G/A, TNF-α (-863 C/A and CALHM1 (+394 C/T to determine the relationship between these polymorphisms and the risk of late onset Alzheimer's disease in the population of Eastern Azerbaijan of Iran. A total of 160 patient samples and 163 healthy controls were genotyped by PCR-RFLP and the results confirmed using bidirectional sequencing. Statistical analysis of obtained data revealed non-significant difference between frequency of CCR5Δ32 in case and control groups. The same result was observed for TNF-α (-863 C/A genotype and allele frequencies. Contrary to above results, significant differences were detected in frequency of TNF-α (-308 G/A and CCR2-64I genotypes between the cases and healthy controls. A weak significant difference observed between allele and genotype frequencies of rs2986017 in CALHM1 (+394 C/T; P86L in patient and control samples. It can be concluded that the T allele of P86L variant in CALHM1 & +190 G/A allele of CCR2 have a protective role against abnormal clinical features of Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Toxocara Spp. Eggs in Public Parks of Urmia City, West Azer¬baijan Province Iran

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    S Charesaz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The visceral larva migrans (VLM is a syndrome observed in human infection with helminth larval eggs such as the Toxocara spp. that usually infects dogs and cats. Among the risk factors involved in the occurrence of VLM, partic­ularly importance of these animal populations, an investigation was carried out for the presence of Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks in the city of Urmia, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran."nMethods: Samples were collected from total 26 existing public parks in Urmia from December 2003 to March 2004. Soil samples were collected from 3-4 distinct sites in the same area. The floating material was analyzed under the light micro­scope."nResults: Toxocara spp. eggs were found in 8 samples of total 102 taken samples from 26 public parks showed a contami­nation rate of 7.8%. The number of observed Toxacara eggs in each microscopic field was varied from 1-8."nConclusion: Low rate of contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in Urmia parks might be due to lower dog population and cultural differences of present study in this city in comparison of other cities of the world.

  20. Interfaith education: An Islamic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavicini, Yahya Sergio Yahe

    2016-08-01

    According to a teaching of the Prophet Muhammad, "the quest for knowledge is the duty of each Muslim, male or female", where knowledge is meant as the discovery of the real value of things and of oneself in relationship with the world in which God has placed us. This universal dimension of knowledge is in fact a wealth of wisdom of the traditional doctrine naturally linked to the cultural and spiritual heritage of every human being and every believer of every faith. It allows for the respect of internal and external differences as positive elements of the cultural and spiritual heritage of mankind. In this sense, intercultural and interfaith education plays a fundamental role and fits naturally within the Islamic religious education framework. The author of this article is Vice-President and Imam of the Islamic Religious Community in Italy (Comunità Religiosa Islamica [COREIS] Italiana), an organisation which has been providing teachers and students with training on Islam and interfaith dialogue for almost twenty years with the support of the regional and national offices of the Italian Ministry of Public Education. Referring to existing interreligious and intercultural societies such as Azerbaijan, and a number of successful initiatives and projects, several of which COREIS is involved in, he demonstrates how interfaith education can effectively contribute to preventing the diffusion of anti-Semitism, Islamophobia and radicalism.

  1. Ectoparasitic infestations of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus in Urmia city, Iran: First report

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    Tahmineh Gorgani-Firouzjaee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal mammals that become popular in the world and have significant role in transmission of zoonotic agents. Some of the agents are transmitted by ticks and fleas such as rickettsial agents. For these reason, a survey on ectoparasites in European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus carried out between April 2006 and December 2007 from different parts of Urmia city, west Azerbaijan, Iran. After being euthanized external surface of body of animals was precisely considered for ectoparasites, and arthropods were collected and stored in 70% ethanol solution. Out of 34 hedgehogs 23 hedgehogs (67.70% were infested with ticks (Rhipicephalus turanicus. Fleas of the species Archaeopsylla erinacei were found on 19 hedgehogs of 34 hedgehogs (55.90%. There was no significant differences between sex of ticks (p > 0.05 but found in fleas (p 0.05. Highest occurrence of infestation in both tick and flea was in June. Among three seasons of hedgehog collection significant differences was observed (p < 0.05. The result of our survey revealed that infestation rate in hedgehog was high. According to zoonotic importance of this ectoparasite and ability to transmission of some pathogens, more studies are needed to investigate hedgehog parasites in different parts of Iran.

  2. Genomewide association study of Aegilops tauschii traits under seedling-stage cadmium stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; Qin; Lang; Wang; Kun; Liu; Shuangshuang; Mao; Zhanyi; Li; Shang; Gao; Haoran; Shi; Yaxi; Liu

    2015-01-01

    Aegilops tauschii Ais a wild relative of common wheat(Triticum aestivum) and acts as an important resource of elite genes including genes for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. To improve the cadmium(Cd) tolerance of wheat varieties using A. tauschii resources, we investigated the genetic variation of biomass-based Cd tolerance in 235 A. tauschii accessions treated with 0(control) and100 μmol L-1CdC l2(as Cd stress). Simultaneously, we performed a genomewide association study(GWAS) using a single-nucleotide polymorphism chip containing 7185 markers. Six markers were found to be significantly associated with Cd tolerance by a general linear model and a mixed linear model. These markers were close to several candidate/flanking genes associated with Cd tolerance according to results in public databases, including pdil5-1, Acc-1, DME-5A,TaA P2-D, TaA P2-B, Vrn-B1, and FtsH-like protein gene. The A. tauschii accessions were classified as high, moderate, and low Cd-tolerant according to a secondary index, the synthetic index(SI), in proportions of 9%, 57%, and 34%, respectively. By the average SI, accessions from Afghanistan,Turkey, Azerbaijan, and Iran showed relatively high Cd tolerance.

  3. Contact and hybrid zone hotspots and evolution of birds in the Middle East

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Middle East is an important contact zone for a considerable number of bird taxa from the western and eastern Palearctic and from the great Saharo-Sindian jesert belt. Using WORLDMAP software, we analyzed the geographical distribution of secondary contact zones for parapatric species pairs of birds in the Middle East. We identified 56 species (29 species pairs) that make contact in the Middle East. The species pairs belong to three orders, i.e. Falconiformes, Piciformes, and Passeriformes. Almost half (46%) of these species pairs hybridize in their contact zones. Although contact zones occur over a large part of northern Middle East, spatially they were not evenly distributed. Contact zone richness was highest in the mountain ranges south of the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus. The hottest hotspots, where up to nine bird species pairs occur sympatrically, are situated in north-eastern Iran and Azerbaijan. We discuss the relevance of these hotspots for improving our understanding of the biogeography and evolution of the avifauna in the Middle East.

  4. Particle reduction strategies - PAREST. Gridded European emission data for projection years 2010, 2015 and 2020 based on the IIASA GAINS NEC scenarios. Teilbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gon, Hugo Denier van der; Visschedijk, Antoon; Brugh, Hans van den [TNO Earth, Environment and Life Sciences, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Projected emissions for selected scenarios for the years 2010, 2015 and 2020 were obtained from the GAINS NEC scenario reports and distributed on a high resolution over Europe using the TNO gridding tools. These emission maps are available as model input in the PAREST project to model the contribution of Europe to air quality in Germany in 2010, 2015 and 2020 (see note Rainer Stern, May 2009). The scenarios have a significant influence on absolute emission levels for the countries that were covered by IIASA GAINS. This suggests that emission changes in countries were no scenarios were available (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia) or where only a projection year baseline is available (all non-EU) may be subject to significant changes as well (but these are quite far from Germany). For future projects it is recommended to make simple and transparent scenarios for these other countries, as well as for International Shipping. The change in emissions from the base year 2005 to the projection year 2010 needs to be interpreted with care. This because some methodology differences between 2005 official emission data as used in the PAREST base year 2005 emission set and GAINS 2010 data exist. It is expected that the emission reduction steps towards 2020 are more realistic.

  5. Migrazioni di archetipi: tradizioni e rapimenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Valsecchi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Quel che resta di una trasmissione orale o scritta sono tracce multiple e mai estinte. I segni e i simboli che la rinnovano, secondo influsso e revisione dei confini di tradizione, traduzione o plagio, sono oggetto del volume collettaneo Archetypes in Literatures and Cultures – Cultural and Re- gional Studies a cura di Rahilya Geybullayeva (Baki Slavian Universiteti, Azerbaijan. Un’analisi a più voci degli attraversamenti identitari per migrazioni di archetipi nello spazio-tempo delle lettera- ture ed epopee. Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Garamond","serif";}

  6. Effect of physiographic factors on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Cornus mas L. natural stands in Arasbaran forests, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad Alijanpour

    2013-01-01

    Arasbaran forests are located in East Azerbaijan (northwest Iran).Increasing of socio-economic problems in this area causes destruction of biodiversity and structure of these forests.Using multipurpose trees such as cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L) to encourage villagers to produce forest by-products is a basic approach for preserving these forests.This species grows naturally in Arasbaran forests and the fruit is annually exploited using traditional harvest methods.This study aims to assess the ecological requirements of cornelian cherry and the important factors affecting its distribution.For this purpose,40 circular sampling plots (300 m2) on various slope aspects were demarcated for sampling the occurrence of cornelian cherry in forest stands.DBH and crown cover percentage on north aspects were significantly greater than on other aspects and 4.5% of all trees were cornelian cherry in mature forest stands.North aspects had more seed-origin trees (standards) of cornelian cherry than coppiced trees,while west facing aspects had more coppiced than standard trees.This species had the highest regeneration rate in the sapling stage of 0-2.5 cm DBH.Thus,I recommend cultivation and development of cornelian cherry as a multi-purpose tree in the Arasbaran region on degraded forest lands on north and west aspects.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Northwestern Iran by Using rDNA-ITS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshdel-Nezamiha, Farahnaz; Vatandoost, Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Mianroodi, Reza Arabi; Dabiri, Farrokh; Bagheri, Masoomeh; Terenius, Olle; Chavshin, Ali Reza

    2016-07-22

    Several mosquito species are vectors of disease; however, to understand their role in disease transmission, accurate species identification is of particular importance. Morphological identification is the main method used, but molecular techniques have emerged as a tool for the identification of closely related species. In this study, mosquitoes from the West Azerbaijan Province in northwestern Iran were characterized on the basis of their rDNA-ITS2 sequences. Nine populations of 6 species of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles, Culex, Culiseta, and Ochlerotatus were studied. To the best of our knowledge, ITS2 sequences of Culiseta longiareolata and Culex hortensis have been reported for the first time. In addition, ITS2 sequences of Culex theileri and Ochlerotatus caspius have been reported for the first time in Iran. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS2 showed that subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae of the family Culicidae could be differentiated successfully and subgenera Anopheles and Cellia of the genus Anopheles were separated. The analysis showed that the genera Culex, Culiseta, and Ochlerotatus have diverged separately.

  8. Seroprevalence of bluetongue disease in sheep in west and northwest provinces of Iran

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    Mohammad Khezri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the seroprevalence rates of bluetongue virus (BTV in sheep in west and northwest provinces of Iran. Bluetongue virus, an economically important orbivirus of the Reoviridae family, causes a hemorrhagic disease mainly in sheep and occasionally in cattle and some species of deer. Bluetongue virus is transmitted between its mammalian hosts by certain species of biting midges (Culicoides spp. and it can infect all ruminant species. Overall, 26 serotypes have been reported around the world. Due to its economic impact, bluetongue (BT is an Office of International des Epizooties (OIE-listed disease. A total of 756 sera samples collected during 2007-2008, were available. Sera were tested with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA. The seroprevalence rate in sheep was 40.87%. The rate of positivity in sheep in west and northwest was 46.10% and 33.75%, respectively. The highest prevalence of antibodies in serum was in West Azerbaijan (64.86%, and lower was in Ardabil (23.77%.

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EU AND RUSSIA: SYMBIOSIS OR COMPETITION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Corduneanu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation and trust between Russia and the European Union (EU, two of the most important international actors, have reached the lowest level since the Cold War. The main bone of contention has been the future of countries situated in Eastern Europe, in the so-called ‘in-between’/’buffer’ region. On the one hand, the EU aims at strengthening links with the six Eastern European partners – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine – by encouraging reforms and by luring them to embrace European core values. However, Russia’s counteractions have mitigated the EU’s plans towards its vicinity - as the case of Ukraine best points out. Apart from the geopolitical competition over the ‘shared’ neighbourhood, the EU-Russia relation has started to depend heavily on the energy issues further complicating the already complex background. Russia uses the energy card as tool to influence the shape of the regional context, whereas the EU responds with a superior technological advantage and a more attractive economic and political agenda. Having this a backdrop, this paper aims to underline that a clear competition between the two players exists, fomented by a fundamental ideological difference in perceiving the outside world.

  10. Vulnerability to Poverty in select Central Asian Countries

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    Raghbendra Jha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the extant literature either income or consumption expenditures as measured over short periods of time have been regarded as a proxy for the material well-being of households. However, economists have long recognized that a household's sense of well-being depends not just on its average income or expenditures, but also on the risks it faces and its ability to deal with these risks. Hence vulnerability is a more satisfactory measure of welfare. In this study we used the concept of vulnerability as expected poverty to assess the household vulnerability to poverty in four Central Asian countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. Except for Tajikistan, headcount poverty and vulnerability rates are significantly different. We also find that vulnerability differs significantly across households by location and selected household characteristics. In this paper we use a simple empirical measurement that allows estimating the headcount vulnerability to poverty using cross-section data. This measurement is based on the strong assumption that households have the same conditional distribution of consumption in a stationary environment. While this approach cannot capture all dimensions of vulnerability, it at least begins to raise the policy issue that vulnerability should be considered alongside poverty.

  11. An empirical analysis on influencing factors on organizational silence and its relationship with employee’s organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Panahi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, there is no doubt that in many organizations, many employees refuse to provide their opinions and comments about the organizational problems. In fact, in many organizations there is a created climate, which often makes employees feel their opinion is not valued. This phenomenon is examined as an organizational silence that by identifying the factors affecting on it we can effectively take steps to eliminate barriers to commenting staff in organizations. In this regard, this paper presents an empirical work conducted on data obtained from 260 employees Payame Noor University of East Azerbaijan Province. These data are analyzed by SPSS software and regression and path analysis tests. The results showed that there is a significant relationship between silence climate dimensions and employee organizational commitment with silence behavior employee. In addition, there is a positive correlation between higher management attitudes and supervisor’s attitudes with workers silent behavior. We have also observed that there is a negative correlation between communication opportunities and organizational commitment with employee silence behavior of employees.

  12. Halal banking in post-soviet central Asia: Antecedents and consequences

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    Bilal Ahmad Malik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the fall of Soviet Union in 1991 the whole Central Asian region perceived a considerable rise in Muslim identity, a call back to Islamic legacy. Nowadays, lots of Central Asian Muslims need to be aware of what Islam has termed legal (Halal and illegal (Haram. The process of Islamic revival occurred rapidly soon after the unification of Central Asian republics with other Muslim geographies through the membership of Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC and other similar organizations. This interaction tended to be an essential push factor to the previously existing indigenous reviving trends and sentiments. Besides many other needs, Muslim customer demand appeared as navel movement in the market generally and in banking and financial sector particularly. To satisfy this need, the governments of Muslim majority Central Asian states, namely Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan presented Halal banking and financial goods in the market. In this work, it has been attempted to recognize the causes that lead to the emergence of Islamic banking and finance industry in the region and also to investigate the effect of these causes considering the development and progress of Halal banking and financial industry.

  13. Constructing Official Poverty Lines for Countries in Transition – Beyond the Poverty Line (2000-2010

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    Marinko Škare

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new model for defining the poverty line using the Kakwani (2010 approach and developing a possible candidate for the construction of a new official poverty line. The model uses consumer theory to construct both food and non-food poverty thresholds and ensures that the poverty line is consistent across regions. Namely, it is of great importance to review a new unique measure for transition countries because there is a lack of statistics and research in these countries because their governments denied the existence of poverty during the socialist years. The methodology developed in this paper is used to illustrate the construction of a poverty threshold and poverty rates in Croatia, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Poland, Latvia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Slovenia and Russia for the period 2000-2010. The focus on poverty in transition countries was placed in the former Soviet bloc; for that reason, the benchmark country used to illustrate the methodology for the above period was Russia. Because there are considerable differences in the methods used for poverty estimates, as well as insufficient and incomplete statistics, proposal for a new unique measure would serve as a “tool” for the prompt application of adequate social policies for transition countries.

  14. School-to-Work Transitions after Two Decades of Post-Communist Transition: What’s New?

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    Ken ROBERTS

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses evidence from a series of studies of young people in a total of 12 excommunist countries, but mainly from surveys in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia in 2007, and discusses changes and continuities since the early-1990s in typical labour market experiences. It is argued that the continuities outweigh the changes. In the early years of transition new career groups were created during the undermining of old types of employment and the emergence of new market-led employment opportunities. There have always been differences between countries, and between regions within countries, in the proportions of young people following different career routes. Similarly, there have been changes over time in some places in the proportions following the different career paths. Yet the evidence indicates that the career paths themselves have remained remarkably constant over time, and across different territories. The main career groups are: i. A small group who obtain jobs paying salaries that will support a western-type lifestyle. ii. Continuous regular private or public sector employment. iii. Business. iv. Under-employment. v. Unemployment. The paper discusses the processes that have created and which are maintaining the divisions between these groups

  15. A study on the effect of organizational trust on learning organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Panahi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Creating and maintaining a learning organization is a competitive advantage, which would be the result of valuable outcomes such as innovation, efficiency and the better convergence with environment. In addition, learning is the best way to preserve life, survival and growth of organizations in future. In this regard, this study examined the relationship between trust and learning organizations. This study had one main hypothesis and five sub-hypotheses. Research method was descriptive, and t-test and correlation tests were used to determine the relationships between variables. The statistical populations of this study were employees and faculty members of Payam Noor University in east Azerbaijan province, Iran. The results of this study show that there was a meaningful and positive relationship between trust in organization and learning organizations. Therefore, it is recommended that organizations dismantle the barriers of trust, be promoted the trust-builder interactive relationships; be improved and be promoted the mechanisms of interpersonal communications. The firms also have to develop competencies, empower and promote the spirit of cooperation. On the other hand, organizations must prioritize the fostering and promoting the strategic and interactive thinking of staff.

  16. Association of polymorphisms in the promoter region of turkey prolactin with egg performance

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    Fathi Mehrangiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The induction and regulation of broodiness is of the most important role of prolactin in avian species. In this study, the association between prolactin promoter region alleles and reproductive traits in Fars native turkey was investigated. These traits consisted of mean egg weight (MEW, number of egg (EN and egg mass, during the first laying period. In total, 115 laying turkeys, randomly selected from the flock of the Breeding Center for Fars Native turkey, and DNA was purificated from blood samples, 231 bp of prolactin promoter region was amplified and Genotype of Samples was determinate by PCR-SSCP technique were genotyped. Two alleles D and I were identified. Based on the results obtained, the frequency of D and I alleles were 0.67 and 0.33, respectively. Frequencies of DD, II and ID genotypes were 0.385, 0.044 and 0.571, respectively. The association analysis between the polymorphism PRL gene promoter region and egg performance was carried out. Significant relationship was found between genotypes with egg production (P<0.01. Individuals with II genotype produced higher egg production than DD and ID genotype. The results of current study showed that using information of genes related to egg production could be used to improve the performance of native turkey of East Azerbaijan province.

  17. The Relationship between Hope and Self-Esteem in Patients with Leukemia

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    Kobra Parvan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with hematologic malignancies often experience many emotional reactions which are different based on patient’s culture. Indeed culture determines the different ways that patients understand cancer. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship of self-esteem and hope among Iranian cancer patients. Methods: This descriptive-correlational study was undertaken among 85 leukemic patients admitted to Shahid Ghazi hospital in East-Azerbaijan province, Iran. They were selected using consecutive sampling method. Persian form of Hearth Hope Index and Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory were used to identify patients’ hope and self-esteem. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.0. Results: The overall scores of hope and self-esteem were 33.05 (5.24 and 94.61 (11.51, respectively. There was a positive correlation between hope and self-esteem (rs = 0.73, n = 85, P < 0.001.Conclusion: Although culture determines the different ways that patients understand cancer, but it seems that the self-esteem and hope relationship could be similar in different cultures. The findings of this study indicate that nurses could be helpful through designing and implementing appropriate educational programs in order to enhance hope and self-esteem of leukemia patients.

  18. Relative importance of parameters affecting wind speed prediction using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, M. A.; Khatibi, R.; Hosseini, B.; Bilgili, M.

    2013-10-01

    In traditional artificial neural networks (ANN) models, the relative importance of the individual meteorological input variables is often overlooked. A case study is presented in this paper to model monthly wind speed values using meteorological data (air pressure, air temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation), where the study also includes an estimate of the relative importance of these variables. Recorded monthly mean data are available at a gauging site in Tabriz, Azerbaijan, Iran, for the period from 2000 to 2005, gauged in the city at the outskirt of alluvial funneling mountains with an established microclimatic conditions and a diurnal wind regime. This provides a sufficiently severe test for the ANN model with a good predictive capability of 1 year of lead time but without any direct approach to refer the predicted results to local microclimatic conditions. A method is used in this paper to calculate the relative importance of each meteorological input parameters affecting wind speed, showing that air pressure and precipitation are the most and least influential parameters with approximate values of 40 and 10 %, respectively. This gained knowledge corresponds to the local knowledge of the microclimatic and geomorphologic conditions surrounding Tabriz.

  19. "A STUDY OF WASTEWATERS OF INDUSTRIAL UNITS DISCHARGED INTO THE GHATOR RIVER IN KHOY CITY, IRAN "

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    K. Imandel

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available To find the quantity and quality of wastewaters of the two main industrial units of Khoy city in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran, namely the Slaughterhouse and the Totia Chocolate Factory, ten composite samples were taken in 112 hour intervals between 3.5 and 7.5 A.M. (4 hours working shift from the Slaughterhouse and between 7.5 A.M. and 2 P.M from the Totia Chocolate Factory (8hours working shift. The analyses were done according to the latest (1985 edition of the Standard Methods. The results showed that water consumption rates of the Slaughterhouse and the Chocolate Factory were 29m3 and 31. Sm3, respectively, whereas the means of their wastewater flow rate per hour were 5.9m3 and 2.9m3, discharged directly into the Ghator River and its branches. The means of the fat substances, settleable solids, BOD5 and COD of the slaughter livestock in one working shift was 1451 mg/1. Comparing per capita per day BOD production of humans, reported to be 54 gram per day, we find that the BOD production of humans, reported to be 54 gram per day we find that BOD population equivalent of the Slaughterhouse waste was equivalent to BOD of 770 persons.

  20. Climate Change in Central and West Asia. Routes to a More Secure, Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    ADB's Central and West Asian countries are Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Geoclimatic and environmental factors make this region highly vulnerable to the risks and hazards of climate change. For example, accelerated glacial melt has serious implications for agriculture, water supply, and energy generation - problems exacerbated by overexploitation of natural resources. Countries may find it difficult to shift to low-carbon growth, since many have abundant fossil fuel and tend to use energy inefficiently. ADB is responding to these climate hazards and low-carbon pathways with a comprehensive strategy that strengthens policies, governance, and capacity support; expands the use of clean and renewable energy; encourages sustainable transport and urban development; promotes development that will be more resilient to climate change, especially in water-dependent sectors; and manages land use and forests for carbon sequestration. ADB's support is helping its developing member countries face the challenges of climate change and, with partners, is providing innovative solutions, while continuing to work to reduce poverty.

  1. Potential Effects of Heliogeophysical Activity on the Dynamics of Sudden Cardiac Death at Earth Middle Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, S.; Babayev, E.; Mustafa, F.

    2017-01-01

    Limited studies exist on comparing the possible effects of heliogeophysical activity (solar and geomagnetic) on the dynamics of sudden cardiac death (SCD) as a function of latitude on Earth. In this work we continue our earlier studies concerning the changing space environment and SCD dynamics at middle latitudes. The study covered 25 to 80-year old males and females, and used medical data provided by all emergency and first medical aid stations in the Grand Baku Area, Azerbaijan. Data coverage includedthe second peak of Solar Cycle 23 and its descending activity years followed by its long-lasting minimum. Gradation of geomagnetic activity into six levels was introduced to study the effect of space weather on SCD. The ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA) test was applied to study the significance of the geomagnetic activity effect, estimated by different geomagnetic indices, on SCD dynamics. Variations inthe number of SCDs occurring on days preceding and following the development of geomagnetic storms were also studied. Results revealed that the SCD number was largest on days of very low geomagnetic activity and on days proceeding and following geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Vulnerability for males was found to be higher around days of major and severe geomagnetic storms. Females, on the other hand, were more threatened around days of lower intensity storms. It is concluded that heliogeophysical activity could be considered as one of the regulating external/environmental factors in human homeostasis.

  2. Serological study of Human Fasciolosis in Patients Referring to the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sci¬ences, Tehran, Iran during 2008-2014

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    Mojgan ARYAEIPOUR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease of livestock and human caused by Fasciola species. Here in, the results of serological evaluation of fascioliasis in peo­ple referring to the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sci­ences during 2008-2014 are presented.Methods: Demographic characterizations, symptoms and eosinophil rate were registered for every patient. Using somatic antigen of Fasciola, ELISA was per­formed and the results were analyzed. Data of questioners were analyzed as well.Results: Among 206 applicants, 24.8% were seropositive for fascioliasis, included 21% female and 28.3% male. Mean range of age of patients was between 13 to 67 yr. The highest rate of seropositivity was found among 20-30 yr old patients. Most of the patients had hypereosinophilia. All patients had history of eating raw vegeta­bles, or drinking unsafe water. Patients were referring from different provinces of Iran, including Gilan, Mazandaran, Tehran, Ardabil, Khuzestan, Lorestan, North Khorasan, Kermanshah, Azerbaijan, Fars, Kordestan, Hamedan and Markazi.Conclusion: During recent years, variety of provinces in Iran, where patients with fascioliasis are referred, has been increased. Patients coming from Gilan and Mazanda­ran provinces were referred early after the onset of their symptoms. Most probably, physicians in Gilan and Mazandaran are more alert on fascioliasis than other provinces. Previous wrong diagnosis was more common among patients refer­ring from other provinces than Gilan and Mazandaran provinces.

  3. Detection of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi using microscopic and molecular methods in horses in suburb of Urmia, Iran

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    Farnaz Malekifard

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Equine piroplasmosis is a severe disease of horses caused by the intra-erythrocyte protozoan, Theileria equi and Babesia caballi. The aim of this study was to identify equine piroplasmosis based on molecular and morphometrical features in horses in suburb of Urmia, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. From April to September 2011, a total number of 240 blood samples were collected randomly from horses of 25 villages. The specimens were transferred to the laboratory and the blood smears stained with Geimsa, and the morphological and biometrical data of parasite in any infected erythrocyte were considered. Extracted DNA from each blood sample was used in multiplex PCR in order to confirm the presence of B. caballi and T. equi. Microscopic observation on 240 blood smears determined that 15 (6.25% and 5 (2.80% samples were infected by T. equi and B. caballi, respectively. The mixed infections occurred in 2 (0.83% samples. The results of the PCR assays showed 26 (10.83%, 14 (5.83% and 4 (1.66% were distinguished as T. equi, B. caballi and mixed infection, respectively. Differences in infection rates were statistically nonsignificant between male and female horses and among different age groups. Our findings indicated that T. equi and B. caballi were prevalent in horse population.

  4. Evolution of new disease specificity at a simple resistance locus in a crop-weed complex: reconstitution of the Lr21 gene in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Brooks, Steven; Li, Wanlong; Fellers, John; Nelson, James C; Gill, Bikram

    2009-06-01

    The wheat leaf-rust resistance gene Lr21 was first identified in an Iranian accession of goatgrass, Aegilops tauschii Coss., the D-genome donor of hexaploid bread wheat, and was introgressed into modern wheat cultivars by breeding. To elucidate the origin of the gene, we analyzed sequences of Lr21 and lr21 alleles from 24 wheat cultivars and 25 accessions of Ae. tauschii collected along the Caspian Sea in Iran and Azerbaijan. Three basic nonfunctional lr21 haplotypes, H1, H2, and H3, were identified. Lr21 was found to be a chimera of H1 and H2, which were found only in wheat. We attempted to reconstitute a functional Lr21 allele by crossing the cultivars Fielder (H1) and Wichita (H2). Rust inoculation of 5876 F(2) progeny revealed a single resistant plant that proved to carry the H1H2 haplotype, a result attributed to intragenic recombination. These findings reflect how plants balance the penalty and the necessity of a resistance gene and suggest that plants can reuse "dead" alleles to generate new disease-resistance specificity, leading to a "death-recycle" model of plant-resistance gene evolution at simple loci. We suggest that selection pressure in crop-weed complexes contributes to this process.

  5. Procesos sociales y culturales en el mundo turco

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    Ott Kurs

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of this article describres the distribution and lingustic groups of the Turkic population and thereafter characterised the latest social and cultural developments in each Turkic states. Turkey, as the most developed state, supplies material and cultural help to the other Turkic states situated in the interior of Eurasia. The best results in this all-Turkic co-operation appear not insomuch in the partnership with nearby Turkey, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan, which are influenced by neighbouring Iran, but with easternmost Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakstan. All these states belong to the OSCE. Thus, Mediterranean Turkey, with its experience in democratic development, is the gateway of Mediterranean countries to Central Asia. At the same time, the eastern Turkic states export raw materials and some elements of their ancient folk culture to penisular Turkey. The all-Turkic co-operation is a good example of mutually-useful relations between the Eurasian Heartland and Rimland, considered in the classical theory of geopolitics by some antagonists.

  6. Caspian Sea Oil – Still the Great Game for Central Eurasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Gunder Frank

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A book with a foreword by Pat Clawson of the National Defense University and editor of ORBIS, and dedicated to Ronald Reagan and Target Ozxal, announces its U.S. far-right wing political pedigree literally up front. However the book is chock full of information, alas most already well known to anyone even remotely familiar with the problematique under review; but it also offers some incisive analysis. The twelve contributed chapters by fourteen authors and coauthors are divided into three parts dedicated to examining and analyzing the general history and mutual background of the Caspian Sea region; to the ?ve littoral states of Azerbaijan, Russia, Iran, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan; and to three ‘external’ interested states, the United States, Turkey, and Georgia. Nonetheless, the review by each author goes well beyond the nominative boundaries assigned to him or her and trespasses over into the topics, territories and their relations assigned to other authors. Quite prop-erly so, in view of the mutually complex real-life interrelations in the Caspian Sea Basin, so that no topic or state could be adequately understood in itself other than in relation to the others. Indeed, we are witnessing the contemporary continuation of the nineteenth century “Great Game” for the control of Central Eurasia. However, the oil connection also reaches well beyond Caspian Sea and must make this book pertinent also to readers of this journal.

  7. Molecular and Morphometric Characterization of Acanthamoeba spp. from Different Water Sources of Northwest Iran as a Neglected Focus, Co-Bordered With the Country of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezri, Aram; Fallah, Esmaeel; Mostafazadeh, Mostafa; Spotin, Adel; Shahbazi, Abbas; Mahami-Oskouei, Mahmoud; Hazratian, Taimuor

    2016-01-01

    Background Acanthamoeba spp. is a free-living opportunistic protozoan parasites, which can be found in tap, fresh and bottled mineral waters, contact lens solutions, soil etc. Objectives The present study is aimed to determine the Acanthamoeba spp. on the basis of their morpho-molecular aspects in different water sources of the West Azerbaijan province, Northwest of Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 60 water samples were collected from rivers and tap waters during June to September 2015. The water samples were filtered through a cellulose nitrate filter and cultured on non-nutrient agar medium. The extracted DNAs were amplified and some ampliqons were sequenced using partial 18S rRNA for genotyping and phylogenetic analyses. Results Twenty-seven (45%) out of 60 water samples were positive to Acanthamoeba spp. using both culture and morphological examinations. In addition, 24 (40%) out of 27 positive samples in culture method were confirmed by PCR to be Acanthamoeba spp. Conclusions A relatively high prevalence of Acanthamoeba spp. in rivers reflects a risk alert for threatening human health in the region. However, well hygienic status of the tap waters considering Acanthamoeba spp. cannot be ignored in western co-border regions of Iran-Iraq. This study can also serve as a platform for further explorations of water sources in Iran and neighboring countries. PMID:28138374

  8. Restoration and Rehabilitation of world heritage Site of Chupan Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish Rohani, S.

    2015-08-01

    Church of Chupan is located in Jolfa cityin north of Iran and is laid at south side of Arax River. Built of the church traced back to 14th to 15th century and the time when Armenians were inhabited in the region. Chupan church had been inscribed at World Heritage List of UNESCO under no 1262 in 2008, as one of the five churches of "Armenian Monasteries of Azerbaijan province of Iran" dossier. As it is located at a religious and tourism road of Darresham and each year most of Armenian from all over the world visited the church as a part of a religious ceremony, also as the same church on opposite side of the Arax in Republic of Nakhchivan is completely destroyed between 1998-2002 and the church is the only existing evidence of these two couple church, the restoration and rehabilitation of chupan church is very important. Because of very bad statues of structure stability and long-term neglect of the conservation and preservation of the building, restoration and rehabilitation of the church in the earliest was necessary. Restoration of this church was my MA degree thesis and now as a Ph.D student in field of urban design and planning student, I am working on the next step which is to revitalization and rehabilitation of the church.

  9. A Comparison of Ice Cold Water Pretreatment and α-Bromonaphthalene Cytogenetic Method for Identification of Papaver Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Rezaei Osalou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The plants belonging to many species in genus Papaver are very similar and have very small chromosomes that make identification very difficult. The study aimed to compare the effects of α-bromonaphtalene and ice cold water pretreatment to identify chromosomes of Papaver species collected from different areas of Iranian West Azerbaijan and Turkish Van, Agri and, Hakkari provinces. The seeds were germinated in Jacobson trays at 24°C under continuous light. Thereafter, roots from 1.5 cm long plantlets were pretreated with α bromonaphtalene for 15, 30, and 45 min or at 0°C in ice cold water for 24 h before fixing, hydrolyzation, and feulgen staining. The ice cold water pretreatment was more appropriate and easy to determine chromosomes. Seeds from seven samples did not germinate. Sixty samples out of the rest of 62 samples were identified as P. pseudo orientale, one sample was identified as P. bracteatum, and another as P. orientale. This is the first study that used ice cold water to determine the chromosomes in papaver species. It is hoped that it will also facilitate to determine chromosome number and identify other papver species.

  10. THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP – A PREMISE FOR AN ENHANCED EU-EASTERN NEIGHBOURS COOPERATION RELATIONSHIP

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    Oana Mocanu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The enlargement of the European Union towards the Central and Eastern Europe has brought to attention the necessity to reshape the EU institutional framework and specific policies addressing its new neighbourhood. Repeatedly stating that the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP is not a preceding phase for membership, the European Union also embraced the Polish-Swedish initiative for an Eastern Partnership (EaP. Meant at first to counterbalance the Union for Mediterranean project, the EaP has developed into a distinct project, with specific and ambitious cooperation goals, a positive and constructive agenda meant to support six countries (Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and Belarus develop and harmonize with the European standards and, at the same, attempting to build and further develop an Eastern dimension of the ENP. The questions of the efficiency of the conditionality derived from the EaP and also the complementarity of this initiative with other regional projects in the area can also be important matters of concern.

  11. Power's promise: electricity reforms in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampietti, J. (ed.)

    2004-06-01

    This study analyzes the fiscal, efficiency, social, and environmental impact of power sector reforms in seven countries in the Europe and East Asia region - Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Hungary; Kazakhstan and POland. It finds sector deficits have been falling over the last decade and that the savings from lower sector deficits did not translate into higher social spending. More emphasis must be placed on monitoring deficits and tailoring policy reform to country specific circumstances. The impact of reform on utility efficiency, as measured by the cost of generation, system loss collections, and operational efficiency, is ambiguous. While overall revenue per kilowatt hour increased in almost all countries, problems continue with losses, collection rates, and staffing. In terms of social impacts, electricity spending as a share of income increased, especially for the poor, while consumption stayed the same. In terms of environmental impacts, reforms did slightly improve energy efficiency in power plants though this has little direct impact on human health because the electricity sector's share of the total health damage from air pollution is negligible. Several lessons emerge from the analysis. Undertaking simple ex ante simulations of reform impacts will allow better identification of potential reform benefits and costs. Placing more emphasis on outcome-based indicators of service quality would help ensure that future operations produce the intended end-user benefits. In many cases, tariff increases can and should be explicitly timed to coincide with service quality improvements. 24 figs., 15 tabs., 10 annexes.

  12. News from Council

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Today concludes a very busy week for Council. As you’ll have seen from the press release this morning, Council elected a new President, who will take up his mandate on 1 January along with the new management team, which was also approved by Council yesterday.   You’ll find full details of the incoming Director-General’s management team and structures here. Completing the configuration for the immediate future, Council also approved the medium term plan, along with the budget for 2016. In other Council business, two complete applications for Associate Membership were discussed. Following an earlier letter, India’s complete application was received and considered by Council. Consequently, a fact-finding mission has been established to report back before the end of the year. A new application was also received from Azerbaijan, with a fact-finding mission to be established. India’s involvement with CERN goes back to the 1970s, and the country...

  13. Inbreeding and its effect on some productive traits in buffaloes of South Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mahmoodi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The buffalo is a native animal of Iran and there were 500,000 buffaloes in Iran that over 80 per cent of its population concentrated in the north and north- west (Azerbaijan province and 18 per cent in the south (Khuzestan province of the country. Buffaloes reread in rural condition as multi purpose animals in Khuzestan. For mating, farmer use owns herd sire also artificial insemination is limited in the rural condition that may be inbred animals so affect the production performance. The aim of this investigation was estimate the inbreeding coefficient and its affect on some production performance. Data of 200 herds were used from the record sheets of herds under recording program of Animal Breeding Center during period 1990 to 2002 in the Khuzestan province. These results showed mostly herds only one sir and rarely two sires have been used. Inbreeding coefficient was 25 percent in some progeny and high-inbred buffaloes had a low performance. According to results of this study it could be concluded that farmers to avoid inbreeding should use other herd sire and artificial insemination also practical recording scheme and genetically selection to genetic improvement should be included in buffaloes of Iran.

  14. What’s in a name? A comparison of ‘open government’ definitions across seven Open Government Partnership members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Clarke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available No longer restricted to access to information laws and accountability measures, “open government” is now associated with a broad range of goals and functions, including public participation, open data, the improvement of public services and government efficiency. The 59 country strong Open Government Partnership (OGP suggests that consensus on the value of open government is emerging amongst public officials. Similarly, academics have shown a renewed interest in open government as they discuss, debate and critique the meaning and role of open government reforms today. Yet, despite the diverse aims and tools characterizing contemporary open government, public officials and academics typically approach the subject as a cohesive unit of analysis, making sweeping—and generally non-empirical—claims about its implications, without accounting for the homegrown flavours that may characterize open government in practice. Simply put, the practice and study of contemporary open government suffers a lack of definitional clarity: what exactly is open government today, and how does it vary across governments? In response to these questions, this paper analyses the content of open government policy documents in seven OGP member states (Azerbaijan, Brazil, Canada, Netherlands, Kenya, United Kingdom, and the United States, providing the first systematic, empirically-grounded multi-country comparison of contemporary open government. The paper suggests where the term departs from and retains its original meaning, and how its definition varies across different governments

  15. Study of the effect of surfactants on extraction and determination of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of fruits extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Khorsandi, Khatereh; Hemmaty, Syavash

    2013-01-01

    Micelle/water mixed solutions of different surface active agents were studied for their effectiveness in the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from various varieties of apples from west Azerbaijan province in Iran. The total content of polyphenolic compound in fruit extracts were determined using ferrous tartrate and Folin-Ciocalteu assays methods and chromatographic methods and compared with theme. High performance liquid chromatography is one of the most common and important methods in biochemical compound identification. The effect of pH, ionic strength, surfactant type, surfactant concentration, extraction time and common organic solvent in the apple polyphenolics extractions was studied using HPLC-DAD. Mixtures of surfactants, water and methanol at various ratios were examined and micellar-water solutions of Brij surfactant showed the highest polyphenol extraction efficiency. Optimum conditions for the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple occurred at 7 mM Brij35, pH 3. Effect of ionic strength on extraction was determined and 2% (W/V) potassium Chloride was determined to be the optimum salt concentration. The procedure worked well with an ultrasound bath. Total antioxidant capacity also was determined in this study. The method can be safely scaled up for pharmaceutical applications.

  16. Epidemiology and patterns of drug resistance among tuberculosis patients in Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Sahebi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB has emerged as an important global health concern and is on the rise throughout the world. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the epidemiology and pattern of TB drug resistance. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 180 pulmonary TB patients from two Northwestern provinces of Iran were selected. The first and second line drug susceptibility testing was carried out using the 1% proportion method on the Lφwenstein-Jensen medium. Full demographic, environmental and clinical history was evaluated. Results: Prevalence of resistance to any TB drug was 13.8%. Eight (4.4% patients had MDR-TB (2.4% in the province of East Azerbaijan and 9.3% in the province of Ardabil and one patient had extensively drug-resistant TB. Patient resistance to both isoniazid and streptomycin was the most prevalent at a rate of 8.3%. Patients showed the least resistance to ethambutol (2.8%. There was a significant relationship between the previous history of TB drug treatment and TB drug resistance. Migrants from rural to urban areas were in high-risk groups for the occurrence of TB drug resistance. Conclusion: In our study, prevalence of MDR was less than the global average. It is essential to monitor the patients with previous history of TB treatment and migrants by rapid and accurate techniques in terms of drug-resistance odds.

  17. On Expansion Of The Circle Of Norms Providing Special Types Of Release From Criminal Liability In The Chapter 22 Of The Criminal Code Of The Russian Federation

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    Farid A. Musaev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article author conducts analysis of the circle of the criminal code of the Russian Federation (Charter 22 norms expansion, providing special types of release from criminal liability. Analyzes of the foreign legislation allowed author to draw a conclusion that the majority of the stimulating legal analogs to the Chapter 22 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation are present in the legislation of the CIS countries – Azerbaijan, Georgia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and some other, and also that release from the criminal liability on the tax crimes – is not less widespread stimulating norm in the foreign legislation. Special attention is paid to the questions of the positive post criminal behavior of persons who committed economic crime stimulation. According to the author it appears to be reasonable to include into the alternative condition of the release from criminal liability a sign of the voluntary statement of the crime commission or giving criminal income and also an alternative sign of the "active contribution to the disclosure and/or crime investigation". Author comes to the conclusion that a problem of the expansion of the stimulating norms in the Chapter 22 of the Criminal Codes of the Russian Federation action is interesting and actual in the conditions of criminal legislation in the economic sphere liberalization. In particular, in the foreshortening of the economic amnesty questions author believes that introduction of the stimulating norms of the Chapter 186 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation isn't expected soon.

  18. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF IMMUNIZATION IN RURAL AREAS COVERD BY HEALTH HOUSES IN WEST AZARBAIJAN PROVINCE, 1995

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    Sh. Salarilak

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Povinding quality health care services, without constant qualitative and quantitative studeies/evaluation, seem to be impossible. High rate of children immunization coverage in Iran, however, represents parts of a quality assessment of mother and child health care services in rural areas of West-Azerbaijan Province, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, LQAS method was employed for the purpose of quality assessment. Children between 10 to 36 months old from the pre-mentions areas constitute the study population of present report. Sample was selected through a multistage sampling method and a questionnaire together with a checklist was utilized for data collection. Findings demonstrate a very high rate immunization coverage of children (>96%. Mother’s knowledge about the data of next vaccination and DPT potential side effect's are estimated to be 32%, and 58%, respectively. Children's overall immunization adequacy rate, despite the high rate coverage, equalled to 59% which does not represent a high quality service in this respect. This study approves the reliability and practicality of LQAS method for quality assurance of health services.

  19. GROUNDWATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR DRINKING PURPOSES USING GIS MODELLING (CASE STUDY: CITY OF TABRIZ

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    M. Jeihouni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tabriz is the largest industrial city in North West of Iran and it is developing rapidly. A large proportion of water requirements for this city are supplied from dams. In this research, groundwater quality assessed through sampling 70 wells in Tabriz and its rural areas. The purposes of this study are: (1 specifying spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as Chloride, Electrical Conductivity (EC, pH, hardness and sulphate (2 mapping groundwater quality for drinking purpose by employing Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method in the study area using GIS and Geosatistics. We utilized an interpolation technique of ordinary kriging for generating thematic map of each parameter. The final map indicates that the groundwater quality esaeicni from North to South and from West to East of the study area. The areas located in Center, South and South West of the study area have the optimum quality for drinking purposes which are the best locations to drill wells for supplying water demands of Tabriz city. In critical conditions, the groundwater quality map as a result of this research can be taken into account by East Azerbaijan Regional Water Company as decision support system to drill new wells or selecting existing wells to supply drinking water to Tabriz city.

  20. Eastern Europe and Community of Independent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, A

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration, HIV/AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases in Eastern Europe and the Community of Independent States (CIS): Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the former Yugoslavian countries; and Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. There is little in-depth research on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. After the collapse of the USSR, the opening up of borders presented greater options for the spread of HIV. During 1991-1996, HIV-infected persons increased from 0.3/100,000 to 7.8/100,000. Syphilis and gonorrhea also spread in the 1990s. The increased prevalence is attributed to changes in sexual behavior due to increased travel and migration, disruption among families, and changes in sexual mores; and changes in the structure, availability, and effectiveness of health services. Many migrants in the CIS are young people. Mobile populations in the CIS include labor migrants, refugees, persons displaced by armed conflicts, repatriates, forced migrants, resettlement of formerly deported persons, and ecological migrants. It is general knowledge that migrants are poorly informed about HIV/AIDS. Condoms are not readily available in the CIS. Eastern Europe has high rates of HIV among migrant sex workers.

  1. [The post-discectomy syndrome: clinical and electroneuromyographic characteristics and methods of treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaev, A V; Guseĭnova, S G; Musaeva, I R

    2008-01-01

    The data of the Azerbaijan Neurosurgical Center, including 2618 case-reports of patients operated on for low back discal hernia between 1997 and 2002, have been analyzed. The retrospective analysis of the data reveals that 26,4% of patients need further restorative treatment due to the presence of various neurological disturbances: pain syndromes of different intensity, motor deficits (pareses), sensory disorders and functional disorders of pelvic organs. The retrospective analysis of the data reveals that 26,4% of patients need further restorative treatment due to the presence of various neurological disturbances: pain syndromes of different intensity, motor deficits (pareses), sensory disorders and functional disorders of pelvic organs. Along with these data, the results of our own clinical and neurophysiological study of 110 patients have been summarized as well. Along with these data, the results of our own clinical and neurophysiological study of 110 patients have been summarized as well. A high effectiveness of electrostimulation and naphthalan therapy alone and in combination with massage and medical gymnastics has been revealed. A high effectiveness of electrostimulation and naphthalan therapy alone and in combination with massage and medical gymnastics has been revealed. Electroneuromyographic data revealing the positive dynamics as a result of the treatment of patients with the post-discectomy syndrome are presented. Electroneuromyographic data revealing the positive dynamics as a result of the treatment of patients with the post-discectomy syndrome are presented.

  2. H α profile variabilities in the spectrum of the star WW Vul in 2006-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medzhidova, S. O.; Mikailov, Kh. M.; Rustamov, B. N.

    2014-06-01

    We present the results of our studies of the H α line in the spectrum of a UX Ori star (WW Vul) based on our spectroscopic observations performed with the 2-m telescope at the Shamakhi Astrophysical Observatory, the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, in 2006-2010. We have detected variability in all the measured parameters of the H α profile both during each observing season and from season to season. A comparative analysis of our data and published studies has led to the conclusion that the regime of outflow with a variable power in the star WW Vul, on the whole, is preserved for almost 40 years (1972-2010) and the accretion of gas from the circumstellar disk onto the stellar surface is occasionally observed. Changes in the regime of variability in the behavior of the H α emission line have been revealed in the 2006-2010 observing seasons. In four cases (for July 8, 2006, August 17, 2008, June 13, 2010, and August 2, 2010), we have detected a second emission component in the blue wing of the H α emission line.

  3. The socialization potential of the Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum

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    Hrant KOSTANYAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses socialization in the Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum, an institutionalized civil society cooperation consisting of nongovernmental organizations from the European Union and the Eastern Partnership countries: Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The article argues that uniting the literature on socialization and on Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum adds considerably to scholarly knowledge about the role of the institutionalized civil society in the world. The analysis of the activities of the Civil Society Forum shows that the conditions for socialization are largely fulfilled. We conclude that the organisation and functioning of the Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum not only provides a passive framework for transmitting European values and norms, but also results in a middle degree of socialization between civil society organizations of the European Union and the Eastern Partnership countries. There is a large degree of internalization of European Union-sponsored norms and values among the participants of the Civil Society Forum: they fervently promote and defend such norms and values. The little-politicized environment in which discussions take place also allows civil society organisations to make ambitious statements, often more straightforward than political representatives (can make.

  4. Molecular differentiation of sheep and cattle isolates of Fasciola hepatica using RAPD-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khakpour, M.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding genetic structure and status of genetic variation of Fasciola hepatica isolates from different hosts, has important implications on epidemiology and effective control of fasciolosis. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR was used to study the genetic variation of F. hepatica in sheep and cattle. DNA was extracted from adult helminthes removed from livers of each infected animal in slaughterhouse at East-Azerbaijan province, North-West of Iran. DNA template amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, using three oligonucleotide decamers with arbitrary DNA sequences as primers. RAPD patterns showed the specific but different pattern DNA patterns for each primer. The intraspecific similarity coefficient within two isolates of F. hepatica was ranged between 69 to 100%. Present findings showed that the interspecific genetic distance was higher than intraspecific genetic distances (19-47% compares to 0-19%. Pair wise similarity matrices generated from each isolates-primer combination were totaled and the similarity coefficient between strains were calculated both manually (Nei and Li method and software analysis (Free-Tree-Freeware program. The inferred phylogenetic tree on the fingerprinting of these isolates clearly demonstrated the existence of population genetic diversity sub structuring within F. hepatica of sheep and cattle of Iran, raising interesting questions on the host specificity, epidemiology (e.g., zoonotic transmission and ecology of this fluke. RAPD-PCR is useful for both individual identification and epidemiological investigations in endemic regions.

  5. The Comparison of Attention Biases to Opiates in Substance Dependent and Treated Clients of Therapeutic Clinics and Narcotics Anonymous Memberships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Enayat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the attention bias about tempting incentives related to opium materials in treated, addicted and normal people. Duration of consumption and treating were also considered. Method: In this causal-comparative study population was all addicted people who were referred to the rehabilitation offices, addiction treatment clinic, rebirthing centers and Narcotics Anonymous of East Azerbaijan. This study consisted of five groups of men, including addicted to opium materials which are divided into two groups namely: long consumption period and people with short consumption period, also, treated people including long term treated and short term treated, and a normal control group. Altogether, 103 selected people were studied. Sample groups were similar in terms of age, education, and sex. For measuring attention bias towards tempting stimuli related opiates, a words recognition test was used. This test included three subtests and one recognition test. The recognition scores for the three categories of words were measured. Results: The findings indicated that there was a difference in attention against opium material incentives between control group and the mild and severe consumers groups. Also there were significant differences between treated people with the short time distance and control group, and control group had less temptation and biases in comparison to the other groups. Finally, those who have mild consumption are threatened more in comparison with the control group. Conclusion: The findings have applied implications.

  6. Effect of aerobic exercise and nutrition educationon quality of life and early menopause symptoms:A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Mehrnaz; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Malakouti, Jamileh; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the authors in this randomized controlled study was to assess the effect of exercise and nutrition education on quality of life and early menopausal symptoms. This trial was conducted in east Azerbaijan Province, Iran, during the period from 2013 to 2014 with 108 women allocated into one of four groups (n = 27 in each group) by block randomization. The interventions received by the three intervention groups were: nutrition education, aerobic exercise, or exercise plus nutrition education. The control group did not receive any intervention. The Greene and MENQOL menopause symptom scales were completed before and at 8 and 12 weeks after the intervention. The mean Greene score was significantly lower than the control group in the exercise (adjusted mean difference: -5.1) and exercise plus nutrition groups (-8.0) at the end of week 8 and in the nutrition (-4.8), exercise (-8.7), and exercise plus nutrition (-13.2) groups at the end of week 12. Also, the mean MENQOL score was significantly lower than the control group in the exercise (-8.3) and exercise plus nutrition groups (-13.8) at the end of week 8 and in the nutrition (-6.6), exercise (-13.5), and exercise plus nutrition (-22.1) groups at the end of week 12. Nutrition education with aerobic exercise can improve quality of life.

  7. Modeling of ionosphere time series using wavelet neural networks (case study: N-W of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari Razin, Mir Reza; Voosoghi, Behzad

    2016-07-01

    Wavelet neural networks (WNNs) are important tools for analyzing time series especially when it is non-linear and non-stationary. It takes advantage of high resolution of wavelets and feed forward nature of neural networks (NNs). Therefore, in this paper, WNNs is used for modeling of ionosphere time series in Iran. To apply the method, observations collected at 22 GPS stations in 12 successive days of 2012 (DOY# 219-230) from Azerbaijan local GPS network are used. For training of WNN, back-propagation (BP) algorithm is used. The results of WNN compared with results of international reference ionosphere 2012 (IRI-2012) and international GNSS service (IGS) products. To assess the error of WNN, statistical indicators, relative and absolute errors are used. Minimum relative error for WNN compared with GPS TEC is 6.37% and maximum relative error is 12.94%. Also the maximum and minimum absolute error computed 6.32 and 0.13 TECU, respectively. Comparison of diurnal predicted TEC values from the WNN model and the IRI-2012 with GPS TEC revealed that the WNN provides more accurate predictions than the IRI-2012 model and IGS products in the test area.

  8. Monitoring methane emission of mud volcanoes by seismic tremor measurements: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Albarello

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for estimating methane emission at mud volcanoes is here proposed based on measurements of the seismic tremor on their surface. Data obtained at the Dashgil mud volcano in Azerbaijan reveal the presence of energy bursts characterized by well-determined features (i.e. waveforms, spectra and polarization properties that can be associated with bubbling at depth. Counting such events provides a possible tool for monitoring gas production in the reservoir, thus minimizing logistic troubles and representing a cheap and effective alternative to more complex approaches. Specifically, we model the energy bursts as the effect of resonant gas bubbles at depth. This modelling allows to estimate the dimension of the bubbles and, consequently, the gas outflow from the main conduit in the assumption that all emissions from depth occur by bubble uprising. The application of this model to seismic events detected at the Dashgil mud volcano during three sessions of measurements carried out in 2006 and 2007 provides gas flux estimates that are in line with those provided by independent measurements at the same structure. This encouraging result suggests that the one here proposed could be considered a new promising, cheap and easy to apply tool for gas flux measurements in bubbling gas seepage areas.

  9. GREETING TO SEHRİYAR ONTOLOGICAL ANALYSES OF HAYDAR BABA’YA SELAM / SEHRİYAR’A SELAM HAYDAR BABA’YA SELAM’IN ONTOLOJİK TAHLİLİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mümtaz SARIÇİÇEK

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern Azerbaijani poet Muhammed HüseyinSehriyar (1906-1988, who is one of the biggest poets ofthe Turkish world, lived in South Azerbaijan. His thebiggest masterpiece is Haydar Bara’ya Selâm poem. Thispoem is be named from Village Haydar Baba, where hewas born, is founded on hillside of Mount Haydar Baba.This Poem, a new form, is written syllabic meter of elevenand 125 ‘five line-stanza’.In this article, Haydar Baba’ya Selâm is analyzedby the method of ontological analysis. Although, thismethod is old one, it is rarely practiced in Turkey.According to this method, a literary work is composed ofdifferent categories and as understanding its value, thesecategories is analyzed separately. These categories isseperated two main headlines: Voices which constitutewoords and semantics which is seperated differentsubheades. In this area, Đsmail Tunalı wrote the book ofSanat Ontolojisi which is the most competent work inTurkey.In Sanat Ontolojisi, Tunalı analyzed views ofRoman Đngarden and Nicolai Hartmann and than heoffered the combined method which is composed of theirmethods. We practice only seven ‘five line-stanza’s ofHaydar Baba’ya Selâm by the method in this article.Because this poem is very long and it is impossibleanalyzing in an article.

  10. Latent and Asymptomatic Toxocara Infection among Young Population in Northwest Iran: The Necessity of Informing People as a Potential Health Risk

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    Tina Momeni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study was designed to determine the frequency of anti-Toxocara antibodies in youngsters aging from 2 to 20 years in northwest Iran. Materials and Methods. 397 samples were taken randomly almost equally from four locations in Urmia, west Azerbaijan, during August 2014 to September 2015. Anti-Toxocara IgG antibody assays were done on sera by using ELISA kit (IBL, Germany. In order to prevent cross-reaction, the samples of the patients who are infected with other parasites in stool exam, especially Ascarididae family, were also excluded. SPSS 16.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results. 12 (3% of the serum samples were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG. According to the Chi-square analysis, risk factors such as mother’s educational level, keeping dogs or cats as pets, and history of coughing were related to Toxocara infection (P<0.05. There was no relationship between toxocariasis and gender, history of onychophagy, pica, fever, abdominal pain, and anorexia; however, we found a significant relationship between Toxocara infection and chronic coughing (P=0.045. Conclusion. Toxocariasis in northwest Iran can be considered as a public health problem. This study may also help to increase the awareness about this infection.

  11. Investigation of Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate Juices by Means of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and UV-Vis Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozik, Violetta; Jarzembek, Krystyna; Jędrzejowska, Agnieszka; Bąk, Andrzej; Polak, Justyna; Bartoszek, Mariola; Pytlakowska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) is a source of numerous phenolic compounds, and it contains flavonoids such as anthocyanins, anthocyanidins, cyanidins, catechins and other complexes of flavonoids, ellagitannins, and hydrolyzed tannins. Pomegranate juice shows antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-atherosclerotic properties. The antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the pomegranate juices was measured using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) as a source of free radicals, and the total phenolic (TP) content was measured using UV-Vis spectroscopy. All the examined pomegranate juices exhibited relatively high antioxidant properties. The TEAC values determined by means of EPR spectroscopy using Trolox (TE) as a free radical scavenger were in the range of 463.12 to 1911.91 μmol TE/100 mL juice. The TP content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, using gallic acid (GA) as a free radical scavenger, widely varied in the investigated pomegranate juice samples and ranged from 1673.62 to 5263.87 mg GA/1 L juice. The strongest antioxidant properties were observed with the fresh pomegranate juices obtained from the fruits originating from Israel, Lebanon, and Azerbaijan. Correlation analysis of numerical data obtained by means of EPR spectroscopy (TEAC) and UV-Vis spectroscopy (TP) gave correlation coefficient (r)=0.90 and determination coefficient (r2)=0.81 (P<0.05).

  12. Molecular Identification and Differentiation of Fasciola Isolates Using PCR- RFLP Method Based on Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2

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    M Forouzandeh-Moghadam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, we used both ITS1 and ITS2 for molecular identification of Fasciola species.Methods: The region between 18S and 28S of ribosomal DNA was used in PCR-RFLP method for molecular identification of Fasciola species. Ninety trematodes of Fasciola were collected during abattoir inspection from livers of naturally infected sheep and cattle from Khorasan, East Azerbaijan, and Fars provinces in Iran. After DNA extraction, PCR was performed to amplify region ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2. To select a suitable restriction enzyme, we sequenced and ana-lyzed the PCR products of F. hepatica and F. gigantica samples from sheep and cattle. Tsp509I fast digest restriction enzyme was selected for RFLP method that caused the separation specifi-cally of Fasciola species. Results: The fragment approximately 1000bp in all of the Fasciola samples was amplified and then digested with the Tsp509I restriction endonuclease. Seventy F. hepatica and 20 F. gigantica were identified of total 90 Fasciola isolates.Conclusion: The new PCR-RFLP assay using Tsp509I restriction enzyme provides a simple, practical, fast, low cost, and reliable method for identification and differentiation of Fasciola isolates.

  13. Hair Contamination of Sheepdog and Pet Dogs with Toxocara Canis Eggs

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    AR Khezri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We tried to investigate the hair contamination of pet dogs and farm sheepdog with Toxocara eggs in terms of the different sex and age groups in north-west of Iran (Urmia and its sub­urbs.Methods: Hair samples were collected from a total of 138 pet and farm sheepdogs from November 2008 to June 2009 in Urmia City and the suburb (West Azerbaijan-Iran and examined for the pres­ence of T. canis eggs.Results: T. canis eggs found in 60 samples altogether (pet and shepherd dogs showed a contamina­tion rate of 36.2%. The number of observed T. canis eggs in each microscope field was va­ried from 1 to > 400. The age of the dog was found a significant factor to influence the prevalence and intensity of contamination, with 82% of all the eggs recovered from puppies (six months and younger. Additionally, the numbers of eggs in farm sheepdogs were significantly higher than pet dogs (P<0.05.Conclusions: This report shows that direct contact with T. canis infected dogs, particularly puppies from shepherd dogs, may pose a serious hazard to human. Besides, as they may harbor a considera­ble number of eggs on their hair, they can contaminate the soil and the environment.

  14. Genomewide association study of Aegilops tauschii traits under seedling-stage cadmium stress

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    Peng Qin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aegilops tauschii Ais a wild relative of common wheat (Triticum aestivum and acts as an important resource of elite genes including genes for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. To improve the cadmium (Cd tolerance of wheat varieties using A. tauschii resources, we investigated the genetic variation of biomass-based Cd tolerance in 235 A. tauschii accessions treated with 0 (control and 100 μmol L− 1 CdCl2 (as Cd stress. Simultaneously, we performed a genomewide association study (GWAS using a single-nucleotide polymorphism chip containing 7185 markers. Six markers were found to be significantly associated with Cd tolerance by a general linear model and a mixed linear model. These markers were close to several candidate/flanking genes associated with Cd tolerance according to results in public databases, including pdil5-1, Acc-1, DME-5A, TaAP2-D, TaAP2-B, Vrn-B1, and FtsH-like protein gene. The A. tauschii accessions were classified as high, moderate, and low Cd-tolerant according to a secondary index, the synthetic index (SI, in proportions of 9%, 57%, and 34%, respectively. By the average SI, accessions from Afghanistan, Turkey, Azerbaijan, and Iran showed relatively high Cd tolerance.

  15. Genomewide association study of Aegilops tauschii traits under seedling-stage cadmium stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Qin; Lang Wang; Kun Liu; Shuangshuang Mao; Zhanyi Li; Shang Gao; Haoran Shi; Yaxi Liu

    2015-01-01

    Aegilops tauschii Ais a wild relative of common wheat (Triticum aestivum) and acts as an important resource of elite genes including genes for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. To improve the cadmium (Cd) tolerance of wheat varieties using A. tauschi resources, we investigated the genetic variation of biomass-based Cd tolerance in 235 A. tauschi accessions treated with 0 (control) and 100μmol L−1 CdCl2 (as Cd stress). Simultaneously, we performed a genomewide association study (GWAS) using a single-nucleotide polymorphism chip containing 7185 markers. Six markers were found to be significantly associated with Cd tolerance by a general linear model and a mixed linear model. These markers were close to several candidate/flanking genes associated with Cd tolerance according to results in public databases, including pdil5-1, Acc-1, DME-5A, TaAP2-D, TaAP2-B, Vrn-B1, and FtsH-like protein gene. The A. tauschi accessions were classified as high, moderate, and low Cd-tolerant according to a secondary index, the synthetic index (SI), in proportions of 9%, 57%, and 34%, respectively. By the average SI, accessions from Afghanistan, Turkey, Azerbaijan, and Iran showed relatively high Cd tolerance.

  16. Study of the effect of surfactants on extraction and determination of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of fruits extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hosseinzadeh

    Full Text Available Micelle/water mixed solutions of different surface active agents were studied for their effectiveness in the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from various varieties of apples from west Azerbaijan province in Iran. The total content of polyphenolic compound in fruit extracts were determined using ferrous tartrate and Folin-Ciocalteu assays methods and chromatographic methods and compared with theme. High performance liquid chromatography is one of the most common and important methods in biochemical compound identification. The effect of pH, ionic strength, surfactant type, surfactant concentration, extraction time and common organic solvent in the apple polyphenolics extractions was studied using HPLC-DAD. Mixtures of surfactants, water and methanol at various ratios were examined and micellar-water solutions of Brij surfactant showed the highest polyphenol extraction efficiency. Optimum conditions for the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple occurred at 7 mM Brij35, pH 3. Effect of ionic strength on extraction was determined and 2% (W/V potassium Chloride was determined to be the optimum salt concentration. The procedure worked well with an ultrasound bath. Total antioxidant capacity also was determined in this study. The method can be safely scaled up for pharmaceutical applications.

  17. Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliyev, I. S.

    2007-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption

  18. Possible links between extreme levels of space weather changes and human health state in middle latitudes: direct and indirect indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaraly-Oghlu Babayev, Elchin

    The Sun is the main driver of space weather. The possibility that solar activity variations and related changes in the Earth's magnetosphere can affect human life and health has been debated for many decades. This problem is being studied extensively in the late 20th and early 21st centuries and it is still being contradictory in some cases. The relations between space weather changes and the human health have global implications, but they are especially significant for habitants living at high geomagnetic latitudes where the geomagnetic disturbances have larger amplitudes. Nevertheless, the relevant researches are also important for humans living at any geomagnetic latitudes with different levels of geomagnetic activity; recent researches show that weak geomagnetic disturbances can also have adverse effects. Unfortunately, limited comparison of results of investigations on possible effects to humans from geomagnetic activity exists between studies conducted in high, middle and low latitudes. Knowledge about the relationship between solar and geomagnetic activity and the human health would allow to get better prepared beforehand for any future geomagnetic event and its impacts anywhere. For these purposes there are conducted collaborative (jointly with scientists from Israel, Bulgaria, Russia and Belgium) and cross-disciplinary space weather studies in the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences for revealing possible effects of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray variability on certain technological, biological and ecological systems in different phases of solar cycle 23. This paper describes some recently obtained results of the complex (theoretical, experimental and statistical) studies of influence of the periodical and aperiodical changes of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray activities upon human cardio-health state as well as human physiological and psycho-emotional state. It also covers the conclusions of studies on influence of violent solar events and severe

  19. Application of MRIL-WD (Magnetic Resonance Imaging Logging While Drilling) for irreducible water saturation, total reservoir, free-fluid, bound-fluid porosity measurements and its value for the petrophysical analysis of RT/RM data from the Shah Deniz well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirov, Elnur

    2016-04-01

    Sperry-Sun (Sperry Drilling Services) is the leader in MWD/LWD reliability, has developed the industry's first LWD NMR/MRIL-WD (nuclear magnetic resonance) tool. The MRIL-WD (magnetic resonance imaging logging-while-drilling) service directly measures the T1 component of hydrogen in subsurface rock units while drilling to obtain total reservoir porosity and to dissect the observed total porosity into its respective components of free fluid and bound fluid porosity. These T1 data are used to secure accurate total, free-fluid, capillary-bound water, and clay-bound water porosity of the reservoir sections which can be drilled in the several Runs. Over the last decade, results from Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs (NMR) have added significant value to petrophysical analysis and understanding by providing total, free-fluid and bound-fluid porosities, combined with fluid typing capabilities. With MRIL-WD very valuable Real-Time or Recorded Memory data/information is now available during or shortly after the drilling operation (formation properties measurement can be taken right after a drill bit penetration), while trip in and trip out as well. A key point in utilizing MRIL in an LWD environment is motion-tolerant measurements. Recent MRIL-WD logging runs from the Shah Deniz wells located in the Khazarian-Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic helped to delineate and assess hydrocarbon bearing zones. Acquired results demonstrate how MRIL data can be acquired while-drilling and provide reliable/high quality measurements. Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs at some developments wells have become a cornerstone in formation evaluation and petrophysical understanding. By providing total, free-fluid, and bound-fluid porosities together with fluid typing, MRIL results have significantly added to the assessment of reservoirs. In order to reduce NPT (Non-Productive Time) and save the rig operations time, there is always the desire to obtain logging results as soon as possible

  20. Testing the Law of One Price under Nonlinearity for Egg Market of Selected Provinces of Iran

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    M. Ghahremanzadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Regarding to the ever-increasing consumption of egg and consequently enhancement of its production during recent years, consideration to this output's market integration has special importance. Considering the fact that information on market integration may provide specific evidence as to the competitiveness of market, the effectiveness of arbitrage and the efficiency of pricing could be, likewise, useful to guide subsequent interventions aimed at improving the performance of market. In this context, in present study, validity of Law of One Price (LOP will be tested in the egg market and among selected provinces. Materials and Methods: Nonlinearity naturally extracted from local market due to existence of transportation and other transaction costs, so common cointegration test results are not suitable for market integration. In this study, at first, for being sure that series follow nonlinear behavior, Luukkonen et al. (1988 and BDS nonlinearity tests were used. Then for testing Law of One price in the egg market, nonlinear unit root test proposed by Emmanouilides and Fousekis (2012, which is an auxiliary regression for ESTAR model, was used. The data are daily retail prices of egg with the sample period ranging from April 2006 to march 2014 for north-west provinces of Iran including West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan, Ardebil, Tehran and Zanjan, which were obtained from State Live Stock Affairs Logistics Incorporated Company. Results and Discussion: Based on the DF-GLS unit root test, the null hypothesis of unit root for egg price differentials was rejected. So, all series of price differentials are stationary. In the next step nonlinearity of price differentials of egg between two provinces was examined. In BDS test, at the beginning, an ARMA model was estimated then the test was carried out to the residual of estimated model with embedding dimension (m 2-8 and the dimensional distance (ε chosen equals to 0.5 and 2 times of

  1. LATE JURASSIC SCLERACTINIAN CORALS FROM G(E)RZ(E),NORTHWESTERN XIZANG (TIBET)%西藏改则的晚侏罗世石珊瑚

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖卫华; 纪占胜; 武桂春

    2012-01-01

    Cretaceous and D. laxata has been found in the Upper Jurassic from Germany and Switzerland, with a very similar species, D. cf. laxata, recorded from the present locality in Tibet. Thecosmilia trichoto-ma is a characteristic and widespread in the Upper Jurassic from the Germany, Poland, Ukraine, Czech, Portugal, Greece, and China. Thamnaste-ria coquandi has been reported from the Upper Jurassic of Switzerland, France, Azerbaijan and Baingoin, northern Tibet, China. Whilst Thamn-asteria mettensis has been reported from the Middle and Upper Jurassic beds in England, France, India and China. Mitrodendron ogilvieae has been found before from the Upper Jurassic in Germany and Rhipidogyra flabellum from the Upper Jurassic in Switzerland, Poland and Madagascar. Finally, Isastraea rariseptata is a widespread species in the Late Jurassic beds from northern Tibet (Rutog, Baingoin, Xainza and Gerze), China, and Latias-traea pakongensis and Mitrodendron yilashanensis have been reported from the Upper Jurassic from Baingoin and from Nagqu, also in northern Tibet, China respectively. Taken as a hole, the scleractinian coral fauna described here indicates a Late Jurassic age. It bears a close relationship with those of Europe (Portugal, France, Germany, Switzerland, Poland, Czech, Romania, Ukraine and Greece) , with Central South Asia (Azerbaijan, Georgia), and with parts of Gondwana (Madagascar and India).

  2. Mud Volcanoes - Analogs to Martian Cones and Domes (by the thousands !)

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    Allen, C.; Oehler, D.

    2010-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are mounds formed by low temperature slurries of gas, liquid, sediments and rock that erupt to the surface from depths of meters to kilometers. They are common on Earth, with estimates of thousands onshore and tens of thousands offshore. Mud volcanoes occur in basins with rapidly-deposited accumulations of fine-grained sediments. Such settings are ideal for concentration and preservation of organic materials, and mud volcanoes typically occur in sedimentary basins that are rich in organic biosignatures. Domes and cones, cited as possible mud volcanoes by previous authors, are common on the northern plains of Mars. Our analysis of selected regions in southern Acidalia Planitia has revealed over 18,000 such features, and we estimate that more than 40,000 occur across the area. These domes and cones strongly resemble terrestrial mud volcanoes in size, shape, morphology, associated flow structures and geologic setting. Geologic and mineralogic arguments rule out alternative formation mechanisms involving lava, ice and impacts. We are studying terrestrial mud volcanoes from onshore and submarine locations. The largest concentration of onshore features is in Azerbaijan, near the western edge of the Caspian Sea. These features are typically hundreds of meters to several kilometers in diameter, and tens to hundreds of meters in height. Satellite images show spatial densities of 20 to 40 eruptive centers per 1000 km2. Many of the features remain active, and fresh mud flows as long as several kilometers are common. A large field of submarine mud volcanoes is located in the Gulf of Cadiz, off the Atlantic coasts of Morocco and Spain. High-resolution sonar bathymetry reveals numerous km-scale mud volcanoes, hundreds of meters in height. Seismic profiles demonstrate that the mud erupts from depths of several hundred meters. These submarine mud volcanoes are the closest morphologic analogs yet found to the features in Acidalia Planitia. We are also conducting

  3. Mud Volcanoes - Analogs to Martian Cones and Domes (by the Thousands!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    Mud volcanoes are mounds formed by low temperature slurries of gas, liquid, sediments and rock that erupt to the surface from depths of meters to kilometers. They are common on Earth, with estimates of thousands onshore and tens of thousands offshore. Mud volcanoes occur in basins with rapidly-deposited accumulations of fine-grained sediments. Such settings are ideal for concentration and preservation of organic materials, and mud volcanoes typically occur in sedimentary basins that are rich in organic biosignatures. Domes and cones, cited as possible mud volcanoes by previous authors, are common on the northern plains of Mars. Our analysis of selected regions in southern Acidalia Planitia has revealed over 18,000 such features, and we estimate that more than 40,000 occur across the area. These domes and cones strongly resemble terrestrial mud volcanoes in size, shape, morphology, associated flow structures and geologic setting. Geologic and mineralogic arguments rule out alternative formation mechanisms involving lava, ice and impacts. We are studying terrestrial mud volcanoes from onshore and submarine locations. The largest concentration of onshore features is in Azerbaijan, near the western edge of the Caspian Sea. These features are typically hundreds of meters to several kilometers in diameter, and tens to hundreds of meters in height. Satellite images show spatial densities of 20 to 40 eruptive centers per 1000 square km. Many of the features remain active, and fresh mud flows as long as several kilometers are common. A large field of submarine mud volcanoes is located in the Gulf of Cadiz, off the Atlantic coasts of Morocco and Spain. High-resolution sonar bathymetry reveals numerous km-scale mud volcanoes, hundreds of meters in height. Seismic profiles demonstrate that the mud erupts from depths of several hundred meters. These submarine mud volcanoes are the closest morphologic analogs yet found to the features in Acidalia Planitia. We are also conducting

  4. NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS PREVALENCE IN A HOSPITAL-BASED STUDY IN URMIA

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    I. Abdi Rad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveNeural tube defects including anencephaly, encephalocele, and spina bifida are major congenital malformations with multifactorial etiology, and with a great variation in their prevalence in different populations. The study on the prevalence of these malformations may be helpful in planning strategies for their prevention. The aim of this epidemiologic descriptive study was to determine the prevalence of neural tube defects and to describe their birth characteristics in Motahhari hospital, Urmia, West Azerbaijan.Materials and MethodsA cross-section observational study was carried on the hospital-based charts of consecutive 13997 live-births and 124 stillbirths during the period January 2001 through June 2005. The defects categorized based on the domains of anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele according to standard definitions.ResultsDuring this period, 117 cases were detected with neural tube defects, giving an overall prevalence of 8.29/1000. Of 117 cases, 81 (69.23% cases were seen among stillbirths and 36 (30.77% cases among live-births, that is, the prevalence of neural tube defects for stillbirths and live-births were 653.2/1000 and 2.57/1000 respectively. The yearly prevalence varies between 6.99/1000 and 9.82/1000 over the 4.5-year period. The major lesion was anencephaly with prevalence of 5.52/1000 (66.67% of all neural tube defects. Approximately, two-thirds (66.09% of cases were found in females. Weights of 73.36% of anencephalic cases wereless than 1000 grams.ConclusionIn this study, the prevalence of neural tube defects is among the highest reported rates. There was a significance difference in the prevalence of anencephaly, as the most prevalent NTD, between live-births and stillbirths. These findings may necessitate an intensive approach to periconceptional folic acid supplementation as a possible strategy to reduce the prevalence of these defects.

  5. Analytical Review of Brucellosis in Jolfa City between 2010 and 2014

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    Safooreh Esmaeilzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : This study aimed to analyze existing data to achieve a comprehensive understanding of human brucellosis trend and its current situation in Jolfa city for implementing appropriate prevention and controlling program. Material and Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted on 91 patients with brucellosis who referred to Jolfa city health centers and private clinics from 2010 to 2014 and standard form of the brucellosis disease was completed for them. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 16 and descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results : The mean incidence of brucellosis was 34.6 per 100,000. About 60.4% of the patients were male and 86.6% were living in rural. Disease was more common in men but there was no significant difference between the genders (x2 =2.72, p-value=0.85. The mean age was 36.7 years old (SD=1.78 with a range from 4 to 87 years old. The most cases of diseases were aged 40-50 years old. The most contagious seasons were spring (40.65% and summer (26.37%. About 85.7% of the patients had a history of animal contact and 78 % of the patients had a background of consuming unpasteurized dairy products. According to the findings, 94.55% of the patients were new cases and 38.5% had a history of disease in the family. The most cases (34.1% were in Komar-Sofla village. Conclusion : Despite the decrease of brucellosis disease in the East Azerbaijan province, trend of disease is increasing in Jolfa and brucellosis is still one of the common diseases. According to the results and considering the nature of the disease, applying ecological theories based on the multi-sectoral collaboration of the society can be effective in preventing the disease. ​

  6. Alu insertion polymorphisms and an assessment of the genetic contribution of Central Asia to Anatolia with respect to the Balkans.

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    Berkman, Ceren Caner; Dinc, Havva; Sekeryapan, Ceran; Togan, Inci

    2008-05-01

    In the evolutionary history of modern humans, Anatolia acted as a bridge between the Caucasus, the Near East, and Europe. Because of its geographical location, Anatolia was subject to migrations from multiple different regions throughout time. The last, well-known migration was the movement of Turkic speaking, nomadic groups from Central Asia. They invaded Anatolia and then the language of the region was gradually replaced by the Turkic language. In the present study, insertion frequencies of 10 Alu loci (A25 = 0.07, APO = 0.96, TPA25 = 0.44, ACE = 0.37, B65 = 0.57, PV92 = 0.18, FXIIIB = 0.52, D1 = 0.40, HS4.32 = 0.66, and HS4.69 = 0.30) have been determined in the Anatolian population. Together with the data compiled from other databases, the similarity of the Anatolian population to that of the Balkans and Central Asia has been visualized by multidimensional scaling method. Analysis suggested that, genetically, Anatolia is more closely related with the Balkan populations than to the Central Asian populations. Central Asian contribution to Anatolia with respect to the Balkans was quantified with an admixture analysis. Furthermore, the association between the Central Asian contribution and the language replacement episode was examined by comparative analysis of the Central Asian contribution to Anatolia, Azerbaijan (another Turkic speaking country) and their neighbors. In the present study, the Central Asian contribution to Anatolia was estimated as 13%. This was the lowest value among the populations analyzed. This observation may be explained by Anatolia having the lowest migrant/resident ratio at the time of migrations.

  7. [CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBINED ANESTHESIA WITH EPIDURAL COMPONENTE DEPENDING ON VEGETATIVE NERVOUS SYSTEM TYPE].

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    Hasanov, F J; Aslanov, A A; Muradov, N F; Namazova, K N

    2016-01-01

    The research objective was to study the characteristics of combined anesthesia with epidural componente (CAEC) depending on vegetative nervous system type (VNS) in patients who underwent large scale traumatic surgical operations on abdominal cavity organs. The scientific research was conducted in Anaesthesiology--Reanimation Department of the Scientific Surgical Centre named after acad. MA. Topchubashev, the Ministry of Health of the Azerbaijan Republic. The research objects were 69 patients who underwent operations in conditions of CAEC due to different serious surgical pathologies of abdominal cavity organs. VNS type was identified based on electroencephalogram, Cerdo Vegetative Index (CVI), Hildebrandt coefficient (HC) and single neurophysiological tests. The patients were divided into three groups depending on VNS type: I--normotonics--17 patients (24.7%), II--sympathatonics--25 patients (36.2%), and III--vagotonics--27 patients (39.1%). Blood adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol concentration were studied in 3 stages: I -preoperative, II--operation traumatic stage, III--the 1st postoperative days. The other indicators (heart rate, systolic blood pressure--SBP, dyastolic blood pressure--DBR average blood pressure--BP ave., pulse oximetry SpO₂, ECG, gases in blood and acid-base balance, electrolytes, blood glucose level, myocardium oxygen demand--MOD) were registered after 20 minutes and the 2nd day after operation besides the above stages. The research results indicated that it is possible to define the vegetative nervous system type superiority based on complex of single tests data, EEG, ECG, Cerdo Vegetative Index, Hildebrandt coefficient. CAEC can be considered optimun alternative of general anesthesia ensuring neurohumoral and hemodynamic stability in large scale, traumatic operations on abdominal cavity organs. Clinical course of CAEC is characterized by firmer hemodynamic and humoral stability in patients with functional balance of

  8. Effect of population size on genetic variation levels in Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae detected by RAPDs

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    Houshang Nosrati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The population size of plants affects on population genetic variation. Materials and Methods: We studied the impact of population size on genetic variation in populations of Capparis spinosa (caper, Capparaceae using RAPDs in East Azerbaijan (Iran. Within-population genetic diversity was estimated based on Nei`s and Shanonn`s diversity using Popgen, and genetic similarity among the populations was studied from a UPGMA dendrogram based the matrix of Nei’s distances obtained through SHAN. Difference in the level genetic variation between small-sized and large-sized populations was tested using Mann-Whitney U test, and correlation between geographical and genetic distances among populations was examined by Pearson test (SPSS, 11.3. Total genetic variation was partitioned into within and among populations based on AMOVA using Arlequin. Results: The polymorphism levels of RAPDs bands among the populations ranged from 48.8% to 81.4%, and within-population Nei’s diversity varied from 0.1667 to 0.2630. Genetic variation in small-sized populations (0.1667 to 0.1809 was significantly lower than the variations in large-sized populations (0.2158 -0.2630 (N= 7, P0.674, Pearson correlation test. Conclusions: Population size has a dramatic impact on its genetic diversity. The results revealed that fragmentation of caper population in the study region has most likely occurred recently. The low genetic diversity revealed within caper populations indicates high risk of extinction and suggests that urgent conservation action is needed to recover diversity in these populations.

  9. Effect of dietary sodium nitrate consumption on egg production, egg quality characteristics and some blood indices in native hens of west azarbaijan province.

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    Safary, H; Daneshyar, M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sodium nitrate consumption on egg quality and quantity, and some blood parameters of native breeder hens of West Azerbaijan province. One hundred native hens were used from wk 25 to 32 of age. These birds were divided into two groups. One group was fed the control diet (CD) but the other fed the same diet supplemented with 4.2 g/kg sodium nitrate (ND). After 2 wks of adaptation, eggs were collected daily and egg mass and egg production were measured weekly for five weeks. To assess the egg quality parameters, two eggs from each replicate pen were collected for three consecutive days each week. At the end of experimental period (wk 32 of age), blood samples of 5 birds per replicate were collected from the wing vein into anticoagulant tubes. Dietary sodium nitrate didn't affect the egg production, shell stiffness, shell thickness and Haugh unit (p>0.05) but it decreased the both egg production and egg mass during the last three weeks (wks 30, 31 and 32) (p0.05). No effect of time or treatment×time were observed for shell stiffness (p>0.05). Over time, shell thickness was decreased while Haugh unit increased (pAST and LDH enzymes were affected by dietary consumption of sodium nitrate at wk 32 of age (p>0.05). Sodium nitrite decreased both the TAC and TC at wk 32 of age (p<0.001). It was concluded that the lower body antioxidant capacity of nitrate fed birds resulted in the lower performance (egg weight, egg production and egg mass).

  10. New approaches in buffalo artificial insemination programs with special reference to India.

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    Singh, Inderjeet; Balhara, A K

    2016-07-01

    Buffalo farming has made remarkable progress in productivity mainly because of controlled breeding with artificial insemination (AI) that has proved its worth in breed improvement and breeding managements across the livestock species. Artificial insemination is practiced very little in Europe and East Asian countries with coverage of only 5% buffaloes in Italy, 3.7% in Azerbaijan, 0.3% in Egypt, and 0.1% in Romania although in Bulgaria, 80% buffaloes in large cooperative state farms are subjected to AI. In Turkey, it began in 2002 near Hatay with Italian semen provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Network project. In India, where buffaloes are the most valuable livestock species, research on buffalo specific artificial breeding technologies and adoption of AI by buffalo owners are widely acknowledged. Resultantly, average milk yield of buffaloes in India increased from 3.4 kg in 1992 to 93 to 4.57 kg/day/buffalo in 2009 to 10. In the new millennium, mega projects such as the National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding and the National Dairy Plan were initiated with focus on genetic upgradation of bovine and buffalo population through streamlining AI services and support system in the country. Artificial insemination started in India in the year 1939, and the frozen semen was introduced during late 1960s. During the year 2010 to 11, India produced 63 million bovine frozen semen straws including over one million buffalo semen straws through 49 semen stations. Artificial insemination services are provided through 71,341 AI stations clocking 52 million inseminations with overall conception rate of 35% in bovine and buffalo population. Research is being conducted for improved AI conception rates with synchronization programs and improved frozen-thawed semen quality, and success rates are at par with AI in cattle.

  11. Malaria Status in Economic Cooperation Countries; Achievement and Gaps Toward United Nations Millennium Development Goals

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    A Mirzazadeh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluating the malaria status of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO member countries relation to goal 6 of 3rd Millennium Development Goals (MDGs which includes have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria.Methods: By 2009, we reviewed the MDGs reports, extracted the data from surveillance system, published, and unpublished data. The main stakeholders, from both governmental and international organizations in the country have been visited and interviewed by the research team as part of the data validation process.Results: The malaria incidence is very heterogeneous among ECO countries, which differ less than 200 cases in total country in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Azerbaijan to 82,564 cases (2,428/100,000 in Afghanistan and 59,284 cases (881/100,000 in Pakistan and about 18/100,000 in Iran in 2008. Malaria has been a major public health problem in Pakistan and Afghanistan and will continue to pose serious threat to millions of people due to poor environmental and socioeconomic conditions conducive to the spread of disease. The main malaria endemic areas of Iran are in southeastern part of the country; consist of less developed provinces that are bordered in the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan. There are little valid information about proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures indicators.Conclusion: All ECO countries could achieve MDGs malaria indicators by 2015 except Pakistan and Afghanistan, unless preparing urgent intervention programs to fulfill the goals.

  12. Evaluation of Selection Indices for Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

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    Hassan MONIRIFAR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the efficiency of selection indices in alfalfa improvement, an experiment was conducted from 2000 to 2007 at East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Iran. A set of 29 native ecotypes, which were collected in 2000 and 2001 from Azerbaijan (Iran, together with one improved variety were used to conduct a polycross nursery. For the purpose of random mating, a randomized complete block design was used with 12 replications arranged in this nursery. The resulting 30 half-sib families were planted individually in pots and the 30 days old seedlings were transplanted to the field in May, 2004. Each 3-row plot consisted of 45 HS plants. Several traits, such as individual plants� fresh weight and individual plants� dry weight (IPFW, IPDW, number of shoots per plant (NS and plant height (PH in each harvest and also, days until 10% flowering, the ratio of fresh and dry weight of leaves/plant and size of trifoliate leaves were measured for three cropping seasons. The results of analysis of variance showed large variation among polycross progenies. Six selection indices (Ii with different number of traits at adult plant stage were evaluated. Based on the result of this investigation, if number of shoots and height of adult plant, excluding yield, are recorded, I2 is suggested. If, in addition to fresh yield, height of adult plant is measured, I6 is recommended. I4 is useful when number of shoots and plant height with dry yield are included in the index. In conclusion, the importance of mature plant traits in selection indices was in the order of yield > plant height > number of shoots. The results provided more evidence that selection indices incorporating the component of dry yield are more advantageous. The most efficient selection index consisted of NS, IPDW and PH, having a relative efficiency of 280%.

  13. Summary of avian influenza activity in Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australasia, 2002-2006.

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    Alexander, Dennis J

    2007-03-01

    Between December 2003 and January 2004 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 infections of poultry were declared in China, Japan, South Korea, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Indonesia. In 2004 an outbreak was reported in Malaysia. In 2005 H5N1 outbreaks were recorded in poultry in Russia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Romania, Turkey, and Ukraine, and virus was isolated from swans in Croatia. In 2004 HPAI H5N1 virus was isolated from smuggled eagles detected at the Brussels Airport and in 2005 imported caged birds held in quarantine in England. In 2006 HPAI was reported in poultry in Iraq, India, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Myanmar, Afghanistan, and Israel in Asia; Albania, France, and Sweden in Europe; and Nigeria, Cameroon, and Niger in Africa; as well as in wild birds in some 24 countries across Asia and Europe. In 2003, over 25,000,000 birds were slaughtered because of 241 outbreaks of HPAI caused by virus of H7N7 subtype in the Netherlands. The virus spread into Belgium (eight outbreaks) and Germany (one outbreak). HPAI H5N2 virus was responsible for outbreaks in ostriches in South Africa during 2005. HPAI H7N3 virus was isolated in Pakistan in 2004. Low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) H5 or H7 viruses were isolated from poultry in Italy (H7N3 2002-2003; H5N2 2005), The Netherlands (H7N3 2002), France (H5N2 2003), Denmark (H5N7 2003), Taiwan (H5N2 2004), and Japan (H5N2 2005). Many isolations of LPAI viruses of other subtypes were reported from domestic and wild birds. Infections with H9N2 subtype viruses have been widespread across Asia during 2002-06.

  14. Frequency of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep slaughtered in an abattoir in Tabriz: comparison of bacterial culture and pathological study.

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    Zavoshti, Fereydon Rezazadeh; Khoojine, Amir Babak Sioofy; Helan, Javad Ashrafi; Hassanzadeh, Belal; Heydari, Ali Akbar

    2012-10-01

    From January to February 2008, 468 sheep carcasses (335 male and 133 female) in a Khosroshahr (suburb of Tabriz, East Azerbaijan province, Iran) abattoir were randomly selected for inspection. The aim of the study was to estimate the frequency of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep and to compare the results of bacterial cultures and histopathology of suspected cases. The mean age of the population was 2.5 years. One hundred ninety-seven cases containing 153 (77.7%) males and 44 (22.3%) females had prominent enlargement of one of the lymph nodes (i.e., prescapular, prefemoral, inguinal, supramammary, or midiastinal); these were removed with the surrounding tissue for further evaluation. For confirmed diagnosis of CLA, samples were sent for microbiology and pathology analysis. Standard bacteriological culture methods for isolation of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and tissue preparations for histopathological sections were performed. To evaluate the effect of age on the frequency of CLA, animals were categorized in four groups: under 1, 1-2, 2-3, and over 3 years of age. Based on the results, in 59 (12.60%) carcasses C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated, and in 94 (20.08%) of the cases histopathological studies revealed pathognomonic signs (lamellated exudates or onion ring) of CLA. The frequency of CLA based on bacteriological culture was 12.60% and on histopathological study 20.08%. In 37 (18.8%) of the carcasses, both bacteriological and histopathological studies confirmed CLA. The frequency of CLA following microscopic examination (20.08%) presented a more precise diagnosis compared to bacteriological culture (12.60%) and macroscopic evaluation of the lymph nodes (P CLA detection with increasing age (P CLA test were 2.92 years and in the oldest age group 31 (47%) cases had the highest infection.

  15. Optimal Glycemic and Hemoglobin A1c Thresholds for Diagnosing Diabetes Based on Prevalence of Retinopathy in an Iranian Population

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    Samadi Aidenloo, Naser; Mehdizadeh, Alireza; Valizadeh, Neda; Abbaszadeh, Mohammad; Qarequran, Siavash; Khalkhali, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of glycemic thresholds for diabetes diagnosis is controversial. However, no information is available regarding glycemic and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) thresholds for detecting diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the Iranian population. Objectives The main purpose of the current investigation was to examine the association of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c levels with diabetic retinopathy (DR), and to determine the relevant cut-off levels in an Iranian population. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional, population-based study was performed during 2012-2013 in Urmia, the capital of West Azerbaijan province, Iran. The subjects were 3,010 Iranians aged 40-81 years. The FPG levels were determined using the glucose oxidase method whereas, the HbA1c values were measured using a standardized assay by high performance liquid chromatography. DR was evaluated by an examination of the fundus photograph of each eye. The photographs were graded according to the international clinical diabetic retinopathy disease severity scale by photograph graders who were masked to the clinical information. Results Of the subjects, 59 had DR. The prevalence of DR increased steeply between the ninth and the tenth deciles for both variables. The ROC curve analysis showed overall glycemic thresholds for DR of 6.5 mmol/L (117 mg/dL) for FPG and 6.2% (44 mmol/mol) for HbA1c. The sensitivities and specificities were 78.0% and 87.1% for FPG and 89.8% and 89.5% for HbA1c, respectively. The areas under the ROC curves indicated that HbA1c was a stronger discriminator of retinopathy: the area under curve was 0.880 for FPG and 0.946 for HbA1c P diabetes in the Iranian population are lower than the current diagnostic criteria. PMID:27781118

  16. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

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    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-06-20

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

  17. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and Pathogen Asset Control System

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    Tom G. Wahl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA.

  18. 3rd International Scientific Conference “Military History of Russia: Problems, Searches, Solutions” Dedicated to the 160th Anniversary of the End of the Crimean War of 1853-1856 (September 23-24, 2016, Volgograd

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    Sergey G. Sidorov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides information about the 3rd International Scientific Conference “Military History of Russia: problems, searches, solutions”, dedicated to the 160th anniversary of the Crimean War of 1853-1856. This conference was held in Volgograd on September 23-24, 2016. The conference was held at the Volgograd State University. Conference was organized by Volgograd State University, Centre for collective use “Military History of Russia”, Centre for the Study of the Battle of Stalingrad, The State Historical and Memorial Museum “Battle of Stalingrad”, State Archive of Volgograd Region, the Volgograd regional Division of the Academy of Military Sciences, the Volgograd Regional Branch of the Russian Military-Historical Society. The conference was informative and representative in its composition: more than 100 representatives of scientific institutions of the Academy of Sciences, universities, archives, museums and libraries from 20 cities of Russia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Ukraine. 22 doctors of sciences and 40 candidates of sciences were among the participants. Together with respected professors and lecturers the conference was attended by young scientists: assistants, postgraduate students, master students and students. The article analyzes the work of the plenary sessions and 10 sections, the central section of which was “The Crimean War: Russia and the World”. The permanent sections were presented by the reports: on Military History in Antiquity and in the Middle Ages, in New and Recent History; on social protection of the population in wartime; on the military-political conflicts as a threat to the security of society and state; on the international aspects of military conflicts; on the art of war in the methodology of the international “wargame” research; on the results of work of the Centre for the Study of the Battle of Stalingrad.

  19. Negotiation Support Systems for Facilitating International Water Conflicts

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    Mirchi, A.; Madani, K.; Rouhani, O. M.

    2011-12-01

    Two decades after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Caspian Sea -the largest inland body of water on earth- continues to be the subject of one of the world's most insurmountable disputes, involving Iran, Russia, and the new sovereign states of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan. The conflict is over the legal status of this multinational water body, which supplies almost all of the world's black caviar, and holds about 10% and 4% of the world's oil and gas reserves, respectively. Typically, proposed division methods for sharing the Caspian Sea and its valuable resources focus either on the areal shares or on the oil and gas shares of the parties. As such, total gains of littoral states under different division methods have remained unclear. In this study, we have developed the Caspian Sea Negotiation Support System (NSS) to delineate optimal boundaries for sharing the sea. The Caspian Sea NSS facilitates simultaneous consideration of the countries' areal and resource shares from the sea under different sharing methods. The developed model is run under different division scenarios to provide insights into the sensitivity of the countries' gains and locations of nautical boundaries to the proposed division rules and the economic values of the Caspian Sea resources. The results are highly sensitive to the proposed division rules, and there is an indirect relationship between the allocated area and resource shares. The main policy implication of the study is that explicit quantification of the countries' resource and areal gains under any suggested legal regime for governing the Caspian Sea is a precursor the success of the negotiations.

  20. The Underground Domed Crypt in the Mound no. 5 From the A.V. Tereshchenko’s Excavations in Tsarev Hillfort in 1843

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glukhov Aleksandr Anatolyevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the A. Tereshchenko’s archaeological excavations of the underground domed crypt in 1843 in Tsarev hillfort - the second largest monument of the Golden Horde period in the Lower Volga located on the left bank of Akhtuba-river. Based on archival information, the author analyzes the circumstances of the underground crypt’s discovery, gives a description of the object. The author found that the crypt in Tsarev belongs to the type of cruciform crypts, located under the above-ground constructions (mausoleums. The constructions of this type have analogies on the territory of the Golden Horde, and in other regions: Central Asia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan. For the first time introduced into scientific circulation unique pattern of Golden Horde’s object was investigated by Tereschenko on Tsarev hillfort. This image is the only surviving graphics of excavated structures that Tereschenko was accompanied by his diaries and reports. The rest of the image are not kept or are not found in the archives yet. The article also gives a dating of the investigated construction. Copper coin of 766 AH (1364/64 A.D. found here to determine that burial structure was built no later than the mid-1360s. The author has taken into account the large size, complex structure, the findings made in the underground crypt and concluded that the burial complex, researched by Tereshchenko, was elitist. Use of comprehensive information (Tereshchenko’s diary descriptions, topographical plans of 1842-1843 and satellite images helped the author to locate the place of excavation of the crypt on the ground.

  1. A hybrid neural networks-fuzzy logic-genetic algorithm for grade estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Pejman; Hezarkhani, Ardeshir

    2012-05-01

    The grade estimation is a quite important and money/time-consuming stage in a mine project, which is considered as a challenge for the geologists and mining engineers due to the structural complexities in mineral ore deposits. To overcome this problem, several artificial intelligence techniques such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Fuzzy Logic (FL) have recently been employed with various architectures and properties. However, due to the constraints of both methods, they yield the desired results only under the specific circumstances. As an example, one major problem in FL is the difficulty of constructing the membership functions (MFs).Other problems such as architecture and local minima could also be located in ANN designing. Therefore, a new methodology is presented in this paper for grade estimation. This method which is based on ANN and FL is called "Coactive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System" (CANFIS) which combines two approaches, ANN and FL. The combination of these two artificial intelligence approaches is achieved via the verbal and numerical power of intelligent systems. To improve the performance of this system, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) - as a well-known technique to solve the complex optimization problems - is also employed to optimize the network parameters including learning rate, momentum of the network and the number of MFs for each input. A comparison of these techniques (ANN, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System or ANFIS) with this new method (CANFIS-GA) is also carried out through a case study in Sungun copper deposit, located in East-Azerbaijan, Iran. The results show that CANFIS-GA could be a faster and more accurate alternative to the existing time-consuming methodologies for ore grade estimation and that is, therefore, suggested to be applied for grade estimation in similar problems.

  2. Lessons learnt from pilot field test of a comprehensive advocacy program to support health promoting schools’ project in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazadeh, Towhid; Fathi, Behrouz; Shaghaghi, Abdolreza; Allahverdipour, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Background: Health promoting schools (HPS) project is currently being used in Iran but many challenges still lie ahead. The present study aimed, to test feasibility of implementing a comprehensive advocacy program (CAP) to overcome the obstacles and problems associated with the consummation of school health programs based on the HPS framework. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed through recruiting all schools that were enrolled in the national HPS program and located in Jolfa as the intervention group and all of the schools situated in the East Azerbaijan province as control. In order to collect data, Iranian Ministry of Health’s checklists and external audit guidelines for HPS were utilized. In addition, to plan a CAP required data for coordinating fund raising activities including current rules and regulations regarding implementation of local health promotion interventions were collected. Results: Findings of the study revealed that the implemented CAP had improved all HPS dimensions’ mean score in the intervention group. The observed change in the pre- and post-test score in the intervention group was significant (P < 0.05). The intervention was also successful in encouraging signing of an agreement among the participated organizations to be committed to pursue the adopted policies in facilitation of progress towards full implementation of the local HPS project. Conclusion: Commencing changes in the recruited schools’ structure through coordinated multi-level activities is feasible and this must be considered as a priority where contextual determinants exist to motivate progress towards providing healthier educational settings for school aged children in Iran. PMID:28058237

  3. Geomagnetic Storms and Acute Myocardial Infarctions Morbidity in Middle Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, S.; Babayev, E. S.; Mustafa, F. R.; Stoilova, I.; Taseva, T.; Georgieva, K.

    2009-12-01

    Results of collaborative studies on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and pre-hospital acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data from Bulgaria and Azerbaijan. Bulgarian data, covering the period from 01.12.1995 to 31.12.2004, concerned daily distribution of number of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia Region on the day of admission at the hospital. Azerbaijani data contained 4479 pre-hospital AMI incidence cases for the period 01.01.2003-31.12.2005 and were collected from 21 emergency and first medical aid stations in Grand Baku Area (including Absheron Economical Region with several millions of inhabitants). Data were "cleaned" as much as possible from social and other factors and were subjected to medical and mathematical/statistical analysis. Medical analysis showed reliability of the used data. Method of ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms - those caused by magnetic clouds (MC) and by high speed solar wind streams (HSSWS) - on AMI incidences. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results were outlined for both considered data. Results obtained for the Sofia data showed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI occurrence. ANOVA revealed that AMI incidence number was significantly increased from the day before till the day after geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day for the period 1995-2004. Results obtained for the Baku data revealed trends similar to those obtained for Sofia data. AMI morbidity increment was observed on the days with higher GMA intensity and after these days

  4. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM As a Predictor Model for Explaining Agricultural Experts Behavior in Acceptance of ICT

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    Amir Alambaigi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop Technology Acceptance Model (TAM model to explain adoption of information technologies process. a Descriptive – correlation study was conducted and data were collected through a survey. Statistical population was West Azerbaijan Agricultural Extension agents who 120 of them were selected randomly using the Krejcie and Morgan table. A questionnaire was employed to measure the variables in the model. Its validity was confirmed by a panel of experts. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranged between from 0.704 to 0.816 show satisfied reliability. For data processing, partial leastsquares (PLS method as a new approach to structural equation modeling was used. The results showed that among three variables for development oftechnology acceptance model including Job relevance, experience and organization willingness to invest, the first and second show significant effects.Thus,Job relevance and experience as an external variable was added to the basic TAM. Other relations between variablesin basic technology acceptance model in current study were also seen significant. Our developed TAM can explain 64% of the actual behavior of employee in information technology utilization. TAM is one of the most influential extensions of Ajzen and Fishbein’s theory of reasoned action (TRA in the literature. The theories behind it assume that when a person forms an intention to act, that s/he will be free to act without limitation. While In the real world there will be many constraints, such as limited freedom to act. For example, people in organized working environments are forced to use most of the relevant applications irrespective of their opinion or attitude. In this research mentioned model was used as a strong model to predict actual use behavior that affected by three variables namely Job relevance, experience and organization willingness to invest.

  5. FAUNA OF COLEPTERA,TENEBRIORIDAE OF ARID COASTAL AND ISLAND ECOSYSTEMS OF THE CASPIAN SEA.

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    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the given paper is to expose species structure and geographical distribution of Coleoptera, Tenebrioridae (C, T of coastal and island ecosystem of the Caspian Sea. The given report is compiled of the matcrials, collected in different periods by authors (1961-2013 in the Caucasian part of the Caspian Sea, in the south of the European part of the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, islands (the Chechen island, the Nord island. The Tuleniyisland. The Kulaly island, collective materials (ZIN; RAS, museum of Zoology of MSU, Institute NAN of Azerbaijan, National museum of Georgia and materials published (Kryzhanovsky, 1965, Medvedev, 1987, 1990; Medvedev, Nepesova, 1990; Shuster, 1934; Kaluzhnaya, 1982; Arzanov and others, 2004, Egorov, 2006.Methods. We used the traditional methods of collecting (hand picking, traps soil, soil traps light amplification light traps, processing and material definition. List of species composition discussed fauna composed by modern taxonomy using directories. Location. Coastal and island ecosystems of the Caspian sea.Results. Species structure and data on general and regional distribution of C,T of coastal and island ecosystems of the Caspian Sea is represented in the paper. Faund discussed is widely represented in the fauna of arid regions of land, especially in the fauna of subtropical deserts and semideserts.Main conclusions. Results of the study will be a step in the determination of age of the islands through the biological diversity and the consequent level regime of the Caspian Sea, as well as possible changes in the population structure of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae on island ecosystems.

  6. Efficiency of wave impeding barrier in pipeline construction under earthquake excitation using nonlinear finite element analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fatih Goktepe; H Serdar Kuyuk; Erkan Celebi

    2014-04-01

    Earthquakes have caused colossal casualties and severe damages to engineering structures and especially leading to substantial economic loss to the underground structures and/or infrastructures. Pipelines are one of most important component of lifeline engineering. For instance, the Southern Caucasus- Eastern Turkey energy corridors are formed by several key pipelines carrying crude oil and natural gas from Azerbaijan, via Georgia, to world markets through Mediterranean Sea. Many project accomplished recently and construction of new corridors are still going on. They should be protected from earthquake disaster especially when they pass through high seismicity zones. The installation of wave impeding barriers (WIB) below the vulnerable infrastructures as pipelines established in soft soil can be used to reduce the effect of the earthquake induced ground borne vibrations. In this paper, a WIB as artificial bedrock based on the cut-off frequency of a soil layer over bedrock is proposed as isolation measurement in order to mitigate the dynamic response of the buried pipelines under earthquake strong ground motion. The computational simulation of the wave propagation problem is directly achieved by employing nonlinear 2D finite element modelling for prediction of screening performance of WIB on the dynamic response of vibrating coupled soil-pipeline system. Energy absorbing boundaries along the truncated interfaces of the unbounded nature of the underlying soil media are implemented in the time domain along with Newmark’s integration. An extensive parametric investigation and systematic computations are performed with different controlling parameters. The obtained numerical results point out that WIB can be very promising as an isolator to protect pipelines when they establish for a certain depth.

  7. Challenges of Eurasian integration after the Ukrainian Crisis

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    A. Skriba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The regional situation in Eastern Europe changed significantly by the end of the first decade of the 21st century. Competitionbetween Russia and the European Union increased during the 2000s, while at the same time both actors were changing their approach to the six states of the former USSR that lie between Russia and the EU – Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. In order to widen and deepen their influence on those territories and to reduce uncertainty about their regional politics, Moscow and Brussels developed their own integration projects and demanded those post-Soviet states define their position in the EU-Russia competition. Russian and European scholars, when trying to analyze the future of the Post-Soviet Six states, mostly examine the attractiveness of the two integration projects. While important, such an approach is insufficient, as it ignores the individual internal environments. To assess the prospects for Russia’s Eurasian Economic Union and the EU’s Eastern Partnership, however, one must look inside the six states, which are so important for both Moscow and Brussels. This article explores the aspects of the European and Eurasian integration projects that may be attractive to the six states. Within this framework, it considers what and how elements of those states’ internal environment might influence their choice by examining and comparing both integration projects. It proposes focusing directly on the countries that are currently facing the dilemma of integration and are expected to choose. Despite a number of internal factors influencing the states’ integration behaviour, research has shown that in such circumstances, a choice (whether it is made cannot be considered final, given the individual internal environments of the Six. Their further integration will require additional mechanisms of stimulation, which will need to be developed by the centres of integration — namely, Moscow and

  8. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women of Northwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaii, Mehrangiz; Pourhassan, Aboulfazl; Asle-Rahnamaie-Akbari, Najibeh; Aghebati, Leili; Xie, Juliana Ling; Goldust, Mohammad; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes the most common parasitic infection in the world. Congenital transmission, prenatal mortality and abortion are major problems of T. gondii. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis is high in Iran, especially in Azerbaijan. The current literature reviewed in this paper reveal results pertaining to various regions of Iran. The present cross-sectional e-study was designed to evaluate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women in Northwest Iran. We evaluated 1659 women in childbearing age from several cities in Northwestern Iran (Tabriz, Maragheh, Ahar, Marand, Sarab, Miane) from July 2009 to August 2010. Women aged between 20 and 40 years and seeking prenatal care were enrolled in the study. The subjects' sera were probed with indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA). A total of 1659 subjects were examined. Titres ranged from 1:100 to 1:800. In all, 899 subjects (54.13%) were seropositive. The highest frequency of seropositivity was shown in 1:200 dilution (36.08%) and in subjects from Maragheh (84% of 211 subjects). There was a direct linear relationship between seropositivity and age (p 0.001). Also, seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was higher in subjects with primary school/lower educational level (p 0.001) and subjects living in rural regions (p 0.001). Overall, more than 50% of women in childbearing age were seropositive for toxoplasmosis in northwestern Iran. Increasing seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis with age was a predictable result due to longer exposure to the parasite. The relationship between increasing seroprevalence and lower educational level as well as living in rural areas is in line with the latest epidemiological findings, which also show such relationships due to lower socioeconomic status.

  9. Identifying priority healthcare trainings in frozen conflict situations: The case of Nagorno Karabagh

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    Dorian Alina H

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Health care in post-war situations, where the system's human and fixed capital are depleted, is challenging. The addition of a frozen conflict situation, where international recognition of boundaries and authorities are lacking, introduces further complexities. Case description Nagorno Karabagh (NK is an ethnically Armenian territory locked within post-Soviet Azerbaijan and one such frozen conflict situation. This article highlights the use of evidence-based practice and community engagement to determine priority areas for health care training in NK. Drawing on the precepts of APEXPH (Assessment Protocol for Excellence in Public Health and MAPP (Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships, this first-of-its-kind assessment in NK relied on in-depth interviews and focus group discussions supplemented with expert assessments and field observations. Training options were evaluated against a series of ethical and pragmatic principles. Discussion and Evaluation A unique factor among the ethical and pragmatic considerations when prioritizing among alternatives was NK's ambiguous political status and consequent sponsor constraints. Training priorities differed across the region and by type of provider, but consensus prioritization emerged for first aid, clinical Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses, and Adult Disease Management. These priorities were then incorporated into the training programs funded by the sponsor. Conclusions Programming responsive to both the evidence-base and stakeholder priorities is always desirable and provides a foundation for long-term planning and response. In frozen conflict, low resource settings, such an approach is critical to balancing the community's immediate humanitarian needs with sponsor concerns and constraints.

  10. Hepatitis E among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran

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    Z Rostamzadeh Khameneh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the hepatitis E virus mostly causes a self-limited disease in general population, but the disease is more severe in pregnant women. Hepatitis E accounts for about 10% of pregnancy associated deaths in southern Asia. But the prevalence in Iran is almost unclear, so this study is aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG among a population of pregnant women in West Azerbaijan of Iran.   Materials and Methods: 136 pregnant women who referred to an urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were selected randomly and enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Each subject was tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Dia.Pro; Diagnostic Bioprobes, Italy.   Results: The mean age among 136 pregnant women was 25.12±4.91 years old (range of 14-39 years. Only five cases (3.6% among all 136 subjects were demonstrated to be seropositive for anti-HEV IgG using ELISA method. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88, income level (P=0.19 of two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas.   Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in Urmia, Iran. Because of limited sample size in this study, we recommend to perform further studies with larger sample size in other regions of Iran in order to be able to systematically generalize the findings of studies to the population of Iranian pregnant women.   Keywords: Pregnancy, Hepatitis E, women ELISA  

  11. Advances in Study on African Swine Fever Virus Etiology and Monoclonal Antibody Preparation Technology%非洲猪瘟病原学及单克隆抗体制备技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈轶; 王君玮; 曹金山; 邹艳丽; 吴晓东

    2012-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic viral disease of domestic pigs caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV). Since the mid-twentieth century, ASF has been disseminated in dozens of countries in Africa, Europe and America, and in recent years it spread to Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Russia. Once ASF invaded to China, it would cause great loss to the pig industry. The studies about the etiology and monoclonal antibodies of ASF make sense about the rapid diagnostic techniques of ASF virus and the development of vaccines. Advances in study on the etiology and monoclonal antibodies of ASF were summarized in this paper.%非洲猪瘟是由非洲猪瘟病毒引起猪的高度接触性、传染性、出血性以及高死亡率的传染病。20世纪中期以来,已在非洲、欧洲和美洲等数十个国家流行,并在近几年内蔓延至欧亚两洲接壤处的格鲁吉亚、亚美尼亚、阿塞拜疆以及俄罗斯境内,其一旦侵入我国,将会给我国养猪业带来极大的危害。非洲猪瘟病原学研究以及制备相应的单克隆抗体对非洲猪瘟病毒快速诊断技术研究和疫苗研制有着重大的现实意义。主要从病原学和单克隆抗体制备方面对非洲猪瘟的研究进展进行了综述。

  12. Mechanisms Fostering Social Entrepreneurship as Potential Instruments for Economic Development: The Eastern Partnership Perspective

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    Plotnieks Dāvis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With its plan to assign 600 million euros through the European Neighbourhood Instrument for Eastern Partnership countries, the European Union intended to increase the efficiency of institutions, attenuate social problems, and create an environment that fosters economic growth and human well-being in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine. A few scholars have criticized the amount of funding and planned initiatives of the European Neighbourhood Instrument as insufficient and suggested that in order to foster cooperation and support reforms in its Eastern Partnership countries, more action should be taken. In times when European Commission budget is under constraints of consolidation and increase of aid for supporting European Neighbourhood countries is hardly possible, alternative solutions for tempering social problems need to be assessed. Various scientists, philanthropists and entrepreneurs see social entrepreneurship as a tool for solving social problems in a sustainable way where business thinking is being combined with non-profit philosophy. Contrary to government support and intervention for solving social problems, social entrepreneurship is already being used as tool that initially addresses joint needs--solve social problems and create revenue that provides much needed income for sustainable business initiatives. This paper analyzes the concept of social entrepreneurship, examples where social entrepreneurship is solving social problems, and mechanisms that can foster these phenomena. The aim of this paper is to examine different mechanisms of how governments can foster the creation and development of social entrepreneurship. Unique survey data derived from a project examining social entrepreneurship in Europe is used. It is concluded that by adopting mechanisms proven in various developed countries, the Eastern Partnership countries can stimulate social entrepreneurship, thus attenuating social problems and

  13. Application of Satellite remote sensing for detailed landslide inventories using Frequency ratio model and GIS

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    Himan Shahabi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents landslide susceptibility analysis in central Zab basin in the southwest mountainsides of West-Azerbaijan province in Iran using remotely sensed data and Geographic Information System. Landslide database was generated using satellite imagery and aerial photographs accompanied by field investigations using Differential Global Positioning System to generate a landslide inventory map. Digital elevation model (DEM was first constructed using GIS software. Nine landslide inducing factors were used for landslide vulnerability analysis: slope, slope aspect, distance to road, distance to drainage network, distance to fault, land use, Precipitation, Elevation, and geological factors. This study demonstrates the synergistic use of medium resolution, multitemporal Satellite pour lObservation de la Terre (SPOT, for prepare of landslide-inventory map and Landsat ETM+ for prepare of Land use. The post-classification comparison method using the Maximum Likelihood classifier with SPOT images was able to detect approximately 70% of landslides. Frequency ratio of each factor was computed using the above thematic factors with past landslide locations. It employs the landslide events as dependant variable and data layers as independent variable, and makes use of the correlation between these two factors in landslide zonation. Given the employed model and the variables, signification tests were implemented on each independent variable, and the degree of fitness of zonation map was estimated Landslide susceptibility map was produced using raster analysis. The landslide susceptibility map was classified into four classes: low, moderate, high and very high. The model is validated using the Relative landslide density index (R-index method. The final, landslide low hazard susceptibility map was drawn using frequency ratio. As a result, showed that the identified landslides were located in the class (51.37%, moderate (29.35%, high (11.10% and very high

  14. Sporozoan Protozoa and Enteroparasites in the Gastroenteritic Patients Referring to the Healthcare Centers of Seven Provinces of Iran

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    Nahrevanian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Sporozoan protozoa and enteroparasites cause gastroenteritis. Sporozoa are the major cause of self-limiting diarrhea in immunocompetent patients, however they cause serious diseased in patients with immunosuppression. Objectives The current study aimed to identify the prevalence of sporozoa and enteroparasites among patients with gastroenteritis referred to the healthcare centers in seven provinces of Iran. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 4200 stool samples were randomly collected from patients with gastroenteritis in the selected hospitals of Gilan, East Azerbaijan, Qazvin, Kurdistan, Mazandaran, Tehran and Khorasan-e-Razavi provinces. Primarily samples were examined directly for enteroparasites. The samples were then filtered and concentrated using Paraseb kit. The pellets were fixed, stained by different assays including acid fast staining, Auramin Phenol Fluorescence, Giemsa and light microscopy. Results The results revealed the overall rate of infection, 3.86% (163 cases, as an indicator of parasitic enteropathogens in Iran. Among the provinces, Khorasan-e-Razavi and Mazandaran with 8.83% (53 cases and 0.34% (2 cases showed the highest and lowest rates of infection, respectively. The frequencies of sporozoa including Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium, Isospora and Cyclospora spp. were 0.1%, 0.1%, 0.07% and 0.02% respectively. Among the parasites, Giardia lambelia, Taenia saginata and Hookworms with 1.78% and 0.02% had the highest and lowest rates of infection, respectively. Regarding the age groups, the highest and the lowest rates of infection were in 0 - 10 (48% and 41 years old and above (6.7% groups, respectively. Conclusions Despite relatively low prevalence of sporozoa, giardiosis is the most prevalent agent for gastroenteritis amongst 3.86% of parasitic infections in Iran. The current study confirmed the abundance of infection in warm and wet seasons, and more frequency of infections among children than

  15. Occurrence of Soft and Hard Ticks on Ruminants in Zagros Mountainous Areas of Iran

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    S Nabian

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:The distribution and preferences of ticks of animals in central of Iran were studied four times a year. Methods: One thousand seven tick specimens were collected from different localities including Isfahan, Chaharmahalbak­htiary, EastAzarbaijan, West Azerbaijan, Kordestan, Kermanshah, Lorestan and Fars. Results: Most of sampled animals in this area were infested. We also encountered with a wild goat (Capra hircus aegagrus in Kolah Qazi national park in this part that was infested intensively by Boophilus kohlsi. Fifteen ixodid tick species were identified over the study period from cattle, sheep and domestic and wild goats namely B. kohlsi (3.6% Rhipicephalus sanguineus (4.5%, Rh.bursa (21.9%, Rh.turanicus (2.9%, Dermacentor niveus (12.9%, D.raskemensis (4.1%, D.marginatus (7.3%, Haemaphysalis punctata (3.5%, H. Parva (0.6%, H. Choldokovskyi (2%, Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (4.8%, H.anatolicum anatolicum (5.2%, H. asiaticum asiaticum (7.3%, H. marginatum marginatum (13%, and H. detritum detritum (5.9%. The only soft tick found was Ornithodoros canestrinii which occurred in all localities of Isfahan Province but with significant differences in abundance. Clear pattern of seasonality was evident for this species and it was generally present from November to March, while ixodid ticks were present throughout the year. The largest numbers of adult ixodid ticks were generally present from April to August. Conclusion: The results showed that Rh.bursa, D.niveus and H.marginatum marginatum are dominant tick species

  16. IASS Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojaev, Alisher S.; Ibragimova, Elvira M.

    2015-08-01

    It’s well known, astronomy in Uzbekistan has ancient roots and traditions (e.g., Mirzo Ulugh Beg, Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Abū ‘Abdallāh al-Khwārizmī) and astronomical heritage carefully preserved. Nowadays uzbek astronomers play a key role in scientific research but also in OAD and Decadal Plan activity in the Central Asia region. International Aerospace School (IASS) is an amazing and wonderful event held annually about 30 years. IASS is unique project in the region, and at the beginning we spent the Summer and Winter Schools. At present in the summer camp we gather about 50 teenage and undergraduate students over the country and abroad (France, Malaysia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Russia, etc.). They are selected on the basis of tests of astronomy and space issues. During two weeks of IASS camp the invited scientists, cosmonauts and astronauts as well as other specialists give lectures and engage in practical exercises with IASS students in astronomy, including daily observations of the Sun and night sky observations with meniscus telescope, space research and exploration, aerospace modelling, preparation and presentation of original projects. This is important that IASS gives not theoretical grounds only but also practically train the students and the hands-on training is the major aims of IASS. Lectures and practice in the field of astronomy carried out with the direct involvement and generous assistance of Uranoscope Association (Paris, France). The current 26-th IASS is planned to held in July 2015.

  17. Seismic hazard estimation of northern Iran using smoothed seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnevis, Naeem; Taborda, Ricardo; Azizzadeh-Roodpish, Shima; Cramer, Chris H.

    2017-03-01

    This article presents a seismic hazard assessment for northern Iran, where a smoothed seismicity approach has been used in combination with an updated seismic catalog and a ground motion prediction equation recently found to yield good fit with data. We evaluate the hazard over a geographical area including the seismic zones of Azerbaijan, the Alborz Mountain Range, and Kopeh-Dagh, as well as parts of other neighboring seismic zones that fall within our region of interest. In the chosen approach, seismic events are not assigned to specific faults but assumed to be potential seismogenic sources distributed within regular grid cells. After performing the corresponding magnitude conversions, we decluster both historical and instrumental seismicity catalogs to obtain earthquake rates based on the number of events within each cell, and smooth the results to account for the uncertainty in the spatial distribution of future earthquakes. Seismicity parameters are computed for each seismic zone separately, and for the entire region of interest as a single uniform seismotectonic region. In the analysis, we consider uncertainties in the ground motion prediction equation, the seismicity parameters, and combine the resulting models using a logic tree. The results are presented in terms of expected peak ground acceleration (PGA) maps and hazard curves at selected locations, considering exceedance probabilities of 2 and 10% in 50 years for rock site conditions. According to our results, the highest levels of hazard are observed west of the North Tabriz and east of the North Alborz faults, where expected PGA values are between about 0.5 and 1 g for 10 and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, respectively. We analyze our results in light of similar estimates available in the literature and offer our perspective on the differences observed. We find our results to be helpful in understanding seismic hazard for northern Iran, but recognize that additional efforts are necessary to

  18. Study of Arsenic Presence in Drinking Water Sources: A Case Study

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    Z Kamali

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Conducted studies about arsenic have shown that consumption of water contaminated with arsenic can causes different adverse health effects in consumers. World Health Organization (WHO has enacted 10µg/L arsenic in drinking water as a guideline value. Regarding some reports about arsenic presence in a village of Hashtrood county and related health effects and also considering this fact that determination of arsenic as a poisoning chemical is not included in routine monitoring of water by responsible organizations, in present study all of drinking water sources in Hashtrood county in East Azerbaijan province were studied for arsenic presence."nMaterials and Methods: Water supply and its sanitation situation were studied in all of cities and residential villages (200 villages by field visiting. Arsenic content of water samples were determined using Ez arsenic test kit, a product of Hach Company. For assurance of the kit results, 20 water samples with different concentration of arsenic were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP method and then achieved results was compared together."nResults: Arsenic was present in drinking water of 50 villages that in 9 villages its level was higher than Iranian standard (50µg/L. During the study totally 11087 persons (21.96% of rural areas population in Hashtrood county were exposed to different levels of arsenic via drinking water. Correlation between kit and ICP results was significant (R2 = 0.9715"nConclusion: Studied region in present study is a polluted area to arsenic by geogenic sources. It is necessary to replace water source of villages with higher level than national standard with safe drinking water. Annually measurement of arsenic in drinking water of all villages spatially polluted villages should be considered by responsible organization e.g. Health Network and Rural Water and Wastewater Company. Used kit in our study is recommendable for this purpose.

  19. The role of canine distemper virus and persistent organic pollutants in mortality patterns of Caspian seals (Pusa caspica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Susan C; Eybatov, Tariel M; Amano, Masao; Jepson, Paul D; Goodman, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants are a concern for species occupying high trophic levels since they can cause immunosuppression and impair reproduction. Mass mortalities due to canine distemper virus (CDV) occurred in Caspian seals (Pusa caspica), in spring of 1997, 2000 and 2001, but the potential role of organochlorine exposure in these epizootics remains undetermined. Here we integrate Caspian seal mortality data spanning 1971-2008, with data on age, body condition, pathology and blubber organochlorine concentration for carcases stranded between 1997 and 2002. We test the hypothesis that summed PCB and DDT concentrations contributed to CDV associated mortality during epizootics. We show that age is the primary factor explaining variation in blubber organochlorine concentrations, and that organochlorine burden, age, sex, and body condition do not account for CDV infection status (positive/negative) of animals dying in epizootics. Most animals (57%, n = 67) had PCB concentrations below proposed thresholds for toxic effects in marine mammals (17 µg/g lipid weight), and only 3 of 67 animals had predicted TEQ values exceeding levels seen to be associated with immune suppression in harbour seals (200 pg/g lipid weight). Mean organonchlorine levels were higher in CDV-negative animals indicating that organochlorines did not contribute significantly to CDV mortality in epizootics. Mortality monitoring in Azerbaijan 1971-2008 revealed bi-annual stranding peaks in late spring, following the annual moult and during autumn migrations northwards. Mortality peaks comparable to epizootic years were also recorded in the 1970s-1980s, consistent with previous undocumented CDV outbreaks. Gompertz growth curves show that Caspian seals achieve an asymptotic standard body length of 126-129 cm (n = 111). Males may continue to grow slowly throughout life. Mortality during epizootics may exceed the potential biological removal level (PBR) for the population, but the low frequency of

  20. Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States

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    Gotsadze George

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of adult males, share of members with high education in determining household expenditure on tobacco (defined as tobacco expenditure share out of total monthly HH consumption was assessed by using multiple regression analysis. Results Significant differences were found between mean expenditure on tobacco between rich and poor – in absolute terms the rich spend significantly more compared with the poor. Poor households devote significantly higher shares of their monthly HH consumption for tobacco products. Shares of adult males were significantly associated with the share of household consumption devoted for tobacco. There was a significant negative association between shares of persons with tertiary education within the HH and shares of monthly household consumption devoted for tobacco products. The correlation between household expenditures on tobacco and alcohol was found to be positive, rather weak, but statistically significant. Conclusion Given the high levels of poverty and high rates of smoking in the New Independent States, these findings have important policy implications. They indicate that the impact and opportunity costs of smoking on household finances are more significant for the poor than for the rich. Any reductions in smoking prevalence within poor households could have a positive economic impact.

  1. Upper mantle shear wave velocity structure of the east Anatolian-Caucasus region

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    Skobeltsyn, Gleb Anatolyevich

    The Eastern Anatolian-Caucasus region is a relatively young part of the Alpine- Himalayan orogenic belt and has been formed as the result of the ongoing continental collision of Arabia and Eurasia. In spite of a number of geological studies that have been conducted in this area, there is still no consensus within the geoscience community about the regional tectonic settings and a model for the late Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Anatolian Plateau. Knowledge of the upper mantle velocity structure in this region can provide the geological community with important constraints that are crucial for developing an understanding of the regional geology and the processes associated with early stages of mountain building. In the present dissertation, I describe two studies of the regional upper mantle S wave velocity structure. In order to derive the absolute velocity structure of the upper mantle, I have applied surface wave tomography to model Rayleigh wave phase velocities as a function of period. Then I inverted the Rayleigh phase velocities to obtain S wave velocities as a function of depth. The resulted high-resolution 3-D S wave velocity model of the regional upper mantle is characterized by a better depth resolution than any preexisting tomographic models. I also conducted an S wave splitting analysis using traditional methods and developed a two-layer grid search algorithm in order to infer the upper mantle anisotropic structure. The results of the S wave splitting analysis for the stations located in Azerbaijan are the first in the region. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  2. Vilnius eastern partnership summit: milestone in EU-Russia relations – not just for Ukraine

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    Havlik Peter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Vilnius Eastern Partnership Summit on 28-29th November 2013 represents a milestone in EU relations not just with respect to the six Eastern Partnership countries (EaP Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and particularly Ukraine, but also with the EU’s ‘strategic partner’ Russia. The turbulence and numerous speculations regarding expectations about the signature of the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement (comprising a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement - AA/DCFTA, as well as progress in initialling similar future agreements with Georgia and Moldova, have been escalating before the summit. The association agreementswould bring EaP signatory countries closer to the EU not really closer to EU membership, but closer to the application of various EU norms and standards (takeover of the ‘acquis communautaire’ and - significantly - out of the Russian orbit, for the beginning at least symbolically. The last minute postponement of the EU-Ukraine AA/DCFTA signature announced by Ukraine’s government just one week before the summit represents a serious setback for the EU. Though the EU has no ‘Plan B’ and was stunned after Ukraine’s announcement, life will continue after the summit and new initiatives will have to be started. What are the relevant issues and challenges and what is at stake? This note attempts to evaluate the consequences (economic and otherwise of alternate decisions following the Vilnius Eastern Partnership Summit, reviews some of the disputed arguments and discusses selected relevant economic issues.

  3. Social Determinants and Reproductive Factors of the Menopausal Symptoms among Women in Tabriz-Iran

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    Mahasti Alizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menopause is a natural event in which different degrees of psychosomatic changes occur. The social, demographic and behavioral factors in different nations have a significant effect on symptoms of menopause. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the personal, demographic, social and reproductive factors with symptoms of menopause and the frequency of the mental and physical symptoms of menopause among women in Tabriz, Northwest of Iran.   Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the clinics and health centers of Tabriz, East Azerbaijan and Iran. A total of 300 women aged 40-60 years filled a questionnaire on the socio demographic variables, reproductive history and symptoms checklist.  Results: Among the symptoms, muscle and joint pain (68.7%, and increased facial hair (20.5% were the most and the least common ones respectively. According to participants, as age increases, the symptoms worsen (p=0.003. The frequency of the symptoms of the employed women was less than those of retired ones and housewives (p=0.001. The physical and mental symptoms had negative relation with educational status (p<0.05. An increase in the number of the children, the history of the oral contraceptive use and dysmenorrhea had positive relation with the frequency of the symptoms.  Conclusion: The quality of life of the women during menopause worsens with an increase in age and number of children, whereas it improves with higher educational levels and employment.

  4. Investigation of hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater in the Harzandat aquifer, Northwest of Iran.

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    Aghazadeh, Nosrat; Mogaddam, A A

    2011-05-01

    The Harzandat plain is part of the East Azerbaijan province, which lies between Marand and Jolfa cities, northwestern of Iran, and its groundwater resources are developed for water supply and irrigation purposes. The main lithologic units consist chiefly of limestone, dolomite, shale, conglomerate, marl, and igneous rocks. In order to evaluate the quality of groundwater in study area, 36 samples were collected and analyzed for various ions. Chemical indexes like sodium adsorption ratio, percentage of sodium, residual sodium carbonate, and permeability index were calculated. Based on the analytical results, groundwater in the area is generally very hard, brackish, high to very high saline and alkaline in nature. The abundance of the major ions is as follows: Cl(-) >HCO3(-)>SO4(2-) and Na(+) >Ca(2+) >Mg(2+) >K(+). The dominant hydrochemical facieses of groundwater is Na(-)Cl type, and alkalis (Na(+), K(+)) and strong acids (Cl(-), SO4(2-) are slightly dominating over alkali earths (Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) and weak acids (HCO3(-), CO3(2-). The chemical quality of groundwater is related to the dissolution of minerals, ion exchange, and the residence time of the groundwater in contact with rock materials. The results of calculation saturation index by computer program PHREEQC shows that nearly all of the water samples were supersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals (calcite, dolomite and aragonite) and undersaturated with respect to sulfate minerals (gypsum and anhydrite). Assessment of water samples from various methods indicated that groundwater in study area is chemically unsuitable for drinking and agricultural uses.

  5. Can the role of the tectonic-related processes be excluded on the Caspian Sea level fluctuations?

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    Ozyavas, A.; Khan, S. D.

    2009-12-01

    The Caspian Sea is the largest isolated reservoir in the world and located between Russia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkmenistan, and Kazakhstan. Its sea level is 27 meter below the mean sea level of the world oceans. Large sea level fluctuations have been recorded during its history and the reasons of these sea level variations have long been examined. While several authors attribute sea level oscillations to hydroclimatic change in the basin, some suggested that the activities associated with tectonism in the basin could have potential on hydrologic budget of the CS. The water balance of the CS from 1998 to 2005 is calculated. Evaporation is quite significant in water budget calculations in the CS due to the fact that almost all of the water input is compensated by the evaporation itself and that discharge to Kara Bogaz Gol bay is relatively small. We utilize NCEP/DOE Reanalysis II meteorological data to estimate evaporation over the CS by using Penman method. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is the source for computing the direct precipitation on the sea surface. The Volga River is the main water source to it and 80 % of the total inflow to it has been provided via rivers. Total river runoff data along with discharge to KBG bay have been obtained from Geophysical Center of Russian Academy of Science (RAS). Even though Volga river discharge is usually of a high correlation with the sea level rise and drop until 2001, precipitation over the CS together with the contribution of the rest of the rivers has also strong influence over the sea level fluctuations for the rest of the years. Our results reveal that sea level changes from 1998 to 2005 are essentially controlled by meteorological factors. However, geological processes (groundwater outflow and inflow, mud volcanoes, tectonic activity) should be included to the water budget calculations of the CS.

  6. Caspian games: A dynamic bargaining game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Dennis Wright

    This Dissertation was written under the direction of Professor P.Terrence Hopmann. In this work, the author seeks to identify the independent variables affecting the outcome of three key decisions required of the international consortiums constructing Caspian oil export pipelines. The first of involves whether or not the enterprises developing the pipelines to export Kazakh oil, the Caspian Pipeline Consortium ("CPC"), and Azeri oil, the Azerbaijan International Operating Consortium ("CPC"), cooperate by utilizing the same route or utilize separate energy export corridors. Second, I analyzed how the actual Main Export Pipeline route ("MEP") for Azeri oil was selected by the AIOC. Finally, I tried to understand the factors driving the residual equity positions in each consortium. I was particularly interested in the equity position of Russian state and commercial interests in each consortium. I approached the puzzle as a multilevel bargaining problem. Hence, the preferences of each relevant actor (state and corporate levels) were assessed. The covering theory utilized was rational choice. An application of game theoretic modeling, particularly Bayesian analysis (used as a metaphor), accounted for the learning process resulting from the strategic interaction between actors. I sought to understand greater the refinement of each actor's perception of counterpart preferences. Additionally, the Gordon Constant Growth Model ("CGM") and the Sharp's Capital Asset Pricing Model ("CAPM") were utilized to relate multinational actors preferences, achieving a cost of capital based hurdle rate, to political risk. My end findings demonstrate this interrelationship and provide a clear argument for great power states to persuade newly developing Caspian states to adopt a more transparent, and credible approach to corporate governance. This revised state strategy will reduce multinationals' perception of political risk, lower firms' cost of capital (hurdle rate), and increase the

  7. BioKonversion technology recovers, remediates and reuses waste and hydrocarbons from oil drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topf, A.

    2008-01-15

    Houston-based Nopal Group has developed a solution to dispose of oilfield waste in a safe and cost-effective manner. The company is actively engaged in a large-scale project to remediate a 400-hectare site on the Aspheron Peninsula in Azerbaijan. The site is currently regarded as the most polluted place in the world after a century of oil extraction with little regard for the surrounding environment. The Nopal Group will use its patented BioKonversion technology, which cleanses the soil of hydrocarbons in a two-part process using a large machine known as the Green Machine. Several pipelines will need to be relocated, and ancient drilling rigs that have been there as long as 100 years will have to be dealt with. The cleanup cost has been estimated at between $20 million to $40 million, and will take between 18 and 36 months, depending on how deep into the ground the machines have to dig for hydrocarbons. The 90-foot by 40-foot machine processes drill cuttings, contaminated soil and drill fluids by first separating the dirt from the liquid hydrocarbons, which can be recycled or refined for resale. The remaining dirt, which still contains 3 to 7 percent oil, is then placed into a centrifuge and mixed with a heating agent and other elements, including naturally oleophilic kenaf powder. The process micronizes and absorbs hydrocarbons. Once the process is finished, the hydrocarbons are immediately non-detectable and non-leachable. The leftover benign dirt can be used as landfill cover, or mixed with road aggregate. BioKonversion can also be adapted for use on oil rigs. This article demonstrated that the process has clear advantages over traditional oilfield remediation methods such as land farming. Opportunities exist to utilize the process in Venezuela and Kuwait. 1 fig.

  8. The Virtual Silk Highway -- Connectivity for Central Asia and the Caucasus

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    Frese, Hans

    2007-04-01

    This presentation focuses on Internet for research and education communities in the countries along the Great Silk Road, eight republics of the Former Soviet Union (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia) and Afghanistan. When the Internet became a standard science tool in the nineties, connectivity to this area was limited to analog telephone lines. The TAE fiber was installed from Istanbul via Tashkent to Shanghai, but it was based on international ISDN telephone calls at 10 per minute, unaffordable to communities with salaries of 300 per month. Satellites offered connectivity on short notice at better prices but funding by the communities was out of the question. Aid programs stepped in, connecting individual institutes across the area to the outside world. ISPs catered to those who could afford it, such as universities selling MBA courses, but Internet for research and education was lacking. In 2001, the NATO Science Programme added to its grants to institutes a multi-year program of providing a shared satellite service for international connectivity to all the countries above. National connectivity and solving the ``last mile problem'' was also funded, provided that a National Research and Education Network (NREN) organization was created in the country. SILK-1 ran 2002-6 for 3.5m providing 30Mbps west->east and 6Mbps east->west. QOS was implemented for video and audio conferencing. Co-funding by NRENs and others was established, but sustainability is still outstanding. Only recently, affordable fiber (SILK-2 in 2006 was issued in a technology-neutral way. No fiber bids were received, but a cheaper satellite service providing a total of 120/30Mbps for 3.5m in 2007-8. With fiber initiatives under way, it is hoped that part of SILK-2 can switch to fiber in 2009.

  9. [Genetic characterization of the Zaliv Terpeniya virus (ZTV, Bunyaviridae, Phlebovirus, Uukuniemi serogroup) strains isolated from the ticks Ixodes (Ceratixodes) uriae White, 1852, obligate parasites of the Alcidae birds, in high latitudes of Northern Eurasia and the mosquitoes Culex modestus Ficalbi, 1889, in subtropics Transcaucasus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Samokhvalov, E I; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    Complete genome sequences were obtained for the LEIV-13841Ka (ID GenBank KF767463-65) and LEIV-279Az (ID GenBank KF767460-62) virus strains, which were classified as different strains of the Zaliv Terpeniya virus (ZTV). LEIV-13841Ka was isolated from the ticks Ixodes (Ceratixodes) uriae White, 1852 collected on Ariy Kamen (Commander Islands) in 1986. LEIV-279Az was isolated from the mosquitoes Culex modestus Ficalbi, 1889, collected in heron colony (Ardea Linnaeus, 1758) in Azerbaijan (1969) and was initially identified as Uukuniemi virus (UUKV). According to the results obtained LEIV-279Az is ZTV strain as well. LEIV-13841Ka and LEIV-279Az RdRp sequences have high level of homology (99%) with previously sequenced ZTV/LEIV-271Ka. The L-segment nucleotide sequences are homological with ZTV/LEIV-271Ka on the level of 94% and 98% for LEIV-13841Ka and LEIV-279Az, respectively; M-segment--89% and 88%, respectively. Such homologies for the amino acid sequences of Gn/Gc polyprotein are 98.3% and 97.7%. NP proteins of ZTV/LEIV-13841Ka and LEIV-279Az have 88.7% and 84.6% homologies with ZTV/LEIV-271Ka both for amino acid and nucleotide sequences, respectively. Thus, for the very first time we demonstrated ZTV strain isolated from mosquitoes in subtropical Transcaucasia zone. Obtained results permit to expand suggested areal of ZTV and to fill up data upon the ecology of the Uukuniemi virus group.

  10. THE CATEGORY OF PASSIVE VOICE IN JAPANESE LANGUAGE (IN COMPARISON WITH AZERBAIJANIAN LANGUAGE JAPON DİLİNDE EDİLGEN EYLEMLER (AZERİ'CEYLE MÜKAYESELİ

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    O. B. JALİLBEYLİ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the number of the Category of Passive voices and their Comparison from the point of view of their feautres in Japanese and Azeri Turkish have been given. The article deals with the kinds of possesive and non-possesive functions of passive voice of original examples in Japanese language and their comparative translations in Azerbaijan language as well. It is noted that there is not too much similarity in the field of passive voice between azerbaijanian and Japanese languages. And it is very important while translating the oral or written speech examples of one of these languages into another language we must take into account the speech situation, context and the characteristic communicative chances of each language as well. Makale'de Japon dili ve Azeri Türkçesinde eylem çatıları kateqorisinin sayı ve nicelik bakımından mükayesesi yapılmıştır. Makalenin konusunu, edilgen eylemlerin özel ve özel olmayan fonksiyonlarının Japon dilindeki ilginç orijinal örneklerini Azeri'ceye çevirerek mükayeseli şekilde gözden geçirmek oluşturmaktadır. Kaydedilmiştir; ki, Japon ve Azerbaycan dilleri arasında edilgen eylemlerde aynılık yok. O yüzden de söz konusu dillerden birinde olan şifahi ve ya yazı örneklerini diğerine çeviri yaparken nutuk ortamı ve metinden, bir de her dilin kendine özgün irtibat kurma olanaklarına dayanarak fikir söylemek gerek.

  11. Isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris from soil samples in North-Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyyati, Maryam; Karamati, Seyed Ahmad; Lorenzo Morales, Jacob; Lasjerdi, Zohreh

    2016-02-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is an opportunistic free-living amoebae (FLA) which has been reported as the causative agent of the fatal Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis (BAE). Currently, the transmission dynamics of this pathogen remain poorly understood although the organism has been associated with soils, and thus, soil exposure has been identified as a risk factor for this pathogenic amoeba. Nevertheless, environmental isolation of B. mandrillaris is a rare event and strains of this amoebic species have been isolated from soil and dust sources only in seven previous reports (Iran, Mexico, USA, Peru, Costa Rica, Guinea Bissau, and Jamaica). In Iran, a previous study reported the isolation of B. mandrillaris from dust collected in the city of Tehran and free of known infectious involvement. Therefore, in this work, 55 soil samples collected from public and recreational areas of East Azerbaijan, North-Western Iran, were investigated for the presence of this pathogen. Samples were cultured in 2% non-nutrient agar plates and were monitored for the presence of B. mandrillaris-like trophozoites and/or cysts. Those samples that were positive for these amoebae by microscopic criteria were then confirmed by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of B. mandrillaris. The obtained results revealed the presence of this emerging pathogen in 5 of 55 samples included in the study. Homology analysis of the obtained DNA sequences revealed high similarity with previously isolated strains from clinical and environmental sources. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of B. mandrillaris from soil sources in Iran related to human activity and the second time that this pathogen is isolated from the environment in this country.

  12. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

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    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  13. Spatio-Temporal Modeling of Seismic Provinces of Iran Using DBSCAN Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Beydokhti, Mohammad; Ali Abbaspour, Rahim; Mojarab, Masoud

    2017-03-01

    One of the most important issues in the field of engineering seismology is identification and classification of seismic provinces. Due to the importance of this issue in Iran, various studies have been conducted using different methods such as expert judgment, computational methods, data-driven methods, and smart methods. The purpose of the present research is to develop a spatio-temporal seismic model for Iran using robust and objective clustering tools. In the present study, one of the most powerful clustering methods, DBSCAN, is selected based on its ability to analyze huge amounts of data. The DBSCAN algorithm, which acts based on the density of seismic events, is capable of detecting arbitrarily shaped clusters. The seismic datasets used in this study, which were obtained from the seismic catalog of Iran from 1900 to 2015, have been divided into three window periods including 2- , 5- , and 10-year intervals. Afterward, different seismicity patterns for each period are obtained by applying DBSCAN algorithm. Then, those exhibited high agreements in terms of shapes and locations of clusters with the other models are determined. Ultimately, by considering these models and using expert judgments, a unified spatio-temporal model is presented. The results reveal meaningful information in different parts of Iran especially in Zagros, Alborz, and Azerbaijan zones and are generally in good agreement with previous studies. Moreover, the results emphasize that a seismic model, which is obtained based on considering seismogenic zones in various time periods along with the application of density-based clustering tools, will produce reliable results.

  14. Evaluation of Application Methods Efficiency of Zinc and Iron for Canola(Brassica napus L.

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    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation of application method efficiency of zinc and iron microelements in canola, an experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Research Station of Eastern Azerbaijan province in 2008. The experimental design was a RCBD with eight treatments (F1: control, F2: iron, F3: zinc, F4: iron + zinc in the form of soil utility, F5: iron, F6: zinc, F7: iron+ zinc in the form of solution foliar application, and F8: iron + zinc in the form of soil utility and foliar application. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among treatments on given traits, antioxidant enzymes activity, fatty acids percentage, plant height, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio, protein percentage, oil percentage, oil yield, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium percentage of leaves, zinc and iron content of leaves and capitulum diameters. The highest seed yield, oil yield, oil percentage, 1000 seed weight, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio and protein percentage were obtained from the soil and foliar application of iron + zinc treatments (F8. Also, the highest amounts of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium concentration in leaves were achieved from control treatment which was an indication of non-efficiency of iron and zinc on the absorption rate of these substances in the leaves. The correlation between effective traits on the seed yield, such as, capitalism diameter, number of seed rows in capitulum, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio and 1000 seed weight were positively significant. In general, foliar and soil application of zinc and iron had the highest efficiency in aspect of seed production. The comparison of the various methods of fertilization showed that foliar application was more effective than soil application. Also, micronutrient foliar application increased concentration of elements, especially zinc and iron. Antioxidant enzymes activity was different in response to treatments also the

  15. Optimizing land use pattern to reduce soil erosion

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    Reza Sokouti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion hazard is one of the main problems can affect ecological balance in watersheds. This study aimed to determine the optimal use of land to reduce erosion and increase the resident's income of Qushchi watershed in West Azerbaijan province, Iran. Income and expenses for the current land uses were calculated with field studies. Damages resulting from the soil erosion were estimated by soil depth equal to the specified land uses. For three different options including the current status of land uses without and with land management, and the standard status of land uses, multi-objective linear programming model was established by LINGO software. Then the optimization problem of the land use was solved by simplex method. Finally, the best option of land use was determined by comparing erosion rate and its cost in each scenario. Then the circumstances and the recommended conditions were compared. The results indicated that the current surface area of current land uses is not suitable to reduce erosion and increase income of residents and should change in the optimum conditions. At the optimum level, there should change horticulture area of 408 to 507 (ha, irrigated land area of 169 to 136 (ha and dry farming of 636 to 570 (ha, while conversion of rangeland area not indispensable. In addition, the results showed that in case of the optimization of land use, soil erosion and the profitability of the whole area will decrease 0.75% and increase 3.68%, respectively. In case of land management practices, soil erosion will decrease 42.27% and the profitability increase 21.39% while in the standard conditions, soil erosion will decrease 60.95% and profitability will increase 24.20%. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed that the changes in the horticulture and range land areas have the greatest impact on the increasing profitability and reducing soil erosion of Qushchi watershed. So, it is recommended using Education and Extension to promote

  16. NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS PREVALENCE IN A HOSPITAL-BASED STUDY IN URMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Abdi Rad

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectiveNeural tube defects including anencephaly, encephalocele, and spina bifida are major congenital malformations with multifactorial etiology, and with a great variation in their prevalence in different populations. The study on the prevalence of these malformations may be helpful in planning strategies for their prevention. The aim of this epidemiologic descriptive study was to determine the prevalence of neural tube defects and to describe their birth characteristics in Motahhari hospital, Urmia, West Azerbaijan.Materials and MethodsA cross-section observational study was carried on the hospital-based charts of consecutive 13997 live-births and 124 stillbirths during the period January 2001 through June 2005. The defects categorized based on the domains of anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele according to standard definitions.ResultsDuring this period, 117 cases were detected with neural tube defects, giving an overall  prevalence of 8.29/1000. Of 117 cases, 81 (69.23% cases were seen among stillbirths and 36 (30.77% cases among live-births, that is, the prevalence of neural tube defects for stillbirths and live-births were 653.2/1000 and 2.57/1000 respectively. The yearly prevalence varies between 6.99/1000 and 9.82/1000 over the 4.5-year period. The major lesion was  anencephaly with prevalence of 5.52/1000 (66.67% of all neural tube defects. Approximately, two-thirds (66.09% of cases were found in females. Weights of 73.36% of anencephalic cases wereless than 1000 grams.ConclusionIn this study, the prevalence of neural tube defects is among the highest reported rates. There was a significance difference in the prevalence of anencephaly, as the most prevalent NTD, between live-births and stillbirths. These findings may necessitate an intensive approach to periconceptional folic acid supplementation as a possible strategy to reduce the prevalence of these defects. Keywords: Prevalence, Neural Tube Defects, Anencephaly

  17. Limnothrix sp. KO05: A newly characterized cyanobacterial biosorbent for cadmium removal: the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant reactions to cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Omid; Shahryari, Shahab; Ebadi, Mojgan; Modiri, Sima; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Maleki, Hadi; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2017-03-18

    In this study, we isolated five indigenous cyanobacterial strains from different aqueous environments, with heavy metals contamination, in East Azerbaijan Province (northwest portion of Iran). A strain was identified by morphological and 16S rRNA sequence analysis as Limnothrix sp. KO05 and selected for further studies as having the greatest potential for cadmium uptake. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated cyanobacterium Limnothrix sp. KO05 forms filamentous structures and is straight or curved to some extent. The utmost biosorption capacity was found to be 82.18±1.22mgg(-1) at a Cd (II) concentration level of 150mgL(-1). Langmuir adsorption isotherm indicated a better fit to the experimental data. Response surface methodology (RSM) on the basis of four independent variables and the predicted maximum biosorption efficiency was 98.7% under the optimum condition. FT-IR spectroscopy profile of the Cd treated sample as demonstrated in confirmation of the benefits of various functional groups of proteins and polysaccharides of cyanobacterial biomass, involved in surface binding of Cd. The determination of catalase (CAT) activity in strain KO05 exposed to Cd (II) concentrations of 2, 5 and 10mgL(-1) showed an increase in enzyme activity after 24h exposure compared to unexposed cells. Correspondingly, CAT activity showed a significant decrease after 48h of treatment with Cd (II) concentrations of 5 and 10mgL(-1). CAT activity was decreased significantly at all concentrations within 72h after exposure to Cd. On the contrary, while ascorbate peroxidase (APX) gave the expected lower activity compared to the CAT within 24h after Cd treatment, its activity lasted up to 72h. Limnothrix sp. KO05 cells treated with 5 and 10mgL(-1) Cd (II) over 72h exposure showed a reduction in chlorophyll a contents compared to the controls. However, following exposure to Cd, chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents is reduced and after overcoming stress and deployment of an adaptation

  18. Stability versus Optimality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inanloo, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Caspian Sea is considered to be the largest inland body of water in the world, which located between the Caucasus Mountains and Central Asia. The Caspian Sea has been a source of the most contentious international conflicts between five littoral states now borders the sea: Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan. The conflict over the legal status of this international body of water as an aftermath of the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. Since then the parties have been negotiating without coming up with any agreement neither on the ownerships of waters, nor the oil and natural gas beneath them. The number of involved stakeholders, the unusual characteristics of the Caspian Sea in considering it as a lake or a sea, and a large number of external parties are interested in the valuable resources of the Sea has made this conflict complex and unique. This paper intends to apply methods to find the best allocation schemes considering acceptability and stability of selected solution to share the Caspian Sea and its resources fairly and efficiently. Although, there are several allocation methods in solving such allocation problems, however, most of those seek a socially optimal solution that can satisfy majority of criteria or decision makers, while, in practice, especially in multi-nation problems, such solution may not be necessarily a stable solution and to be acceptable to all parties. Hence, there is need to apply a method that considers stability and acceptability of solutions to find a solution with high chance to be agreed upon that. Application of some distance-based methods in studying the Caspian Sea conflict provides some policy insights useful for finding solutions that can resolve the dispute. In this study, we use methods such as Goal Programming, Compromise Programming, and considering stability of solution the logic of Power Index is used to find a division rule that is stable negotiators. The results of this study shows that the

  19. Interactive Effects of Silicon and Potassium Nitrate in Improving Salt Tolerance of Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad Bybordi

    2014-01-01

    Adequate regulation of mineral nutrients might be effective to ameliorate the deleterious effects of salts and help to sustain crop productivity, particularly in glycophytes, under salt stress. In this study, laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out at Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Centre in East Azerbaijan, Iran, to investigate the interactive effects of silicon and potassium nitrate in alleviating NaCl induced injuries in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In the laboratory experiment, three winter wheat cultivars Pishgam, Afagh and Alvand were grown on sterile iflter paper moistened with 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mmol L-1 NaCl solution.Results revealed that wheat cultivars were signiifcantly different in their growth response to different concentrations of NaCl and Pishgam was found to be the most tolerant to NaCl stress, and used in the second part of study. In the greenhouse experiment, Pishgam was grown in a hydroponic system subjected to different NaCl levels (20, 60 and 100 mmol L-1) and treated by silicon (0, 2 and 4 mmol L-1, ifnal concentration in nutrient solution using K2SiO3) and potassium nitrate (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mmol L-1, foliar application). The experimental design was factorial based on a completely randomized design with three replications. It was found that NaCl stress signiifcantly increased proline accumulation and sodium content in the plant tissues while decreased potassium uptake and accumulation by plants.Moreover, plant weight, 100-seed weight, relative water content, chlorophyll content, and photosynthesis were also signiifcantly affected by varying levels of NaCl. However, exogenous application of silicon and potassium nitrate reduced sodium uptake, increased potassium and consequently improved plant weight, 100-seed weight, seed yield, ear length, and photosynthesis rate. This study suggested that utilization of the salt-tolerant cultivar (Pishgam) combined with proper foliar application of potassium nitrate (2

  20. THE THOUGHTS OF BAHTİYAR VAHAPZADE ABOUT MEHMET AKIF BAHTİYAR VAHABZADE’NİN M. AKİF HAKKINDAKİ DEĞERLENDİRMELERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram GÜNDOĞDU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Both Mehmet Akif and Bahtiyar Vahabzade are exceptional personalities that were grown by two brother countries. Not only in the field of poetry they had their names written in golden letters, also their worldviews draws attention. Bahtiyar Vahabzade, despite of having grown in Azerbaijan in the period of Soviet Union, had remarkable thoughts about Turkey and Turkish Literature. Especially, his thoughts about Mehmet Akif are noteworthy. As Bahtiyar Vahabzade’s poems and articles, written in the last 25 years, are analyzed, the effects of M. Akif could be seen predominantly. B. Vahabzade has admired not only Akif’s personality but also his arts. As a poet, he appreciated his colleague from a different view. In this study, the thoughts of Vahabzade about Mehmet Akif have been addressed. Mehmet Akif ve Bahtiyar Vahabzade iki kardeş ülkenin yetiştirmiş olduğu müstesna şahsiyetlerdir. Farklı dönemlerde şiirde ismini altın harflerle yazdıran şairlerimizin şiir sahasında olduğu kadar dünya görüşleri de dikkat çekmektedir. Bahtiyar Vahabzade Azerbaycan sahasında, Sovyetler Birliği döneminde yetişmiş olmasına rağmen Türkiye ve Türk Edebiyatı hakkında dikkat çekici değerlendirmelere sahiptir. Özelliklede Vahabzade’nin Mehmet Akif hakkındaki düşünceleri manidardır. Vahabzade’nin son 25 yılda yazdığı şiir ve makaleler incelendiğinde Akif’in etkisi ağırlıklı olarak hissedilmektedir. İstiklal şairi Mehmet Akif’i gerek şahsiyet gerekse sanat yönünden takdir etmekte; bir şair olarak meslektaşını farklı bir açıdan değerlendirmektedir. Bu çalışmada Vahabzade’nin Mehmet Akif’le ilgili düşünceleri ele alınmıştır.

  1. Interference of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) in green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshekari, B; Dabbagh Mohammadi Nasab, A; Biroonara, A

    2006-01-01

    Several species of Amaranthus are known to reduce crop yields and interference with harvest throughout the Iran. In the past few years, the occurrence of some Amaranthus species including of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) increased throughout the East Azerbaijan province in Iran, supplanting all the other Amaranthus species in large areas of the region and causing concern among farmers and researchers. Green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the tropical pulse crops, that C4 weeds such as redroot pigweed can cause yield loss in this crop production. In order to determine the critical period of redroot pigweed control in green bean, two experiments were conducted in Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, Iran, at 2004 and 2005. The experimental designs in both year was a randomized complete blocks with three replications. The treatments were weed-infested and weed-free in the same periods. Both year, in weed-infested experiment, redroot pigweed was seeded immediately after green bean planting and removed after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 14 weeks after green bean emergence (WAE). In weed-free experiment, redroot pigweed seeds were transplanted to green bean plots at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 14 WAE. Data were analyzed using the MSTATC software and means were compared using Duncan's Multiple Ranges Test. Regression analysis was performed to describe the relationship between green bean yield and duration of redroot pigweed interference using the REG PROCEDURE of SAS. Results indicated that the difference between years with a view to influence on all traits except stem height at the harvesting stage and pod yield at the first and second harvesting time were significant. Also, differences between treatments with a view to influence on all traits were significant. Contemporary growing of pigweed and green bean for early first month and weed interference 10 WAE had not significant effect on green bean above ground biomass. In both years, the highest green bean yield

  2. THE AZERBAIJANI AND TURKEY UTOPIA IN ANAR`S WHITE RAM AND BLACK RAM ANAR’IN AK KOÇ KARA KOÇ ADLI ESERİNDE BİR AZERBAYCAN VE TÜRK DÜNYASI ÜTOPYASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvana BAYRAM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Fantastic elements, utopia, specially, features of stories have place in the works of Anar, one of the contemporary representatives of the Azerbaijani literature. The poet took advantage of these features. The sixth floor in "The Sixth Floor of the Five-Story Building, moving limousine without a driver in the “Red Limousine”, beautiful summer house in the “Fright”, alive Albino in the bed room, mysterious events in “The Connection”, speaking subjects in pictures, appearing and escaping 30 storied building and other elements have successfully been narrated in the stories. Another story of Anar “White Ram, Black Ram” having utopic and dystopic features, drawing attention. Utopias on Azerbaijan and Turkey`s future of 21st century have been narrated in the work. Çağdaş Azerbaycan edebiyatının temsilcilerinden olan Anar’ın eserlerinde, fantastik ögelerin, ütopyanın, özellikle masal unsurlarının önemli bir yeri vardır. Yazar, bütün eserlerinde bu unsurlardan faydalanmıştır. Beş Katlı Evin Altıncı Katı’ndaki altıncı kat, Kırmızı Limuzin’deki hareket eden şoförsüz kırmızı limuzin, Vahime’deki esrarengiz bağ evi, yatak odasındaki ölmeyen albino, Alaka’daki sırlı olaylar, resimleri canlanarak konuşan tablolar, bir görünüp bir kaybolan 30 katlı apartman vb. fantastik ögeler, bu eserlerdeki bilim kurgu unsurları başarılı bir şekilde anlatılmıştır. Anar’ın Ak Koç Kara Koç eseri ütopik ve distopik özellikli bir eser olarak dikkat çekmektedir. Eserde 21. yüzyılda Azerbaycan’ın ve Türk dünyasının geleceği ile ilgili ütopyalardan bahsedilmektedir.

  3. Mud Volcanism in the South East Caspian, Gorgon Plane, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, A.; Poludetkina, E. N.; Mehrabi, B.; Krueger, M.; Inguaggiato, S.; Etiope, G.

    2014-12-01

    Although numerous studies have been completed on the Western Caspian side (e.g. mainly Azerbaijan), very little is known about the hydrocarbon plumbing system of the deepest and southernmost basin. This region has great potentials for hydrocarbon exploration and the study of mud volcanoes located here represents the opportunity to access to an open window to better understand the stratigraphy and the mechanisms ongoing at great depth as well as the origin and signature of the seeping fluids. Three so far unexplored mud volcano structures (Sofikam, Gharniarigh, and Naftliche) have been mapped and sampled in the Golestan region in the south eastern Caspian Sea. All the structures have negative morphology (i.e. "pockmark like") with caldera collapse. A multidisciplinary workflow of analyses is being conducted including gas and water geochemistry, incubation of microbial colonies, petrography of the seeping mud and erupted mud breccia clasts. Sofikam consists of 5 distinct pools up to 4-5 m in diameter that forms an E-W oriented alignment. All of the pools display vigorous seepage of fluids and are either water- or denser mud-dominated. Gharniarigh is a large mud volcano up to ~600 m in diameter with a bulging island in the internal part of the crater where eroded gryphons ridges witness a palaeo vigorous activity. The outskirts of the "island" are almost entirely flooded with water and/or covered with salt crusts in the summer. Here are distributed several small water and gas seeps. Naftliche (~400 m wide) is filled with water with a main seep in the centre of the lake. Preliminary gas geochemistry indicates the seepage of methane-dominated gas in all structures with additional small portions of ethane and propane as well as iC4 in Gharniarigh and Naftliche. All samples collected for microbial colonies incubation reveal strong activity with CO2 production under aerobic and anaerobic conditions as well as production of biogenic methane. In particular, samples from

  4. Karyosystematics and molecular taxonomy of the anomalous blue butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) from the Balkan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskaya, Maria S.; Saifitdinova, Alsu F.; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Balkan Peninsula represents one of the hottest biodiversity spots in Europe. However, the invertebrate fauna of this region is still insufficiently investigated, even in respect of such well-studied organisms as Lepidoptera. Here we use a combination of chromosomal, molecular and morphological markers to rearrange the group of so-called anomalous blue butterflies (also known as ‘brown complex’ of the subgenus Agrodiaetus Hübner, [1822] and as the Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) admetus (Esper, 1783) species group) and to reveal its cryptic taxonomic structure. We demonstrate that Polyommatus aroaniensis (Brown, 1976) is not as widespread in the Balkans as was previously thought. In fact, it has a dot-like distribution range restricted to the Peloponnese Peninsula in South Greece. Polyommatus orphicus Kolev, 2005 is not as closely related to the Turkish species Polyommatus dantchenkoi (Lukhtanov & Wiemers, 2003) as was supposed earlier. Instead, it is a Balkan endemic represented by two subspecies: Polyommatus orphicus orphicus (Bulgaria) and Polyommatus orphicus eleniae Coutsis & De Prins, 2005 (Northern Greece). Polyommatus ripartii (Freyer, 1830) is represented in the Balkans by an endemic subspecies Polyommatus ripartii pelopi. The traditionally recognized Polyommatus admetus (Esper, 1783) is shown to be a heterogeneous complex and is divided into Polyommatus admetus sensu stricto (the Balkans and west Turkey) and Polyommatus yeranyani (Dantchenko & Lukhtanov, 2005) (east Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran). Polyommatus nephohiptamenos (Brown & Coutsis, 1978) is confirmed to be a species with a dot-like distribution range in Northern Greece. Finally, from Central Greece (Timfristos and Parnassos mountains) we describe Polyommatus timfristos Lukhtanov, Vishnevskaya & Shapoval, sp. n. which differs by its haploid chromosome number (n=38) from the closely related and morphologically similar Polyommatus aroaniensis (n=47-48) and Polyommatus orphicus (n

  5. From Wellhead to Market. Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential

  6. Heart rate changes in relation to cosmic ray intensity variability: A wide investigation in different latitudes and longitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromichalaki, Helen; Safaraly-Oghlu Babayev, Elchin; -Christina Papailiou, Maria; Dimitrova, Svetla; Kudela, Karel; Stetiarova, Jana; Giannaropoulou, Elisavet; Loucas, Panayiotis

    The increased number of recent studies over the last years, regarding the possible effect of geomagnetic disturbances and cosmic ray intensity variations may have on human physiological parameters (such as heart rate, arterial diastolic and systolic blood pressure, etc) suggests that biological objects and, particularly, human health are potentially affected by solar activity and related geophysical changes. Different scientific groups from Azerbaijan (Baku), Bulgaria (Sofia), Greece (Athens) and Slovakia (Kosice) have conducted relevant researches, separately or in cooperation with each another, using medical data from 1994 to 2008. The results of collaborative study of human heart rate changes in relation to cosmic ray intensity variations are presented in this paper. Heart rate data were digitally registered: 1) for seven functionally healthy persons on working days (including Saturdays) during experiments at the Laboratory of Heliobiology located at the Medical Centre INAM, Baku, for the time period from July 15, 2006 to March 3, 2008; 2) for 86 healthy volunteers of the Solar -Terrestrial Laboratory of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia on every working day during the autumn and spring in years of maximal solar activity, from October 1, 2001 to November 9, 2001 and from April 8, 2002 to May 28, 2002; 3) for 225 persons with no cardiac symptoms or hospital admission, of the cardiological clinic of the KAT Hospital in Athens, for the time period from 2002 to 2006; and 4) for 4018 Slovak aviators during the time period from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 2002. It should be noted that considered period covers different phases of solar activity cycles and is characterized by such time intervals of strong solar and geomagnetic activity as October -November 2003, November 2004, January and July 2005 and December 2006. The statistical methods were applied to establish a statistical significance of the effect of cosmic ray intensity variations on heart rate

  7. The Glinka Memorial Soil Monolith Collection: a treasure of Soil Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggler, C. C.; Spaargaren, O.; Hartemink, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    The first World Congress of Soil Science, held in 1927 in Washington DC, USA, had as one of its highlights the exposition of soils from all over the world. The Russian delegation had planned the presentation of 50 soil monoliths. The soil profiles were collected under the supervision of Konstantin D. Glinka, then director of the Leningrad Agricultural Institute. The soil profiles included a geographical sequence form St Petersburg to the Caucasus and soils from Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, the Amu Darya region and the Siberian Far East. Due to shipping problems they did not arrive on time for the congress, and ended up in an USDA storage facility, where they remained untouched in their original wooden boxes. At first congress Glinka gave a lecture on Dokuchaev's ideas and the Russian developments on soil science, and joined the transcontinental field trip of 30 days that followed the congress. At that congress, Glinka was elected president of the International Soil Science Society, and was in charge to organize the next congress in Russia. However, he passed away a few months after the congress. In the 1970s, after a consultation with Wim Sombroek, then director of the International Soil Museum (ISM) in the Netherlands, the collection was donated to ISRIC by the US Soil Conservation Service. The soil profiles were shipped over in 1980 to become part of the collection of the Museum. The collection was named as "Glinka Memorial Collection" in agreement with the Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Moscow and the U.S. Soil Conservation Service, Washington. The monoliths were treated with a sugar solution by the Russians before shipment to the USA, this way keeping a good preservation quality. They were aimed for a single exhibition and for that they were poorly documented and lacked additional samples. In the early 1990s a project for revisit the sites was set up and six sites around St Petersburg were sampled for a comparative study of the soils within a time span of 70

  8. [African swine fever in Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaberezhnyĭ, A D; Aliper, T I; Grebennikova, T A; Verkhovskiĭ, O A; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M; Mur, Lina; Nepoklonov, E A; L'vov, D K

    2012-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an infectious viral disease that causes high economic losses due to the necessity of depopulation of pigs in affected areas, sanitary measures, trade restrictions, etc. The virus (ASFV) is relatively stable in the unprocessed meat products and environment. Thus, large areas are at risk due to free movement of people and products. The ASFV does not affect people and animals, except the wild and domestic pigs. Some ticks can become infected and carry the virus for years. Adaptation of the virus by changing into the less virulent form would mean the threat of an endemic situation to the area. The disease is endemic in domestic and wild pigs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and Sardinia, Italy. There is no treatment for ASF, and no vaccine has been developed. In case of infection with less virulent ASFV strains, the recovered pigs could spread the virus as long as their live. In terms of clinical symptoms, ASF is very similar to Classical Swine Fever. The methods of laboratory diagnostics are well developed and efficient for identification of ASFV and virus-specific antibodies. Experience of eradication of ASF in Spain suggests the importance of serological monitoring of pigs. In the spring of 2007, the ASF was detected in the Caucasus region. Same virus was detected in Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Russia. The ASFV circulating in the Caucasus and the Russian Federation is a highly virulent virus. No reduction of the virulence was observed since the first outbreak in Georgia. In the last years, the ASF remained in the Caucasus, southern parts of Russia and appeared occasionally as far as St. Petersburg and St. Petersburg region, and in the area of Nizhny Novgorod. Domestic pigs play an important role in the ASFV spread; they transfer the virus to the wild boars. The virus circulates in the population of wild boars depending on their density in the area. Occasionally, the disease is spread from wild to domestic pigs. There is no evidence of

  9. Swedish support programme on nuclear non-proliferation in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek, P.; Andersson, Sarmite [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Wredberg, L. [ILG Consultant Ltd., Vienna (Austria)

    2000-06-15

    At the request of the Swedish Government, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has established a support and co-operation programme in the area of nuclear non-proliferation with Russia and several of the republics of the former Soviet Union. The Programme was initiated in 1991 and an overall goal is to accomplish national means and measures for control and protection of nuclear material and facilities, in order to minimise the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons and illicit trafficking of nuclear material and equipment. The objective of the Swedish Support Programme is to help each, so called, recipient State to be able to, independently and without help from outside, take the full responsibility for operating a national non-proliferation system and thereby fulfil the requirements imposed through the international legal instruments. This would include both the development and implementation of a modern nuclear legislation system, and the establishment of the components making up a national system for combating illicit trafficking. The support and co-operation projects are organised in five Project Groups (i.e. nuclear legislation, nuclear material control, physical protection, export/import control, and combating of illicit trafficking), which together cover the entire non-proliferation area. Up till June 2000, support and co-operation projects, completed and on-going, have been carried out in ten States, namely Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Furthermore, programmes have been initiated during the first part of 2000 with Estonia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. In addition, assistance has been given to Poland on a specific nuclear material accountancy topic. All projects are done on request by and in co-operation with these States. The total number of projects initiated during the period 1991 to June 2000 is 109, thereof 77 have been completed and 32 are currently on-going. It is the

  10. Methodology of risk assessment of loss of water resources due to climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israfilov, Yusif; Israfilov, Rauf; Guliyev, Hatam; Afandiyev, Galib

    2016-04-01

    For sustainable development and management of rational use of water resources of Azerbaijan Republic it is actual to forecast their changes taking into account different scenarios of climate changes and assessment of possible risks of loss of sections of water resources. The major part of the Azerbaijani territory is located in the arid climate and the vast majority of water is used in the national economic production. An optimal use of conditional groundwater and surface water is of great strategic importance for economy of the country in terms of lack of common water resources. Low annual rate of sediments, high evaporation and complex natural and hydrogeological conditions prevent sustainable formation of conditioned resources of ground and surface water. In addition, reserves of fresh water resources are not equally distributed throughout the Azerbaijani territory. The lack of the common water balance creates tension in the rational use of fresh water resources in various sectors of the national economy, especially in agriculture, and as a result, in food security of the republic. However, the fresh water resources of the republic have direct proportional dependence on climatic factors. 75-85% of the resources of ground stratum-pore water of piedmont plains and fracture-vein water of mountain regions are formed by the infiltration of rainfall and condensate water. Changes of climate parameters involve changes in the hydrological cycle of the hydrosphere and as a rule, are reflected on their resources. Forecasting changes of water resources of the hydrosphere with different scenarios of climate change in regional mathematical models allowed estimating the extent of their relationship and improving the quality of decisions. At the same time, it is extremely necessary to obtain additional data for risk assessment and management to reduce water resources for a detailed analysis, forecasting the quantitative and qualitative parameters of resources, and also for

  11. International multidimensional authenticity specification (IMAS) algorithm for detection of commercial pomegranate juice adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Krueger, Dana; Durst, Robert; Lee, Rupo; Wang, David; Seeram, Navindra; Heber, David

    2009-03-25

    The pomegranate fruit ( Punica granatum ) has become an international high-value crop for the production of commercial pomegranate juice (PJ). The perceived consumer value of PJ is due in large part to its potential health benefits based on a significant body of medical research conducted with authentic PJ. To establish criteria for authenticating PJ, a new International Multidimensional Authenticity Specifications (IMAS) algorithm was developed through consideration of existing databases and comprehensive chemical characterization of 45 commercial juice samples from 23 different manufacturers in the United States. In addition to analysis of commercial juice samples obtained in the United States, data from other analyses of pomegranate juice and fruits including samples from Iran, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Syria, India, and China were considered in developing this protocol. There is universal agreement that the presence of a highly constant group of six anthocyanins together with punicalagins characterizes polyphenols in PJ. At a total sugar concentration of 16 degrees Brix, PJ contains characteristic sugars including mannitol at >0.3 g/100 mL. Ratios of glucose to mannitol of 4-15 and of glucose to fructose of 0.8-1.0 are also characteristic of PJ. In addition, no sucrose should be present because of isomerase activity during commercial processing. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry as > -25 per thousand assures that there is no added corn or cane sugar added to PJ. Sorbitol was present at 25 mg/L is indicative of added grape products. Malic acid at >0.1 g/100 mL indicates adulteration with apple, pear, grape, cherry, plum, or aronia juice. Other adulteration methods include the addition of highly concentrated aronia, blueberry, or blackberry juices or natural grape pigments to poor-quality juices to imitate the color of pomegranate juice, which results in abnormal anthocyanin profiles. To adjust the astringent taste of poor-quality juice or peel extract, addition

  12. Molecular characterization of Fasciola hepatica from Sardinia based on sequence analysis of genomic and mitochondrial gene markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjallah, Sarra; Ben Slimane, Badreddine; Piras, Cristina Maria; Amor, Nabil; Garippa, Giovanni; Merella, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity of samples identified morphologically as Fasciola hepatica (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea) (n=66) from sheep and cattle from two localities of Sardinia and to compare them with available data from other localities by partial sequences of the first (ITS-1), the 5.8S, and second (ITS-2) Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit I (ND1) genes. Comparison of the sequences from Sardinia with sequences of Fasciola spp. from GenBank confirmed that all samples belong to the species F. hepatica. The nucleotide sequencing of ITS rDNA showed no nucleotide variation in the ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2 rDNA sequences among all Sardinian samples, comparing with two ITS-2 haplotypes in standard F. hepatica, showing a substitution C/T in 20 position 859, reported previously from Tunisia, Algeria, Australia, Uruguay and Spain. The present study shows that in Sardinian sheep and cattle there is the most frequent haplotype (FhITS-H1) of F. hepatica species from South Europe. Considering NDI sequences, the phylogenetic trees showed reliable grouping among the haplotypes of F. hepatica from Sardinia and the mitochondrial lineage I, including the main N1 haplotype, observed previously from Europe (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Bulgaria), Armenia, West Africa (Nigeria), America (Uruguay and USA), Asia (Turkey, Japan, and China), Georgia, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Australia. Furthermore, common haplotypes FhCOI-H1 and FhCOI-H2 of F. hepatica from Sardinia also corresponded mostly to the first lineage including the main C1 haplotype reported previously from Eastern European and Western Asian populations, they belonged just to a phylogenically distinguishable clade, as F. hepatica from Australia, France, Turkey, Uruguay, Russia, Armenia, Ukraine, Belarus

  13. Modeling and experimental validation of heat transfer and energy consumption in an innovative greenhouse structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Taki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The commercial greenhouse is one of the most effective cultivation methods with a yield per cultivated area up to 10 times more than free land cultivation but the use of fossil fuels in this production field is very high. The objectives of this paper are to modeling and experimental evaluation of heat and mass transfer functions in an innovative solar greenhouse with thermal screen. For this propose, a semi-solar greenhouse was designed and constructed at the North-West of Iran in Azerbaijan Province (38°10′N and 46°18′E with elevation of 1364 m above the sea level. The inside environment factors include inside air temperature below screen (Ta, inside air temperature above screen (Tas, crop temperature (Tc, inside soil temperature (Ts, cover temperature (Tri and thermal screen temperature (Tsc were collected as the experimental data samples. The dynamic heat and mass transfer model used to estimate the temperature in six different points of the semi-solar greenhouse with initial values and consider the crop evapotranspiration. The results showed that dynamic model can predict the inside temperatures in four different points (Ta, Tc, Tri, Ts with MAPE, RMSE and EF about 5–7%, 1–2 °C and 80–91% for greenhouse without thermal screen and about 3–7%, 0.6–1.8 °C and 89–96% for six different points of greenhouse with thermal screen (Ta, Tc, Tri, Ts, Tas, Tsc, respectively. The results of using thermal screen at night (12 h in autumn showed that this method can decrease the use of fossil fuels up to 58% and so decrease the final cost and air pollution. This movable insulation caused about 15 °C difference between outside and inside air temperature and also made about 6 °C difference between Ta and Tas. The experimental results showed that inside thermal screen can decrease the crop temperature fluctuation at night.

  14. Psychological problems in Iranian adolescents: application of the self report form of strengths and difficulties questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of psychological problems in adolescents in five provinces of Tehran, Khorasan Razavi, Isfahan, East Azerbaijan and Fars in Iran.In the present cross-sectional and descriptive - analytical study, 5171 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were selected through multistage cluster sampling method from Tehran, Isfahan, Fars, Khorasan Razavi and East Azarbaijan provinces. The self-report form of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ was used to obtain the demographic data of each adolescent. Descriptive analysis and 95% confidence interval were used to investigate the relationship between scores of the SDQ questionnaire and demographic factors.Based on the results, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems (24%, and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems (5.76%. Also, comparison of 95% confidence interval of prevalence of psychological problems between the two genders suggested a significant difference only in emotional problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two genders. The result revealed no significant difference in the psychological problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two age's groups and between the middle and high school graduates (p≤0.05. Among the 5 provinces, Fars allocated the highest rates of conduct problems (28.4, hyperactivity problems (21.5% and overall criterion problems (17.3%; Esfahan had the highest rates of emotional problems (9.1% and problems with peers (8.1%; and Khorasan Razavi had the highest rates of social problems (7.6%.In this study, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems, and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems. It was determined that girls have more emotional problems than boys. Also, no significant difference was found in the psychological problems of 12

  15. National and sub-national drinking water fluoride concentrations and prevalence of fluorosis and of decayed, missed, and filled teeth in Iran from 1990 to 2015: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Nader; Amini, Heresh; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Yunesian, Masud; Pourakbar, Mojtaba; Taghipour, Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Fluoride intake, fluorosis, and dental caries could affect quality of life and disease burden worldwide. As a part of the National and Sub-national Burden of Disease Study (NASBOD) in Iran, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate province-year-specific mean drinking water fluoride concentrations and prevalence of fluorosis and of decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT) in Iran from 1990 to December 2015. We did electronic searches of all English and Persian publications on PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Iranian databases. Results revealed that the weighted mean drinking water fluoride concentration in Iran from 1990 to 2015 has been about 0.65 ± 0.38 mg/l. However, based on the WHO guideline value (1.50 mg/l) and the maximum permissible Iranian national fluoride standard (1.40 to 2.40 mg/l depending on the region's climate), there have been some regions in Iran with non-optimum fluoride concentrations in their drinking water (up to 7.0 mg/l). Overall, concentrations have been higher in southern parts of Iran and in some areas of Azerbaijan-e-Gharbi Province in the northwest and lower in the rest of the northwest and central parts of Iran. In addition, some hotspots have been found in Bushehr Province, southwest of Iran. The highest prevalence of dental flourosis has been reported in normal index while the lowest prevalence has been expressed in severe index. The lowest DMFT (about 0.1) was in Arsanjan City in Fars Province, and the highest (about 6.7) was for Najaf Abad City in Isfahan Province. Prevalence of fluorosis has been rather high in studied areas of Iran (e.g. 100 % in Maku City in Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi Province), and there was discrepancy for DMFT, but a lack of studies renders the results inconclusive. Further studies, health education and promotion plans, and evidence-based nutrition programs are recommended.

  16. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

    2013-12-31

    Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well

  17. Long-term flow monitoring of submarine gas emanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickenbom, K.; Faber, E.; Poggenburg, J.; Seeger, C.

    2009-04-01

    One of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies currently under study is the sequestration of CO2 in sub-seabed geological formations. Even after a thorough review of the geological setting, there is the possibility of leaks from the reservoirs. As part of the EU-financed project CO2ReMoVe (Research, Monitoring, Verification), which aims to develop innovative research and technologies for monitoring and verification of carbon dioxide geological storage, we are working on the development of submarine long-term gas flow monitoring systems. Technically, however, these systems are not limited to CO2 but can be used for monitoring of any free gas emission (bubbles) on the seafloor. The basic design of the gas flow sensor system was derived from former prototypes developed for monitoring CO2 and CH4 on mud volcanoes in Azerbaijan. This design was composed of a raft floating on the surface above the gas vent to collect the bubbles. Sensors for CO2 flux and concentration and electronics for data storage and transmission were mounted on the raft, together with battery-buffered solar panels for power supply. The system was modified for installation in open sea by using a buoy instead of a raft and a funnel on the seafloor to collect the gas, which is then guided above water level through a flexible tube. Besides some technical problems (condensed water in the tube, movement of the buoys due to waves leading to biased measurement of flow rates), this setup provides a cost-effective solution for shallow waters. However, a buoy interferes with ship traffic, and it is also difficult to adapt this design to greater water depths. These requirements can best be complied by a completely submersed system. To allow unattended long-term monitoring in a submarine environment, such a system has to be extremely durable. Therefore, we focussed on developing a mechanically and electrically as simple setup as possible, which has the additional advantage of low cost. The system

  18. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan MAMMADOV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dear Colleagues,First volume of the second issue of our journal "International Journal of Secondary Metabolites in (IJSM" has been published. The aim of our journal is to provide opportunities for the researchers working in the area of secondary metabolites by passing their valuable works through the mental filter of experienced and well-known referees in this field to convey the works to the scientific community. First of all our referees deserve a special thanks. We would also like to offer our deepest gratitude to everyone contributed to the preparation of this issue. We wish great success to those who sent articles to this issue and to those who will send their works in the future. Second issue of the journal will be published in July.On June 09-14, 2015 "Symposium on Biodiversity EuroAsian (SEAB" will be held in Baku, Azerbaijan's capital. Articles presented at this symposium will be published in full text if they overlap the interests of IJSM.------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sevgili meslektaşlarımız,“International Journal of Secondary Metabolite (IJSM” dergisinin 2.sayısının 1 no’su yayınlanmıştır. Derginin amacı sekonder metabolitlerle ilgili çalışma yapan araştırmacılarımıza imkan sunarak yapılmış olan değerli çalışmaları deneyimli ve kendi alanlarında tanınmış olan hakemlerimizin zeka süzgecinden geçirerek bilim camiasına ulaştırmaktır. Bu sayının hazırlanmasında hakemlerimiz başta olmakla, emeği geçen her kese teşekkür eder ve derin şükranlarımızı sunarız. Söz konusu sayıda makalesi yayınlanan yazarlara ve bundan sonra dergiye çalışmalarını gönderecek her kese başarılar dileriz. Derginin 2’ci sayısının 2’ci no’su Temmuz ayında yayınlanacaktır.09-14 haziran 2015 tarihleri arasında Azerbaycan'ın baş kendi Bakü’de “Symposium on EuroAsian Biodiversity (SEAB” sempozyumu yapılacaktır. Bu

  19. Tectonic stratification and seismicity of the accretionary prism of the Azerbaijani part of Greater Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizade, Akif; Kangarli, Talat; Aliyev, Fuad

    2013-04-01

    The Greater Caucasus has formed during last stage of the tectogenesis in a geodynamic condition of the lateral compression, peculiar to the zone pseudo-subduction interaction zone between Northern and Southern Caucasian continental microplates. Its present day structure formed as a result of horizontal movements of the different phases and sub-phases of Alpine tectogenesis (from late Cimmerian to Valakhian), and is generally regarded as zone where, along Zangi deformation, the insular arc formations of the Northern edge of South Caucasian microplate thrust under the Meso-Cenozoic substantial complex contained in the facials of marginal sea of Greater Caucasus. The last, in its turn, has been pushed beneath the North-Caucasus continental margin of the Scythian plate along Main Caucasus Thrust fault. Data collected from the territory of Azerbaijan and its' sector of the Caspian area stands for pseudo-subduction interaction of microplates which resulted in the tectonic stratification of the continental slope of Alpine formations, marginal sea and insular arc into different scale plates of south vergent combined into napping complexes. In the orogeny's present structure, tectonically stratified Alpine substantial complex of the marginal sea of Greater Caucasus bordered by Main Caucasus and Zangi thrusts, is represented by allochthonous south vergent accretionary prism in the front of first deformation with its' root buried under the southern border of Scythian plate. Allocated beneath mentioned prism, the autochthonous bedding is presented by Meso-Cenosoic complex of the Northern flank of the South-Caucasian miroplate, which is in its' turn crushed and lensed into southward shifted tectonic microplates gently overlapping the northern flank of Kura flexure along Ganykh-Ayrichay-Alyat thrust. Data of real-time GPS measurement of regional geodynamics indicates that pseudo-subduction of South Caucasian microplate under the North Caucasian microplate still continues during

  20. Asian water futures - Multi scenarios, models and criteria assessment -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Yusuke; Burek, Peter; Wada, Yoshihide; Flrörke, Martina; Eisner, Stephanie; Hanasaki, Naota; Kahil, Taher; Tramberend, Sylvia; Fischer, Günther; Wiberg, David

    2016-04-01

    (46% of Asian population) are going to live in countries classified as high hydrological complexity. In particular, in Afghanistan, Azerbaijan and Pakistan, then home to 370 million people, hydrological complexity will be high while adaptation capacity is still low. On the other hand, a part of people however who live in countries with higher expected adaptive capacities may have better futures depending on policies and investment. Besides country scale, grid scale analyses clearly highlighted that a large part of population living under strong water stress in highly populated areas of Asia, such as east and coastal areas in China and large parts of India. Our preliminary results show that a significant impact of socioeconomic scenarios on each of the indexes which is comparable to that of climate scenarios. For instance, the least timing, trend and spatial distribution of water resource per capita are highly affected by projected population. This study shows that features of time series change in each indexes are also informative particularly for decision makers because they support in optimal timing of investment for countermeasures. In this presentation, we are showing our analysis framework and results of each integrated indexes.

  1. POSITIVE INTERACTION IN AN INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: MANIFESTATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL CHILD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (ICDP

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    Farid Alamdar oglu Suleymanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Kind relation between a child and caregiver (parent, teacher is a critically vital point for psychological development of children. Better relations also contribute to the child’s healthy growth and intellectual, social and emotional development. Fundamental caregiving skills function as particularly important contribution to the quality and effectiveness all caregiving. In order to facilitate full development of a child, it is important that the caregiver have a positive conception of the child. In other words, a caregiver should regard a child as a person with potential for development. From this perspective International Child Development Programme (ICDP functions as a resource-based communication and mediation approach which trains caregiver to develop a positive conception of their children and gain wider and deeper insight and confidence about their responsibilities and roles. Based on the themes of ICDP, the current research studied the quality of positive interaction between teacher assistants (TA and children with special needs (CSN in an inclusive primary education in Azerbaijan. The findings suggest that some elements of ICDP approach exist in teacher-student interaction. However, these interaction patterns are unprofessional and need development through relevant in-service trainings. Methods. In this research a case study design of qualitative research was used to investigate teacher assistants’ (TA understanding of positive attitude and how they establish positive relations with the students with special needs whom they take care of. As for the research method, the case study will adopt triangulation, a multiple methods of data collection which will include interview and observation to extend confidence in its validity and improve the quality of the data and accuracy of the findings. Results. Comparative analyses of triangulation data demonstrate that TAs’ performance within the context of teacher-student positive

  2. Risk factors for infection with Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus in a cattle population vaccinated with a non-purified vaccine in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, J; Rasouli, N; McLaws, M; Bartels, C J M

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we estimated the level of Foot-and-Mouth (FMD) virus infection in a cattle-dense north-western province of Islamic Republic of Iran and analyzed putative risk factors for FMD infection. Calves (6-24 months of age) from all 17 districts of West Azerbaijan were tested for antibodies against non-structural proteins (NSP-Ab) of FMD virus. A proportional stratification with a minimum of 30 epi-units was applied for 3 different husbandry systems: villages, dairy and mixed farms. Within an epi-unit, 30 calves were sampled. For the interpretation of ELISA test results, we used the 50% inhibition (50PI) cut-off as per producer's instructions and created one at 75% inhibition (75PI) based on the lowest point of the histogram of PI results. This approach resulted in three categories of outcomes; negative (N), low-positive (LP) and high-positive (HP). A generalized mixed-effect model for binary outcomes was used for analysing putative risk factors and was run for both cut-off values. A total of 8378 calves from 202 villages, 51 dairy farms and 28 mixed farms were eligible for analysis. The percentage of calves testing positive (LP+HP) was 53.7% (95% Confidence interval (CI): 52.6%-54.8%), with 39.6% (95% CI: 38.6-40.7%) testing HP (n=3309) while 14.1% (95% CI: 13.5-15.0%) of calves tested LP (n=1188). Of 281 epi-units sampled, all calves sampled tested negative in only 2 epi-units (0.7% (95% CI: 0.1-2.5%)) and more than 25 calves tested positive in 29 epi-units (10.3% (95% CI: 7.0-14.5%)). Outcomes of regression modelling using the 50 PI cut-off indicated that, for each month increase in age, the odds of testing positive increased 1.01 times (95% CI: 1.00-1.03). The odds of calves testing NSP-positive increased 1.46 times (95% CI: 1.22-1.77) for calves residing in epi-units that had experienced clinical FMD in the 12 months preceding this study. The odds of calves owned by livestock owners who traded livestock testing positive were 1.4-1.6 times higher than

  3. Worldwide Asbestos Supply and Consumption Trends from 1900 through 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    early 1980s. The 1991 breakup of the Soviet Union, a major user of asbestos, resulted in a significant decline in asbestos consumption and production in former Soviet-bloc countries. Consumption and production in Kazakhstan and Russia increased through 2003 from 2001, albeit to a much lower level than in the 1980s. In 2003, world consumption was estimated to be 2.11 Mt, about 45 percent that of 1980. Relatively few countries in Asia, the Middle East, South America, and the former Soviet Union remained as the leading users of asbestos. China was the leading consuming nation, using an estimated 492,000 metric tons (t) in 2003. China was followed, in decreasing order of consumption, by Russia (429,000 t), India (192,000 t), Kazakhstan (174,000 t), Ukraine (156,000 t), Thailand (133,000 t), Brazil (78,400 t), and Iran (75,800 t). These eight countries accounted for 82 percent of the world's apparent consumption in 2003. Following Iran, in decreasing order of consumption by tonnage, were Uzbekistan (42,400 t), Vietnam (39,400 t), Indonesia (32,300 t), the Republic of Korea (23,800 t), Kyrgyzstan (23,700 t), Japan (23,400 t), and Mexico (20,100 t). Consumption in all other countries was estimated to be less than 15,000 t each in 2003. Sizable consumption increases occurred in Azerbaijan, China, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Thailand, and Ukraine between 2000 and the end of 2003. Consumption patterns in countries using less than 5,000 t per year were too erratic to ascertain any trends in their use of asbestos.

  4. The Zoning of Forest Fire Potential of Gulestan Province Forests Using Granular Computing and MODIS Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jalilzadeh Shadlouei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many vegetation in Iran. This is because of extent of Iran and its width. One of these vegetation is forest vegetation most prevalent in Northern provinces named Guilan, Mazandaran, Gulestan, Ardebil as well as East Azerbaijan. These forests are always threatened by natural forest fires so much so that there have been reports of tens of fires in recent years. Forest fires are one of the major environmental as well as economic, social and security concerns in the world causing much damages. According to climatology, forest fires are one of the important factors in the formation and dispersion of vegetation. Also, regarding the environment, forest fires cause the emission of considerable amounts of greenhouse gases, smoke and dust into the atmosphere which in turn causes the earth temperature to rise up and are unhealthy to humans, animals and vegetation. In agriculture droughts are the usual side effects of these fires. The causes of forest fires could be categorized as either Human or Natural Causes. Naturally, it is impossible to completely contain forest fires; however, areas with high potentials of fire could be designated and analysed to decrease the risk of fires. The zoning of forest fire potential is a multi-criteria problem always accompanied by inherent uncertainty like other multi-criteria problems. So far, various methods and algorithm for zoning hazardous areas via Remote Sensing (RS and Geospatial Information System (GIS have been offered. This paper aims at zoning forest fire potential of Gulestan Province of Iran forests utilizing Remote Sensing, Geospatial Information System, meteorological data, MODIS images and granular computing method. Granular computing is part of granular mathematical and one way of solving multi-criteria problems such forest fire potential zoning supervised by one expert or some experts , and it offers rules for classification with the least inconsistencies. On the basis of the experts’ opinion

  5. Reasons and Predictions of The Caspian Sea Water Level Fluctuations: Impact of Climate Factors and Man's Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, M.; Shiklomanov, I.; Yezhov, A.; Georgievsky, V.; Shalygin, A.

    The Caspian Sea - the largest lake in the world - has no connection with the Ocean and is lower than its surface. Fluctuations of the Sea level are very significant: during the period of instrumental observations (since 1830) the level amplitude was 3.78 m with maximum of -25.22 m in 1882 and minimum of -29.00 m in 1978. These fluctuations lead to a great damage for the economy of five countries sharing its coast (Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan). Deep knowledge of hydrological and hydrodynamic Sea regime and scientifically justified forecasts of possible changes in its level, taking into account variability in climate and future climate change, are re- quired for undertaking urgent measures for protection of coastal territories. The inter- national research project CASSEAS, carried out in 1997-2000 within the framework of the INCO-COPERNICUS programme by the scientists of 5 countries: France, Rus- sia, Germany, Turkmenistan and UK, was devoted to these problems. Research made within the Project made it possible to get new precise data on all water balance com- ponents of the Caspian Sea for 1880-1996; moreover, all water balance components for 1940-1996 were computed independently. It was shown that the Sea level fluctua- tions depended on the water balance almost completely. Assessment of possible future runoff changes in the Caspian Sea basin was made using the mathematical model of runoff formation developed at the SHI. Several scenarios from a range of GCMs and on the basis of paleoclimatic reconstructions were used as the models of the future climate for the nearest 3 decades. Besides changes in climate characteristics, three variants were accepted for the future water use in the basins of rivers discharging to the Caspian Sea. All scenarios gave similar results for changes in annual river inflow to the Caspian Sea: its increase would be from 5% to 10% by 2030. The same scenarios, used to estimate changes in precipitation onto the Sea

  6. The regime of aerosol optical depth over Central Asia based on MODIS Aqua Deep Blue data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floutsi, Athina; KorrasCarraca, Marios; Matsoukas, Christos; Biskos, George

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, can affect the regional and global climate through their direct, indirect, and semi-direct effects on the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. To quantify these effects it is therefore important to determine the aerosol load, and an effective way to do that is by measuring the aerosol optical depth (AOD). In this study we investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the AOD over the climatically sensitive region of Central Asia (36° N - 50° N, 46° E - 75° E), which has significant sources of both natural and anthropogenic particles. The primary source of anthropogenic particles is fossil fuel combustion occurring mainly at oil refineries in the Caspian Sea basin. Natural particles originate mostly from the two deserts in the region (namely Kara-Kum and Kyzyl-Kum), where persistent dust activity is observed. Another source is the Aral Sea region, which due to its phenomenal desertification also drives an intense salt and dust transport from the exposed sea-bed to the surrounding regions. This transport is of particular interest because of health-hazardous materials contained in the Aral Sea sea-bed. For our analysis we use Level-3 daily MODIS - Aqua Dark Target - Deep Blue combined product, from the latest MODIS collection (006), available in 1° x 1° resolution (about 100 km x 100 km) over the period 2002-2014.Our first results indicate a significant spatial variability of the aerosol load over the study region. The data also show a clear seasonal cycle, with large aerosol load being associated with strong dust activity during spring and summer (AOD up to 0.5), and low during autumn and winter (AOD up to 0.4). In spring and summer significant aerosol load is observed in the Garabogazköl basin, Northeast and South-southeast Caspian Sea (offshore North Iran and Azerbaijan), as well as southwest of the Aral Sea. In the later region, the high AOD values can be explained by export of

  7. We Need More Focus On Pre-Disaster Preparedness: Early Lessons Learned From Recent Earthquakes in Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Shaghaghi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor-in-ChiefTwo strong earthquakes with the magnitude of 6.4 and 6.3 at a depth of 9.9 km that rattled Iran’s northwest region within 60 km of Tabriz, the capital city of East Azerbaijan province on August 11, 2012 caused extensive damage in about 1000 villages, killed at least 258 and injured 1380 people. The quakes most severely affected villages close to three impacted towns in the disaster area; Varzegan, Ahar and Heris. Some of the villages were hit are in remote areas with limited access to transport routes.Within early hours aftermath of the twin devastating incidents ordinary people and those who had relatives in the affected area rushed towards the region to salvage victims mainly by their own cars. Independent groups such as small units from armed forces were also sent to the region to support rescue operation. Some of the survivors meanwhile, tried to transfer severely injured survivors to nearby hospitals and even to the central hospital in Tabriz using public transportation facilities e.g. taxis, vans or any vehicle available at the time. All these unplanned efforts created traffic jams on the roads leading to the disaster area and delayed rescue operation by trained staff.Now after the earthquakes that rumbled through the disaster area, about 36,000 quake-stricken people were given shelter and are being provided with their basic needs in makeshift camps. Humanitarian aids are reaching affected zone from all over the country and internationally but there are inadequacies in proper distribution of food stuff and equipments among the survivors. Piles of water bottles in front of tents which left in the heat under the sunshine, clothes and canned foods which were distributed by volunteers and are more than current needs of the victims are observable in the disaster area. This is while, lack of sufficient supply of drinking water, canned foods and portable washrooms were reported by the authorities in the first days after the

  8. Surveying the Process of Physical Development of Sahand New Town and Defining Appropriate Districts for Its Future Development

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    M. Pourjafar

    2012-01-01

    appropriate ecological capabilities. The main goal of this study is defining the best direction for city development that has the least short-time and longtime bad effects. Research method is descriptive and analytical method and data have been collected from library and observational study. Sahand is a new town in East Azerbaijan which was constructed about two decades ago for controlling the extreme growth of Tabriz and for attracting the extra population of this metropolis. Sahand new town is 20 kilometers far away from Tabriz and it became a town in 2007. It has a population of about 16000 and a population of about 90000 was forecasted for this town at its master plan. The area of allocated lands for this town is about 12650 hectare and it is situated on the hillside of Sahand Mountain. According to the process of ecological capability assessment in this research, for assessing the ecological capability of each region, we have to identify a lot of natural resources parameters. In order to provide these resources for assessment, they must become to land identification and resource maps. Subsequently, this information will be used as different information layers for assessing. Also, the information and the requirements for this model of ecological capability assessment were arranged according to the criteria of ecologic model (urban, rural and industrial development model.In the next stage, given the systematic method and also applying software applications such as GIS, data layers were analyzed, integrated and overlaid by AHP technique. Then, the final map of ecological capability of case study region was produced. This map was produced according to privileging two groups of lands, quiet appropriate and rather appropriate lands. Eventually, the final map of ecological capability of case study region was produced by overlaying the maps of these two kinds of lands with regard to both groups. So, the appropriate land for future development of Sahand new town was determined.4

  9. PREFACE: XVIII International Scientific Symposium in Honour of Academician M. A. Usov: Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    took an active part in the symposium having presented 150 reports. The reports of the symposium were made by students (655 participants), post-graduate students (180), researchers (82), engineers (30), young teachers (18) and schoolchildren (5). The organizations represented by the participants were higher education institutions (607), Russian Academy of Sciences (22), National Academy of Sciences (8), Research Institutes (18), industrial enterprises (10) and schools (5). The speakers who made 827 reports were students of bachelor and master degree programs (547, including 490 from TPU), post-graduate students and young researchers (130, including 80 from TPU) and five schoolchildren. The amount of those who attended different panels over the four days of the symposium consisted of 2010 people. Nine foreign countries (except for CIS) were represented by 32 reports made by participants from Germany, France, China, Italy, Poland, Ecuador, Iraq, Vietnam and Mongolia. Nine CIS countries were represented by 58 reports made by participants from National Academies of Sciences and Universities of Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Russian participants came from various areas of the country: in the east from Sakhalin, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Vladivostok, Blagoveshchensk, Krasnoyarsk, Chita, Irkutsk to Barnaul, Kemerovo, Novokuznetsk, and etc.; in the north from Mirny, Yakutsk, Neryungri, Magadan, Nizhnevartovsk, Khanty-Mansiysk, Nefteugansk to Tyumen, Ulan-Ude, Syktyvkar, and etc.; in the west from Minsk, Kiev, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg to Samara, Kazan, Ufa, Perm, Novosibirsk; in the south from the cities of the Central Asian republics to Ivano-Frankovsk, Odessa, Novocherkassk, Simferopol, Novorossiysk, Vladikavkaz, Voronezh, Stavropol, Astrakhan, and etc. A great number of young people from Urals, Western and Eastern Siberia took an active part in the Symposium. CIS countries were

  10. ASPECTE DE DREPT COMPARAT PRIVIND PRIVAŢIUNEA ILEGALĂ DE LIBERTATE ŞI RĂPIREA UNEI PERSOANE

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    Dorina GUREV

    2015-11-01

    two crimes: the illegal deprivation of liberty and kidnapping. Right to liberty includes the right of the person to move and to act according to his/her own will and is an essential condition for the individual's activity and his/her relations with other members of the society. The analysis of the criminal legislation of other countries allowed the author to identify several divergences regarding the elements of the following two crimes: illegal deprivation of liberty and kidnapping. In this sense, in the legislation of such countries as Moldova, USA (the majority of states, Russia Federation, Belarus, Azerbaijan, etc. the crimes of illegal deprivation of liberty and kidnapping are incriminated separately. On the other hand, the Criminal Code of Romania from 1968 (abrogated included the kidnapping as an aggravating circumstance for the crime of illegal deprivation of liberty. However, according to the new Romanian Criminal Code in force as of 2009, kidnapping is covered by the elements of illegal deprivation of liberty similar to the provisions from France, Switzerland, Ukraine, etc. In this context, the author analyzed various models in order to find the most efficient solutions for Moldovan provisions.

  11. Effect of Zeolite, Selenium and Silicon on Yield, Yield Components and Some Physiological Traits of Canola under Salt Stress Conditions

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    A Bybordi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Canola can be cultivated in large areas of the country due to its specific characteristics such as suitable composition of the fatty acids, its germination ability under low temperature, as well as its good compatibility with different climates. Canola is a high demanding crop in terms of fertilizers so that it uptakes considerable amount of nutrients from the soil during the growing season. Canola cultivation in poor soils or application of imbalanced fertilizers, especially nitrogen, can reduce qualitaty and quantity of final yield. On the other hand, salinity is known as one of the major limiting factors in canola production. Therefore, the aim of this study is the application of zeolite, selenium and silicon treatments to amend soil and increasing salinity tolerance in canola. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of soil applied zeolite and foliar application of selenium and silicon on yield, yield components and some physiological traits of canola grown under salinity stress, a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design was conducted in Agriculture and Natural Resource Research Center in East Azerbaijan during 2011-2013 cropping seasons. Zeolite was applied at three levels (0, 5 and 10 ton ha-1 and foliar selenium and silicon were applied at three levels as well (each one zero, 2 and 4 g l-1. For this purpose, seedbed was prepared using plow and disk and then plot were designed. Canola seeds, cultivar Okapi, were sown in sandy loam soil with 4 dS.m-1 salinity at the depth of 2-3 cm. Irrigation was performed using local well based on 60% field capacity using the closed irrigation system. Potassium selentae and potassium silicate were used for selenium and silicon treatments. Treatments at rosette and stem elongation stages were sprayed on plants using a calibrated pressurized backpack sprayer. At flowering stage, photosynthesis rate was recorded. Then leaf samples were randomly collected to assay

  12. The effect of conservation tillage forward speed and depth on farm fuel consumption

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    A Jalali

    2015-09-01

    energyconsumption. Mankind has been tilling agricultural soils for thousands of years to loosen them, to improve their tilth for water use and plant growth and to cover pests. Tillage is a process of creating a desired final soil condition for seeds from some undesirable initial soil conditions through manipulation of soil with the purpose of increasing crop yield.The aim of conservation tillage is to improve soil structure. Considering the advantages of conservation tillage and less scientific research works on imported conservation tillage devices and those which are made inside the country, and considering the importance of tillage depth and speed in different tiller performance, this investigation was carried out. Materials and methods: This investigation was carried out based on random blocks in the form of split plot experimental design. The main factor, tillage depth, (was 10 and 20cm at both levels and the second factor istillage forward speed, (was 6, 8, 10, 12 km h-1 in four levels for Bostan-Abad and 8, 10, 12, 14 km h-1 for Hashtrood with 4 repetitions. It was carried out by using complex tillager made in the Sazeh Keshte Bukan Company, which is mostly used in Eastern Azerbaijan and using Massey Ferguson 285 and 399tractors and its fuel consumptionwas studied. Results and Discussion: In this study, the effect of both factors on the feature of fuel consumption was examined. Regarding tillage speed effect for studies characteristic in Bostan-Abad at 1% probability level fuel consumption was effective. The effect of tillage depth has significance at 5% probability level on fuel consumption. The interaction effect of tillage speed and depth on fuel consumption was significant at probability level of 1% . In Hashtrood, the effect of tillage speed was significant on fuel consumption at probability level of 1% , and also tillage depth effect was significant on fuel consumption amount at probability of 1% . The interaction effect of tillage speed and depth on fuel consumption

  13. Pamphagidae (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) from the Palaearctic Region: taxonomy, classification, keys to genera and a review of the tribe Nocarodeini I.Bolívar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Mustafa

    2016-12-13

    . Nomenclatural problems are discussed under the relevant taxa. The authorship of 4 species are discussed and changed as follow: Eremopeza festiva (I. Bolívar, 1884), Paranocarodes tolunayi tolunayi Ramme, 1949, Nocaracris rubripes (Motschulsky, 1846), Nocaracris cyanipes (Motschulsky, 1846). Identification keys for subfamilies, tribes and genera (except the N. African and European genera of Pamphagini) and for each level of the tribe Nocarodeini are prepared. This study is also a review of the Pamphagidae species of Turkey. Therefore all Turkish species are studied in detail except the two genera recently revised by the author, Glyphotmethis Bey-Bienko and Asiotmethis Uvarov. Geographically this paper includes all Pamphagidae species of the following countries and regions: Bulgaria, Turkey, Cyprus, Syria, Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Iraq, Armenia, Georgia, Nakhichevan, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Greece (except one species), Lebanon (except two species), Arabian Peninsula (except one species), Afghanistan (except some Saxetania) and Iran (except some Saxetania and Tropidauchen). In addition, 848 original figures including 10 distributional maps are provided.

  14. Application of Clinopyroxene Chemistry to Interpret the Physical Conditions of Ascending Magma, a Case Study of Eocene Volcanic Rocks in the Ghohrud Area (North of Isfahan

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    Mohammad Sayari

    2016-07-01

    authors would like to thank the University of Isfahan, and Dr. Seyed Mohsen Tabatabaei Manesh for his help for doing microprobe analyses. References Dilek, Y., Imamverdiyev, N. and Altunkaynak, S., 2010. Geochemistry and tectonics of Cenozoic volcanism in the Lesser Caucasus (Azerbaijan and the peri-Arabian region: collision-induced mantle dynamics and its magmatic fingerprint. International Geology Review, 52(4-6: 536-578. Nimis, P. and Ulmer, P., 1998. Clinopyroxene geobarometry of magmatic rocks. 1. An expanded structural geobarometer for anhydrous and hydrous, basic and ultrabasic systems. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 133(1-2: 122-135. Putirka, K., 2008. Thermometers and Barometers for Volcanic Systems. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 69(1: 61-120. Putirka, K., Johnson, M., Kinzler, R. and Walker, D., 1996. Thermobarometry of mafic igneous rocks based on clinopyroxene-liquid equilibria, 0-30 kbar. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 123(1: 92-108. Sayari, M., 2012. APG: An efficient software program for Amp-Pl thermobarometry based on graphical method. Journal of Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran, 22(4: 345-349. Sayari, M., 2015. Petrogenesis and evolution of Oligocene-Pliocene volcanism in the central part of Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc (NE of Isfahan. Ph.D Thesis, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran, 195 pp (in Persian with English abstract. Sayari, M. and Sharifi, M., 2014. SCG: A computer application for single clinopyroxene geothermobarometry. Italian Journal of Geosciences 133(2: 315-322.

  15. Bâkî’nin Pervane Bey Mecmuası’nda Yer Alan Yayımlanmamış Gazelleri Bâkî’s Unpublished Ghazals In The Macmua Of Pervane Bey

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    Savaşkan Cem BAHADIR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bâkî (1526-1600, has become one of the cornerstones of classical Turkish literature with his Divan. His reputation was spread around Iran, Iraq, Azerbaijan and the Indian palaces. After the death of Hayali Bey he became “sultan of the Anatolian poets” and he wrote some works. Although Bâkî arrenge his Divan while he was alive some of his poems can be find in different copy of his divan or nazeerah macmuas. As a natural result some of Bâkî’s poems couldn’t take place in his Divan while it was publishing. Bâkî’s Divan has more than hundreds of copy in library both in Turkey and Europe. Bâkî’s Divan has been publihed three time. These works are prepared by Rudolf Dvorak, Sadettin Nüzhet Ergun and Sabahattin Küçük.The subject of this study is including the poems of Bâkî which don’t included his published Divan. These poems are in a nazeerah macmua called the Macmua of Pervane Bey (Mecmûa’tü’n- Nezâ’ir. This macmua is compiled by Pervâne b. Abdullah in 1560. The Macmua of Pervane Bey composed of 627 pages and it is bulky. In this work we research 23 master thesis. These theses are prepared in Marmara University from 2001 until 2006. After this analysis we reveal 28 unpublished ghazel which are belong to Bâkî. These ghazals are compare with the other article include unpublished ghazals of Bâkî. These ghazals redacted and come into use of science world. Bâkî (1526-1600, ortaya koyduğu divanı ile klasik Türk edebiyatının mihenk taşlarından biri haline gelmiştir. Şöhreti daha o hayattayken İran, Irak, Azerbaycan ve Hint saraylarına ulaşmıştır. Hayali Bey’in ölümünün ardından devrin “sultânü’ş-şu’arâsı” olmuş ve başta divanı olmak üzere çeşitli eserler vermiştir. Bâkî, divanını hayattayken tertip etmiş olmasına rağmen ona ait bazı şiirler farklı divan nüshalarında ya da şiir mecmuaları içinde yer almıştır. Bunun doğal bir sonucu olarak da bazı

  16. A look at Refutations of Christianity in Azarbayjan Region

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    hasan aminifar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of writing refutation against the two religions of Islam and Christianity has a history as long as the time when they first fought against each other. In recent years, the companionship of Christian missioners with colonialism and their increasing preaching activities, have caused the Muslim scholars to reflect strongly against them. This phenomenon has had a special manifest in Iran since Qajar dynasty (150 years ago and led to the creation of many works written by Muslim theologians against missionary activities of Christianity. From among different Iranian regions where such works were emerged, Azarbayjan can be specifically named as an active area in which the writing of refuting works was more common than other areas in Iran. Azarbayjan in its current situation is an area including a vast region of north-western part of Iran and the countries of Azerbaijan and Armenia. In this article the biography and the works of some Muslim scholars who were active against Christianity such as Muḥammd Ṣādiq Fakhr al-Islām, Ḥāj MῙrzā Najaf'alῙ Dānish TabrῙzῙ, Yūsuf Mujtahid TabrῙzῙ, Ghulāmḥuseyn TūtūnchῙ Ṣarāf TabrῙzῙ, Ḥuseyn ḤuseinῙ famous as RūmῙ MiyānduābῙ, IsmāῙl QaribāghῙ, Sayyed Ḥuseyn 'Arab BāghῙ and 'AlῙ Isḥāq KhūῙ, have been introduced. A total of 14 works written by these 8 scholars have been introduced in this article. It should be noticed that the creation of such works in this region did not occur in a vacuum, rather various elements and factors were involved to reach such status which will be mentioned in the following: - Christian Missioners from the Safavid Dynasty extensively had an offensive approach toward Islam due to the strategy of the Safavid-West :::::::::union::::::::: against Ottoman Government. This was highlighted during the time of Qajar because of great importance of Iran in international politics at that time. This led to the activity of the

  17. Özbek Türkolog Berdak Yusuf ve Sözlük Çalışmaları Uzbek Turkologist Berdak Yusuf and Lexical Studies

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    Emek ÜŞENMEZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Berdak Yusuf is one of the Turcologists of the Uzbek region which hasan important role in the history of Turcology due to the richness of itsTurkish language resources and the scholars who work on theseresources. The author is born in Jizzah where located near theSamarqand city, in 1949.Berdak Yusuf has been reserched at Sciencies Academy ofUzbekistan which Institution of Ali Sher Navaiy Language andLiterature. He is working at department of Languge History-dialectologyand Turkic Languages at the moment.Berdak Yusuf, who knows Russian, Kazakh Turkic, Kyrgyz Turkic,Turkmen Turkic, Azerbaijan Turkic, besides Uzvek turkic except ofTurkey Turkic and also especially works on lexicography.He is a student of the famous Uzbek Turcologist Prof. Dr. ErgeshFazilov and they with cooperation prepared th dictionary of the works ofAli Sher Navaiy.Berdak Yusuf, who is a member of the Dictionary of ModernTurkish Dialects Organization Committee, has prepared the section“Dictionary of Uzbek Turkic”.Berdak Yusuf (Berdak Yusufov stayed in Turkey for a few years inorder to prepare the above mentioned Dictionary of Modern TurkishDialects Organization Committee, has prepared the section “Dictionaryof Uzbek Turkic” and thus had the oppurtunity to get in touch with theacademicians of Turcoloy.Berdak Yusuf’s contributions to Turcology in general and toLexicography in particular are discussed in this study. Bugünkü Özbekistan coğrafyası Türk dili çalışmaları açısından oldukça önemli bir bölgedir. Gerek Türk dili kaynakları gerekse bu kaynakları işleyen bilim adamları bakımından Türkoloji tarihi içerisinde mühim yer tutan Özbekistan’ın yetiştirdiği Türkologlardan biri de Berdak Yusuf (Berdak Yusufov’tur. Yazar 1949 yılında Özbekistan’ın Cizzah vilayetinde dünyaya gelmiştir. Berdak Yusuf Özbekistan İlimler Akademisi (O’zbekistan Respublikasi Fanlar Akademiyasi bünyesinde yer alan Ali Şir Nevai Dil ve Edebiyat Enstit

  18. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  19. EMSĀL Ü NESĀYİH-İ TÜRKÌ VE SÖZ VARLIĞI ÜZERİNE THE EMSĀL Ü NESĀYİH-İ TÜRKÌ AND ITS VOCABULARY

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    Talip DOĞAN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The proverbs that connected to lots of fields such as history,folklore, sociology, psychology, philosophy and morality are veryimportant language characteristics in terms of expression beauty,eloquence and conceptual richness. The proverbs which usually consistof one sentence with a brief language have the power of expressing thewide range of meanings. When said in the right time, these sayings give power to the thought and we can see that they are made use of the music of language. All kinds of events about the life with every aspects and colorfulness are present in proverbs, the products of oral literature. So we can see the religious, moral, understanding, common values, mental state, imagination and intelligence glitters of Turkish nation. Also it is seen that sayings in the proverbs have become stereotyped with the blend of national language and thought in the process of history.Emåāl ü Neṣāyiḥ-i Türkì was written by Mìrzā ‘Elineḳì Merāġì in Meraga city of Iran Azerbaijan in 1910. In the Emåāl ü Neṣāyiḥ-i Türkì, there are proverbs ordered according to letters lined up of Arab Alphabet. In this manuscript it is important that the proverbs were written by saving the dialect characteristics.In this study, vocabulary of proverbs in the Emåāl ü Neṣāyiḥ-i Türkì have been examined. Thus, some words in the work have been compared with historical and modern Turkish dialects. Tarih, folklor, sosyoloji, psikoloji, felsefe, ahlak gibi birçok alanıilgilendiren atasözleri; deyiş güzelliği, anlatım gücü ve kavram zenginliğibakımından çok önemli dil unsularındandır. Kısa ve özlü bir dil ilegenellikle tek cümleden oluşan atasözleri, çok geniş manaları ifade etmekudretine sahiptir. Yerinde söylendiği zaman düşünceye kuvvet katanbu sözlerde, dilin bütün inceliklerinden ve musikisinden istifade edildiğigörülür. Sözlü edebiyat ürünlerinin başında gelen atasözlerinde hayatadair

  20. An analysis of Socio-economic and physical aspects of Slum areas in Ahar city

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    N. Zali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionOver the last few decades, urban marginalization has been a major challenge in the metropolitan and large cities. After various experiences of forcible contact, what is recommended by international organizations is an empowerment approach which focuses on the empowerment of squatters instead of financial support. In this study, Ahar squatters were identified and investigated in 4 neighborhoods. Using Cochran formula, 320 samples were chosen randomly and their economic, social, physical and spatial characteristics of neighborhoods were collected by questionnaires and then analyzed by SPSS software. Besides, using SWOT approach and identifying problems, strategies of Empowerment in different dimensions was presented. Results showed that Shileboran and Nirugah neighborhoods have more problems regarding socio-economic and physical status, whereas Chalabverdi neighborhood has better situation than other neighborhoods. Ownership issue, poor housing conditions, access problems and poor sewage system were serious problems for residents of these neighborhoods. 2- Theoretical basesIn the second decades of 1980s, empowerment strategies along with improvement in informal habitat settings are recommended to overlook the poor economic condition of families and also the inability to use the collective power. Therefore, a great leap was created in modern approach which is based on the improvement of local communities and macro policies. The entity of the empowerment approach is based on the reduction of poverty and in human-oriented sustainable development it is based on the citizen participation.3– DiscussionThe problem of informal settlements in Ahar city because of its geographical location as a city in northeast of Azerbaijan province and its situation in the middle of bundles of small and big villages has been accelerated to the extent that solving the problem has been a real challenge. Investigation of the situation of