WorldWideScience

Sample records for azerbaijan

  1. Spotlight: Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    As of mid-1998, Azerbaijan had a population of 7.7 million people residing in a land area of 33,436 square miles. There were 17 births and 6 deaths per 1000 population, as well as 19 infant deaths for every 1000 live births, and a population growing in size at 1.1% annually. The average woman had 2.1 births during her reproductive lifetime and life expectancy was 67 years for men and 74 years for women. Azerbaijan is an oil-producing country, although the agricultural sector is responsible for 25% of gross domestic product and employs 31% of the work force. Despite its oil wealth and strong agricultural and mining sectors, Azerbaijan is struggling to improve its environmental conditions and support a large refugee population. The country's air, water, and soil are severely polluted. Air pollution stems from petrochemical plants, refineries, exhaust fumes, and the burning of untreated garbage; water pollution is the result of oil spills, leaky pipelines and tanks, runoff of fertilizers and pesticides, and improperly treated sewage; and land pollution is due to inadequate waste management. The high incidence of waterborne diseases, including cholera, in Azerbaijan is caused by the inadequate treatment of drinking water and sewage intrusion into leaky distribution pipes. Although over 90% of infants under age 1 year are immunized against diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, polio, and measles, babies in Azerbaijan are 3 times as likely to die before reaching age 1 year than are babies in the US. Azerbaijani children are 5 times more likely to die by age 5 than are US children. Living conditions are especially difficult for the 12% of the overall population which are refugees.

  2. Colloquium on Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The main topics on this conference day were: - the power rise of Azerbaijan: encouraging economic indicators, creation of the oil fund supplied by part of the petroleum profits, rationalization of the governmental structure, privatization of numerous companies; - the action of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) in Azerbaijan: transition towards a market economy, investment in various sectors (petroleum, small and medium-size companies, agriculture..); - present day situation of Azerbaijan: economy, foreign investments, role of France; - status of the TRACECA program 10 years after (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia): investment, development of road, maritime and rail transport; - the oil and gas context in Azerbaijan: Caspian area, exploration and production, pipeline projects; - French experience of companies working in Azerbaijan; - reality of business in Azerbaijan; - geo-strategy of Azerbaijan. (J.S.)

  3. Kenaf and bioremediation in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists, businesses, and the Azerbaijan government are bringing together two ancient natural resources, petroleum and kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), to create a balance between economic growth and environmental reclamation. Oil and kenaf have been used for over 2000 years. Although oil continu...

  4. Azerbaijan's Medieval Clothes and Jewelry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yegana Aghamaliyeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 16thcentury high level of culture and art has positively influenced the development of clothing in Azerbaijan. In the 17thcentury in spite of paleness of manufactured fabric and its ornaments, clothing style completely reminds 16thcentury clothes. 18thcentury clothes distinguish with its high level of form and composition. In that period clothes were decorated by sewing. Traditional clothing set was completed by jewelries considered for neck, chest, arm and waist. In the second half of the 19th century, replacing of national clothes primarily happened in the capital city, and further spread in the other territories of Azerbaijan. Traditional clothing completely lost out at the beginning of the 20thcentury due to its unsustainability to compete with mass-produced clothes. Currently, when fashion designers prepare modern costumes they refer to the rich elements of our ancient clothing and apply them to their collections. Thus, they add historical national spirit to their clothing collections.

  5. Measuring International Migration in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Yüksel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available International migration significantly affects economic, social, cultural, and political factors of the country. Owing to this situation, it can be said that the reasons of international migration should be analyzed in order to control this problem. The purpose of this study is to determine the influencing factors of international migration in Azerbaijan. In this scope, annual data of 11 explanatory variables for the period of 1995–2015 was analyzed via Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS method. According to the results of this analysis, it was identified that people prefer to move other countries in case of high unemployment rates. In addition, the results of the study show that population growth and high mortality rate increases the migration level. While considering these results, it was recommended that Azerbaijan should focus on these aspects to control international migration problem.

  6. The oil tax regime of Azerbaijan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Gerard

    1998-07-01

    Azerbaijan has a long history in the oil business and a chance of a spectacular future. To understand why the oil tax regime evolved into its present form and how it is likely to develop, it is necessary to know something of the country's history and the commercial environment. Consequently the presentation begins by discussing these items. It then outlines the Production Sharing Agreement regime in Azerbaijan and then deals with the Kazakh and Georgian Tax Codes, as these are likely to be the basis of a new general tax law in Azerbaijan from 1999. The presentation includes comments on the New Draft Tax Code of 1998.

  7. Archaeological Excavations on the BTC Pipeline, Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Michael Taylor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The archaeology and history of the Republic of Azerbaijan is not widely known in comparison with that of its neighbours. A recent summary of work in the Caucasus (Smith and Rubinson 2003 contained no specific references to results from Azerbaijan, although the studies were directly comparable and overlapped in period and geography. The reasons for this are many, perhaps the most influential is the presentation of material from Azerbaijan being confused with southern Azerbaijan in Iran in the wider academic audience and the use of the Cyrillic alphabet for reports written in the Azeri language over the past century. The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC and South Caucasus Pipelines (SCP were constructed through Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey during the period 2003-5. BTC was built first from the Caspian Coast to the Georgian border during 2003 and 2004, while the SCP pipeline was built from the Georgian border towards the Caspian and parallel to the BTC in 2005. To investigate and mitigate the effects of this construction, a four year archaeological fieldwork programme (2001-2005 was carried out, followed by a further six-year post-excavation programme that ended in early 2011. This article draws on this extensive archaeological project that combines both the broad corpus of material known in Azerbaijan and new techniques introduced in the Republic for the first time and used on a range of sites that are of both national and international significance.

  8. Russian-Turkish rapprochement and Azerbaijan''s independence (1919-1921)

    OpenAIRE

    Gafarov, Vasif

    2010-01-01

    The author has taken as his subject the relations between Soviet Russia and Turkey in 1919-1921 and their impact on the political situation in Azerbaijan, which announced its independence on 28 May, 1918.

  9. Freedom of expression in Azerbaijan under test : challenges and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Madatli, Leyla

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the ground-breaking judgment in Fatullayev v Azerbaijan in which the European Court ordered the immediate release of imprisoned journalist Eynulla Fatullayev, but who at the time of going to press nevertheless remained in custody. Fatullayev was the founder and chief editor of two newspapers in Azerbaijan well known for their harsh criticism of the Azerbaijani Government. This judgment is of great importance for Azerbaijan as it addresses topical issues under Art.10 ECH...

  10. TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY OF AZERBAIJAN

    OpenAIRE

    Musayeva, Naila; Silinevica, Irena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore tourism development impact on the economy of Azerbaijan. International tourism as a source of both direct and indirect incomes of the state encourages the development of different sectors not specific to the tourism infrastructure, but through the multiplier effect. In this context, the authors analyze the impact of tourism on employment in Azerbaijan and calculate the indirect impact of tourism on the economy of Azerbaijan due to the multiplier effect. ...

  11. Radiation protection system in Azerbaijan Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyev, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Azerbaijan is not nuclear State. He hasn't neither NPS, and nuclear-fuel manufacturing industry. The radioactivity condition there till some time have been formed mainly with natural factors and this have came to light some particularities. So, the sandy localities of coastal zone, of Apsheron peninsula, have smaller background radioactivity, than the clayey lots. In backwoods of green massifs are registered smaller radioactivity, than lots without plants cover and e.t.c. In last, especially 25-30 years, situation in this field have get worse visible. This have own causes: unremitting pollution of small rivers, which flow into rivers Kur and Araz with toxic and nuclear wastes and with wastes, formed in consequence exploitation of Metsamor NPS (Armenian) for the space of all extend through territories of neighboring States (Georgia, Armenian, Iran) acquires sharp negative ecology character. There are facts about burring of hard wastes of Metsamor NPS on the occupied from Armenian Azerbaijan's territories. Objects, which brought or can bring to change for the worse of radiation situation around territory of Azerbaijan Republic: Armenian NPS; Rostov NPS; Atomic freshening plant, (Actau, Kazakhstan); Chernobyl NPS; Nuclear objects on the territories of Iran and Iraq; Nuclear tests in middle and eastern Asia. Besides that, accumulated in Azerbaijan much quantity of radioactivity sources there are in institutions, enterprises and in military units. Out of loss their nominal characteristic, they are not applicable, but create the threat for health and life of population. In military units there are much radioactive sources, which have been left from Soviet Army subunits. Enterprises and organizations on the oil-extraction are essential sources of radioactivity wastes in our republic. The outbreak on Earths surface of layer waters, including radium, thorium, radium, uranium, iod and other radionuclides, is increased sharp. Such layer waters are accumulated on

  12. Private TV and Radio Broadcasting in Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    Vefalı ENSEROV

    2013-01-01

    The change of mass media and its innovation like the other areas were inevitable in post-soviet countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In this means, media area of Azerbaijan began to privatization process after independence and since mid 1990`s private radio and television channels began to broadcast in the country one by one that uni-centrally, officially and ideologically was directed by Moscow before. Progress which is related to privatization process of broadcasting in Azerbai...

  13. Colloquium on Azerbaijan; Colloque sur l'Azerbaidjan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The main topics on this conference day were: - the power rise of Azerbaijan: encouraging economic indicators, creation of the oil fund supplied by part of the petroleum profits, rationalization of the governmental structure, privatization of numerous companies; - the action of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) in Azerbaijan: transition towards a market economy, investment in various sectors (petroleum, small and medium-size companies, agriculture..); - present day situation of Azerbaijan: economy, foreign investments, role of France; - status of the TRACECA program 10 years after (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia): investment, development of road, maritime and rail transport; - the oil and gas context in Azerbaijan: Caspian area, exploration and production, pipeline projects; - French experience of companies working in Azerbaijan; - reality of business in Azerbaijan; - geo-strategy of Azerbaijan. (J.S.)

  14. An Analysis of Youth Employment in Azerbaijan Success of Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariz AHMADOV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our project statement includes youth unemployment, underemployment as well as the attitude of young people to the labor market. Youth unemployment is a global problem. In Azerbaijan, it is becoming more challenging not only because of the lack of jobs, but also the lack of technical skills such as CV and cover letter writing, job interviewing and so on. This paper offers a first comprehensive study of the relationship between labor market policies and youth employment in Azerbaijan. The second aim of this paper to learn the performance of young leaders, and leadership in Azerbaijan. Article has emerged as a result of project and primary, secondary data.

  15. Mapping organizational linkages in the agricultural innovation system of Azerbaijan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temel, T.

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the evolving context and organisational linkages in the agricultural innovation system of Azerbaijan and suggests ways to promote effective organisational ties for the development, distribution and use of new or improved information and knowledge related to agriculture.

  16. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panahi, Behrouz M.

    2006-01-01

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries

  17. AN ASSESSMENT ON BILATERAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS TURKEY & AZERBAIJAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study shortly deals with bilateral political and economic relations between Turkey and Azerbaijan, of which relations have acquired unique and irreplaceable dimension beyond brotherhood thanks to their common history, culture, religion and language. Within this frame the topic of article, there has been researched in depth as follows: short history of political and diplomatic relations between Azerbaijan and Turkey, bilateral foreign trade of the two states, energy cooperation of Azerbaijan and Turkey, cooperation of Azerbaijan and Turkey in transportation, investment and tourism as well. The topic of article is a current issue. On one hand, the world demands are increasing day by day and on the other hand, the world is shrinking due to fast developing technology and innovations. Considering such, that world we can apperceive the importance of two fields which sometimes interact with each other: energy and transportation. Within this frame, the joint projects of Turkey and Azerbaijan in these fields that will end in the future time have characteristics of creating a big reaction around the world. On this basis, the main aim of study was to reveal the intensive cooperation areas of Turkey and Azerbaijan, their bilateral foreign trade and to find out the problems underlying their bilateral economic relations despite those countries have pretty closed relations. The methodology of research. Literature research, historical method and comparison method have been used for this study.

  18. Management of Oil Revenues: Has That of Azerbaijan Been Prudent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvar Gurbanov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To help explain the common failure of oil or other natural resource exporting countries to diversify into industry, it has been common to trace this failure to real exchange rate appreciation. This has also been done in Azerbaijan. However, because Azerbaijan has devoted so much of its oil revenues to government investment, Azerbaijan provides a suitable case for examining an alternative link through government investment. This study applies the ARDL cointegration method to quarterly time series data on oil prices, government capital formation, non-oil exports and non-oil GDP to estimate the long run relationships linking oil prices to government investment expenditures and further to generation of non-oil GDP. The results show that despite the massive government investment expenditures, extremely little non-oil production of the tradable type has been generated, calling attention to the need for policy reform.

  19. Modeling and Forecasting Electricity Demand in Azerbaijan Using Cointegration Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri J. Hasanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Policymakers in developing and transitional economies require sound models to: (i understand the drivers of rapidly growing energy consumption and (ii produce forecasts of future energy demand. This paper attempts to model electricity demand in Azerbaijan and provide future forecast scenarios—as far as we are aware this is the first such attempt for Azerbaijan using a comprehensive modelling framework. Electricity consumption increased and decreased considerably in Azerbaijan from 1995 to 2013 (the period used for the empirical analysis—it increased on average by about 4% per annum from 1995 to 2006 but decreased by about 4½% per annum from 2006 to 2010 and increased thereafter. It is therefore vital that Azerbaijani planners and policymakers understand what drives electricity demand and be able to forecast how it will grow in order to plan for future power production. However, modeling electricity demand for such a country has many challenges. Azerbaijan is rich in energy resources, consequently GDP is heavily influenced by oil prices; hence, real non-oil GDP is employed as the activity driver in this research (unlike almost all previous aggregate energy demand studies. Moreover, electricity prices are administered rather than market driven. Therefore, different cointegration and error correction techniques are employed to estimate a number of per capita electricity demand models for Azerbaijan, which are used to produce forecast scenarios for up to 2025. The resulting estimated models (in terms of coefficients, etc. and forecasts of electricity demand for Azerbaijan in 2025 prove to be very similar; with the Business as Usual forecast ranging from about of 19½ to 21 TWh.

  20. Hyperspectral remote sensing and mud volcanism in Azerbaijan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, K.H.

    2005-01-01

    The fact that Azerbaijan mud volcanoes are closely associated with oil and gas makes their study and identification of the physical and chemical properties of insitu mud volcano surfaces important. Although the composition of in-situ mud volcano surfaces can be highly variable, it usually

  1. An overview of women's work and employment in Azerbaijan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, M.; Tijdens, K.; Hughie-Williams, M.; Ramos Martin, N.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides information on Azerbaijan on behalf of the implementation of the DECISIONS FOR LIFE project in that country. The DECISIONS FOR LIFE project aims to raise awareness amongst young female workers about their employment opportunities and career possibilities, family building and the

  2. FINANCIAL MARKET OF AZERBAIJAN: CURRENT CONDITION AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Guliyev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the economic model of Azerbaijan. Main components of the financial market are being analyzed: state budget, state oil fund, banking system, foreign debt and etc. This article assesses the impact of the global financial crisis on the national economy. Moreover, future development perspectives of the financial market and the economy are being examined as well.

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxocariasis in Children in East- Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagoob Garedaghi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ascarid of dogs and cats, the main representative of which is a Toxocara canis. Distribution of the disease is world wide and is more prevalent in children. The present study was carried out in children of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran, to determine the toxocariasis seropositivity. Material and Methods: For the present seroepidemiological study, blood samples were collected at random from children of all the five districts of the East Azerbaijan Province. A total of 336 children, 187 males and 149 females in age group of 0-15 years were selected for the present study. ELISA was used for detection of IgG antibodies against Toxocara excretory secretary antigen. A questionnaire interview was conducted to obtain the data concerning their age, sex and habits. The particular points in the questionnaire asked were recorded on the format right on the spot. Results: Gender was found to be a significant risk factor for the Toxocara infection in children population. Male children were found more infected (41.71% as compared to females (24.16%. The total seroprevalence of T. canis antibodies in children of East Azerbaijan Province was 29.46 %. The risk factors that were found associated with the infection of toxocariasis in children population of East Azerbaijan Province include family back ground, status of living conditions, awareness, etc. Conclusion: The present study reveals high prevalence of T. canis infection in children of East Azerbaijan Province. It is important to raise the awareness of health professionals, public and educators to the fact that toxocariasis is a public health problem. Health promotion by means of a school based educational approach, diagnosis and continuous programme of treatment are necessary. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 581-586

  4. [The aspects of pricing policy in Azerbaijan pharmaceutical sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhalilova, K I; Alieva, K Ia

    2012-01-01

    The effect of macro-, middle- and microeconomic factors on price formation in Azerbaijan pharmaceutical market has been studied. Worldwide pharmaceutical leaders have the goals to become leader on the pharmaceutical market of Azerbaijan and maximize their market share. Non-leaders pharmaceutical companies use different strategies of price formation: prime cost plus markup, or price formation on the base of current prices. It was revealed that domestic pharmaceutical market has high demand elasticity. Future market development is related to stimulation of product development, and hard penetration to the market through realization of price formation strategy. Non-state pharmaceutical organizations to achieve the purpose of survive in conditions of high competition should take in to account the factor perceptions of assortment by customers.

  5. Azerbaijan, Central Asia, and Future Persian Gulf Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    ian and Central Asia . Russia will retain its interests because of its size, population , and potential military power and will not ignore Azerbaijan’s...See The New York Times, May 19, 1992. - 11- KYRGYZSTAN Population and Nationalities Kyrgyzatan, located in the heart of Central Asia , has one of the...Central Asian states. TURKMENISTAN Population and Nationalities Turkmenistan’s population is one of the fastest growing in Central Asia . According to the

  6. The formation of nuclear export control in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The controlling process of exporting and importing on Azerbaijan borders is being carried out by two state organizations. 1.Border Guard Department; 2.Azerbaijan State Customs Committee. The officers of these organizations have no enough necessary experience and knowledge dealing with the legal and illegal trafficking. There were not special educational institutions in order to train personals for both of these organizations made newly. So there's difference between the professions of the majority of the employees, that's why some of the employees follow the instructions linking to the normative documents while passing the border. When trafficking nuclear and dual-use items officially the controller and other employees should look through the list of all and know them how to behave and to make official, the characteristic parameters of the materials, and the instruction of monitoring. In order to realize all works pointed, the employees of Border Guard Department and Customs Control Check Points have to attend special courses. The employees of both organizations are frequently changed that's why studying courses are to be organized. The analysis of studying considered that will be realized shows mainly there may be two student groups. Mainly, the Institute of Radiation Problems of ANAS (Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences) as the expert laboratory takes part in. On the borders of Azerbaijan Republic the dual-use items and equipment having the type of isotope sources being utilized in the technological process are mainly being transported. In the materials presented the results and the solution of the problems dealing with realizing the controlling expert system of nuclear materials in the existing control checkpoints due to the international standards have been given

  7. Marketing prerequisites of rural Azerbaijan's traditional handicrafts through purchasing process

    OpenAIRE

    Viirelä, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out as a part of Development of Sustainable Tourism and Support of Local Handicrafts in the Rural Azerbaijan project. During research execution the capital city Baku and one of the target regions Sheki were visited. The objective of this study was to gather information about rural Azerbaijan’s traditional handicrafts, particularly Sheki’s traditions. As one of the main aims of the project is to create a tourism marketing strategy for the rural target regions in Azerbaij...

  8. About eco-ethical problems of Azerbaijan Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sh. Mammadov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the second half of the 20th century Ecological problems, that engulfed the world had an influence on our republic as well. Pollution of air and water basins and soils has reached for apogee, the process of degradation of winter and summer pastures has decreased, in some regions forests have been completely or partly destroyed. Consequences of fluctuation of sea level, problems related to ozone layer, global changes of climate being combined with other wide-scale processes have reached the extent at which they can not be neglected in Azerbaijan Republic. Where as global thinking and civilized relations between nations are being formed, international prestige of the state is starting to be estimated by its attitude to the nature and natural resources. Therefore at present time Azerbaijan Republic society pays incremental attention to its attitude towards environment, natural ecosystems, surface and underground minerals. In the article the approach aimed to solution of eco-ethical problems in Azerbaijan Republic has been used.

  9. Drug resistant tuberculosis in prisons in Azerbaijan: case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coninx, R; Pfyffer, G E; Mathieu, C; Savina, D; Debacker, M; Jafarov, F; Jabrailov, I; Ismailov, A; Mirzoev, F; de Haller, R; Portaels, F

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To document the existence of drug resistance in a tuberculosis treatment programme that adheres strictly to the DOTS principles (directly observed treatment, short course) and to determine the extent of drug resistance in a prison setting in one of the republics of the former Soviet Union. Design: Case study. Setting: Central Penitentiary Hospital in Baku, the referral centre for tuberculosis patients from all prisons in Azerbaijan. Subjects: Prisoners with tuberculosis: 28 selected patients not responding clinically or bacteriologically to the standard treatment (group 1) and 38 consecutive patients at admission to the programme (group 2). Main outcome measures: Drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains grown from sputum. Results: All the non-responding patients (group 1) had strains resistant to at least one drug. 25 (89%) of the non-responding patients and nine (24%) of the consecutive patients had M tuberculosis strains resistant to both rifampicin and isoniazid. A further 17 patients in group 2 had strains resistant to one or more first line drugs. Conclusions: Drug resistant M tuberculosis strains are common in prisons in Azerbaijan. Tuberculosis problems tend to be worse in prisons, but prisoners and former prisoners may have an important role in the transmission of tuberculosis, particularly of drug resistant forms, in the community. National programmes to control tuberculosis will have to take into account and address the problems in prisons to ensure their success. Key messages Tuberculosis is an important problem in prisons in Azerbaijan Multidrug resistant tuberculosis was common and an important cause of non-response to standard treatment National tuberculosis control programmes must include prisons and take account of drug resistance Unless WHO recommended treatment protocols are followed the problem of multidrug resistant tuberculosis may result in untreatable tuberculosis which will spread to the general community PMID

  10. Creativity of Ashugs: An Investigation on Ashug Culture in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galyautdinova Gulshat Ilshatovna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ashug art forming one of the fundamental, private branches of Azerbaijan folklore is the actual problem of modern folklore-study investigating ashug sphere, schools and artisans. Ashug is the event of folk activity existing in ancient times with different names. In the structure of this tradition the important historical layers of the folk culture as the ancient cult, belief, art find its reflection. Shirvan is one of the ancient culture centers which has its own historical evolution and development stages. Shirvan had historical relations with the developed cultural states of the ancient world and was acquainted with main achievements of East and West culture. Azerbaijan ashug poem of the 19th century was significant with the important event. The performance style of woman masters appeared in ashug activity. For the first time this tradition showed itself in Shirvan, then it spread in other ashug spheres. The woman ashugs in Shirvan had different characters than other ashugs. They were the masters displaying interest to the folk poem, knowing the classic style, creating gazal and gasidas in Aruz meter (classical poetic meter in oriental poetry and writing some poems in such style. Shirvan sphere and Shirvan ashug activity saving the richest examples of Azerbaijan culture and folklore, at the same time different ashug masters of Shirvan region haven’t been the system subject of the investigation. We can meet the thoughts and considerations about Shirvan folklore sphere and the life of different ashugs in the limited works. But in the new period the place and the role of ashug in the ashug culture and folklore tradition haven’t been cleared up.

  11. Investigation of the Dashigil mud volcano (Azerbaijan) using beryllium-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.J., E-mail: kjkim@kigam.re.kr [Korea Geological Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Baskaran, M.; Jweda, J. [Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Feyzullayev, A.A.; Aliyev, C. [Geology Institute of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS), Baku, AZ 1143 (Azerbaijan); Matsuzaki, H. [MALT, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Jull, A.J.T. [NSF Arizona AMS Lab, University of Arizona, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    We collected and analyzed five sediments from three mud volcano (MV) vents and six suspended and bottom sediment samples from the adjoining river near the Dashgil mud volcano in Azerbaijan for {sup 10}Be. These three MV are found among the 190 onshore and >150 offshore MV in this region which correspond to the western flank of the South Caspian depression. These MVs overlie the faulted and petroleum-bearing anticlines. The {sup 10}Be concentrations and {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios are comparable to the values reported for mud volcanoes in Trinidad Island. It appears that the stable Be concentrations in Azerbaijan rivers are not perturbed by anthropogenic effects and are comparable to the much older sediments (mud volcano samples). The {sup 10}Be and {sup 9}Be concentrations in our river sediments are compared to the global data set and show that the {sup 10}Be values found for Kura River are among the lowest of any river for which data exist. We attribute this low {sup 10}Be concentration to the nature of surface minerals which are affected by the residual hydrocarbon compounds that occur commonly in the study area in particular and Azerbaijan at large. The concentrations of {sup 40}K and U-Th-series radionuclides ({sup 234}Th, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 228}Ra) indicate overall homogeneity of the mud volcano samples from the three different sites. Based on the {sup 10}Be concentrations of the mud volcano samples, the age of the mud sediments could be at least as old as 4 myr.

  12. Hotel industry in Azerbaijan: problems perspectives of entrepreneurship development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasanov Arzu Nadzhaf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the essence of the entrepreneurship activity and the characteristic features of a businessman. The definition of the entrepreneurship according to the Azerbaijan legislation is given. Then, the tourism, peculiarities and legislation base of business in tourism industry and hotel economy characterized, the main data of the activities of replacement enterprises in the country, the level of quality of hotel service and analyzed, the main problems are listed and the conclusion about the state of the business in the sphere of hotel industry is made.

  13. Structural segregation of petroleum and prospective hydrocarbon regions in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerimov, K.M.; Huseynov, A.N.; Hajiyev, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Structural segregation allows identify the earth crust blocks according to their geological setting and structural history conductive for hydrocarbon generation and their entrapment in the sedimentary fill reservoirs. Since then there has been a need to design a new tectonic map of petroleum and hydrocarbons potential systems in Azerbaijan embracing both on- and offshore areas. Map's legend designed upon above mentioned concepts and principles has made it possible to evaluate the role of individual stratigraphic units in hydrocarbon generation and its entrapment, as well as in recognition of regional structural criteria of the hydrocarbon bearing potential of different structural patterns. Tectonic map of petroleum and prospective hydrocarbon bearing on and offshore areas in Azerbaijan for the first time contained a wide range of information related to structural criteria of hydrocarbon bearing potential, sedimentary fill's structural architecture, its thickness, both timing of their formation stages and basement consolidation, its subsidence depth, as well as hydrocarbon deposit areal and vertical distribution across individual regions. This map was considered to be of important implication both for the petroleum geoscience and petroleum industry endeavors.

  14. FOREIGN ECONOMIC RELATIONS OF AZERBAIJAN IN THE CONTEXT OF REGIONAL INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Gennadevich Pylin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article are reviewed trade and investment relations in Azerbaijan for the period 2000-2014 years in the context of the problems of regional integration. Comprehensive analysis of foreign economic relations showed that Azerbaijan is trying to conduct a multi-vector and balanced foreign policy, taking into account the interests of the leading regional players (EU, Russia and Turkey, but without direct participation in integration projects. The most close trade and economic relations established between Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey, that indicates about formation of informal integration association as part of the trio.

  15. BP and sustainable development and biodiversity in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, Vidrine; Askerov, Faig

    2002-01-01

    Full text: BP takes its commitment to the environmental extremely seriously. BP believes it is essential to ensure that our operations and activities comply with the environmental standards in our PSAs and with the laws of Azerbaijan. To achieve this we have developed Environmental Operating Procedures. These procedures are currently being audited and we expect to receive ISO 14001 certification for all of our operations. Together with our Emergency Response and Oil Spill Response Plans we are able to manage our operations to ensure minimum impact and regulatory compliance. Additional, AIOC contributed to opening the Caspian Environmental Laboratory in 1999 to provide on a commercial basis, environmental services in Azerbaijan of an internationally recognized standard. We have conducted many other activities to promote biodiversity. In absence of the appropriate infrastructure we have built a waste management site at Serenja where we are currently disposing of synthetic based muds from our offshore drilling operations. We have also developed and implemented a Research and Monitoring Program in co-operation with representatives from SOCAR, Academy of Sciences, Azgipromorneftegaz and State Committee of Ecology. We have conducted Seals mortality investigation, Birds monitoring, Fish monitoring, Offshore surveys studying macrobenthos, water chemistry, sediments, groundwater monitoring, re-vegetation, etc. In developing our overall strategy BP has set some long term environmental aspirations or expectations: stop the use of halocarbons; to reduce Green House Gases by 10% by 20 lOin comparison with baseline data for 1990; stop venting and flaring; stop discharges to water of synthetic and oil based muds. BP recognizes that this is a goal. It is something we commit to and aspire to achieve and something we are wise enough to realize cannot be achieved overnight. None-the-less, it is something we constantly work towards. We also realize that this goal cannot be achieved in

  16. Assessment of Trade Policy in Terms of Export Diversification in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Shakir Imamverdiyeva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyze current status of of Azerbaijan export diversification and foreign trade policy in independent years (up from1991. The main focuse is on the tariffs and non-tariff measures of the Republic of Azerbaijan. We analyze foreign trade policy instruments of Azerbaijan one by one and compeare them with similar mechanisms of other countries. Our results show that that the foreign trade policy is very favorable for increasing foreign trade volume, and diversification of non-oil export in Azerbaijan. We find that Azerbaijan’s the maximum import tariffs level is 15%, and simple average is 9.4%. At the same time, until now Azerbaijani Government does not use most non-tariff barriers, including import quantity quotas, export subsidy, damping, anti-dumping etc.

  17. Investment in Azerbaijan's upstream requires attention to legal details

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, S.; Mamedov, N.

    1996-01-01

    When the 20th century began, Baku was a boom town without equal in the Russian empire. The city developed into a legendary cultural center, where some of the West's leading commercial geniuses made substantial investments. Baku also was a city of diverse peoples, with its Azerbaijani core supplemented by substantial communities of Armenians, Germans, Russians and Swedes, not to mention merchant communities of other central Asian and Middle Eastern peoples. The miracle that caused Baku to bloom, then as now, was the promise of oil. Baku is arguably the world's first important oil-producing city. As the 20th century draws to a close, Baku once more is on the verge of a transition that may restore its status as an important center for international investment and commerce. This article examines Azerbaijan's legal environment as it relates to the natural resources sector

  18. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Azerbaijan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2004-06-21

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy had maintained a web site that was meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consisted of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There were also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these was a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Azerbaijan.

  19. Fall of the İldenizids Atabeys of Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin KAYHAN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Atabey of Azerbaijan founded by Atabey Ildeniz was established from within the Iraqi Seljuk Sultanate and it could be considered as this sultanate’s successor. This state filled in the vacuum formed in Western Iran and Caucasia after the fall of the Seljuk Empire. Atabey Ö� zbek, the last ruler of this state, could not rule the country as successfully as his predecessors did. Alongside his own personal insufficiencies, the inner strife in the region that never ended also contributed greatly for Atabey Ö� zbek’s failure. Despite everything, he managed to keep his country undivided, but the new political situation brought by the Mongol invasion also affected his state as happened to the other states. Following Atabey Ö� zbek’s death in the year 1225, this period came to an end and the entire Middle East fell under Mongol rule.

  20. Impacts of climate change on runoffs in East Azerbaijan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarghami, Mahdi; Abdi, Amin; Babaeian, Iman; Hassanzadeh, Yousef; Kanani, Reza

    2011-08-01

    Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns have serious impacts on the quantity and quality of water supply, especially in arid regions. In recent years, frequent climatic droughts have threatened the water supply in East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. Because of the increasing demand for water, studying the potential climate change and its impacts on water resources is necessary. To predict the climate change based on the General Circulation Models (GCM), the successful downscaling tool of LARS-WG is applied. This stochastic weather generator downscaled the climate change of six synoptic stations in the province by using the HADCM3 model and three emission scenarios, A1B, A2 and B1, with the horizons 2020, 2055 and 2090. The research outcomes, based on the A2 scenario, show an average annual temperature rise of ~ 2.3 °C and an annual precipitation reduction of ~ 3% in the middle of this century. These changes shift the climate of the province from semi-arid to arid based on the De Martonne aridity index. Using the artificial neural network (ANN), a model was then built to simulate the effects of climate change on the runoffs in three watersheds; the results showed dramatic reductions in the flows. The results of this study could advise the designers and managers of this region to take suitable actions in securing the water supply.

  1. Fungal contamination of produced wheat flour in West Azerbaijan, northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Asadzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate fungal contamination of produced wheat flours in West Azarbaijan Province, located in the North West of Iran as wheat flour is one of the most important food and nutrient in the Iranians diet. Methods: This descriptive study was performed during March 2011 to April 2013 in flour mills of West Azerbaijan province. A total of 17 samples of produced wheat flour in Azerbaijan Province of Iran were tested for mold contamination based on Iran National Standard Method No. 2393. Results: Presence of molds in all collected 151 samples from flour factories of Azerbaijan Province were at the limit based on Iranian national standard. Conclusions: The obtained results showed that the process of flour production was hygienic quietly. Bread is staple ingredient of Iranian diet, and strict control on its processing of wheat flour, maintenance and distribution results nonpolluting or reduction of fungal contamination. Objective: To investigate fungal contamination of produced wheat flours in West Azarbaijan Province, located in the North West of Iran as wheat flour is one of the most important food and nutrient in the Iranians diet. Methods: This descriptive study was performed during March 2011 to April 2013 in flour mills of West Azerbaijan province. A total of 17 samples of produced wheat flour in Azerbaijan Province of Iran were tested for mold contamination based on Iran National Standard Method No. 2393. Results: Presence of molds in all collected 151 samples from flour factories of Azerbaijan Province were at the limit based on Iranian national standard. Conclusions: The obtained results showed that the process of flour production was hygienic quietly. Bread is staple ingredient of Iranian diet, and strict control on its processing of wheat flour, maintenance and distribution results nonpolluting or reduction of fungal contamination.

  2. Problems Encountered during the Transition to Market Economy in Azerbaijan and Solution Attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elchin SULEYMANOV

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After re-gaining its independence on 18 October 1991, the Republic of Azerbaijan started the transformation to the market-based economy and the integration into the world economy. The country’s oil and natural gas reserves have been considered the main source for financing a range of government programs for reforms. On the one hand, these reserves had to be used effectively; on the other hand, there was a huge demand for foreign investment for extraction. To this end, Azerbaijan has signed “Contract of the Century” in 1994. Although Azerbaijan has wide oil and natural gas reserves, it has faced a number of difficulties in its transition path. This study analyzes these problems and reforms for solving them. One of the types of the problems related to the economic structure of the former Soviet Union: disruption of the economic ties between the republics resulted in a decline of production, high levels of unemployment and prices and consequently led to an economic recession in all of the republics. Another set of problems related to the lack of sufficient institutional bases to transform to the market economy. Moreover, internal conflicts between the political parties and groups for having authority as well as political chaos in the republic can be considered other serious problems during the transition period. Furthermore, Karabakh war and occupation of 20 percent of the Azerbaijani territory by the Armenian military forces had made the situation extremely complicated. Despite all of these extremes, Azerbaijan transformed to the market-based economy decidedly and even became one of the fast growing countries of the world. Even in 2013, with the GDP growth rate of 5.6 percent, Azerbaijan was a leader among growing economies. In parallel with this significant economic development, there is still a need for some socio-economic and institutional reforms in order to get a well-functioning market-based economy in Azerbaijan.

  3. Acute Flaccid Paralysis Epidemic Research in East Azerbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FrouzVarshochiani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Current levels of AFP care system have created the possibility to demonstrate the significant decrease in pathogenesis of poliomyelitis. To ensure the success of polio eradication, intensification of AFP care system in a way that it can confirm the lack of polio virus outbreak in areas that have no reports of confirmed cases of this disease, seemed to be essential. This research aimed to represent some features of disease symptoms and final diagnosis of the reported cases and investigate the age, gender, time and geographical zone and the incidence of acute flaccid paralysis cases in the province within 2008-2011.     Material and Methods : Data for the cases of AFP were collected from all cities in the province from 20/3/2008- 19/3/2013 and were analyzed using descriptive methods (census method. Results: Discovery and reporting 95% of acute flaccid paralysis cases up to 7 days from the occurrence of paralysis, preparing two qualitative samples from 98% acute flaccid paralysis up to 14 days from the occurrence of paralysis, tracking and evaluating 100% of acute flaccid paralysis after 60 days of disease occurrence, on-time sending/receiving 98% of the samples to national laboratory, show the capabilities of provincial care system.   Conclusion : Despite the excellent care of acute flaccid paralysis in the East Azerbaijan, it seems that the role of health care facilities and rural and urban health centers and private clinics in identification and reporting of acute flaccid paralysis is non-significant since only 5% of the cases were reported at local levels.

  4. Education and the Crisis of Social Cohesion in Azerbaijan and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta; Johnson, Mark S.; Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the role of education in the maintenance of social cohesion and the formation of new identities amid the economic decline and political volatility of six new nations: Azerbaijan, in the southern Caucasus, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan in Central Asia. The authors first…

  5. Azerbaijan Technical University’s Experience in Teaching Linear Electrical Circuit Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Mamedov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An experience in teaching linear electrical circuit theory at the Azerbaijan Technical University is presented in the paper. The paper describes structure of the Linear Electrical Circuit Theory course worked out by the authors that contains a section on electrical calculation of track circuits, information on electro-magnetic compatibility and typical tests for better understanding of the studied subject.

  6. A checklist of the flora of Shanjan protected area, East Azerbaijan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The flora of protected Shanjan rangeland in Shabestar district, Azerbaijan Province, NW Iran was studied using a 1 m x 1 m quadrate in spring and summer 2011. The climate of this area is cold and dry. In this area 94 plant species belonging to 25 families were identified as constituting the major part of the vegetation.

  7. Kenaf and bioremediation in Azerbaijan: Planting locations, plant populations, and varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists, businesses, and the Azerbaijan government are bringing together two ancient natural resources, petroleum and kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), to create a balance between economic growth and environmental reclamation. Oil and kenaf have been used for over 3000 years. Although oil continu...

  8. Macroeconomic Analysis and Graphical Interpretation of Azerbaijan Economy in 1991-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatai ALIYEV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze macroeconomic performance and discuss transition indicators in Azerbaijan economy for 1991-2012. After regaining independence in 1991, Azerbaijan implemented economic transition process toward market economy. In the first years of independence, serious economic recession was observed. However, after 1995, the restructuring of the economy started. In this sense, signing the “Contract of the Century” was a turning point toward oil based high speed economic growth or oil boom period. Thus, by opening “Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan” pipeline in 2005, Azerbaijan’s macroeconomic indicators experienced considerable growth for the following years. On the other hand, Azerbaijan officially declared the end of economic transition process in its economy in 2009. In this paper, the authors discuss the political-economic and economic process in the whole period as well as analyze the macroeconomic performance with and without oil & gas contribution. In addition, the authors question what would happen if economic transition period ended in Azerbaijan’s economy. It is concluded that oil & gas production has a serious impact over macroeconomic indicators and transition indicators, and for Azerbaijan it implies only a partly end of economic transition, though not completely.

  9. The issue of energy security in relations between the European Union and Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Shabelnikova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on cooperation between the European Union and the Republic of Azerbaijan on energy issues. The author analyzes the EU initiatives and projects for the Black Sea and Caspian Sea region as well as the questions of delivery diversification of the Azerbaijani gas to the European markets.

  10. Geolocation Support for Water Supply and Sewerage Projects in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qocamanov, M. H.; Gurbanov, Ch. Z.

    2016-10-01

    Drinking water supply and sewerage system designing and reconstruction projects are being extensively conducted in Azerbaijan Republic. During implementation of such projects, collecting large amount of information about the area and detailed investigations are crucial. Joint use of the aerospace monitoring and GIS play an essential role for the studies of the impact of environmental factors, development of the analytical information systems and others, while achieving the reliable performance of the existing and designed major water supply pipelines, as well as construction and exploitation of the technical installations. With our participation the GIS has been created in "Azersu" OJSC that includes systematic database of the drinking water supply and sewerage system, and rain water networks to carry out necessary geo information analysis. GIScreated based on "Microstation" platform and aerospace data. Should be mentioned that, in the country, specifically in large cities (i.e. Baku, Ganja, Sumqait, etc.,) drinking water supply pipelines cross regions with different physico-geographical conditions, geo-morphological compositions and seismotectonics.Mains water supply lines in many accidents occur during the operation, it also creates problems with drinking water consumers. In some cases the damage is caused by large-scale accidents. Long-term experience gives reason to say that the elimination of the consequences of accidents is a major cost. Therefore, to avoid such events and to prevent their exploitation and geodetic monitoring system to improve the rules on key issues. Therefore, constant control of the plan-height positioning, geodetic measurements for the detailed examination of the dynamics, repetition of the geodetic measurements for certain time intervals, or in other words regular monitoring is very important. During geodetic monitoring using the GIS has special significance. Given that, collecting geodetic monitoring measurements of the main pipelines

  11. Remote monitoring of the environment on boundary of the Azerbaijan Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashayev, A.M.; Bayramov, A.A.; Mehdiev, A.Sh.

    2002-01-01

    The project of the automated remote monitoring for a level of an environment background radiation in settlements along boundary of the Azerbaijan Republic, and also along eastern suburbs occupied Azerbaijan Republic regions by Armenia's army is developed. The main purpose of the project is: Increase of a level of a radiation safety on territory of the Azerbaijan Republic; Controlling of a level of an environment background radiation on boundary of the Azerbaijan Republic with the purpose of well-timed warning and acceptance of indispensable measures at probable emergencies on Atomic Power Stations in a number adjacent from Azerbaijan countries, or other ecological catastrophes; Controlling of a level of an environment background radiation along eastern suburbs of Azerbaijan regions occupied of Armenia's army and detection of the facts of wrongful disposals of atomic engineering of Armenia on territory of Azerbaijan. As is known, in a number adjacent from Azerbaijan countries the nuclear industry is advanced or develops. It has resulted in origin of threat of a radiation hazard in case of ecological catastrophes: widely scale leakage of radioactive wastes, explosions, or fires on nuclear generating sets, acts of sabotage, directional against Azerbaijan. In this case, at unfavorable meteorological conditions a radioactive waste may be brought by a wind or a rain on territory of Azerbaijan. For example, the atomic power station constructs intensively in Islamic Republic Iran (IRI). It is necessary to estimate an initial background radiation along southern boundaries of Azerbaijan, that to determine probable changes in an ecology of southern boundaries during regular maintenance of atomic power station. Other example. In the Armenian Republic the atomic power station acts, which one is the padding center of a heightened radiation hazard in the Caucasian region. It is stipulated by several reasons: territory of Armenian Republic is heightened seismic activity, therefore

  12. The features of the use of GIS technologies for monitoring of the situation of main water lines in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Gojamanov

    2014-11-01

    a comprehensive attract the materials of the aerospace sensing and GIS technologies. In this paper describe the work experience and are the results of monitoring of pipelines of water supply in Azerbaijan.

  13. In-Depth Review of the Investment Climate and Market Structure in the Energy Sector. Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Azerbaijan is located at the crossroads of the Middle East, Europe and Asia. It is a republic with a presidential form of government. Azerbaijan was admitted to the Council of Europe in 1991, and is an observer in the WTO since 1997. The country is rich in oil and gas resources, which offer great potential for its future development. Azerbaijan's macroeconomic performance in recent years has been robust. GDP grew at a rate of approximately ten per cent per year, and inflation has been held below two per cent. Extraction and processing of oil and gas-related activities account for more than 30 per cent of GDP, and may increase further in the future. The Azerbaijani currency, the manat, is stable. The consolidated government budget recorded a surplus of 1.5 per cent of GDP in 2001. The external debt ratio continues to be moderate at about 22% of GDP in 2001. Azerbaijan fulfils the conditions of Article VIII of the IMF's Articles of Agreement. Azerbaijan welcomes foreign investment. It has attracted significant amounts of FDI in recent years (total FDI stocks currently stand at USD 3.8 billion), of which more than 65 per cent have flown into the oil and gas sector. Further investments in the range of USD 10 billion are expected in the coming years, mainly in connection with the development of newly discovered oil and gas fields. The Azeri government accords high priority to liberalisation, private sector development and the establishment of a market economy. A number of important steps have been taken in recent years in this direction. In 2001, a new State Oil Fund was set up, to serve as an instrument for economic stability and future economic development. Reform programs aiming at poverty reduction and economic growth were launched under the auspices of the IMF and the World Bank. A new Privatisation Law was adopted in May 2000. The restructuring of the gas sector is under preparation. First steps to privatise the electricity sector have been undertaken. In order to

  14. DISTRIBUTION OF ANOPLOSEFALYATS (FAUNA, TAXONOMY AND BIOLOGY) IN DOMESTIC RUMINANTS ANIMALS OF AZERBAIJAN AND THEIR ECOLOGICAL-GEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    G. D. Ismailov

    2012-01-01

    Anoplotsefalyats (Moniezia expansa, M. benedeni, M.autumnalia, Avitellina centripunctata, Thyzaniezia giardi) are common in farm ruminants of Azerbaijan. There are no strict zoning in their distribution and no specificity for the hosts. It was established that in Azerbaijan there are 27 species of oribatid mites that are involved in the life cycle of monieziozis out of which 20 species recorded to be new to our fauna, as their intermediate hosts. Infection of the final (sheep, goats, cattle, ...

  15. CAUSALITY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GDP AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN GEORGIA, AZERBAIJAN AND ARMENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Kalyoncu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia during the period of 1995–2009. The Engle-Granger cointegration and Granger causality tests are used in order to analyse the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. It is crucial to see the directions of causality between two variables for the policy makers. For Georgia and Azerbaijan it is found that these two variables are not cointegrated. In case of Armenia these two variables are cointegrated. Accordingly, causality analysis is conducted for Armenia. The research outcomes reveal that there is unidirectional causality from per capita GDP to per capita energy consumption for Armenia.

  16. Monitoring microbial quality of commercial dairy products in West Azerbaijan province, northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Teymori

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the extent of microbial contamination such as coliform, Escherichia coli, positive coagulase Staphylococcus aureus, molds and yeast in cheese, buttermilk, yogurt, and milk in West Azerbaijan province. Methods: Between March and November 2012, 93 samples of cheese, buttermilk, milk, and yogurt were collected from factories of West Azerbaijan province, northwest of Iran. The samples were tested by standard numbers 5486, 5234, 6806, and 10154 for monitoring their microbial quality. Results: The results of this study revealed that 33% of cheese samples were unauthorized. Also, 22% of buttermilk, 23% samples of yogurt, and 15% of milk samples were unauthorized. Other examples of microbial aspects were normal. Conclusions: It is necessary to determine the critical control points inorganizing factories and automated control systems in order to eliminate or minimize the threat of pollution. Microbial quality of the present products was excellent. Meanwhile, training and familiarizing manufacturers of dairy products are very important in terms of health standards.

  17. Study and identification of dominant Rodents of orchards and farms in West Azerbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khalilaria

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available 34 individuals (24♂♂10♀♀ were collected from apple orchards, alfalfa fields of Urmia, Salmas, Khoy, Makoo, Miyandoab, Shahindej and Tekab of West Azerbaijan. Different methods as live traps, snap traps and hand were used to collect samples. Morphology, skull and karyotype of live specimens were used for identification of species. Some samples got taxidermy as Museum samples. All samples were belonged to Microtus. Among 53 world species, two species M. arvalis and M. socialis are hazardous in orchards and alfalfa fields of West Azerbaijan province. Two species of Microtus were collected from Salmas and Tekab. Those were new records for this region that are in the process of identification. Ellobius and Mus musculus is the other damaging genera in the orchards and the fields near the mountains and fields.

  18. Modeling of Electricity Demand for Azerbaijan: Time-Varying Coefficient Cointegration Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyhun I. Mikayilov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature has shown that electricity demand elasticities may not be constant over time and this has investigated using time-varying estimation methods. As accurate modeling of electricity demand is very important in Azerbaijan, which is a transitional country facing significant change in its economic outlook, we analyze whether the response of electricity demand to income and price is varying over time in this economy. We employed the Time-Varying Coefficient cointegration approach, a cutting-edge time-varying estimation method. We find evidence that income elasticity demonstrates sizeable variation for the period of investigation ranging from 0.48% to 0.56%. The study has some useful policy implications related to the income and price aspects of the electricity consumption in Azerbaijan.

  19. WP 92 - An overview of women's work and employment in Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    Maarten Klaveren; Kea Tijdens; Melanie Hughie Williams; Nuria Ramos Martin

    2010-01-01

    This report provides information on Azerbaijan on behalf of the implementation of the DECISIONS FOR LIFE project in that country. The DECISIONS FOR LIFE project aims to raise awareness amongst young female workers about their employment opportunities and career possibilities, family building and the work-family balance. This report is part of the Inventories, to be made by the University of Amsterdam, for all 14 countries involved. It focuses on a gender analysis of work and employment. _Hist...

  20. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    Deterioration of Freedom of Expression Ahead of Elections, Reporters Without Borders, September 15, 2010. 56 EIU , Georgia Country Report, June 4, 2009...status of human rights and democratization in the countries ; the ongoing Armenia-Azerbaijan conflict over the breakaway Nagorno Karabakh region; and...could benefit U.S. relations with other Islamic countries . They also point to the prompt support offered to the United States by the regional states

  1. CONSERVATIVE OR AGGRESSIVE: WHICH STRATEGY IS BETTER FOR MEDICAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN EAST AZERBAIJAN, IRAN.

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil Momeni, Ali Janati*, Ali Imani, Rahim Khodayari-Zarnaq, Morteza Arab-Zozani

    2017-01-01

    Medical tourism is a new phenomenon in the health care industry. Most countries, especially developing countries are trying to increase their share in the world market with long-term planning. The aim of this study was to determine the strategic position and identified the main strategies for medical tourism industry in the view of main stakeholders of East Azerbaijan Province of Iran. This study was conducted with Multi Design Method in 2016. Sampling method was purposeful. The data have bee...

  2. Analysis of Poplar process value chain in Western Azerbaijan province aims to upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    omid hosein zadeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the size and importance of poplar culturing and its role in the West Azerbaijan province economy, evaluation of the poplar value chain is necessary. With drawing up a comprehensive value chain and identify the lacks, setting the value chain in the province were studied. Finally, due to lacks of the value chain, value chain strategy for development was identified using ANP. The results of the calculation of location quotient in the West Azerbaijan province showed that the LQ is equal to 0.65852. Due to its lower LQ than one, it can be concluded that the poplar costumers in Western Azerbaijan province are less than the country average. The results of the prioritization of criteria affecting poplar value chain development in West Azerbaijan province indicated the most important criterion is the access to wooden raw materials weighing 0.16. After that the stable supply of raw materials, machinery and equipment, manpower, proximity to local markets, expertise and financial resources are with weights, 0.132, 0.123, 0.116, 0.105, 0.102 and 0.07 respectively. The weights of the other criteria have a little importance in the development of the poplar value chain. Final results of alternatives prioritization showed, the maximum weight is related to particleboard with the 0.295. The following options are OSB, MDF and HDF which have a weight of 0.185 and 0.178 respectively. After the composite wood products is turn of chemical products, namely cellulose, pulp and paper weights 0.112, 0.1 and 0.066 respectively.

  3. MEDICAL SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND HIGHER EDUCATION IN AZERBAIJAN FROM BIOETHICAL DEVELOPMENTS PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    VUGAR, MAMMADOV; KERIM, MUNIR; LALA, JAFAROVA

    2017-01-01

    Azerbaijan is a modern, rapidly developing democratic country at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. The country is currently harmonizing its national legislation with international norms, and reforming its national scientific and medical. Higher standards of medical research and education will enhance public health and protect human rights to life and health that are specified in Azerbaijan Constitution. In order to raise its medical research and education to international standards, Azerbaijani scientists and authorities are studying the experience of other countries and taking measures to implement international standards and norms in the country’s national legislation. Cooperation with the WHO, UNESCO and other international and foreign organizations, both on regional and global level is creating steps to achieve this goal. These steps include, for example, creation of the Azerbaijan unit of the UNESCO Chair in Bioethics and teaching bioethics based on UNESCO’s Bioethics Core Curriculum. Another step is providing research fellowship for young Azerbaijani professionals to study at leading medical research and educational centers around the world including Harvard Medical School and Boston Children’s Hospital in the USA, and Koc University in Turkey. A complementary step is the development of local bioethical research, including its legal, ethical and scientific foundations. Adherence to ethical principles in different spheres of life is currently one of the most challenging social and professional issues, especially, this is true with the development of new medical technologies in recent decades and the development of new ethical and legal standards, issues involving different areas of health and medicine and their relation to human rights. Bioethics in Azerbaijan is developing as an important field that deals with universal moral principles within the context of both national laws and the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. PMID

  4. Development trends in the Azerbaijan oil and gas sector: Achievements and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarreta, Aitor; Nasirov, Shahriyar

    2012-01-01

    This article is study of Azerbaijan oil and gas industry. It illustrates the business climate, the impact of this sector on Azerbaijan's economy including role of SOFAZ and highlights recent developments in the energy production and the main concepts of . Meanwhile, the article establishes the government policy by indentifying several factors that influenced to attract foreign investment to oil and gas sector and examines significant challenges that still remain for further development of the country's oil industry. - Highlights: ► In this study, we review the oil and gas sector in Azerbaijan and describe the main government policies for attracting foreign investment to the sector. ► We showed that providing a predictable legislative and regulatory framework and attractive conditions for oil contracting encourages foreign investment inflows to the country. ► Issues such as the lack of independent regulatory institutions, rehabilitation of oil refineries and resolution of the legal status of the Caspian Sea remain major challenges for further development of the oil and gas industries.

  5. Fauna and Larval Habitats of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae of West Azerbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran.

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    Farahnaz Khoshdel-Nezamiha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several important diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes. Despite of the potential of the occurrence of some mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile, dirofilariasis and malaria in the region, there is no recent study of mosquitoes in West Azerbaijan Province. The aim of this investigation was to study the fauna, composition and distribution of mosquitoes and the characteristics of their larval habitats in this province.Larvae and adult collections were carried out from different habitats using the standard methods in twenty five localities of seven counties across West Azerbaijan Province.Overall, 1569 mosquitoes including 1336 larvae and 233 adults were collected from 25 localities. The details of geographical properties were recorded. Five genera along with 12 species were collected and identified including: Anopheles claviger, An. maculipennis s.l., An. superpictus, Culex pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. modestus, Cx. hortensis, Cx. mimeticus, Culiseta Longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caspius s.l., Oc. geniculatus and Uranotaenia unguiculata. This is the first record of Oc. geniculatus in the province.Due to the geographical location of the West Azerbaijan Province, it comprises different climatic condition which provides suitable environment for the establishment of various species of mosquitoes. The solidarity geographical, cultural and territorial exchanges complicate the situation of the province and its vectors as a threat for future and probable epidemics of mosquito-borne diseases.

  6. The Role of Islam in Preventing Domestic Violence towards Muslim Women in Azerbaijan

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    Nazila Isgandarova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a qualitative research study that addresses the problem of domestic violence perpetrated on pregnant women in Azerbaijani society to discover whether pregnant Muslim women in Azerbaijan who are subjected to domestic violence find the role of Islam helpful in tackling the violence against them. Although this study is descriptive in its nature and the findings from the data are limited to the research participants only, a dire need exists for further study in this area to identify and eliminate the risk factors pregnant women face in Azerbaijan. The results suggest that domestic violence against pregnant women is significantly reduced during pregnancy. However, some cultural and religious factors play a significant role in reducing or increasing the incidence of violence against pregnant women. For example, the Azerbaijani government recently adopted several measures to tackle violence against women. Nevertheless, applying progressive Islamic teachings can increase the moral and spiritual values of these social, educational, and legal initiatives in tackling domestic violence against pregnant women in Azerbaijan.

  7. Settlement of Turkic Tribes in Azerbaijan and the Reflection of This Process in the Country’s Toponymy

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    Ramil E. Agaev

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying the problems related to the process of the Azerbaijanian people formation requires a comprehensive analysis of mutual relations of the Turkic tribes – the Huns, the Sabirs and the Khazars – with the local population of Azerbaijan in the early Middle Ages. The article is devoted to the process of penetration of the Huns, the Sabirs and the Khazars to Azerbaijan, their role in the formation of the Azerbaijanian people and the reflection of this process in the country’s toponymy. In the early Middle Ages the process of penetration of Turkic tribes in Azerbaijan from the north, through the Derbent passage, intensified. Primary sources indicate that over the centuries the Huns (3rd – 4th centuries, the Sabirs (5th – 6th centuries and the Khazars (7th – 8th centuries made continuous attacks on Azerbaijan and neighboring countries from the north. Upon the arrival of the Turkic tribes in Azerbaijan from the north in the 3rd – 4th centuries, the Turkic language in the country was extensively spread. Just since then the ethnotoponyms “Hun”, “Suvar” and “Khazar” became consolidated in the toponymy of Azerbaijan. Revealing the meaning of toponyms, ethnonyms, town names, hydronyms, introduced in language use in the 3rd – 8th centuries and associated with the aforementioned tribes, has exceptional value for recreating the ethnic view of Azerbaijan of the studied epoch. They let us come to the conclusion that the Huns, the Sabirs and the Khazars were important ethnic elements in the process of ethnogenesis of the Azerbaijanian people.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence by type and severity: population-based studies in Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2013-08-01

    The article estimates the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) by type and severity in population-based samples from three countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). The article utilized nationally representative data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in Azerbaijan (2006), Moldova (2005), and Ukraine (2007). Respondents were selected using stratified multistage cluster sampling. The sample included ever-married (or cohabitating) females of reproductive age (15-49 years old); weighted sample n = 3,847 in Azerbaijan, n = 4,321 in Moldova, and n = 2,355 in Ukraine. The analysis used multinomial survey logistic regression adjusting for the sampling design and sampling weights. Ten percent of ever-partnered women in Azerbaijan and Ukraine and 20% in Moldova ever experienced physical IPV (without sexual) from their most recent husband or cohabitating partner; 3% of women in Azerbaijan and Ukraine and 5% in Moldova experienced sexual IPV (with or without physical), and 2% of women in Azerbaijan, 3% in Ukraine, and 6% in Moldova experienced violence resulting in severe physical injuries from their most recent partner. In all three countries physical, sexual, and injurious IPV was higher among formerly married women. Compared to women with above secondary education, women with secondary education or below demonstrated higher risk for physical IPV (in Moldova and Ukraine), sexual IPV in Moldova, and injurious IPV in all three countries. Poor socioeconomic status-as indicated by low household wealth status in Azerbaijan and partner's unemployment in Moldova and Ukraine-was significantly associated with higher risk for physical and injurious IPV. In Moldova and Ukraine partners' low level of education was associated with higher risk for sexual IPV. The article demonstrates that experiences and factors associated with IPV are diverse and context specific. The findings may be helpful in targeting interventions to

  9. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL - AS A MEANS TO CONTROL INSECT PESTS IN AZERBAIJAN

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    Z. M. Mamedov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundreds and twenty species parasites and predators of pests of various agricultures are revealed in Azerbaijan. The complex of entomophages of certain pests of agricultures is studied: 48 species of parasites and predators of Chloridea obsoleta 21 species of entomophages of Pectinophora malvella Hb., over 160 species of entomophages of pests of ozehards and vegetables, 34 species of entomophages of pests of forests. The hundreds species of entomophages and some entomophogenous microbes and antagonists are revealed. Biology and ecology of over 60 species of entomophages and useful microorganisims which are prospective as biological control agents are studied.

  10. One-dimensional velocity model of the Middle Kura Depresion from local earthquakes data of Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetirmishli, G. C.; Kazimova, S. E.; Kazimov, I. E.

    2011-09-01

    We present the method for determining the velocity model of the Earth's crust and the parameters of earthquakes in the Middle Kura Depression from the data of network telemetry in Azerbaijan. Application of this method allowed us to recalculate the main parameters of the hypocenters of the earthquake, to compute the corrections to the arrival times of P and S waves at the observation station, and to significantly improve the accuracy in determining the coordinates of the earthquakes. The model was constructed using the VELEST program, which calculates one-dimensional minimal velocity models from the travel times of seismic waves.

  11. DISTRIBUTION OF ANOPLOSEFALYATS (FAUNA, TAXONOMY AND BIOLOGY IN DOMESTIC RUMINANTS ANIMALS OF AZERBAIJAN AND THEIR ECOLOGICAL-GEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

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    G. D. Ismailov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anoplotsefalyats (Moniezia expansa, M. benedeni, M.autumnalia, Avitellina centripunctata, Thyzaniezia giardi are common in farm ruminants of Azerbaijan. There are no strict zoning in their distribution and no specificity for the hosts. It was established that in Azerbaijan there are 27 species of oribatid mites that are involved in the life cycle of monieziozis out of which 20 species recorded to be new to our fauna, as their intermediate hosts. Infection of the final (sheep, goats, cattle, buffalo and intermediate hosts (oribatid mites happens all the year round. Maximum infection occurs in early spring and late autumn.

  12. Settlement of Turkic Tribes in Azerbaijan and the Reflection of This Process in the Country’s Toponymy

    OpenAIRE

    Ramil E. Agaev

    2017-01-01

    Studying the problems related to the process of the Azerbaijanian people formation requires a comprehensive analysis of mutual relations of the Turkic tribes – the Huns, the Sabirs and the Khazars – with the local population of Azerbaijan in the early Middle Ages. The article is devoted to the process of penetration of the Huns, the Sabirs and the Khazars to Azerbaijan, their role in the formation of the Azerbaijanian people and the reflection of this process in the country’s toponymy. In...

  13. Epidemiological Survey of Multiple Sclerosis in East-Azerbaijan Province, Iran, 2014

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    Behzad Yousefi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction and background: MS as a chronic CNS disease is very prevalent in all around the world. Its epidemiology is different region by region and most of geographical and environmental factors may play a role in its incidence. To analyze demographic characteristics of the disease we designed this study. Methods and Materials: This Survey has been conducted in East-Azerbaijan province, North-West of Iran. Prevalence of the disease has been measured using data of Committee for diagnosis and Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis in 2014. Age, gender and type of the disease also been investigated in this research. Independent T Test, Chi square, Pearson and Fisher exact test used to analyze data. Results: We had 2774 MS patients in 2014. 726 were male (26% and 2003 were female (73%. Mean age of males was 38±9 and mean age of females was 37.09±9. Mean age in male patients was more than in females significantly (P=0.001. We measured 73.26 prevalence per 100000 populations in East-Azerbaijan. Conclusion: Prevalence of the disease showed significant increase in 5 years compared to previous studies. Because of disease's disabilatating entity more interventional investigations are recommended to perform in preventing disease incidence or improving quality of life of sufferers and increasing their life expectancy.

  14. Challenges of Hospital Response to the Twin Earthquakes of August 21, 2012, in East Azerbaijan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouraghaei, Mahboub; Jannati, Ali; Moharamzadeh, Peyman; Ghaffarzad, Amir; Far, Moharram Heshmati; Babaie, Javad

    2017-08-01

    As the cornerstone of any health system, hospitals have a crucial role in response to disasters. Because hospital experiences in disaster response can be instructive, this study examined the challenges of hospital response to the twin earthquakes of 2012 in East Azerbaijan, Iran. In this qualitative study, the challenges of hospital response in the East Azerbaijan earthquakes were examined through focus group discussions. Participants were selected purposefully, and focus group discussions continued until data saturation. The data were manually analyzed by using Strauss and Corbin's recommended method. Hospitals were faced with 6 major challenges: lack of preparedness, lack of coordination, logistic deficiencies, patient/injured management, communication management, and other smaller challenges that were categorized in the "other challenges" category. The main theme was the lack of preparedness for disasters. Although hospital preparedness is emphasized in credible references, this study showed that lack of preparedness is a major challenge for hospitals during disasters. Thus, it seems that hospital officials' disaster risk perception and hospital preparedness should be improved. In addition, hospital preparedness assessment indexes should be included in the hospital accreditation process. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:422-430).

  15. Geological features and petroleum potential of the Oguz block , South Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramiz, Safarov; Unal, Bayram; David, Poole

    2002-01-01

    Full text : ExxonMobil has a significant presence in the Azeri sector of the Caspian Sea. The Oguz PSA was the first contract signed between Mobil and SOCAR and it is the first exploration prospect drilled by an ExxonMobil affiliate in Azerbaijan. The Oguz Block lies between the giant Neft Dashlary and Guneshli oil fields. The location of the Block along the Apsheron Ridge, adjacent to these large fileds indicates that the prospect lies within an active hydrocarbon system. The Pliocene deposits in the South Caspian Basin are extremely thick (up to 6000 m). Productive series at Neft Dashlary and Guneshli fields are composed of fluvial sediments. In Azerbaijan more than 90 percent of the hydrocarbons discovered are contained in the Productive series. The Neft Dashlary East Structure, within the Oguz Block, is interpreted as a faulted nose on the Eastern flank of the Neft Dashlary field structure. Updip trap closure would be provided by intersection of two faults. Based on evaluation of 152 wellsand 432 km of seismic data at and around of Neft Dashlary, it is clear that faults play a crucial role in trapping hydrocarbons, compartmentalising the reservoir and controlling the distribution of oil at the Neft Dashlary Filed. These faults commonly have sall displacement, and their individual capacity to seal is difficult to predict. The largest risk to the Neft Dashlary East prospect is definition and presence of trap and fault seal

  16. Molecular Characterization of Pathogenic Acanthamoeba Isolated from Drinking and Recreational water in East Azerbaijan, Northwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behniafar, Hamed; Niyyati, Maryam; Lasjerdi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoeba- related infections, such as amoebic keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, can develop in high-risk population through contaminated water sources. Thus, surveying water resources, particularly those available for human use, is of the utmost importance. In the present study, 67 water samples were collected from water resources in East Azerbaijan, a province in northwestern Iran. Samples were cultured on enriched non-nutrient agar plates, and sequencing-based approaches were used for genotyping. The pathogenic potential of the isolates was determined using thermo- and osmo-tolerance tests. Acanthamoeba were detected in 17 (25.4%) of the 67 collected samples. Sequencing analysis revealed that the isolates belonged to the T3 (23.52%), mixed T3/T4 (5.88%), T4 (58.82%), T5 (5.88%), and T13 (5.88%) genotypes. Through thermo- and osmo-tolerance tests, 88.23% of isolates were resistant to 37 °C, 40 °C temperature, and 0.5 M and 1 M osmolarity; thus, these isolates had the potential for pathogenicity. These findings point toa serious public health concern in the studied region. This study is the first to report Acanthamoeba isolated from drinking and recreational water sources in East Azerbaijan and Acanthamoeba T13 isolated from tap water in Iran.

  17. The effect of the rise of petroleum in Azerbaijan: diagnosis and policies

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    Aurèlia Mañé Estrada

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Azerbaijan must face up to a double challenge: to go from being a centrally planned economy to being a market economy and managing productively the significant hydrocarbon resources found in the Caspian Sea. Some International Monetary Fund experts feel that the most plausible hypothesis regarding the Azeri economy’s futureis that it will behave in a way similar to the OPEC countries. Specifically, they argue that Azerbaijan may suffer a contraction of manufacturing production as a result of the boom in the hydrocarbons sector –the so-called “Dutch syndrome”– and that the phenomenonmay be aggravated by a undervaluation of the currency typical of economies in transition. This study sets out to determine whether this diagnosis is accurate and whether the series of political economics measures they propose for remedying the situation is appropriate for putting the country on the path of balanced growth. In both cases the answer is no, given that it appears unlikely that in the short term Dutch syndrome effects will be generated in this economy and that the most probable result of the policies proposedwould be the creation of a petroleum enclave which, in the context of globalization, would encourage a new “petro-dollarization” of international financial markets.

  18. Geochemical study of young basalts in East Azerbaijan (Northwest of Iran

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    Nasir Amel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The young basalts in East Azerbaijan are placed in West Alborz – Azerbaijan zone. Volcanic activities have extended from the Pliocene to the Quaternary by eruption from fracture systems and faults. Rocks under study are olivine-basalt and trachybasalts. The main minerals are olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase set in glassy or microcrystalline matrix and olivine are present as phenocryst. The textures in the studied rocks are mainly hyaloporphyric, hyalomicrolitic and porphyritic. Trace elements and rare earth elements on spider diagrams have high LREE/HREE ratio. Rare earth elements on diagram display negative slope indicating alkaline nature for the basalts under study. As it may be observed, on tectonic diagrams, the Marand basalts are placed on Island Arc basalt (IAB field, whereas the Ahar, Heris, Kalaibar and Miyaneh basalts are classified as Ocean Island Basalts (OIB and finally the basalts of Sohrol area are plotted on continental rift Basalt (CRB field. The Marand and Sohrol basalts were likely originated from lithospheric - astenospheric mantle with 2 to 5 % partial melting whereas, the Ahar, Heris and Kalaibar basalts having same source experienced 1-2% partial melting rate and the Miyaneh basalts possibly produced from lithospheric mantle with 10-20% partial melting rate pointing to shallow depth of mantle and the higher rate of melting. Based on tectonic setting diagrams, all the rocks studied are plotted in post collisional environments.

  19. Methodology and estimation of the welfare impact of energy reforms on households in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klytchnikova, Irina

    This dissertation develops a new approach that enables policy-makers to analyze welfare gains from improvements in the quality of infrastructure services in developing countries where data are limited and supply is subject to interruptions. An application of the proposed model in the former Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan demonstrates how this approach can be used in welfare assessment of energy sector reforms. The planned reforms in Azerbaijan include a set of measures that will result in a significant improvement in supply reliability, accompanied by a significant increase in the prices of energy services so that they reach the cost recovery level. Currently, households in rural areas receive electricity and gas for only a few hours a day because of a severe deterioration of the energy infrastructure following the collapse of the Soviet Union. The reforms that have recently been initiated will have far-reaching poverty and distributional consequences for the country as they result in an improvement in supply reliability and an increase in energy prices. The new model of intermittent supply developed in this dissertation is based on the household production function approach and draws on previous research in the energy reliability literature. Since modern energy sources (network gas and electricity) in Azerbaijan are cleaner and cheaper than the traditional fuels (fuel wood, etc.), households choose modern fuels whenever they are available. During outages, they rely on traditional fuels. Theoretical welfare measures are derived from a system of fuel demands that takes into account the intermittent availability of energy sources. The model is estimated with the data from the Azerbaijan Household Energy Survey, implemented by the World Bank in December 2003/January 2004. This survey includes an innovative contingent behavior module in which the respondents were asked about their energy consumption patterns in specified reform scenarios. Estimation results strongly

  20. Spread of carbapenem-resistant international clones of Acinetobacter baumannii in Turkey and Azerbaijan: a collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, S.S.; Alp, E.; Ulu-Kilic, A.; Dinc, G.; Aktas, Z.; Ada, B.; Bagirova, F.; Baran, I.; Ersoy, Y.; Esen, S.; Guven, T.G.; Hopman, J.; Hosoglu, S.; Koksal, F.; Parlak, E.; Yalcin, A.N.; Yilmaz, G.; Voss, A.; Melchers, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemic clones of Acinetobacter baumannii, described as European clones I, II, and III, are associated with hospital epidemics throughout the world. We aimed to determine the molecular characteristics and genetic diversity between European clones I, II, and III from Turkey and Azerbaijan. In this

  1. Implementation of pasture leasing rights for mobile pastoralists – a case study on institutional change during post-socialist reforms in Azerbaijan

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    Regina Neudert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Our study focuses on pasture reform in Azerbaijan within the context of transition and pasture reform in Central Asian and Caucasian countries. Despite the rapid emergence of individualised rights for pasture plots, which is an exceptional development in this region, pasture reform in Azerbaijan has received little attention in the scientific literature. Using evidence from an empirical case study we analyse the implementation and outcomes of the reform process for pastoral land in the context of the macroeconomic development in Azerbaijan and in comparison to pasture reforms in other post-socialist transition countries. We apply the evolutionary theory of property rights to explain and analyse the exceptionally rapid emergence of individual property rights to pasture in Azerbaijan.

  2. A checklist of the flora of Shanjan protected area, East Azerbaijan Province, NW Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibalani, Ghassem Habibi; Taheri, Elnaz

    2013-01-01

    The flora of protected Shanjan rangeland in Shabestar district, Azerbaijan Province, NW Iran was studied using a 1 m × 1 m quadrate in spring and summer 2011. The climate of this area is cold and dry. In this area 94 plant species belonging to 25 families were identified as constituting the major part of the vegetation. The families in the area are Amaryllidaceae, Boraginaceae, Campanulaceae, Caryophllaceae, Cistaceae, Compositea, Cruciferae, Cyperaceae, Dipesaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Geraniaceae, Hypericaceae, Linaceae, Melvaceae, Orobachaceae, Papaveraceae, Paronychiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Polygolaceae, Ranunculaceae, Resedaceae, Rubiaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae and Valerianacea. Floristic composition is Irano-Turanian elements. Detailed analysis showed that Biennial plants were 3.19%, Annual 41.49% and Perennial 55.32%.

  3. Information and Communication Technologies in Azerbaijan and Importance of Their Use

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    Zeynalova K.Z

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of the development of information and communication technologies in the Republic of Azerbaijan. In recent years, great advancement in development and improvement of the ICThas been gained in the country, including adoption and implementation of the related state documents, creation of competition in the market of communication technologies as well as mobile operators,spatial enlargement of use of internet through the country’s territory, launch of the national telecommunication satellite, and othernumerous events and significant processes.The progress in establishment of informational environment found its reflection in the higher position of Azerbaijanamong world’s countriesfor the definite indexes.The factors and needed terms responsible for further acceleration of improvement of ICT are shown in the paper.

  4. Coprologic survey on ruminant's fasciolosis in east Azerbaijan province during 2014-2015

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    A Imani Baran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a zoonotic disease of humans and animals causing health problems and great economic losses in different parts of the world including Iran. Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica are well-known agents for fasciolosis. Due to health and economic implications of this disease and the lack of field studies on fasciolosis in living ruminants of East Azerbaijan, the current study was carried out to determine fasciolosis status in living ruminants from different regions of East Azerbaijan province based on coprologic method for the first time. For this purpose, a total of 2012 fecal samples (1782 from sheep and 230 from cattle were collected and examined under light microscope. The microscopic findings showed that of all the samples, 62 (3.48% from sheep and 10 (4.35% from cattle were infected with Fasciola spp. eggs. A total of 72 (3.58% fecal samples were infected by fasciola eggs. Geographically, the highest percentage of infection in cattle and sheep were observed in the northern regions of province with 6.14% and 5.21% respectively. In terms of age the infection rates in cattle under and over 2 years were 3.81% (4.105 and 4/8% (6.125 respectively whereas those for sheep were 4.38% (41.937 and 2.49% (21.845. The results indicated presence of fasciolosis amongst ruminants of the province necessitating further studies to detect the unknown aspects of disease and regular antiparasitic treatments for its prevention.

  5. 23 May 2016 - Signature of a MoU between the National Nuclear Research Center, Republic of Azerbaijan, and the ALICE Collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    From left to right: Head of the Nuclear Physics Department, National Nuclear Research Center A. Rustamov; Chairman, National Nuclear Research Center A. Garibov; Deputy Minister for Communication and High Technology of the Republic of Azerbaijan E. Velizadeh; CERN Director for Research and Computing E. Elsen; ALICE Collaboration Spokesperson P. Giubellino. Are also attending: Permanent Representative of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva Ambassador V. Sadiqov and Director for International Relations C. Warakaulle.

  6. The teaching and learning of English grammar in Azerbaijan at the university level. An analysis and appraisal of teachers' and students' views, and teaching materials

    OpenAIRE

    Mammadova, Tamilla

    2017-01-01

    The current research project aims to fulfill some general and specific objectives. According to the general objectives, my intention is to assess how the teaching of grammar is currently conducted in Azerbaijan. As regards the more specific objectives, I will provide an overview of the main approaches to the teaching of grammar, including activities used for presentation, practice and production. Thus, in Chapter 1 I will describe the general education system in Azerbaijan including Obligator...

  7. Effectiveness of Agricultural Advisory Services Given to Wheat Farmers through Wheat Farm Monitor Specialists in West Azerbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rasouli azar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of agricultural advisory services given to wheat farmers through "monitor specialists" of wheat based on farmer's knowledge، skills and attitude toward service given by the specialists to the farmers. The research instrument was structural questionnaire with close-ended questions، where their validity and reliability were confirmed. The target population of this study consisted of all wheat farmers who participated in wheat plan in West Azerbaijan province (N=6293. According to Krejcie and Morgan research's table، a number of 362 people were selected by using statistical sampling in a stratified and cluster randomization methods. Finally 326 questionnaires were filled out and analyzed (n=326. The results of correlation tests and multivariate regression showed that delivered agricultural advisory services delivered to wheat farmers of West Azerbaijan province through wheat monitor specialists to wheat the farmers were effective.

  8. The Affordances of Social Networking Sites for Relational Maintenance in a Distrustful Society: The Case of Azerbaijan

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    Katy E. Pearce

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Internet and social media afford opportunities for relational maintenance, but most scholarship has focused on relational maintenance in high-trust environments. This study explores relational maintenance online and offline in a distrustful society. In distrustful societies, trust is situated within one’s particularized kin network, and friendships have strategic significance and are characterized by norms of reciprocity. In distrustful societies, relational maintenance behaviors are different from trustful societies and take on greater significance. This preliminary study, based on informant interviews in Azerbaijan, examines both offline relational maintenance and the affordances of social networking sites (SNSs for relational maintenance in such an environment. SNSs do provide for some relational maintenance behaviors through supplementing offline behaviors at a low cost and give some additional benefits like status display, yet SNSs do not replace traditional relational maintenance behaviors in Azerbaijan.

  9. The role of scientific institutions in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials in the republic of Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabulov, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Although the Republic of Azerbaijan itself has no nuclear installations or materials and its nuclear activities are limited to typical uses in oil industry, medicine, agriculture and scientific researches, most of the countries. Thus this strategic geographical location within the Caucasus makes it a possible transit corridor for both legal and illicit trafficking of nuclear material and equipment. The improvement of control system for the detection, categorization and response measures to the cases involving radioactive and nuclear materials has mainly possible via international cooperation programmes. The Azerbaijan Government and the IAEA entered into an international cooperation where the first phase (2003-2004) established automated stationary radiation control systems at the Astara automobile cargo border checkpoint and the Bara seaport cargo customs checkpoint. Strengthening non-proliferation regime and counteraction against the nuclear and radiation terrorism threat is a global purpose. This approach could be considered for all countries involving in non-proliferation activities

  10. Characteristic of extract derived from purification of morpholine formate distillate M-8 from Azerbaijan petroleum by ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamedov, R.B.; Samedova, F.I.; Ibragimova, M.D.; Gasanova, R.Z.; Nagiyev, V.A.

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of extract derived from purification of M-8 oil distillate from Azerbaijan petroleum by ionic liquid - complex amine of morpholine and formic acid is given in this paper. It is shown that in contrast to extract derived from purification of M-8 distillate by furfural this one does not contain methane-naphthenic hydrocarbons and consists of 65 percent of aromatic hydrocarbons having different parameters. Extract can be used as a component of bitumen or aromatic oil

  11. PARASITES AND PREDATORS OF THE MAIN PEST OF STONE-FRUIT CROPS IN THE SHEKI-ZAKATALY ZONE OF AZERBAIJAN

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    Z. M. Mamedov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches made by us have shown that 31 species of vermin and 13 species of predators play significant role in regulation of the quantity of 11 most harmful insects which inhabit in fruit tree gardens of Sheki-Zakatala region of Azerbaijan. In general 44 species of entomophages which are related to the order of hymenopterans, neuropteras, coleopteras and dipteras. Their host significance in regulation of the quantity of hosts was identified.

  12. EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMES OF BRITISH ORGANIZATIONS IN AZERBAIJAN AS AN ELEMENT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM FOREIGN LANGUAGE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Y. Niyazova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the United Kingdom language policy on the territory of Azerbaijan after the Soviet Union collapse, which is a bright example of the world political map redrawing. Taking into account the fact that the language is an important tool of the extending one’s influence over the country, we can say with certainty that the success of the specific state laying a claim to play the leading role in on the global political arena strongly depends on its ability to promote its language abroad, to enhance its status and to create such conditions where in the foreign country its language conquers the status close to the status of the native language. In this regard, the United Kingdom activity can serve as an example of a successful foreign language state policy.The authors analyze the activity of such organizations as the British Council, the BBC and BP on spreading the English language. The aforesaid British organizations are the master plate of the efficient language state policy tools, as long as they not only actively develop the global picture of the world, but also promote the interests of the United Kingdom on the territory of the former Soviet Union.Azerbaijan encourages the United Kingdom intention to spread the English language on its territory and does its best in assisting in the implementation of the proposed initiatives, realizing that the spread of the English language being the language of a global communication in Azerbaijan would contribute to the raising of Azerbaijan status on the world arena.

  13. Implementation and evaluation of a training program as part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April eJohnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A training program for animal and human health professionals has been implemented in Azerbaijan through a joint agreement between the United States Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the Government of Azerbaijan. The training program is administered as part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program, and targets key employees in Azerbaijan’s disease surveillance system including physicians, veterinarians, epidemiologists, and laboratory personnel. Training is aimed at improving detection, diagnosis, and response to especially dangerous pathogens, although the techniques and methodologies can be applied to other pathogens and diseases of concern. Biosafety and biosecurity training is provided to all trainees within the program. Prior to 2014, a variety of international agencies and organizations provided training, which resulted in gaps related to lack of coordination of training materials and content. In 2014 a new training program was implemented in order to address those gaps. This paper provides an overview of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program training program in Azerbaijan, a description of how the program fits into existing national training infrastructure, and an evaluation of the new program’s effectiveness to date. Long-term sustainability of the program is also discussed.

  14. Assessing water resources in Azerbaijan using a local distributed model forced and constrained with global data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Laurène; Hegnauer, Mark; Schellekens, Jaap; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; ten Velden, Corine

    2017-04-01

    In many countries, data is scarce, incomplete and often not easily shared. In these cases, global satellite and reanalysis data provide an alternative to assess water resources. To assess water resources in Azerbaijan, a completely distributed and physically based hydrological wflow-sbm model was set-up for the entire Kura basin. We used SRTM elevation data, a locally available river map and one from OpenStreetMap to derive the drainage direction network at the model resolution of approximately 1x1 km. OpenStreetMap data was also used to derive the fraction of paved area per cell to account for the reduced infiltration capacity (c.f. Schellekens et al. 2014). We used the results of a global study to derive root zone capacity based on climate data (Wang-Erlandsson et al., 2016). To account for the variation in vegetation cover over the year, monthly averages of Leaf Area Index, based on MODIS data, were used. For the soil-related parameters, we used global estimates as provided by Dai et al. (2013). This enabled the rapid derivation of a first estimate of parameter values for our hydrological model. Digitized local meteorological observations were scarce and available only for limited time period. Therefore several sources of global meteorological data were evaluated: (1) EU-WATCH global precipitation, temperature and derived potential evaporation for the period 1958-2001 (Harding et al., 2011), (2) WFDEI precipitation, temperature and derived potential evaporation for the period 1979-2014 (by Weedon et al., 2014), (3) MSWEP precipitation (Beck et al., 2016) and (4) local precipitation data from more than 200 stations in the Kura basin were available from the NOAA website for a period up to 1991. The latter, together with data archives from Azerbaijan, were used as a benchmark to evaluate the global precipitation datasets for the overlapping period 1958-1991. By comparing the datasets, we found that monthly mean precipitation of EU-WATCH and WFDEI coincided well

  15. Negation, Including, Gradual Oblivion: State Strategies On Soviet Heritage In Georgia, Armenia And Azerbaijan

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    A. A. Tokarev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year of 100th anniversary of the October Revolution, the author turns to the question of the Soviet heritage influence on nation- and state-building processes in three countries of the South Caucasus –Azerbaijan,ArmeniaandGeorgia. The article postulates clear differences between the study of postcolonialism and the post-Soviet space, and therefore the author presents his own operationalization of the "imperial heritage" study. The countries of the South Caucasus are compared based on the following criteria: a number of ethnic Russians as the main constituent of the Soviet people living in the country; a status of the Russian language; national symbols (statutes, architecture, Soviet state symbols, the hierarchy of military ranks, and political practices (functioning of the party systems, type of sovereignty, degree of freedom of speech and political competition. StudyingAzerbaijan,ArmeniaandGeorgiadifferently coming out of theUSSRand using the disintegration of theUSSRto construct their national narratives in accordance with their own ideas about the ways of development, the author finds a repetition of the Soviet system elements. Each of the states demonstrates a unique combination of “post-Soviet Soviet” phenomena. The difference lies in the ratio between pro-Soviet and anti-Soviet elements. Azerbaijanseems to maintain a pro-Soviet narrative more than the others. It inherited the Soviet cult of personality and combined this practice with a completely non-Soviet (Eastern tradition of political dynasties covered by the election system. The Armenian political tradition includes reference to Soviet Armenia as theSecondRepublic, which distinguishes the country from the neighbors who consider themselves to be the successors of the democratic republics that emerged during the Civil War inRussia. Despite competitive elections and free media, the Armenian leadership seeks to establish a political system with a single dominant party and

  16. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air and soil across Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyeva, Gulchohra; Kurkova, Romana; Hovorkova, Ivana; Klánová, Jana; Halsall, Crispin

    2012-07-01

    Concentrations of selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are reported in air and surface soil in an extensive spatial survey across Azerbaijan, a country bordering the Caspian Sea with a history of OCP production and extensive use. Polyurethane foam disc passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed during October-November 2008 with soil samples collected in July 2009. Levels of Σ(7)PCB in ambient air were generally low (mean of 0.046 ng m(-3), n = 13) and comparable to concentrations reported in countries within Eastern Europe and similar to or lower than concentrations reported in urban air in the UK and other western countries. Surprisingly, PCB concentrations in rural/background soil fell below the method detection limits at most sites, although concentrations were 0.209 and 0.071 ng Σ(7)PCB g(-1) dry weight (dw) for two urban sites, again comparable to PCB levels measured at background sites in Europe. Levels of α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH and p,p'-DDT/E were elevated in ambient air across Azerbaijan in comparison to PAS-derived concentrations reported elsewhere, with concentrations of α-HCH in air ranging from 0.085 to 2.699 ng m(-3) and p,p'-DDE, 0.037-2.290 ng m(-3). High concentrations of OCPs occurred at several of the urban sites and at sites in proximity to old pesticide storage facilities with concentrations in soil >0.1 μg g(-1) dw for p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT at several sites. The ratio of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE was close to unity in the soil at these sites, but elsewhere, the ratio was <1, indicating a weathered DDT pattern, which was also reflected in the air at all sites. A fugacity approach revealed the strong likelihood of net soil-to-air transfer at the majority of sites for all OCPs. The calculated annual fluxes or loading to the atmosphere from a rural/agricultural area (representing land as vineyards and cotton cultivation) were estimated to be on the order of ≈10-100 kg year(-1) for the HCH isomers (including

  17. THUNDERSTORM ACTIVITY AND LIGHTNING PROTECTION OF POWER PLANTS AND EQUIPMET ON THE TERRITORY OF AZERBAIJAN REPUBLIC

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    A. M. Gashimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the results of a wind parameters analysis at the wind power parks construction territory in the north of the Azerbaijan Republic are presented. By means of extrapolation the  speeds  of  a  wind  stream  at  heights  of  80  and  100  m  have  been  calculated.  In  the conditions  of the  Azerbaijan  Republic  initially the  wind  potential  was  defined  at  height of 10–15 m from the earth surface by the data of the “weather vane” established at hydrome- teorological station, located within the precincts of Baku city. The subsequent measurements were spent at height of 40 m by means of “anemometer” located outside of city boundaries in a southern direction. It is established that at height of 100 m the wind speed essentially ex- ceeds the wind speed at height of 22 m. Hence, the height of 100 m is profitable for construc- tion and operation of wind constructions. Results of actual measurements have shown that wind speed depends on height and time of day. It is established that change of a wind stream within a month corresponds to change of the daily schedule of power station capacity and correlation factor of two processes appears high enough and makes 0.61. Note that for building the park of wind power plant it is necessary within 1 year continuously to spend actual meas- urements of a wind parameters at various heights (to 100 m. Otherwise placing of wind sta- tion on the given site can be not profitable. It is necessary to notice that the efficiency of wind units, besides their constructive features also depends on a correct choice of their installation place.On the other hand, the transmission of energy, produced by the wind power plants, in the power supply systems to the consumer is closely connected with a wind speed, air density, distribution of a wind stream, etc. parameters. From the told follows that research of a wind parameters represents the economic and somewhat legal value.

  18. Effective factors on the development of medical tourism industry in the West Azerbaijan Province, Iran: Pattern presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Mahmoudifar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the market of medical tourism is considered as a revenue and competitive industry throughout the world, it is also regarded as a novel field of the sophisticated tourism. Therefore, most of the developing countries have focused on the medical tourism industry and they are planning for it. In 2016, the present research was conducted with the main objective of devising a pattern for medical tourism development in the West Azerbaijan Province. The statistical population consisted of all medical tourists who referred to the hospitals located in the province. With regard to the krejcie-morgan table and statistical population, the number of the sample was estimated to be equal to 260 persons. These persons were selected based on the multi-stage sampling method. The scholar made questionnaire and studies of the Ricafort and Kazemi were employed as the instrument of collecting data. The validity of questionnaire was confirmed by the experts, professors, supervising and advising professors after applying the required amendments. The reliability was realized using factor analysis method. The PLS method was utilized for analysis of the data. The findings indicate that %82.5 of the variations linked to the medical tourism development has been realized via changes in the two predictor variables (independent variable, including hospital selection and West Azerbaijan selection. Moreover, the two main factors, including hospital selection and West Azerbaijan selection with impact factors of 0.486 and 0.469, respectively have a direct and significant impact on the development of medical tourism of the province. West Azerbaijan Province has so many potentials, and due to this fact there exist very special conditions which can contribute to the development of the medical tourism industry in this region. It can be deduced that by carrying out measures, like creating a brand for province in the medical tourism field, coordination of the corresponding

  19. The Cooperation of Turkey and Azerbaijan in Military Sphere at the Turn of 20th-21st Centuries

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    Parubochaya Elena Fedorovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to an urgent problem dealing with the cooperation of the Turkish Republic and Azerbaijan Republic in the military sphere at the end of 20th – the beginning of 21st century. For Azerbaijan’ s leaders Turkey has always been a special partner. This statement has an explanation. Ankara was the first state, which recognized the independence of Azerbaijan Republic. Moreover, Turkish government made great efforts to strengthen new state in different spheres. Military ties were one of the most important for both sides. The cooperation between two states in the military sphere can be subdivided into several periods. The article gives the detailed analysis of normative documents concluded by the Republics’ governments. The first period of military contacts (1990s was the time of Turkish educational support. Ankara provided training assistance to the military forces of Azerbaijan. Military staff was restrained by Turkish instructors. Special uniform, armament and other equipment to make transformation was given to Baku by Turkish partners. Step by step, Azerbaijan’ s military sphere was moving to Western standards. The year 1999 has become an important period for the military relations of Ankara and Baku. Since this year the military cooperation has extended and intensified, it is possible to name it as a new period of states’ military collaboration. Turkish government gave financial aid to Ministry of Defense of Republic of Azerbaijan, provided the material and technical support to Baku for improving long-term military cooperation. In 2010 the Turkey-Azerbaijan Strategic Partnership Agreement was signed. It should be noticed that Baku refused to sign the agreement of Azerbaijan’s participation in Collective security treaty organization, leaving the block of CSTO states headed by the Russian Federation. It’s possible to say about the strengthening of the Baku-Ankara alliance. This action may lead to complication of Baku

  20. Lead and cadmium in raw buffalo, cow and ewe milk from west Azerbaijan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najarnezhad, Vahid; Jalilzadeh-Amin, Ghader; Anassori, Ehsan; Zeinali, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 300 raw buffalo, cow and ewe milk samples from five townships in west Azerbaijan, Iran, were analysed. Lead and cadmium were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mean concentration of lead and cadmium in buffalo milk samples was 0.018 ± 0.001 and 0.003 ± 0.001 mg/kg, respectively. Mean concentration of lead and cadmium in cow milk samples was 0.007 ± 0.001 and 0.001 ± 0.001 mg/kg, respectively, and in ewe milk, these mean values were 0.010 ± 0.001 and 0.002 ± 0.001 mg/kg, respectively. Statistical analyses showed that lead and cadmium concentrations in buffalo milk were significantly higher than those in cow and ewe milk. Moreover, the concentration of these heavy metals in ewe milk was significantly higher than that in cow milk. It was also found that concentration of these selected toxic metals in milk increased with increasing age of the animals.

  1. Evaluation of revegetation progress and erosion-prone areas along oil and gas pipelines in Azerbaijan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayramov, Emil [BP British Petroleum, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2012-09-15

    The construction of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) oil and South Caucasus gas (SCP) pipelines was completed in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The Azerbaijan section of the BTC oil and SCP gas pipelines is 442 km long and lies in a 44 m wide corridor named as the Right-of-Way (RoW). BTC and SCP pipelines are aligned parallel to each other within the RoW. The construction process significantly disturbed vegetation and soil cover along the RoW of the pipelines. The revegetation and erosion control measures were conducted after the completion of construction to restore disturbed footprints of construction. The general goals of the present studies, dedicated to the environmental monitoring and erosion control measures were to evaluate the status of the revegetation in 2007 since the completion of the construction activities and to determine erosion-prone areas along the RoW. Quantitative assessment of vegetation cover (VC) was based on the regression and RMSE analysis using IKONOS NDVI 2007 and in-situ estimation of VC percentage for the normalization of NDVI to VC. The prediction of erosion-prone areas was based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The prediction reliability of USLE was evaluated using in-situ collected erosion occurrences. (orig.)

  2. Hyalomma aegyptium on Spur-thighed Tortoise (Testudo graeca in Urmia Region West Azerbaijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tavassoli

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ticks are obligate blood feeders that parasitize a wide variety of animals. Hyalomma aegyptium, parasitize tortoises and other small wild life and livestock. This study was carried out to determine spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca infestation to H. ageyptium in Urmia region West Azerbaijan of Iran. Methods: The study was carried out over a 16 month period from the spring of 2004 to the fall of 2005. A total of 32 tor¬toises were sampled. Results: The results indicated that 14 tortoises infected with ticks. A total of 117 ticks were collected from infested animals, the minimum and maximum tick infestation was 1-60. Ticks were attached to the axilla of fore and hind legs of tortoises. All ticks were determined to be H. aegyptium. Conclusion: H. aegyptium was the most common tick species in the study area. Due to tendency of some people to keeping tortoise as pet animal, more attention must be done to tortoise’s tick infestation. Due to existence of H. aegyptium on tor¬toises in this region more study will need to evaluate presence of this tick on other animal species and its role on transmis¬sion of diseases.

  3. Susceptibility status of Culex pipiens against deltamethrin and DDT, Urmia County, West Azerbaijan Province, northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Naseri-Karimi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the susceptibility status of Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens against two important and widely used insecticides (deltamethrin and DDT in Urmia County, the main city of West Azerbaijan Province, northwestern Iran. Methods: The susceptibility tests were carried out using the recommended method by World Health Organization (WHO. The sugar-fed 3-5 days old adult female Cx. pipiens were selected from reared larvae and/or from laid eggs. The female Cx. pipiens were transferred to holding tubes and after completing an hour of rest and removal of dead and damaged samples, the specimens were exposed for 60 min to toxicant tube containing insecticide impregnated papers which were supplied by WHO and specified discriminating concentration. Results: The results of experiments reveals the higher mortality rate against both studied insecticides (deltamethrin and DDT. Considering the WHO criteria, the studied species, Cx. pipiens, is resistant to both deltamethrin and DDT. Conclusions: Considering the notable role of this species in the transmission of several diseases and its wide range distribution across the Iran and neighboring countries and the probability of establishment of these diseases in this region Iran, further studies are needed regarding the study of resistance mechanisms of this species against insecticides using molecular and biochemical methods.

  4. Beech forests of Azerbaijan: The modern condition, age structure and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.M. Hasanov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Azerbaijan is a country with low forest cover, only 11.8% of the territory is covered with forests. All forests perform important water-soil-protection functions. In forests, naturally grow 107 species of trees and 328 shrubs species. Despite the fact that there are many species in dendroflora, only 10 tree species have economic value for the forest sector of the country. Beech (31.68%, oak (27.40% and hornbeam (26.01% are growing in 85.09% of forested areas. Beech forests are spread on 327 thousand hectares from 989,5 of total forest lands of he Republic. Beech forests are a source of high-quality wood and beech nuts. All beech forests grow in mountains at heights of 600–800 and 1600–1800 m above the sea level and performing important ecological functions. Until recently there were no problems with natural renewal of the beech forests, but now the regeneration of beech forests is alarming. In recent years, the productivity and density of beech forests decreased substantially, the natural regeneration proceeds unsatisfactorily and, consequently, reduction of beech forests takes place. We have researched 33,8 thousand hectares of beech forests of the Lesser Caucasus, their natural regeneration and made analysis of age structure of forests. Keywords: Fagus orientalis, Beech forests, Silviculture, Natural regeneration, Age class

  5. Scenario-based earthquake hazard and risk assessment for Baku (Azerbaijan

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    G. Babayev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A rapid growth of population, intensive civil and industrial building, land and water instabilities (e.g. landslides, significant underground water level fluctuations, and the lack of public awareness regarding seismic hazard contribute to the increase of vulnerability of Baku (the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan to earthquakes. In this study, we assess an earthquake risk in the city determined as a convolution of seismic hazard (in terms of the surface peak ground acceleration, PGA, vulnerability (due to building construction fragility, population features, the gross domestic product per capita, and landslide's occurrence, and exposure of infrastructure and critical facilities. The earthquake risk assessment provides useful information to identify the factors influencing the risk. A deterministic seismic hazard for Baku is analysed for four earthquake scenarios: near, far, local, and extreme events. The seismic hazard models demonstrate the level of ground shaking in the city: PGA high values are predicted in the southern coastal and north-eastern parts of the city and in some parts of the downtown. The PGA attains its maximal values for the local and extreme earthquake scenarios. We show that the quality of buildings and the probability of their damage, the distribution of urban population, exposure, and the pattern of peak ground acceleration contribute to the seismic risk, meanwhile the vulnerability factors play a more prominent role for all earthquake scenarios. Our results can allow elaborating strategic countermeasure plans for the earthquake risk mitigation in the Baku city.

  6. Patterns of Brucellosis Infection Symptoms in Azerbaijan: A Latent Class Cluster Analysis

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    Rita Ismayilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis infection is a multisystem disease, with a broad spectrum of symptoms. We investigated the existence of clusters of infected patients according to their clinical presentation. Using national surveillance data from the Electronic-Integrated Disease Surveillance System, we applied a latent class cluster (LCC analysis on symptoms to determine clusters of brucellosis cases. A total of 454 cases reported between July 2011 and July 2013 were analyzed. LCC identified a two-cluster model and the Vuong-Lo-Mendell-Rubin likelihood ratio supported the cluster model. Brucellosis cases in the second cluster (19% reported higher percentages of poly-lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, arthritis, myositis, and neuritis and changes in liver function tests compared to cases of the first cluster. Patients in the second cluster had a severe brucellosis disease course and were associated with longer delay in seeking medical attention. Moreover, most of them were from Beylagan, a region focused on sheep and goat livestock production in south-central Azerbaijan. Patients in cluster 2 accounted for one-quarter of brucellosis cases and had a more severe clinical presentation. Delay in seeking medical care may explain severe illness. Future work needs to determine the factors that influence brucellosis case seeking and identify brucellosis species, particularly among cases from Beylagan.

  7. Implementation of deinstitutionalization of child care institutions in post-soviet countries: The case of Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseynli, Aytakin

    2018-02-01

    Institutional care has proven to be detrimental for child development. This study examined the status of the State Program on Deinstitutionalization and Alternative Care (SPDAC), a public policy aimed at transforming 55 institutions covering 14,500 children during 2006-2016 in Azerbaijan. The success of this public policy was crucial for the country's entire child welfare system. The study used a crosssectional, descriptive, exploratory, and qualitative method. Data were collected through in-depth, semistructured interviews and archival resources. Twenty key informants were selected through a purposive sampling strategy. They led projects or were heads of departments related to implementing the SPDAC at government agencies, national or international nongovernmental organizations, UNICEF, or as social workers in newly established alternative services. Interviews were analyzed in TAMSAnalyzer. Themes supporting possible explanations such as lack of political will, weak child protection systems, weak civil society, illequipped human resources, absence of alternative services, and low levels of knowledge of children's rights emerged in the analysis. The findings could contribute to research on child welfare reform and reflect hidden factors behind policies to guide practice in former Soviet Union states and countries rich in natural resources such oil, gas, and minerals. The primary finding of a lack of political will raises the question of how to create political will and how to motivate government officials to invest in the welfare of children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dirrofilariasis in Shepherd Dogs of High Altitudes Areas in West Azerbaijan-Iran

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    Mojtaba Hadian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the biology and ecology of the arthropod vectors are different, some factors, such as global warming, the increasing abundance of mosquitoes, the movement of domestic hosts, and the abundance of wild reservoirs, can act as favourable factors for the distribution of infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in shepherd dogs living in the high altitude of mountainous area (i.e.1200 meters above the sea level. The study group was comprised of 160 shepherd dogs living in 4 mountainous regions (Targavar, Margavar, Kolshin and Hovarchin of west Azerbaijan where continuous movement of sheep and goat flocks resulted to have a little information about shepherd dogs in these regions. Additionally, arduous pathways have made impossible any access by car to some territories of these areas. The dogs were mostly mixed raced with different ages (from 1 to 10 years and sexes (male = 136, female = 24. Blood samples were collected from cephalic vein. Direct thin and thick blood smears and modified knott’s technique were used for detecting D.immitis microfilariae and other blood parasites. The results indicated that 40 (25 % of dogs were infected with D. immitis microfilariae. In examination of the dogs, no severe life threatening feature of the disease was diagnosed. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05 of Dirrofilaria infection among gender, age groups and geographical areas. High prevalence of asymptomatic Dirrofilariasis in shepherd dogs in this area highlights the need of controlling and preventive programs.

  9. Analysis of the stress regime and tectonic evolution of the Azerbaijan Plateau, Northwestern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, A.; Hoseynalizadeh, Z.

    2017-05-01

    The increasing number of earthquakes in recent decades in Northwestern Iran and the determination of the epicenters of these events makes possible to estimate accurately the changing tectonic regime using the Win-Tensor inversion focal mechanism program. For this purpose focal mechanism data were collected from various sources, including the Centroid Moment Tensor catalog (CMT). The focal mechanism and fault slip data were analyzed to determine change in the stress field up to the present day. The results showed that two stages of brittle deformation occurred in the region. The first stage was related to Eocene compression in NE-SW direction, which created compressional structures with NW-SE strike, including the North and South Bozgush, south Ahar and Gushedagh thrust belts. The second brittle stage began in the Miocene with NW-SE compression and caused developing thrusts with N-S trends that were active presently. These stress regimes were created by the counter-clockwise rotation of the Azerbaijan plateau caused by movement on strike slip faults and continuous compression between the Arabian plate, the south Caspian basin and the Caucasus region. Pliocene-Quaternary activity of the Sabalan and Sahand volcanoes as well as recent earthquakes occurred as a result of this displacement and rotational movement. The abundance of hot springs in the Ardebil, Hero Abad and Bostanabad areas also bore witness to this activity.

  10. Human Brucellosis Trends: Re-emergence and Prospects for Control Using a One Health Approach in Azerbaijan (1983-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracalik, I T; Abdullayev, R; Asadov, K; Ismayilova, R; Baghirova, M; Ustun, N; Shikhiyev, M; Talibzade, A; Blackburn, J K

    2016-06-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most common and widely spread zoonotic diseases in the world. Control of the disease in humans is dependent upon limiting the infection in animals through surveillance and vaccination. Given the dramatic economic and political changes that have taken place in the former Soviet Union, which have limited control, evaluating the status of human brucellosis in former Soviet states is crucial. We assessed annual spatial and temporal trends in the epidemiology of human brucellosis in Azerbaijan, 1983-2009, in conjunction with data from a livestock surveillance and control programme (2002-2009). To analyse trends, we used a combination of segmented regression and spatial analysis. From 1983 to 2009, a total of 11 233 cases of human brucellosis were reported. Up to the mid-1990s, the incidence of human brucellosis showed a pattern of re-emergence, increasing by 25% annually, on average. Following Soviet governance, the incidence rates peaked, increasing by 1.8% annually, on average, and subsequently decreasing by 5% annually, on average, during the period 2002-2009. Despite recent national declines in human incidence, we identified geographic changes in the case distribution characterized by a geographic expansion and an increasing incidence among districts clustered in the south-east, compared to a decrease of elsewhere in the country. Males were consistently, disproportionately afflicted (71%) and incidence was highest in the 15 to 19 age group (18.1 cases/100 000). During the period 2002-2009, >10 million small ruminants were vaccinated with Rev1. Our findings highlight the improving prospects for human brucellosis control following livestock vaccination; however, the disease appears to be re-emerging in south-eastern Azerbaijan. Sustained one health measures are needed to address changing patterns of brucellosis in Azerbaijan and elsewhere in the former Soviet Union. © 2015 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health Published by Blackwell

  11. The Caspian Sea regionalism in a globalized world: Energy security and regional trajectories of Azerbaijan and Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedjazi, Babak

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation is fundamentally about the formation of new regional spaces in Central Eurasia viewed from a dynamic, comparative and historical approach. Analyzing the global-local economic and political interactions and their consequences on resource rich countries of the Caspian Sea enable us to reframe security as a central element of the new global order. In this respect, the dissertation examines how two particular states, Azerbaijan and Iran, respond to the changing global security environment and optimize their capacity to absorb or control change. Here, security as I conceive is multidimensional and engages various social, political and economic domains. My research is articulated along three hypotheses regarding the formation of a new regional space and its consequences on territorial polarization and interstate rivalry. These hypotheses, respectively and cumulatively, elucidate global and domestic contexts of regional space formation, regional strategic and discursive trajectories, and regional tensions of global/local interactions. In order to empirically test these hypotheses, a series of thirty interviews were conducted by the author with local and foreign business representatives, civilian and government representatives, and corroborated by economic data collected from the International Energy Agency. The findings of the research validate the primary assumption of the dissertation that Azerbaijan and Iran have chosen the regional scale to address discrepancies between their aspired place in the new world order and the reality of their power and international status. Extending the argument for structural scarcity of oil towards contenders, this dissertation concludes that the Caspian oil has become a fundamental element of the regional discourse. The mismatch between the rhetoric of sovereign rights and energy security on one side and the reality of regional countries' powerlessness and their need to reach international markets on the other side are

  12. Health Problems and Community Participation Issues in the Earthquake of 2012, East Azerbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Mosaferi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Earthquake of East Azerbaijan with magnitude of 6.3 to 6.4 on the Richter scale, impressed the cities of Varzegan, Ahar and Heris on 11 August 2012 which left 306 victims and more than 8000 billion Rials cost, caused irreparable damages. Present study aims to investigate and present an analysis of relief performance and also health, environmental and safety aspects after earthquake. Material and Methods : Required data were gathered during the early days after earthquake via presence and observation in the affected areas. Besides, opinions of health experts were collected through interviews. The rest of required information was collected from websites and publications. Results : In the following days after the earthquake, coordination between government offices was at a low level and duties were not clear. Lack of correct statistics of permanent and non-permanent residents of villages caused many problems in the construction of new houses. A significant feature of recent earthquake was the approach of community participation; so that they personally distributed the humanitarian aids to the quake-hit areas instead of delivering aids through governmental offices which had its own advantages and disadvantages. Absence of specific responsible until a week after earthquake for the installation of sanitary toilets was a significant problem in the earthquake areas. Other problems included the difficulties associated with the distribution of tents, solid waste collection, distribution of excessive bottled water and its improper storage, and the disposal of demolition waste in the natural drainages. Conclusion : The situation after the earthquake indicates that despite the presence of government forces in the earthquake affected areas, there were obvious problems especially in field of sanitary which need an integrated planning for relief after earthquake.  ​

  13. Genotypic characteristics of hydatid cysts isolated from humans in East Azerbaijan Province (2011-2013

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    Amir Vahedi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cystic echinococcosis (CE is one of the important helminthic diseases of human and animals, which causes by Echinococcus granulosus. Canids are its definite and grazers especially sheep, and cattle, and also wild herbivores are its intermediate hosts. Human can also be accidentally infected by a parasite. This study aimed to investigate genotypes of the hydatid cysts isolated from hydatidosis patients in order to confine the source of the infection, 2013. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 55 paraffin blocks of identified hydatid cysts have been undergone genotyping using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP technique. The ITS1 region of rDNA has been amplified using BD1 forward and 4s reverse primers. PCR products have been digested using HpaII and RsaI restriction endonucleases. RFLP products studied using gel electrophoresis. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows using the chi-square test. Results: About 29 (52.72%, 16 (29.1%, 3 (5.45%, 3 (5.45%, 1 (1.81%, 1 (1.81%, 1 (1.81% and 1 (1.81% out of 55 hydatid cysts were located in lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, pancreas, brain, and femore, respectively. The frequency of hydatidosis observed higher in patients from rural areas (P = 0.013; odds ratio = 0.599; 95% confidence interval: 0.28, 1.27. Based on RFLP results, the entire studied hydatid cysts identified as sheep strain (G1. Conclusion: According to the results of the present observation, it can be concluded that the majority of cases of human hydatidosis in East Azerbaijan Province are caused by sheep strain (G1 of E. granulosus, which indicates the sheep-doge cycle in the studied area.

  14. Changing patterns of human anthrax in Azerbaijan during the post-Soviet and preemptive livestock vaccination eras.

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    Ian Kracalik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We assessed spatial and temporal changes in the occurrence of human anthrax in Azerbaijan during 1984 through 2010. Data on livestock outbreaks, vaccination efforts, and human anthrax incidence during Soviet governance, post-Soviet governance, preemptive livestock vaccination were analyzed. To evaluate changes in the spatio-temporal distribution of anthrax, we used a combination of spatial analysis, cluster detection, and weighted least squares segmented regression. Results indicated an annual percent change in incidence of (+11.95% from 1984 to 1995 followed by declining rate of -35.24% after the initiation of livestock vaccination in 1996. Our findings also revealed geographic variation in the spatial distribution of reporting; cases were primarily concentrated in the west early in the study period and shifted eastward as time progressed. Over twenty years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the distribution of human anthrax in Azerbaijan has undergone marked changes. Despite decreases in the incidence of human anthrax, continued control measures in livestock are needed to mitigate its occurrence. The shifting patterns of human anthrax highlight the need for an integrated "One Health" approach that takes into account the changing geographic distribution of the disease.

  15. EVALUATION OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT FIELDS CULTURE, CAPABILITY, INFORMATION AND HUMAN RESOURCES OF YOUTH AND SPORT OFFICES OF WEST AZERBAIJAN PROVINCE

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    Yadollahzadeh Roba

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Management has a significant importance in sport organizations, specially, if it is accompanied with a strategic and program-oriented approach. Now in this progressing and developing world sport is not an exception, and many sport organizations are in rapid progress and in most cases the strategic approach of these organizations is the top priority. This study aims at evaluating the fields of strategic management in West Azarbaijan province offices of sport and youth. The subjects of the study are 47 managers and their assistants of W.Azarbaijan youth and sport offices. The tool of gathering data is a standard questionnaire which is made by Vic Gilgeous (improving strategic concerns.The method of descriptive research is a kind of analysis that, it is performed in a field study. For data analyzing, some parameters of descriptive and inferential statistics such as standard deviation, mean, frequency and some other like one sample t-test were used. The results show that the amount of realization of the culture, information and the strategic management resources in offices of youth and sports of W. Azerbaijan, are not in an appropriate condition (p < 0.05.So according to the results of the study we can deduce that the culture, information and strategic management resources in W. Azerbaijan offices of youth and sports, are significantly different with the society average and these fields need to be improved and strengthened.

  16. Frequency and causes of discharges against medical advice from hospital cardiac care units of East Azerbaijan, Iran

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    Saber Azami-Aghdash

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discharges against medical advice (DAMA is a common problem of hospitals that could lead increasing the complications and readmission. For this, the aim of this study is to investigate the frequency and effective factors of DAMA in patients with cardiovascular disease in hospital cardiac care units (CCU of East Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed, in 2013, in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Required information was extracted using valid and reliable forms of medical records of 2000 patients admitted to 20 CCU in 17 hospitals of East Azerbaijan, by two trained interviewers. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, percentage, etc., chi-square test, and linear regression model using the SPSS software. The tests were considered a statistically significant level of 0.05%. Results: The results showed that 272 patients (13.6% were DAMA from the hospital. The frequency of DAMA was in men more than women. The most frequency of discharge has occurred in the range of 40-80 years old. Results of linear regression showed that there was a significant correlation between DAMA and type of insurance, history of myocardial infarction (MI, comorbid disease, cause of hospitalization, location of hospital, and staying < 48 hours (P < 0.050. Conclusion: In this study, the rate of DAMA was relatively high compared with similar studies and it is considered as a concern problem that should study the reasons and its effective factors and plan effective interventions to reduce them.

  17. Theoretical and Practical Issues of the Implementation of International Norms on Human Rights to the National Legislation (the Example of the Republic of Azerbaijan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyev, Subhan F.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the features of the implementation of international norms on human rights to the national law system of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Using the method of the critical analysis of national legislative framework on human rights, the authors argue that there are some certain problems connected with the application…

  18. New Class Divisions in the New Market Economies: Evidence from the Careers of Young Adults in Post-Soviet Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ken; Pollock, Gary

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents evidence from the biographies of samples totaling 1,215 young adults in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia, who all reached age 16 between 1986 and 1992, and whose subsequent life histories coincided with their countries' transitions from communism. The evidence is used to examine whether new classes are being created in the new…

  19. Semicentenial history of development of radiotherapy and Treatment of Oesophageal Cancer in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasirova, F.J.; Shiraliyev, O.K.; Beibutov, Sh.M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The history of Oesophageal Cancer Therapy in Azerbaijan dates back to 1953-1956 when during the Soviet era, when we published our work on radiotherapy of oesophageal cancer for the first time. During the past more than 50 years a total of 5283 patients of oesophageal cancer have been treated by radiotherapy using several devices, e.g., GUTCo- 400, GUT-Co-1200, Luch-l, Agat-R and Rockus-M. Of them were 67.7% men and 32.3% women. The age of patients ranged between 24-88 years. 80.1% patients were aged more than 50 years. The majority of patients reported to the hospital with very late stages of disease: only 2.6% belonged to stage-1, while 30.6% were stage-2, 64% stage- 3 and 2.4% stage-4. Duration of disease after the beginning of the first symptoms averaged 4-5 months. Histologically 95% of patients had squamous carcinoma and the rest had adeno-carcinoma and others kinds of tumour n macroscopical picture of tumour patients were distributed as follows: circular sclerosing cancer at 28.4%, papillary fungoid one at 7,1%, saucer-like one at 29.2%, nodular medulla ring at 35.32%. Extent of defect changed within the limits of 2-15 sm, only at 2.7% were 2-3 sm. Majority of the tumours were located in the middle (56,1%), less often in lower (29,9%) and in the upper third of esophagus (14%). The defects of adjacent organs were at 27.1% cases. In view of the age, the associated diseases and the extent of tumour the radical surgical intervention could b. offered to only 10-15% of hospitalized patients. All patients received radiation therapy after a proper topometric and dosimetric evaluation. During the past several decades, the technique of radiotherapy has improved with time and the process has been modernized in keeping with international standards. Results: Our results show that average 1,2,3 and 5 year survival of our patients have been 40-60%, 18-27%, 10-12% and 6-7% respectively. The optimum factor for good prognosis has been the early detection of disease

  20. Environmental Health assessment 200 Days after Earthquake-Affected Region in East Azerbaijan Earthquake, North-Western of Iran, 2012

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    Alihossein Zeinalzadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating of health status and explore the challenges of health problems that threaten human life following disasters and major earthquakes providing windows of opportunities for health care providers in future planning of disasters. The main purpose of this report was to survey the environmental sanitation statues after 200 days of the affected populations in earthquakes of East Azerbaijan, northwestern of Iran, 2012. The survey was carried out in earthquake zones 200 days after the occurrence of the earthquake. A single stage cluster sampling from among 95 villages damaged in the earthquake of 2012 East Azerbaijan of three towns Ahar, Varzeghan and Heris were selected. The data were collected with questionnaire, site visits and evaluation of water and sanitation. In a twin Earthquake, East Azerbaijan province that 399 villages of Ahar, Varzeghan, Heris, Tabriz and Kaleibar cities were affected and 356 (89.2 % villages were destroyed between 30-100%.  Evaluation of water and sanitation infrastructure after 200 days, shown that only half of these villages consumed healthy water with high coverage and adequate. Half of the villages in 200 days after the earthquake were covered safe drinking water (treated drinking water. The bacteriological quality of drinking-water supply of the affected area was assessed in randomly collected 146 samples from this region and ten (6.8% reported as unsuitable. Solid waste management facilities in residents have not been acceptable that affect public health. Solid waste disposal was done by district residents (cooperation rural residents 68.4%, 36.8% and 76.3% in Ahar, Varzeghan and Heris, respectively. Overall, the impact of infectious and communicable diseases after Earthquake was reported 42.1% (16 villages in the Varzeghan. The lack of geographical view with a focus in mountainous and rural areas, partial support and dispersion of earthquake-stricken people in affected villages and lack of participatory need

  1. Determination of antibiotic residues in the pasteurized milk produced in West Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran

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    Shirin Forouzan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To monitor antibiotic residues in pasteurized milk in West Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran. Methods: In this study, 848 pasteurized milk samples were collected from factories and tested for the presence of antibiotic residues using the Copan test kit based on the manufacturer’s instructions. Results: Results indicated that 30.14% of samples were contaminated with a variety of antibiotics based on the detection of associated residues and 3.19% of these samples were suspected. Given the current rise of antimicrobial resistance among microbial pathogens, these findings amplify the need to ensure continuous monitoring of pasteurized milk that intended for human consumption. Conclusions: Continuous monitoring of pasteurized milk may improve human health but also limit the development and transmission of antibiotic resistant strains in the environment.

  2. Evaluating soil contamination risk impact on land vulnerability and climate change in east Azerbaijan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Farzin; Anaya-Romero, Maria; de La Rosa, Diego

    2010-05-01

    Increased land degradation is one possible, and important, consequence of global climate change. As reported by IPCC, warming is likely to be well above the global mean in central Asia, the Tibetan Plateau and northern Asia, above the global mean in eastern Asia and South Asia, and similar to the global mean in Southeast and west Asia. Following these variation, agricultural face will abruptly be transformed in Iran which has been located in Middle East, west Asia. During 1951 to 2003 several stations in different climatological zones of Iran reported significant decrease in frost days due to rise in surface temperature. Also, some stations show a decreasing trend in precipitation (Anzali, Tabriz, Zahedan) while others (Mashad, Shiraz) have reported increasing trends. Based on land evaluation methodologies, a semi-empirical model named Pantanal within the new MicroLEIS DSS framework is used for assessing limitations for vulnerability of an area about 9000ha located in east Azerbaijan province of Iran is closed to Tabriz. The Pantanal approach is a land vulnerability evaluation model based on three kinds of information: I) monthly meteorological data; II) soil survey data; and III) agricultural management information. The major discussed agro contaminants were phosphorous, nitrogen, heavy metals and pesticides. Climate data such as mean average maximum and minimum temperatures for each month and total annual precipitation for last 20 consecutive years (1986-2006) were collected from Ahar meteorological station. The second scenario is based on projected changes in surface air temperature and precipitation for west Asia for the 2080s. In West Asia, climate change is likely to cause severe water stress in 21st century. In details, the mean temperature (°C) will increase 5.1, 5.6, 6.3 and 5.7 in winter, spring, summer and autumn respectively, in the future scenario at the study area. On the other hand, total precipitation will decrease 11 and 25 percent in winter and

  3. Prevalence and molecular characterization of staphylococci isolated from sheep with subclinical mastitis in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Bentolhoda; Ownagh, Abdolghaffar; Mardani, Karim; Farrokhi Ardebili, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus spp. in ewes in West-Azerbaijan province of Iran. Molecular characterization of isolated Staphylococcus spp. from diseased ewes were performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap) gene. Also, antibiotic resistance of staphylococcal isolates against different antibiotics was investigated. A total number of 900 milk samples from 450 native ewes in their mid-lactation period were examined by the California mastitis test (CMT). The CMT positive samples were cultured and bacteria were isolated from 86 (9.50%) glands and 74 (16.40%) ewes. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis in the examined ewes was 16.40%. Microbiological analysis of milk samples revealed that 27 out of 74 sheep with subclinical mastitis were infected with Staphylococcus spp. Amplification of gap gene of 27 Staphylococcus isolates generated a single amplicon of 933 bp in size confirming that isolates were belonged to Staphylococcus genus. Digestion of PCR products by AluI endonuclease generated different RFLP patterns for each species. Nucleotide sequencing of gap gene followed by phylogenetic analysis showed that the most dominant Staphylococcus species were S. epidermidis, S. xylosus and S. chromogenes. Staphylococcal isolates showed the highest resistance to penicillin and ampicillin. In conclusion, Staphylococcus species, except for the southern parts of the province, play an important role in the development of subclinical mastitis in sheep in West-Azerbaijan province of Iran. Also, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and neomycin are the most effective antibiotics for treatment of this disease. PMID:27482361

  4. Mutation analysis of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in Azerbaijani population, a report from West Azerbaijan province of Iran

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    Morteza Bagheri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Phenylketonuria (PKU is a genetic inborn error of phenylalanine (Phe metabolism resulting from insufficiency in the hepatic enzyme, phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH, which leads to elevated levels of Phe in the blood. The present study was carried out for mutation analysis of the PAH gene in West Azerbaijan province of Iran. Materials and Methods:A total of 218 alleles from 40 PKU families were studied using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR method. Results:The frequencies of IVS10-11, S67P, R261Q, R252W, IVS11nt-1 g>c, R408Q, and Q232Q mutations were 28(35, 17(21.25, 15(18.75, 3(3.75, 3(3.75, 2(2.5, and 1(1.25, in cases group, and 51(23.4, 31(14.2, 27(12.4, 6(2.75, 6(2.75, 4(1.83, and 2(0.92 in total group, respectively. The mutations of R243Q, 364delG, L333F, 261X, I65T, and R408W were not detected in our samples. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the IVS10-11 mutation has the highest frequency in the tested population. To our knowledge, this report is the first in its own kind and provides better understanding of the genetic heterogeneity, the origin and distributions of PAH mutations in West Azerbaijan province of Iran.

  5. 13 May 2016 - Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva V. Sadiqov signing the guest book with Head of Associate Member and Non-Member State Relations E. Tsesmelis and Adviser C. Schäfer. Permanent Mission First Secretary H. Huseynov is also present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2016-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Vaqif Sadiqov Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  6. Detection of the enterotoxigenic genes (sei,sej) in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis milk in the West Azerbaijan of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmady, Malahat; Kazemi, Sahar

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative pathogen of clinical and subclinical mastitis of dairy domestic ruminants. This organism produces a variety of extracellular toxins and virulence factors such as enterotoxin SEI and SEJ that contribute to its pathogenic potential. In this study 25 S. aureus isolates obtained from four dairy herds of Urmia region which is located in West Azerbaijan province in Iran. The tested isolates were identified on the basis of the cultural and biochemical prope...

  7. An empirical study to investigate the effects of thinking styles on emotional intelligence: A case study of Jihad Agriculture Organization of east Azerbaijan province

    OpenAIRE

    Habibeh Ayagh; Hassan Darvish

    2013-01-01

    An empirical study to investigate the effects of thinking styles on emotional intelligence among employees of agriculture industry in east Azerbaijan province. The proposed study uses a standard thinking style questionnaire originally developed by Sternberg and Wagner (1992) [Sternberg, R. J., & Wagner, R. K. (1992). Thinking styles inventory. Unpublished test, Yale University]. There are 716 employees working for this agriculture-based unit and the study uses random sampling technique and ch...

  8. The Conundrum of the Southern Gas Corridor: What are the Risks for Europe and Azerbaijan? The viewpoint of an insider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livanios, Anthony

    2013-04-01

    For more than ten years harsh negotiations among different oil majors and pipeline consortia have been taking place about the Southern Gas Corridor, all of them seeking to transit 10 bcm/year of natural gas that will be produced from the Shah Deniz giant gas field of Azerbaijan to the European Union. As of today, no Final Investment Decision (FID) has been reached neither for the preferred pipeline route to Europe, nor for the production of the second phase of Shah Deniz. Yet a decision has to be made. Europe will remain a major gas importer as clearly shown by the International Energy Agency's scenarios for 2035. Even if shale gas may be a game-changer as far as Chinese needs for gas imports are concerned, many uncertainties remain regarding the risk of the EU competing with China in the global market for natural gas imports. Consequently the EU needs to secure its gas supplies. What is at stake is nothing but its competitiveness in the world economy. In the words of EU Commissioner for Energy, Guenther Oettinger, 'globally, demand growth poses a threat to security of supply and, with its impact on prices, our economic competitiveness'. In this context, the EU has to quickly make a decision regarding the Southern Gas Corridor unless the three major risks for the realization of the Southern Gas Corridor become too heavy. First, the delay of the FID of the Shah Deniz Consortium in Azerbaijan causes an acceleration of the economic and geopolitical costs which threaten the energy security of Europe. Associated with that risk is the potential internal disagreement between SOCAR, the State Oil Company of Azerbaijan, and BP, the two most important shareholders of the Shah Deniz consortium. Second, the development of South Stream poses a risk for the delivery of Azerbaijan gas to Europe via the Southern Gas Corridor. Gazprom is indeed already ahead of the geopolitical rivalry, since the construction of South Stream was officially inaugurated, last December

  9. The Existing Barriers and Infrastructures to Implement Accreditation from the Perspective of Hospitals’ Managers in East Azerbaijan Hospitals: A Mixed Method Study

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    Saber Azami-Aghdash

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : The aim of this study was to assess the infrastructures and barriers of effective accreditation in East Azerbaijan hospitals. Material and Methods : In this triangulation (qualitative-quantitative study, all the managers of 43 hospitals in East Azerbaijan were selected. The authors developed an 8-item questionnaire for   quantitative section of the study which its validity was improved by experts’ comments and its reliability was assessed by half-structure methods (9. =α. In addition, two open-ended questions were used in qualitative section of the study. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and ANOVA test using SPSS version 20 statistical software packages. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the responses to the two open-ended questions. Results : Seventy-six percent of the managers agreed to implementation of accreditation in hospitals and believed that accreditation could improve the health services and increase the patient and staff satisfaction. Fifty percent of the participants had lack of required knowledge about the accreditation and they declared that the hospitals managed by them were not prepared to implement accreditation with respect to resources, manager’s commitment, staff skills and knowledge. In Tabriz hospitals, resources and infrastructures were mentioned to exist in a significantly higher proportion than other cities (P Conclusion : Considering the barriers and lack of infrastructures in the hospitals of East Azerbaijan to achieve an effective accreditation, it is essential to eliminate the existing barriers and provide appropriate infrastructures.

  10. A study on association of SNP-43 polymorphism in Calpain-10 gene with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the population of Eastern Azerbaijan province

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    Fatemeh Bahreini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genome – wide analysis of genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes mellitus in different populations have yielded variable results. Calpain10, a gene that encodes a non-lysosomal cysteine protease, has been recently proposed as a type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes in the non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus NIDDM1 region. Aim of the study is to evaluate the relation between SNP43 and type2 diabetes. Methods: A total of 102 diabetic subjects and 100 undiabetic controls enrolled in a case-control study in Eastern Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Province. The polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (PCR–RFLP was applied. We use X2 test and logistic regression to analysis of data. Results: Genotypes distribution of calpain10 gene in control group were 11(11%, 86(86% and 3(3% with respected to A/G, G/G and A/A genotypes, respectively. In diabetic group genotypes distribution were 7(6.9%, 95(93.1% and zero, respectively. The G allele frequency was significant difference in case and control groups. Conclusion: Since G allele is a risk factor to affect type 2 diabetes disease hence SNP43 of calpain10 gene had significant association with type 2 diabetes in Eastern Azerbaijan.

  11. Geodynamics and Stress State of the Earth's Crust in the Greater and Lesser Caucasus (Azerbaijan) collision region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayev, Gulam; Akhmedova, Elnare; Babayev, Elvin

    2017-04-01

    The current study researches the present-day stress state of the Earth's crust within the territory of Azerbaijan by using the database of the international research project "World Stress Map" (WSM). The present stress state was also assessed by exploring the effects of the contemporary topographic properties of Caucasus in three-dimensional frame. Aiming to explore the relative roles of regional tectonic conditions in the definition of stress state of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, stress distribution model was developed by the earthquake data (1998-2016) and by the standard techniques of stress field calculation. The results show that the stress orientations are influenced also by the combination of topography and crust thickness distribution even at very large depth. Stress data and earthquake focal mechanisms indicate that the stress state of the Earth's crust of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus is characterized by the compression predominantly oriented across the regional strike. The model results suggest that the Lesser Caucasus and Kur depression are rotating coherently, with little or no internal deformation in a counter-clockwise rotation located near the north-eastern corner of the Black Sea. Orientation of stress axes well consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms revealed that within Upper and Lower Crusts, earthquakes are predominantly thrust-faulting with a number of normal-faulting and some strike-slip faulting. The map of the focal mechanisms and stress distribution suggests that the research area is characterized by the thrust of horizontal compression trending north-north-east in the western part of the southern Caucasus. In the western part of Azerbaijan, the compression takes place between the Main Caucasus Fault and the Kur depression, which strikes south along the northern margin of the mountain range. In addition, a clear transition from the left-lateral strike slip to the predominantly right-lateral strike slip is observed in the southern of

  12. Performance Assessment of a Communicable Disease Surveillance System in Response to the Twin Earthquakes of East Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Javad; Ardalan, Ali; Vatandoost, Hasan; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Following the twin earthquakes on August 11, 2012, in the East Azerbaijan province of Iran, the provincial health center set up a surveillance system to monitor communicable diseases. This study aimed to assess the performance of this surveillance system. In this quantitative-qualitative study, performance of the communicable diseases surveillance system was assessed by using the updated guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Qualitative data were collected through interviews with the surveillance system participants, and quantitative data were obtained from the surveillance system. The surveillance system was useful, simple, representative, timely, and flexible. The data quality, acceptability, and stability of the surveillance system were 65.6%, 10.63%, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity and positive predictive value were not calculated owing to the absence of a gold standard. The surveillance system satisfactorily met the goals expected for its setup. The data obtained led to the control of communicable diseases in the affected areas. Required interventions based on the incidence of communicable disease were designed and implemented. The results also reassured health authorities and the public. However, data quality and acceptability should be taken into consideration and reviewed for implementation in future disasters.

  13. Does the Budget Expenditure Composition Matter for Long-Run Economic Growth in a Resource Rich Country? Evidence from Azerbaijan

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    Khatai Aliyev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the role of budget expenditure composition over Azerbaijan’s non-oil economic growth in the long-run by classifying public spending as capital, social and other expenditures. Authors’ employ ARDLBT approach to co-integration for the period of 2000Q1-2014Q4 to estimate long-run contribution of each spending category before-and-after the oil boom while controlling for oilrelated factors. Empirical results endorse the validity of long-run association among variables. Results concluded insignificant negative impact of capital expenditures, and significant negative impact of other expenditures. However, social spending has statistically and economically strong positive impact over the non-oil output growth. Therefore, research findings confirm that public expenditure composition significantly matters for long-run non-oil economic growth, and social expenditures have the greater positive impact in a resource-rich economy, Azerbaijan. Research results are highly useful for the government officials to consider while planning the expenditures in order to minimize negative response of non-oil sector to the fiscal contraction.

  14. Data on corrosion and scaling potential of drinking water resources using stability indices in Jolfa, East Azerbaijan, Iran

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    Mahmood Yousefi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was conducted on the drinking water resources of the city of Jolfa (East Azerbaijan province, Iran from samples taken from 30 wells. Calcium hardness, pH, total alkalinity, TDS, temperature and other chemical parameters were measured using standard methods. The Langelier, Rayzner, Puckhorius and aggressive indices were calculated. The results showed that the Langelier, Reynar, Puckorius, Larson-skold and aggressive indices were 1.15 (± 0.43, 6.92 (± 0.54, 6.42 (± 0.9, 0.85 (± 0.72 and 12.79 (± 0.47, respectively. In terms of water classification, 30% of samples fell into the NaCl category and 26.6% in the NaHCO3 category and 43.4% samples in the CaHCO3, MgHCO3 and MgCl category. The sedimentation indices indicated that the water of the wells could be considered as corrosive.

  15. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 7 June 2000. It was signed in Vienna on 5 July 2000. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the date on which the Agency received from Azerbaijan written notification that Azerbaijan's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force have been met, i.e. on 29 November 2000

  16. Feasibility study concerning remediation and rehabilitation of industrial polluted lands on the Absheron Peninsula, Republic of Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivin, Majorie; Helsen, Stefan; Cuyvers, Lars

    2014-05-01

    ECOREM is carrying out a feasibility study focused on the remediation and rehabilitation of industrial polluted lands, located on the Absheron Peninsula (Republic of Azerbaijan), on behalf of the State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic (SOCAR). The objective of this study is to support SOCAR with specific technologies and capacity building for environmental remediation works on various sectors of the Peninsula. As an independent consultancy company, ECOREM provides sustainable and quality advice, seeking the balance to the interests of the client and the environment in the broadest sense of the word. Within this study, it is important to underline that extraction activities in the country have been going on for more than a century. Given that the age of the environmental problems is equal to the history of the oil production, it is nearly impossible to point out the responsibilities of the various companies or to define the exact activities that occurred on a particular location. From the data gathered so far, more than 3600 ha of oil contaminated area are known in Baku and the Absheron Peninsula. Within this feasibility study, ECOREM will advice SOCAR on suitable and best available remediation technologies to apply on prior contaminated areas. According to the Environmental Policy of the Company, SOCAR would like to act in priority on the numerous contaminated lands of the Absheron Peninsula. Through the exploitation of the extensive GIS database provided by SOCAR, the oil contaminated sites will be examined in details in order to determine the most sensitive areas, on which remediation works or monitoring should be implemented in priority. To locate these sites, ECOREM will provide SOCAR with technical support in order to conduct risk analysis, remediation and monitoring of soil and/or groundwater oil pollutions. According to these results, practical solutions will be proposed concerning the possible reuse and management of contaminated soils and hazardous

  17. THE TRACES OF AZERBAIJAN TURKISH ON FUZÛLÎ AZERBAYCAN TÜRKÇESİNİN FUZÛLÎ’DEKİ İZLERİ

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    Mustafa KARATAŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Azerbaijan Turkish has become different from Ottoman Turkish as a result of political, geographical reasons since XVI. century and it has reached up to now as a standardized written language. Some affixes in today’s Azerbayijan Turkish have no usage in Otoman Turkish that has been developed by “common dialect resource” of Old Turkiye Turkish; but these have been standardized in Azerbaijan Turkish that has also been developed by the same resource. Today, it has been confirmed that these affixes used in written language of Azerbaijan Turkish take place in “Türkçe Divan of Fuzûlî” who was the Turkish poet of Iraq geography in XVI. century. These affixes are evaluated as traces on Fuzûlî of today’s Azerbaijan Turkish. Azerbaycan Türkçesi, Osmanlı Türkçesinden XVI. yüzyıldan itibaren siyasî, coğrafî nedenlerle farklılaşmaya başlamış ve XVIII. yüzyıldan sonra ölçünlü bir yazı dili olarak günümüze kadar ulaşmıştır. Günümüz Azerbaycan Türkçesindeki bazı ekler, Eski Türkiye Türkçesi “ortak ağız havuzu”ndan beslenerek gelişen Osmanlı Türkçesinde zamanla kullanımdan düşmüştür; ancak bunlar XVI. yüzyıldan sonra yine aynı havuzdan beslenerek gelişen Azerbaycan Türkçesinde ölçünlüleşmiştir. Bugün Azerbaycan Türkçesi yazı dilinde kullanılan bu eklerin XVI. yüzyıl Irak coğrafyasının Türk şairi Fuzûlî’nin Türkçe Divanı’nda yer aldığı tespit edilmiştir. Bu şekiller, günümüz Azerbaycan Türkçesinin Fuzûlî’deki izleri olarak değerlendirilmiştir.

  18. Prevalence of Obesity and Overweight and Its Associated Factors in Urban Adults from West Azerbaijan, Iran: The National Food and Nutritional Surveillance Program (NFNSP

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    Bahareh Nikooyeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Globally, the prevalence of overweight/obesity is increasing at an alarming rate. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, about 1.9 billion adults worldwide are overweight, and of these, over 600 million are obese. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in West Azerbaijan, Iran, in 2014. Materials and Methods: Data were collected as part of the National Food and Nutritional Surveillance Program (NFNSP. A total of 249 men and women aged 20–60 from West Azerbaijan were included in the survey conducted in 2014. Body height and weight were measured with light clothing and no footwear after overnight fasting. Results: Mean age of the participants was 38.5 ±7.8 yrs. Mean BMI was 28.0±4.9 kg/m2 (men: 26.8±4.2 vs. women: 29.0±5.3, p<0.001. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 36.5% (men: 38.6 % vs. women: 34.8%, p: 0.439 and 33.3% (men: 25.4 vs. women: 40.0 %, p: 0.016, respectively. Women were more likely to be overweight or obese than males (P=0.038. Multiple logistic regression revealed that gender (women vs. men (OR, 2.05; CI, 1.15-3.65; p,0.014 and age (OR, 1.06; CI, 1.01-1.1; p,0.004 increased the risk of becoming overweight or obese. Women who were housewives were five times more at risk of becoming overweight or obese (OR: 4.93; CI: 1.9-12.3; p<0.001 even after adjusting for age and educational level. Conclusions: The high prevalence of weight problems in West Azerbaijan is a serious health concern, especially in women. The lifestyle of housewives is a potential risk factor for weight gain in women. Keywords: Obesity, Prevalence, Azerbaijan, Adults

  19. Seasonal Activity of Ticks and their Importance in Tick-Borne Infectious Diseases in West Azerbaijan, Iran

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    Sh Salari Lak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: West Azerbaijan is considered as a main region for domestic animal breeding. Due to importance of herd as a main host and ticks as a vector of relapsing fever and CCHF, a comprehensive study was undertaken in the region."nMethods: Outdoor, indoor collection as well as ticks stick to the animals' body were collected and identified. The study was conducted during the whole seasons in 2004-2005."nResults: During four seasons a total of 2728 ticks of two families (Ixodidae and Argasidae were collected compris­ing 7 genera of 5 hard ticks and two genera of soft ticks including Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Rhipicepha­lus, Boophilus and Dermacentor. The soft ticks were Ornithodoros and Argas. These 7 genera included 18 species. The main species were Haemaphysalis inermis, H. punctata, H. sulcata, H. numidiana, H. concinna, Hyalomma mar­gi­natum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. detritum, Hy. dromedarii, Hy. asiaticum, Hy. schulzei, H. aegyptium, Rhipicephalus bursa, R. sangiuneus, Dermacentor marginatus, Boophilus annulatus, Ornithodoros lahorensis, and Argas persicus. Fre­quency of ticks during different seasons was different. A pyrethroid insecticide, cypermethrin, which is widely used for tick control was tested against soft ticks. The test method was based on WHO recommendation. At the LD50 level A. persicus needs more concentration than O. lahorensis."nConclusion: Ornithodoros and Argas are the more prevalent soft ticks in the region. Distribution and prevalence of hard ticks was varied in different seasons. Results of this study will provide a clue for vectors of tick-borne diseases in the region for local authorities for implementation of tick control.

  20. Seasonal Activity of Ticks and their Importance in Tick-Borne Infectious Diseases in West Azerbaijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Salari Lak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: West Azerbaijan is considered as a main region for domestic animal breeding. Due to importance of herd as a main host and ticks as a vector of relapsing fever and CCHF, a comprehensive study was undertaken in the region.Methods: Outdoor, indoor collection as well as ticks stick to the animals' body were collected and identified. The study was conducted during the whole seasons in 2004-2005.Results: During four seasons a total of 2728 ticks of two families (Ixodidae and Argasidae were collected compris­ing 7 genera of 5 hard ticks and two genera of soft ticks including Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Rhipicepha­lus, Boophilus and Dermacentor. The soft ticks were Ornithodoros and Argas. These 7 genera included 18 species. The main species were Haemaphysalis inermis, H. punctata, H. sulcata, H. numidiana, H. concinna, Hyalomma mar­gi­natum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. detritum, Hy. dromedarii, Hy. asiaticum, Hy. schulzei, H. aegyptium, Rhipicephalus bursa, R. sangiuneus, Dermacentor marginatus, Boophilus annulatus, Ornithodoros lahorensis, and Argas persicus. Fre­quency of ticks during different seasons was different. A pyrethroid insecticide, cypermethrin, which is widely used for tick control was tested against soft ticks. The test method was based on WHO recommendation. At the LD50 level A. persicus needs more concentration than O. lahorensis.Conclusion: Ornithodoros and Argas are the more prevalent soft ticks in the region. Distribution and prevalence of hard ticks was varied in different seasons. Results of this study will provide a clue for vectors of tick-borne diseases in the region for local authorities for implementation of tick control.

  1. Pre-eruptive ground deformation of Azerbaijan mud volcanoes detected through satellite radar interferometry (DInSAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonielli, Benedetta; Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico; Luzi, Guido; Feyzullayev, Akper A.; Aliyev, Chingiz S.

    2014-12-01

    Mud volcanism is a process that leads to the extrusion of subsurface mud, fragments of country rocks, saline waters and gases. This mechanism is typically linked to hydrocarbon traps, and the extrusion of this material builds up a variety of conical edifices with a similar morphology to those of magmatic volcanoes, though smaller in size. The Differential Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) technique has been used to investigate the ground deformation related to the activity of the mud volcanoes of Azerbaijan. The analysis of a set of wrapped and unwrapped interferograms, selected according to their coherence, allowed the detection of significant superficial deformation related to the activity of four mud volcanoes. The ground displacement patterns observed during the period spanning from October 2003 to November 2005 are dominated by uplift, which reach a cumulative value of up to 20 and 10 cm at the Ayaz-Akhtarma and Khara-Zira Island mud volcanoes, respectively. However, some sectors of the mud volcano edifices are affected by subsidence, which might correspond to deflation zones that coexist with the inflation zones characterized by the dominant uplift. Important deformation events, caused by fluid pressure and volume variations, have been observed both (1) in connection with main eruptive events in the form of pre-eruptive uplift, and (2) in the form of short-lived deformation pulses that interrupt a period of quiescence. Both deformation patterns show important similarities to those identified in some magmatic systems. The pre-eruptive uplift has been observed in many magmatic volcanoes as a consequence of magma intrusion or hydrothermal fluid injection. Moreover, discrete short-duration pulses of deformation are also experienced by magmatic volcanoes and are repeated over time as multiple inflation and deflation events.

  2. IN THE AZERBAIJAN FIELD TURKISH LITERATURE, THE FIRST PERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS AND “MOLLA NESREDDIN DERGISI” / AZERBAYCAN SAHASI TÜRK EDEBIYATINDA ILK SÜRELI YAYIN FAALIYETLERI VE “MOLLA NESREDDIN DERGISI”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mithat DURMUŞ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Azerbaijan Field Turkish Literature, the firstperiodical publication studies started at the end of the19th century. This date includes the same period for theTurkish Field Turkish Literature. In this study, in whichlevel the periodical publication activities at bothgeography are and through which aims the experiencesare realized are tried to be explained. It is given greatimportance to the “Molla Nesreddin” magazine which waspublished at the and of the 19th century and at thebeginning of the 20th century and which is an greatexample for the Azerbaijan Field Turkish Literature.

  3. A Survey of Earthquake-Affected Region and Controlling Actions to Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases in Azerbaijan Earthquake, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad koosha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : There are always changes in our planet that can threat human life and earthquake is one of them and has an increasing importance. This study aims to survey earthquake-affected region and controlling actions to communicable and non-communicable diseases in Azerbaijan Earthquake, 2012. Material and Methods : This is a cross-sectional study that its data were collected by East Azerbaijan province health center personnel and were analyzed and reported by current research team on the disease categories and relevant, controlling activities. In addition, the researchers assessed strengths and weaknesses of the teams’ performance from their members’ perspectives by interview. Results : The findings indicate that status of environmental health and psychological disorders is suitable and status of communicable and non-communicable diseases is acceptable. The strengths points of health teams included rapid assessment and on-time response to earthquake and constant monitoring of diseases and weaknesses were lack of coordination and organizing in disaster management Conclusion : This study showed that implemented activities for disease control and preventing epidemics had enough effectiveness and this experience can be used as a suitable model for disaster management in similar situations.

  4. Metasomatized mantle as the source of Mid-Miocene-Quaternary volcanism in NW-Iranian Azerbaijan: Geochronological and geochemical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechmann, Anna; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Ulmer, Peter; Guillong, Marcel; Faridi, Mohammad

    2018-04-01

    Middle Miocene to Quaternary volcanic rocks cover large areas of the Azerbaijan Province in NW Iran. This study reports two separate age clusters out of 23 new LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages: (1) Middle Miocene (16.2-10.6 Ma) and (2) Latest Miocene-Late Pleistocene (5.5-0.4 Ma). Major and trace element bulk rock geochemistry and initial Sr, Nd, Pb radiogenic isotope data on the dated rocks provide new constraints on the Mid-Miocene to Quaternary volcanism in this region. The analyses are distributed over a large compositional range from low-K to high-K calc-alkaline andesites and dacites/rhyolites to more alkaline trachybasalts and dacites with shoshonitic affinities. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns are steep with significant enrichment in LREE and low abundances of HREE indicating a garnet control. Plots of primitive mantle-normalized trace elements show negative Ti and Nb-Ta anomalies indicative of an arc signature. The wide compositional range and the ubiquitous presence of an arc signature reveal that the source mantle is heterogeneous and metasomatically altered. Sr, Nd and Pb radiogenic isotope data further point towards an enriched mantle source and/or crustal contamination. Crustal contamination is best recognized by inherited zircon cores, which yield Late Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian ages typical for the Iranian basement. The occurrence of adakite-like compositions with elevated magnesium numbers, Cr and Ni concentrations argue against a fractionation-driven process but point to a subcrustal origin. Overall, the analyzed lavas show no spatial and temporal relation to a potential subduction zone, confirming the dated volcanics to be post-collisional and not related to singular processes such as slab retreat or delamination of a continuous lower crustal sliver. We propose three hypotheses to explain the reported disparity in distribution, age and composition and favour small-scale sublithospheric convection or incorporation of crustal material into the

  5. The Kharapeh orogenic gold deposit: Geological, structural, and geochemical controls on epizonal ore formation in West Azerbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niroomand, Shojaeddin; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Moore, Farib; Mohajjel, Mohammad; Marsh, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    The Kharapeh gold deposit is located along the northwestern margin of the Sanandaj–Sirjan Zone (SSZ) in the West Azerbaijan province, Iran. It is an epizonal orogenic gold deposit formed within the deformed zone between central Iran and the Arabian plate during the Cretaceous–Tertiary Zagros orogeny. The deposit area is underlain by Cretaceous schist and marble, as well as altered andesite and dacite dikes. Structural analysis indicates that the rocks underwent tight to isoclinal recumbent folding and were subsequently co-axially refolded to upright open folds during a second deformation. Late- to post-tectonic Cenozoic granites and granodiorites occur northeast of the deposit area. Mineralization mainly is recognized within NW-trending extensional structures as veins and breccia zones. Normal faults, intermediate dikes, and quartz veins, oriented subparallel to the axial surface of the Kharapeh antiform, indicate synchronous extension perpendicular to the fold axis during the second folding event. The gold-bearing quartz veins are >1 km in length and average about 6 m in width; breccia zones are 10–50 m in length and ≤1 m in width. Hydrothermal alteration mainly consists of silicification, sulfidation, chloritization, sericitization, and carbonatization. Paragenetic relationships indicate three distinct stages—replacement and silicification, brecciation and fracture filling, and cataclastic brecciation—with the latter two being gold-rich. Fluid inclusion data suggest mineral deposition at temperatures of at least 220–255°C and depths of at least 1.4–1.8 km, from a H2O–CO2±CH4 fluid of relatively high salinity (12–14 wt.% NaCl equiv.), which may reflect metamorphism of passive margin carbonate sequences. Ore fluid δ18O values between about 7‰ and 9‰ suggest no significant meteoric water input, despite gold deposition in a relatively shallow epizonal environment. Similarities to other deposits in the SSZ suggest that the deposit formed as

  6. TOPLUM VE SİYASET İLİŞKİSİ BAĞLAMINDA AZERBAYCAN SİNEMA TARİHİ - THE HISTORY OF THE AZERBAIJAN MOVIES IN THE CONTEXT OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIETY AND POLITICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Murat KIRIK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetÇağımızda sinema 7.sanat olarak adlandırılmaktadır. Görsel bir sanat dalı olan sinema gerçeğin aynası durumundadır. Bununla birlikte sinema, toplum ve siyaset ile sürekli bir ilişki içerisindedir. Azerbaycan sinemasında bu ilişki derinden hissedilmektedir. Bu çalışmada Azerbaycan Sineması 3 dönem altında incelenmektedir. Propaganda ve siyaset her dönem Azerbaycan Sineması’nda var olmuştur. Günümüzde ise milliyetçiliği ön plana çıkaran filmler üretilmektedir. Çalışmada Azerbaycan Sineması’nın geldiği nokta tespit edilmeye çalışılmış, toplum-siyaset-sinema ilişkisi irdelenmiştir. Çalışmanın sonucunda Azerbaycan Sineması’nın gelişimine yönelik farklı çıkarımlarda bulunulmuştur.AbstractIn our age, cinema is called 7th art. A visual art which is called cinema is the mirror of reality. However, the cinema is in a steady relationship with society and politics. This relationship is deeply felt in Azerbaijan Movies. Azerbaijan Movies are examined in three periods. These are the period of pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet Azerbaijan Cinema. Each period, propaganda and politics have been around for Azerbaijan Cinema. Today, nationalism is highlighted in Azerbaijan Cinema. In this study, Azerbaijan Movies coming point is tried to identify and the relationship between society, cinema and politics are examined. As a result of the study, different recommendations presented for Azerbaijan Cinema.

  7. TOPLUM VE SİYASET İLİŞKİSİ BAĞLAMINDA AZERBAYCAN SİNEMA TARİHİ - THE HISTORY OF THE AZERBAIJAN MOVIES IN THE CONTEXT OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIETY AND POLITICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Murat KIRIK

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetÇağımızda sinema 7.sanat olarak adlandırılmaktadır. Görsel bir sanat dalı olan sinema gerçeğin aynası durumundadır. Bununla birlikte sinema, toplum ve siyaset ile sürekli bir ilişki içerisindedir. Azerbaycan sinemasında bu ilişki derinden hissedilmektedir. Bu çalışmada Azerbaycan Sineması 3 dönem altında incelenmektedir. Propaganda ve siyaset her dönem Azerbaycan Sineması’nda var olmuştur. Günümüzde ise milliyetçiliği ön plana çıkaran filmler üretilmektedir. Çalışmada Azerbaycan Sineması’nın geldiği nokta tespit edilmeye çalışılmış, toplum-siyaset-sinema ilişkisi irdelenmiştir. Çalışmanın sonucunda Azerbaycan Sineması’nın gelişimine yönelik farklı çıkarımlarda bulunulmuştur.AbstractIn our age, cinema is called 7th art. A visual art which is called cinema is the mirror of reality. However, the cinema is in a steady relationship with society and politics. This relationship is deeply felt in Azerbaijan Movies. Azerbaijan Movies are examined in three periods. These are the period of pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet Azerbaijan Cinema. Each period, propaganda and politics have been around for Azerbaijan Cinema. Today, nationalism is highlighted in Azerbaijan Cinema. In this study, Azerbaijan Movies coming point is tried to identify and the relationship between society, cinema and politics are examined. As a result of the study, different recommendations presented for Azerbaijan Cinema.

  8. Estimation of the Impacts of Non-Oil Traditional and NonTraditional Export Sectors on Non-Oil Export of Azerbaijan

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    Nicat Hagverdiyev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The significant share of oil sector of the Azerbaijan export portfolio necessitates promotion of non-oil exports. This study analyzes weather the commodities which contain the main share (more than 70% in non-oil export are traditional or non-traditional areas, using the so-called Commodity-specific cumulative export experience function, for the 1995-2015 time frame. Then, the impact of traditional and non-traditional exports on non-oil GDP investigated employing econometric model. The results of the study based on 16 non-oil commodities show that cotton, tobacco, and production of mechanic devices are traditional sectors in non-oil export. The estimation results of the model indicate that both, traditional and non-traditional non-oil export sectors have economically and statistically significant impact on non-oil GDP.

  9. DEWANS OF SEYYID NIGARI PUBLISHED IN AZERBAIJAN AND TURKEY AZERBAYCAN VE TÜRKİYE’DE YAYIMLANAN SEYYİD NİGÂRÎ DİVANLARI HAKKINDA

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    Parvana BAYRAM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most crucial representatives of the 19th century Azerbaijan-Turk literature of Sufism, Seyyid Mir Hamza Nigârî was born in the village of Cicimli Azerbaijan which is in Karabag region. Due to the pressure of the Russia, he came to Anatolia and became a student of İsmail Siraceddin Şirvânî in Amasya and got an authorization diploma from him. Nigari who educated people from e religious perspective in Ottoman Empire and different part of Azerbaijan succeeded in constituting both a religious and literal surrounding. Having still some effects lasted up to now, Nigari is a member of Halidiye branch of Nakşibendiye tariqah. Seyyid Nigârî’s Turkish Dewan was published a couple of times in Turkey and Azerbaijan by various researchers. In this paper, I will give information about all academic works done about Nigari and will talk about the poet’s Turkish Dewan publishing and differences among these publishing. 19. yüzyıl Azerbaycan-Türk tasavvuf edebiyatının önemli temsilcilerinden Seyyid Mir Hamza Nigârî, Azerbaycan’ın Karabağ bölgesinin Cicimli köyünde doğmuştur. O, Rus baskısı sebebiyle Anadolu’ya gelerek Amasya’da İsmail Siraceddin Şirvânî’nin müridi olmuş, ondan icazet almıştır. Osmanlı Devletinde ve Azerbaycan’ın çeşitli yerlerinde irşad faaliyetlerinde bulunan şair, bulunduğu çevrelerde hem tasavvufî hem de edebî muhit oluşturmayı başarmıştır. Etkileri günümüze kadar devam eden şair, Nakşibendiye tarikatının Halidiye koluna mensuptur. Seyyid Nigârî’nin Türkçe divanı, Türkiye ve Azerbaycan’da birkaç defa farklı araştırmacılar tarafından yayımlanmıştır. Bu çalışmada Türkiye ve Azerbaycan’da Seyyid Nigârî ile ilgili yapılan bütün akademik çalışmalar hakkında bilgi verilerek şairin Türkçe divanının neşirleri ve bu neşirler arasındaki farklardan bahsedilecektir.

  10. Style, magnitude, and timing of shortening at the eastern end of Kura fold-thrust belt, Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, A. M.; Cowgill, E.; Murtuzayev, I.

    2010-12-01

    Although the Greater Caucasus forms the northern edge of the Arabia-Eurasia collision, the main locus of shortening has shifted south since 5 Ma, producing the Kura fold-thrust belt in Georgia and Azerbaijan. Eastward-decreasing structural complexity and depth of exposure within the thrust belt suggest eastward propagation of faulting. Two topographic features define the eastern termination of the Kura fold-thrust belt at ~48°E: a southern range front exposing south-directed, closely spaced (back thrust. To determine the style, magnitude, and timing of shortening at the east end of the fold-thrust belt, we conducted 1:100K-scale structural mapping covering ~1000 ~km^2 of this region. Along-strike changes in structural geometry divide the map area into two structural domains, the Surxayxan in the west and the Qaramaryam to the east. The Surxayxan domain (47.5°E to 47.8°E) is characterized by two main, north-dipping thrusts, the Savalan to the north and Agcayazi ~4-6 km to the S. At maximum displacement the Savalan thrust places Apsheron sediments over Baku-Khazar deposits, repeating ~2 km of section. The hanging wall anticline of the Savalan thrust is poorly preserved, but a footwall syncline occurs along its full length. The Agcayazi thrust defines the southern range front in this domain, characterized by exposures of Apsheron sediments with the overturned forelimb of the hanging wall anticline preserved in limited areas, but no definitive exposure of the thrust. The Qaramaryam structural domain (47.8°E to 48.3°E) is characterized by the eastwards termination of the Agcayazi thrust and transfer of slip to the north-dipping Padar and Inca thrusts to the south, which together form the Qaramaryam anticline. The latter two thrusts are separated by ~4 km and expose the top of the Apsheron at their maximum displacements but mostly deform Baku-Khazar sediments. In both domains, fold geometries are consistent with a trishear model. Preliminary balanced cross sections

  11. International conference on "Photosynthesis research for sustainability-2013: in honor of Jalal A. Aliyev", held during June 5-9, 2013, Baku, Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Huseynova, Irada M; Govindjee

    2013-12-01

    In this brief report, we provide a pictorial essay on an international conference "Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability-2013 in honor of Jalal A. Aliyev" that was held in Baku, Azerbaijan, during June 5-9, 2013 ( http://photosynthesis2013.cellreg.org/ ). We begin this report with a brief note on Jalal Aliyev, the honored scientist, and on John Walker (1997 Nobel laureate in Chemistry) who was a distinguished guest and lecturer at the Conference. We briefly describe the Conference, and the program. In addition to the excellent scientific program, a special feature of the Conference was the presentation of awards to nine outstanding young investigators; they are recognized in this report. We have also included several photographs to show the pleasant ambience at this conference. (See http://photosynthesis2013.cellreg.org/Photo-Gallery.php ; https://www.dropbox.com/sh/qcr124dajwffwh6/TlcHBvFu4H?m ; and https://www.copy.com/s/UDlxb9fgFXG9/Baku for more photographs taken by the authors as well as by others.) We invite the readers to the next conferences on "Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability-2014: in honor of Vladimir A. Shuvalov" to be held during June 2-7, 2014, in Pushchino, Russia. Detailed information for this will be posted at the Website: http://photosynthesis2014.cellreg.org/ , and for the subsequent conference on "Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability-2015" to be held in May or June 2015, in Baku, Azerbaijan, at http://photosynthesis2015.cellreg.org/ .

  12. Agreement between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) concluded between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the International Atomic Energy agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). It contains two parts: Part I stipulates the agreement of Azerbaijan to accept safeguards on all source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within its territory, under its jurisdiction or carried out under its control anywhere, for the exclusive purpose of verifying that such material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. Part II specifies the procedures to be applied in the implementation of the safeguards provisions of Part I. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 14 September 1998, signed in Vienna on 6 November 1998, and entered into force on 29 April 1999. The Protocol entered into force on the same date

  13. Caspian oil and Azerbaijan foreign policy: analyse of Azerbaijanese arguments; Le petrole de la Caspienne et la politique exterieure de l'Azerbaidjan: une analyse des arguments azerbaidjanais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurbanov, T

    2005-03-15

    Since Azerbaijan's independence, He decided to use its natural resources for strengthening the bases of a new state and signed 21 massive oil contracts with 35 companies of 21 different countries. Our research aims to analyse the Azerbaijanis' arguments related to Caspian oil through its foreign policy, by economic, legal and geopolitical axes. Oil has a fundamental place in the country's economy, as it is Azerbaijan's Gross Product. The treaties of 1921 and 1940 do not regulate the question concerning the common use of the resources of the Caspian Sea. Therefore, it became urgent to define new status related to divide the sea by median line into national sectors according to the equidistance principles. As the oil is a 'political game' between foreign powers, Azerbaijan tries to take the benefice from this 'New great game' by transforming the country into a zone of cooperation. (author)

  14. Biosurveillance of avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses in the Barda region of Azerbaijan using real time RT-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition

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    Shalala eZeynalova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Azerbaijan State Veterinary Control Service (SVCS has conducted active serological surveillance for avian influenza (AI in poultry since 2006, when the first outbreak of AI H5N1 occurred in Azerbaijan. Samples are collected from September to May annually and tested using a hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay to detect antibodies against H5 AI viruses. HI testing is also performed for Newcastle disease virus (NDV upon request, but since this method cannot distinguish between natural infections and immune responses to vaccination, all positive results require follow-up epidemiological investigations. Furthermore, blood collection for the surveillance program is time-intensive and can be stressful to birds. In order to improve the national surveillance program, alternative sampling and testing methodologies were applied among a population of birds in the Barda region and compared with results of the national surveillance program. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected instead of blood. Rather than testing individual samples, RNA was pooled to conserve resources and time, and pools were tested by real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR. Environmental sampling at a live bird market was also introduced as another surveillance mechanism. A total of 1,030 swabs were collected, comprising tracheal and cloacal samples from 441 birds and 148 environmental surface samples from farms or the live bird market. During the same time, 3,890 blood samples were collected nationally for the surveillance program; 400 of these samples originated in the Barda region. Birds sampled for rRT-PCR were likely different than those tested as part of national surveillance. All swab samples tested negative by rRT-PCR for both AI and NDV. All blood samples tested negative for H5 by HI, while 6.2% of all samples and 5% of the Barda samples tested positive for exposure to NDV. Follow-up investigations found that positive samples were from birds vaccinated in the

  15. Biosurveillance of avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses in the Barda region of Azerbaijan using real time RT-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeynalova, Shalala; Guliyev, Fizuli; Vatani, Mahira; Abbasov, Bahruz

    2015-01-01

    The Azerbaijan State Veterinary Control Service (SVCS) has conducted active serological surveillance for avian influenza (AI) in poultry since 2006, when the first outbreak of AI H5N1 occurred in Azerbaijan. Samples are collected from September to May annually and tested using a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay to detect antibodies against H5 AI viruses. HI testing is also performed for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) upon request, but since this method cannot distinguish between natural infections and immune responses to vaccination, all positive results require follow-up epidemiological investigations. Furthermore, blood collection for the surveillance program is time-intensive and can be stressful to birds. In order to improve the national surveillance program, alternative sampling and testing methodologies were applied among a population of birds in the Barda region and compared with results of the national surveillance program. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected instead of blood. Rather than testing individual samples, RNA was pooled to conserve resources and time, and pools were tested by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Environmental sampling at a live bird market was also introduced as another surveillance mechanism. A total of 1,030 swabs were collected, comprising tracheal, and cloacal samples from 441 birds and 148 environmental surface samples from farms or the live bird market. During the same time, 3,890 blood samples were collected nationally for the surveillance program; 400 of these samples originated in the Barda region. Birds sampled for rRT-PCR were likely different than those tested as part of national surveillance. All swab samples tested negative by rRT-PCR for both AI and NDV. All blood samples tested negative for H5 by HI, while 6.2% of all samples and 5% of the Barda samples tested positive for exposure to NDV. Follow-up investigations found that positive samples were from birds vaccinated in

  16. SUFFIXES OF ACCUSATIVE IN IRAN (AZERBAIJAN TURK DIALECTS İRAN (AZERBAYCAN TÜRK AĞIZLARINDA YÜKLEME HÂLİ EKLERİ

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    Talip DOĞAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Case endings in Turkish have an important role on identifying the meaning of the sentence because of the width of function area. As a consequence, it has been understood that the suffixes of accusative both in historical texts of Turkish and in living dialects draw attention due to having various functions.In this study, by comparing to the dialects of Azerbaijan and Turkish dialects also together with historical dialects, it has been aimed to analyze the noun stems of the suffixes of accusative in Iran (Azerbaijan Turkish dialects, their using features in words and pronouns with plural suffix and possessive suffix, their position in palatal and labial harmony and their functions in the elements to which was added. Türkçede hâl ekleri, işlev sahasının genişliğinden dolayı cümlenin anlamını belirlemede büyük rol oynar. Türkçenin hem tarihî metinlerinde hem de yaşayan lehçe ve ağızlarında yükleme hâli eklerinin de çeşitli görevler üstlenmekle bu açıdan dikkati çektiği görülmektedir.Bu çalışmada İran (Azerbaycan Türk ağızlarında işletilen yükleme hâli eklerinin; tarihî lehçelerle birlikte Azerbaycan ve Türkiye Türkçesi ağızlarıyla da mukayese edilmek suretiyle, isim kök ve gövdelerinde, çokluk ve iyelik eki almış kelimelerde ve zamirlerde kullanılma özellikleri, kalınlık-incelik ve düzlük-yuvarlaklık uyumuna göre durumu ve eklendiği unsurlardaki işlevleri bakımından incelenmesi hedeflenmiştir.

  17. Pre-incarceration police harassment, drug addiction and HIV risk behaviours among prisoners in Kyrgyzstan and Azerbaijan: results from a nationally representative cross-sectional study.

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    Polonsky, Maxim; Azbel, Lyuba; Wegman, Martin P; Izenberg, Jacob M; Bachireddy, Chethan; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Dvoriak, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    The expanding HIV epidemic in Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan is concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID), who comprise a third of prisoners there. Detention of PWID is common but its impact on health has not been previously studied in the region. We aimed to understand the relationship between official and unofficial (police harassment) detention of PWID and HIV risk behaviours. In a nationally representative cross-sectional study, soon-to-be released prisoners in Kyrgyzstan (N=368) and Azerbaijan (N=510) completed standardized health assessment surveys. After identifying correlated variables through bivariate testing, we built multi-group path models with pre-incarceration official and unofficial detention as exogenous variables and pre-incarceration composite HIV risk as an endogenous variable, controlling for potential confounders and estimating indirect effects. Overall, 463 (51%) prisoners reported at least one detention in the year before incarceration with an average of 1.3 detentions in that period. Unofficial detentions (13%) were less common than official detentions (41%). Optimal model fit was achieved (X (2)=5.83, p=0.44; Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) GFI=0.99; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) CFI=1.00; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) RMSEA=0.00; PCLOSE=0.98) when unofficial detention had an indirect effect on HIV risk, mediated by drug addiction severity, with more detentions associated with higher addiction severity, which in turn correlated with increased HIV risk. The final model explained 35% of the variance in the outcome. The effect was maintained for both countries, but stronger for Kyrgyzstan. The model also holds for Kyrgyzstan using unique data on within-prison drug injection as the outcome, which was frequent in prisoners there. Detention by police is a strong correlate of addiction severity, which mediates its effect on HIV risk behaviour. This pattern suggests that police may target drug users and that such harassment may

  18. Relationship between job satisfaction and performance of primary care physicians after the family physician reform of east Azerbaijan province in Northwest Iran.

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    Jabbari, Hossein; Pezeshki, Mohamad Zakarria; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Asghari, Mohammad; Bakhshian, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Following the implementation of family physician program in 2004 in Iranian healthcare system, the understanding in changes in physicians' practice has become important. The objective of this study was to determine the level of family physicians' job satisfaction and its relationship with their performance level. A cross-sectional study was conducted among all 367 family physicians of East Azerbaijan province in during December 2009 to May 2011 using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire for job satisfaction. The performance scores of primary care physicians were obtained from health deputy of Tabriz Medical University. In this study, overall response rate was 64.5%. The average score of job satisfaction was 42.10 (±18.46), and performance score was 87.52 (±5.74) out of 100. There was significant relationships between working history and job satisfaction (P = 0.014), marital status (P = 0.014), and sex (P = 0.018) with performance among different personal and organizational variables. However, there was no significant relationship between job satisfaction and performance, but satisfied people had about three times better performance than their counterparts (all P job satisfaction are obvious indications for more extensive research in identifying causes and finding mechanisms to improve the situation, especially in payment methods and work condition, in existing health system.

  19. Comparison and Analysis of Evaluation System of Child Care Program in Primary Health Care System in the East Azerbaijan Province Based on Comprehensive Evaluation Model (CIPP

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    Yalda Mousa Zadeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Planning plays an important role in improving children's health and an evaluation system is necessary to planning. The purpose of this study was comparing and analyzing evaluation system of child care program in primary health care system in the Eastern Azerbaijan province based on Comprehensive Evaluation Model (CIPP. Material and Methods : This is a cross sectional study. The process includes a review of current evaluation system, comparison and analysis of the system based on a comprehensive model and to assess and identify the strengths and weaknesses of the current systems. The quantitative methods (such as brainstorming, observation and interview and consensus of study group about the results of the study were used for analyzing and interpreting results. Results: It showed that not enough attention was paid to the context and performance and the content of evaluation just includes inputs and processes based on the finding. Specific criteria and impact were considered in four areas (context, input, process and outcome and all levels which were according to the proposal and based on the CIPP model. Conclusion: Evaluation is a control process tool by higher levels and self-assessment by service provider is not considered in the current system. Evaluation includes quantitative aspects and not the quality of process. So, it is recommended that forecasting system that utilizes evaluation will result in improving future planning and a scientific model to be used in designing evaluation program. ​

  20. Detection of the enterotoxigenic genes (sei,sej) in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis milk in the West Azerbaijan of Iran.

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    Ahmady, Malahat; Kazemi, Sahar

    2013-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative pathogen of clinical and subclinical mastitis of dairy domestic ruminants. This organism produces a variety of extracellular toxins and virulence factors such as enterotoxin SEI and SEJ that contribute to its pathogenic potential. In this study 25 S. aureus isolates obtained from four dairy herds of Urmia region which is located in West Azerbaijan province in Iran. The tested isolates were identified on the basis of the cultural and biochemical properties, as well as amplification of the aroA gene which is specific for S. aureus . All isolates were also analyzed for the presence of the SEI ( sei ) and SEJ ( sej ) encoding genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seven positive isolates were detected for sei , but sej gene was not detected in any of the total number of 25 isolates. The present study revealed that the PCR amplification of the aroA gene could be used as a powerful tool for identification of S. aureus from the cases of bovine mastitis. Results of the present study also showed that the strains of S. aureus which cause mastitis can potentially produce enterotoxin SEI. Overall, our results suggest that it is of special importance to follow the presence of enterotoxin-producing S. aureus in other dairy products, especially for protecting the consumers from staphylococcal food poisoning.

  1. Evaluation of Association Between HLA Class II DR4–DQ8 Haplotype and Type I Diabetes Mellitus in Children of East Azerbaijan State of Iran

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    Nasrin Sohrabi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Association between HLA-DR4–DQ8 haplotype and type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM-1A was investigated in children of East Azerbaijan state of Iran because such an association has not been previously studied in this population. Methods: HLA-typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific priming. For haplotype analysis, the logistic regression model was performed. Results: Of the three investigated alleles, the frequency of DRB1*0401 was significantly higher among patients compared with that in healthy subjects (76.74% vs. 23.26%. Conclusion: The findings of the current study are consistent with those of previous studies and show that DRB1*0401 is associated with DM-1A; the frequencies of the two other alleles were also higher among patients, although the differences were not statistically significant. Two haplotypes associated with these alleles were also surveyed, and DRB1*0401−-DQA1*0301−, and DRB1*0401−-DQA1*0301−-DQB1*0302− were the most frequent haplotypes among the patient group.

  2. Evaluation of Abundance and Preparation of Dominant Weeds Distribution Map in Irrigated and Rain fed Wheat Fields of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

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    V. Narimani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the large diversity of weeds in irrigated and rain fed wheat fields in East Azerbaijan province, Determining dominant specific weeds and prepare their distribution map, wheat fields were survey based on identical approach. During 9 years (from 2000 to 2009, in 231 wheat fields based on their sizes from 19 counties were selected and abundance of weed species were studied. The results showed that there were more than 112 and 137 species of weeds in irrigated and rain fed field belonging to 101 genera of 28 families. The most important dominant broad leaf weeds in rain fed and irrigated fields were: Galium tricornatum, Chenopodium album, Descurania Sophia, Polygonium aviculare, Geranium tuberosum, Goldbachia laevigata. Grass leaves weeds are Eremopyrum bonaepartis, Alopecurus myosuroides, Bromus tectorum. In addition weed genuses like Acroptilon repens, convolvulus arvensis, Salsola kali, cardaria draba, Lactuca serriola, arethemost prevalent weeds at harvesting time in the wheat fields of province. The results also showed that controlling measures of weeds in wheat fields of province is not satisfactory and their management methods prior to harvesting are even worse.

  3. An empirical study to investigate the effects of thinking styles on emotional intelligence: A case study of Jihad Agriculture Organization of east Azerbaijan province

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    Habibeh Ayagh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An empirical study to investigate the effects of thinking styles on emotional intelligence among employees of agriculture industry in east Azerbaijan province. The proposed study uses a standard thinking style questionnaire originally developed by Sternberg and Wagner (1992 [Sternberg, R. J., & Wagner, R. K. (1992. Thinking styles inventory. Unpublished test, Yale University]. There are 716 employees working for this agriculture-based unit and the study uses random sampling technique and chooses 255 employees for this study. Cronbach alpha has been used to verify the overall questionnaire and different tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Pearson correlation test are used to examine different hypotheses of this survey. The results indicate there is positive and meaningful relationship between thinking style and emotional intelligence. We can also confirm that four thinking style’s components including functions, levels, scope and learning have meaningful impact on emotional intelligence when the level of significance is five or even one percent. However, forms did not have any meaningful impact on emotional intelligence.

  4. Isolation, identification, and monitoring of antibiotic resistance in Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from sheep in East Azerbaijan province, Iran

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    I. Khalili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in order to isolate, identify, and assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of the causative agent(s of pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep in East Azerbaijan province, northwest of Iran. Pneumonia was detected in 320 cases, and the affected lungs were sampled in the slaughterhouse. The samples were investigated bacteriologically for the isolation of two microorganisms from the Pasteurellaceae family. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from six (1.87% samples, while none of the lung tissues were positive for Mannheimia haemolytica. After the isolation and detection of microorganisms via cultural and morphological tests, the bacteria were identified on the basis of biochemical criteria and polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all P. multocida isolates, using broth microdilution method. Evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of eight antimicrobial agents against the tested isolates showed that all the organisms were resistant to amoxicillin and relatively susceptible to ceftiofur. In conclusion, P. multocida was introduced as the main cause of ovine pneumonic pasteurellosis in the studied district, and the outbreak frequency significantly varied in different seasons of the year (P

  5. Survey of gastrointestinal parasites in wild boar (Sus scrofa, wild goat (Capra aegagrus and red deer (Cervus elaphus in the Aynaloo protected area, East Azerbaijan province

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    Roghayeh Norouzi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections are a threat to the wildlife by endangering the health of wild animals and serving as a source of transmission of infectious agents to livestock and humans. Despite the distribution of wild boars (Sus scrofa, wild goat (Capra aegagrus and red deer (Cervus elaphus throughout the world, information on their parasitic infections is limited. Knowledge of the parasitic fauna of animals in protected areas may be used in protection of endangered species. The present study aimed to investigate the status of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in wild boar, wild goat and red deer in the Aynaloo protected area, Northwest of Kaleybar city, East Azerbaijan province. For this purpose, in spring 2015, 30 fecal samples of wild boar, 30 fecal samples of wild goat and 30 fecal samples of red deer were collected. The samples were processed using direct smear and Clayton lane floatation technique. Five species of helminths were detected from wild boar fecal samples consisting of Trichuris suis, Strongyloides suis, Physocephalus sexalatus, Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus apri. Among them,  one species (Strongyloides suis was reported for the first time in Iran. Protozoa were not detected in the fecal samples of the wild boar. Wild goats were infected with Oesophagostomum columbianum, Muellerius capillaris and Eimeria spp. Respiratory larva and Eimeria spp. were detected from red deer samples.

  6. Detection of coliform bacteria, determination of phylogenetic typing and antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli in qanats and springs of East-Azerbaijan province

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    N. Shabani Lokarani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli as a fecal contamination and is considered as an index in water. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of E. coli and antibiotic resistance of the isolates collected from qanats and springs in East-Azerbaijan province. For this purpose, 118 samples were selected from above mentioned area and examined by MPN method. The positive coliform samples were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Afterwards, to determine the genetic diversity of E. coli isolates, phylogenetic typing we conducted by means of multiplex PCR. To determine the antibiotic resistance profile, antibiotic discs of Nalidixic Acid, Co-trimoxazol, Amoxicillin, Gentamaicin Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, Imipenem, Cefotaxime and Ceftazidime antibiogram were used. Based on results, 48% of the samples were evaluated as positive for coliform including 40% for E. coli and 19% for Klebsiella. Amongst 23 isolates confirmed as E. coli by PCR. Phylogenetic typing revealed  that 44% of E. coli strains belonged to type D and B2 and 56% belonged to A and B1 phylotypes. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern showed that 92% of E. coli isolates were resistant to Amoxicillin. All E. coli isolates were sensitive to Imipenem. It was concluded that presence of pathogenic E. coli with high rate of antibacterial resistance in waters source could be considered as a human health hazard.

  7. A study on the effect of workaholism on human resource productivity: A case study of managers of East Azerbaijan Water and Waste Water Company

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    Ali Akbar Ahmadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available These days, work is considered as an integral part of the human life and many people spend significant amount of their time in different organizations and departments to earn income. Unlimited organizational pressures and demands facing people have made them allocate much of their time on working. Because of these pressures, people are becoming increasingly subject to workaholism. On the other hand, leaders and managers are trying to improve performance and activities of their respective organizations. Therefore, different concepts such as productivity are turned to the major subject of the management and organizational studies within the same organizations. Note that today changeable and competitive environment and the available limited resources and facilities have turned the concept of productivity into one the most important preoccupations of management within modern organizations. In view of the limited studies and information available in Iran on workaholism and its adverse consequences, the present research intends to investigate and identifies the impacts of workaholism components on human resource productivity. In the present, research the descriptive-survey research method is used and where statistical community includes 130 managers of the East Azerbaijan Water and Waste Company. Using the correlation coefficient and linear regression technique the research tries to investigate the relationships between the concepts of workaholism and human resource productivity and demonstrates how they are applied in above-mentioned community.

  8. Characterization of industrial waste from a natural gas distribution company and management strategies: a case study of the East Azerbaijan Gas Company (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Hassan; Aslhashemi, Ahmad; Assadi, Mohammad; Khodaei, Firoz; Mardangahi, Baharak; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Roshani, Babak

    2012-10-01

    Although a fundamental prerequisite for the successful implementation of any waste management plan is the availability of sufficient and accurate data, there are few available studies regarding the characterization and management of gas distribution company waste (GDCW). This study aimed to characterize the industrial waste generated by the East Azerbaijan Gas Distribution Company (EAGDC) and to present environmental management strategies. The EAGDC serves 57 cities and 821 villages with a total population of more than 2.5 million as well as numerous industrial units. The methodology of this study was based on a checklist of data collected from each zone of the company, site visits (observation), and quantity and quality analysis according to the formal data available from different zones. The results indicate that more than 35 different kinds of industrial solid waste are generated in different industrial installations. The most important types of generated waste include empty barrels (including mercaptans, diesel fuel, deionized waters and oil), faulty gas meters and regulators, a variety of industrial oils, sleeves, filter elements and faulty pipes, valves and fittings. The results indicated that, currently, GDCW is generally handled and disposed of with domestic waste, deposited in companies' installation yards and stores or, sometimes, recycled through non-scientific approaches that can create health risks to the public and the environment, even though most of the GDCW was determined to be recyclable or reusable materials. This study concludes that gas distribution companies must pay more attention to source reduction, recycling and reusing of waste to preserve natural resources, landfill space and the environment.

  9. Assessing energy efficiencies, economy, and global warming potential (GWP) effects of major crop production systems in Iran: a case study in East Azerbaijan province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Arash; Mahdavi Damghani, Abdolmajid; Vafabakhsh, Javad; Deihimfard, Reza

    2017-07-01

    Efficient use of energy in farming systems is one of the most important implications for decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigating global warming (GW). This paper describes the energy use patterns, analyze the economics, and report global warming potential effects of major crop production systems in East Azerbaijan province, Iran. For this purpose, 110 farmers whose main activity was major crop production in the region, including wheat, barley, carrot, tomato, onion, potato, alfalfa, corn silage, canola, and saffron, were surveyed. Some other data was obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture Jihad of Iran. Results showed that, in terms of total energy input, onion (87,556 Mj ha -1 ) and potato (80,869 Mj ha -1 ) production systems were more energy-intensive than other crops. Among the studied crops, the highest values of net return (6563.8 $ ha -1 ) and benefit/cost ratio (1.95) were related to carrot and corn silage production systems, respectively. Studies have also shown that onion and saffron production systems emit the highest (5332.6 kg CO2eq ha -1 ) and lowest (646.24 kg CO 2 eq ha -1 ) CO 2 eq. emission, respectively. When it was averaged across crops, diesel fuel accounted for the greatest GHG contribution with 43% of the total, followed by electric power (28%) and nitrogen fertilizer (21%). In the present study, eco-efficiency was calculated as a ratio of the gross production value and global warming potential effect for the studied crops. Out of all the studied crops, the highest values of eco-efficiency were calculated to be 8.65 $ kg CO 2 eq -1 for the saffron production system followed by the carrot (3.65 $ kg CO 2 eq -1 ) production. Generally, from the aspect of energy balance and use efficiency, the alfalfa production system was the best; however, from an economical point of view, the carrot production system was better than the other crops.

  10. Incidence of Giardia lamblia Subspecies by PCR-RFLP in Stool Specimens of Hospitalized Children at Urmia Mutahhari Hospital, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.

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    Khosro Hazrati Tappeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia is one of the most prevalent intestinal flagellate protozoa that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts causing severe intestinal disorder in children.This study was performed to determine subspecies of G.lamblia by the PCR-RFLP method, targeting the glutamate dehydrogenase(gdhlocus, in hospitalized children at Urmia Mutahhari Hospital, West Azerbaijan Province,Iran and determining the infection transformational storages in this area.Overall, 720 stool specimens were collected from the hospitalized children, 34 samples were positive and Giardia cysts were detected under the microscope. Cysts were partially purified by the sucrose density gradient method and then washed with sterile distilled water to remove effectively the PCR inhibitors. Genomic DNA of G. lamblia isolates was extracted by freeze-thaw cycles followed by phenol/ chloroform/isoamyl alcohol method. The single step PCR-RFLP assay was used to differentiate the assemblages between A and B, which were found in humans. In this method, 432 bp expected size was amplified, and then for detection of subspecies, specific restriction RsaI and BspLI enzymes were used.Totally 34 samples were positive in terms of Giardia cyst out of 720 examined samples microscopically, so the parasite spread rate is reported 4.72%. Analysis PCR-RFLP on these samples revealed that 28 samples (93.3% have the genotype BIII and 2 samples (6.7% belong to the subgroup BIV.PCR-RFLP is a proper analytical method for determining the genotype among parasite types, using the glutamate dehydrogenizes zone's genes. Based on the results, an animal origin of infection cycle is suggested.

  11. A SURVEY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ENVIRONMENTAL ATTITUDES AND ENVIRONMENTAL KNOWLEDGE AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION BEHAVIOR AMONG CITIZENS OF URMIA, WEST AZERBAIJAN, IRAN

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    Amir Maleki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the environmental issues and challenges, particularly "energy consumption behavior" has been the focus of attenti on for policy makers and scholars in the fields of sociology, environment st udy, management and so on. The change in the people's behavior towards the nat uralist dimensions can be considered as one of the ways to avoid the damage t o the environment and destruction of nature (Quimbita, 2005:1. Based on the theory of Reasoned Action of Fishbin and Ajzen (1975, it is assumed that the re is a systematic model between the people's approach towards a certain iss ue and the related behavior towards that issue. On the other hand, scholars in the field of environment study such as Borden and Schettino (1979, Schahn and Hol zer (1990, Kaiser et al (1999, and Bayard and Jolly (2006 believe that th ere is a relationship between environmental knowledge and significant environment al behavior. Considering the significance of the issues stated above, the pr esent article attempts to shed light on energy consumption behavior and its possib le correlation with environmental attitudes and environmental knowledge among the citizens of Urmia, West Azerbaijan, Iran. The research method i s survey and the main tool for collecting data was questionnaire. Dunlop's NEP scale was used for measuring environmental attitudes and Salehi's Items was empl oyed for measuring environmental knowledge. Statistical sample was con sisting of 383 citizens who were selected using cluster sampling method. The re sults show: 1 the participants owned positive environmental attitude, 2 there was a statistically significant relationship between the environmental attitude and environmental behavior (energy consumption of the participants, and 3 th ere was not any statistically significant relationships between environmental kno wledge – either systematic knowledge or behavioral knowledge – and environment al behavior of the participants.

  12. SUFFIX OF -(yAn IN IRAN (AZERBAIJAN TURKISH DIALECTS İRAN (AZERBAYCAN TÜRK AĞIZLARINDA -(yAn EKİ

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    Talip DOĞAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available -(GAn suffix has a wide function field by using it as a relative clause in both old and modern Turkish dialects and accents, as a adverbial clause within the morphological and lexical elements and as the formation of past tense.Today, as in the past, Iran is one of the regions that represents the south-west branch of Turkish and that Oghuz Turkish has been widely used. In this study, -(yAn suffix has been examined for the dialects in Azerbaijan region of Iran according to its usage characteristics and functions with a diachronic and simultaneous examination -(GAn ekinin, Türkçenin hem tarihî hem de modern lehçe ve ağızlarında sıfat-fiil, yanına aldığı bazı morfolojik ve leksik unsurlarla birlikte zarf-fiil ve geçmiş zaman kipi teşkilinde kullanılmak suretiyle geniş bir işlev sahasına sahip olduğu görülür.İran, tarihte olduğu gibi bugün de Türkçenin güney-batı kolunu temsil eden Oğuzcanın yaygın bir şekilde kullanıldığı bölgelerden biridir. Bu çalışmada -(yAn eki İran’ın Azerbaycan bölgesi ağızlarında, art ve eş zamanlı bir incelemeyle, kullanılma özellikleri ve taşıdığı işlevler açısından ele alınmıştır.

  13. Optimizing Drilling Efficiency by PWD (Pressure-While-Drilling) Sensor in wells which were drilled in the Khazar-Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirov, Elnur

    2017-04-01

    management system, surface and downhole measurements, can be compared for more accurate and extensive analysis. PWD sensor was utilized with encouraging results in many wells up to 3000-6000m subsurface reservoirs (these wells were drilled in the Khazar-Caspian region of the Azerbaijan Republic) and acquired PWD RT/RM data implemented for best drilling practices in other brand new drilled offset wells in order to help us achieve our mission to drill safe, faster, on target, optimize drilling efficiency, maximize well value and reservoir insight.

  14. SOME THOUGHTS ABOUT CRAFTSMAN INSCRIPTIONS PRESENT AT THE TURKISH ERA BUILDINGS IN NORTHERN AZERBAIJAN / KUZEY AZERBAYCAN’DAKI TÜRK DÖNEMI YAPILARINDA BULUNAN USTA KITABELERI ÜZERINE BAZI DÜSÜNCELER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ersel ÇAĞLITÜTÜNCĐGĐL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkic republics, which gained theirindependency after the collapse of Soviet Union, get intouch with the other states on social, economic andcultural relations, especially with Türkiye. Manyscientists have had the chance to go to these regions forthe scientific researches and to examine the artmonuments, which are the most important evidences ofthe Turkish identity, after the collapse.Turkish art, which takes its strength fromthe depth of history, has been fed continually from itsroots extended to Central Asia and Caucasus. In thisstudy, the inscriptions, which are the primary sources ondating the architectural monuments constructed inAzerbaijan between XI-XIX centuries, have beenexamined and the superscriptions of the constructionand decoration masters’ and some other problems havebeen introduced.

  15. Application of ALD Images and Caliper Data for the breakout analysis from the wells which were drilled in the Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirov, Elnur

    2016-04-01

    compressive strength of the rock. This can create the enlargement of the borehole with two failure zones opposite to each other with circumference at 180 degrees (for instance top side vs bottom side of the borehole or right side vs left side of the borehole). The image tracks for Rhob (density), Pe (photoelectric absorption) and Caliper can show the data such as edges of the track from the top, right, bottom and left sides of the hole (the center of the track is the bottom side of the borehole). Generally the color gradation (different spectrums) can be used in order to show the orientation change in the measurement around the wellbore. The azimuthal density, Pe, and Caliper data can be pointed and visualized as a log curves which can represent the average of all available data (an average of the top, right, bottom and left sides (or quadrants) or as 8 (RT) or 16 (RM) individual bins and as an ALD Image log. In addition, the Caliper data can give us information about the diameter and geometry of the borehole while drilling, trip in and trip out activities (for more detailed breakout analysis and interpretations). This paper (abstract) will present the results of a breakout analysis conducted from the wells which were drilled in the Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic in order to evaluate the available ALD images, caliper information and eventually incorporation of all available data into the wellbore stability monitoring service (breakout analysis).

  16. Seismotectonic zoning of Azerbaijan territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangarli, Talat; Aliyev, Ali; Aliyev, Fuad; Rahimov, Fuad

    2017-04-01

    Studying of the space-time correlation and consequences effect between tectonic events and other geological processes that have created modern earth structure still remains as one of the most important problems in geology. This problem is especially important for the East Caucasus-South Caspian geodynamic zone. Being situated at the eastern part of the Caucasian strait, this zone refers to a center of Alpine-Himalayan active folded belt, and is known as a complex tectonic unit with jointing heterogeneous structural-substantial complexes arising from different branches of the belt (Doburja-Caucasus-Kopetdag from the north and Pyrenean-Alborz from the south with Kura and South Caspian zone). According to GPS and precise leveling data, activity of regional geodynamic processes shows intensive horizontal and vertical movements of the Earth's crust as conditioned by collision of the Arabian and Eurasian continental plates continuing since the end of Miocene. So far studies related to the regional of geology-geophysical data, periodically used for the geological and tectonic modeling of the environment mainly based on the fixing ideology. There still remains a number of uncertainties in solution of issues related to regional geology, tectonics and magmatism, structure and interrelation of different structural zones, space-time interrelations between onshore and offshore complexes, etc. At the same time large dataset produced by surface geological surveys, deep geological mapping of on- and offshore areas with the use of seismic and electrical reconnaissance and geophysical field zoning methods, deep well drilling and remote sensing activities. Conducted new studies produced results including differentiation of formerly unknown nappe complexes of the different ages and scales within the structure of mountain-fold zones, identification of new zones containing ophiolites in their section, outlining of currently active faulting areas, geophysical interpretation of the deep structure of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, detailed description of the deep structure of Caspian zone, Kur and Caspian megadepressions, identification of nappe-folded structure of the Absheron Peninsula and the Absheron threshold at the border of Middle and South Caspian, justification of the possible hydrocarbon concentration at the tectonically stratified substantial complexes of mountain and foothill areas, etc. Based on the outcomes of implemented researches, some general conclusions and schemes were drawn for some parts of the project region within the plate tectonics conceptual frameworks, to include the territories of Lesser Caucasus and South Caspian. Analysis and comparison of these data with macroseismic and instrumental data allowed us to conduct seismotectonic studies in a region and develop a new scheme of seismotectonic map with outlined recent and forecasted seismic activity. There also correlated foci zones of earthquakes with subhorizontal and subvertical borders in earth crust, which shows their structure-dynamic relationship. In the one hand, the earthquake foci zones belong to the faults of the basement which extend to sedimentary cover and their intersection knots. On the other hand, there appearing inner-block seismogenic levels, namely, in seismic generation acts all the earth crust: tectonic stress results on movements along fault zones, as well as lateral displacements along non-stable contacts of the structure-substance complexes of different competency.

  17. Development of three quantitative real-time PCR assays for the detection of Rickettsia raoultii, Rickettsia slovaca, and Rickettsia aeschlimannii and their validation with ticks from the country of Georgia and the Republic of Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ju; You, Brian J; Liu, Evan; Apte, Anisha; Yarina, Tamasin R; Myers, Todd E; Lee, John S; Francesconi, Stephen C; O'Guinn, Monica L; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Vephkhvadze, Nino; Babuadze, Giorgi; Sidamonidze, Ketevan; Kokhreidze, Maka; Donduashvili, Marina; Onashvili, Tinatin; Ismayilov, Afrail; Agayev, Nigar; Aliyev, Mubariz; Muttalibov, Nizam; Richards, Allen L

    2012-12-01

    A previous surveillance study of human pathogens within ticks collected in the country of Georgia showed a relatively high infection rate for Rickettsia raoultii, R. slovaca, and R. aeschlimannii. These 3 spotted fever group rickettsiae are human pathogens: R. raoultii and R. slovaca cause tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA), and R. aeschlimannii causes an infection characterized by fever and maculopapular rash. Three quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, Rraoul, Rslov, and Raesch were developed and optimized to detect R. raoultii, R. slovaca, and R. aeschlimannii, respectively, by targeting fragments of the outer membrane protein B gene (ompB) using species-specific molecular beacon or TaqMan probes. The 3 qPCR assays showed 100% specificity when tested against a rickettsiae DNA panel (n=20) and a bacteria DNA panel (n=12). The limit of detection was found to be at least 3 copies per reaction for all assays. Validation of the assays using previously investigated tick nucleic acid preparations, which included Rickettsia-free tick samples, tick samples that contain R. raoultii, R. slovaca, R. aeschlimannii, and other Rickettsia spp., gave 100% sensitivity for all 3 qPCR assays. In addition, a total of 65 tick nucleic acid preparations (representing 259 individual ticks) collected from the country of Georgia and the Republic of Azerbaijan in 2009 was tested using the 3 qPCR assays. R. raoultii, R. slovaca, and R. aeschlimannii were not detected in any ticks (n=31) from the Republic of Azerbaijan, but in the ticks from the country of Georgia (n=228) the minimal infection rate for R. raoultii and R. slovaca in Dermacentor marginatus was 10% and 4%, respectively, and for R. aeschlimannii in Haemaphysalis sulcata and Hyalomma spp. it was 1.9% and 20%, respectively. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. AZERBAIJAN AND AZERBAIJANIS IN THE SHORT STORY BOOK OF CİHAN AKTAŞ TITLED “AZİZE’NİN SON GÜNÜ” CİHAN AKTAŞ’IN “AZİZE’NİN SON GÜNÜ” ADLI ÖYKÜ KİTABINDA AZERBAYCAN VE AZERİ TÜRKLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah HARMANCI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cihan Aktaş who is known by his books of thought and review as well as short stories published nine short story books between 1992 and 2009. The author, who refers to Azerbaijan and Azerbaijanis, especially in his short story book titled the Last Day of Azize (1997, either brought interesting portraits of Azerbaijani Turks in these texts or conveyed important information related to the culture, folklore, social and political life and economical conditions of Azerbaijan. He also narrated his impressions related to Azerbaijan geography and environmental area, especially to Baku. In this article, we will attempt to understand image/perception of Azerbaijan and Azerbaijanis reflecting on the book of Cihan AktaĢ titled “the Last Day of Azize”. Düşünce, inceleme kitaplarıyla olduğu kadar öyküleriyle de tanınan Cihan Aktaş, 1992 – 2009 yılları arasında dokuz öykü kitabı yayımlamıştır. Özellikle Azize’nin Son Günü (1997 adlı öykü kitabında olmak üzere, öykülerinde Azerbaycan’dan ve Azeri Türklerinden bahseden yazar, bu metinlerde gerek Azeri Türklerinden ilginç portreleri edebiyatımıza kazandırmakta, gerekse Azerbaycan kültürüyle, folkloruyla, sosyal ve siyasi hayatıyla, ekonomik Ģartlarıyla ilgili önemli bilgiler aktarmaktadır. Ayrıca baĢta Baku olmak üzere Azerbaycan coğrafyasına ve çevre bölgelere iliĢkin izlenimlerini öyküleĢtirmektedir. Bu makalede, Cihan AktaĢ’ın Azize’nin Son Günü adlı öykü kitabına yansıyan Azerbaycan ve Azeri Türkü imgesi/algısı incelenmeye çalışılacaktır.

  19. AZERBAYCAN TİCARİ BANKACILIK SEKTÖRÜNÜN CAMELS YÖNTEMİ İLE PERFORMANS ANALİZİ - PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF COMMERCIAL BANKING SECTOR OF AZERBAIJAN BY CAMELS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülcan ÇAĞIL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Özet1980’li yıllardan itibaren serbestleşme ile birlikte finansal piyasalarda özellikle bankacılık sektöründe işlemlerin karmaşıklaştığı, yaşanan yoğun rekabetin de etkisiyle risk yönetimi, performans ölçümü, denetim gibi konuların daha önemli hale geldiği gözlenmektedir. Bankaların düzenli çalışmalarını teminen uzaktan gözetim ve yerinden denetimin bir aracı olarak kullanılan CAMELS dereceleme sistemi çeşitli ülkelerde yıllardır kullanılmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı 2007-2010 döneminde Azerbaycan’da faaliyette bulunan yerli ve yabancı sermayeli bankalarda CAMELS analizinin uygulanması ve çeşitli önerilerde bulunmaktır.AbstractIt’s seen that transactions have become complex in financial markets, especially in banking sector, with liberalization as from 1980s and that issues such as risk management, performance measurement, inspection have become more important with the effect of severe competition. CAMELS rating system that is a means of remote surveillance and on-site inspection in order for regular works of banks has been used in various countries for years. The aim of this study is to make CAMELS analysis in foreign and domestic banks operating in Azerbaijan in 2007-2010 periods and to make various suggestions.

  20. AZERBAYCAN TİCARİ BANKACILIK SEKTÖRÜNÜN CAMELS YÖNTEMİ İLE PERFORMANS ANALİZİ - PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF COMMERCIAL BANKING SECTOR OF AZERBAIJAN BY CAMELS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülcan ÇAĞIL

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Özet1980’li yıllardan itibaren serbestleşme ile birlikte finansal piyasalarda özellikle bankacılık sektöründe işlemlerin karmaşıklaştığı, yaşanan yoğun rekabetin de etkisiyle risk yönetimi, performans ölçümü, denetim gibi konuların daha önemli hale geldiği gözlenmektedir. Bankaların düzenli çalışmalarını teminen uzaktan gözetim ve yerinden denetimin bir aracı olarak kullanılan CAMELS dereceleme sistemi çeşitli ülkelerde yıllardır kullanılmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı 2007-2010 döneminde Azerbaycan’da faaliyette bulunan yerli ve yabancı sermayeli bankalarda CAMELS analizinin uygulanması ve çeşitli önerilerde bulunmaktır.AbstractIt’s seen that transactions have become complex in financial markets, especially in banking sector, with liberalization as from 1980s and that issues such as risk management, performance measurement, inspection have become more important with the effect of severe competition. CAMELS rating system that is a means of remote surveillance and on-site inspection in order for regular works of banks has been used in various countries for years. The aim of this study is to make CAMELS analysis in foreign and domestic banks operating in Azerbaijan in 2007-2010 periods and to make various suggestions.

  1. Cebrayil-Büyük Mercanlı Sosyal Hayatından Örnekler: Azerbaycan-Karabağ Bölgesi / Examples of Social Life from Gabriel Province, Large Mardzhanly: Azerbaijan-Karapapakh Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMET KEMALOĞLU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Öz Cebrayil (Cəbrayıl Rayonu, Azerbaycan'daki merkezi şehirlerinden biridir. 1993'ten bu yana Ermenistan Silahlı Kuvvetleri'nin işgali altındadır. Cebrayil’de ki sayısız abidelerin, mağaraların, kalelerin, ziyaret yerlerinin ve mezarlık kalıntıları varlığı Cebrayil’in geçmişinin ne kadar eski olduğunu göstermeye yetmektedir. Bu eskilik Azerbaycan Türklüğünün varlığının ispatı olup Türk kültürünün devamlılığının da göstergesidir. Bu devamlılıkta Cebrayil’de yoğun olarak yaşayan Terekeme ve Karapapah Türkleri dediğimiz Türk boyu etkisi oldukça fazladır. Cebrayil ili ve özellikle Büyük Mercanlı çevresinde meydana gelen sosyal ve kültürel olayların birçoğunda Terekeme ve Karapapah Türkleri kendi karakteristik özelliklerini yansıtmışlardır. Bu çalışmamızda ise Terekeme ve Karapapah Türklerinin Büyük Mercanlı bölgesindeki sosyal hayatlarından örnekler verilecektir. Abstract Gabriel (Cəbrayıl Rayon is one of the central cities in Azerbaijan. It has been occupied by Armenian Army forces since 1993. The existence of numerous monuments, caves, castles, visiting places and cemetery ruins is enough to indicate how old its past is. This oldness is the proof of Azerbaijan’s Turks and the continuity of the Turkish culture. In this continuity, the effect of Turkish clan that we call Terekeme and Karapapakh Turks living intensively in Gabriel is great. Terekeme and Karapapah Turks have reflected their own characteristics in many of the social and cultural events happening around Gabriel province, especially around Large Mardzhanly. In this study, examples from social lives of Terekeme and Karapapakh Turks in Large Mardzhanly are going to be given.

  2. Azerbaycan Türkçesi İle Doğu Anadolu Ağızlarındaki Ortaklıklar Üzerine On The Common Traits Of The Azerbaijan Turkish And The Eastern Anatolia Dialects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin GÖKÇÜR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We call Oghuz Turkish spoken from Central Asia to Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Empire, since 11th century, as the Western Turkic. This period is divided into two branches in time. One of them is the Eastern Oghuz branch covering Eastern Anatolia and Azerbaijani and the other one is the Western Oghuz branch covering Ottoman field. The Eastern Oghuz branch covering Eastern Anatolia and Azerbaijani, and the Western Oghuz branch covering Ottoman field are represented by a single written language named as “Western Turkish” till 16thCentury. Azerbaijan and the Ottoman writing languages separated fromeach other in the 16th century as a result of the fact that the Azerbaijanterritory was dominated by Karakoyunlu and Akkoyunlu in the 15thCentury and Safavid Empire in the 16th century. For that reason,Western Turkic reaches the present day from the 16th century with twowriting languages including some phonetic and morphologic differences.Although the East Anatolian dialects have been in the Western Oghuzbranch, they still have the traits of the Eastern Oghuz branch in termsof phonetics and morphology.In studies of language products in the provinces of EasternAnatolia it is seen that the dialects of the region are in the domain ofAzerbaijan Turkish. So in this article, the studies of the dialects of theEastern Anatolia Region (Erzurum, Elazığ, Erzincan, Kars, Iğdır,Ardahan, Muş, Bitlis ve Van are examined; and the phonetic andmorphological similarities of this studies with Azerbaijani Turkic areidentified. 11. yüzyıldan itibaren Orta Asya’dan Abbasi Devleti'nin başkenti Bağdat’a kadar olan bölgede konuşulan Oğuz Türkçesine Batı Türkçesi denilmektedir. Bu dönem zamanla iki kola ayrılmıştır. Bunlardan biri Azerbaycan ve Doğu Anadolu sahasını içine alan Doğu Oğuz kolu, diğeri Osmanlı sahasını içine alan Batı Oğuz koludur. Azerbaycan ve Doğu Anadolu sahasının içinde bulunduğu Doğu Oğuz kolu ile Osmanl

  3. Application of Formation Testing While Drilling (GeoTap) for acquiring formation pressure data from the Azeri, Chirag and Guneshli wells which were drilled in the Khazarian-Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirov, Elnur

    2016-04-01

    A new technology to acquire wireline quality pressure tests using a Logging While Drilling approach has been successfully implemented few years ago in Azeri, Chirag and Guneshli wells which were drilled in the Khazarian-Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic. The Formation Tester While Drilling tool (GeoTap) uses a testing sequence similar to wireline tools. A single probe is extended to the borehole wall and a small pretest volume withdrawn from the formation. The resulting pressure transient is then analyzed for formation pressure, formation permeability and mobility information. Up-link and down-link capabilities have been added to achieve test control and quality feedback. An efficient downlink algorithm is used downhole to analyze the data. The parameters and pressure data are transmitted to the surface in real-time for continuous monitoring of the test. More detailed pressure data is recorded and retrieved after returning to surface. Use of a quartz gauge allows excellent accuracy. Azeri, Chirag and Guneshli fields consist of layered sand reservoirs alternation with shale sequences and detailed pressure data is acquired on a high percentage of wells in order to understand lateral and vertical continuity of different flow units. The formation tester can be utilized with the 'triple combo' Logging While Drilling string which eliminates the need to rig up wireline on many wells. Wireline formation tester runs are time consuming - particularly if high deviation or high overbalance conditions are encountered requiring pipe conveyed techniques. Non-Productive Time is high when the wireline tools are stuck and fishing operations are required. The Sperry Drilling GeoTap formation pressure tester service provides real-time formation pressure measurements. It bridges the critical gap between drilling safety and optimization, by providing early and reliable measurements of key reservoir properties, while improving reservoir understanding and completion design in real

  4. A systematic catalogue of butterflies of the former Soviet Union (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lituania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan) with special account to their type specimens (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea, Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Stanislav K; Bolshakov, Lavr V

    2016-09-01

    A catalogue of butterflies of Russia and adjacent countries is given, with special account to the name-bearing types depository. This catalogue contains data about 86 species (3 of them are questionable) of Hesperiidae (22 genera); 47 species of Papilionidae (14 genera); 89 species of Pieridae (5 of them are questionable)  (15 genera); 1 species (1 genus) of Libytheinae(dae); 2 species of Danainae(dae) (2 genera); 160 species of Nymphalinae(dae) (1 of them is questionable) (23 genera); 259 species of Satyrinae(dae) (14 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Oeneis and Pseudochazara) (34 genera); 3 species of Riodinidae (2 genera); 318 species of Lycaenidae (11 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Neolycaena and Plebeius) (57 genera). In total: 965 species of butterflies, 174 genera, by countries: Armenia-244, Azerbaijan-225, Belarus-107, Estonia-113, Georgia-211, Kyrgyzstan-316, Kazakhstan-344, Latvia-115, Lituania-126, Moldova-87, Russia-522, Tajikistan-295, Turkmenistan-159, Ukraine-192, Uzbekistan-241. Detailed distribution and subspecific structure (if present) for every species is provided. Lectotypes of the following species-group taxa are designated: Hesperia poggei Lederer, 1858, Parnassius felderi Bremer, 1861, P. eversmanni Eversmann, 1851, P. boedromius Püngeler, 1901, Limenitis moltrechti Kardakov, 1928, L. sydyi Kindermann, 1853, L. amphyssa Ménétriès, 1859, L. doerriesi Staudinger, 1892, L. helmanni duplicata Staudinger, 1892, L. homeyeri Tancré, 1881, Argynnis penelope Staudinger, 1891, A. thore borealis Staudinger, 1861, Vanessa io geisha Stichel, [1908], Melitaea maturna staudingeri Wnukowsky, 1929 (=uralensis Staudinger, 1871), M. didymina Staudinger, 1895, Papilio fascelis Esper, 1783, Thecla quercivora Staudinger, 1887, Lycaena orion var. ornata Staudinger, 1892. The following nomenclatural acts are established: Neolycaena submontana baitenovi (Zhdanko, 2011), comb. et stat.n. The following new synonymy is provided: Hesperia

  5. The Greater Caucasus Glacier Inventory (Russia, Georgia and Azerbaijan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielidze, Levan G.; Wheate, Roger D.

    2018-01-01

    There have been numerous studies of glaciers in the Greater Caucasus, but none that have generated a modern glacier database across the whole mountain range. Here, we present an updated and expanded glacier inventory at three time periods (1960, 1986, 2014) covering the entire Greater Caucasus. Large-scale topographic maps and satellite imagery (Corona, Landsat 5, Landsat 8 and ASTER) were used to conduct a remote-sensing survey of glacier change, and the 30 m resolution Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM; 17 November 2011) was used to determine the aspect, slope and height distribution of glaciers. Glacier margins were mapped manually and reveal that in 1960 the mountains contained 2349 glaciers with a total glacier surface area of 1674.9 ± 70.4 km2. By 1986, glacier surface area had decreased to 1482.1 ± 64.4 km2 (2209 glaciers), and by 2014 to 1193.2 ± 54.0 km2 (2020 glaciers). This represents a 28.8 ± 4.4 % (481 ± 21.2 km2) or 0.53 % yr-1 reduction in total glacier surface area between 1960 and 2014 and an increase in the rate of area loss since 1986 (0.69 % yr-1) compared to 1960-1986 (0.44 % yr-1). Glacier mean size decreased from 0.70 km2 in 1960 to 0.66 km2 in 1986 and to 0.57 km2 in 2014. This new glacier inventory has been submitted to the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) database and can be used as a basis data set for future studies.

  6. Effect of probiotics on microbial level in Azerbaijan native duck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probiotics are products of microbial cells that have useful effect on health and tranquility of human. According to several studies, valuable properties such as anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, increasing body immunity and resistance against entero-pathogens have been related to probiotics. Hence, the aim of this study ...

  7. [Pharmaceutical logistic in turnover of pharmaceutical products of Azerbaijan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhalilova, K I

    2009-11-01

    Development of pharmaceutical logistic system model promotes optimal strategy for pharmaceutical functioning. The goal of such systems is organization of pharmaceutical product's turnover in required quantity and assortment, at preset time and place, at a highest possible degree of consumption readiness with minimal expenses and qualitative service. Organization of the optimal turnover chain in the region is offered to start from approximate classification of medicaments by logistic characteristics. Supplier selection was performed by evaluation of timeliness of delivery, quality of delivered products (according to the minimum acceptable level of quality) and time-keeping of time spending for orders delivery.

  8. Azerbaijan's October 2008 Presidential Election: Outcome and Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nichol, Jim

    2008-01-01

    ...) region, civil disorder, and a steep economic decline. In recent years, however, the exploitation of oil and natural gas resources has contributed to a rapidly growing economy, despite rising inflation and reported corruption...

  9. Economic Liberalization and Its Impact on Human Development: A Comparative Analysis of Turkey and Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulaliyev, Mayis G.; Ok, Nuri I.; Musayeva, Fargana Q.; Efendiyev, Rufat J.; Musayeva, Jamila Q.; Agayeva, Samira R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to study the nature of liberalization as a specific economic process, which is formed and developed under the influence of the changing conditions of the globalization and integration processes in the society, as well as to identify the characteristic differences in the processes of liberalization of Turkey and Azerbaijan…

  10. Gliadin and glutenin polymorphism in durum wheat landraces and breeding varieties of Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadigov-Baykishi Hamlet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat genotypes including 7 landraces and 17 breeding varieties were studied. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under acidic conditions of pH 3.1 was used to study gliadin and glutenin polymorphisms. In total, 32 gliadin and 8 high molecular weight glutenin alleles were identified. The contribution of B genome (58.5% to the allelic variation of durum wheat varieties was higher than of A genome. The cluster analysis delineated genotypes into four main clusters. According to cluster analysis, legitimacy identifying the distribution of botanical varieties through the tree was observed. The study confirms the suitability of biochemical markers for cultivar identification and genetic relation study in durum wheat genotypes.

  11. Fiscal sustainability and oil wealth: Managing oil and gas volatility in Azerbaijan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budina, N.; van Wijnbergen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Assessing fiscal sustainability - i.e. considering whether or not a country can maintain its current fiscal policies without running into solvency problems and possible default - requires projections on a government's future revenue stream, expenditures and contingent liabilities within a

  12. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nichol, Jim

    2003-01-01

    ... the dependence of these states on Russia for trade, security, and other relations. The United States pursued close ties with Armenia to encourage its democratization and because of concerns by Armenian- Americans and others over its fate...

  13. Survey of rainbow trout mortality in cage culture farms in Hasanloo Dam, west Azerbaijan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amin Khodadadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In late June 2013, because of sudden and unjustified increase in mortality of apparent healthy fish in Hasanloo dam cage culture, random sampling was convicted from a live dying and dead fishes. Forty fishes (20 alive and 20 dead fishes from two cage with the weight of 200-300 gr were sampled. Samples were sent to private factor laboratory ice pieces for evolution. Some physicochemical parameters of Hasanloo dam water including nitrite, nitrate, ammonium, soluble solid materials, temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH was measured.  To investing the probability of bacterial, fungal and parasitic discover outbreaks sample were taken from the kidney, gills and skin of fish. The result of different investing revealed the presence of algal bloom, oxygen shortage, executive problems and fishing net fountain obstruction due to accumulation of planktons and suspended material. Because of increase in light intensity, nutritive substances level, warming of water temperature and static suability of water hydrological status, algal blooming had occurred in Hasanloo dam that not only destroyed the gills of fish but also created competition for soluble oxygen at night with some phytoplankton species causing hypoxia and death of salmon in the breeding farm. The result of general bacterial cutler was negative and mild secondary infection with S aprolegnia species was detected in PGYEA culture. The result of liver histopathology indicated the presence of hepatic ceroidosis because of non-standard diets with high levels of carbohydrates. Gill blade inflammation and hyperplasia was the observed. Due to high amounts of ionized ammonia among culture nets resolving from summer mortality syndrome.

  14. Students are the major source for proliferation of corruption in higher education in Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    Volodymyr V. Gulyk

    2012-01-01

    The soviet era brought various diseases to fifteen different countries, but corruption is oneof the most dangerous. The aim of the studies described here was to explore student’sopinion and their behavior as a main reason of proliferation of corruption. The author of thearticle conducted interviews and broadcasted the questionnaire among the students withindifferent background. The results proved that there is significant amount of students, whoregularly pay bribes, because they do not study ...

  15. Working overseas : Canadian oil and gas specialists are on the job from Argentina to Azerbaijan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentein, J.

    2010-05-15

    The recent economic downturn has caused some Canadian oil and gas workers to seek employment in remote locations overseas. Some international oil and gas operators offer their overseas rotational workers online training in the languages and cultures of the countries they work in. Despite this fact, many workers are not prepared for the cultural differences and extreme poverty of some of the countries they reside in. Overseas operators are increasingly relying on the use of homegrown workers for their foreign operations. Employing local workers saves money in salaries and travel, while also winning political approval. Canada's expatriate workers are not required to pay personal income tax if they can prove that they do not reside permanently in Canada. Many Canadian and American specialists working overseas function primarily as a training pool for future local replacements. Many employees are given security briefings for countries that pose higher threats to their safety, such as Yemen, many African countries, and Colombia. Despite the potential hardship and danger, employees are attracted by the significant financial rewards accrued during foreign assignments. 5 figs.

  16. Identification of Aquatic and Semi aquatic Birds of Sattarkhan Lake (East Azerbaijan- Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Mahbobeh Hajirostamloo

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic and semi aquatic birds as a group are suited to feed and breed in environments in which water forms a fundamental part. These birds are biological indicator in aquatic environment, because these birds belong to the top level of food chain in aquatic ecosystems. There are 61 species in 14 families of aquatic and semi aquatic birds in Iran. The birds of the Sattarkhan Lake belong to 16 species in 8 families which include 26.2 percent of total Aquatic and semi aquati...

  17. The Caucasian Triangle (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia – Tourism Development and Threats to General and Distinctive Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Roistomashvili

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caucasus triangle is one of the most interesting regions in the world firstly, with its geo-political location and also being a part of post-social space. These involve a number of factors determining existence and development of these three states. The world order today from economic and political point of view require readiness from certain states for establishing themselves in this big space. It especially concerns developing and semi-developed countries and the countries having less experience of being a state, which in fact are in the process of creating the institutes which will determine their independence and co-existence with the democratic world having more experience in this respect.Study on the Caucasus triangle arises great interest. The actuality of this issue is also determined by the political and economic dynamic changes taking place inside these states (evolution of Soviet space. Their political choice is determined by the less-stable environment and weakness of state, political partners and political and economic interests generally and towards one another. Unpredictable situation within the triangle is more important as it is a live process with new and changeable threats. For this reason it is very interesting for the scientists to study the development of this kind of countries. Ambition of these countries to establish themselves in the field of tourism is very important for us and that is why it is necessary to follow the process in dynamics, analyze and evaluate their development in this respect.

  18. Ovine Theileriosis Enhances Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers in Naturally Infected Sheep (Ghezel breed in West Azerbaijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh AZIMZADEH

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the plasma levels of cardiovascular disease biomarkers in naturally infected theileriosis in sheep (Ghezel breed. Theileria species are known to be ruminant blood parasites and involves deleterious effects in the livestock. Blood samples were collected from 30 selected sheep (Ghezel breed, naturally infected with theileriosis (infected group and same number non-infected ones. Hematological parameters and the plasma concentrations of cardiac troponin I (cTnI, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB and homocysteine (Hcy were determined in all samples. The results revealed that significant increase (P>0.01 in the level of cTnI, CK-MB, and Hcy concentrations in infected sheep compared with non-infected ones. In addition, cardiovascular biomarkers levels increased with aging and parasitemia rate (P<0.01. In conclusion, theileriosis provides evidence of the progression of cardiovascular biomarkers by aging and following elevation of parasitemia rate in Ghezel breed sheep and seems that further attention should be paid on this issue.

  19. Private Sector Financing and the role of Risk-bearing Instruments. Country report: Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    European Investment Bank

    2013-01-01

    This study was commissioned by the EIB with funding from the Eastern Partnership Technical Assistance Trust Fund, EPTATF. The study assesses the financing needs of the SMEs in the Eastern Partnership countries and the market failures that are constraining the development of the SME sector. In addition the study addresses the funding needs of the intermediaries that specialize in SME financing and examines the potential for different types of financial products including equity, guarantees, tr...

  20. Effects of Land Use Changes on Some Soil Chemical Properties in Khoy, West Azerbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Taghipour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intensified agriculture over a long-term is an important factor in soil change phenomena that can cause some unwanted effects on soil properties. To examine this hypothesis, chemical properties of the soils under sunflower cultivation over five decades and adjoining virgin lands were investigated in order to monitor changes caused by long-term cropping. The studied soils are influenced by continuous sunflower cultivation along with flooding irrigation and using chemical fertilizers for over five decades Materials and Methods: This research was undertaken at Khoy area (38o 10′ to 38o 40′ N latitude and 44o 15′ to 45o 10′ E latitude as the northern part of western-Azarbaijan province in the north-west Iran. The Khoy area is characterized by a semi-arid climate (mean annual rainfall of 300 mm linked with soil moisture and temperature regimes of xeric and mesic, respectively. Agriculturally, the studied area is cropped continuously by sunflower-wheat or barley rotations for over five decades and has received irrigation water from rainfall, groundwater, or seasonal river water. Forty soil surface samples (0-30 cm belonging to 10 soil series from the cultivated soils and the adjoining uncultivated soils were samplied and analyzed for the different chemical properties. In each soil serie, the samples (cultivated soil and adjacent virgin land were selected in similar slope, aspect, drainage condition, and parent materials. Soil analyses were involved soil pH and electrical conductivity (EC, soil organic carbon (SOC, Calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE, cation exchange capacity (CEC, total N, soluble K, exchangeable K, and available K. Potassium absorption ration (PAR was calculated by the concentration of solution K, Ca, Mg and exchangeable potassium percentage (EPP was calculated by exchangeable Na and CEC values Results and Discussion: This study illustrate that long-term continuous sunflower cropping had considerable effects on some soil chemical attributes. Over five decades of cultivation, a depletion face was observed in soil organic carbon, CCE, and some K forms (solution, exchangeable, available K for most of the studied soils. In contrast, an enrichment aspect was occurred in the values of EC. The results showed that soil pH and calcium carbonate equivalent were increased by 0.09 – 0.39 units and 16 – 26 g.kg-1, respectively, in most of the examined soils after intensive agricultural practice. Increase in the CCE value may be caused by tillage operation because of the calcareous parent material is tilled periodically by farmers to cultivate a certain depth of soil in the studied soils. Compared to the uncultivated soils, the cultivated soils showed a relative enrichment in electrical conductivity (20 – 80% which could be attributed to the chemistry of the irrigation water used and the interaction between the irrigation water and its receiving soils. A slight decline was observed in soil CEC values (1 – 9% probably due to destruction of soil organic matter. There was a decreasing pattern in the content of soil organic carbon with cultivation ranging 17 to 39% which could be associated with the environmental conditions and management practices, i.e. (a in the cultivated soils much of plant residues is removed or burned after harvest, (b the present of livestock after harvest which can result in a substantial loss of SOC, (c breaks up, decomposition, and mineralization of organic matter is accelerated by tillage practices, (d the relatively high temperature in the cultivated soils compared to the uncultivated soils which might enhance oxidation of organic matter and destroying of organic C. A relative depletion was observed in the mean value of soluble K (10 – 330%, exchangeable K (25 -40%, available K (16 – 41%, potassium absorption ratio (16 – 61%, and exchangeable potassium percentage (26 – 40% following continuous sunflower cropping mainly as removal of most sunflower residues after harvest and high uptake of K by sunflower as a high –K- requiring crop. In spite of the fact that exchangeable and available K declined by cropping for most of the studied soils, the soils were grouped as optimal to high category based on two the K forms. This means that intensive rotation cropping not be able to deplete soil exchangeable and available K below a certain level manly due to the presence of the high levels of K-bearing minerals. Conclusion: Overall, the chemical properties of different soil series reflected different responses to (both increasing and decreasing pattern long-term sunflower cultivation. Organic carbon, soluble and exchangeable K along with EC was known to be the most sensitive indicators following long-term continuous sunflower cropping and irrigation practices. In this cause, it seems hat monitoring the chemical characteristics of both the irrigation water and the soil must be considered in order to establish the water –soil-plant management strategies that will help to prevent environmental degradation and to maintain the overall heath of the studied soils.

  1. Identification of Lactobacillus species isolated from traditional cheeses of west Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ehsani

    2014-06-01

    Results: In present study, from a total of 118 isolates of lactobacilli were determined. Lactobacillus plantarum (24%, Lactobacillus casei (20% and Lactobacillus agillis (18% from facultative heterofermentative Lactobacilli and Lactobacillus delbrueckii (21%, Lactobacillus helveticus (14% and Lactobacillus salvariu s (3% from obligative homofermentative Lactobacilli were found to be more dominant species.Conclusions: So for achievement to organoleptic characteristics of traditional cheeses in industrial productions, mixed starters including dominant Lactobacillus species identified in cheeses can be employed.

  2. Geochemistry and tectonomagmatic setting of the Kharaju gabbroic intrusions (South Azarshahr, East Azerbaijan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolnaser Fazlnia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kharaju mafic intrusions (south Azarshahr; East Azarbaijan are gabbro in composition. The rocks with Eocene age intruded the northwest part of Urumieh -Dokhtar magmatic belt with a trend of NW-SE. These rocks contain mostly of minerals such as plagioclase, quartz, pyroxene, titanite, apatite and magnetite. The rocks are moderate to high calc-alkaline. The gabbros were produced as a result of the partial melting of mantle wedge with spinel lherzolite and after emplacement into the crustal magma chamber underwent fractional crystallization. Injection of the Kharaju intrusions is in relation to the last stages of Neotethys subduction activity under Central Iran. Negative anomaly in the high ionic strength elements (HFSE like, Nb, Ta, P, Hf and Zr and mild positive anomalies of Eu and Sr with moderate increases in values of K, Sr, Rb, Ba, Pb and U show oblique subduction beneath Central Iran might be willing to make the appropriate space on the edge of central Iran and as a result, partial melting in the mantle wedge occurred due to reduce the pressure as decompression.

  3. CHILDHOOD GUILLIAN-BARRE SYNDROME IN THE IRAN’S EAST AZERBAIJAN PROVINCE: 2001-2005

    OpenAIRE

    M. Barzegar; S. Davari Farid; S. Dastgiri; A. Malekian; V. Toopchizadeh

    2008-01-01

     ObjectiveThis study aims at determining the epidemiologic, presenting symptoms, clinical course and electrophysiologic features of childhood Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) in the East Azarbaijan province over a period of five years.Materials & Methods All the patients, aged< 15 years, referred/admitted to Tabriz Children Hospital with GBS between January 2001 and December 2005 were investigated.ResultsOne hundred and twelve subjects were enrolled during this period. The average annual inciden...

  4. Challenges of the Banking systems of Oil Exporting Countries (Case of Azerbaijan)

    OpenAIRE

    Mammadyarov, Aliyar

    2008-01-01

    Recent trends of increasing oil prices in world commodity markets lead to the notion that it is a good chance for oil exporting countries to accelerate development of their national economies and to strengthen their financial systems. At the same time, the impact of instability of commodity pricing process (especially in case of unrenewable, limited natural recourses) to national economies is a matter of concern both for buyers and sellers of oil. Moreover, in oil exporting countries these co...

  5. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    barrage against its capital, Tskhinvali, while Georgia reported intense bombing of some Georgian villages in the conflict zone by South Ossetian forces...Russian warplanes bombed the outskirts of the capital, Tbilisi, as well as other sites. Russian ships landed troops in Georgia’s breakaway Abkhazia...met in Bern , Switzerland, in Swiss-mediated talks over Georgia’s concerns about Russia’s accession to the WTO. According to Georgian officials

  6. The paleogeologic-geographical conditions of non-anti clinical traps formation in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleymanov, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : The plegicil-geographical researches had established the predominant development of definite non-anticlinal traps in some stages and oil deposits related with them. At the final stage of the Alpine tectonic cycle more favorable conditions rise for formation of paleogemorphological and structural-stractigraphical types of non-anticlinal traps due to relation with increase of the tectonic movements contrast and existence of numerous regional and local bakers in sedimentation. The complex history of the geotechnical development of the mentioned large tectonic units made the favorable conditions for formation of non-anticlinal traps of different in various stratigraphical complexes. Marine tangerines begun in the Early Cretaceous had led to accumulation of carbonaceous mainly, then sandy-clayey formations. The Middle Cretaceous is characterized with instability of the geotectonic regime

  7. Active faults pattern and interplay in the Azerbaijan region (NW Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, M.; Burg, J.-P.; Nazari, H.; Talebian, M.; Ghorashi, M.

    2017-07-01

    Northwest Iran is dominated by two main sets of active strike slip faults that accommodate oblique convergence between the Arabian and Iranian Plates. The best known are the right-lateral North-Tabriz, Qoshadagh, Maragheh and Zagros (Main Recent) strike slip Faults. This work reports that these dominant NW-SE to E-W striking faults are conjugate to smaller, NNE-SSW striking, left-lateral faults with minor dip slip component. All of these active faults displace Precambrian rock units, which suggests that they root in the crystalline basement of the NW Iranian microcontinent. Coulomb stress variance during co-seismic rupture along one of these faults may cause reactivation of the other faults. The minor set of left-lateral fault is therefore important to introduce in seismic risk assessment.

  8. Coercion or Compulsion?: Rationales behind Informal Payments for Education in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepisto, Eric; Kazimzade, Elmina

    2009-01-01

    Although informal payments are necessary for education systems in many countries, they prohibit education accessibility and equity in Eastern Europe and neighboring states. Exploring the rationales and the relationships is a promising approach for understanding corruption in education and ensuring educational equity. In this article, rationales…

  9. Radioecological conditions in Kurdakhani oil-gas deposits of the Apsheron district of Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvarov, D.G.; Magerramov, A.M.; Safarov, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text : There are two fundamental reasons of radiating contamination of the environment: 1) environmental contamination by application of neutron logging with a big doze of radioactive isotopes during oil-gas extraction; 2) disintegration and output of radioactive elements (U, Ra, Th, K, etc.) through geo tectonic breaks of the surface. Devices with the help of which the level of radioecological impurity of an environment was defined on these areas are shown. Also mathematical models (formulas, schedules on dependence between contamination of environment and quantity of radioactive elements) promoting to revealing of new oil-gas deposits and to definition of degree of radioactive pollution in the given territories have been made [ru

  10. Estimation of deepwater temperature and hydrogeochemistry of springs in the Takab geothermal field, West Azerbaijan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Reza; Moore, Farid; Mohammadi, Zargham; Keshavarzi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water samples from 19 hot and cold springs are used to characterize Takab geothermal field, west of Iran. The springs are divided into two main groups based on temperature, host rock, total dissolved solids (TDS), and major and minor elements. TDS, electrical conductivity (EC), Cl(-), and SO4 (2-) concentrations of hot springs are all higher than in cold springs. Higher TDS in hot springs probably reflect longer circulation and residence time. The high Si, B, and Sr contents in thermal waters are probably the result of extended water-rock interaction and reflect flow paths and residence time. Binary, ternary, and Giggenbach diagrams were used to understand the deeper mixing conditions and locations of springs in the model system. It is believed that the springs are heated either by mixing of deep geothermal fluid with cold groundwater or low conductive heat flow. Mixing ratios are evaluated using Cl, Na, and B concentrations and a mass balance approach. Calculated quartz and chalcedony geothermometer give lower reservoir temperatures than cation geothermometers. The silica-enthalpy mixing model predicts a subsurface reservoir temperature between 62 and 90 °C. The δ(18)O and δD (δ(2)H) are used to trace and determine the origin and movement of water. Both hot and cold waters plot close to the local meteoric line, indicating local meteoric origin.

  11. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Security Issues and Implications for U.S. Interests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nichol, Jim

    2009-01-01

    .... The regional governments have worked to bolster their security by combating terrorism, limiting political dissent they view as threatening, revamping their armed forces, and seeking outside assistance and allies...

  12. On the issue of improving the environmental situation of the contaminated territories of Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasanov, R.K.; Abdullaev, F.Z.; Gasanov, K.S.; Abdullaev, A.F.; Valiev, V.K.

    2015-01-01

    In order to ensure the environmental safety of the country by the Ministry of Emergency Situations were carried out extensive works to restore the ecology of the territories of Baku iodine plant and Neftchala iodine-bromine plant, territory of which by now have been cleaned of radioactive waste. Over time, technological impact converts soil profile transforming morphological and chemical soil properties. All this leads to deterioration in the living conditions of living plants and their biota, up to their complete destruction. Problem areas with restoring impaired environment, as heavy legacy of the past, is a priority task of the state

  13. Mediterranean-Paratethys connectivity during the Messinian salinity crisis : The Pontian of Azerbaijan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baak, Christiaan G C; Stoica, Marius; Grothe, Arjen; Aliyeva, Elmira; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-01-01

    Prior to the onset of the Messinian Salinity Crisis, a connection was established between the Mediterranean Sea and the Paratethys region to the north. Rivers currently draining into the Caspian Sea thereby became important for the Mediterranean hydrological budget. The role of this connection and

  14. The main development trends in bilateral relations between Azerbaijan and Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Guseinov, Rashad

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at the issues involving Azerbaijani-Israeli relations: their sources and the main development vectors in interstate political and economic ties. It emphasizes that the relations between the two states and their people are unique and could serve as an example for many countries. But the complicated geopolitical situation in the region is having a negative effect on the development of bilateral relations between Baku and Tel Aviv. Keeping in mind the above facts, the author a...

  15. Social Inequality at Köhne Shahar, an Early Bronze Age Settlement in Iranian Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Due to increasing investigations and studies of the Kura-Araxes cultural communities, our information about this enigmatic archaeological culture has increased in many respects. Its interactions and regional variations in terms of cultural materials have been analyzed by many scholars. However, our knowledge about its societal variations is still very limited. We do not yet know much about social dynamics behind its material culture that spread out through vast regions in the Caucasus and ...

  16. Evaluation of Oral and Dental Health among 12 Year-Old Students in Jolfa, East Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safooreh Esmaeilzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Twelve year-old is selected as the global indicator of age group to compare and monitor oral diseases at the international level. The aim of this study was to assess the state of oral health in the 12 year-old students to determine their needs and design oral health prevention programs in Jolfa. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was done on 146 students, with 12 years of age that were selected on a multistage cluster sampling method through the seven health centers which provided health services to schools in 2014 academic year in Jolfa city. Data were collected through interview and dental clinical examination using World Health Organization Oral Health Assessment Form for Children, 2013 questionnaire that consists of two parts: 1 demographic information and 2 the mouth status, including: dentition status, periodontal status, dental erosion, dental trauma, oral mucosa. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 software and applying descriptive statistics (Mean and Frequency, chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results: The mean of DMFT in the studied population was 4.30 ± 2.93 with 4.38 ± 2.26 for the boys and 4.21 ± 3.60 for the girls. According to the results, 92.5% of the students had at least one decayed tooth and 85.6% of those surveyed had at least one of the first permanent molar. Also, a significant association was observed between male gender and  tooth decay (P value Conclusion: The results of this study showed poor oral health status in the students of Jolfa and needs to serious attention to community-based health programs in education and implementation of preventive dentistry.

  17. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nichol, Jim

    2003-01-01

    .... The United States has fostered these states ties with the West, including membership in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and NATO's Partnership for Peace, in part to end...

  18. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    decade efforts in moving Armenia to settle the NK conflict, so that the solution might depend on Azerbaijan’s use of military force. He asserted that... deforestation and forest degradation and improve forest management and natural regeneration. H.R. 1960 (McKeon) National Defense Authorization Act

  19. Molecular diversity of Pasteurella multocida isolated from cattle and buffaloes in East Azerbaijan province based on restriction endonuclease analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    jalal shayegh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase information about the molecular diversity of Pasteurella multocida isolated from cattle and buffalo, 2 buffalo and 8 cattle isolates were investigated by Restriction Endonuclease Analysis (REA. REA was performed with Hha-I Endonuclease which established 2 distinct profiles: I and II.  Cattle and buffalo isolates fell into both REA profiles. Contrary to previous studies, the genetic diversity of the isolates was negligible. Considering the similarity of cattle and buffalo isolates is the present study, further studies witch larger samples should be carried out to investigate the possibility of inter-species transmission.

  20. Human Brucellosis Trends: Re-Emergence and Prospects for Control Using a One Health Approach in Azerbaijan (19832009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-25

    the Azeri gov- ernment in conjunction with the State Veterinary Service began a nationwide test–slaughter–vaccination control campaign aimed at actively...collected data on the active livestock test– slaughter–vaccinate campaign during the period 2002 through 2009, including number tested, Rose Bengal...programme consisted of vacci- nating non- pregnant females and replacement animals >6 months of age. Vaccinated animals were tagged, and test-positive

  1. HPLC Measurement of MDMA Content in Ecstasy Tablets Available in the Black Market of West Azerbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghafari

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: There is variability in the physicochemical properties of ecstasy tablets available in the black market for illicit drugs in northwest Iran. This variability may potentially put abusers at increased risk of overdose due to inadvertent excess ingestion of the tablets to achieve desired effects and also experiencing more harm due to tablets adulterants.

  2. Association between proto-oncogene mutations and clinicopathologic characteristics and overall survival in colorectal cancer in East Azerbaijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolatkhah R

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Roya Dolatkhah,1 Mohammad Hossein Somi,2 Iraj Asvadi Kermani,1 Morteza Bonyadi,3 Bita Sepehri,2 Kamal Boostani,2 Saleh Azadbakht,2 Nikou Fotouhi,2 Faris Farassati,4 Saeed Dastgiri1,5 1Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Liver and Gastrointestinal Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Center of Excellence for Biodiversity, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran; 4Molecular Medicine Laboratory, University of Kansas Medical School, Kansas City, KS, USA; 5Tabriz Health Services Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third-most common cancer in Iran. The increasing incidence of CRC in the past three decades has made it a major public health burden in the country. This study aimed to determine any relationship of specific mutations in CRCs with clinicopathologic aspects and outcome of patients. Materials and methods: This study was conducted on 100 CRC patients by the case-only method. Polymerase chain-reaction products were analyzed by Sanger sequencing, and sequence results were compared with the significant KRAS and BRAF gene mutations in the My Cancer Genome database. Logistic regression models were used to detect associations of clinicopathologic characteristics with each of the mutations. Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression models were constructed to estimate overall survival in patients. Results: A total of 26 subjects (26% had heterozygote-mutant KRAS, and mutations were not detected in the amplified exon of BRAF in both tumor and normal tissues of the 100 CRCs. Rectal tumors had 1.53-fold higher likelihood of KRAS mutations than colon tumors, and men had 1.37-fold higher odds than women. The presence of metastasis increased the likelihood of KRAS mutations 2.36-fold over those with nonmetastatic CRCs. Compared to patients with KRAS wild-type cancers, those with KRAS mutations had significantly higher mortality (hazard ratio 3.74, 95% confidence interval 1.44–9.68; log-rank P=0.003. Conclusion: Better understanding of the causality of CRC can be established by combining epidemiology and research on molecular mechanisms of the disease. Keywords: proto-oncogene, sequence analysis, regression, colorectal cancer, survival

  3. Association of clinicopathologic characteristics and outcomes with EZH2 expression in patients with breast cancer in East Azerbaijan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boostani, Farnaz; Dolatkhah, Roya; Fakhrjou, Ashraf; Farassati, Faris; Sanaat, Zohreh

    2018-01-01

    Recently, it was found that the overexpression and mutation status of EZH2 affect cancer progression and patient outcome in several human tumors. We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathologic significance of EZH2 in patients with breast cancer. This was an analytical descriptive study of surgical specimens of primary breast tumors. Specimens were analyzed immunohistochemically for EZH2 , estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Ki-67, P53, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expressions. Regression analysis was performed to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were used to estimate the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). We included 100 patients with breast cancer (mean age 51.05±9.54 years). The multivariate regression analysis showed that HER2-positive patients had approximately twice the levels of EZH2 expression compared with HER2-negative patients (HR 2.16, 95% CI 0.48-11.49). The likelihood of EZH2 expression was significantly higher in patients with lymph node involvement than in those without (HR 8.44, 95% CI 3.06-23.33; P ≤0.05). EZH2 expression did not have any significant effect on the OS, although the mean OS in high EZH2 expression was shorter than for those with low EZH2 expression (655 vs 787 days; log-rank P =0.336). The mean DFS was 487 days for patients with high EZH2 expression compared with 908 days for those with low EZH2 expression (log-rank P =0.188). There was no association found between EZH2 expression and OS and DFS in our patients. Further studies involving larger sample sizes, and conducted in different populations, are needed to validate this hypothesis.

  4. Association of clinicopathologic characteristics and outcomes with EZH2 expression in patients with breast cancer in East Azerbaijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boostani F

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Farnaz Boostani,1 Roya Dolatkhah,1 Ashraf Fakhrjou,2 Faris Farassati,3 Zohreh Sanaat1 1Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Midwest Biomedical Research Foundation, Kansas City, MO, USA Background: Recently, it was found that the overexpression and mutation status of EZH2 affect cancer progression and patient outcome in several human tumors. We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathologic significance of EZH2 in patients with breast cancer.Methods: This was an analytical descriptive study of surgical specimens of primary breast tumors. Specimens were analyzed immunohistochemically for EZH2, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Ki-67, P53, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 expressions. Regression analysis was performed to calculate hazard ratios (HRs and 95% CIs. Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression models were used to estimate the overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS.Results: We included 100 patients with breast cancer (mean age 51.05±9.54 years. The multivariate regression analysis showed that HER2-positive patients had approximately twice the levels of EZH2 expression compared with HER2-negative patients (HR 2.16, 95% CI 0.48–11.49. The likelihood of EZH2 expression was significantly higher in patients with lymph node involvement than in those without (HR 8.44, 95% CI 3.06–23.33; P≤0.05. EZH2 expression did not have any significant effect on the OS, although the mean OS in high EZH2 expression was shorter than for those with low EZH2 expression (655 vs 787 days; log-rank P=0.336. The mean DFS was 487 days for patients with high EZH2 expression compared with 908 days for those with low EZH2 expression (log-rank P=0.188.Conclusion: There was no association found between EZH2 expression and OS and DFS in our patients. Further studies involving larger sample sizes, and conducted in different populations, are needed to validate this hypothesis. Keywords: breast cancer, tumor markers, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 protein, survival analysis

  5. Association between proto-oncogene mutations and clinicopathologic characteristics and overall survival in colorectal cancer in East Azerbaijan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatkhah, Roya; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Asvadi Kermani, Iraj; Bonyadi, Morteza; Sepehri, Bita; Boostani, Kamal; Azadbakht, Saleh; Fotouhi, Nikou; Farassati, Faris; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third-most common cancer in Iran. The increasing incidence of CRC in the past three decades has made it a major public health burden in the country. This study aimed to determine any relationship of specific mutations in CRCs with clinicopathologic aspects and outcome of patients. This study was conducted on 100 CRC patients by the case-only method. Polymerase chain-reaction products were analyzed by Sanger sequencing, and sequence results were compared with the significant KRAS and BRAF gene mutations in the My Cancer Genome database. Logistic regression models were used to detect associations of clinicopathologic characteristics with each of the mutations. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were constructed to estimate overall survival in patients. A total of 26 subjects (26%) had heterozygote-mutant KRAS , and mutations were not detected in the amplified exon of BRAF in both tumor and normal tissues of the 100 CRCs. Rectal tumors had 1.53-fold higher likelihood of KRAS mutations than colon tumors, and men had 1.37-fold higher odds than women. The presence of metastasis increased the likelihood of KRAS mutations 2.36-fold over those with nonmetastatic CRCs. Compared to patients with KRAS wild-type cancers, those with KRAS mutations had significantly higher mortality (hazard ratio 3.74, 95% confidence interval 1.44-9.68; log-rank P =0.003). Better understanding of the causality of CRC can be established by combining epidemiology and research on molecular mechanisms of the disease.

  6. TURKISH TEXTS IN OLD GRAVESTONES OF AZERBAIJAN AZERBAYCAN ESKİ MEZAR TAŞLARINDA TÜRKÇE METİNLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel SAYAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arabic and Persian were used in Azerbaijani gravestones by the end of the 19th century. Poems and literary expressions were usually written in Persian and religious expressions like verses, the Messenger's words and prayers in Arabic. From the second half of the 19th century some Turkish texts, mostly poetic, start to appear in some graves. One may conclude, in a sense, that Turkish started to replace Persian in those days. However, religious expressions and information about identity of dead persons were still in Arabic. Use of Turkish in Azerbaijani gravestones in the pre-Soviet period intensifies in some regions. In this context, the oldest samples belonging to the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century were found in Genje, Kazah, Tovuz, Sheki, Mereze, Shamahy and Baku. In all of them, Turkish texts were written in Arabic alphabet. With the change of alphabet to Cyrillic, once Turkic texts in Cyrillic started to be popular. These are mostly literary texts in poetic form, and religious expressions were written in Arabic with Arabic letters.This essay contains an evaluation of Turkish texts found in old Azerbaijani gravestones. Azerbaycan eski mezar taşlarında 19. yüzyıla kadar dil olarak Arapça ve Farsça kullanılmıştır. Bu bağlamda; genellikle şiir ve edebi ifadelerin Farsça, ayet, hadis ve dua gibi dini içerikli metinlerin ise Arapça yazıldığı görülmektedir. 19. yüzyılın ilk yarısına ait mezar taşlarında Türkçe metinli örneğe rastlanmakla birlikte, daha çok bu yüzyılın ikinci yarısında, genellikle manzum nitelikli Türkçe metinler yaygınlaşmaya başlar. Bir anlamda bu dönemden itibaren Türkçenin, giderek Farsçanın yerini aldığı söylenebilir. Ancak bu mezar taşlarında Arapçanın yerini koruduğu; dini içerikli metinlerin ve ölenin kimlik bilgilerinin yine Arapça olarak yazıldığı görülmektedir. Azerbaycan mezar taşlarında Türkçe kullanımı Sovyet dönemi öncesinde özellikle belli bölgelerde yoğunlaşır. Bu bağlamda çoğu 19. yüzyılın sonları ile 20. yüzyılın başlarına ait olan en eski örnekler, Gence, Kazah, Tovuz, Şeki, Gah, Şamahı, Mereze ve Bakü çevrelerindeki mezarlıklarda tespit edilmiştir. Bu eserlerin tümünde Türkçe metinler taş üzerine Arap harfleriyle kabartma veya oyma tekniğinde hakk edilmiştir. Rus döneminde harflerin değişmesinden sonra Kril harfli Türkçe metinler daha geniş bir alanda yaygınlaşır. Bunlar da çoğunlukla şiir tarzında edebi metinler olup, dini içerikli sözlerin yine Arap harfleriyle ve Arapça olarak yazıldığı görülür. Bu makalede, Azerbaycan eski mezar taşları konusunda yapılan araştırmalar çerçevesinde, taşlar üzerinde tespit edilebilen Türkçe metin örnekleri aktarılarak, bunlar hakkında bir değerlendirme yapılmaya çalışılmıştır.

  7. A comparative study of radioresistance of rare and non-disappearing species of tulipal from the flora of Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibadov, O.V.; Askerov, I.T.; Medzhidov, M.M.; Alekperov, U.K.

    1983-01-01

    Eichle and Sclimid bulds irradiated by gamma-rays of different doses (1-1 Gy) have been investigated. Morphological and phenological observations are carried out, decorative propertie the tested plants are estimated. It is found that low radiation doses (1-5 Gy) stimulate the sprouting of these species, while high doses suppress it. The Eichler species being somewhat more radioresistant than those of Schmi type

  8. Pre-eruptive ground deformation of Azerbaijan mud volcanoes detected through satellite radar interferometry (DInSAR)

    OpenAIRE

    Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Luzi, Guido; Feyzullayev, Akper; Antonielli, Benedetta; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico; Aliyev, Chingiz S.

    2014-01-01

    Mud volcanism is a process that leads to the extrusion of subsurface mud, fragments of country rocks, saline waters and gases. This mechanism is typically linked to hydrocarbon traps, and the extrusion of this material builds up a variety of conical edifices with a similar morphology to those of magmatic volcanoes, though smaller in size. The Differential Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) technique has been used to investigate the ground deformation related to the activity of t...

  9. Assessing the Sustainability of Farm-land Management in the Eastern Azerbaijan Province (Case of Malekan County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Nabizadeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess sustainable farmlands management in the Malekan County. The target population consisted of wheat growers among which 162 farmers were selected according to the multistage cluster selection method. The research tool used was a questionnaire whose face validity was confirmed by comments from faculty members and experts in the Malekan Agri- Jihad and its reliability was confirmed using Cronbach’s alpha (average 0.71. Sustainability was measured by establishing composite index for six components of sustainable land management. The results of assessing sustainable land management revealed that 19.1% of the farmers were in an unsustainable situation, 34% of them were in a fairly unsustainable situation, 26.5% of them were in a fairly sustainable situation and 20.4% of them were in a sustainable situation. The results of correlation coefficient showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between age and farming experience with “stability and acceptability”, land size and farm income with “stability, acceptability and technical knowledge”, wheat yield and consumed fertilizer with “security”, land plots with “acceptability” and using farm machinery with “productivity, stability, acceptability and technical knowledge”. There is also a negative and significant relationship between non-farm income and “productivity” and consumed fertilizers and “security”.

  10. Iran's Experience of Health Cooperatives as a Public-Private Partnership Model in Primary Health Care: A Comparative Study in East Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Nikniaz, Alireza; Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Zakeri, Akram; Azami, Saber

    2012-01-01

    Iran started a new public-private partnership model in form of health coopera¬tives which is somehow different from other types of health cooperatives throughout the world. In this study we compared the performance and quality of health services in public health cen¬ters (PHCs) and cooperative health centers (CHCs). In this comparative study performance quality of two cohorts of public and coopera¬tive health centers were compared in several health service delivery programs over the time pe¬riod of 2001- 2002. Screening program: the rate of visited population during screening program was higher in CHCs. Maternal health care program: In some of studied programs CHCs had better results. Child health care: Most indicators were better or similar in CHCs. School health program and Health education: All indices were better or similar in CHCs. Environmental health: population based positive function was not significantly different for the population covered by CHCs compared to population covered by PHCs. Client and staff satisfaction as well as participation and attitudes of personnel towards management was better in CHCs. Mean annual cost per capita of the covered population by PHCs was higher. CHCs as a public private partnership model in Iran may deliver preventive health care services as effective as PHCs in many fields and even better in some areas.

  11. The transboundary EIA convention in the context of private sector operations co-financed by an International Financial Institution: two case studies from Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari, Mehrdad M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents two case studies involving private sector, offshore, oil field developments in the Caspian Sea. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) of these operations indicated that major and unmitigated oil spills could potentially result in transboundary impacts. Both projects were co-financed by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), an International Financial Institution (IFI). Project review and financing decision by the EBRD occurred when neither country hosting the projects was a Party to the 1991 Convention on EIA in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention). Discussions with government agencies during project review highlighted their limited institutional capacity to pursue transboundary notification and consultation activities. However, without being formal Parties or having clearly defined roles under the Convention, the combined presence of the EBRD, the private sector developer and its project needing financing became important drivers to promote the Espoo Convention. Surveying for similar IFI-project combinations in developing and transition economies could provide a 'bottom up' input to further optimise the Convention Secretariat's awareness raising, intervention design, and alliance-building strategies. The knowledge management model and user-friendly Web site of the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity highlight approaches that may also prove effective for the Espoo Convention

  12. Forecasting of meteorological drought using Wavelet-ANFIS hybrid model for different time steps (case study: Southeastern part of east Azerbaijan province, Iran)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shirmohammadi Chelan, Bagher; Moradi, Hamidreza; Moosavi, Vahid; Semiromi, Majid Taie; Zeinali, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Drought is accounted as one of the most natural hazards. Studying on drought is important for designing and managing of water resources systems. This research is carried out to evaluate the ability of Wavelet-ANN and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) techniques for meteorological drought

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Chlorhexidine, Peracetic acid/ Peroxide hydrogen and Alcohol based compound on Isolated Bacteria in Madani Heart Hospital, Tabriz, Azerbaijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghotaslou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of chemical agents on the clinical isolates in Madani Heart Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Methods: The minimum bactericide concentration (MBC of disinfectants including chlorhexidine (Fort, peracetic acid (Micro and an alcohol based compound (Deconex on selected bacteria at various dilutions were determined by the standard suspension technique. Results: MBC of Micro, Fort and Deconex were 2-128 mg/L, 2-64 mg/L and 4 - 32 mg/L, respectively. The Gram negative bacteria were more resistance to disinfectant relation to Gram positive bacteria. Conclusion: The results showed that these agents are able to eradicate the bacteria and they can be used lonely.

  14. Determination of Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infection with Babesia ovis in Small Ruminants from West Azerbaijan Province, Iran by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Esmaeilnejad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small ruminants’ babesiosis caused by Babesia ovis, is transmitted during blood feeding by infected ticks and is the most economically important tick-borne disease in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was carried out to to estimate the infection rate of B. ovis in sheep and goats by PCR. We have analysed risk factors that might influence infection of sheep and goats with B. ovis.Methods: A total 402 blood samples were examined microscopically for the presence of Babesia infection. All samples were tested by PCR. During sampling, whole body of each animal and farm dogs was examined for the presence of ticks.Results: Forty-two animals (10.4% were positive for Babesia spp. upon microscopic examination, whereas 67 animals (16.7% yielded the specific DNA for B. ovis of which 52 animals were sheep and 15 animals were goats.Twenty-nine farms (72.5% were found positive for B. ovis. The percentage of positive animals in each location varied from 13 % to 20 %. The relative risk of the presence of ticks in sheep and goats (P< 0.01 and farm dogs (P< 0.01 for PCRpositive results forB. ovis in sheep and goats was found 3.8 and 2.9, respectively. A total of 747 ticks identified as Rhipicephalus bursa, R. sanguineus and R. turanicus on the basis of morphological features.Conclusion: Other animal species besides dogs may also be risk factors for babesiosis in sheep and goats. Also, R. bursa may play an important role as a vector of the parasite in Iran.

  15. Report of chewing louse, infestation Philopterus ocellatus (Mallophaga: Ischnocera from Black Crows (Corvus corone in Miandoab region, West Azerbaijan province in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abbas imanibaran

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During summer 2010, in order to investigate ectoparasites infestation, a total of 12 carrion crows (Corvus corone were caught from Miandoab region. Thereafter, a total of 32 lice (19 female, 13 male were collected on feathers of seven infested crows and dehydrated, cleared and mounted. Measurements of different body parts of mounted specimens were made. The identification of lice indicated that they belong to Philopterus ocellatus. Morphologically, body is elongated, brown in color, measured about 2-3 mm in length and ≤1 mm in width. Head is triangular in shape, measured 0.7-0.8 mm in length and 0.3-0.4 mm in width, expanded in the caudal region. Five-segmented, very short antennae with initial long segment lie posterior to conus. It has large buccal cavity having 3-4 pairs of very prominent lateral sensory hairs as pre and postconal setae in which postconal setae are longer than preconal setae. The legs are short ending in a stout single claw. Third pair of legs is relatively sturdy and longer than two other pairs. The abdomen has 9 abdominal segments with abundant setae and quite evident respiratory pores on marginal plates. In females, the ovipositor and in males genitalia with characterizations related to reported species are clearly seen. According to the obtained results, the infestation rates varied from 3 lice in lowest to 8 lice in highest rate. The prevalence of infestation was determinated as 58.33%. Regarding the lack of comprehensive research on bird lice infestation in this study area, it is essential to conduct further extensive studies on various aspects of lice infestation.

  16. The Effect of Folic Acid Consumption (In Prenatal Care on Blood Pressure Change during Pregnancy in Urban and Rural Health Centers in Eastern Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Rasoolpoor-Farzin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Preeclampsia is one of the most threatening problems in pregnancy and potentially is followed by preterm birth, miscarriage, low birth weight and maternal mortality. Folic acid supplementation is commonly prescribed for women in child bearing age to reduce the prevalence of neural tube defects. However, its role in pre-eclampsia and hypertension is not proven and is debatable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of folic acid on before pregnancy care on blood pressure in pregnancy. Material and Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted as census on all 1939 women referred to receive prenatal care between 2008 and 2013 in rural and urban healthcare centers in Sarab, Bostanabad and Khosroshahr. We compared blood pressure changes in two groups with folic acid consumption and another group, not consuming folic acid. Collected data were filled in the checklist and underwent statistical analysis of descriptive and analytical methods by SPSS 16. Results: The mean age of women in this study was 25.98±5.78 years. Ninety-two percent of mothers had regular consumption of folic acid during pregnancy. The peak period of high blood pressure was reported at weeks 37-35 with 8.2% in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure at week 37-35 and more than 37 weeks with 1.6%. Systolic and diastolic pressure in mothers taking folic acid was significantly lower (P Conclusion: Folic acid intake during pregnancy, as a part of prenatal care, significantly reduces the incidence of hypertension of pregnancy. During this period, folic acid intake can diminish pre-eclampsia and promote maternal and new born health.

  17. Comparison of Continuation Rates and Reasons of Discontinuation for Cyclofem and Depot -medroxyprogesterone acetate in Rural Areas of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Hassanzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study continuation rate and reasons for discontinuation of Depot-medroxyprogestroneacetate (DMPAand Cyclofem have been compared.Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 422 women (202 Cyclofemand220 DMPA userswho had started using the methods 12-24 months before the study in East Azerbaijanhealth houses. Data were collected by reviewing the records and interview with the clients and analysedusing Kaplan-Meier and Cox Regression.Results: The 3, 6, 9, 12 months continuation rate were 56%, 37%, 30%, 27% respectively for Cyclofemversus 75%, 59.5%, 48%, 42.5% for DMPA. Menstrual changes were reported significantly more by theDMPA users than the Cyclofem users (85% vs. 73%, P=0.008 as the main reason for thediscontinuation, the difference mainly reflected of amenorrhea (50% vs. 23%, P=0.003. None of DMPAusers and 11% of Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits and lack of method supplies as their maindiscontinuation reason.Conclusion: Discontinuation rate was high for the both methods but it was higher for Cyclofem.Thecommon side effects mentioned as the main reasons for discontinuation of the both methods are nothealth threatening. Therefore, health care providers may help to improve their continuation rate byappropriate consultation.

  18. Parasal Aktarım Mekanizmaları: Azerbaycan Örneği (Monetary Transmission Mechanisms: The Case of Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriyar Mukhtarov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı parasal aktarım mekanizmalarını araştırarak, sözkonusu kanalların üretim ve fiyatlar seviyesini nasıl etkilediklerini teorik olarak incelemek ve parasal aktarım kanallarının Azerbaycan ekonomisi açısından çalışıp çalışmadığını test etmektir. Çalışmada 2001:4-2014:3 dönemini kapsayan üçer aylık veriler kullanılarak hem kısa hem de uzun dönem ilişkileri yansıtmak için bir vektör hata düzeltme modeli (VECM kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen bulgular faiz ve kredi kanallarının Azerbaycan ekonomisi için önemli, ama az da olsa farklı özellikler gösterdiklerini ortaya koymaktadır. Bir başka ifadeyle, analiz sonuçları Azerbaycan ekonomisi için kredi kanalının faiz oranı kanalına kıyasla daha önemli olduğunu göstermektedir.

  19. Influence of the interplay between helicoidal magnetic ordering and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ag junctions. I N ASKERZADE1 2. 1Department of Physics, Ankara University, Tandogan 06100, Ankara, Turkey. 2Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku 370143, Azerbaijan. Email: iaskerzade@yahoo.com.

  20. AZERBAYCANLI ÖĞRENCİLERİN TÜRKİYE, TÜRKİYELİ ÖĞRENCİLERİN DE AZERBAYCAN TÜRKÇESİNİ ANLAMA ORANLARI ÜZERİNE BİR DENEME / AN ESSAY ABOUT HOW AZERBAIJAN STUDENTS UNDERSTAND TURKISH AND TURKISH STUDENTS UNDERSTAND AZERBAIJAN TURKISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal KARAMAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sovyetler Birliği dağıldıktan sonra Türkiye ile Türk cumhuriyetleri arasındaki ekonomik, kültürel ve sosyal ilişkiler süratli bir şekilde artmaya başladı. Bu süreçle birlikte Türk dünyasında ortak dil tartışmaları da gündeme geldi. Sözü edilen dönemde farklı görüşler ortaya atıldı. Bugün de ortak dille ilgili tartışmalar, eskisi kadar yoğun olmasa da devam etmektedir. Ortak dil bağlamında lehçeler arasındaki anlama oranları önem arz etmektedir. Türkiye ve Azerbaycan Türkçelerinde anlama oranları diğer lehçelere göre daha yüksektir. Bu çalışmada, Türkiyeli öğrencilerin Azerbaycan Türkçesini, Azerbaycanlı öğrencilerin de Türkiye Türkçesini anlama oranları üzerine bir deneme yapıldı.   

  1. 77 FR 75845 - Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... gas from Azerbaijan to Europe and Turkey in furtherance of a production sharing agreement or license... bring gas from Azerbaijan to Europe and Turkey, as described in section 6. Although it is not named in... Caspian Sea and related pipeline projects to bring the gas from Azerbaijan to Europe and Turkey. On August...

  2. POMEGRANATE IN WRITTEN AND SPOKEN LITERATURE / AZERBAYCAN SÖZLÜ VE YAZILI EDEBIYATINDA NAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mehmet İSMAİL

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the scientists punica’s native land isAzerbaijan. This fruit grows up in many countries allover the world and there are lots of kinds of it inAzerbaijan. This is a survey of pomegranate as it featuresin the folklore (tale, legend, myth, proverb, riddle, curse,praise, expression, folk song of Azerbaijan. And alsosome examples of folk-literature is added in which punicaexists.

  3. Gender Gaps in Mathematics, Science and Reading Achievements in Muslim Countries: A Quantile Regression Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2013-01-01

    Using quantile regression analyses, this study examines gender gaps in mathematics, science, and reading in Azerbaijan, Indonesia, Jordan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Qatar, Tunisia, and Turkey among 15-year-old students. The analyses show that girls in Azerbaijan achieve as well as boys in mathematics and science and overachieve in reading. In Jordan,…

  4. Economic and Strategic Expectations from Trans Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elchin Suleymanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the successful implementation of the oil strategy, Azerbaijan began to define strategic objectives in relation to gas export policy. Currently, Azerbaijan is the only country in the region exporting gas to the international markets (Turkey, Russia, Georgia. For this reason, it is seen as “the provider and participant” of Southern Gas Corridor by EU. In this direction, Azerbaijan aims to be the country of an important and strategic natural gas exporter. From Shahdeniz field to the end European user, it targets to take part in the every ring of the value chain. These assumptions bring Azerbaijan to the position of a remarkable natural gas supplier for the export of large amount of gas to the European markets through Nabucco West. The implementation of the project with financial and technical capabilities of Azerbaijan and Turkey has made it a project to be realized between Turkey-Azerbaijan. TANAP means Turkey and Azerbaijan will emerge together in the European market for energy transportation. Along with Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan and Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum, TANAP has reinforced Turkey’s position as a necessary energy corridor in delivering the energy resources of the Caspian Sea to the Western markets. In this paper, expected strategic and economic outcomes of TANAP are analyzed.

  5. Investigation of weed community diversity in forage crop fields in different provinces of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Azizi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the weed diversity in forage crop fields such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., clover (Trifolium sp. and sainfoin (Onobrychis spp. in different provinces of Iran, a study was conducted by using data from reports of plant Protection Organization, Ministry of Agriculture during 2008. After evaluation of weed species and definition of weed family, these species classified based on functional diversity in four groups such as life cycle, growth type, photosynthetic pathway and persistence degree. The results indicated that the number of weed species and plant families were 37 and 18, respectively, in alfalfa fields. Most diverse families of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weeds were Poaceae and Asteraceae, respectively. Nine species of five different families were observed in sainfoin fields that among these weed families, the highest species diversity was in Poaceae family. In addition, in clover fields of different provinces, 20 species of 11 plant families were observed. The highest species diversity obtained in Poaceae family with six species and Brassicaceae family with four species. The highest similarity index for alfalfa fields (100% was observed between West Azerbaijan- Ardabil, West Azerbaijan- Zanjan, West Azerbaijan- Kordestan, Ardabil- Kordestan, Zanjan- Kordestan, Zanjan-Gilan, Kordestan - Gilan, West Azerbaijan- Gilan and Ardabil- Gilan. The highest similarity for sainfoin fields (0.60 was between East Azerbaijan- West Azerbaijan and West Azerbaijan- Fars. Also, in clover fields, the highest similarity index was obtained between Fars and Isfahan provinces.

  6. FDI AND ECONOMIC GROWTH RELATIONSHIP BASED ON CROSS-COUNTRY COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Gursoy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate empirically the impact of FDI on economic growth for Azerbaijan, Kyrgyz Republic, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan over the period 1997-2010. The Johansen cointegration and Granger causality tests are used in order to analyze the causal relationship between FDI and economic growth. It is crucial to see the directions of causality between two variables for the policy makers to encourage private sectors. The cointegration test results indicated that FDI and Economic Growth variables are cointegrated for Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan. By using Granger Causality test we found that FDI causes GDP for Azerbaijan and bidirectional causality is observed for Turkmenistan.

  7. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of lactic acid bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eat artisanal dairy products (cheeses – Agdas, Sheki and yogurts - Karabakh, Ganja and Baku) manufactured in. Azerbaijan. The Agdas cheese belongs to the group of semi hard cheeses whilst the Sheki cheese belongs to hard cheeses.

  8. Low-temperature photoluminescence in CuIn5S8 single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. GASANLY N M1 2. Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara, Turkey; Virtual International Research Centre, Baku State University, 1148 Baku, Azerbaijan ...

  9. Involvement of Russian Organized Crime Syndicates, Criminal Elements in the Russian Military, and Regional Terrorist Groups in Narcotics Trafficking in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Chechnya

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtis, Glenn E

    2002-01-01

    ... (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia), and in Chechnya. The purpose of the report is to reveal the role of Russian organized crime and Central Asian terrorist organizations in narcotics trafficking in those areas...

  10. 75 FR 63242 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: Junior Faculty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ..., Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and... sciences from Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kosovo... information related to participants' home countries and cultures; (9) Liaison with Public Affairs Sections of...

  11. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Nazim Agayev1 Tahire Özen2 Abdullah Harmanci3. Department of Pedagogy, Qafqaz University, Baku Azerbaijan; Mathematics Department, Ízzet Baysal University, Bolu, Türkiye; Mathematics Department, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Türkiye ...

  12. On a class of semicommutative modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Nazim Agayev1 Tahire Özen2 Abdullah Harmanci3. Department of Pedagogy, Qafqaz University, Baku Azerbaijan; Mathematics Department, Ízzet Baysal University, Bolu, Türkiye; Mathematics Department, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Türkiye ...

  13. State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2011 Budget and Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    climate change, with an emphasis on adaptation, deployment of clean energy technologies, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through sustainable...Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Colombia, Djibouti, Egypt, Ethiopia, Georgia, Hungary, India, Indonesia , Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Oman

  14. AZERBAYCAN’IN NAHÇIVAN BÖLGESİNDE YAĞMURLA İLGİLİ İNANIŞLAR VE YAĞMUR ÇAĞIRMA MERASİMLERİ [BELIEFS ABOUT RAIN IN NAKHCHIVAN REGION OF AZERBAIJAN and CEREMONIES OF RAIN CALLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkan ARIK

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the subject of prayer for rain ceremonies among the Azerbaijani Turks, especially in the Nakhchivan region. The ceremony of prayer for rain is organized to end the drought and call the rain, which is the source of abundance. The main purpose of the article is to describe the process of prayer for rain ceremonies and to indicate the performed practices. At the same time, thes article tries to examine the similarities and different aspects of the rain prayer organizations among the Turkish people and to determine whether there are cultural connections between the ceremonies. It was aimed to base the research on the information gathered from the main sources. This article emphasizes the holiness of the rainwater in the Nakhchivan region and provides insights about the prayer for rain ceremonies faded into oblivion these days. This study revealed that the prayer for rain ceremonies have existed since ancient times and these ceremonies contain millennial belief hidden inside that could reach the present day. Moreover, the prayer for rain ceremonies held among the Turkish people has been organized for the the same purposes, and these beliefs and practices were transferred to the different geographical positions when immigration and displacement were carried out.

  15. Innovative Basis of Research of Energy-Efficient Potential and Effectiveness of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanov Seymur Latif oglu; Hasanov Elnur Latif oglu

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, countries of the world have been trying to attract new energy sources (wind, sun, biogas, waves, drainage, non-conventional energy sources such as hydroelectric power of small rivers) in their fuel-energy balance. Azerbaijan has renewable natural resources, favorable for its energy-efficient potential, according to the amount of sunny and windy days. In this article was given total information about renewable energy potential of Azerbaijan Republic. In this article we use inf...

  16. Implementation and Utilization of Security Assistance: A Multi-Country Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    were India, China, Algeria, Venezuela, Vietnam, Syria, Azerbaijan, Malaysia , Egypt Myanmar/Burma, Indonesia, Iran, UAE, Uganda, Iraq, and Turkey. The...countries that used the U.S. FMS and FMF programs were Vietnam, Azerbaijan, Malaysia , Indonesia, Uganda, and Iraq. As could be expected, the United...profile terrorists, including a facilitator for several al Qaeda- affiliated groups that have carried out suicide bombings in Beirut and other Lebanese

  17. INNOVATIVE COMPETITION MODEL OF AZERBAIJAN’S INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    SULEYMANOV QAZANFAR SALMAN; ZEYNALOVA SAADAT JUMSHUD; SHAMILOV RASHAD FUAD

    2016-01-01

    Affecting competitiveness of Azerbaijan industrial enterprises composition of the group of factors has been determined in the article. At the same time also these the share of group of factors and correlation have been determined among them in the article. İn addition competitive model of Azerbaijan innovative industrial enterprises was offered in the article. The model of innovation and competition have been based enterprises of republic of industry increasing role of production of innovativ...

  18. Green Marketing and Its Impacts on Consumer Behavior in Sports Shops

    OpenAIRE

    Javad Shahlaee

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was investigation of green marketing and its impacts on consumer behavior in sports shops in East Azerbaijan province of Iran. The present study is functionalized by objectives and done by field. The study statistical society was sports shops in East Azerbaijan and 210 samples were chosen randomly according to Morgan sampling method and 196 questionnaires were collected finally. The author-prepared questionnaire’s validity was approved by some experts in sport management...

  19. Modeling inflation uncertainty in transition economies: The case of Russia and the former Soviet Republics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkam Serkan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the linkage between inflation and inflation uncertainty in seven transitional economies (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine which experienced hyper-inflation until the mid-1990s. This linkage is investigated in the ARCH modeling framework by using both conventional Granger noncausality testing and the Holmes-Hutton approach, which has significant small- and large-sample power advantages over the former. The results support the Friedman- Ball hypothesis in Azerbaijan, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine. The Cukierman-Meltzer hypothesis is favored in the Kyrgyz Republic and in the Russian Federation using a different model. In Azerbaijan, greater inflation uncertainty preceded lower rates of inflation, indicative of the strong monetary stabilization policies pursued in this economy.

  20. Development of the copper and molybdenum industries and the Armenian economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, A.R.; Levine, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Production of copper and molybdenum in Armenia is examined, with special emphasis on the location of major deposits, former and proposed future centers of processing, and contribution of metals exports to the country's foreign trade revenues. Particular emphasis is placed on the impacts on these industries of the disruption of economic ties resulting from the dissolution of the USSR and an economic crisis precipitated by a major earthquake, Armenia's tension with Azerbaijan over armed conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas in Azerbaijan, an economic blockade imposed by Turkey and Azerbaijan, and a consequent severe energy crisis. The paper highlights developments in the mid-1990s in copper and molybdenum and in the recent expansion of trade relations with Iran.

  1. Colloquium on Caucasus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document is the proceedings of a colloquium organized by the French senate on Caucasus. Caucasus encompasses three countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. In their presentations, the different participants stress on some particular political-economical aspects of this region: present day economic status, role in the development of central Asia, political stability of South Caucasus, influence of foreign countries (Russia, USA), relations with the European Union, the energy, road and rail paths, the stakes of Azerbaijan on the petroleum scene (hydrocarbons production and transit), hydrocarbons exploitation in Azerbaijan (regional cooperation, foreign investments, profits), experience of foreign companies working in Caucasus countries (beverage industry), juridical framework of investments made in Caucasus countries, business reality in these countries. (J.S.)

  2. Colloquium on Caucasus; Colloque sur le Caucase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document is the proceedings of a colloquium organized by the French senate on Caucasus. Caucasus encompasses three countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. In their presentations, the different participants stress on some particular political-economical aspects of this region: present day economic status, role in the development of central Asia, political stability of South Caucasus, influence of foreign countries (Russia, USA), relations with the European Union, the energy, road and rail paths, the stakes of Azerbaijan on the petroleum scene (hydrocarbons production and transit), hydrocarbons exploitation in Azerbaijan (regional cooperation, foreign investments, profits), experience of foreign companies working in Caucasus countries (beverage industry), juridical framework of investments made in Caucasus countries, business reality in these countries. (J.S.)

  3. [Characteristics of nutrition in persons of older age groups in areas with different patterns of longevity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Iu G; Kozlovskaia, S G; Semes'ko, T M

    1991-01-01

    The study of actual nutrition in old-aged subjects (60-74, 75-89 and 90 years and older) in the regions with varying levels of long-living has revealed different types of nutrition depending on the climatic and geographical zones. The character of nutrition of old-aged in varying regions permits a suggestion on the relation of long-living with low energy requirements that are formed under the influence of ecological conditions (high temperature and humidity of the air in Abkhazia) and determined genetically (Azerbaijan, Ukraine). Alteration of nutrition type according to the environmental requirements (as adaptation to high temperature), decreased energy value of food approaching the nutrition type of the indigenous population (for example, the Azerbaijans and Russians living in Azerbaijan) do not ensure long-living.

  4. Perspectives of nuclear energy peaceful uses. International conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerimov, Mahmud; Garibov, Adil

    2010-11-01

    Full text: The scientists from following countries (Usa, Pakistan, Russia, Azerbaijan, Spain, Uzbekistan, Iran) took part at the International Conference devoted to Perspectives of Nuclear Energy Peaceful Uses. The activity was conducted in five sections : Section 1 was devoted to perspectives and statuses on nuclear energy; Section 2 was devoted to radiation impact on the environment : radioecology situation, radiation security, existing problems and their solutions; Section 3 was devoted to radiation materiology (radiation chemistry, radiation physics, radiation effects in solid states). Section 4 was devoted to existing problems of nuclear and radiation security in our Azerbaijan Republic. Section 5 was devoted to radioecology situation, its problems and the ways of their solutions.

  5. Turkey and Iran Transcaucasia Policy: Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А V Suleimanov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Turkey and Iran Transcaucasia modern foreign policy is analyzed. As is known, Turkey and Iran historically were the competing parties for spheres of influence in Transcaucasia, as well as Russia, the USA and the Great Britain. Regional relations between Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia are discussed in context of Nagorno-Karabakh and Georgia-South Ossetia conflicts and Caspian problem.

  6. Groundwater institutions and management problems in the developing world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegerich, K.

    2006-01-01

    The Role of Groundwater in Delhi¿s Water Supply: Interaction between formal and informal Development of the Water System, and possible scenarios of Evolution; A. Maria. Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Analysis of the Secondary Towns of Azerbaijan: Does groundwater play a role? S. Puri and T.

  7. The Search for Quality: A Five Country Study of National Strategies to Improve Educational Quality in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, D.W.; Weidman, J.; Cohen, M.; Mercer, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the strategies employed over the last decade by governments of five Central Asia republics-Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan-to raise educational quality at the primary and secondary levels. Data are drawn from a 2002 cross-national study sponsored by the Asian…

  8. Seeing the Forest for the Trees: The International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme Exhibition and Global Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the depth and scope of Global Citizenship Education (GCE) through the International Baccalaureate (IB) Primary Years Programme (PYP) exhibition. The small-scale qualitative study describes how a fifth-grade cohort and teachers at The International School of Azerbaijan uncover GCE in situ. Drawing on…

  9. On stereotypes, media and redressing gendered social inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, J.

    2010-01-01

    ‘Combating gender stereotypes: The role of education and the media’ was one of the two central themes of a ministerial conference of the Council of Europe (24-25 May 2010, Baku, Azerbaijan). The conference aims to develop cross-European policy directed at gender equality. This talk suggests that any

  10. Innovative Features of Comparative-Historical Research of European and Azerbaijani Cultural Heritage (Based on the Materials of British and Azerbaijani Literature of the XX Century)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, Nicolas; Hasanov, Elnur L.

    2016-01-01

    The beginning of the twentieth century is characterized as a period of formation of literary prose in Azerbaijan literature, which reminds already formed a new type of British prose. These new development trends appeared in plot, content, style, the world of characters, artistic-philosophical thought as well as in narrative features. The genre of…

  11. Average stem biomass of Gundelia (Gundelia tournefortii L.) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... They occur in the semi-desert areas of Syria, Jordan,. Palestine, Iraq, Iran, Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Anatolia (Karis et al.,. 2001; Cakilcioglu and Khatun, 2010). Gundelia species have been used as medicinal plants in folk medicine, but gundelia itself was used for diarrhea, mumps, vitiligo and diabetes ...

  12. Resemblances in the Wedding and Natal Customs

    OpenAIRE

    Reneta Zlateva; Zlatozhivka Zdravkova

    2011-01-01

    The present article describes the natal rites and customs of the Azerbaijan and Bulgarian nations. Special attention is paid to the resemblances in the practicing and understanding of the traditions. Despite the fact that the two nations live in regions remote from each other, they have common beliefs and strive to provide prosperity for the home, family and children.

  13. ISLAM IN THE NON-MUSLIM AREAS OF NORTHERN NIGERIA, c

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QUADRI Y A

    Baku State University, Azerbaijan gholamrezamehri@yahoo.com. Abstract ... These arts affect each other, and early Islamic miniature art of XIII –. XIV centuries under the influence of local artistic .... short curved lines, which used one or two colours along with gold colour to draw them. Looking at these decorations one can ...

  14. Threat Assessment of the Director of National Intelligence for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-05

    Forces in Europe obligations could lead to similar suspensions by Azerbaijan and Armenia and a subsequent arms race. Ukraine will continue to...Zimbabwean President Mugabe have yet to materialize despite hyperinflation , economic decline, and political uncertainty. Ruling party insiders are

  15. 2006 Defense Economics Conference: The Defense Department’s Future in a Changing Macroeconomic Environment. Held in Alexandria, Virginia on September 21, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    former Governor Hiyami’s concern that Japan was about to launch itself into hyperinfl ation has remained unfulfi lled in light of actual developments...Azerbaijan) growing strongly, and the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) continuing to do very well, while Ukraine suffers relative

  16. Trans-Atlantic Collective Security in Light of the War on Terrorism and the War on Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    developing relationships with CIS states like Ukraine and Kazakhstan. According to John Feffer, author of Shock waves: Eastern Europe after the...these businesses, hyperinflation and poor fiscal discipline, Russia under went an economic crisis in 1998. Second, the Clinton...Initiative ESDP European Security Defense Policy GNP Gross National Product GUAAM Georgia, Ukraine , Armenia, Azerbaijan, Moldova EU European

  17. 9 CFR 94.8 - Pork and pork products from regions where African swine fever exists or is reasonably believed to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Azerbaijan, Brazil, Cuba, Georgia, Haiti, Malta, Mauritius, Russia, and the Island of Sardinia, Italy. 7 The... after processing pork or pork products not eligible for export to the United States and before processing any pork or pork products eligible for export to the United States. (ii) Pork or pork products...

  18. Efficiency of wave impeding barrier in pipeline construction under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    natural gas from Azerbaijan, via Georgia, to world markets through Mediterranean ... In problems related to seismic soil–structure interaction analysis and wave ..... Damping factors α, β. -. 0.05. Poisson's ratio ν. -. 0.30. Note that, maximum acceleration of the record is 240.7 gal while dominant frequency is about. 3 Hz. The ...

  19. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... in Semnan, Golestan, East Azerbaijan, and Tehran Provinces, whereas Kerman Province in southern Iran has lower incidence rates compared to the northern part of the country (10). Gastric cancer has several developmental stages: it begins with chronic gastritis and progresses to chronic atrophic gastritis, ...

  20. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algeria, 97. Australia, 11. Azerbaijan, 5. Bahrain, 2. Belgium, 1. Benin, 4. Bolivia, 1. Brazil, 19. Canada, 15. Chile, 1. China, 22. Côte d'Ivoire, 1. Croatia, 3. Czech Republic, 5. Ecuador, 3. Egypt, Arab Rep. 8. Estonia, 1. France, 9. Germany, 4. Ghana, 4. Greece, 1. Guinea, 1. Hong Kong SAR, China, 1. Hungary, 1. India, 77.

  1. Defect characterization of Ga4Se3S layered single crystals by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Isik M1 Delice S2 Gasanly N2 3. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Atilim University, 06836 Ankara, Turkey; Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara, Turkey; Virtual International Scientific Research Centre, Baku State University, 1148 Baku, Azerbaijan ...

  2. 75 FR 69415 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Reviews and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... countries are Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova, North Korea, the People's... declarations to CBP to that effect. Non-Market Economy Country Status In every case conducted by the Department involving the PRC, the PRC has been treated as a non-market economy (NME) country. In accordance with...

  3. 76 FR 76375 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the 2009-2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... NME countries are Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova, North Korea, the..., the Department issued a Non-Market Economy Antidumping Duty Questionnaire (Initial Questionnaire) to... declarations to U.S. Customs and Border Protection to that effect. Non-Market Economy Country Status The...

  4. Fossil birds in the National Museum of Natural History, Sofia: composition, development and scientific value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boev, Z.N.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the fossil and subfossil avian record kept in Bulgaria is presented. The only collection of fossil birds in Bulgaria was established in the 1980s. 99.6% originates from 98 localities throughout Bulgaria. Foreign fossils originate from Azerbaijan, Greece, Hungary, Namibia and New Zealand.

  5. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algeria, 93. Australia, 5. Azerbaijan, 1. Bangladesh, 3. Belgium, 4. Brazil, 4. Cameroon, 2. Canada, 4. China, 17. Colombia, 1. Denmark, 2. Egypt, Arab Rep. 7. Finland, 1. France, 13. Germany, 3. Ghana, 1. Greece, 2. Guinea, 2. Hong Kong SAR, China, 1. Hungary, 1. India, 79. Indonesia, 7. Iran, Islamic Rep. 110. Iraq, 4.

  6. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ata Allah Nadiri1 2 Asghar Asghari Moghaddam1 Frank T-C Tsai2 Elham Fijani1 2. Department of Geology, University of Tabriz, 29 Bahman Boulevard, Tabriz, East Azerbaijan, Iran. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State University, 3418G Patrick F. Taylor Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.

  7. Analysis Of The Executive Components Of The Farmer Field School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis Of The Executive Components Of The Farmer Field School (Ffs) Project (Grape Gardeners) In Uromieh County Of West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. ... Also the findings revealed that there was significant correlation between members and non-members (as control group) of FFS pilots in productivity of grape gardens.

  8. 2007 Expeditionary Warfare Conference (12th)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-25

    Panama Peru Uruguay EUCOM Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Denmark Estonia Finland Czech Rep. France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary...UPS 1911/14/2007 2:17 PM Lockheed Martin Team Lockheed Martin Gibbs & Cox Marinette Marine Bollinger Shipyards General Dynamics Bath Iron Works

  9. Minority representation in a semi-democratic regime: the Georgian case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zollinger, Daniel; Bochsler, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This article suggests that in most semi-democracies, the same solution might not be that favourable to minorities. Many semi-democratic countries either restrict party competition or limit parties of ethnic minorities, including: Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kirgistan, Cameron, Equatorial...

  10. The Idea of English in Iran: An Example from Urmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Karim; Richards, Jack C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the place of English in Iran. To do this, we look at the social presence of English in Urmia (the capital of West Azerbaijan province, Iran). The paper draws on instances of the use of English in different contexts in Urmia, including its use in academia, business, state and private education, media, and people's ordinary…

  11. Distributional record of oak gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    m

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... Key words: Diversity, Similarity index, oak, gall wasps, forest. INTRODUCTION. The Zagros Mountains in Iran are divided into the northern Zagros and southern Zagros. West-Azerbaijan province is located in the northern Zagros that is the main habitat of Quercus infectoria Oliv (Fatahi, 1994; Sabeti,. 1998 ...

  12. Effects of Intra-Family Parameters: Educative Style and Academic Knowledge of Parents and Their Economic Conditions on Teenagers' Personality and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtavar, Mohammad; Bayova, Rana

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effects of intra-family parameters; educative styles and academic knowledge of parents and their economic condition on teenagers' personality and behavior. The present study is a descriptive survey. The statistical sample of the study included 166 teenage students from Baku, Azerbaijan and 332 of their…

  13. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... SWOT matrix it could be possible to propose special policies and plans for each settlements. The ... Keywords: Converted villages to city centers, urban network, SWOT analysis, East Azerbaijan province in .... Table 2 Shows scores for all settlements in the form of the sums and means for 9 components.

  14. On a class of semicommutative modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Printed in India. On a class of semicommutative modules. NAZIM AGAYEV1, TAHIRE ¨OZEN2 and ABDULLAH. HARMANCI3. 1Department of Pedagogy, Qafqaz University, Baku Azerbaijan. 2Mathematics Department, Ízzet Baysal University, Bolu, Türkiye. 3Mathematics Department, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Türkiye.

  15. Understanding Higher Education Admissions Reforms in the Eurasian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Todd W.; Gabrscek, Sergij

    2012-01-01

    In the twenty years since independence, new Eurasian nation-states of the former Soviet Union have introduced major changes to the way students are admitted to institutions of higher education. Azerbaijan (1992), Uzbekistan (1993), Kazakhstan (1999), Russia (2001), Kyrgyzstan (2002), Ukraine (2004), and Georgia (2005) have all created new state or…

  16. Effects of drought stress and different densities on oil yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For evaluation of water deficit stress and planting density effects on the oil and biological yield attributes of sunflower, an experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) based split plot factorial design in three replications in the research field of Baku State University, Baku, Azerbaijan, in 2009.

  17. Transnational Analysis of Vocational Education and Training in the New Independent States and Mongolia. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farla, Ton

    The state of vocational education and training (VET) in the following countries was examined: Armenia; Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Mongolia, the Russian Federation, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. The study focused on the following topics: social and economic developments since 1990; VET systems'…

  18. 78 FR 69755 - International Product and Price Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... Federal Regulations. See 39 CFR 20.1. List of Subjects in 39 CFR Part 20 Foreign relations, International... Austria VIE 12 Azerbaijan BAK 19 Bahamas NAS 17 Bahrain BAH 19 Bangladesh DAC 19 Barbados BGI 17 Belarus... RAI 19 Cayman Islands GCM 17 Central African Republic BGF 19 Chad NDJ 19 Chile SCL 17 China BJS 14...

  19. Iran’s Political, Demographic, and Economic Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Kermanshah ~75% Sunni Indo- European Turkey Iraq Syria Arab Khuzestan, Hormozgan Pred. Shi’a Semitic Throughout the Near East and North...West Azerbaijan, and Zanjan. dSistan and Baluchistan. eIlam, Kermanshah , and Kurdistan. fLorestan and Kohgilooye and Boyer-Ahmad. gManzandaran

  20. Publications | Page 555 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 5541 - 5550 of 6388 ... Evaluation of the experience of the national network in Egypt : draft version 2.0 submitted to the Steering Committee, 4th Meeting - Tunis, Tunisia ... Although the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was ratified by Azerbaijan in 2005, many policy makers are not aware of the FCTC ...

  1. Corruption in Higher Education: Some Findings from the States of the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Paul; Petrov, Georgy

    2004-01-01

    Many observers have noted that corruption in higher education is widespread in the states of the former Soviet Union. Little empirical evidence is available, however. This article examines some theoretical approaches to the study of corruption, and presents empirical data on corruption in higher education from Russia and Azerbaijan, collected by…

  2. Chapter 16: Species Diversity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zargaran

    2012-05-03

    May 3, 2012 ... In this survey, the oak gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) were collected from oak forests of West-Azerbaijan Province in six sites, from April to October. Species richness, heterogeneity, evenness and true diversity were measured. Based on the result of this study, 37 of oak gall wasps species ...

  3. International economic relations of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Politics of Uzbekistan on development of international trade-economic cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Mirmuminov M.; Akbarov B.

    2018-01-01

    The article reveals the question of international economic relations of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The policy of Uzbekistan on the development of international trade and economic cooperation. And also, the economic relations of Uzbekistan and Russia. Economic relations with the countries Iran and Azerbaijan.

  4. The Effect of Perceived Spiritual Leadership on Envy Management of Faculty Members through the Role of Professional Development Mediation and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Zarin Daneshvar; Saidabadi, Reza Yousefi; Niazazari, Kiumars

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: the present study aimed to investigate the effect of perceived spiritual leadership on envy management of faculty members of Islamic Azad Universities of East Azerbaijan province through the role of professional development mediation and job satisfaction. Methodology: this study was a descriptive and correlational study that was conducted…

  5. Zinc, nitrogen and salinity interaction on agronomic traits and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 2-year greenhouse experiment was carried out at the East Azerbaijan Agronomy and Natural Resources Research Center, Tabriz, Iran, during the two seasons of 2009 to 2010 and 2010 to 2011.The experimental design aimed to study the response of canola to different nitrogen and zinc fertilizer levels under two doses of ...

  6. African Journals Online: Norway

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan, Aland Islands, Albania, Algeria, American Samoa, Andorra, Angola, Anguilla, Antarctica, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas ...

  7. African Journals Online: Albania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan, Aland Islands, Albania, Algeria, American Samoa, Andorra, Angola, Anguilla, Antarctica, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas ...

  8. A post-mortem of the Vilnius Summit: not yet a 'Thessaloniki moment' for the Eastern Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Kostanyan, Hrant; Blockmans, Steven

    2013-01-01

    In assessing the third Eastern Partnership (EaP) Summit at Vilnius on November 28-29th, this CEPS Commentary concludes that the event fell far short of its initial ambition to define the geopolitical finalité of EU-EaP relations by projecting a path towards future accession to the EU for Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine.

  9. The plants with essence oil are potential radio protectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzayev, N.R.; Guliyev, N.T.

    2011-01-01

    Full tex: Azerbaijan flora is considered as one of the richest countries according to its genera and species abondance in all over the world. There are 4545 plant species in the Azerbaijan flora the native areal (origin) of many of which is just Azerbaijan. Majority of these plants is used in different fields of the national economy as useful plant. Nakhichivan Autonomous Republic is very rich within the botanical and geographical regions of Azerbaijan from its flora point of vew. Existance of vertical zonality, abondance of the soil with balanced microelements and etc. here resulted more amount of biologically active substances in the content of the plants that warrants to use them on the purpose of food, medicine and so on.Territory of the Nakhichivan AR differes from other areas of the region with its climate, soil and vegetation cover. That is why fruit, vegetable and water-melon quality and quantity index is high according to their taste, aroma and quality in the both environment - in the natural flora and in the sowing condition. Also while studying the collection dynamics of biologically active substances in their content quality and quantity index is usually high. Based on our 30-yeared experience we can say with certainty: study of bioecological features of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), melissa (Melissa officinalis L.) and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) spread in the Nakhichivan AR area, their use by their biochemical research on the purpose of quality increase of the extracts, ether and fat oils, medicaments of biologically active substances, alcohol-free drinks and food obtained of them is necessary, actual and important for the present time in tinned meat and fish production, in cosmetics and tooth pastes technology working out. Basil, melissa and tarragon are plants (herbs) belonged to Azerbaijan areal; at the same time just these species have been taken as they differ from the same species and varieties grown in the other countries by their

  10. Colloquium on Central Asia; Colloque sur l'Asie centrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  11. Nuclear terrorism and legal protection of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad-zada, Z.; Aliev, D.

    2003-01-01

    existing international practice. As is known, Azerbaijan Republic takes a special place at the turn of Europe and Asia. In territory of Azerbaijan geopolitical interests of many countries are crossed. Except for that the Caucasus, one of which important components is Azerbaijan, represents very difficult and specific region. In this territory there are zones of regional conflicts, one of which is the so-called zone of 'the conflict of Nagorny Karabakh'. Nagorny Karabakh, and also other territories of Azerbaijan that have been occupied by Armenia are outside of jurisdiction not only Azerbaijan, but also all world community, and these territories are used as a zone of transportation of narcotics and centers of preparation of terrorists for the extremist organizations. Serious threat for region is the Armenian Atomic Power Station (APS). As it has been marked above, accomplishment of acts of terrorism on nuclear objects can lead to ecological catastrophe and can put an irreparable loss to an environment and process of social development. In a case of accomplishment of act of terrorism on the Armenian APS, there can be a big ecological catastrophe in the region from which the inhabitants of Azerbaijan, Turkey, Iran, Georgia, the countries of the Near East and the Armenia will suffer. Considering all aforesaid, Azerbaijan should improve the legislation in the field of the ecological right in view of new displays of terrorism, namely in view of probability of accomplishment of acts of terrorism with use of the weapon of mass destruction, according to experience of the advanced countries. Perfection of the legislation in these areas should conduct on the basis of observance of specificity of region and answer the international conventions. Work in the field of the ecological right and struggle against terrorism, and also perfection of legislations of the Azerbaijan Republic in these areas is one of priority tasks of lawmaking of the country at the present stage

  12. Oil majors under states pressure: two examples in the Caspian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussac, Samuel; Raballand, Gael

    2011-01-01

    All over the world, and especially in developing countries, governments strive to strengthen national oil companies over oil and gas majors. The Caspian, and notably Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan, is not an exception to this current trend. This article sheds light on the leverages both Azerbaijani and Kazakhstani governments have used to increase pressure over oil and gas multinationals. In a first step, they both established a publicly-owned integrated company managed by the presidential entourage. Then, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan have applied various instruments. Baku has sought to increase its own oil production to decrease the role of majors while Astana has preferred to use ecological, fiscal, legal and logistical leverages. However, in both cases, the outcome has been rather similar since the increasing pressure over majors has not necessarily led to benefit local populations

  13. Petro-States - Predatory or Developmental?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    Political attention is increasing on the glaring contradiction in most oil-rich countries between natural abundance and economic and social misery. How can it be that oil is not a blessing, but becomes a curse? Although drawing on economic analysis (Dutch disease), the analytical framework established in this report on Angola and Azerbaijan pays special attention to political and institutional factors and concentrates on the role of the state. Selected variables that are likely to decide whether the petro-states become ''predatory'' or ''developmental'' are studied for both countries. The analysis indicates a danger that oil resources will continue to trickle away instead of trickling down to the benefit of the broader Angolan and Azerbaijani population. Concerted action by international oil companies and the Bretton Woods institutions provides the best hope of moving the present political leadership in Angola and Azerbaijan into a developmental direction. (author)

  14. Colloquium on Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  15. Identifying the source of petroleum pollution in sediment cores of southwest of the Caspian Sea using chemical fingerprinting of aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirneshan, Golshan; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Memariani, Mahmoud

    2017-02-15

    In this study, the concentration and sources of aliphatic and petroleum markers were investigated in 105 samples of Anzali, Rezvanshahr and Astara cores from the southwest of Caspian Sea. Petroleum importation was diagnosed as a main source in most depths of cores by the results of unresolved complex mixture, carbon preference index and hopanes and steranes. From the chemical diagnostic parameters, petroleum inputs in sediment of cores were determined to be different during years and the sources of hydrocarbons in some sections differed than Anzali and Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan oils. Diagenic ratios in most sediments of upper and middle sections in Astara core were determined to be highly similar to those of Azerbaijan oil, while the presence of Turkmenistan and Anzali oils were detected in a few sections of Anzali and Rezvanshahr cores and only five layers of downer section in Anzali core, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Colobognatha millipedes in the Caucasus (Diplopoda: Polyzoniida, Platydesmida, Siphonocryptida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovatch, Sergei; Evsyukov, Aleksandr; Reip, Hans S

    2015-06-11

    The superorder Colobognatha is represented in the Caucasus by three genera and species, one each in the orders Polyzoniida, Platydesmida and Siphonocryptida. Hirudisoma roseum (Victor, 1839) (Hirudisomatidae, Polyzoniida) is especially widespread, ranging from S Russia, Abkhazia, Georgia (with a neotype designated and described from Kakhetia, E Georgia) and NW Azerbaijan to E Turkey, and also including H. ponticum (Lohmander, 1939) (junior subjective synonym, syn. nov.). Fioria hyrcana Golovatch, 1980 (Andrognathidae, Platydesmida) is endemic to the Hyrcanian parts of the Republic of Azerbaijan and NW Iran along the western and southern coasts of the Caspian Sea. Due to the finding of Hirudicryptus abchasicus sp. nov. (Siphonocryptidae, Siphonocryptida), from a single locality in Abkhazia, NW Caucasus, the order Siphonocryptida is new to the fauna of the region. A key to all four species of the trans-Palaearctic genus Hirudicryptus is given. All three Caucasian species of Colobognatha are described in due detail and abundantly illustrated, and their distributions mapped.

  17. Petro-States - Predatory or Developmental?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    Political attention is increasing on the glaring contradiction in most oil-rich countries between natural abundance and economic and social misery. How can it be that oil is not a blessing, but becomes a curse? Although drawing on economic analysis (Dutch disease), the analytical framework established in this report on Angola and Azerbaijan pays special attention to political and institutional factors and concentrates on the role of the state. Selected variables that are likely to decide whether the petro-states become ''predatory'' or ''developmental'' are studied for both countries. The analysis indicates a danger that oil resources will continue to trickle away instead of trickling down to the benefit of the broader Angolan and Azerbaijani population. Concerted action by international oil companies and the Bretton Woods institutions provides the best hope of moving the present political leadership in Angola and Azerbaijan into a developmental direction. (author)

  18. 10th International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management

    CERN Document Server

    Hajiyev, Asaf; Nickel, Stefan; Gen, Mitsuo

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management (ICMSEM2016) held from August 30 to September 02, 2016 at Baku, Azerbaijan and organized by the International Society of Management Science and Engineering Management, Sichuan University (Chengdu, China) and Ministry of Education of Azerbaijan. The aim of conference was to foster international research collaborations in management science and engineering management as well as to provide a forum to present current research findings. The presented papers were selected and reviewed by the Program Committee, made up of respected experts in the area of management science and engineering management from around the globe. The contributions focus on identifying management science problems in engineering, innovatively using management theory and methods to solve engineering problems effectively and establishing novel management theories and methods to address new engineering management issues.

  19. Microelectronic converters and devices based on them. Materials of the seventh international scientific and technical conference. Devoted to 90th aniversary of Haydar Aliyev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashaev, A.M.; Gakhramanov, N.F.

    2013-12-01

    Many known scientists and governmental persons from Azerbaijan, Turkey, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyz Republic, Russia, Belarus, Austria took part at the seventh eurasian conference devoted to Nuclear science and its application which had a big role in considering of Nuclear activities in Azerbaijan. Conference activity has been related to nuclear energy and its facilities, materials and waste management, application of the nuclear facilities in industry and radioecology fileld, connection beetween safety, radiation doses and materials physics; properties, also concerned some other nuclear related themes like nuclear physics and chemistry. During the conference many scientific and practical proposals have been made, a lot of pictures, tables and graphics were presented. In common this book of abstracts was divided into 4 parts named : 1) Nuclear physics and chemistry; 2) Radiation science of materials; 3) Radiation technologies; 4) Radiation ecology, biology and safety

  20. Russia joins Kazakh/Omani pipeline venture group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Russia has agreed to become a founding partner in a joint venture pipeline project formed by Kazakhstan and Oman. The agreement, signed in Bermuda July 24, is related to Chevron Corp.'s further development of supergiant Tengiz and Korolev fields along the Caspian Sea coast in Kazakhstan. Azerbaijan last month signed an agreement to become a founding member of the group, accepting terms agreed to by original joint venturers Kazakhstan and Oman. Azerbaijan's new government still must formally ratify its agreement. In addition, Chevron in June signed a memorandum of understanding to join the group at a future date. This paper reports that each of the founding members holds an equal interest in Caspian Pipeline Consortium Ltd., which will operate as a limited liability company incorporated in Bermuda

  1. The ways of transformation of salt production from the saline lakes of Apsheron peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    В. А. Мамедов; Х. Х. Халилова

    2016-01-01

    The issues of salt production at salt lakes of Apsheron Peninsula in Azerbaijan are reviewed here. The paper objective is to examine the brine formation process and analyze the ways of transformation of salt extraction from the lakes of Apsheron Peninsula under ever increasing industrial development and urbanization. The research on ecological state of salt lakes at the peninsula have shown that the decades-long development of oil and gas and other industries had a dramatical impact on the na...

  2. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The document lists the 132 Member States of the Agency as of 1 June 2001. The new Members since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/53) are Central African Republic and Azerbaijan. The dates on which the present 132 Member States became Members are given in an Attachment. It also shows the States whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  3. USSR Report Political and Sociological Affairs No. 1417.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-10

    criti- cized Lunacharskiy in a severe, but friendly way when he became involved with religion or tried to popularize in Russia the idealist theory...The journal RUSSKIY YAZYK I LITERATURA V AZERBAYDZHANSKOY SHKOLE [Russian Lan- guage and Literature in the Azerbaijan School] has been working for...festivals take place here in the Russian language. 53 Russian language days and weeks, festivals and olympiads are especially popular among the numerous

  4. Force Enhancement Packages for Countering Nuclear Threats in the 2022-2027 Time Frame: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    and NG partner states. They are the first tier for a lost device in Russia in that each nation borders Russia.6 a. Ukraine and California b...Lithuania and Pennsylvania c. Azerbaijan and Oklahoma d. Latvia and Michigan e. Estonia and Maryland f. Republic of Georgia and Georgia g. Poland and Illinois...for illicit drugs, illegal immigrants , smuggled cigarettes, and explosives is almost an art form. A considerable and still-developing body of

  5. Force Enhancement Packages for Countering Nuclear Threats in the 2022-2027 Time Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    nation borders Russia.6 a. Ukraine and California b. Lithuania and Pennsylvania c. Azerbaijan and Oklahoma d. Latvia and Michigan e. Estonia and...Maryland f. Republic of Georgia and Georgia g. Poland and Illinois 5 This document places particular emphasis on this mission area. IDA team members...areas, for example, national capitals. Searching people, vehicles, aircraft, and vessels for illicit drugs, illegal immigrants , smuggled cigarettes

  6. Islam: Sunnis and Shiites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-28

    majority of the world’s Muslim population follows the Sunni branch of Islam, and approximately 10-15% of all Muslims follow the Shiite (Shi’ite...Shi’a, Shia) branch. Shiite populations constitute a majority in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, and Azerbaijan. There are also significant Shiite populations in...d. 767 AD). It is prevalent in Turkey, Central Asia , the Balkans, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh; (2

  7. Orobanche Laxissima Uhlich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piwowarczyk Renata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche laxissima Uhlich & Rätzel (Orobanchaceae is a probably endemic Caucasian parasite of trees. New localities of this species are reported from the Greater Caucasus: Russia (Dagestan and Azerbaijan. These are the easternmost sites known for the species, so they extend its distribution range. Its hosts, abundance, and habitat preferences at the new localities are described, and a supplemented map of distribution of this species in Caucasus Mts. is provided

  8. Islamic factor in contemporary Russia

    OpenAIRE

    N. M. Shalenna

    2014-01-01

    Russian Federation, a Eurasian multinational state, has a significant number of indigenous Muslim population (about 10%) that continues to increase not only due to natural growth and conversion of non-Muslims to Islam, but also as a result of intensive immigration from the Central Asian countries and Azerbaijan. Islamic factor significantly predetermined policy of Russia during its historical development. The importance of Islam in contemporary political life has been underlined by many gover...

  9. MODELLING INFLATION UNCERTAINTY IN TRANSITION ECONOMIES:THE CASE OF RUSSIA AND THE FORMER SOVIET REPUBLICS

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan Erkam; Tarkan Cavusoglu

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the linkage between inflation and inflation-uncertainty in seven transitional economies ( Armenia , Azerbaijan , Georgia , Kazakhstan , the Kyrgyz Republic , the Russian Federation and the Ukraine ) which experienced hyper-inflation until the mid-1990s. This linkage is investigated in the ARCH modelling framework by using both conventional Granger non-causality testing and the Holmes-Hutton approach, which has significant small- and large-sample power advantages over t...

  10. Modeling inflation uncertainty in transition economies: The case of Russia and the former Soviet Republics

    OpenAIRE

    Erkam Serkan; Cavusoglu Tarkan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the linkage between inflation and inflation uncertainty in seven transitional economies (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine) which experienced hyper-inflation until the mid-1990s. This linkage is investigated in the ARCH modeling framework by using both conventional Granger noncausality testing and the Holmes-Hutton approach, which has significant small- and large-sample power advantages over the former...

  11. International workshop 'Effect of ionizing radiation on ecological situation of countries from Caucasian region and Caspian sea basin'. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerimov, M.K.; Birsen, N.; Gaziev, A.I.

    2002-10-01

    The scientists from following countries took part at the international workshop: Azerbaijan, Turkey, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Uzbekistan. The activity was conducted in two sections. Section A was devoted to the problems of radiation safety and natural sciences of radiation contamination in Caucasian region and Caspian sea basin, oil industry and technology and environment monitoring. Section B was devoted to the evaluation of radiation risks, radioprotectors, ecological and genetical consequences of the anthropogenic factors effect on the environment

  12. The Fulfilment Level of Turkic Republics Higher Education Students' Academic and Social Expectations in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Mirgül ENTERİEVA; Ferudun SEZGİN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the fulfilment level of students who come from Turkic Republics to study in Turkey, regarding their academic and social expectations. The qualita-tive research technique and phenomenological design were used in the study. Data of this research was collected via a semistructured interview form consisting 11 openended questions and probes, which were developed by the researchers. A total of 39 undergraduate and postgraduate students from Azerbaijan, Kazakhs...

  13. Short-term economic indicators. Transition economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This quarterly publication complements the OECD Main Economic Indicators. It presents a wide range of monthly, quarterly, and annual economic indicators covering such topics as industrial production, business surveys, construction, employment, earnings, prices, domestic and foreign finance, interest rates and domestic and foreign trade for the following 21 transition countries: Bulgaria, Poland, Azerbaijan, Russian Federation, Czech Republic, Republic of Slovenia, Belarus, Estonia, Romania, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Hungary, Slovak Republic, Kyrgyz Republic, Turkmenistan, Latvia, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine, Lithuania, Armenia, Uzbekistan. (author)

  14. The Turkmens and their oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John.

    1997-01-01

    Political, energy and economic policies are all still being formulated afresh in the newly independent country of Turkmenistan, since its withdrawal from the former Soviet Union. This paper explores how these policies will affect the production of oil. Exploitation of its hydrocarbon reserves is likely to be at the centre of economic development, and senior politicians, learning from the experience of neighbouring Azerbaijan, are understandably cautious about signing up with international oil companies. (UK)

  15. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-19

    before the next baby appeared. And this had to do with nourishment of the mother. Her diet included more than that of the modern Turkmen woman . There...after the mass pogroms and the deportation of Arme- nians in Sumgait, Baku, and other parts of Azerbaijan, which actions were carried out under the...Armenian CP, condemning the crimes against humanity—genocide, pogroms and deportation , must strive to recognize the genocide of Armenians both on the

  16. World review: Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2000-05-01

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) throughout Asia in all aspects of the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Countries specifically mentioned are Australia, Azerbaijan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkmenistan and Vietnam. It is expected that soon after 2000, oil demand in Southeast Asia will resume growth at 4-5% per annum and demand for petroleum products in China will more than double by 2010.

  17. Intractability and Mediation of the Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    education at a time when our operational forces are in high demand. I would like to especially thank Professor Mikhail Tsypkin, Professor Victoria...of the conflict view the problem through the lens of liberalism or constructivism . Scholars that represent this viewpoint include Thomas de Waal...makers, and the civil society in Armenia and Azerbaijan is assessed through the lenses of the liberalism and constructivism perspectives appropriately

  18. Bioecological features and corrective properties of Achillea filipendulina Lam., Calendula officinalis L. and Hypericum perforatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshan Shamilov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to investigations on bioecological features and corrective properties of two species from the family Asteraceae Dumort. (Achillea filipendulina Lam. and Calendula officinalisL. and one species from the family Hypericaceae Juss. (Hypericum perforatumL. which are growing in the flora of Azerbaijan. It has revealed that the extract obtained from the collection of these plants shows corrective influence.

  19. Estimation of a Mechanization Index and Its Impact on Energy and Economic Factors in Apple Orchard in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fadavi, Raheleh; Keyhani, Alireza; Saied Mohtasebi, Seyyed

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in the 2008-9 production year in West Azerbaijan province (Uromia Township). The Energy Ratio, Energy Productivity, Economic Productivity and Mechanization Index were estimated for apple production. Data were collected using random sampling for 80 face-to-face respondents. Results showed that the highest share of energy consumption belongs to packaging (57%) followed by irrigation (16%). The highest share of expenses was found to be 34% and 30% for labour and packagin...

  20. AZERBAIJAN’S BALANCED FOREIGN POLICY TRAPPED IN A VOLATILE GEOPOLITICAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina STRIMBOVSCHI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Following a study visit in Baku, the author exposes in this paper some of the research results, being also embedded the opinions of Azerbaijanis experts that were interviewed. The aim is to perform an analysis on the evolution of Azerbaijani state interpreted both from the European and Azerbaijani perspective. On the one hand, it is approached the development of the Republic of Azerbaijan after the collapse of Soviet Union and the way the Nagorno-Karabakh unsolved conflict has influenced Azerbaijan’s foreign policy. On the other hand, it is researched the manner in which the European Union – Azerbaijan relations have evolved since 1991, but especially once the Eastern Partnership has been created. Considering the fundamental purpose of the European Neighborhood Union, to ensure security, stability and prosperity in the EU’s vicinity, it is analyzed the impact of two multilateral platforms within the Eastern Partnership (Democracy, good governance and stability, and Energy security was achieved on the Republic of Azerbaijan. At the same time, it is investigated whether the European Union should accept an authoritarian leadership, as a legitimate actor and partner on the international stage just because the EU has a strategic interest to diversify its energy sources and, eventually, reduce the dependence on Russian Federation, or it should change its approach and adopt a firmer stance. Last but not least, are revealed the geopolitical frictions in the South Caucasus region and the reasons for which Azerbaijan tries to maintain its status as a sovereign and independent country, avoiding to ally with any geopolitical bloc, but opting for economic, energy and military cooperation with both sides.

  1. Ways to improve the professionalism quality of pre-school teachers in the implementation of developing training in practice of preschool educational institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Бахышева Шарафат Арам кызы

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problems of pre-school teachers’ training in the process of implementation in pre-school "Curriculum of pre-school education in the Republic of Azerbaijan" are revealed. Difficulties and positive aspects in the work of teachers implementing developing training are marked. Education upgrading requires knowledge of trends of innovative developments in this system, objectives, content, forms and methods of work from pre-school teachers

  2. The Effect of a Period Stretching Training on Functional Dynamic Balance Performance and Range of Motion Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Edris Bavardi Moghadam; Seyed Sadradin Shojaedin

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study was done to investigate the effect of a period of stretch training on functional dynamic balance performance and range of motion in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: the population from which the sample of the study was selected included active older men with knee osteoarthritis in West Azerbaijan. 20 active man who were paid to exercise at least twice a week, were randomly divided into two groups of 10 patients. Subjects for 8 weeks, three times a week. To ...

  3. Study of agronomic characteristics and advantage indices in intercropping of additive series of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    esmaeil rezaei-chiyaneh; Esmaeil Gholinezhad

    2015-01-01

    Study of agronomic characteristics and advantage indices in intercropping of additive series of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.) Abstract In order to evaluate quantitive and qualitive yield of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.) in intercropping of additive series, a field experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications in West Azerbaijan province- city Nagadeh, Iran during growing r...

  4. Enhancing Security and Stability in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Montenegro 18 Azerbaijan 94 Netherlands 106 Belgium 61 Norway 41 Bosnia & Herzegovina 54 Poland 283 Bulgaria 109 Portugal 10 Croatia 102 Romania 643...than 100 officials within the Central Prisons Directorate for incompetence and corruption, illustrating its commitment to reform in this area...for the MoI IG, Central Prisons Directorate, Intelligence, MCTF, and Criminal Investigations Division. RS advisors, EUPOL, and other international

  5. Multinational Counter-Piracy Operations: How Strategically Significant is the Gulf of Guinea to the Major Maritime Powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    streamlining, and operationalizing common agreements, judicial codes, and prison systems for resolving maritime offences. xviii 8. The GGMGC should be...Russia. The European Union imports its crude oil requirements from Norway , Russia, Central Asia, and the Caucasus countries (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan...effectively dispensing justice without a prison system does not exist, there is the need to build in the proposed arrangement prisons with common

  6. Fires, A Joint Professonal Bulletin for US Field and Air Defense Artillerymen, May-June 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    direction spe- cialists” accompanied his special opera- tions Soldiers on these missions. Like the QRF, the counterrocket pla - toon was also a huge...PEs)—one set at the National Training Center ( NTC ) at Fort Irwin, California, and the other on Azerbaijan terrain created to facilitate a common...small maintenance team as the BCT is not resourced to conduct repairs on the loader-launch module (LLM). The remaining pla - toon augmentees consist of

  7. The ethnic dimension of alliance formation alignment patterns in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict

    OpenAIRE

    San, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the alignment behaviors of Armenia and Azerbaijan during and after the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and the effects of ethnic identities on these alignments. The literature on alliances is generally covered by realist scholars, but these scholars do not concentrate on domestic politics and fail to include the ethnic composition of states. However, conflicting parties in ethnic conflicts perceive each other through an ethnic identity lens, and differe...

  8. Contemporary methods and means of monitoring for Karabach region's forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyev, N.R.; Abdurahmanova, I.G.; Askerov, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text: In the article is analyzed the changing of a condition in the Karabach regions forests. The negative influence to region as well as in other regions of Azerbaijan of a mass cutting down of forests because of need for energy and wood industry, life conditions and also the results of military operations were lighted. The effective methods of reception of the operative information on an ecological condition of wood ecological systems on the basis of modern technical means are offered

  9. HANDICRAFT IN LATE BRONZE-EARLY IRON AGE IN NAKHCHIVAN

    OpenAIRE

    Toğrul HALİLOV

    2012-01-01

    The article handicraft have been learnt in the Nakhchivan late bronze-early iron age. It was defined that pottery wasone of the ancient craftsmanship areas in Nakhichivan. At that time Nakhichivan, as well as the other regions of Azerbaijan, was an important centre of craftsmanship. The pottery products differed from one another in their size, shape, ornaments on them, the material the were made of and the technology. The pottery products made by Nakhichivan potters were divided into two grou...

  10. GENERAL IN AIR AND SPACE LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Z. Khalilov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of link between air and space law, the problem of determining the boundaries of the airspace is investigated. The international practices of various institutions of air and space law, in particular, in Europe, Argentina, Turkey, and the practice of studying these issues in joint form within the research Institute of the Republic of Azerbaijan are analyzed.

  11. The geo-strategic and geo-political situation of the Caucasus and the Black Sea region at the beginning of XXI century

    OpenAIRE

    Georgescu Stefan; Zelha Altinkaya; Dragan Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Historians’ opinion is unanimous in considering that the Cold War was a war between the two dominant political and social systems: capitalism and socialism. In fact, this war ended with the collapse of communism in the former Soviet Union. With the USSR a crucial geopolitical pole disappeared from the Pontic area and more than ten independent states occurred - Ukraine, Georgia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, etc. - involved in regional and international structure...

  12. Isolation and molecular identification chitinase-producing Streptomyces strains and examination of their in-vitro antagonistic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Dehnad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The chemical fungicides are used widely in the world. To reduce the application of synthetic fungicides in treating plant diseases, biological methods are considered as an alternative way to control plant diseases. Many actinomycetes, particularly Streptomyces species are biological agents against a broad spectrum of fungal plant pathogens. The purpose of this study was using the kitinolitik actinomycetes isolated from soil of Eastern Azerbaijan province In order to produce biological pesticides. Materials and methods: Soil samples were taken from different areas of Eastern Azerbaijan province. According to Streptomyces morphological features, single colonies were isolated. To identify the bacteria by molecular characteristic, the genomic DNA was extracted and then the sequences of 16S rDNA were replicated. By using specific primers the bacterial isolates containing chitinase gene were screened. The isolates consisted Chitinase enzyme and were antagonistically cultured with Alternaria genus which is a fungal plant pathogen. Results: Out of 60 soil collected samples, 31 Streptomyces bacterial isolates were separated. Four isolates showed positive results to selectivity action of the chitinase enzyme. Treatment of 3 bacterial isolates with 2 pathogenic fungi showed that AE09 is the most effective anti-fungal isolates. Discussion and conclusion: Soils in Eastern Azerbaijan province are rich of Streptomyces bacteria which generate antifungal compounds. Obtaining the Streptomyces bacteria which have chitinase gene, can lead to identification of very effective strains as anti-fungal.

  13. A revision of the spider genus Raveniola (Araneae, Nemesiidae. I. Species from Western Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Zonstein

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Raveniola Zonstein, 1987 is found to be represented in Western Asia by 16 species: ♂♀ R. adjarica sp. nov. (Georgia, ♂ R. anadolu sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂ R. arthuri Kunt & Yağmur, 2010 (Turkey, ♂ R. birecikensis sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. dunini sp. nov. (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, ♂♀ R. hyrcanica Dunin, 1988 (Azerbaijan, ♂ R. marusiki sp. nov. (Iran, ♂ R. mazandaranica Marusik, Zamani & Mirshamsi, 2014 (Iran, ♂♀ R. micropa (Ausserer, 1871 (Turkey, ♀ R. nana sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. niedermeyeri (Brignoli, 1972 (Iran, ♂♀ R. pontica (Spassky, 1937 (Russia, Georgia, ♀ R. sinani sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. turcica sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. vonwicki Zonstein, 2000 (Iran and ♂♀ R. zaitzevi (Charitonov, 1948 (Azerbaijan, Georgia = ♀ Brachythele recki Mcheidze, 1983, syn. nov. Eight species are newly described; others are redescribed from types and/or conspecific material. Males of R. micropa and R. zaitzevi, hitherto unknown, are described for the first time. Data on the variability, relationships, distribution, and ecology of all considered species are also provided.

  14. Gender saturation in the Southern Caucasus: family composition and sex-selective abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garenne, Michel; Hohmann, Sophie

    2014-11-01

    The study investigates the complex relationships between sex-selective abortion and family composition in two countries of the Southern Caucasus: Armenia and Azerbaijan. Data were drawn from maternity histories recorded in Demographic and Health Surveys (DHSs). In both countries, the relationship between the sex ratio of the next birth and the number of girls already born changed from negative to positive after 1992, when sex-selective abortion became prevalent. In Azerbaijan, but not in Armenia, a similar change was noticed for the relationship between the sex ratio of the next birth and the number of boys already born, this time from positive to negative. All changes in slopes were highly statistically significant. These findings indicate that sex-selective abortion was prevalent in both countries, and could work both ways in Azerbaijan. The results are interpreted in terms of 'gender saturation', that is a desire of families to better balance the composition of the family when too many children of the same sex are already born, which is consistent with opinion surveys indicating a preference for balanced families.

  15. Sleep paralysis in medieval Persia – the Hidayat of Akhawayni (? –983 AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golzari SE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Samad EJ Golzari,1 Kazem Khodadoust,5 Farid Alakbarli,6 Kamyar Ghabili,2 Ziba Islambulchilar,3 Mohammadali M Shoja,1 Majid Khalili,1 Feridoon Abbasnejad,1 Niloufar Sheikholeslamzadeh,7 Nasrollah Moghaddam Shahabi,4 Seyed Fazel Hosseini,2 Khalil Ansarin11Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences; 2Medical Philosophy and History Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences; 4Students' Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 5Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences; 6Institute of Manuscripts of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan; 7Faculty of Law, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IranAbstract: Among the first three manuscripts written in Persian, Akhawayni's Hidayat al-muta`allemin fi al-tibb was the most significant work compiled in the 10th century. Along with the hundreds of chapters on hygiene, anatomy, physiology, symptoms and treatments of the diseases of various organs, there is a chapter on sleep paralysis (night-mare prior to description and treatment of epilepsy. The present article is a review of the Akhawayni's teachings on sleep paralysis and of descriptions and treatments of sleep paralysis by the Greek, medieval, and Renaissance scholars. Akhawayni's descriptions along with other early writings provide insight into sleep paralysis during the Middle Ages in general and in Persia in particular.Keywords: sleep paralysis, night-mare, Akhawayni, Persia

  16. History of development of the Azerbaijanian Medieval psychological thought (11-16th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunzaliya R. Musaeva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The period of the Middle Ages became a new progressive stage of development of psychological thought. Daily supervision and generalization in the course of communication, activities gained further development in the form of philosophical judgment and a formulation of the most general laws and offers. In the Middle Ages, under the influence of the developed objective historical reality, in Azerbaijan the number of the poets and prose writers writing in the native language though before this work were created by them, generally in the Arab and farsidsky languages has increased. The ancient period comes to the end at this stage and the medieval period of the Azerbaijani literature when in parallel the psychology passed the stage of consecutive studying and the analysis of human knowledge which is saved up in the course of communication of people with each other begins. In article it is told about culture, customs, literary and cultural heritage of the Azerbaijani people. The main attention is paid to studying of prescientific and scientific psychological science of Azerbaijan during various periods when it developed as one of the field of philosophy. Also merits of such prominent representatives of public and scientific thought as Bahmanyar, Siradzheddin Urmavi, Nizami Gyandzhevi, Nasireddin Tusi, etc. are emphasized. Researches show that history of science and culture of Azerbaijan, models of folklore and references are rich with psychological thoughts and ideas. Azerbaijan has ancient traditions in the history of forming of the first psychological views. After declaration of independence as Azerbaijan in modern literature the main place is taken by universal ideas, subjects of return of the occupied native lands, love for the country, justice, etc. In spite of the fact that now the Azerbaijani literature is based on reflection and a celebration of ideas of an azerbaydzhanizm, modernist and post-modernist aspirations are also shown in a varying

  17. The legislation of CIS countries on the issue of genetically modified products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammadov, Vugar; Mustafayeva, Aytan

    2011-12-01

    Genetic engineering is a fast-moving research field that produces many achievements, including genetically modified organisms, which are used during the production of food products. Recent decades have shown that scientists, policy makers and the general public cannot reach a consensus about the benefits and hazards of genetically modified food products. Opinions are so different, and both sides are so well-grounded, that it is not easy to reach a conclusion about this scientific achievement. Nevertheless, food security is one of the main objectives of the state, which is responsible for providing safe food products to its own citizens in the marketplace. This is why states are interested in reviewing these scientific achievements, in terms of the state's national interests and the security of its citizens. This article sets forth: (1) the main advantages and disadvantages of genetically modified products; (2) the role of national legislation in the control of food security; and (3) the attitude toward genetically modified products in the national legislatures of CIS countries. Taking these points into account, the authors come to the conclusion that actual Azerbaijan law is not responding to the changes, which have taken place in recent decades, in development of the world market and technological conditions in the production of food products. This provides the basis to conclude that, in actual conditions, the rights ofAzerbaijan citizens to the safety of food products are not well protected. At the end of this article, the authors make recommendations about the necessity of amendments to the legislation in their own country, towards the goal of greater control over such products in Azerbaijan.

  18. Association Between Fear and Beauty Evaluation of Snakes: Cross-Cultural Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landová, Eva; Bakhshaliyeva, Natavan; Janovcová, Markéta; Peléšková, Šárka; Suleymanova, Mesma; Polák, Jakub; Guliev, Akif; Frynta, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    According to the fear module theory, humans are evolutionarily predisposed to perceive snakes as prioritized stimuli and exhibit a fast emotional and behavioral response toward them. In Europe, highly dangerous snake species are distributed almost exclusively in the Mediterranean and Caspian areas. While the risk of a snakebite is relatively low in Central Europe, Azerbaijan, on the other hand, has a high occurrence of the deadly venomous Levant viper (Macrovipera lebetina). We hypothesize that co-habitation with this dangerous snake has shaped the way in which humans evaluate snake species resembling it. For that purpose, we asked respondents from the Czech Republic and Azerbaijan to rank photographs depicting 36 snake species according to perceived fear and beauty. The results revealed a high cross-cultural agreement in both evaluations (fear r2 = 0.683, p Snakes species eliciting higher fear tend to be also perceived as more beautiful, yet people are able to clearly distinguish between these two dimensions. Deadly venomous snakes representing a serious risk are perceived as highly fearful. This is especially true for the vipers and allies (pit vipers) possessing a characteristic body shape with a distinct triangular head and thick body, which was found as the most fear evoking by respondents from both countries. Although the attitude toward snakes is more negative among the respondents from Azerbaijan, their fear evaluation is similar to the Czechs. For instance, despite co-habitation with the Levant viper, it was not rated by the Azerbaijanis as more fearful than other dangerous snakes. In conclusion, agreement in the evaluation of snake fear and beauty is cross-culturally high and relative fear attributed to selected snake species is not directly explainable by the current environmental and cultural differences. This may provide some support for the evolutionary hypothesis of preparedness to fear snakes. PMID:29615942

  19. The Daejeon international exposition, Korea, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keechang

    1994-03-01

    This book reports the Daejeon international exposition, Korea, 1993. The first part introduces domestic pavilions such as government pavilion, resources utilization pavilion, electric energy pavilion, currency culture pavilion, residential environmental pavilion, imagination pavilion and nature and life pavilion. The second part has abstract of the international pavilions such as Swiss Confederation, Kingdom of Sweden, French Republic, Federal Republic of Germany, Republic of Portugal, Republic of Austria, Holy See of the Roman Pontiff, Azerbaijan Republic, Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Solomon Islands, Republic of Bolivia, Saint Lucia, Barbados, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and European Community.

  20. The wreck of a tanker in the Bosphorus sound calls oil traffic in question again in this area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Since the bursting of ex-USSR, the maritime transport has seriously increased in the Bosphorus sound; The Turkey put a reclamation to International Maritime Organization (linked to United Nations), and asked for a revision of navigation regulations. In fact the turkey hopes that oil companies second the following proposal to build a pipeline from oil fields of Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan to Mediterranean sea via Turkey, but this suggestion meets an opposition from Russian authorities which prefer that the crude oil coming from central Asia forward by their tankers from their harbours of Black Sea

  1. KEY DUTIES OF A COUNTRY’S ECONOMY RELATED TO NATIONAL DEFENSE IN CRITICAL TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahruz MAMMADOV

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A country’s economy has a special role in a country’s defense. The organization of the national defense is carried out not only through the development of national armed forces, but also by increasing the sustainability of the economic activity for provision of the State and population demands during war. For this reason, development of the economic potential, taking necessary measures for preparation and sustainability of labor, material and financial resources are one of the significant issues and studying the conceptual, legal and economic issues related to the duties of the economy in the organization of state defense in Azerbaijan is very crucial.

  2. Kurdistan Region, Asia as seen from STS-58

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Lake Urmia (Orumiyeh) in the high desert palteau of northwest Iran dominates the center of the northeast-looking view. The left edge of the view cuts Lake Van in eastern Turkey. The Caucasus mountains in war-torn Georgia appear just beyond. Mount Ararat is a major peak north of Lake Van. The Caspian Sea, an international body of water, stretches across the top right of the view. Countries bordering the Caspian are Iran in the south, Kazakhstan in the west, and Russia and Azerbaijan in the west. The shuttle stabilizer, OMS pods and open payload bay can also be seen just above the horizon.

  3. STUDYING OF 1917-1918 POLITICAL SITUATION IN BAKU IN SOVIET HISTORIOGRAPHY OF 1920S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вагиф оглы Абышов

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the works of Soviet historians, who first turned to the study of the post-revolutionary political situation in Baku in the 1920s. Among them are S.E Sef, S.S. Shaumyan, G. Stein, etc. It is concluded that the aim of this authors was justification of Bolsheviks’ coming to power while neglecting the role of other political forces. This historiographical situation makes it necessary to identify different interpretations of the events related to the political situation in Baku in 1917−1918 in order to restore the objective picture of the past history of Azerbaijan.

  4. Cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among Turkey, Caucasian and Central Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: On the first call for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and became the member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world, in the same year. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with other countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's, TAEK, besides building cooperation with various countries, has involved in cooperating with related institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan for establishment of bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear energy and signed protocols with Academy of Science of Azerbaijan, Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan, National Academy of Science of Kyrgyzstan and Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Science. Turkey is a candidate state to join the European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasia Region. So, there are significant developments in the cultural, social, technical, economical and trade relations owing to our common historical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. These protocols enable parties to organize joint projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the joint studies and make joint efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. The joint activities carried out mainly are given as follows: Eurasia Conference on Nuclear Science and Its Application - First Conference organized in the year 2000 in Turkey, Second Conference at Almaty? in

  5. The changing nationality composition of the Central Asian and Transcaucasian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleniak, T

    1997-06-01

    Patterns and levels of migration in eight states located in the southern region of the former Soviet Union are analyzed for the period from 1989 to the beginning of 1996. "The focus of the paper is on the composition of migration streams by nationality and the impact that migration has had on the changing population of the newly independent states formed after the dissolution of the former Soviet Union. Recent data are tabulated and estimates discussed in detail disclosing the exodus of Russians and movement of other nationalities in each of the Transcaucasian (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia) and Central Asian (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) countries." excerpt

  6. “In the army, regardless of ethnicity or faith, those who are part of the collective should fulfill their public service”– Interview with Sergei Mel’kov, Co-chairman of the Association of Military Politologists, Moscow, 8 October 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Sieca-Kozlowski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available PIPSS.ORG – Based on prognoses about the growth of the Muslim population in Russia over the next 20 years, both Western and Russian demographers predict an increase of Muslim recruits in the army. I understand this issue arose under Brezhnev and then faded away with the collapse of the USSR, since Azerbaijan and the Central Asian Republics ceased to be part of the USSR. Today with the growth of the Muslim population this question has arisen again. Is there data on this issue?Sergei Mel’kov: T...

  7. From the Editor

    OpenAIRE

    Ugur Demiray

    2012-01-01

    Greetings Dear readers of TOJDE,TOJDE is appeared on your screen now as Volume 13 Number: 1 In this issue it is published 5 notes for Editor, 16articles, 2 books reviews a nd this time, 53 authors from 12 different countries are placed. These published articles are from Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Greece, Iran, Malaysia, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Turkey, UAE and USA.The first Notes for editor arrived from USA, written by Kevin YEE and Jace HARGIS. They focused on Simply including a narrative co...

  8. Russia’s backyard – unresolved conflicts in the Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnleitner Dominik

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Caucasus played a prominent role in the Russian foreign policy for a long time, which has not changed since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Beginning with four general hypothesis about Russia’s interests in its “near abroad” the essays gives an insights in the current status and developments in the relations between Russia and its southern neighbors Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan. A special focus is on the frozen conflicts in South Ossetia and Naghorno-Karabakh and Russia’s role in these conflicts.

  9. DID THE RECENT ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT REMITTANCES?EVIDENCE FROM TRANSITION COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Prochazkova Ilinitchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Remittances, funds transferred from migrants to their home country, are a veryimportant source of income for households and smallbusinesses in mosttransition countries. The paper documents the recent downturn in migrant’sremittances to selected transition countries due tothe recent global economiccrisis. The research concentrates on the Eastern Partnership countries:Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova andUkraine representingimportant sources of migrants. The paper shows howthe global economicdownturn affected remittance flows sent to the selected set of countries. Inparticular, the paper questions whether migration,thereby remittances, workas a transmission mechanism or important regional or global economic.

  10. The petroglyphs of Dowzdaghi, Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kazempur

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with recording and interpreting a complex of petroglyphs at Dowzdaghi in the northern part of Iranian Azerbaijan in Northwestern Iran. The assemblage can be divided into four sub-assemblages; the designs and images depicted on the surfaces of isolated boulders usually constitute a panel and sometimes individual motifs and inscriptions. The investigations have revealed more than 400 carved and scratched drawings on rock boulders on Mt. Dowzdaghi. The main themes include anthropomorphic figures, animals (ibex, with long elaborated curved horn, deer, dog, horse, bull, ram, fox, snake, alligator, and hedgehog, hunting scenes, Arabic and Persian inscriptions, and symbolic designs.

  11. Analysis of flavonoids from propolis by on-line HPLC-electrospray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Nicola; Bergonzini, Gianluca

    2006-09-26

    In this paper, the qualitative and quantitative separation and determination of the polyphenolic component of propolis preparations in the form of ethanolic extract, usually used for commercial pharmaceutical preparations, has been investigated by means of on-line HPLC-ESI/MS technique. Propolis of different origin have been evaluated for their components and a specific fingerprint has been determined potentially useful for the quality control of extracts in pharmaceutical preparations. The ethanolic extracts of propolis from Argentina, Italy and Spain shows approximately the same total ion chromatogram (TIC) profile due to the presence of the same molecular species, identified by the negative ESI-MS. On the contrary, the samples from Azerbaijan, China, Ethiopia and Kenya show a very peculiar TIC profiles. By using many purified flavonoids and calibration curves over a wide concentration range, from 0.05 (5 microg/ml) to 5 microg (500 microg/ml), an accurate assessment of the contents of several bioactive compounds in extract samples was performed. The propolis from Argentina, Italy and Spain show a great amount of pinocembrin (approximately 49%, 48% and 39% of the total identified flavonoids, respectively) and variable but similar percentages of the other species. On the contrary, the propolis from China, Azerbaijan and Ethiopia have a great amount of pinocembrin (approximately 63%, 46% and 62%, respectively) but no presence of genistein, kaempferol, apigenin and chrysin for the sample from China, genistein, kaempferol, acacetin and chrysin for the propolis from Azerbaijan, and no kaempferol and acacetin for the sample from Ethiopia. The ethanolic extract from propolis of Kenya has no identified flavonoid species but just a peak possessing a m/z of 253.0. Finally, an evaluation of the presence of total flavonoids for the various propolis samples was performed, with extracts from Argentina, Italy and Spain more rich in polyphenols than those from Azerbaijan, China

  12. Introducing Au Potential Areas, Using Remote Sensing and Geochemical Data Processing Using Fractal Methods in Chartagh, Western Azerbijan - Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Edris; Feizi, Faranak

    2016-06-01

    The studied area - Chartagh - is located in the East of Azerbaijan gharbi Province, Iran. In this paper, geology map, ASTER satellite images were used and after processing these images with ENVI softwares, geochemical data analysis consisting of lithogeochemical samples, within geological field observations. On ASTER data; using a number of selected methods including band ratio, Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) and Spectral Angle Maper (SAM) distinguished alternation zones. Geochemical anomalies were separated by number - size (N-S) fractal method. (N-S) fractal method was utilized for High intensive Au, As and Ag anomalies.

  13. Post-socialist Informalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is a comprehensive collection of key scholarship on informality from the whole post-socialist region. From Bosnia to Central Asia, passing through Russia and Azerbaijan, the contributions to this volume illustrate the multi-faceted and complex nature of informality, while demonstrating...... the growing scholarly and policy debates that have developed around the understanding of informality. In contrast to approaches which tend to classify informality as ‘bad’ or ‘transitional’ – meaning that modernity will make it disappear – this edited volume concentrates on dynamics and mechanisms...

  14. [Study of alcohol-soluble lignin in cognac spirits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarnitskiĭ, A F; Askenderov, K A

    2008-01-01

    We studied the structure of alcohol-soluble lignin in cognac spirits from Spain (7-year aging) and Azerbaijan (15-year aging). Alcohol-soluble lignin was precipitated and refractionated by means of preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Lignin was studied by the method of high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Lignin hydrolysis products were assayed by the method of gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The structure of lignans was reconstructed from these fragments. Lignans from Spanish and Azeri alcohol were arbitrarily designated as sinapoconiferal triglycoside and glucoferulate flavone diglycoside, respectively.

  15. Taking control: how citizens can hold industry to account

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Emma; Schwarte, Christoph; Cotula, Lorenzo; Garside, Ben; Siegele, Linda

    2009-01-15

    The oil, gas and mining industries look set to remain major players in global development, despite urgent efforts to end the world's fossil fuel dependency and diversify energy sources. The activities of the extractive industries often impinge directly, and sometimes harshly, on communities and the environment. But local people are rising to the challenge. From Azerbaijan to Nigeria, Kazakhstan, Mali and Mongolia, citizens are working to promote transparency, accountability and responsible practice in these industries. A lack of skills and resources can impede crucial progress – so knowing the tools that work to make industry accountable is key.

  16. Migrazioni di archetipi: tradizioni e rapimenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Valsecchi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Quel che resta di una trasmissione orale o scritta sono tracce multiple e mai estinte. I segni e i simboli che la rinnovano, secondo influsso e revisione dei confini di tradizione, traduzione o plagio, sono oggetto del volume collettaneo Archetypes in Literatures and Cultures – Cultural and Re- gional Studies a cura di Rahilya Geybullayeva (Baki Slavian Universiteti, Azerbaijan. Un’analisi a più voci degli attraversamenti identitari per migrazioni di archetipi nello spazio-tempo delle lettera- ture ed epopee.

  17. Intimate Partner Physical and Sexual Violence and Outcomes of Unintended Pregnancy Among National Samples of Women From Three Former Soviet Union Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2014-06-01

    The article examines the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and unintended pregnancy among nationally representative samples of women in three former Soviet Union countries. Women who experienced physical and/or sexual IPV from their current or most recent husband or living together partner demonstrated higher risks of unintended last pregnancy, either terminated through abortion (in Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Ukraine) or resulting in unintended live birth (in Ukraine). IPV prevention components should be integrated into reproductive health programs to reduce the risk of unintended births and abortions among women living with abusive partners in these former Soviet Union countries. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Novel high-activity catalysts for partial oxidation of methane to formaldehyde

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parmaliana, A

    1993-05-07

    Full Text Available ) and 54 vol% He with a total reaction pressure of 1.7 bar (1 bar = 105 Pa). Appropriate blank runs have shown that, under our experimental conditions, the contribution of the gas phase reaction up to 650 "C is negligible. Catalytic data are reported..., Preprints, Petroleum Chemistry Division Inc., Sympo- sium on ‘Catalytic Selective Oxdiation’ ACS, 1992, 37, 1076. 16 I. A. Guliev, A. Kk. Mamedo and V. S. Aliev, Azerbaijan Khim. Zhur., 1985, 35. 17 G. C. Chinchen, P. J. Denny, J. R. Jennings, M. S...

  19. Spousal Violence in 5 Transitional Countries: A Population-Based Multilevel Analysis of Individual and Contextual Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla

    2015-11-01

    I examined the individual- and community-level factors associated with spousal violence in post-Soviet countries. I used population-based data from the Demographic and Health Survey conducted between 2005 and 2012. My sample included currently married women of reproductive age (n = 3932 in Azerbaijan, n = 4053 in Moldova, n = 1932 in Ukraine, n = 4361 in Kyrgyzstan, and n = 4093 in Tajikistan). I selected respondents using stratified multistage cluster sampling. Because of the nested structure of the data, multilevel logistic regressions for survey data were fitted to examine factors associated with spousal violence in the last 12 months. Partner's problem drinking was the strongest risk factor associated with spousal violence in all 5 countries. In Moldova, Ukraine, and Kyrgyzstan, women with greater financial power than their spouses were more likely to experience violence. Effects of community economic deprivation and of empowerment status of women in the community on spousal violence differed across countries. Women living in communities with a high tolerance of violence faced a higher risk of spousal violence in Moldova and Ukraine. In more traditional countries (Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan), spousal violence was lower in conservative communities with patriarchal gender beliefs or higher financial dependency on husbands. My findings underscore the importance of examining individual risk factors in the context of community-level factors and developing individual- and community-level interventions.

  20. Azeroside C: a new phloroacetophenone glycoside from the roots of Dorema glabrum Fisch. & C.A. Mey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Delnavazi*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Dorema glabrum Fisch. & C.A. Meyfrom Umbelliferae family is a monocarpic species distributed in north-west of Iran, Azerbaijan republic and Armenia. The gum-resin of this species is traditionally used for the treatment of bronchitis, catarrh and diarrhea, as well as for its diuretic properties. Recently, we have reported the isolation of five phloroacetophenone glycosides including echisoside, pleoside, hyrcanoside, azerosides A and B from the roots of D. glabrum. The work is a part of our ongoing research on phytochemical constituents of this medicinal plant. Methods: The air dried and ground roots of D. glabrum collected from Jolfa region (East-Azerbaijan, Iran was macerated, successively with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol-water (8:2. The hydroalcoholic extract was subjected to phytochemical analysis using Sephadex-LH20 and RP-18 column chromatography. Structure of the isolated compound was elucidated by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMBC, HSQC, EI-MS and CHNS elemental analysis. Results: A new structure of 2-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1''→3'-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-4-O-methyl-phloroacetophenone, which was named azeroside C, was isolated and identified from D. glabrum roots. Conclusion: The presence of new phloroacetophenone glycosides in D. glabrum highlights this species as a source of this group of natural products which can be used for further pharmacological and toxicological studies.

  1. The Effect of the Family Physician Program Implementation on the Monitoring of the Performance of Health and Treatment Centers and the Producing and Distribution of Healthy Water, Food and Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jabari Beyrami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Family physician as the leader of health team is responsible for monitoring water quality, food and cosmetic preparation settings.  This study was carried out to determine the effect of family physician program on the performance of health centers in the mentioned processes in urban areas of East Azerbaijan, Iran. Materials and Methods : In this cross-sectional descriptive study, three health centers of the East Azerbaijan province were selected as samples and data were extracted from environmental health records files for water and sampling was used for food and cosmetic distributors for two periods of time: before and after implementing family physician plan. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software. Results : The results showed that monitoring of chlorine in drinking water was doubled and microbial sampling of water was increased one and a half time. Furthermore, the monitoring processes of health regulations in food and cosmetic preparation settings after implementing family physician program were improved. Conclusion : In spite of improvements in drinking water monitoring process after family physician program implementation, it is necessary to revise the family physician responsibilities and performance evaluation checklists in this section.

  2. Helicobacter pylori vacA d1 genotype predicts risk of gastric adenocarcinoma and peptic ulcers in northwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Zeinab; Safaralizadeh, Reza; Bonyadi, Morteza Jabbarpour; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Mahdavi, Majid; Latifi-Navid, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    There is a close relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-specific factors and different gastroduodenal diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of vacA d1, d2 genotypes in the H pylori isolates from patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and gastritis in East Azerbaijan region, where the incidence of gastric cancer (GC) is high. Strains isolated from this area are likely to be of European ancestry. In this study, genotyping of the vacA d region of 115 isolates obtained from patients with different gastrodoudenal diseases was accomplished by PCR methods. In addition to PCR amplification of H pylori 16S rDNA, rapid urease tests or histological examination were used to confirm the presence of H pylori in biopsy specimens. Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS version 19. Of the total of 83 H pylori isolates, 36 (43.4%) contained the d1 allele and 47 (56.6%) were subtype d2. The results of the multiple linear/logistic regression analysis showed high correlation between allele d1 and gastric adenocarcinoma or PUD. This study suggests that the H pylori vacA d1 genotype helps predict risk for gastric adenocarcinoma and PUD in East Azerbaijan, Iran.

  3. New prospects in the political economy of inner-Caspian hydrocarbons and western energy corridor through Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgin, Mert

    2007-01-01

    This paper makes a new conceptualization on Caspian energy system and the transit routes that pass through Turkey. Firstly, it puts forward the term of 'inner-Caspian', comprising Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. Secondly, it identifies sub-systems of 'western energy corridor through Turkey' (WECT) by diversifying: (1) 'WECT inner-Caspian', which includes hydrocarbon transportation from Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan; (2) 'WECT Russia', which is currently composed of Blue Stream gas pipeline and oil transportation by tankers through Turkish straits; and (3) 'WECT Middle East', which refers to Iranian, Iraqi and Egyptian hydrocarbons. Thirdly, this paper makes a comparative analysis on WECT systems through selected economic (reserves, supply/demand, production and transportation costs), geo-political (e.g. moves of the concerned actors), political (e.g. recent developments in government structures) and security (especially in terms of transport) indicators which bring out that 'it is more reasonable for the EU to first embrace WECT inner-Caspian, then develop WECT Middle-East in order to diversify its energy supply'

  4. The Trans-Caspian energy route. Cronyism, competition and cooperation in Kazakh oil export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliyev, Farid; Akhrarkhodjaeva, Nozima [School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The article delineates the major national, regional and international level stakeholders in the westward Trans-Caspian transportation of Kazakh oil, supplemented with a discussion of the prospect of expansion of the Trans-Caspian/South Caucasus corridor in light of the presumably harmful effect of the war between Russia and Georgia in August 2008. It demonstrates that while foreign companies have been backed by their respective governments, national firms have also enjoyed considerable state support, partly due to their close links to the interests of state elites in Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. It appears that most companies along the shipping line either belong to the governments of Kazakhstan or Azerbaijan, directly or indirectly (through subsidiaries), or enjoy favoritism and a near monopoly in their markets (crony capitalism). Some of these firms are privately owned but registered in offshore tax havens, while some others have rather obscure ownership structures and corporate profiles. It suggests that cronyism and state capture comprise that politico-economic environment within which the future of Caspian transport systems will have to be decided. (author)

  5. The Trans-Caspian energy route: Cronyism, competition and cooperation in Kazakh oil export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliyev, Farid [School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen (Germany)], E-mail: f.guliyev@jacobs-university.de; Akhrarkhodjaeva, Nozima [School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The article delineates the major national, regional and international level stakeholders in the westward Trans-Caspian transportation of Kazakh oil, supplemented with a discussion of the prospect of expansion of the Trans-Caspian/South Caucasus corridor in light of the presumably harmful effect of the war between Russia and Georgia in August 2008. It demonstrates that while foreign companies have been backed by their respective governments, national firms have also enjoyed considerable state support, partly due to their close links to the interests of state elites in Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. It appears that most companies along the shipping line either belong to the governments of Kazakhstan or Azerbaijan, directly or indirectly (through subsidiaries), or enjoy favoritism and a near monopoly in their markets (crony capitalism). Some of these firms are privately owned but registered in offshore tax havens, while some others have rather obscure ownership structures and corporate profiles. It suggests that cronyism and state capture comprise that politico-economic environment within which the future of Caspian transport systems will have to be decided.

  6. Is there any relationship between food habits in the last two decades and gastric cancer in North-Western Iran?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Mousavi, Seyed Mohsen; Naghashi, Shahnaz; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Ghojazade, Morteza; Majdi, Alireza; Naseri Alavi, Seyed Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this case-control study were to assess the correlation between some food habits in the last two decades and gastric cancer in East Azerbaijan of Iran. In this hospital based case control study, 616 patients (212 gastric cancer patients, 404 cancer free patients) were recruited. Food habits of patients over the past two decades were assessed with a structured questionnaire. We used conditional logistic regression analysis for estimating crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). In this study, over-eating, consumption of high fat milk and yogurt and especial types of cheese increased the risk of gastric cancer (Allfood, moldy food, and pickled vegetables consumption as well as reuse of cooking oil for frying were significantly associated with gastric cancer risk. Furthermore, intake of Ghorme (deep fried meat) was positively correlated with gastric cancer risk (OR:1.31;95%CI: 0.91-1.87). It can be confirmed that particular food habits which have been very common in East-Azerbaijan in the last two past decades increase risk of gastric cancer. According to our results and taking into account the long latency period of gastric cancer it can be concluded that nutrition education for a healthy diet should be performed from early childhood. However, further well designed cohort studies are needed to achieve more clear results.

  7. Geochemical halos of gold and associated elements in Nabijan gold index (SW Kaleibar, NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemayat Jamali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Nabijan ore index located 20 km southwest of Kaleibar city, East Azerbaijan province in the Alborz-Azerbaijan structural zone. Geological rock units outcropping in the area consist of volcano-sedimentary rocks (trachyandesite, andesite, shale and limestone of the Cretaceous age which intruded by the Oligo-Miocene monzogranite, monzogranodiorite and diorite. These intrusions and related hydrothermal activities caused the Au mineralization in the Cretaceous host rocks, as well as in the monzogranitic intrusion. The mineralization in the monzogranite occurred as silicic stockwork and sheeted veins with pyrite and minor chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena. The other type of mineralization is skarn, which present as sparse irregular veinlets with less amount of Au in the Cretaceous carbonates. Preliminary estimation of ore reserve shows 320000t reservoir with average of Au grade about 1.37 gr/ton. According to surface and drilling data, two important anomalies determined. One in the contact zone of intrusive rocks with the Cretaceous volcanics and carbonates (skarn zone. In this anomaly, the correlation coefficient index between Au and Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, and As is low whereas, in the second one which coincides with stockwork mineralization within monzogranite, it is high.

  8. A review of the spider genus Haplodrassus Chamberlin, 1922 in Crimea (Ukraine and adjacent areas (Araneae, Gnaphosidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Kovblyuk

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Eight species of Haplodrassus are recorded from Crimea: H. bohemicus Miller & Buchar, 1977; H. dalmatensis (L. Koch, 1866; H. isaevi Ponomarev & Tsvetkov, 2006; H. minor (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879; H. kulczynskii Lohmander, 1942; H. pseudosignifer Marusik, Hippa & Koponen, 1996; H. signifer (C.L. Koch, 1839 and H. umbratilis (L. Koch, 1866. The occurrence of H. cognatus (Westring, 1861 in Crimea has not been confirmed. Haplodrassus bohemicus is a new species record for the Crimean fauna. Haplodrassus pseudosignifer is a new species record for Crimea and Ukraine as a whole, with Crimea as the westernmost point of its distribution range. Haplodrassus invalidus is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Azerbaijan, Caucasus and the former Soviet Union. Azerbaijan is the easternmost point of its known distribution range. All Crimean Haplodrassus species have only one peak of activity of adult specimens during the year. In Crimea we found syntopically two closely related species H. dalmatensis and H. isaevi in two localities (Sudak Distr., 10 km W Sudak, Mezhdurechie Vill., steppe; and Feodosiya Distr., Karadag Nature Reserve, steppes. These species differ in their phenology. The reproductive period of H. dalmatensis is in May-July, and that of H. isaevi occurs is in October-December. These phenological differences probably represent an additional mechanism of reproductive isolation between the two species. Diagnostic drawings are provided for all mentioned species as well as for H. deserticola Schmidt & Krause, 1996 and H. pugnans (Simon, 1880.

  9. A review of the spider genus Haplodrassus Chamberlin, 1922 in Crimea (Ukraine) and adjacent areas (Araneae, Gnaphosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovblyuk, Mykola M; Kastrygina, Zoya A; Omelko, Mikhail M

    2012-01-01

    Eight species of Haplodrassus are recorded from Crimea: Haplodrassus bohemicus Miller & Buchar, 1977; Haplodrassus dalmatensis (L. Koch, 1866); Haplodrassus isaevi Ponomarev & Tsvetkov, 2006; Haplodrassus minor (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879); Haplodrassus kulczynskii Lohmander, 1942; Haplodrassus pseudosignifer Marusik, Hippa & Koponen, 1996; Haplodrassus signifer (C.L. Koch, 1839) and Haplodrassus umbratilis (L. Koch, 1866). The occurrence of Haplodrassus cognatus (Westring, 1861) in Crimea has not been confirmed. Haplodrassus bohemicus is a new species record for the Crimean fauna. Haplodrassus pseudosignifer is a new species record for Crimea and Ukraine as a whole, with Crimea as the westernmost point of its distribution range. Haplodrassus invalidus is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Azerbaijan, Caucasus and the former Soviet Union. Azerbaijan is the easternmost point of its known distribution range. All Crimean Haplodrassus species have only one peak of activity of adult specimens during the year. In Crimea we found syntopically two closely related species Haplodrassus dalmatensis and Haplodrassus isaevi in two localities (Sudak Distr., 10 km W Sudak, Mezhdurechie Vill., steppe; and Feodosiya Distr., Karadag Nature Reserve, steppes). These species differ in their phenology. The reproductive period of Haplodrassus dalmatensis isin May-July, and that of Haplodrassus isaevi occurs is in October-December. These phenological differences probably represent an additional mechanism of reproductive isolation between the two species. Diagnostic drawings are provided for all mentioned species as well as for Haplodrassus deserticola Schmidt & Krause, 1996 and Haplodrassus pugnans (Simon, 1880).

  10. Protozoan Infections of Restaurant Workers in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garedaghi Yagoob

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the rate of contamination with intestinal protozoan parasites among restaurant workers in Tabriz (center of East Azerbaijan province, Iran. Materials and Methods: To identify intestinal protozoan parasites among restaurant workers in Tabriz (East Azerbaijan province, Iran, in 2013, stool specimens were collected and examined from a total of 100 restaurant workers at the School of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch. In the present study, the direct-smear examination, saline sedimentation, and Trichrome staining techniques were used. Results: The positivity in the majority of them was single infection; however, 4 cases were double infection that constituted 1% of the prevalence. The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/dispor was 47.22%, Giardia lamblia 16.66%, and Entamoeba coli 36.11%. The double infection was only observed with E. histolytica/dispor and Giardia. The infection caused by these parasites was also accompanied by abdominal troubles, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, and vomiting. Conclusion: These results lead to the understanding that sanitary measurements are not effective, and these hazardous situations facilitate the distribution of parasitic agents among consumers. The current pre-employment screening policies must be performed annually in order to be effective and systematic surveillance is needed in addition to health education.

  11. Patterns of public support for price increases on alcohol in the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bayard; Stickley, Andrew; Murphy, Adrianna; Kizilova, Kseniya; Bryden, Anna; Rotman, David; Haerpfer, Christian; McKee, Martin

    2012-01-01

    To measure levels of public support for price increases on beer and spirits in nine former Soviet Union countries and to examine the characteristics influencing such support. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2010 with 18,000 respondents aged 18+ in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. The lowest level of support for price increases on beer were in Georgia (men 5%, women 9%) and Armenia (men 5%, women 11%); and the highest were in Kyrgyzstan (men 30%, women 38%), Azerbaijan (men 27%, women 37%) and Russia (men 23%, women 34%). The lowest levels of support for price increases on spirits were Armenia (men 8%, women 14%) and Georgia (men 14%, women 21%); and the highest were in Kyrgyzstan (men 38%, 47% women) and Moldova (men 36%, women 43%). Characteristics associated with supporting price increases included gender (women), higher education, good economic situation, lower alcohol consumption and greater knowledge of harmful alcohol behaviour. Alcohol price increases are an effective means to reduce hazardous alcohol use. Despite opposition in some groups, there is evidence of public support for alcohol price increases in the study countries.

  12. Cruising round the Caspian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Paul

    1996-12-31

    The combined offshore potential of Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, could result in the Caspian becoming one of the world`s most important oil and gas producing regions. Foreign companies are committed to investing over 30 billion dollars in various oil and gas developments in the region over the coming decades but Russian policy aims could create problems. Difficulties are already being experienced over pipelines for the export of oil and gas from the region. The conflict in Chechnya has thrown doubt on the export of oil from Baku via the Russian pipeline and an alternative route using a refurbished pipeline through Georgia to the Black Sea is becoming an increasingly important option. Turkmenistan, the world`s fourth largest natural gas producer, relies on a pipeline owned by the Russian Gazprom to supply its main customers in Azerbaijan, Georgia and Ukraine but on a number of occasions in recent years Gazprom has refused to carry the gas. The provision of alternative pipelines to Iran and Pakistan has attracted the support of foreign investors. Further problems could arise over arguments as to whether the Caspian is an inland sea or a lake. The resolution of this question will determine exploitation rights of the five littoral states with Russia, backed by Iran, having a major stake in the outcome. (UK)

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF BLAPS SCABRIUSCULA MÉNÉTRIÉS, 1832 (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Chigray

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Distribution, habitats and morphological variability of two subspecies of the endemic Caucasian species Blaps scabriuscula Ménétriés, 1832 are considered in the paper.Results and main conclusions. Nominotypical subspecies is very rare and inhabits deserts of eastern Azerbaijan (Gobustan. The subspecies Blaps scabriuscula subalpina is distributed in the Eastern and the Central Caucasus and inhabits steppe and alpine landscapes to 3000 m. Several morphological forms are separated from the Central (North Ossetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, KarachayCherkessia and the Eastern Caucasus (Chechnya, Dagestan, southern slopes of the Big Caucasus from Azerbaijan to Georgia – Khevsureti. Blaps scabriuscula subalpina is found in Rostov-on-Don (the first record for Rostov Region in sandy soil meadow during building works. Rostov population is morphologically differs from Caucasian populations of the species. It is assumed that this record is associated with the ancient human migrations because of many representatives of this species-group (B. mortisaga (Linnaeus, 1758, B. puella Allard, 1880, B. scabriuscula, B. kovali Abdurakhmanov, Nabozhenko, 2011 have a propensity to synanthropy. Morphological description of Rostov population and differential characters of Caucasian populations are given. Female genital tubes of different populations of B. scabriuscula are described and figured for the first time. Nominatypical subspecies is strongly differs from other Caucasian Blaps Fabricius, 1775 in the structure of female genital tubes.

  14. Distribution and origins of n-alkanes, hopanes, and steranes in rivers and marine sediments from Southwest Caspian coast, Iran: implications for identifying petroleum hydrocarbon inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirneshan, Golshan; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Memariani, Mahmoud

    2016-09-01

    The occurrence of n-alkanes and biomarkers (hopane and sterane) in surface sediments from Southwestern coasts of Caspian Sea and 28 rivers arriving to this lake, determined with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, was used to assess the impacts of anthropogenic activities in the studied area. The concentrations of total n-alkanes (Σ21 n-alkane) in costal and riverine sediments varied from 249.2 to 3899.5 and 56 to 1622.4 μg g(-1), respectively. An evaluation of the source diagnostic indices indicated that petroleum related sources (petrogenic) were mainly contributed to n-alkanes in costal and most riverine sediments. Only the hydrocarbons in sediment of 3 rivers were found to be mainly of biogenic origin. Principal component analysis using hopane diagnostic ratios in costal and riverine sediments, and Anzali, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan oils were used to identify the sources of hydrocarbons in sediments. It was indicated that the anthropogenic contributions in most of the costal sediment samples are dominated with inputs of oil spills from Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan countries.

  15. Spatial Distribution of Medically Important Scorpions in North West of Iran

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    Mulood Mohammadi-Bavani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scorpions are one of the most important medical arthropods in Iran. This study aimed to determine the fauna, spatial distribution and some morphological characteristics of these venomous arthropods in the study area.Methods: Scorpions were collected using Ultra Violet light, rock rolling and digging methods in West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan, and Ardabil Provinces during 2015–2016. The specimens were preserved in 75% ethyl alcohol and transferred to the laboratory for species identification and morphological studies.Results: Distribution maps were produced using ArcGIS 10.3. Totally, 368 specimens from two families of Buthidae (97.1% and Scorpionidae (2.99% were collected and identified as Mesobuthus eupeus (80.16%, Androctonus crassicauda (10.60%, M. caucasicus (4.89%, Hottentotta saulcyi (1.35% and Scorpio maurus (2.99%.Conclusion: The presence of medically important species, including the deadly black one in northwestern Iran re­quires health educational and control programs for reduction of these public health problems.

  16. Investigation of Polluted Zones by Lead in North West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodadadi A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available National project of Important Heavy Metals Identification of Iran (IHMI, following the UNDP and supported by Department of Environment of Iran (DOE, has been completed by Modares Environmental Research Center (MERC. Due to this project the pollution potential sources was investigated by overall distribution maps of any parameters that may cause the lead pollution. Then the sampling points was determined by some geo-statistical analysis and the sampling process was done according to standard methods of sampling, preserving, transferring to lab, measuring and analyzing etc through the 3 months in three phases of materials (effluent and discharges, solid waste, water, soil and sediment samples from natural sources like river etc.. After gathering the final results, overlaying the potential sources and polluted positions (according to violation of national and international standards of sampled points by Geographic Information Systems (GIS led the research to closing to the pollutant sources in north west provinces (Eastern Azerbaijan, Western Azerbaijan, Ardabil and Zanjan. The synthetic and natural pollution sources observed were 17 and 20 respectively. Abir River, Niroo Gostar Taban Industrial Complex and Copper Industries were the most important pollution sources in material phases of Natural, effluent and solid waste respectively.

  17. The Effectiveness of the Community Medicine Undergraduate Program in Medical Schools on Enabling Medical Graduates to Work in the Health Systems

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    Hossein Jabbari Bayrami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main mission of medical schools is to train competent medical trainees for providing primary health care services, management of health care team and improving the health status of the population. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the undergraduate program of community medicine department among the graduates as general (family physicians in health system of East Azerbaijan, North-West of` Iran. Methods: In this cross- sectional study all family physicians of East Azerbaijan province were included. A questionnaire on the views of graduates about the effectiveness of community medicine undergraduate program was used for gathering data. Data were analyzed by T-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation. Results: Performance of community medicine department in creating competency for providing effective health services among physicians was 2.13 and management competency was 1.96 out of 4. To teach the necessary skills to meet the professional needs in Primary Health Care (PHC, Tabriz Community Medicine Department was better compared to Azad and other medical schools (p<0.001. Conclusions: The results of the study showed that the community medicine program in undergraduate medical education was effective for future career of physicians in the health system. There is a need to revise the health management courses in community medicine program.

  18. History of Formation the Pottery Nakhchivan

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    Toğrul HALİLOV

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It was defined that pottery wasone of the ancient craftsmanship areas in Nakhchivan. The article handicraft have been learnt in the Nakhchivan. In addition to Nakhchivan, as well as the other regions of Azerbaijan, was an important centre of craftsmanship. The pottery products differed from one another in their size, shape, ornaments on them, the material the were made of and the technology. The pottery products made by Nakhchivan potters were divided into two groups-welfare and kitchen ceramics. Scientific research that is going on during certain geometric in the decoration of ceramics from this period, zoomorf, vegetable, anthropomorphic patterns etc. have been used. They are simple and complex kompozisiyon. Download Azerbaijan as well as pictures of the span widely around the globe land. They have both local characteristics and similarities with other cultures. In addition to local ornamentals, the presence of similar ornaments in other cultures proves that the people of the different regions of the world are alike in their religious-ideological views, and that each ornament has its deepest semantics.

  19. Knowledge of the health impacts of smoking and public attitudes towards tobacco control in the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bayard; Stickley, Andrew; Gilmore, Anna B; Danishevski, Kirill; Kizilova, Kseniya; Bryden, Anna; Rotman, David; Haerpfer, Christian; McKee, Martin

    2013-11-01

    To describe levels of knowledge on the harmful effects of tobacco and public support for tobacco control measures in nine countries of the former Soviet Union and to examine the characteristics associated with this knowledge and support. Standardised, cross-sectional nationally representative surveys conducted in 2010/2011 with 18 000 men and women aged 18 years and older in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Respondents were asked a range of questions on their knowledge of the health effects of tobacco and their support for a variety of tobacco control measures. Descriptive analysis was conducted on levels of knowledge and support, along with multivariate logistic regression analysis of characteristics associated with overall knowledge and support scores. Large gaps exist in public understanding of the negative health effects of tobacco use, particularly in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Moldova. There are also extremely high levels of misunderstanding about the potential effects of 'light' cigarettes. However, there is popular support for tobacco control measures. Over three quarters of the respondents felt that their governments could be more effective in pursuing tobacco control. Higher levels of education, social capital (membership of an organisation) and being a former or never-smoker were associated with higher knowledge on the health effects of tobacco and/or being more supportive of tobacco control measures. Increasing public awareness of tobacco's health effects is essential for informed decision-making by individuals and for further increasing public support for tobacco control measures.

  20. Male solitary drinking and hazardous alcohol use in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Murphy, Adrianna; Kizilova, Kseniya; McKee, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Despite evidence that many people engage in solitary drinking and that it might be associated with negative consequences, to date, little research has focused on this form of drinking behaviour. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with solitary drinking, and assessed whether it is linked with hazardous alcohol use among males in nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). Data came from a cross-sectional population-based survey undertaken in 2010/11 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. Information was obtained on the frequency of solitary drinking among male regular drinkers (i.e., those consuming alcoholic drinks at least once a month), and on problem drinking (CAGE) and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. The prevalence of occasional and frequent solitary drinking ranged from 8.4% (Georgia) to 42.4% (Azerbaijan), and 3.1% (Kazakhstan) to 8.2% (Armenia), respectively. Solitary drinking was associated with being older, divorced/widowed, living alone, having a bad/very bad household financial situation, lower levels of social support, and poor self-rated health. Occasional solitary drinking was linked to problem drinking and HED, while frequent solitary alcohol use was related to problem drinking. Solitary drinking is relatively common among male regular drinkers in the fSU and is linked to older age, social and economic disadvantage, and hazardous alcohol use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Changing patterns of fruit and vegetable intake in countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Sarah Krull; Stickley, Andrew; Roberts, Bayard; Richardson, Erica; Abbott, Pamela; Rotman, David; McKee, Martin

    2013-11-01

    To assess how the frequency of low fruit and vegetable consumption has changed in countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) between 2001 and 2010 and to identify factors associated with low consumption. Cross-sectional surveys. A standard questionnaire was administered at both time points to examine fruit and vegetable consumption frequency. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between demographic, socio-economic and health behavioural variables and low fruit and vegetable consumption in 2010. Nationally representative population samples from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Adults aged 18 years and older. Between 2001 and 2010 notable changes occurred in fruit and vegetable consumption in many countries resulting in a slight overall deterioration in diet. By 2010 in six countries about 40% of the population was eating fruit once weekly or less often, while for vegetables the corresponding figure was in excess of 20% in every country except Azerbaijan. A worse socio-economic situation, negative health behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and rural residence were all associated with low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption. International dietary guidelines emphasise the importance of fruit and vegetable consumption. The scale of inadequate consumption of these food groups among much of the population in many FSU countries and its link to socio-economic disadvantage are deeply worrying. This highlights the urgent need for a greater focus to be placed on population nutrition policies to avoid nutrition-related diseases in the FSU countries.

  2. Health Care Reform in the Former Soviet Union: Beyond the Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Dina; Roberts, Bayard; Richardson, Erica; Haerpfer, Christian; McKee, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess accessibility and affordability of health care in eight countries of the former Soviet Union. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary data collection conducted in 2010 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. Study Design Cross-sectional household survey using multistage stratified random sampling. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Data were collected using standardized questionnaires with subjects aged 18+ on demographic, socioeconomic, and health care access characteristics. Descriptive and multivariate regression analyses were used. Principal Findings Almost half of respondents who had a health problem in the previous month which they viewed as needing care had not sought care. Respondents significantly less likely to seek care included those living in Armenia, Georgia, or Ukraine, in rural areas, aged 35–49, with a poor household economic situation, and high alcohol consumption. Cost was most often cited as the reason for not seeking health care. Most respondents who did obtain care made out-of-pocket payments, with median amounts varying from $13 in Belarus to $100 in Azerbaijan. Conclusions Access to health care and within-country inequalities appear to have improved over the past decade. However, considerable problems remain, including out-of-pocket payments and unaffordability despite efforts to improve financial protection. PMID:22092004

  3. Lineaments in the Shamakhy-Gobustan and Absheron hydrocarbon containing areas using gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmas, Ali; Karsli, Hakan; Kadirov, Fakhraddin A.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we purposed to investigate the edge of geostructures and position of existing faults of the Shamakhy-Gobustan and Absheron hydrocarbon containing regions in Azerbaijan. For this purpose, the horizontal gradient, analytic signal, tilt angle, and hyperbolic of tilt angle methods were applied to the first vertical derivative of gravity data instead of Bouguer gravity data. We obtained the maps that show the previous lineaments which were designated by considering the maximum contours of horizontal gradient, analytic signal maps, and zero values of tilt angle, hyperbolic of tilt angle maps. The geometry of basement interface was also modeled utilizing the Parker-Oldenburg algorithm to understand the sediment thickness and coherency or incoherency between the gravity values and basement topography. The lineaments were held a candle to most current tectonic structure map of the study area. It was seen that the techniques used in this study are very effective to determine the old and new lineaments in the Shamakhy-Gobustan and Absheron regions. The epicenter distribution of earthquakes within the study area supports the new lineaments which are extracted by our interpretation. We concluded that better comprehension of Azerbaijan geostructures and its effect on the large scale works will be provided by means of this study.

  4. Azerbaijani Women, Online Mediatized Activism and Offline Mass Mobilization

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    Ilkin Mehrabov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite its post-Soviet history, Azerbaijan is an under-investigated country in academic research—compared with the other former constituencies, such as the Baltic countries or Russia, of the USSR—and gender questions of the contemporary Azerbaijani society are even less touched on. Within the current context of the post-“Arab Spring” era of mediatized connectivity and collective political engagement, this article looks into and analyzes how Azerbaijani women participate in different online and offline social and political movements, and if (and how they are impeded by the increased state authoritarianism in Azerbaijan. Using data, obtained from online information resources, yearly reports of human rights organizations, focus group discussions, and interviews, the study detects four major activist constellations within the Azerbaijani field of gendered politics. Based on the analysis of conditions of detected groups, the article claims that flash mobs, a tactic employed mainly by liberal activists, emerge as the promising way in overcoming the normative nature of Azerbaijani patriarchal society, thus providing an opportunity for normalization and internalization of the feeling of being on the street and acting in concert with others—the practices which might lead towards an increasing participation of (especially young women in the political processes of the country.

  5. Spatial Analysis of Stomach Cancer Incidence in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakzad, Reza; Khani, Yousef; Pakzad, Iraj; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Mohammadian-Hashejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid; Towhidi, Farhad; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza

    2016-01-01

    Stomach cancer, the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death through the world, is very common in parts of Iran. Geographic variation in the incidence of stomach cancer is due to many different factors. The aim of this study was to assess the geographical and spatial distribution of stomach cancer in Iran using data from the cancer registry program in Iran for the year 2009. The reported incidences of stomach cancer for different provinces were standardized to the world population structure. ArcGIS software was used to analyse the data. Hot spots and high risk areas were determined using spatial analysis (Getis-Ord Gi). Hot and cold spots were determined as more than or less than 2 standard deviations from the national average, respectively. A significance level of 0.10 was used for statistical judgment. In 2009, a total of 6,886 cases of stomach cancers were reported of which 4,891 were in men and 1,995 in women (standardized incidence rates of 19.2 and 10.0, respectively, per 100,000 population). The results showed that stomach cancer was concentrated mainly in northwest of the country in both men and women. In women, northwest provinces such as Ardebil, East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijan, Gilan, and Qazvin were identified as hot spots (pstomach cancer is clustered in the northwest of the country, further epidemiological studies are needed to identify factors contributing to this concentration.

  6. Using ANN and EPR models to predict carbon monoxide concentrations in urban area of Tabriz

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    Mohammad Shakerkhatibi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forecasting of air pollutants has become a popular topic of environmental research today. For this purpose, the artificial neural network (AAN technique is widely used as a reliable method for forecasting air pollutants in urban areas. On the other hand, the evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR model has recently been used as a forecasting tool in some environmental issues. In this research, we compared the ability of these models to forecast carbon monoxide (CO concentrations in the urban area of Tabriz city. Methods: The dataset of CO concentrations measured at the fixed stations operated by the East Azerbaijan Environmental Office along with meteorological data obtained from the East Azerbaijan Meteorological Bureau from March 2007 to March 2013, were used as input for the ANN and EPR models. Results: Based on the results, the performance of ANN is more reliable in comparison with EPR. Using the ANN model, the correlation coefficient values at all monitoring stations were calculated above 0.85. Conversely, the R2 values for these stations were obtained <0.41 using the EPR model. Conclusion: The EPR model could not overcome the nonlinearities of input data. However, the ANN model displayed more accurate results compared to the EPR. Hence, the ANN models are robust tools for predicting air pollutant concentrations.

  7. Kapak-İçindekiler

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  1. New prospects in the political economy of inner-Caspian hydrocarbons and western energy corridor through Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgin, Mert [TOBB ETU, International Relations, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-12-15

    This paper makes a new conceptualization on Caspian energy system and the transit routes that pass through Turkey. Firstly, it puts forward the term of ''inner-Caspian'', comprising Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. Secondly, it identifies sub-systems of ''western energy corridor through Turkey'' (WECT) by diversifying: (1) ''WECT inner-Caspian'', which includes hydrocarbon transportation from Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan; (2) ''WECT Russia'', which is currently composed of Blue Stream gas pipeline and oil transportation by tankers through Turkish straits; and (3) ''WECT Middle East'', which refers to Iranian, Iraqi and Egyptian hydrocarbons. Thirdly, this paper makes a comparative analysis on WECT systems through selected economic (reserves, supply/demand, production and transportation costs), geo-political (e.g. moves of the concerned actors), political (e.g. recent developments in government structures) and security (especially in terms of transport) indicators which bring out that ''it is more reasonable for the EU to first embrace WECT inner-Caspian, then develop WECT Middle-East in order to diversify its energy supply''. (author)

  2. Analysis of cows' milk in the content of radioactive cs137 gamma-spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagidulin, Z.Z.; Isayev, R.Sh.; Guseynova, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : The most intense pollution of the environment Cs137 (after the ban of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests), was the result of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The consequence of this accident was the accumulation of large amounts of Cs-137 in the atmosphere, which was the source of the global fallout of this isotope in the Earth's surface, including the territory of Azerbaijan. When considering livestock as one of the links of contamination by radioactive substances in food chains should be recognized that the main risk associated with the accumulation of radioactive Cs137 in the soil, plants and animal products originating ultimately in the human diet. The aim of this study was to determine the radioactive Cs137 in cow's milk. Subsequent samples of milk were purchased in stores and have been measured in the native form. Pal Sud milk produced in Azerbaijan. On Health - Russia. Savushkin product - Belarus. As a radiometric measurement setup Cs137 in cow's milk was used semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometer with a detection unit based on the detection of high-purity germanium (manufactured by Canberra) in the lead shielding.

  3. An application of MC-SDSS for water supply management during a drought crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeihouni, Mehrdad; Toomanian, Ara; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem; Shahabi, Mahmoud; Bazdar, Saba

    2015-07-01

    Climate change influences many countries' rainfall patterns and temperatures. In Iran, population growth has increased water demands. Tabriz is the capital of East Azerbaijan province, in northwestern Iran. A large proportion of the water required for this city is supplied from dams; thus, it is important to find alternatives to supply water for this city, which is the largest industrial city in northwestern Iran. In this paper, the groundwater quality was assessed using 70 wells in Tabriz Township. This work seeks to define the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as chloride, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, hardness, and sulfate using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and geostatistics; map groundwater quality for drinking purposes employing multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM), such as the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and fuzzy logic, in the study area; and develop an Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) for managing a water crisis in the region. The map produced by the AHP is more accurate than the map produced using fuzzy logic because in the AHP, priorities were assigned to each parameter based on the weights given by water quality experts. The final map indicates that the groundwater quality increases from the north to the south and from the west to the east within the study area. During critical conditions, the groundwater quality maps and the presented SDSS core can be utilized by East Azerbaijan Regional Water Company to develop an SDSS to drill new wells or to select existing wells to supply drinking water to Tabriz City.

  4. Data Archived for Events in the Caucasus for the CauSINCollaboration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoladze, T; Hunt, D; Aliyev, F; Arakelyan, A; Kalafat, D; Javakhishvil, Z; Panahi, B; Arzumanyan, V; Hutchings, L J; Vergino, E

    2007-08-17

    The Causin project is a joint effort between the countries in the Caucasus region to develop a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis. To that end, we have compiled a database of all available network data in the region. The information contained in the database is from four countries: Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Turkey and from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS). Table 1 lists the networks from which data were obtained. Figure 1 shows the locations of stations, and Figure 2 shows ray paths for event locations of the archived data. An ongoing effort in the region is the Caucasus Seismic Information Network (CauSIN) is an international scientific project enabling the countries and scientists of the region to: better understand the seismicity of the greater Caucasus; develop new monitoring networks to support the scientific understanding; provide access to seismic data from local networks in the participating countries; and develop a probabilistic seismic hazards assessment for the region enabling the governments in the region to better mitigate the damaging effects from large earthquakes. In parallel with this effort, training has been conducted on modern techniques for probabilistic hazards assessment. CauSIN is also an ongoing effort to promote cooperation in the geosciences between Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, European Union and the United States. The DOE supports the American team from New England Research, Inc. (NER), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Boston College, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  5. Outlook to nonproliferation activities in the world and cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among turkish speaking countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birsen, N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear technology is being widely used in protecting the environment, manufacturing industry, medicine, agriculture, food industry and electricity production. In the world, 438 Nuclear Power Plants are in operation, and 31 are under construction. Nuclear share of total electricity generation have reached to 17 percent. However, 2053 nuclear tests from 1945 to 1999 and 2 atom bombs to Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 have initiated nonproliferation activities aiming to halt the spread of nuclear weapons and to create a climate where cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy can be fostered. In addition to international efforts for non proliferation of nuclear weapons, great affords were made for disarmament and banning the nuclear tests which damage the environment. Following the 1st Geneva Conference in 1955 for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and Turkey became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world, in same year. Turkey is a candidate state to join the European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasia Region. So, there are significant developments in the cultural, social, technical, economical and trade relations owing to our common historical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's, TAEK, besides the co operations with various countries, has involved in cooperating with nuclear institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and

  6. Outlook on non-proliferation activities in the world and cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among Turkish speaking countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birsen, N.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear technology is being widely used in protecting the environment, manufacturing industry, medicine, agriculture, food industry and electricity production. In the world, 438 nuclear power plants are in operation, and 31 are under construction. Nuclear share of total electricity generation have reached to 17 percent. However, 2053 nuclear tests from 1945 to 1999 and 2 atom bombs to Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 have initiated nonproliferation activities aiming to halt the spread of nuclear weapons and to create a climate where cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy can be fostered. In addition to international efforts for non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, great efforts were made for disarmament and banning the nuclear tests which damage the environment. Following the first Geneva Conference in 1955 for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and Turkey became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world in same year. Turkey is a candidate state to join to European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasian Region. So, there are significant developments in cultural, social, technical, economical and trade relations owning to our common historical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's TAEK, besides the cooperation with various countries, has involved to cooperating with nuclear institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan for

  7. The geopolitics of natural gas. The countries bordering the Caspian viewed as new sources of supply in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudry, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Caspian region could constitute an additional source of supply of natural gas for Europe, in addition to the imports currently obtained from Northern Europe (Norway) North-Eastern Europe (North Russia) and from the South (Algeria and Libya). Although the producer nations concerned, (Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Iran), have expressed a wish to export their gas to Europe, the means of getting this gas to the end-destination are not yet in place and certain geopolitical factors will have an influence when it comes to investment in infrastructure and transportation contracts. The disagreements concerning the status of the Caspian Sea, something which has been argued over since the independence gained by the republics of the former Soviet Union, has created a climate which is not particularly favourable to multilateral agreements, and makes it highly unlikely that Turkmenistan will be able to export its gas to Europe via Azerbaijan, without passing via Russia. The most likely scenario is that Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan will remain within Russia's orbit, with the latter creating a common market for gas also including the Ukraine and Belarus. For European buyers, purchasing gas in Turkmenistan actually means buying the gas in Russia, which will give Russia increasing negotiating power vis-a-vis Europe. Iran also has ambitions to export gas to Europe, and should gradually manage this despite the slow pace of political and industrial processes. The key problem for Iran will be reaching an agreement with Turkey in order to be able to sell its gas to Europe under satisfactory conditions. It should be possible to export Azeri gas to Europe thanks to a gas pipeline running alongside the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline which is currently under construction. As a result, Azerbaijan is gradually continuing with its process of emancipation from Russia and turning directly towards Turkey and Europe. Turkey should become a key country for the transportation of gas from

  8. The geopolitics of natural gas. The countries bordering the Caspian viewed as new sources of supply in Europe; Geopolitique du gaz naturel. Les pays riverains de la Caspienne comme nouvelles sources d'approvisionnement de l'europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudry, P. [Electricite de France (EDF-R and D), 75 - Paris (France); Paris-8 Univ., Institut Francais de Geopolitique, 75 (France)

    2004-09-01

    The Caspian region could constitute an additional source of supply of natural gas for Europe, in addition to the imports currently obtained from Northern Europe (Norway) North-Eastern Europe (North Russia) and from the South (Algeria and Libya). Although the producer nations concerned, (Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Iran), have expressed a wish to export their gas to Europe, the means of getting this gas to the end-destination are not yet in place and certain geopolitical factors will have an influence when it comes to investment in infrastructure and transportation contracts. The disagreements concerning the status of the Caspian Sea, something which has been argued over since the independence gained by the republics of the former Soviet Union, has created a climate which is not particularly favourable to multilateral agreements, and makes it highly unlikely that Turkmenistan will be able to export its gas to Europe via Azerbaijan, without passing via Russia. The most likely scenario is that Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan will remain within Russia's orbit, with the latter creating a common market for gas also including the Ukraine and Belarus. For European buyers, purchasing gas in Turkmenistan actually means buying the gas in Russia, which will give Russia increasing negotiating power vis-a-vis Europe. Iran also has ambitions to export gas to Europe, and should gradually manage this despite the slow pace of political and industrial processes. The key problem for Iran will be reaching an agreement with Turkey in order to be able to sell its gas to Europe under satisfactory conditions. It should be possible to export Azeri gas to Europe thanks to a gas pipeline running alongside the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline which is currently under construction. As a result, Azerbaijan is gradually continuing with its process of emancipation from Russia and turning directly towards Turkey and Europe. Turkey should become a key country for the transportation of gas

  9. Lactobacillus with probiotic potential from homemade cheese in Azerbijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarad Khanghah, Saeed; Ganbarov, Khudaverdi

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus is believed to be beneficial in human health, thus the search for isolation and identification of friendly human bacteria from traditional fermented foods is important in medicine. One of the dairy products, traditional cheese as a highly-consumed dairy product could be a valuable source of these friendly edible germs. In this research, home-made cheese from Lankaran, Jalil Abad and Salian regions in Azerbaijan was characterized for the presence of Lactobacilli with probiotic potential. The bacterial suspension was enriched and screened for acid and bile resistances. Then, the isolates were subjected to antibiotic resistance and antibacterial effects against convenient pathogenic bacteria. The isolates were identified by 16s rDNA sequencing. The results clearly revealed two probiotics with higher homology to Lactobacillus planetarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. No antibiotic resistance was detected in any of the potentially probiotic lactobacilli isolates in these regions, where people continue to follow a life-style that is largely traditional, with traditional medications.

  10. Aspects regarding the security environment in South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Lupu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Transitions from Soviet authoritarianism and planned economies to democracy and market economies have not been successfully completed in any of the three states from South Caucasus. This region continues to be characterized by high instability and insecurity due the absence of solutions to the protracted or „frozen” conflicts between Armenia and Azerbaijan – over the territory of Nagorno-Karabakh – and between Georgia and Russia – over the breakaway regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. Finding common ground upon which all parties can agree has proven to be an impossible task. Protracted or „frozen” conflicts present a challenge for the stability and security of South Caucasus.

  11. Challenges to the South Caucasus regional security aftermath of Russian–Georgian conflict: Hegemonic stability or new partnership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornely K. Kakachia

    2011-01-01

    And the question is now how to handle this delicate situation in a strategically and geopolitically important region. So by controlling Georgia (in case Russia reaches abovementioned aims, Russia actually will be able to cut off Central Asia and Caspian resources. It means Russia would be able to isolate and cut off Azerbaijan and Central Asian countries and it will significantly strengthen its energy monopoly over Europe with all results coming out from that fact. So it’s about major shift in the energy policy and major shift in geopolitics based on this energy policy and Russian energy monopoly. The August war in Georgia demonstrated some risks associated with the functioning of the transit energy corridor in the southern Caucasus. It also demonstrated the need for broader security guarantees for a region that is vital to European and global energy security. Paper deals with economic damage inflicted by the Russo-Georgian war in South Caucasus and its implications for regional security.

  12. Natural radionuclides in rocks and soils of the high-mountain regions of the Great Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asvarova, T. A.; Abdulaeva, A. S.; Magomedov, M. A.

    2012-06-01

    The results of the radioecological survey in the high-mountain regions of the Great Caucasus at the heights from 2200 to 3800 m a.s.l. are considered. This survey encompassed the territories of Dagestan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Chechnya, Northern Ossetia-Alania, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia, and the Stavropol and Krasnodar regions. The natural γ background radiation in the studied regions is subjected to considerable fluctuations and varies from 6 to 40 μR/h. The major regularities of the migration of natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, and 40K in soils in dependence on the particular environmental conditions (the initial concentration of the radionuclides in the parent material; the intensity of pedogenesis; the intensity of the vertical and horizontal migration; and the geographic, climatic, and landscape-geochemical factors) are discussed.

  13. THE ROLE OF DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORT TURISM IN ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Alasgarova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the necessary and very important sectors of country economy. Tourism has its appropriate inimitable characteristics that difference this sector from the other sectors. As to be in the other service industrial fields, in tourism sector the tourists come to the tourism destination place where the tourism services are supplied. To my observation and international experiences, it is hard to think of tourism industry without transportation. Transportation is  mean where to carry the tourists to the relevant place where tourism services are accomplished. The article contains detailed information about the introduction to the concepts of tourism, theoretical approach to the tourism as service industry, the role of transport in tourism development, international experiences in transport tourism, development of transport tourismin Azerbaijan economy. The article can be considered as a useful resource  for experts and researchers conducting research in this field.

  14. About peculiarities of hydrocarbons deposits location in the productive series of the Baku archipelago area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasanov, V.T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : In Azerbaijan domestic and foreign companies hold wide-scaled prospecting operations in the central and southern parts of the Baku Archipelago and also in the Kobystan. There are hydrocarbons deposits determined in the northern of the Baku Archipelago. Deposits location by phase condition of hydrocarbons mainly follows the general regularity determined on many oil and gas bearing areas, pass of oil deposits to oil-gas and gas-condensate ones in the direction of increase of layers occurrence depth. There is also a considerable influence of a tectonic factor on the area location of deposits observed, expressing in difference of deposits height on different tectonic blocks and also there is an influence of a lithological factor. Results of works conducted on drilling and wells testing are still not enough for judging about lack of oil and gas content.

  15. CONNECTION BETWEEN ECONOMICS, CULTURE AND CULTURAL DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agil Valiyev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, culture is one of the main feeble factors of economic development.  The leading role of culture in economic development should be argued as multiplied: so, on firstly, as domestic value, on secondly, as a main factor of regional economic development advanced to raised gravity of different regions for residents, tourists and investors, on thirdly, as major parameters of social development based on tolerance, creativity and knowledge. To the different international experiences, culture is main part of economic development in our life. Cultural diversities are combined into a main reason economic development model. The article consist of explainations about the understanding of culture, cultural diplomacy and economics, approach on conflicts between culture and economics, to find how affecting of culture to economic development, the role of culture in economic development of Azerbaijan. The article can be considered as a useful resource  for experts and researchers conducting research in this field.

  16. EITI and sustainable development: Lessons and new challenges for the Caspian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ospanova, Saule; Ahmadov, Ingilab; Wilson, Emma

    2013-03-01

    EITI requires countries to declare the revenues they receive from companies in the oil, gas and mining sectors, and for companies to declare what they pay. This paper highlights key issues and challenges related to implementing EITI, and suggests several ways for these new rules to help reduce poverty, improve lives and ensure that extractive industries operate in a sustainable, environmentally responsible way. Focusing on three countries of the Caspian Sea Region - Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, the paper will be of particular interest to those preparing for, and attending, the EITI conference in Sydney in May 2013. It will also inform the public and stakeholders working towards EITI implementation in the Caspian Region, and contributes to on-going debates on EITI and sustainable development more broadly.

  17. Identifying and prioritizing export barriers to small and medium enterprises (SMEs regarding food Industry based on national competition diamond Cole Porter model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rahmanyyoushanlouei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Diamond model Cole Porter and approaches after that have been used in several investigations in most countries and the credit behind the model has been repeatedly confirmed. But any theory is contended with regard to the conditions and time scope of their own; and gets corrected with the emergence of new features and based on the environment of reform. Current study has tried to identify and prioritize export barriers to small and medium enterprises (SMEs regarding food industry based on national competition diamond Cole Porter model in Iran (East Azerbaijan province and its subject pool were 266 people who were given the questionnaires. The method used to analyze and get information from research was exploratory confirmation factor, particularly from the equations structural theories for examination. With regard to the results achieved all hypotheses were confirmed.

  18. DIASPORA IMPACT ON ETHNIC CONFLICTS OF POST-SOVIET SPACE (CASE STUDY: ARMENIAN-AZERBAIJANI NAGORNO-KARABAKH CONFLICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cretu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the analysis of the diaspora impact on conflict resolution process and particulary brings out the role of the diaspora in Armenian Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict. It also highlights the difference between Armenian and Azerbaijani diaspora and the relationship between homeland country and diaspora. As for Armenia, diaspora represents almost the main financial tool in maintainance of the conflict and it has direct implications in internal politics of the country, for Azerbaijan diaspora worldwide represents a tool of homeland of lobby of the national interest and county’s position with regard of conflict. We consider of a high importance the highlight of the conflict for European public, considering the role of EU in process of conflict regulation.

  19. The Dolichopus plumipes species group (Diptera, Dolichopodidae in the Palaearctic Region with the description of a new species from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Khaghaninia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dolichopus plumipes species group in the Palaearctic Region is redefined. It comprises eleven species including one new species, Dolichopus malekii sp. nov., from the East Azerbaijan province in north-western Iran. The species group is differentiated from other Dolichopus by the modified male mid tibia and/or mid basitarsus (except D. simplex. The mid tibia is often thin, having a longitudinal narrow dark streak (D. plumipes or clear whitish yellow dorsal area in distal third, rarely simple or inconspicuously modified (D. discifer. Mid basitarsus is pennate or bearing elongate setae or simple. Other tarsomeres are usually simple (except D. discifer. A revised key to the species group is provided, as well as remarks on its geographical distribution.

  20. Underlying Predictors of Tobacco Smoking among Iranian Teenagers: Generalized Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Khayyati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To define underlying predictors of tobacco smoking among Iranian Teenagers in a generalized structural equation model. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a Generalized Structural Equation Model based on planned behavioral theory was used to explain the relationship among different factors such as demographic factors, subjective norms, and the intention to tobacco and, in turn, intention with tobacco use. The sample consisted of 4,422 high school students, based on census, in East Azerbaijan province, Iran. The questioner was designed adapting to the objectives of study. It was used global youth tobacco survey to design the queries of tobacco use. Results: The model had a good fit on data. Adjusting for age and gender, there was a statistically significant relationship between the intention to consumption and the following factors: working while studying (P

  1. A Comparison of Foreign Direct Investments in Eurosian Countries to World Trend in the Period of 1995 - 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayri Tuzla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The world which rapidly globalizes and where the boundaries diminish day by day, the foreign direct investments affect many diverse macroeconomic variables, specifically economic growth and unemployment. Most current studies support that there exists a strong causality relationship between foreign direct investments and economic growth.On the other hand, there exists a weaker positive causality relationship between economic growth and foreign direct investments. Moreover, it is an undeniable fact that the economic growth leads to a decline in unemployment. This study aims to compare the foreign direct investment trends of seven Eurasian countries (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan in the period of 1995 and 2011. The results are compared to both the world foreign direct investment trend and the other Central Asian countries.

  2. Global Electricity Trade Network: Structures and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ling; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Nations increasingly trade electricity, and understanding the structure of the global power grid can help identify nations that are critical for its reliability. This study examines the global grid as a network with nations as nodes and international electricity trade as links. We analyze the structure of the global electricity trade network and find that the network consists of four sub-networks, and provide a detailed analysis of the largest network, Eurasia. Russia, China, Ukraine, and Azerbaijan have high betweenness measures in the Eurasian sub-network, indicating the degrees of centrality of the positions they hold. The analysis reveals that the Eurasian sub-network consists of seven communities based on the network structure. We find that the communities do not fully align with geographical proximity, and that the present international electricity trade in the Eurasian sub-network causes an approximately 11 million additional tons of CO2 emissions. PMID:27504825

  3. Fiscal 2001 achievement report. 'Basic survey for joint implementation promotion' (Collection of summaries); 2001 nendo kyodo jisshi tou suishin kiso chosa seika hokokukai gaiyoshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Forty-five greenhouse gas reducing 'joint implementation projects' carried out in fiscal 2001 are summarized. The projects were implemented in the United Arab Emirates, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Iran, India, Indonesia, Vietnam, Uzbekistan, Egypt, Cambodia, Kuwait, Georgia, Columbia, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, China, Hungary, Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Venezuela, Poland, Myanmar, Morocco, and Rumania, and were related to antiquated power plant rehabilitation, use of cogeneration for district heating, effective use of methane gas, energy conservation for oil plants, energy conservation for petrochemical plants, energy conservation for iron works, thermoelectric power plant repowering, energy conservation for cement clinker calcination facilities, simultaneous supply of heat and power to industrial parks, prevention of gasoline fume emissions from oil bases and the like, comprehensive energy conservation for hotels, and so on. (NEDO)

  4. Evaluating the R elation between O rganizational S tructure and E ntrepreneurship in Physical E ducation of Islamic Azad University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amineh Sahranavard G ARGARI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the relation between organizational structure and entrepreneu rship which is of discretional - correlational type, done by the field method among all the physical education (PE teachers and employees of Eastern Azerbaijan ’ s I slamic Azad Universities (n=63. Two questionnaires about organizational structure and entrepreneurship, whose reliability was achieved by the e xperts, and Pearson and T correlational coefficients, were used to test and analyze the data. The results showed no relation between organizational entrepreneurship and complexity but showed a negative and significant relation among entrepreneurship and fo rmality and concentration. Eventually, no difference was observed between organizational entrepreneurship of the (male or female teachers and employees.

  5. RADIATION CHEMICAL CONVERSION OF OIL DERIVED FROM OIL-BITUMEN ROCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lala Jabbarova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of research in the radiation processing of synthetic oil derived from oil–bitumen rock of the Balakhany deposit in Azerbaijan are presented. The study has been conducted on a 60Co gamma-source at a dose rate of P = 0.5 Gy/s and various absorbed doses of D = 43–216 kGy. Samples of synthetic oil from natural bitumen rocks have been analyzed by chromatography, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and IR-spectroscopy, and their radiation resistance has been evaluated. The results of the study allow for both assessment of the feasibility of manufacturing petrochemicals for various applications by radiation processing and use of these materials for isolating radioactive sources to preclude their impact on the environment.

  6. Chechnya: the pipeline front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-11-01

    This article examines the impact of the Russian campaign against Chechnya on projects for oil and gas pipelines from the new Caspian republics, which are seeking financial support. Topics discussed include the pipeline transport of oil from Azerbaijan through Chechnya to the Black Sea, the use of oil money to finance the war, the push for non-Russian export routes, the financing of pipelines, the impact of the war on the supply of Russian and Turkmenistan gas to Turkey, the proposed construction of the Trans Caspian pipeline, the weakening of trust between Russia and its neighbours, and the potential for trans Caucasus republics to look to western backers due to the instability of the North Caucasus. (UK)

  7. The prevalence of toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, Petr; Dowling, Russell; Gogishvili, Megi; Jones, Barbara; Caravanos, Jack; McCartor, Andrew; Kashdan, Zachary; Fuller, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Using a global database of contaminated sites, toxic hotspots in eight former Soviet countries were analyzed to identify the prevalence, types and sources of toxic pollution, as well as their associated potential public health impacts. For this analysis, polluted sites in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan were compiled and analyzed. The levels of contamination of seven key pollutants were assessed in each country. 424 contaminated sites were identified using data from Blacksmith Institute. Pesticides, lead (Pb), radioactive metals, arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) were the most commonly identified key pollutants. Collectively, these sites pose health risks to an estimated 6.2 million residents. The existing data on toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries likely captures only a small percentage of actual contaminated sites, but suggests potentially severe public health consequences. Additional assessments are needed to understand the risks posed by toxic pollution in the region. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Study of the influence of ionizing radiation on biometrical parameters of eggplantand tomato at different doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guliyeva, L.M.; Eminova, N.M.; Jafarov, E.S.; Babayev, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : The problem of influence of low-dose of ionizing radiation on plants for a long time attracted attention of researchers. Increasing interest in this issue is caused by many circumstances, especially by global radiation contamination of environment. By this time in radiobiology it has been gained great data about the negative effects of ionizing radiation on plants. It is well known that at the time of germination seed is very susceptible to a variety of physical and chemical agents which are capable of impacting their development. It is appropriate to conduct studies reflecting changes in biometrical parameters of agricultural plants importance for Azerbaijan. It was seen that radiation influence increases the productivity of the plants, the size of the stems, fruits, and the color more saturated

  9. Impact of Fiscal Decentralization on Non-Oil Economic Growth in a ResourceRich Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri HASANOV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates effects of fiscal decentralization on non-oil sector development in case of Azerbaijan for the quarterly period of 2002 through 2013. Results obtained from Autoregressive Distributed Lag Bounds Testing approach show that share of local expenditures and revenues in total, measures of fiscal decentralization, have negative impact on non-oil GDP. This finding is consistent with other studies outcomes and can be considered adequate for the Azerbaijani economy due to the number of institutional constraints. The results of the research would provide a good insight for policy makers in implementing economic reforms to develop institutional aspects of decentralization and thus make it supportive for non-oil economic growth

  10. Global Electricity Trade Network: Structures and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ling; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S F; Xu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Nations increasingly trade electricity, and understanding the structure of the global power grid can help identify nations that are critical for its reliability. This study examines the global grid as a network with nations as nodes and international electricity trade as links. We analyze the structure of the global electricity trade network and find that the network consists of four sub-networks, and provide a detailed analysis of the largest network, Eurasia. Russia, China, Ukraine, and Azerbaijan have high betweenness measures in the Eurasian sub-network, indicating the degrees of centrality of the positions they hold. The analysis reveals that the Eurasian sub-network consists of seven communities based on the network structure. We find that the communities do not fully align with geographical proximity, and that the present international electricity trade in the Eurasian sub-network causes an approximately 11 million additional tons of CO2 emissions.

  11. Genomic Analysis of Highly Virulent Georgia 2007/1 Isolate of African Swine Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David A.G.; Darby, Alistair C.; Da Silva, Melissa; Upton, Chris; Radford, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    African swine fever is widespread in Africa but has occasionally been introduced into other continents. In June 2007, African swine fever was isolated in the Caucasus Region of the Republic of Georgia and subsequently in neighboring countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and 9 states of the Russian Federation). Previous data for sequencing of 3 genes indicated that the Georgia 2007/1 isolate is closely related to isolates of genotype II, which has been identified in Mozambique, Madagascar, and Zambia. We report the complete genomic coding sequence of the Georgia 2007/1 isolate and comparison with other isolates. A genome sequence of 189,344 bp encoding 166 open reading frames (ORFs) was obtained. Phylogeny based on concatenated sequences of 125 conserved ORFs showed that this isolate clustered most closely with the Mkuzi 1979 isolate. Some ORFs clustered differently, suggesting that recombination may have occurred. Results provide a baseline for monitoring genomic changes in this virus. PMID:21470447

  12. Phytochemistry and bioactivity of Pedicularis sibthorpii growing in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Khodaie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of the aerial parts of the medicinal plant Pedicularis sibthorpii Boiss., Scrophulariaceae, growing in the Azerbaijan province of Iran, was found to be active in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and the antibacterial agar well diffusion assays, but no general toxicity was observed in the brine shrimp lethality assay. A combination of solid-phase extraction (SPE and preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-RP-HPLC analyses of the methanolic extract afforded three phenylethanoids (verbascoside, martynoside and isomartynoside, an iridoid (aucubin, a flavonoid (luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and mannitol, and the structures of these compounds were elucidated unambiguously by spectroscopic means. The distribution of the isolated compounds within the genus Pedicularis has also been discussed.

  13. Phytochemistry and bioactivity of Pedicularis sibthorpii growing in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Khodaie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of the aerial parts of the medicinal plant Pedicularis sibthorpii Boiss., Scrophulariaceae, growing in the Azerbaijan province of Iran, was found to be active in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and the antibacterial agar well diffusion assays, but no general toxicity was observed in the brine shrimp lethality assay. A combination of solid-phase extraction (SPE and preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-RP-HPLC analyses of the methanolic extract afforded three phenylethanoids (verbascoside, martynoside and isomartynoside, an iridoid (aucubin, a flavonoid (luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and mannitol, and the structures of these compounds were elucidated unambiguously by spectroscopic means. The distribution of the isolated compounds within the genus Pedicularis has also been discussed.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 subtype A in former Soviet Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibekova, Lazzat; Foley, Brian; Hortelano, Gonzalo; Raees, Muhammad; Abdraimov, Sabit; Toichuev, Rakhmanbek; Ali, Syed

    2018-01-01

    While in other parts of the world it is on decline, incidence of HIV infection continues to rise in the former Soviet Union (FSU) countries. The present study was conducted to investigate the patterns and modes of HIV transmission in FSU countries. We performed phylogenetic analysis of publicly available 2705 HIV-1 subtype A pol sequences from thirteen FSU countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. Our analysis showed that the clusters from FSU countries were intermixed, indicating a possible role of transmigration in HIV transmission. Injection drug use was found to be the most frequent mode of transmission, while the clusters from PWID and heterosexual transmission were intermixed, indicating bridging of HIV infection across populations. To control the expanding HIV epidemic in this region, harm reduction strategies should be focused on three modes of transmission, namely, cross-border migration, injection drug use and heterosexual.

  15. ENHANCING REGIONAL INTEGRATION THROUGH COMMERCIAL TIES IN THE EASTERN NEIGHBOURHOOD OF THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Lucian Moga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic unification across Europe has been the main impetus for the European integration process and this rationale stood also behind the European Union (EU approach towards its neighbourhood. Since the launch of the European Neighbourhood Policy (2004, the economic incentives have been the most effective instruments for generating structural change in the neighbourhood, taking into account the fact that EU membership has not been yet considered. Our research will aim at investigating the potential of the European Union to promote economic cooperation in its Eastern vicinity by seeking to include the Eastern Partnership states into a network that shares the same economic principles and values. Among these values, we argue that deep economic engagement through bilateral and multilateral frameworks of trade relations has played a major in enhancing the economic development of the six-Post Soviet states: Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia.

  16. Perspectives of using of portable solar wind power plants in order to provide the population with boiling water in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oktay, S.

    2015-01-01

    The research shows that recently the surrounding atmosphere, soil and drinking water sources are exposed to environmentally catastrophic pollution on one hand anthropogenic, on the other hand as a result of technogenic factors. Hot water supply of people who are forced to live in desert conditions is of paramount importance for any reason. In such cases using of alternative and renewable energy sources, especially solar collectors, photoelectric current sources and wind power engines powered mobile devices using the hot water supply is of great importance. Hot water supply of houses and cottages in the village of combined solar wind power plant designed, developed and successfully tested for several years has been held in Baku climatic conditions in transformation of renewable energy laboratory of The Institute of Radiation Problems of Azerbaijan National Academy of Science.

  17. Petroleum geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Black and Caspian region. Extended abstracts book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    Full text : The scientists from following countries took part at the international conference : Azerbaijan, Turkey, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine, Austria, USA, Great Britain, Czech Republic. The activity was conducted in eight sections. Section 1 was devoted to the exploration operations in the Caspian and Black sea region. Section 2 was devoted to regional geology and tectonics. Section 3 was devoted to hydrocarbon systems of the south Caspian basin. Section 4 was devoted to exploration operations results and their prospects in the south Caspian Sea and contiguous on-shore areas. Section 5 was devoted to neotectonics and its effect on the process of hydrocarbon resources development. Section 6 was devoted to paleogeography of sedimentation basin. Section 7 was devoted to geological aspects of the exploration geophysics data interpretation. Section 8 was devoted to ecology problems in oil and gas exploration and production

  18. Fluoride concentration level in rural area in Poldasht city and daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption with temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Yousefi, Mahmood; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2017-08-01

    Long-term exposure to high level of fluoride can caused several adverse effects on human health including dental and skeletal fluorosis. We investigated all the drinking water source located in rural areas of Poldasht city, west Azerbaijan Province, North West Iran between 2014 and 2015. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured by SPADNS method. We found that in the villages of Poldasht the average of fluoride concentration in drinking water sources (well, and the river) was in the range mg/l 0.28-10.23. The average daily received per 2 l of drinking water is in the range mg/l 0.7-16.6 per day per person. Drinking water demands cause fluorosis in the villages around the area residents and based on the findings of this study writers are announced suggestions below in order to take care of the health of area residents.

  19. Energy wealth and tax reform in Russia and Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinthal, E.; Luong, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    Resource-rich states throughout the developing world are prone to rent-seeking, excessive borrowing, wasteful spending, and unbalanced growth as well as states with weak institutions and authoritarian regimes. Are the five energy-rich Soviet successor states necessarily doomed to repeat this experience, often referred to as the 'resource curse'? This paper advances and tests the hypothesis that Russia and Kazakhstan are more likely to avoid the 'resource curse' than Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan because they privatized their energy sectors. Specifically, we find that privatization offers a potential path out of the 'resource curse' when it involves a transfer of ownership to domestic actors. Although Kazakhstan initially appeared to be developing a viable tax regime in response to foreign investors, over the long term Kazakhstan's tax regime has become increasingly volatile and dependent upon these foreign investors. In contrast, domestic oil companies are helping to foster the development of an increasingly viable tax regime in Russia. (author)

  20. Ekonomik Büyümenin Belirleyicileri ve 2008 Krizi: Orta Asya Ülkeleri ve Türkiye Ekonomisi İçin Panel Veri Analizi(The Determinats of Economic Growth and 2008 Crisis: Panel Data Analysis for Central Asia Countries and Turkey’s Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MERCAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the determinants of economic growth and the effects of 2008 global economic crisis on growth were analysed by using 1990-2012 periods’ annual data in the sample of Turkey and Central Asia Countries (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The 2008 crisis started in the USA in mid-2008 in mortgage markets and also affected the financial markets and the reel sector and it spread all over European Countries (EU and the world from September 2008 and it caused a shrink in world economy by 2.3 % and distorted the macroeconomic balances of countries including in particular the economic growth. According to the empirical findings of the analysis the government expenditures, the export and the private consumption expenditure in order made the most contribution to the countries’ economic growth. Effect of the crisis on economic growth was negative and statistically significant.

  1. Effects of oil production on economic growth in Eurasian countries: Panel ARDL approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bildirici, Melike Elif; Kayıkçı, Fazıl

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at analyzing the relationship between oil production and economic growth in major oil exporting Eurasian countries; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation and Turkmenistan for 1993–2010 periods. Empirical results reveal that oil production and economic growth are cointegrated for these countries. Furthermore, there is positive bi-directional causality between oil production and economic growth both in the long run and in the short run which supports the policies about investing in energy infrastructure. -- Highlights: ► Causality between economic growth and oil production is important for energy policies. ► Oil production and GDP are cointegrated for four oil exporting Eurasian countries. ► There is positive bi-directional causality between oil production and economic growth for these countries.

  2. Prevalence of Cercariae Infection in Lymnaea auricularia (Linnaeus, 1758 in NorthWest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Imani-Baran

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The pond snail Lymnaea auricularia serves as an intermediate host for many digenian species. In West Azerbaijan province, northwestern Iran, the cercariae infection investigation was undertaken in L. auricularia from May to November 2010. Of 6759 collected Lymnaeid snails, 370(5.5% L. auricularia snails were identified. Cercariae infection was found in a number of 276 (74.56 % snails. The results showed that removed cercariae from L. auricularia belonged to Echinostomcercariae (96.38 % and Furcocercariae (3.62 % which were found in two out of 28 sites during the course of study. In summer and fall, the highest prevalence of cercariae infection was recorded for both identified cercariae. It is concluded that L. auricularia could be an important intermediate host of large group digenian trematodes in the region, which is necessary to take consideration in the control program of trematode infection.

  3. “Fear or Love Thy Neighbour”? The EU Framework for Promoting Regional Cooperation in the South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Babayan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Building on the model of the enlargement policy, the European Union (EU designed the European Neighbourhood Policy and the Eastern Partnership to further promote its norms and principles. One of the goals of its new policies has been to foster regional cooperation among partner countries and their neighbours. This article specifies the EU’s framework for promoting regional cooperation through the aforementioned policies and discusses its potential impact on the example of the South Caucasus republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The South Caucasus has not only been an arena of intraregional conflicts, but has also often been troubled by disputes between its neighbours. This article argues that, due to a lack of proactive and consistent engagement, the EU’s framework risks leaving regional conflicts in the current state of stagnation and without advancement in regional cooperation.

  4. Measuring relational and intrapersonal empowerment: testing instrument validity in a former soviet country with a secular muslim culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryomukhin, Alexander; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Research and evaluation studies measuring the construct of empowerment within international community development and human rights initiatives are rare due to a lack of validated measures appropriate for the cultural context. This study represents an initial effort to develop and test the Brief Azerbaijani Empowerment Scale (BAES), an instrument designed to assess relational and intrapersonal components of psychological empowerment among adult community residents (n = 350) in Azerbaijan, a former Soviet country with a predominantly Muslim culture. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the underlying dimensionality of the BAES, and path analysis was used to examine relationships between subscales of the BAES and a set of conceptually relevant variables (i.e., alienation, sense of community, and involvement in community organizations). Findings supported the reliability and validity of the BAES, which may be useful to future efforts to develop more comprehensive measures of intrapersonal and relational empowerment. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  5. Oil, Water, and Wildlife: The Gulf of Mexico Disaster and Related Environmental Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickman, John W. [Purdue University

    2010-08-04

    The BP Macondo oil field spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest oil spill in U.S. history and has the potential to impact sea turtle and marine mammal populations, and others. This presentation will review the genotoxic effects of oil exposure in wildlife and discuss the potential for an oil spill to impact wildlife populations. Whereas some aspects of a spill are predictable, each spill is different because oils are highly variable, as are the environments in which they occur. The presentation will discuss what has been learned from previous spills, including the Exxon Valdez and the soviet oil legacy in Azerbaijan, and the potential dangers of offshore oil development in the Arctic. Related Purdue University research efforts in oil-spill related engineering and science also will be highlighted.

  6. Georgian – Turkish Relations since the Breakdown of Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet SAYIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Georgian - Turkish relations since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Georgia managed to establish relations with Turkey only after gaining independence. Nowadays Georgia has very close relations with its Southern neighbor. Due to its strategic location, Georgia occupies a significant place in Turkish foreign policy. Georgia is a necessary bridge connecting Turkey with Azerbaijan and Central Asian States. Furthermore, Georgia has become a key transit route for Caspian energy resources. For Georgia Turkey is a window to Europe and the largest trade partner. The main goal of this article is to analyze various aspects of Turkish – Georgian relations and co-operation in different fields. There is outstanding cooperation between Turkey and Georgia in the fields such as energy, transport, economy, trade, defense, security etc.

  7. DTM-based automatic mapping and fractal clustering of putative mud volcanoes in Arabia Terra craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzobon, R. P.; Mazzarini, F. M.; Massironi, M. M.; Cremonese, G. C.; Rossi, A. P. R.; Pondrelli, M. P.; Marinangeli, L. M.

    2017-09-01

    Arabia Terra is a region of Mars where occurrence of past-water manifests at surface and subsurface. To date, several landforms associated with this activity were recognized and mapped, directly influencing the models of fluid circulation. In particular, within several craters such as Firsoff and an unnamed southern crater, putative mud volcanoes were described by several authors. In fact, numerous mounds (from 30 m of diameter in the case of monogenic cones, up to 3-400 m in the case of coalescing mounds) present an apical vent-like depression, resembling subaerial Azerbaijan mud volcanoes and gryphons. To this date, landform analysis through topographic position index and curvatures based on topography was never attempted. We hereby present a landform classification method suitable for mounds automatic mapping. Their resulting spatial distribution is then studied in terms of self-similar clustering.

  8. Armenian Expedition of Emperor Constantius II in 338/339 A.D. and Military Units of Thracian Expeditionary Army at the Near East: on the Late Roman Military Organization in the Mid-4th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    10.15688/jvolsu4.2017.5.26

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the history of military corps, which Roman emperor Constantius II sent to Great Armenia in 338/339 A.D. for to fight with the Persians. The main evidence on Constantius II’s Persian expedition are preserved in the works of prominent Armenian historians, that are Moses Khorenatsi and Pawstos Buzand. Constantius II held this campaign in order to free Armenia from the Persians and to bring back its state freedom. According to Moses Khorenatsi and Pawstos Buzand, Constantius II sent in Armenia bodyguards, who were representatives of Armenian noble families allied to the Romans, but the Roman regular forces themselves collected in Galatia (the Asia Minor, moved in Mesopotamia and Atropatene (south of modern Azerbaijan and Iranian Azerbaijan. As the author supposes, Roman troops arrived in Armenia and took part in fight with the Persians, strictly due to Roman military help Armenian naχarars could expel the Persians from Armenia. In this connection the author poses a question – which military units arrived at the Roman Near East (in Mesopotamia from the Asia Minor and how Constantius II’s military campaign in Armenia influenced on the further development of Roman-Persian frontier and its defence system. On the ground of epigraphic data (inscriptions from Mesopotamia and Arabia author made a conclusion that in 338/339 A.D. Constantius II moved at the Near East military units which previously were parts of Thracian expeditionary army and garrisoned in Thracia, since inscriptions under discussion mention soldiers who bear Thracian names that reveal their Thracian origin.

  9. Investigation on the relationship between mental workload and musculoskeletal disorders among nursing staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Mahmoudifar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: High prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders owing to the work is one of the popular discomforts between nursing staff. High level of workload is considered as a serious problem and identified as a stressor in the nursing. This study intends to recognize the relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and mental workload in nursing personnel reside at southern part of West Azerbaijan province Iran in 2017. Materials and Methods: In this analytical-descriptive study, 100 nurses working in West Azerbaijan hospitals have been randomly selected. Nordic and National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index workload questionnaires have been simultaneously utilized as data collection tools. Data analysis has also carried out using SPSS, variance analysis tests, multiple linear regression, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Results suggest that the most frequent complaints of musculoskeletal problems are associated to the back area. Investigation on sextet scales of mental workload indicates that each of the six scales of workload was at the high-risk level and the average of total workload was 72.45 ± 19.45 which confirms a high-risk level. Pearson's correlation coefficient also indicates mental workload elements have a significant relationship with musculoskeletal disorders (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results suggest there is a relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and mental workload and the majority of personnel had mental workload with high-risk level. The best way of management planning to mitigate the risk of musculoskeletal disorders arising of mental workload is, therefore, managing-controlling approach such as staff training, job rotation, and time management.

  10. Job Satisfaction Differences between Primary Health Care and Treatment Sectors: An Experience from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoufe Bagheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the levels of job satis¬faction and its predictors among primary health care and treatment sectors' staff in East Azerbaijan Province, Iran.Methods: This comparative study was conducted in East Azerbaijan Province, Iran in 2011. A questionnaire survey was performed on 420 staff from health care and treatment sectors using multi-stage proportional cluster sampling method. Job satisfaction was measured in five aspects namely: structural and managerial; individual; social; work-itself; environ¬mental and welfare job satisfaction factors. The job satisfaction measure¬ment score was normalized to fall into a range of zero to 100. Statistical analyses were performed using Friedman and independent sample t-tests.Results: Overall satisfaction in health and treatment sectors was moderate with a mean score above 50. Hospital General Practitioners reported sig¬nifi¬cantly higher job satisfaction score (mean ± SD=57.34 ± 17.02 com¬pared to health care center General Practitioners (mean ± SD= 31.74±14.99. The highest satisfaction scores belonged to individual factors both in health care sector staff (64.83±18.50 and treatment sector staff (63.55±17.44. The lowest job satisfaction was observed with environmental and welfare factors (38.47±19.86 and 36.83±19.86, respectively.Conclusion: The job satisfaction significantly differs between primary health care and treatment sectors. Based on the results, environmental and welfare factors may be targeted to improve the job satisfaction in public health care system.

  11. Occurrence of low density of Leishmania infantum in sandflies from a new focus of visceral leishmaniasis in northwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvizi, P; Alaeenovin, E; Mohammadi, S; Baghban, N

    2013-01-01

    Observations and case studies have shown that the number of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) cases have increased in the recent years in several areas of Iran including Sarab district, East Azerbaijan province. Sarab district has been considered as a new focus of VL in Iran. The density of the sandfly vector and the Leishmania parasites causing infection has been assessed in 2009. Sandfly species had been collected from Sarab district, East Azerbaijan province in 2009 using sticky papers and CDC traps. DNA of sandflies was extracted and nested PCR was amplified in a region of the ribosomal RNA amplicon of Leishmania (ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene), which was shown to be species-specific by DNA sequence. Altogether, 1317 male and female sandflies were trapped. At least 10 different sandfly species were identified morphologically. Leishmania infantum was the only Leishmania that was detected among the sandfly's population in Sarab district. All the infectious cases (4/223) found in the abundant sandfly region were Phlebotomus kandelakii. The diversity of sandflies was similar to those in the main VL focal points in Iran, but the diversity of parasite and density were significantly lower. The low prevalence of VL in Sarab district might be explained by the scarcity of infected domestic dogs Canis familiaris the primary reservoir host of VL in the region. By finding the L. infantum in P. kandelakii for the first time on this new focus, we are able to conclude that P. kandelakii might be the vector of L. infantum. In future, more works should be done to test status of P. kandelakii as a proven vector of L. infantum.

  12. Changes in the provision of institutionalized mental health care in post-communist countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian P Mundt

    Full Text Available General psychiatric and forensic psychiatric beds, supported housing and the prison population have been suggested as indicators of institutionalized mental health care. According to the Penrose hypothesis, decreasing psychiatric bed numbers may lead to increasing prison populations. The study aimed to assess indicators of institutionalized mental health care in post-communist countries during the two decades following the political change, and to explore whether the data are consistent with the Penrose hypothesis in that historical context.General psychiatric and forensic psychiatric bed numbers, supported housing capacities and the prison population rates were collected in Azerbaijan, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, East Germany, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Russia and Slovenia. Percentage change of indicators over the decades 1989-1999, 1999-2009 and the whole period of 1989-2009 and correlations between changes of different indicators were calculated. Between 1989 and 2009, the number of general psychiatric beds was reduced in all countries. The decrease ranged from -11% in Croatia to -51% in East Germany. In 2009, the bed numbers per 100,000 population ranged from 44.7 in Azerbaijan to 134.4 in Latvia. Forensic psychiatric bed numbers and supported housing capacities increased in most countries. From 1989-2009, trends in the prison population ranged from a decrease of -58% in East Germany to an increase of 43% in Belarus and Poland. Trends in different indicators of institutionalised care did not show statistically significant associations.After the political changes in 1989, post-communist countries experienced a substantial reduction in general psychiatric hospital beds, which in some countries may have partly been compensated by an increase in supported housing capacities and more forensic psychiatric beds. Changes in the prison population are inconsistent. The findings do not support the Penrose hypothesis in that

  13. Gender inequality indices for the European partnership countries comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E I Kharchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming gender inequality is a serious challenge for many countries all over the world. Different reforms aiming at reduction of gender inequality are often a necessary condition for joining international alliances and associations. The article presents an example of comparative analysis of gender statuses in European partnership countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine and Russian Federation (1 on the one hand, and Iceland - on the other hand due to the latter leading position in the Global Gender Gap ranking. This ranking as well as the results of the comparative analysis can be useful for lecturers in the courses on gender inequality, international comparative studies and others. The author provides a definition of the concept “gender inequality”, an overview of existing methodological approaches to the international gender inequality measurement and interpretation. Based on the Global Gender Gap Index (GGGI author describes men and women positions in the countries mentioned above in such socially important fields as politics, economy, education, and life expectancy; provides her own explanations of the current situation and perspectives for its development. The study shows that for all the countries under consideration the most problematic are (1 political sphere in the terms of women’s empowerment and (2 the sphere of healthcare from the point of quality and duration of men’s lives. The most unproblematic field from the comparative gender analysis point of view is educational sphere. According to the results of the comparative analysis, the most egalitarian country seems to be Moldova, while the least egalitarian - Azerbaijan. This article is based on the data of the International project ReSET «European visions and divisions: comparative studies in improving of teaching sociology” (supported by OSI HESP in 2010-2012.

  14. Power, Profits, and Politics: Energy Security and Cooperation in Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svyatets, Ekaterina

    This study explores varying outcomes of energy cooperation, defined as diplomatic relations, bilateral trade, and investment in oil and natural gas. Tests of theories pertinent to energy security - broadly speaking, realism, liberalism, and domestic politics---reveal that they alone can offer only a narrow and one-sided explanation, not embracing the complexity of energy issues. Nevertheless, using them as a starting point, this study outlined a structured framework that incorporates three variables---economic potential, geopolitical rivalry, and domestic interest groups---that are applied to the cases of U.S.-Russia, U.S.-Azerbaijan, and Russia-Germany energy ties. This study concludes that if the economic potential (defined by geographic proximity and resource availability) is very high, such as in the case of Russia-Germany, states can overcome geopolitical rivalries and historical enmities in favor of energy cooperation. However, if the economic potential is relatively low (because of geographic obstacles or easily available alternative suppliers, as in the cases of U.S.-Russia and U.S.-Azerbaijan), then geopolitics prevails---for example, to bypass Russia or to limit American access to contracts in Russia when U.S.-Russian relations are strained. In all the cases explored here, domestic interest groups have mixed influence: if they are united along energy issues, they usually successfully achieve their energy policy goals, although the impact of these groups often becomes intertwined with state interests. In other situations, when powerful interest groups are divided or focused on non-energy-related issues (such as ethnic priorities), their influence over energy deals is much lower.

  15. Status of theileriosis among herbivores in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Soosaraei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Theileriosis is a protozoal disease caused by Theileria spp. mostly in warm-blooded vertebrates worldwide. It is one of the common tick-borne diseases among domestic animals in tropical and sub-tropical regions, which have a variety of unlikable effects on health economy and animal welfare. In the present study, the prevalence of theileriosis among domestic farm animals in Iran was systematically evaluated. Methods: To identify the related papers, 10 English and Persian databases, including PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Medical Subject Headings, Google Scholar, Magiran, Barakatns (formerly Iranmedex, Elm net, and Scientific Information Database, were appraised for articles published throughout 1999-2017. Results: A total of 56 papers, providing the examination of 11,317 cattle, 9394 sheep, 2991 buffaloes, 1504 horses, 600 goats, and 212 donkeys were analyzed, matching for the prevalence of theileriosis from different parts of Iran were permitted for our allowing checklist. The overall prevalence of theileriosis among domestic herbivores was expected to be 19% (95% confidence interval: 15%, 22%. Our findings highlighted the average of the maximum prevalence in Razavi Khorasan (60.4% and West Azerbaijan (49.1% and the minimum in Mazandaran (1.1% and East Azerbaijan provinces (2.2%, respectively. The high prevalence of Theileria infection in the herbivores (mainly sheep verifies the well-known enzootic episode of theileriosis in Iran, predominantly in northeastern and western parts of the country. Conclusion: Our results suggested updated and imperative information on the true burden of theileriosis in Iran. Moreover, it could be supporting the gaps among monitoring, prevention, and control arrangements to improve the health economy, particularly among dairy farm animals.

  16. Influence of crude oil treatment to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammadov, F.F.; Rzayev, P.F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Environmental menace is linking with the unprecedented man-caused explosion and perspective global warming at the result of atmosphere pollution. If similar tendency is continued radical changing's will not happen in future which catastrophically reflects in ecology, climate of the planet, finally in the population health of the Earth. However, unfortunately one-sidedly economy increasing are chiefly directed to the oil-gas sector and from year to year amount increasing of means of transport causes man's impact to the environment. Further increasing of these processes obviously can lead to the dangerous ecological situation. In the economical and efficiency increasing process country population depend directly on the level of energy consumption. Application of nature-conservative measures and technology, promotional efficiency increasing of energy usage, its total usage decreasing, simultaneous reducing of hazardous substance lead to the considerable but cardinal results. That's why taking into consideration above mentioned circumstance, conclusion one is oil and gas saving, reducing of hazardous substance, we can greatly economize by the gradual way of natural energy replacement into renewable energy. In this connection, special interest for Azerbaijan creates high-grade potential solar radiation usage problem in several fields of national economy, especially in oil sector of the country. There is a real background for effective usage of high-grade potential solar radiation in Azerbaijan oil industry. As the process of primary crude oil treatment in the condition of oil fields for its further transportation to Oil Refining Plant the temperature is to be near 50-60 degrees to be very readily reached to various solar radiation engineering systems. On the base on the above mentioned for realizing this process we built and developed high-grade temperature solar plant with parabolic trough concentrator. Economy till 40% of national fuels (mazut, gas

  17. Investigation of Ego and Task Orientation among International Wrestling Referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Barbas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: study was to investigate any possible effect(s of experiences from active membership and participation in task or ego orientations among referees in the sport of wrestling. Material: The sample consisted of 213 international referees from 30 countries (Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria, France, Italy, Germany, Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, Russia, Poland, Hungary, U.S.A, Ukraine, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Egypt, Canada, Georgia, Croatia, Uzbekistan, Norway, Cuba, Belarus, & Tunisia. Their age ranged from 26 to 60 yrs. old ( M =43, SD =8.6. During the procedure, the participants were asked to fill a specific questionnaire, the «Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire» (Duda & Nicholls, 1992. Results: Results showed that the referees from elite wrestling level’ countries (Russia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, U.S.A., Korea, Japan, Kazakhstan, & Cuba are more task oriented than those from the non-elite wrestling level’ countries. Researchers believe that this occurred because referees from non-elite wrestling level’ countries might have less game-sport experience and more specifically in high level games. At the same time, the Olympic experience referees were more task oriented than the non-Olympic experienced. Conclusion: Referee’s decisions are an important issue in the sport milieu. The investigations in decision-making by referees and factors that affect it are rather scarce and research should focus on such topics. Improvement of decision-making by referees, would lead to safer and better performance. Thus, better understanding of referees’ behavior, through identification and operationalization of the factors affecting it, might lead to more effective selection, training and performance.

  18. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Yield, Component Yield and Essential Oil of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L. under Water Deficit Stress

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    E. Rezaei Chiyaneh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the production of medicinal plants can be influenced by environmental factors such as water limitation. In other hand salicylic acid as a plant regulator can enhance drought resistance in plants. In order to investigate the effect of different irrigation intervals on yield, yield components and essential oil of black cumin (Nigella sativa L., a field experiment was conducted a farm located in West Azerbaijan province- city Nagadeh, West- Azerbaijan, during growing season of 2011- 2012. The experiment was arranged as split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Irrigation intervals (6, 12 and 18 days and three levels of salicylic acid concentration (0, 0.5 and 1 mM considered as in main plots and sub-plots, respectively. Results showed that irrigation had significant effects on all characteristics such as Plant height, number of follicule per plant, number of seed per follicule, biological yield, grain yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield with the exception of 1000- seed weight. With increasing irrigation intervals from 6 to 18 days, plant height, number of follicule per plant, number of seed per follicule, biological yield, grain yield, essential oil percentage and essential oil yield were decreased up to 49, 52, 40, 35, 43, 20 and 55 %, respectively. In contrast, yield components and yield were enhanced up to treatments 0.5 mM of salicylic acid. Grain yield and essential oil yield with application of 0.5 mM salicylic acid increased up to 13 and 11 % compared to control, respectively. It seems that due to the limited sources of water in the region irrigation after 12 days and 0.5 mM salicylic acid concentration are suitable for black cumin grain production.

  19. A decade of road traffic fatalities among the elderly in north-West Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Samadirad, Bahram; Moslemi, Farnaz

    2018-01-08

    Iran has a uniquely catastrophic status for road traffic injury incidence and fatality. The elderly account for a substantial number of the hospitalizations and fatalities due to traffic injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the crash mechanisms and medical outcomes of traffic fatalities among the elderly in East Azerbaijan province of Iran during the period 2006-2016. A total of 9435 fatalities registered in East Azerbaijan forensic medicine database, Iran, during 2006-2016, were investigated. Of these, 1357 were elderly persons (age > 65). Both victim- and crash-related variables were compared for the elderly and other age groups. Bivariate and multivariate analysis methods were applied using Stata statistical software package version 13. Of the 9435 fatalities, 1357 victims (14.4%) were elderly persons. The mean age of the elderly traffic fatalities was 75.3(SD = 6.2) years. About 78% of the elderly versus 80% of those in other age groups were males. A decreasing trend of fatal traffic accidents was observed over the study period both for the elderly and other age groups. The elderly were nearly seven times more likely to die as a pedestrian compared to other age groups. By exclusively analyzing pedestrians, it was found that motorcycles were responsible for pedestrian deaths in 9.1% of the fatalities while this figure was 5.5% for pedestrians in other age groups killed in a traffic accident (P road injury fatalities among the elderly and should be considered as a priority in road safety interventions.

  20. Analysis of Location Quotient index of poplar wood processing value chain in Iran

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    omid hosseinzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Value added in the poplar wood value chain has great economic effects for poplar farmers and have a fundamental role in sustainable supplying of required cellulosic materials of industries in long-term. The purpose of this study was to analyze the value chain of poplar and use the results to improve it. In order to determine the poplar value chain, Porter's value chain analysis framework was used. The statistical society consists of 76 experts to identify poplar wood value who were active in different parts of the value chain. Value chain analysis was performed using the location quotient index. With this method the local economic conditions of poplar wood value chain were evaluated to the global economic conditions poplar wood value chain in the country. With the help of experts and using a questionnaire, important industries that use poplar wood as a raw material were determined. The maximum poplar value chain location quotient index was blong to Golestan (2.72 and the minimum poplar value chain location quotient index was blong to Hormozgan (0.24. The Northern provinces (Golestan, Guilan and Mazandaran had the highest location quotient index. The location quotient index of the poplar wood value chain of Golestan, Guilan and Mazandaran were 2.72, 2.19 and 2.03, respectively. The location quotient index of poplar wood in Zanjan, West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan and Kurdistan that they are major manufacturers of poplar wood, were 0.36, 0.47 0.65 and 0.84, respectively.

  1. Council of Europe Black Sea Area Project: International Cooperation for the Development of Activities Related to Donation and Transplantation of Organs in the Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, E; López-Fraga, M; Chatzixiros, E; Senemaud, B; Brezovsky, P; Carella, C; Ballesté, C; Aydin Mehmet, A; Tomadze, G; Codreanu, I; Sarkissian, A A; Simeonova, M; Nikonenko, A; Zota, V; Gómez, M P; Manyalich, M; Bolotinha, C; Franca, A; Costa, A N; Ott, M-O; Buchheit, K-H

    2018-03-01

    In 2011, the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Healthcare of the Council of Europe launched a 3-year collaborative project to address the organ shortage and improve access to transplant health services in Council of Europe member states in the Black Sea area (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Moldova, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation) through the development of safe and ethical donation and transplantation programs. Support the development of donation and transplantation programs through close interstate cooperation between national health organizations and relevant stakeholders. Several work packages (WP) were established: WP1, project coordination (European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Healthcare); WP2, development and implementation of an effective legislative and financial framework (Czech Republic and France); WP3, establishment of National Transplant Authorities (Italy and Portugal); and WP4, clinical practices (DTI Foundation). Data collection, surveys, and expert visits allowed for the collection of first-hand information from each participant country at national, regional, and hospital levels. Data analysis showed the positive impact of the project represented by a tendency to increase the total donation rates (per million people) in the participant countries (2011 vs 2013): Azerbaijan, +7.3; Armenia, -0.7; Georgia, +3.3; Bulgaria, +0.9; Moldova, +2.5; Ukraine:, +0.8; Romania, +2.3; and Turkey, +2.7. Increases in total donation rates are the result of a number of initiatives in the Black Sea area, including the stepwise implementation of legislative, organizational and institutional country-specific recommendations tailored by the CoE, efforts of the respective Ministries of Health in each country and synergism with other European projects in the region. These countries should invest further in implementing the recommendations that emerged from this project to improve their organ donation

  2. Climatic Suitability of Growing Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo L. as a Medicinal Plant in Iran

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    Mohammad BANNAYAN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of production by including a broader range of plant species, can significantly contribute to improve health and nutrition, livelihoods, household food security and ecological sustainability. Exploring the climate impact on any given crop is one of the first priorities to find new suitable areas for production and management of new crops. Summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. is an economically valuable plant with various medicinal potentials. In order to investigate summer squash cultivation feasibility under Iran�s climate, three main agricultural regions (Azerbaijan, Khorasan and central part of Iran (Fars and Isfahan were selected. These regions suitability for summer squash cultivation were evaluated by considering three vital climate variables encompass temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours. These regions show distinct and representative climatic conditions of Iran. Annual and growing season average of maximum, minimum, mean temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours were calculated (May-September for all locations with 44 years historical weather data (1961-2005 for 8 locations (Oroomieh, Tabriz, Khoy, Mashhad, Sabzevar, Birjand, Shiraz and Isfahan, 39 years (1966-2005 for 2 locations (Kashan and Fassa, 28 years (1977-2005 for 4 locations (Ardebil, Abadeh, Bojnurd and Shargh Isfahan and 20 years (1985-2005 for 9 locations (Mahabad, Sarab, Maragheh, Parsabad, Khalkhal, Ferdous, Ghaen, Kashmar and Sarakhs. Climatic demands of summer squash were determined by four years field studies at four different locations in Iran. Our results showed Azerbaijan region has a suitable condition for this crop cultivation especially from precipitation and temperature perspectives. Central part of Iran and Khorasan were also found as partly suitable locations however as they are near to deserts with hotter and drier climate, there might be some other crops considered as priorities in these areas.

  3. Climatic Suitability of Growing Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo L. as a Medicinal Plant in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad BANNAYAN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of production by including a broader range of plant species, can significantly contribute to improve health and nutrition, livelihoods, household food security and ecological sustainability. Exploring the climate impact on any given crop is one of the first priorities to find new suitable areas for production and management of new crops. Summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. is an economically valuable plant with various medicinal potentials. In order to investigate summer squash cultivation feasibility under Irans climate, three main agricultural regions (Azerbaijan, Khorasan and central part of Iran (Fars and Isfahan were selected. These regions suitability for summer squash cultivation were evaluated by considering three vital climate variables encompass temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours. These regions show distinct and representative climatic conditions of Iran. Annual and growing season average of maximum, minimum, mean temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours were calculated (May-September for all locations with 44 years historical weather data (1961-2005 for 8 locations (Oroomieh, Tabriz, Khoy, Mashhad, Sabzevar, Birjand, Shiraz and Isfahan, 39 years (1966-2005 for 2 locations (Kashan and Fassa, 28 years (1977-2005 for 4 locations (Ardebil, Abadeh, Bojnurd and Shargh Isfahan and 20 years (1985-2005 for 9 locations (Mahabad, Sarab, Maragheh, Parsabad, Khalkhal, Ferdous, Ghaen, Kashmar and Sarakhs. Climatic demands of summer squash were determined by four years field studies at four different locations in Iran. Our results showed Azerbaijan region has a suitable condition for this crop cultivation especially from precipitation and temperature perspectives. Central part of Iran and Khorasan were also found as partly suitable locations however as they are near to deserts with hotter and drier climate, there might be some other crops considered as priorities in these areas.

  4. Trend of tuberculosis cases under directly observed treatment, short-course strategy in Tabriz, Iran, from 2001 to 2011

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    Zhila Khamnian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The universal target under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs is to reduce the worldwide burden of tuberculosis (TB 2015, and we wanted to evaluate development in TB control by assessment of the time trend in incidence and death rate in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: This was a retrospective trend analysis of the data have been recorded in East Azerbaijan State TB center during 10 years. Data were related to patients have been registered for treatment under the directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS strategy from 2001 to 2011. Results: In total, 3283 TB patients were treated under DOTS strategy during 2001-2011. Males constituted 55.0% of subjects. The risk was the highest among the productive age group (15-44 years. About 61.0% of cases had pulmonary, and 78.0% of pulmonary TB patients were found to be the sputum smear positive than 46.0% of them were new sputum smear positive, and 2.0% of them were relapse. On average, for sputum smear positive, TB cases from 2005 to 2011; the treatment success rate was 87.3%; the cure rate was 80.2%; the treatment failure rate was 0.5% and death rate was 10.3%. In general, the TB incidence rate for all TB cases was decreased from 11.9-8.1 a 100000 population and the smear-positive pulmonary TB incidence rate were decreased from 4.7 to 4.1 a 100000 population in eastern Azerbaijan province during 2001-2011. Conclusion: In general, we had a decrease in the incidence rate for all of TB cases. In addition, we had a fall in cure rate and had an increase in drug side effects rate in this year that can be because of elevated old people ratio and high death rate by other indirect causes and lack of regular visits and medications taking according to the treatment protocol.

  5. Smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footman, Katharine; Roberts, Bayard; Stickley, Andrew; Kizilova, Kseniya; Rotman, David; McKee, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Smoking rates and corresponding levels of premature mortality from smoking-related diseases in the former Soviet Union (fSU) are among the highest in the world. To reduce this health burden, greater focus on smoking cessation is needed, but little is currently known about rates and characteristics of cessation in the fSU. Nationally representative household survey data from a cross-sectional study of 18,000 respondents in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine were analyzed to describe patterns of desire and action taken to stop smoking, quit ratios (former ever-smokers as a percent of ever-smokers, without a specified recall period), and help used to stop smoking. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze characteristics associated with smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking. Quit ratios varied from 10.5% in Azerbaijan to 37.6% in Belarus. About 67.2% of respondents expressed a desire to quit, and 64.9% had taken action and tried to stop. The use of help to quit was extremely low (12.6%). Characteristics associated with cessation included being female, over 60, with higher education, poorer health, lower alcohol dependency, higher knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Characteristics associated with desire to stop smoking among current smokers included younger age, poorer health, greater knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Quit ratios are low in the fSU but there is widespread desire to stop smoking. Stronger tobacco control and cessation support are urgently required to reduce smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality.

  6. Possible influence of solar extreme events and related geomagnetic disturbances on human cardio-vascular state: Results of collaborative Bulgarian-Azerbaijani studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, S.; Mustafa, F. R.; Stoilova, I.; Babayev, E. S.; Kazimov, E. A.

    2009-02-01

    This collaborative study is based on the analysis and comparison of results of coordinated experimental investigations conducted in Bulgaria and Azerbaijan for revealing a possible influence of solar activity changes and related geomagnetic activity variations on the human cardio-vascular state. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate of 86 healthy volunteers were measured on working days during a period of comparatively high solar and geomagnetic activity (2799 measurements in autumn 2001 and spring 2002) in Sofia. Daily experimental investigations of parameters of cardio-vascular health state were performed in Azerbaijan with a permanent group of examined persons. Heart rate and electrocardiograms were digitally registered (in total 1532 records) for seven functionally healthy persons on working days and Saturdays, in the Laboratory of Heliobiology at the Medical Center INAM in Baku, from 15.07.2006 to 13.11.2007. Obtained digital recordings were subjected to medical, statistical and spectral analyses. Special attention was paid to effects of solar extreme events, particularly those of November 2001 and December 2006. The statistical method of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc analysis were applied to check the significance of the influence of geomagnetic activity on the cardio-vascular parameters under consideration. Results revealed statistically significant increments for the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure values of the group with geomagnetic activity increase. Arterial blood pressure values started increasing two days prior to geomagnetic storms and kept their high values up to two days after the storms. Heart rate reaction was ambiguous and not significant for healthy persons examined (for both groups) under conditions with geomagnetic activity changes. It is concluded that heart rate for healthy persons at middle latitudes can be considered as a more stable physiological parameter which is not so sensitive to environmental changes

  7. Iranian gas will be an issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an interview with director of the Nabucco project, Reinhard Mitchek is published. There is extract from this interview: Iranian gas is a politically sensitive topic Europe cannot avoid I believe that it will become a topic in Europe in the medium to long term. Shouldn't Europe declare that it needs Iranian gas? Otherwise Russia or China may take over. I do not want to advise the European Commission via the media. Iranian gas would bring the Nabucco project closer to reality. A common European Union (EU) foreign policy and common foreign energy policy in particular will be of major importance. We of course need competition in the EU gas sector. But that is a business topic. The political issue is the competitiveness of Europe as an entity competing for energy sources with other regions. The European Union keeps repeating that the Nabucco project has high priority. But what steps has it undertaken to support it? The Commissioner for Energy, Andris Piebalgs, and the Commissioner for External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy, Benita Ferrero-Waldner, visited Central Asia and supported the export of gas to Europe. That is exactly what Russia does and with more success. We will see. Naturally - these countries have a history of relationships with Russia. Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan have been exporting gas to Russia. But in the meantime these countries also want to extend their export portfolio. We think that through the Trans-Caspian pipeline and the existing gas pipeline connecting Azerbaijan with Turkey, gas from Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan will also get to Nabucco. (authors)

  8. AN ASSESSMENT ON UPPER KARABAKH ISSUE AND TURKEY-ARMENIA RELATIONS YUKARI KARABAĞ SORUNU VE TÜRKİYE-ERMENİSTAN İLİŞKİLERİ ÜZERİNE BİR DEĞERLENDİRME

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    Mustafa GÖKÇE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Karabakh issue has been one of the most important issues affecting stability in Caucasia after the fall of Soviets. In Karabakh which is a historical Turkish native country, Armenians were placed as from the Russia of Tsarizm and a region where the Armenians have a high population was created within the Azerbaijan lands. This field which is a mountainous region located in the upper parts of Karabakh is called Upper Karabakh or Nagorno- Karabakh. Due to the activities of Armenians settling in the region, conflicts started to happen as of the 19th Century and when came to 20th Century, these conflicts confronted us as a serious issue. During the fall of Soviets that have continued the population policies of the Russia of Tsarizm, the conflicts in Azerbaijan lands awaked again. In Upper Karabakh issue, Turkey has been seen as an important actor that would affect the process because of its historical and cultural bonds with Azerbaijan and also being a border neighbour to the region. While its military intervention in the region was discussed at the process when conflicts were experienced, Turkey has followed a more cautious policy and made efforts for solving the problem through peaceful ways at an international platform. Turkey, which is among the countries first recognizing the independencies of Azerbaijan and Armenia, has given importance to the Upper Karabakh issue in its relations with these countries. Being on the side of Azerbaijan, Turkey has closed the border of Armenia as a sanction. Within this scope, the relations started with Armenia were broken in a short time. And the steps taken towards normalizing the relations recently didn’t give any positive results due to the historical problems with Armenia and the continuation of occupancy in Azerbaijan lands. Yukarı Karabağ sorunu, Sovyetlerin çöküşünden sonra Kafkasya’daki istikrarı etkileyen sorunların başında yer almaktadır. Tarihi bir Türk yurdu olan Karaba

  9. Patterns and trends in human papillomavirus-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Freddie; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Znaor, Ariana; Brotons, Maria; Poljak, Mario; Arbyn, Marc

    2013-12-31

    This article provides an overview of cervical cancer and other human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the Former Yugoslav Republic [FYR] of Macedonia) and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan). Despite two- to three-fold variations, cervical cancer incidence rates are high in many countries in these two regions relative to other populations on the European and Asian continents. In Central and Eastern Europe, Romania and the FYR of Macedonia had the highest rates in 2008 alongside Bulgaria, Lithuania and Serbia, while in Central Asia, rates are elevated in Kyrgyzstan (the highest rates across the regions), Kazakhstan and Armenia. In each of these countries, at least one woman in 50 develops cervical cancer before the age of 75. The high cervical cancer burden is exacerbated by a lack of effective screening and an increasing risk of death from the disease among young women, as observed in Belarus, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. In several countries with longstanding cancer registries of reasonable quality (Belarus, Estonia and the Russian Federation), there are clear birth cohort effects; the risk of onset of cervical cancer is increasing in successive generations of women born from around 1940-50, a general phenomenon indicative of changing sexual behaviour and increasing risk of persistent HPV infection. There are limited data for other HPV-related cancers and other diseases at present in these countries. While options for reducing the HPV-related disease burden are resource-dependent, universal HPV vaccination with enhanced screening would maximally reduce the burden of

  10. Earthquake Catalogue of the Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoladze, T.; Gok, R.; Tvaradze, N.; Tumanova, N.; Gunia, I.; Onur, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Caucasus has a documented historical catalog stretching back to the beginning of the Christian era. Most of the largest historical earthquakes prior to the 19th century are assumed to have occurred on active faults of the Greater Caucasus. Important earthquakes include the Samtskhe earthquake of 1283 (Ms˜7.0, Io=9); Lechkhumi-Svaneti earthquake of 1350 (Ms˜7.0, Io=9); and the Alaverdi earthquake of 1742 (Ms˜6.8, Io=9). Two significant historical earthquakes that may have occurred within the Javakheti plateau in the Lesser Caucasus are the Tmogvi earthquake of 1088 (Ms˜6.5, Io=9) and the Akhalkalaki earthquake of 1899 (Ms˜6.3, Io =8-9). Large earthquakes that occurred in the Caucasus within the period of instrumental observation are: Gori 1920; Tabatskuri 1940; Chkhalta 1963; Racha earthquake of 1991 (Ms=7.0), is the largest event ever recorded in the region; Barisakho earthquake of 1992 (M=6.5); Spitak earthquake of 1988 (Ms=6.9, 100 km south of Tbilisi), which killed over 50,000 people in Armenia. Recently, permanent broadband stations have been deployed across the region as part of the various national networks (Georgia (˜25 stations), Azerbaijan (˜35 stations), Armenia (˜14 stations)). The data from the last 10 years of observation provides an opportunity to perform modern, fundamental scientific investigations. In order to improve seismic data quality a catalog of all instrumentally recorded earthquakes has been compiled by the IES (Institute of Earth Sciences/NSMC, Ilia State University) in the framework of regional joint project (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, USA) "Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) in the Caucasus. The catalogue consists of more then 80,000 events. First arrivals of each earthquake of Mw>=4.0 have been carefully examined. To reduce calculation errors, we corrected arrivals from the seismic records. We improved locations of the events and recalculate Moment magnitudes in order to obtain unified magnitude

  11. Comparison of Scheimpflug imaging parameters between steep and keratoconic corneas of Caucasian eyes

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    Huseynova T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tukezban Huseynova,1 Farah Abdulaliyeva,2 Michele Lanza3 1Briz-L Eye Clinic, 2National Ophthalmology Center, Baku, Azerbaijan; 3Second University of Naples, Caserta, Campania, Italy Purpose: To compare the keratometric and pachymetric parameters of healthy eyes with those affected by steep cornea and keratoconus (KC using Scheimpflug camera.Setting: Briz-L Eye Clinic, Baku, Azerbaijan.Design: A cross-sectional study.Methods: In this study, 49 KC (Amsler–Krumeich stage 1 eyes and 36 healthy eyes were enrolled. A complete ophthalmic evaluation and a Scheimpflug camera scan were performed in every eye included in the study. Tomographic parameters such as parameters from the front and back cornea, maximum keratometry reading (Kmax, corneal volume (CV, anterior chamber volume (ChV, anterior chamber depth (ACD, anterior chamber angle (AC angle, keratometric power deviation (KPD, maximum front elevation (Max FE, and maximum back elevation (Max BE, as well as pachymetric progression indices (PPI, Ambrosio relational thickness (ART, index of surface variance (ISV, index of vertical asymmetry (IVA, center keratoconus index (CKI, index of height asymmetry (IHA, index of height decentration (IHD, and radius minimum (RM were collected and statistically compared between the two groups.Results: PPI, ART, ISV, IVA, CKI, IHA, IHD, and RM parameter values were significantly different (P<0.05 between the KC and healthy eyes. There were no significant differences in K mean and Q values of the frontal corneal parameters, as well as in Kmax, AC angle, RM, back, and front astigmatism, between stage 1 keratoconic and normal Caucasian eyes with steep cornea. All other parameters such as K mean and Q values of the back corneal parameters, Max FE, Max BE, ACD, ChV, and CV showed significant differences between the groups (P<0.05 for all. Conclusion: Scheimpflug imaging is able to detect corneal morphological differences between stage 1 KC eyes and healthy eyes with

  12. Individual and community level socioeconomic inequalities in contraceptive use in 10 Newly Independent States: a multilevel cross-sectional analysis

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    Janevic Teresa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Little is known regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and contraceptive use in the Newly Independent States (NIS, countries that have experienced profound changes in reproductive health services during the transition from socialism to a market economy. Methods Using 2005–2006 data from Demographic Health Surveys (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Moldova and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan, we examined associations between individual and community socioeconomic status with current modern contraceptive use (MCU among N = 55,204 women aged 15–49 married or in a union. Individual socioeconomic status was measured using quintiles of wealth index and education level (higher than secondary school, secondary school or less. Community socioeconomic status was measured as the percentage of households in the poorest quintile of the nationals household wealth index (0%, 0–25%, or greater than 25%. We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate associations adjusted for age, number of children, urban/rural, and socioeconomic variables. Results MCU varied by country from 14% (in Azerbaijan to 62% (in Belarus. Overall, women living in the poorest communities were less likely than those in the richest to use modern contraceptives (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 0.82, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.76, 0.89. Similarly, there was an increasing odds of MCU with increasing individual-level wealth. Women with a lower level of education also had lower odds of MCU than those with a higher level of education (aOR = .75, 95%CI = 0.71, 0.79. In country-specific analyses, community-level socioeconomic inequalities were apparent in 4 of 10 countries; in contrast, inequalities by individual-level wealth were apparent in 7 countries and by education in 8 countries. All countries in which community-level socioeconomic status was associated with

  13. Individual and community level socioeconomic inequalities in contraceptive use in 10 Newly Independent States: a multilevel cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janevic, Teresa; Sarah, Pallas W; Leyla, Ismayilova; Elizabeth, Bradley H

    2012-11-16

    Little is known regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and contraceptive use in the Newly Independent States (NIS), countries that have experienced profound changes in reproductive health services during the transition from socialism to a market economy. Using 2005-2006 data from Demographic Health Surveys (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Moldova) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan), we examined associations between individual and community socioeconomic status with current modern contraceptive use (MCU) among N = 55,204 women aged 15-49 married or in a union. Individual socioeconomic status was measured using quintiles of wealth index and education level (higher than secondary school, secondary school or less). Community socioeconomic status was measured as the percentage of households in the poorest quintile of the nationals household wealth index (0%, 0-25%, or greater than 25%). We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate associations adjusted for age, number of children, urban/rural, and socioeconomic variables. MCU varied by country from 14% (in Azerbaijan) to 62% (in Belarus). Overall, women living in the poorest communities were less likely than those in the richest to use modern contraceptives (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.82, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.76, 0.89). Similarly, there was an increasing odds of MCU with increasing individual-level wealth. Women with a lower level of education also had lower odds of MCU than those with a higher level of education (aOR = .75, 95%CI = 0.71, 0.79). In country-specific analyses, community-level socioeconomic inequalities were apparent in 4 of 10 countries; in contrast, inequalities by individual-level wealth were apparent in 7 countries and by education in 8 countries. All countries in which community-level socioeconomic status was associated with MCU were in Central Asia, whereas at the individual

  14. EU Humanitarian Programs and regional identity in the South Caucasus

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    Arkhipova Ekaterina Vladimirovna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available EU Humanitarian Programs in the Southern Caucasus States are considered in the article. The increasing number and importance of the programs developing person-toperson contacts for the conflicting areas are noted. The influence of TRACECA and INOGATE programs was very significant in developing the local economies. Humanitarian aspects became important since 1992 when the first peace-building conferences of the Minsk group on Nagorno-Karabakh conflict took place. The political cooperation was institutionalized in 2004 with the implementing the European Neighborhood program. According to the “Eastern Partnership” a number of grants was offered to develop so called “new democracies”. A lot of educational programs provided the space for the personal cooperation in the area now are implementing. Mobility Partnerships program provides the regional cooperation in the migration policy. Consequently all the EU programs make the European volumes popular for the Caucasian inhabitants. That’s why the author puts the question about possible transformations in the regional identity. The states elites declare the importance for developing close contacts with EU institutes. Still there are some arguable issues. The status of sexual minorities in Azerbaijan provides the base for the mutual discontent in their relations with EU. Yet Azerbaijan has enough financial resources (based on the petrol supplies to reduce the EU influence in some objectionable fields. Georgia under M. Saakashvili ruling showed a strong trend towards EU and “Western” values on the whole. But this trend was mainly based on the strategies of the state financial surviving. There are some evidences proving that the main target of this police was to make a distance from the Russian policy. Armenia may be introduces as the state with strong interests in European cooperation for developing its economy. But there are also some important projects connecting Armenia with Russia, still

  15. Design and implementation of pay-for-quality in primary healthcare: A case study from Iran

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    Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The common methods of payment to healthcare providers such as capitation and salary are not designed to be stimulation for high quality healthcare. The pay-for -quality (P4Q programs are designed to provide the financial incentives to the service providers in order to improve quality of services based on specified criteria. Aims This study describes the design and implementation of a P4Q program in the primary healthcare (PHc in East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. Methods The present study is a case study that describes the process of designing and implementing the P4Q program in PHC in East-Azerbaijan province in 2015. To design the P4Q program, after identifying core components of the program through literature review and Focus Group Discussion (FGD, final decision about each component was made by achieving consensus from a panel of recognised experts in the area of PHc. Altogether two FGD and seven expert panel sessions were hold in EAPHC in order to design the P4Q program. Results Key components of P4Q program were selected by qualitative studies and the results were categorized in five headings including P4Q formula, quality measures, payment strategy, data reporting and performance evaluation. The formula consists of five elements including fixed payment, individual, team and organization performance and managerial appraisal. A total of 37 measures, which covers the domains of quality of PHc, human resource development and responsibility were selected. ‘Improvement’ and ‘absolute level of measures’ were selected as the payment strategy. The methods of data reporting included valid questionnaire, organization’s documents and medical records. The final P4Q program was used for paying incentives to all primary health care providers in public health centres affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Conclusion Designing and implementing the P4Q program led to a shift in paying the incentives to healthcare providers

  16. Climate, environmental change and taphonomic processes in the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene of the South-West Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, T. M. V.; Leroy, S.; Lopez-Merino, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Caspian Sea is the largest endorheic lake in the world and is highly sensitive to climate change. During the Pliocene, a thick series of sediments was deposited in the South Caspian Basin that now contains important oil and gas reserves. A reliable, well-dated climate and palaeoenvironment proxy record was created for the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene of the South Caspian Basin in Azerbaijan. We assessed climate cyclicity at the Milankovitch level to test whether a link could be demonstrated between climate and sedimentation patterns in Azerbaijan's primary hydrocarbon producing formations (Productive Series) as well as in the top seal (Akchagyl Formation). Magnetostratigraphy and radiometric dating (40Ar/39Ar on volcanic ashes) of the quasi-marine Akchagyl Formation assigned this section to the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene. Palaeoenvironments were reconstructed using palynology (pollen and dinocysts) and supported by particle size analysis and XRF/stable isotopes. Pollen is used to interpret terrestrial vegetation successions (as a proxy for catchment climate) and dinocysts for conditions within the water body itself (linked to degree of fresh water input, base level variation and inter-basin connectivity). The Akchagyl pollen record shows cyclic vegetation patterns related to obliquity-scale climate forcing. Dinocysts and geochemical proxies also respond to climatic influence, but their behaviour is more strongly influenced by connectivity between the Caspian Sea and adjacent basins. New methods were explored to constrain problems of reworking in deltaic facies deposited during the Pliocene. In particular, quality of the environmental signal was assessed using fluorescence microscopy, as delta assemblages can be dominated by older reworked palynomorphs, obscuring the contemporary environmental signal. Serious issues relating to depositional environments and taphonomy within the Productive Series were highlighted. This must be understood before the local

  17. ABO-Rh blood groups distribution in cardiac syndrome X patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Rasmi, Yousef; Nemati, Mohaddeseh; Mohammadzad, Mir Hossein Seyed

    2012-07-01

    Data on frequency distribution of ABO-Rh blood groups in cardiac syndrome X (CSX) patients are not available. We aimed to investigate the distribution of ABO-Rh blood groups in these patients. A total of 247 CSX patients' records were reviewed in a cross-sectional study from 2006 to 2010. One hundred forty six patients (59.1%) were female, and the mean patient age was 52 ± 11 years. The frequency of ABO-Rh blood groups was compared to the frequency of these blood groups in the West-Azerbaijan province, Iran; general population. Blood groups distribution among CSX patients showed phenotypes A, B, AB, O and Rh negative as 33.1%, 21.9%, 9.3%, 35.8%, and 7.9%, respectively. According to our results, there were no differences in ABO-Rh blood groups distribution between CSX patients and normal population. These data suggest that ABO-Rh blood groups might be unassociated with CSX.

  18. Relic and endemic elements in the fauna of tenebrionid beetles (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae of the Big Caucasus

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    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence and distribution of endemit and relic fauna of the Big Caucasus are considered in the paper. The greatest role in occurence of xerophilic endemits of the Northern Caucasus (genera Calyptopsis, Hedyphanes, Caenoblaps, Nalassus have subarid intermountain hollows and isolated xerophitic valleys of the East and Central Caucasus. Endemit xerophilic fauna is not presented on southern spurs of the Big Caucasus because of absence of subarid hollows. Wood mesophilic endemics are presented by species of Nalassus and Laena. They are distributed onthe Northern Caucasus from the Black Sea coast to isolated woods of Northern Ossetia. Endemit and mesophil species of southern slopes of the Big Caucasus are distributed to its east part. Hyrcan relic species are distributed in relic woods of Northeast Azerbaijan and Southern Dagestan: Laena hirtipes, Formicidae (Panerinae. The ist of endemits and relic Tenebrionidae of the Big Caucasus submitted in the work. The name Cylindronotus czercazzorum Abdurakhmanov, 1988 is nomen nudum.

  19. Astronomy Over the Former Soviet Territory: 15 Years after the USSR Disintegration

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    Bochkarev, N. G.

    2006-08-01

    During the post-Soviet period, the main infrastructure of astronomy over the territory of FSU was kept saved, in spite of dramatic decreasing of financial support. The overall situation in FSU astronomy is stable. In Latvia, the 32-m radio-dish is put into working order that allows it's joining VLBI programs and handed over to the Venspils University. In Russia, all the three 32-meter radio dishes of the QUASAR VLBI system are put in operation, as well as the 2-m telescope with a high-resolution spectrograph (up to resolution R≈500000) and the horizontal solar telescope (R= 320000) of the Russian-Ukrainian Observatory on Peak Terskol (Caucasus, altitude 3100 m). But the situation with the observatory is worrying, because of the regional authorities attempt to privatize its infrastructure. The process of equipping a number of CIS (including Russian) observatories with CCD-cameras is in progress. To solve the staff problems Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan have begun to prepare national specialists in astronomy and Baltic States, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia, Ukraine continue to prepare astronomers. Teaching of astronomy at schools is obligatory in Ukraine and Baltic Countries only. To maintain a "common astronomical space" Eurasian Astronomical Society (EAAS) continues the program of reduced-price subscription to Russian-language astronomical journals and magazines over the territory of FSU, organization of international conferences and Olympiads for school students, lectures for school teachers and planetarium lecturers, etc.

  20. Patient Safety in Medical Education: Students' Perceptions, Knowledge and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabilou, Bahram; Feizi, Aram; Seyedin, Hesam

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students' perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students studying medicine, nursing, and midwifery were recruited through census for the study. A questionnaire was used for collecting data, which were then analyzed through SPSS statistical software (version 16.0), using Chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient, F and LSD tests. A total of 121 questionnaires were completed, and 50% of the students demonstrated good knowledge about patient safety. The relationships between students' attitudes to patient safety and years of study, sex and course were significant (0.003, 0.001 and 0.017, respectively). F and LSD tests indicated that regarding the difference between the mean scores of perceptions of patient safety and attitudes to patient safety education, there was a significant difference among medical and nursing/midwifery students. Little knowledge of students regarding patient safety indicates the inefficiency of informal education to fill the gap; therefore, it is recommended to consider patient safety in the curriculums of all medical and paramedical sciences and formulate better policies for patient safety.